Sample records for heat rates hydrocarbon

  1. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  2. Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants Paul BYRNE prototype working with a scroll compressor was built and tested. A near-industrial prototype is today being regarding hydrocarbons as refrigerants, this article reviews scroll compressor modelling studies

  3. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  4. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  5. Thermal performance of direct contact heat exchangers for mixed hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharpe, L. Jr.; Coswami, D.Y.; Demuth, O.J.; Mines, G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a physical and a mathematical model for evaluating the tray efficiencies for a direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX). The model is then used to determine the efficiencies for tests conducted on a 60kW sieve tray DCHX as heat is transferred from a geofluid (brine) to a working fluid (mixed hydrocarbons). It is assumed that there are three distinct regions in the column based on the state of the working fluid, as follows: Region I - Preheating with no vaporization; Region II - Preheating with moderate vaporization; and Region III - Major vaporization. The boundaries of these regions can be determined from the experimental data. In the model, mass balance and energy balance is written for a tray ''N'' in each of these regions. Finally, the ''tray efficiency'' or ''heat transfer'' effectiveness of the tray is calculated based on the definition that it is the ratio of the actual heat transfer to the maximum possible, thermodynamically.

  6. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  7. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  8. Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bernard (Houston, TX); Hale, Arthur Herman (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation may include providing heat to a first hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a first heater located in an opening in the formation. The opening and the first heater may have a horizontal or inclined portion located in the first hydrocarbon layer and at least one connecting portion extending between the horizontal or inclined portion and the surface. Isolation material is placed in the opening such that the isolation material partially isolates the layer in which the horizontal or inclined portion of the first heater is located. An additional horizontal or inclined opening portion that extends from at least one of the connecting portions of the opening is formed in a second hydrocarbon layer. A second heater to provide heat the second hydrocarbon formation is placed in the additional substantially horizontal opening portion.

  9. In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of treating a tar sands formation is described herein. The methods may include providing heat to a first section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the first section of the formation. Heat is transferred from the heaters so that at least a first section of the formation reaches a selected temperature. At least a portion of residual heat from the first section transfers from the first section to a second section of the formation. At least a portion of hydrocarbons in the second section are mobilized by providing a solvation fluid and/or a pressurizing fluid to the second section of the formation.

  10. New flow boiling heat transfer model for hydrocarbons evaporating inside horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Zou, X. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, 35, Beijing, 100190 (China); Wang, S. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, 35, Beijing, 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, No. 19 YuQuan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbons have high thermodynamic performances, belong to the group of natural refrigerants, and they are the main components in mixture Joule-Thomson low temperature refrigerators (MJTR). New evaluations of nucleate boiling contribution and nucleate boiling suppression factor in flow boiling heat transfer have been proposed for hydrocarbons. A forced convection heat transfer enhancement factor correlation incorporating liquid velocity has also been proposed. In addition, the comparisons of the new model and other classic models were made to evaluate its accuracy in heat transfer prediction.

  11. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Muylle, Michel Serge Marie (Houston, TX); Mandema, Remco Hugo (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  12. Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

  13. Heating Rate Profiles in Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward C. D. Pope; Georgi Pavlovski; Christian R. Kaiser; Hans Fangohr

    2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years evidence has accumulated suggesting that the gas in galaxy clusters is heated by non-gravitational processes. Here we calculate the heating rates required to maintain a physically motived mass flow rate, in a sample of seven galaxy clusters. We employ the spectroscopic mass deposition rates as an observational input along with temperature and density data for each cluster. On energetic grounds we find that thermal conduction could provide the necessary heating for A2199, Perseus, A1795 and A478. However, the suppression factor, of the clasical Spitzer value, is a different function of radius for each cluster. Based on the observations of plasma bubbles we also calculate the duty cycles for each AGN, in the absence of thermal conduction, which can provide the required energy input. With the exception of Hydra-A it appears that each of the other AGNs in our sample require duty cycles of roughly $10^{6}-10^{7}$ yrs to provide their steady-state heating requirements. If these duty cycles are unrealistic, this may imply that many galaxy clusters must be heated by very powerful Hydra-A type events interspersed between more frequent smaller-scale outbursts. The suppression factors for the thermal conductivity required for combined heating by AGN and thermal conduction are generally acceptable. However, these suppression factors still require `fine-tuning` of the thermal conductivity as a function of radius. As a consequence of this work we present the AGN duty cycle as a cooling flow diagnostic.

  14. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include treating a first zone of the formation. Treatment of a plurality of zones of the formation may be begun at selected times after the treatment of the first zone begins. The treatment of at least two successively treated zones may begin at a selected time after treatment of the previous zone begins. At least two of the successively treated zones may be adjacent to the zone treated previously. The successive treatment of the zones proceeds in an outward, substantially spiral sequence from the first zone so that the treatment of the zones may move substantially spirally outwards towards a boundary of the treatment area.

  15. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  16. Heat transfer rates in fixed bed catalytic reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levelton, Bruce Harding

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT TRANSFER RATES IN FIXED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS H EATTRNSFSAIX DB DNCLR YFNOAXa rRJRuSIX nSeR 1951i HssNIJFu FT SI TSBuR FXO LIXSRXS NRLIeeRXOROt HEAT TRANSFER RATES IN FIXED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS H EATTRNSFSAIX BSar DNCLR YFNOAXa r...RJRuSIX June 1951 HEAT TRANSFER RATES IN FIXED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

  17. Proceedings of the 1992 EPRI heat rate improvement conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, R.E. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diverse but compelling forces such as increasing fuel prices, greater power demands, growing competition, and ever more aggressive regulatory incentives are causing utilities to place additional focus on power plant heat rate. The 1992 heat rate improvement conference was a gathering of utility industry experts to share knowledge and concerns on such key issues as on-line measurement of stack gas mass flow rate-increasingly important because of the regulations of the Clean Air Act of 1990. These proceedings present the latest developments by EPRI and the utility industry to improve heat rate. Representatives of utilities, architect/engineering firms, research firms, and manufacturers presented 71 papers, and a panel discussion by the ASME performance test code committee on PTC 46 provided a forum on the overall plant performance test code. These proceedings report on a number of heat rate improvement programs, both in development and in place, including EPRI's Plant Monitoring Workstation (PMW), the State-of-the-Art Power Plant (SOAPP) conceptual design tool, and several developments in boiler performance monitoring, including an on-line system at PEPCO's Morgantown unit 2. Other conference papers describe advances in heat rate improvement through (1) computer software tools modeling boiler cleanliness, heat balance, duct system dynamics, heat rate root cause diagnosis, and conceptual plant design; (2) new instruments and testing systems in the areas of performance testing, heat rate monitoring, circulating water flow measurement, and low-pressure turbine efficiency measurement; and (3) auxiliary equipment improvements such as condensing heat exchangers, macrobiofouling control, condenser in-leakage and air binding control, air heater monitoring, and feedwater heater level control. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  18. Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, R J; Leibfried, D; Wesenberg, J H; Bollinger, J J; Amini, J M; Blakestad, R B; Britton, J; Home, J P; Itano, W M; Jost, J D; Knill, E; Langer, C; Ozeri, R; Shiga, N; Wineland, D J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured motional heating rates of trapped atomic ions, a factor that can influence multi-ion quantum logic gate fidelities. Two simplified techniques were developed for this purpose: one relies on Raman sideband detection implemented with a single laser source, while the second is even simpler and is based on time-resolved fluorescence detection during Doppler recooling. We applied these methods to determine heating rates in a microfrabricated surface-electrode trap made of gold on fused quartz, which traps ions 40 microns above its surface. Heating rates obtained from the two techniques were found to be in reasonable agreement. In addition, the trap gives rise to a heating rate of 300 plus or minus 30 per second for a motional frequency of 5.25 MHz, substantially below the trend observed in other traps.

  19. Fracturing controlled primary migration of hydrocarbon fluids during1 heating of organic-rich shales2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    understand primary migration of16 hydrocarbon fluids in very low permeability source rock. Cracks nucleate.e. the transport of hydrocarbon fluids from extremely low39 permeability source rocks in which they are generated the source rock is42 formed is buried, the organic material is transformed into complex high molecular weight

  20. Property:HeatRate | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid Jump to:DocketFlowGpmGrossGen JumpRating Jump

  1. Atmospheric emissions from the Deepwater Horizon spill constrain airwater partitioning, hydrocarbon fate, and leak rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Atmospheric emissions from the Deepwater Horizon spill constrain airwater partitioning, hydrocarbon amounts (258,000 kg/day) of hydrocarbons evaporating promptly from the Deepwater Horizon spill; these data. Citation: Ryerson, T. B., et al. (2011), Atmo- spheric emissions from the Deepwater Horizon spill constrain

  2. Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    be glassified by cooling using hyper- quenching techniques (i.e., with rates of the order of 105 K/s [8Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1 H. Eugene of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process

  3. Ambient concentrations, sources, emission rates, and photochemical reactivity of C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosjean, E.; Grosjean, D. [DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States)] [DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering] [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    1998-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of vehicle fuels used in Porto Alegre, Brazil, is unique in the world. As a result, air pollution control strategies for Porto Alegre, where vehicles account for ca. 99% and ca. 86% of total city wide CO and hydrocarbons emissions, respectively, must make use of air quality data specific to the Porto Alegre area. In this study, ambient concentrations of 66 C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons have been measured for ca. 1 year (March 1996--April 1997) at downtown Porto Alegre locations. On the average, the 10 most abundant hydrocarbons on a mass concentration basis were, in decreasing order, as follows: acetylene, ethylene, propane, toluene, isopentane, (m+p)-xylene, propene, n-butane, benzene, and n-pentane. Scatterplots of ambient concentrations showed a high degree of correlation among hydrocarbon classes (e.g., alkenes, isobutene vs 1-pentene), between hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics) and acetylene, and between hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Mid-1996 hydrocarbon emissions rates (e.g., 3,274 {+-} 828 and 1,418 {+-} 369 t per year for acetylene and isopentane, respectively) are estimated from regression analysis of ambient hydrocarbon vs ambient CO. Reactivity rankings are presented, one involving reaction with OH (using hydrocarbon-OH reaction rate constants) and the other involving the production of ozone (using maximum incremental reactivity coefficients).

  4. Standby Rates for Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedano, Richard [Regulatory Assistance Partnership; Selecky, James [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.; Iverson, Kathryn [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.; Al-Jabir, Ali [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvements in technology, low natural gas prices, and more flexible and positive attitudes in government and utilities are making distributed generation more viable. With more distributed generation, notably combined heat and power, comes an increase in the importance of standby rates, the cost of services utilities provide when customer generation is not operating or is insufficient to meet full load. This work looks at existing utility standby tariffs in five states. It uses these existing rates and terms to showcase practices that demonstrate a sound application of regulatory principles and ones that do not. The paper also addresses areas for improvement in standby rates.

  5. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX)

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  6. Resistive Wall Heating of the Undulator in High Repetition Rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, J; Corlett, J; Emma, P; Wu, J

    2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In next generation high repetition rate FELs, beam energy loss due to resistive wall wakefields will produce significant amount of heat. The heat load for a superconducting undulator (operating at low temperature), must be removed and will be expensive to remove. In this paper, we study this effect in an undulator proposed for a Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) at LBNL. We benchmark our calculations with measurements at the LCLS and carry out detailed parameter studies using beam from a start-to-end simulation. Our preliminarym results suggest that the heat load in the undulator is about 2 W/m or lower with an aperture size of 6 mm for nominal NGLS preliminary design parameters.

  7. Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comstock, Jennifer

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A cloud properties and radiative heating rates dataset is presented where cloud properties retrieved using lidar and radar observations are input into a radiative transfer model to compute radiative fluxes and heating rates at three ARM sites located in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The cloud properties retrieval is a conditional retrieval that applies various retrieval techniques depending on the available data, that is if lidar, radar or both instruments detect cloud. This Combined Remote Sensor Retrieval Algorithm (CombRet) produces vertical profiles of liquid or ice water content (LWC or IWC), droplet effective radius (re), ice crystal generalized effective size (Dge), cloud phase, and cloud boundaries. The algorithm was compared with 3 other independent algorithms to help estimate the uncertainty in the cloud properties, fluxes, and heating rates (Comstock et al. 2013). The dataset is provided at 2 min temporal and 90 m vertical resolution. The current dataset is applied to time periods when the MMCR (Millimeter Cloud Radar) version of the ARSCL (Active Remotely-Sensed Cloud Locations) Value Added Product (VAP) is available. The MERGESONDE VAP is utilized where temperature and humidity profiles are required. Future additions to this dataset will utilize the new KAZR instrument and its associated VAPs.

  8. Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Comstock, Jennifer

    A cloud properties and radiative heating rates dataset is presented where cloud properties retrieved using lidar and radar observations are input into a radiative transfer model to compute radiative fluxes and heating rates at three ARM sites located in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The cloud properties retrieval is a conditional retrieval that applies various retrieval techniques depending on the available data, that is if lidar, radar or both instruments detect cloud. This Combined Remote Sensor Retrieval Algorithm (CombRet) produces vertical profiles of liquid or ice water content (LWC or IWC), droplet effective radius (re), ice crystal generalized effective size (Dge), cloud phase, and cloud boundaries. The algorithm was compared with 3 other independent algorithms to help estimate the uncertainty in the cloud properties, fluxes, and heating rates (Comstock et al. 2013). The dataset is provided at 2 min temporal and 90 m vertical resolution. The current dataset is applied to time periods when the MMCR (Millimeter Cloud Radar) version of the ARSCL (Active Remotely-Sensed Cloud Locations) Value Added Product (VAP) is available. The MERGESONDE VAP is utilized where temperature and humidity profiles are required. Future additions to this dataset will utilize the new KAZR instrument and its associated VAPs.

  9. Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniilidis, N.

    We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with a trapping height of approximately 240 ?m. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates ...

  10. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe1mcfarlane

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  11. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe370mcfarlane

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  12. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe1mcfarlane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  13. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe370mcfarlane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  14. ELECTRIC CO-HEATING: A METHOD FOR EVALUATING SEASONAL HEATING EFFICIENCIES AND HEAT LOSS RATES IN DWELLINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effi~ ciency of Fossil~Fired Heating Systems for LabelingInfo. Division, Ext. 6782 Electric Co-heating: A Methodfor Evaluating Seasonal Heating Efficiencies and Heat Loss

  15. 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-42 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined. Assumptions The heat engine and the refrigerator operate steadily. Analysis (a) The highest

  16. Effect of Heating Rate on Glass Foaming: Transition to Bulk Foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Foaming of glass is an undesirable side effect of glass fining. According to a recent experimental study, the gas-phase volume in the melt heated at a constant rate dramatically increased with an increased rate of heating. This observation indicates that an increased rate of heating (a natural consequence of the increased processing rate experienced as a result of transition to oxy-fuel firing) may exert a substantial influence on glass foaming in advanced glass-melting furnaces. This paper attributes this effect to the change of mode of foam formation in response to an increased rate of heating.

  17. Calculation Methods for the Heat Release Rate of Materials of Unknown Composition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biteau, Hubert; Steinhaus, Thomas; Simeoni, Albert; Schemel, Christopher; Marlair, Guy; Bal, Nicolas; Torero, Jose L

    The Heat Release Rate (HRR) is a critical parameter to characterise a fire. Different methods have been developed to estimate it. The most widespread techniques are based on mass balance. If the heat of combustion of the ...

  18. INTERWELL CONNECTIVITY AND DIAGNOSIS USING CORRELATION OF PRODUCTION AND INJECTION RATE DATA IN HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Thang D. Bui; Ali Al-Yousef; Pablo Gentil

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details much of the progress on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. The goal of the project was to investigate the feasibility of inferring reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. We have focused on and accomplished the following items: (1) We have identified two possible causes for the source of negative weights. These are colinearity between injectors, and nonstationarity of be production data. (2) Colinearity has been addressed through ridge regression. Though there is much to be done here, such regression represents a trade-off between a minimum variance estimator and a biased estimator. (3) We have applied the ridge regression and the original Albertoni procedure to field data from the Magnus field. (4) The entire procedure (with several options) has been codified as a spreadsheet add-in. (5) Finally, we have begun, and report on, an extension of the method to predicting oil rates. Successful completion of these items will constitute the bulk of the final year's report.

  19. A study of the volatile matter of coal as a function of the heating rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanes, E.; Wilhite, D.; Riley, J.M. Jr. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the volatile matter yields as a function of the heating rate was conducted. A suite of 21 coal and coke samples varying in rank from anthracitic to lignitic and heating rates from 10{degrees}C/min to about 450{degrees}C/min were used in the study. Heating rates up to 60{degrees}C per minute, which are typically used in ASTM Test Method 5142 (instrumental Proximate Analysis), were achieved in a macro thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system. Heating rates of 50-200{degrees}C/min were obtained in a micro TGA system. All measurements were made in a nitrogen atmosphere. The results of the study illustrate the dependence of the volatile matter yield on the heating rate. For most coals and cokes the optimum heating rate for determining volatile matter values that agree with those obtained by ASTM Method D 3175 appears to be in the 100-150{degrees}C range.

  20. Interwell Connectivity and Diagnosis Using Correlation of Production and Injection Rate Data in Hydrocarbon Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Ali Al-Yousef; Dan Weber; Ximing Liang; T.F. Edgar; Nazli Demiroren; Danial Kaviani

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details progress and results on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. Starting with the procedure of Albertoni and Lake (2003) as a foundation, the goal of the project was to develop further procedures to infer reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. A modified method, described in Yousef and others (2006a,b), and herein referred to as the 'capacitance model', is the primary product of this research project. The capacitance model (CM) produces two quantities, {lambda} and {tau}, for each injector-producer well pair. For the CM, we have focused on the following items: (1) Methods to estimate {lambda} and {tau} from simulated and field well rates. The original method uses both non-linear and linear regression and lacks the ability to include constraints on {lambda} and {tau}. The revised method uses only non-linear regression, permitting constraints to be included as well as accelerating the solution so that problems with large numbers of wells are more tractable. (2) Approaches to integrate {lambda} and {tau} to improve connectivity evaluations. Interpretations have been developed using Lorenz-style and log-log plots to assess heterogeneity. Testing shows the interpretations can identify whether interwell connectivity is controlled by flow through fractures, high-permeability layers, or due to partial completion of wells. Applications to the South Wasson and North Buck Draw Fields show promising results. (3) Optimization of waterflood injection rates using the CM and a power law relationship for watercut to maximize economic return. Tests using simulated data and a range of oil prices show the approach is working. (4) Investigation of methods to increase the robustness of {lambda} and {tau} estimates. Human interventions, such as workovers, also cause rate fluctuations and can be misinterpreted by the model if bottom hole pressure data are not available. A revised method, called the 'segmented capacitance model', identifies times when production changes might not be caused strictly by water injection changes. Application to data from Monument Butte Field shows encouraging results. Our results show the CM and its modified forms can be an important tool for waterflood management. We have moved beyond the proof of principle stage to show it can actually be applied to assess connectivity in field situations. Several shortcomings, however, remain to be addressed before the CM can be routinely applied by field operators. The CM and its modifications analyze well rates in the time domain. We also explored the assessment of interwell connectivity in the spectral domain. We applied conventional methods, based on analyzing passive linear electrical networks, to the analysis of injection and production data. In particular, we assessed the effects of near-wellbore gas on the apparent connectivity. With only oil and water in the system, the results were as expected, giving good connectivity estimates. In the presence of gas, however, the methods could not produce useful estimates of connectivity.

  1. Interwell Connectivity and Diagnosis Using Correlation of Production and Injection Rate Data in Hydrocarbon Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Ali Al-Yousef; Pablo Gentil; Nazli Demiroren

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details progress on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. Starting with the procedure of Albertoni and Lake (2003) as a foundation, the goal of the project is to develop further procedures to infer reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. A modified method, described in Jensen et al. (2005) and Yousef et al. (2005), and herein referred to as the ''capacitance model'', produces two quantities, {lambda} and {tau}, for each injector-producer well pair. We have focused on the following items: (1) Approaches to integrate {lambda} and {tau} to improve connectivity evaluations. Interpretations have been developed using Lorenz-style and log-log plots to assess heterogeneity. Testing shows the interpretations can identify whether interwell connectivity is controlled by flow through fractures, high-permeability layers, or due to partial completion of wells. Applications to the South Wasson and North Buck Draw Fields show promising results. (2) Optimization of waterflood injection rates using the capacitance model and a power law relationship for watercut to maximize economic return. Initial tests using simulated data and a range of oil prices show the approach is working. (3) Spectral analysis of injection and production data to estimate interwell connectivity and to assess the effects of near-wellbore gas on the results. Development of methods and analysis are ongoing. (4) Investigation of methods to increase the robustness of the capacitance method. These methods include revising the solution method to simultaneously estimate {lambda} and {tau} for each well pair. This approach allows for further constraints to be imposed during the computation, such as limiting {tau} to a range of values defined by the sampling interval and duration of the field data. This work is proceeding. Further work on this project includes the following: (1) Refinement and testing of the waterflood optimization process, including optimization on more complex situations e.g., time effects on revenue and water injection and disposal costs. (2) Completion of the spectral-based analysis and determination of the effects of near-wellbore gas on the results. (3) Revision of the capacitance model procedures to provide more robust results which are insensitive to the initial estimates of {tau} needed in the nonlinear regression.

  2. Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Daniilidis; S. Narayanan; S. A. Möller; R. Clark; T. E. Lee; P. J. Leek; A. Wallraff; St. Schulz; F. Schmidt-Kaler; H. Häffner

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with trapping height of approximately 240 micron. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates over an extended region of the trap. The noise spectral density of the trap falls in the range of noise spectra reported in ion traps at room temperature. We find that during the first months of operation the heating rates increase by approximately one order of magnitude. The increase in heating rates is largest in the ion loading region of the trap, providing a strong hint that surface contamination plays a major role for excessive heating rates. We discuss data found in the literature and possible relation of anomalous heating to sources of noise and dissipation in other systems, namely impurity atoms adsorbed on metal surfaces and amorphous dielectrics.

  3. Evidence for thermalization of surface-desorbed molecules at heating rates of 108

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Evidence for thermalization of surface-desorbed molecules at heating rates of 108 K/s C. R of aniline-d7 from a single-crystal surface 0001 of sapphire Al2O3 at a heating rate on the order of 108 K/s was studied using pulsed infrared laser radiation for desorption and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization

  4. Cloud properties and associated radiative heating rates in the tropical western Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud properties and associated radiative heating rates in the tropical western Pacific James H set of atmospheric remote sensing instruments at sites around the world, including three radiative fluxes and heating rates. Maxima in cloud occurrence are found in the boundary layer and the upper

  5. Semilinear response for the heating rate of cold atoms in vibrating traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    OFFPRINT Semilinear response for the heating rate of cold atoms in vibrating traps A. Stotland, D;Europhysics Letters (EPL) has a new online home at www.epljournal.org Take a look for the latest journal news.epljournal.org doi: 10.1209/0295-5075/86/10004 Semilinear response for the heating rate of cold atoms in vibrating

  6. Assessment of uncertainty in cloud radiative effects and heating rates through retrieval algorithm differences: Analysis using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Protat, Alain

    Assessment of uncertainty in cloud radiative effects and heating rates through retrieval algorithm. The effect of uncertainty in retrieved quantities on the cloud radiative effect and radiative heating rates translates into sometimes large differences in cloud shortwave radiative effect (CRE) though the majority

  7. High pressure low heat rate phosphoric acid fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wertheim, R.J.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure phosphoric acid fuel cell stack assembly is described comprising: (a) a stack of fuel cells for producing electricity, the stack including cathode means, anode means, and heat exchange means; (b) means for delivering pressurized air to the cathode means; (c) means for delivering a hydrogen rich fuel gas to the anode means for electrochemically reacting with oxygen in the pressurized air to produce electricity and water; (d) first conduit means connected to the cathode means for exhausting a mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water from the cathode means; (e) second conduit means connected to the first conduit means for delivering a water fog to the first conduit means for entrainment in the mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water to form a two phase coolant having a gaseous air phase and an entrained water droplet phase; (f) means for circulating the coolant to the heat exchange means to cool the stack solely through vaporization of the water droplet phase in the heat exchange means whereby a mixed gas exhaust of air and water vapor is exhausted from the heat exchange means; and (g) means for heating the mixed gas exhaust and delivering the heated mixed gas exhaust at reformer reaction temperatures to an autothermal reformer in the stack assembly for autothermal reaction with a raw fuel to form the hydrogen rich fuel.

  8. Nano-engineering the boiling surface for optimal heat transfer rate and critical heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Bren Andrew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects on pool boiling characteristics such as critical heat flux and the heat transfer coefficient of different surface characteristics such as surface wettability, roughness, morphology, and porosity are not well ...

  9. A 4D Synchrotron X-Ray-Tomography Study of the Formation of Hydrocarbon- Migration Pathways in Heated Organic-Rich Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamed Panahi; Paul Meakin; Francois Renard; Maya Kobchenko; Julien Scheibert; Adriano Mazzini; Bjorn Jamtveit; Anders Malthe-Sorenssen; Dag Kristian Dysthe

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interest in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low-permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydrocarbon formation in source rocks, expulsion timing, and how the resulting hydrocarbons escape from or are retained in the source rocks motivates further investigation. In particular, many mechanisms have been proposed for the transport of hydrocarbons from the rocks in which they are generated into adjacent rocks with higher permeabilities and smaller capillary entry pressures, and a better understanding of this complex process (primary migration) is needed. To characterize these processes, it is imperative to use the latest technological advances. In this study, it is shown how insights into hydrocarbon migration in source rocks can be obtained by using sequential high-resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography. Three-dimensional images of several immature "shale" samples were constructed at resolutions close to 5 um. This is sufficient to resolve the source-rock structure down to the grain level, but very-fine-grained silt particles, clay particles, and colloids cannot be resolved. Samples used in this investigation came from the R-8 unit in the upper part of the Green River shale, which is organic rich, varved, lacustrine marl formed in Eocene Lake Uinta, USA. One Green River shale sample was heated in situ up to 400 degrees C as X-ray-tomography images were recorded. The other samples were scanned before and after heating at 400 degrees C. During the heating phase, the organic matter was decomposed, and gas was released. Gas expulsion from the low-permeability shales was coupled with formation of microcracks. The main technical difficulty was numerical extraction of microcracks that have apertures in the 5- to 30-um range (with 5 um being the resolution limit) from a large 3D volume of X-ray attenuation data. The main goal of the work presented here is to develop a methodology to process these 3D data and image the cracks. This methodology is based on several levels of spatial filtering and automatic recognition of connected domains. Supportive petrographic and thermogravimetric data were an important complement to this study. An investigation of the strain field using 2D image correlation analyses was also performed. As one application of the 4D (space + time) microtomography and the developed workflow, we show that fluid generation was accompanied by crack formation. Under different conditions, in the subsurface, this might provide paths for primary migration.

  10. ELECTRIC CO-HEATING: A METHOD FOR EVALUATING SEASONAL HEATING EFFICIENCIES AND HEAT LOSS RATES IN DWELLINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and heating efficiency, inexpensive and practical diagnosti.c techniques are needed, such as pressuriza- tion, infrared

  11. Dependency of Heat Transfer Rate on the Brinkman Number in Microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. S. Park

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat generation from electronics increases with the advent of high-density integrated circuit technology. To come up with the heat generation, microscale cooling has been thought as a promising technology. Prediction of heat transfer rate is crucial in design of microscale cooling device but is not clearly understood yet. This work proposes a new correlation between heat transfer rate and Brinkman number which is nondimensional number of viscosity, flow velocity and temperature. It is expected that the equation proposed by this work can be useful to design microchannel cooling device.

  12. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  13. JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS surface. In 1997-1998, a large multi-agency effort made the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA with the ice pack in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas for one year. Surface-based remote sensors generated

  14. Development of an On-Line Expert System: Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sopocy, D. M.; Henry, R. E.; Gehl, S.; Divakaruni, S. M.

    and performance monitors in evaluating and diagnosing plant performance. Recognizing an industry-wide need for this advanced capability, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken the development and demonstration of an on-line expert system... called "Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor." This expert system will enhance the logic trees previously developed and documented in EPRI Report CS-4554, "Heat Rate Improvement Guidelines for Existing Fossil Plants" (1), with analytical...

  15. 7-106 A reversible heat pump is considered. The temperature of the source and the rate of heat transfer to the sink are to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-39 7-106 A reversible heat pump is considered. The temperature of the source and the rate of heat transfer to the sink are to be determined. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily. Analysis Combining.5¸ ¹ · ¨ © § ¸ ¸ ¹ · ¨ ¨ © § 1.6 1 1)K300( COP 1 1 maxHP, HL TT Based upon the definition of the heat pump coefficient

  16. Property:Heat Recovery Rating | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid Jump to:DocketFlowGpmGrossGen JumpRating Jump to:

  17. The Effect of Heat Treatments and Coatings on the Outgassing Rate of Stainless Steel Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamum, Md Abdullah A. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A, [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Stutzman, Marcy L. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Adderley, Philip A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Poelker, Matthew [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The outgassing rates of four nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. One chamber remained uncoated throughout, and the last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 deg C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 deg C. Measurements for bare steel showed a significant reduction in the outgassing rate by more than a factor of 20 after a 400 deg C heat treatment (3.5 x 10{sup 12} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7 x 10{ sup -13} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coating was successfully preserved throughout a series of bakes. The TiN coated chamber exhibited remarkably low outgassing rates, up to four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated stainless steel. An evaluation of coating composition suggests the presence of elemental titanium which could provide pumping and lead to an artificially low outgassing rate. The outgassing results are discussed in terms of diffusion-limited versus recombination-limited processes.

  18. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Transfer Rate Using a Thin-Skin Calorimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the design and use of a thin metallic calorimeter for measuring heat transfer rate (also called heat flux). Thermocouples are attached to the unexposed surface of the calorimeter. A one-dimensional heat flow analysis is used for calculating the heat transfer rate from the temperature measurements. Applications include aerodynamic heating, laser and radiation power measurements, and fire safety testing. 1.2 Advantages 1.2.1 Simplicity of ConstructionThe calorimeter may be constructed from a number of materials. The size and shape can often be made to match the actual application. Thermocouples may be attached to the metal by spot, electron beam, or laser welding. 1.2.2 Heat transfer rate distributions may be obtained if metals with low thermal conductivity, such as some stainless steels, are used. 1.2.3 The calorimeters can be fabricated with smooth surfaces, without insulators or plugs and the attendant temperature discontinuities, to provide more realistic flow conditions for ...

  19. Inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate in xenon clusters in the eikonal approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Roy, A. C. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math, 711202 West Bengal (India)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) heating rates in the eikonal approximation (EA). The present analysis is performed using the plasma-screened Rogers and Debye potentials for Xe clusters with two different charge states (6 and 10). We compare the eikonal results with the first Born approximation (FBA) and classical-simulation (CL-sim) (Moll et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 033303 (2012)) calculations for clusters in infrared light. Calculations have been performed for the field strength of 2.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} V/cm. We find that compared to the FBA and CL-sim methods, the IB heating rate in the EA is less sensitive to the choice of the two potentials considered here. The present EA calculation shows that the influence of the inner structure of atomic ion on the heating rate is more prominent for the smaller ion charge (Xe{sup 6+}). In the case of low laser field approximation based on the elastic transport cross sections, it is seen that in contrast to the FBA and classical methods, the heating rate predicted by the EA does not deviate much all over the range of mean kinetic energy of electrons (20-500 eV) considered here for both the charge states of xenon (Xe{sup 6+} and Xe{sup 10+}). Furthermore, for the Rogers potential, EA is found to be in closer agreement with the classical method than the FBA. We also compare the results of the IB heating rate using the present and low-field approximation approaches to the above three methods and observe that the magnitudes of the IB heating rate calculated in the low field approximation are, in general, higher than the corresponding values predicted by the present approach for both the electron-ion potentials.

  20. Proceedings: 2003 EPRI Heat Rate Improvement Conference: January 28-30, 2003, Birmingham, AL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Every utility strives both to become a low-cost electricity producer and to meet the emission standards set by the Clean Air Act Amendment. In the early round of cost and emission reduction, most utilities opted to blend or switch to lower-cost fuels such as Powder River Basin coal and natural gas. Over the years, EPRI, industry vendors, and the utilities themselves have learned not only to reduce the difficulties encountered with fuel blending and switching, but also to improve plant heat rate with various cost-effective solutions. The 2003 Heat Rate Improvement Conference provided an opportunity for the industry to share its knowledge and experience.

  1. Existing and Past Methods of Test and Rating Standards Related to Integrated Heat Pump Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reedy, Wayne R. [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates existing and past US methods of test and rating standards related to electrically operated air, water, and ground source air conditioners and heat pumps, 65,000 Btu/hr and under in capacity, that potentiality incorporate a potable water heating function. Two AHRI (formerly ARI) standards and three DOE waivers were identified as directly related. Six other AHRI standards related to the test and rating of base units were identified as of interest, as they would form the basis of any new comprehensive test procedure. Numerous other AHRI and ASHRAE component test standards were also identified as perhaps being of help in developing a comprehensive test procedure.

  2. Methodology for Calculating Cooling and Heating Energy-Imput-Ratio (EIR) From the Rated Seasonal Performance Efficiency (SEER or HSPF) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the recommendations to calculate cooling and heating energy-input-ratio (EIR) for DOE-2 simulations excluding indoor fan energy, from the rated cooling and heating seasonal performance efficiency (i.e., ...

  3. Heat-rate improvements obtained by retubing condensers with new, enhanced tube types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Taborek, J. [Consulting Services, Virginia Beach, VA (United States)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant fuel savings can be achieved at power plants by retubing the condensers with enhanced tubes. Because of the higher overall heat-transfer coefficient, the exhaust steam is condensed at a lower pressure and the plant efficiency is therefore increased or plant heat rate is reduced. Only the spirally indented type of enhanced tube is currently being used in the U.S. and most other countries; however, different types of enhanced tubes have been proposed for power-plant condensers, each with their own set of attributes. This paper determines what attributes and their magnitudes of enhanced tubes lead to the most energy savings as measured by reduction of the plant heat rate. The particular attributes considered are the inside and outside enhancement levels, the inside efficiency index (inside enhancement level divided by pressure-drop increase), and the enhanced-tube fouling-rate multiplier. Two particular condensers were selected because all necessary information were known from previous heat-rate studies such as the condenser geometry, the circulating-water pump and system information, and the low-pressure turbine characteristics. These are {open_quotes}real-world{close_quotes} condensers and therefore the finding will be representative for many other condenser-retubing applications. However, the authors strongly recommend that an economic evaluation be performed at each site to determine the energy savings and payback time. This generic investigation showed that the outside enhancement level is the most important attribute, and a value of about 1.5 can lead to heat-rate savings of about 20 to 40 Btu/kW-hr. Increasing the inside enhancement is less effective because of the increased pressure drop that leads to a reduction of the coolant flow rate and velocity.

  4. Kinetics of silicide formation over a wide range of heating rates spanning six orders of magnitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina-Ruiz, Manel; Lopeandía, Aitor F.; Gonzalez-Silveira, Marta; Garcia, Gemma; Clavaguera-Mora, Maria T. [Grup de Nanomaterials i Microsistemes, Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Peral, Inma [ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility, 08290 Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain); Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier, E-mail: javier.rodriguez@uab.cat [Grup de Nanomaterials i Microsistemes, Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); MATGAS Research Centre, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Kinetic processes involving intermediate phase formation are often assumed to follow an Arrhenius temperature dependence. This behavior is usually inferred from limited data over narrow temperature intervals, where the exponential dependence is generally fully satisfied. However, direct evidence over wide temperature intervals is experimentally challenging and data are scarce. Here, we report a study of silicide formation between a 12?nm film of palladium and 15?nm of amorphous silicon in a wide range of heating rates, spanning six orders of magnitude, from 0.1 to 10{sup 5?}K/s, or equivalently more than 300?K of variation in reaction temperature. The calorimetric traces exhibit several distinct exothermic events related to interdiffusion, nucleation of Pd{sub 2}Si, crystallization of amorphous silicon, and vertical growth of Pd{sub 2}Si. Interestingly, the thickness of the initial nucleation layer depends on the heating rate revealing enhanced mass diffusion at the fastest heating rates during the initial stages of the reaction. In spite of this, the formation of the silicide strictly follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence over the whole temperature interval explored. A kinetic model is used to fit the calorimetric data over the complete heating rate range. Calorimetry is complemented by structural analysis through transmission electron microscopy and both standard and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

  5. RIS-M-2185 CALCULATION OF HEAT RATING AND BURN-UP FOR TEST FUEL PINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RISØ-M-2185 CALCULATION OF HEAT RATING AND BURN-UP FOR TEST FUEL PINS IRRADIATED IN DR3 C. Bagger of fuel pins irradiated in HP1 rigs. The calculations are carried out rather detailed, especially of the data. INIS Descriptors . BURN-UP, CALORIMETRY, COMPUTER CALCULATIONS, DR-3, FISSION, FUEL ASSEMBLIES

  6. A 4D synchrotron X-ray tomography study of the formation of hydrocarbon migration pathways in heated organic-rich shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panahi, Hamed; Renard, Francois; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheibert, Julien; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjorn; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Meakin, Paul

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interests in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydrocarbon formation in source rocks, expulsion timing and how the resulting hydrocarbons escape from or are retained in the source rocks motivates further investigation. In particular, many mechanisms for the transport of hydrocarbons from the source rocks in which they are generated into adjacent rocks with higher permeabilities and smaller capillary entry pressures have been proposed, and a better understanding of this complex process (primary migration) is needed. To characterize these processes it is imperative to use the ...

  7. On-line continuous unit heat rate measurement using EPRI`s plant monitoring workstation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Sarunac, N. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Schnetzler, D. [Potomac Electric Power Company, Newburg, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Software for both the Output/Loss and Boiler-Turbine Cycle Efficiency (BTCE) methods for measuring unit heat rate of pulverized coal units is now available with the latest version of EPRI`s Plant Monitoring Workstation (PMW). Both methods are the latest version of EPRI`s Plant Monitoring Workstation (PMW). Both methods are running continuously and on-line at PEPCO`s Morgantown Unit 2. Comparisons have been made between the results generated by the two methods and with measured plant data for parameters such as coal feed rate and stack gas flow rate. This paper reviews the basis of the two measurement methods, explains how they were implemented at Morgantown Unit 2, and gives results showing how the calculated values compare with measurements for a range of unit operating conditions.

  8. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  9. Trade-offs between NO{sub x} heat rate and opacity at Morgantown Unit 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Agostini, M.; Walsh, R.; Eskenazi, D.; Levy, E. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In work carried out at Morgantown Unit 2, PEPCO and Lehigh University developed techniques for optimizing the operation of an ABB-CE LNCFS III low NO{sub x} firing system. Because of marginal ESP capacity, the ability to reduce NO{sub x} is limited by opacity excursions at this unit. Using a parametric boiler testing approach, and guided by neural network techniques for analysis of the data, control settings were identified which minimize the full load heat rate as a function of the target NO{sub x} level, subject to a stack opacity constraint.

  10. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  11. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP 1bbhrpripbe1mcfarlane

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  12. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP 1bbhrpripbe1mcfarlane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  13. Solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons using biosurfactants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanga, Shahrukh

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low solubility of petroleum hydrocarbons in water is the major factor limiting the degradation rates of these compounds (Zhang and Miller, 1994). The fraction that is more soluble in the aqueous phase is degraded at higher rates, while less soluble...

  14. 7, 29612989, 2007 Predicting arene rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    software or computing power. Measured gas-phase rate coefficients for the reaction of aromatic hydrocarbons

  15. HYDROCARBONS & ENERGY FROM PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemethy, E.K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBL-8596 itr-t C,d.. HYDROCARBONS & ENERGY FROM PLANTS jmethods of isolating the hydrocarbon-like material from I.privatelyownedrights. HYDROCARBONS AND ENERGY FROM PLANTS

  16. Crack growth rates of irradiated austenitic stainless steel weld heat affected zone in BWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.

  17. Effects of surface enhancement, film-feed supply rate, and bundle geometry on spray evaporation heat transfer performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeykens, S.A. [Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States); Newton, B.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Pate, M.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing was conducted with R-134a through an overfeed ratio range of 1.4 to 7.9 in order to evaluate the effects of Reynolds number on shell-side heat transfer performance in the spray evaporation environment. The overfeed ratio is defined as the ratio of the refrigerant flow rate supplied to the tube bundle to the refrigerant flow rate that vaporizes. Data were taken with a fixed refrigerant supply rate while varying the shell-side heat flux from 40 kW/m{sup 2} (12,688 Btu/[h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}]) to 19 kW/m{sup 2} (6,027 Btu/[h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}]). Both triangular and square-pitch tube bundles were tested to determine the effects of bundle geometry on heat transfer performance. Two enhanced condensation surfaces, one enhanced boiling surface, and one low-finned surface tube were used in this study. Plain-surface bundle testing was conducted in parallel with the enhanced surface testing to determine the degree of improvement obtained with the different surface enhancements relative to that of a smooth tube. In addition, the effect of bundle depth on heat transfer performance was evaluated. Refrigerant was introduced into the test section with wide-angle, solid-cone nozzles. To determine the amount of refrigerant contacting the tube bundle, collector testing was performed in parallel with the heat transfer analysis experiments. Using results form the collector tests, bundle overfeed ratios were calculated and are reported. Heat transfer performance showed dependence on film-feed supply rate (i.e., overfeed ratio) to varying degrees, depending on the type of surface enhancement. Those surfaces that limited axial flow of the liquid film yielded poor heat transfer performance in lower rows of the bundle. The spray evaporation heat transfer performance for one of the enhanced condensation surfaces was better than the flooded evaporator performance for the enhanced boiling surface.

  18. Heating from free-free absorption and the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Björnsson, C.-I.; Lundqvist, P., E-mail: bjornsson@astro.su.se, E-mail: peter@astro.su.se [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An accurate determination of the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to core-collapse supernovae is often limited by uncertainties pertaining to various model assumptions. It is shown that under conditions when the temperature of the circumstellar medium is set by heating due to free-free absorption, observations of the accompanying free-free optical depth allow a direct determination of the mass-loss rate from observed quantities in a rather model-independent way. The temperature is determined self-consistently, which results in a characteristic time dependence of the free-free optical depth. This can be used to distinguish free-free heating from other heating mechanisms. Since the importance of free-free heating is quite model dependent, this also makes possible several consistency checks of the deduced mass-loss rate. It is argued that the free-free absorption observed in SN 1993J is consistent with heating from free-free absorption. The deduced mass-loss rate of the progenitor star is, approximately, 10{sup –5} M {sub ?} yr{sup –1} for a wind velocity of 10 km s{sup –1}.

  19. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  20. Methodology for Calculating Cooling and Heating Energy-Imput-Ratio (EIR) From the Rated Seasonal Performance Efficiency (SEER or HSPF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the simulations. For a simulation input, a SEER or a HSPF rating needs to be converted to COP95 (i.e., Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER)/3.412) or COP47, respectively, which is the steady-state efficiency at certain test conditions specified in the ANSI.../AHRI Standard 210/240-2008 (AHRI 2008). Issue 2: Fan Energy Removal • The system efficiency ratings currently available (i.e., SEER, EER, or HSPF) are based on net cooling or heating capacity (i.e., total cooling capacity less supply fan heat for cooling...

  1. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates FY 15 PRR worksheet (PDF - 31K) FY...

  2. Plasma-assisted conversion of solid hydrocarbon to diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Shah, S. Ismat (Wilmington, DE)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing diamond, e.g., diamond fiber, by subjecting a hydrocarbon material, e.g., a hydrocarbon fiber, to a plasma treatment in a gaseous feedstream for a sufficient period of time to form diamond, e.g., a diamond fiber is disclosed. The method generally further involves pretreating the hydrocarbon material prior to treatment with the plasma by heating within an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures sufficient to increase crosslinking within said hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to melt or decompose said hydrocarbon material, followed by heating at temperatures sufficient to promote outgassing of said crosslinked hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to convert said hydrocarbon material to carbon.

  3. Heat transfer rates for filmwise, dropwise, and superhydrophobic condensation on silicon substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hery, Travis M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensation, a two-phase heat transfer processes, is commonly utilized in industrial systems. Condensation heat transfer can be optimized by using surfaces in which dropwise condensation (DWC) occurs, and even further ...

  4. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on...

  5. Insensitivity of the rate of ion motional heating to trap-electrode material over a large temperature range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiaverini, John

    We present measurements of trapped-ion motional-state heating rates in niobium and gold surface-electrode ion traps over a range of trap-electrode temperatures from approximately 4 K to room temperature (295 K) in a single ...

  6. Assessment of simulation predictions of hydrocarbon pool fire tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An uncertainty quantification (UQ) analysis is performed on the fuel regression rate model within SIERRA/Fuego by comparing to a series of hydrocarbon tests performed in the Thermal Test Complex. The fuels used for comparison for the fuel regression rate model include methanol, ethanol, JP8, and heptane. The recently implemented flamelet combustion model is also assessed with a limited comparison to data involving measurements of temperature and relative mole fractions within a 2-m diameter methanol pool fire. The comparison of the current fuel regression rate model to data without UQ indicates that the model over predicts the fuel regression rate by 65% for methanol, 63% for ethanol, 95% for JP8, and 15% for heptane. If a UQ analysis is performed incorporating a range of values for transmittance, reflectance, and heat flux at the surface the current model predicts fuel regression rates within 50% of measured values. An alternative model which uses specific heats at inlet and boiling temperatures respectively and does not approximate the sensible heat is also compared to data. The alternative model with UQ significantly improves the comparison to within 25% for all fuels except heptane. Even though the proposed alternative model provides better agreement to data, particularly for JP8 and ethanol (within 15%), there are still outstanding issues regarding significant uncertainties which include heat flux gauge measurement and placement, boiling at the fuel surface, large scale convective motion within the liquid, and semi-transparent behavior.

  7. Hydrocarbon conversion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.; Field, L.A.; Robinson, R.C.

    1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrocarbon conversion process is disclosed having a very high selectivity for dehydrocyclization. In one aspect of this process, a hydrocarbon feed is subjected to hydrotreating, then the hydrocarbon feed is passed through a sulfur removal system which reduces the sulfur concentration of the hydrocarbon feed to below 500 ppb, and then the hydrocarbon feed is reformed over a dehydrocyclization catalyst comprising a large pore zeolite containing at least one Group VIII metal to produce aromatics and hydrogen.

  8. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Copenhaver, Sally C. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  9. A comparison of techniques for on-line monitoring of unit heat rate of coal fired units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarunac, N.; Levy, E. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (USA). Energy Research Center); Williams, S.; Cramer, D. (Potomac Electric Power Co. (US)); Leyse, R. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The input/output method is one of the most commonly used approaches for measuring unit performance, but it is rarely used on-line because of difficulties in accurate on-line measurement of coal heating value and flow rate. Two other techniques for monitoring unit heat rate are much more suitable for on-line application. One of these, the boiler turbine cycle efficiency. The output/loss method utilizes information on turbine cycle performance along with measurements of stack gas flow rate, unburned carbon and other commonly available information such as O{sub 2} levels, gas and air temperatures and gross and auxiliary power. This paper provides a summary of the three techniques, describes their characteristics, gives instrumentation requirements and compares accuracies. Guidelines on the applications for which each technique should be considered are also given.

  10. Solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons using biosurfactants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanga, Shahrukh

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that bioavailability of the crude oil to the microorganisms limited the degradation rates (Mills, 1994). Preliminary experiments at our laboratories have also indicated enhanced solubilities of petroleum hydrocarbons due to the effects of biosurfactants (Kanga et al...

  11. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1...

  12. SISGR - In situ characterization and modeling of formation reactions under extreme heating rates in nanostructured multilayer foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hufnagel, Todd C.

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials subjected to extreme conditions, such as very rapid heating, behave differently than materials under more ordinary conditions. In this program we examined the effect of rapid heating on solid-state chemical reactions in metallic materials. One primary goal was to develop experimental techniques capable of observing these reactions, which can occur at heating rates in excess of one million degrees Celsius per second. One approach that we used is x-ray diffraction performed using microfocused x-ray beams and very fast x-ray detectors. A second approach is the use of a pulsed electron source for dynamic transmission electron microscopy. With these techniques we were able to observe how the heating rate affects the chemical reaction, from which we were able to discern general principles about how these reactions proceed. A second thrust of this program was to develop computational tools to help us understand and predict the reactions. From atomic-scale simulations were learned about the interdiffusion between different metals at high heating rates, and about how new crystalline phases form. A second class of computational models allow us to predict the shape of the reaction front that occurs in these materials, and to connect our understanding of interdiffusion from the atomistic simulations to measurements made in the laboratory. Both the experimental and computational techniques developed in this program are expected to be broadly applicable to a wider range of scientific problems than the intermetallic solid-state reactions studied here. For example, we have already begun using the x-ray techniques to study how materials respond to mechanical deformation at very high rates.

  13. Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A viscosity of one or more zones of the hydrocarbon layer is assessed. The heating rates in the zones are varied based on the assessed viscosities. The heating rate in a first zone of the formation is greater than the heating rate in a second zone of the formation if the viscosity in the first zone is greater than the viscosity in the second zone. Fluids are produced from the formation through the production wells.

  14. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  15. Hydrocarbon in Catalyst in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    Hydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in Vent 1 Vent 2 Product out Tank Pressure #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Hydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in Vent 1 Vent 2 Product out Tank Pressure controller Computer operator

  16. Hydrocarbon in Catalyst in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    #12;Hydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in Vent 1 Vent 2 Product out Tank Pressure controller Computer;#12;Vent 1 Vent 2 Product outHydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in light Warning Computer controller Tank

  17. 2, 16451664, 2005 Hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 2, 1645­1664, 2005 Hydrocarbon emissions from a boreal fen S. Haapanala et al. Title Page Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Measurements of hydrocarbon emissions Hydrocarbon emissions from a boreal fen S. Haapanala et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  18. Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum-Contaminated Harbor Sediments under Sulfate of iron(III) oxide to stimulate in- situ hydrocarbon degradation in anaerobic petroleum- contaminated did not stimulate anaerobic hydrocarbon oxidation. Exposure of the sediment to air [to reoxidize Fe

  19. Is cyclobutane a hydrocarbon?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Is cyclobutane a hydrocarbon? Biologically interesting entities possibly > 1,000,000 Does cyclobutane have a four- membered ring? Is cyclobutane a hydrocarbon? Expressive and decidable formalism needs to be classified under chemical classes: Is dinitrogen inorganic? Is acetylene a hydrocarbon

  20. MODEL FOR ALFVEN WAVE TURBULENCE IN SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS: HEATING RATE PROFILES AND TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asgari-Targhi, M.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested that the solar corona may be heated by dissipation of Alfven waves that propagate up from the solar photosphere. According to this theory, counterpropagating Alfven waves are subject to nonlinear interactions that lead to turbulent decay of the waves and heating of the chromospheric and coronal plasma. To test this theory, better models for the dynamics of Alfven waves in coronal loops are required. In this paper, we consider wave heating in an active region observed with the Solar Dynamics Observatory in 2010 May. First a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic model of the region is constructed, and ten magnetic field lines that match observed coronal loops are selected. For each loop we construct a 3D magnetohydrodynamic model of the Alfven waves near the selected field line. The waves are assumed to be generated by footpoint motions inside the kilogauss magnetic flux elements at the two ends of the loop. Based on such models, we predict the spatial and temporal profiles of the heating along the selected loops. We also estimate the temperature fluctuations resulting from such heating. We find that the Alfven wave turbulence model can reproduce the observed characteristics of the hotter loops in the active region core, but the loops at the periphery of the region have large expansion factors and are predicted to be thermally unstable.

  1. Heat Transfer Modeling and Use of Distributed Temperature Measurements to Predict Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hashmi, Gibran Mushtaq

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    . .......................................... 53 Figure 21 – Rate simulation for the same case as Fig. 20. ............................................... 54 Figure 22 – Buildup charts for the same case as in Fig. 10. ............................................. 54 Figure 23 – Pareto chart... ................................................................................ 10 CHAPTER III MODEL DEVELOPMENT .................................................................... 12 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 12 Steady...

  2. Particle loading rates for HVAC filters, heat exchangers, and ducts Nomenclature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    particle mass emission rate distribution func- tion for resuspension (mg/lm h) Es particle mass emission The results in this paper suggest important factors that lead to particle deposition on HVAC components

  3. Electrolyte injection with electrical resistance heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaimes Gomez, Olmedo

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reservoir to extract hydrocarbons. These processes include the Radio-Frequency Heating of oil shales and tar sands , the Microwave Heating of oil shales ", the Induction Heating , the Electrocarbonization , the Selective ERH and the Electric Preheat...

  4. Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Jaiswal, Namit; Mo, Weijian

    2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes heating a first portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the first portion. The heat is controlled to increase a fluid injectivity of the first portion. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid is injected and/or created in the first portion to cause at least some hydrocarbons to move from a second portion of the hydrocarbon layer to a third portion of the hydrocarbon layer. The second portion is between the first portion and the third portion. The first, second, and third portions are horizontally displaced from each other. The third portion is heated from one or more heaters located in the third portion. Hydrocarbons are produced from the third portion of the formation. The hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons from the second portion of the formation.

  5. Engineering Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemical Engineering Abstract Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) form a class carriers/supports for NZVI particles to address the in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. We

  6. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

    1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  7. 7-58 A commercial refrigerator with R-134a as the working fluid is considered. The evaporator inlet and exit states are specified. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant and the rate of heat rejected are to be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-22 7-58 A commercial refrigerator with R-134a as the working fluid is considered. The evaporator inlet and exit states are specified. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant and the rate of heat rejected are to be determined. Assumptions 1 The refrigerator operates steadily. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes

  8. What is Wind Chill Temperature? It is the temperature it "feels like" outside and is based on the rate of heat loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    What is Wind Chill Temperature? It is the temperature it "feels like" outside and is based on the rate of heat loss from exposed skin caused by the effects of wind and cold. As the wind increases, the body is cooled at a faster rate causing the skin temperature to drop. Wind Chill does not impact

  9. Partial fuel stratification to control HCCI heat release rates : fuel composition and other factors affecting pre-ignition reactions of two-stage ignition fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.; Cannella, William (Chevron USA Inc.); Yang, Yi; Dronniou, Nicolas

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion with fully premixed charge is severely limited at high-load operation due to the rapid pressure-rise rates (PRR) which can lead to engine knock and potential engine damage. Recent studies have shown that two-stage ignition fuels possess a significant potential to reduce the combustion heat release rate, thus enabling higher load without knock.

  10. Fuel-disruption experiments under high-ramp-rate heating conditions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, S.A.; Worledge, D.H.; Cano, G.L.; Mast, P.K.; Briscoe, F.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report presents the preliminary results and analysis of the High Ramp Rate fuel-disruption experiment series. These experiments were performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the timing and mode of fuel disruption during the prompt-burst phase of a loss-of-flow accident. High-speed cinematography was used to observe the timing and mode of the fuel disruption in a stack of five fuel pellets. Of the four experiments discussed, one used fresh mixed-oxide fuel, and three used irradiated mixed-oxide fuel. Analysis of the experiments indicates that in all cases, the observed disruption occurred well before fuel-vapor pressure was high enough to cause the disruption. The disruption appeared as a rapid spray-like expansion and occurred near the onset of fuel melting in the irradiated-fuel experiments and near the time of complete fuel melting in the fresh-fuel experiment. This early occurrence of fuel disruption is significant because it can potentially lower the work-energy release resulting from a prompt-burst disassembly accident.

  11. Heating, Current Drive, Operations and Diagnostics Issues Understand implications of reduced repetition rate, is it adequate for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heating, Current Drive, Operations and Diagnostics Issues Operations · Understand implications of ECRH to improve startup. Heating · ICRF is the base line heating system, compare with NBI and ECRH withstand the anticipated heat loads? Diagnostics · Capability of beam diagnostics for J(r), E(r), etc

  12. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of environmental parameters on bioremediation is important in designing a bioremediation system to reduce petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in impacted soils.

  13. Hydrocarbon desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plummer, M.A.; Zimmerman, C.C. Jr.

    1986-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting a sour hydrocarbon feedstock having a relatively high sulfur content to a hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content comprising the steps of: (a) hydrodesulfurizing the feedstock having a relatively high sulfur contact with hydrogen to produce the hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content and hydrogen sulfide gas; (b) contacting the hydrogen sulfide gas with an anthraquinone dissolved in a polar organic solvent having a polarity greater than about 3 Debye units to produce sulfur and an anthrahydroquinone in the solvent; (c) regenerating the anthraquinone from the anthrahydroquinone upon contact with air to produce the anthraquinone and hydrogen peroxide; (d) recycling the anthraquinone to step (b); (e) reducing the hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water; (f) partially oxidizing a hydrocarbon fuel with the oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen; and (g) recycling the hydrogen to step (a).

  14. NATURAL MARINE HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    affects ocean chemistry (Dando and Hovland, 1992) and provides a natural source of petroleum pollution the water column above submarine vents, plumes of hydrocarbon gas bubbles act as acoustic scattering targets

  15. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  16. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Brown, David B. (Brighton, MI)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  17. Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wen Ling

    1987-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm/sup 2/. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000/degree/C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity. 2 figs.

  18. Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

  19. HYDROCARBONS FROM PLANTS: ANALYTICAL METHODS AND OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvin, Melvin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    molecular weights of various hydrocarbon materials for fuelof oil and alcohol from hydrocarbon-producing plants. Into Die Naturwissenschaften HYDROCARBONS FROM PLANTS: METHODS

  20. Sideband cooling an ion to the quantum ground state in a Penning trap with very low heating rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. F. Goodwin; G. Stutter; R. C. Thompson; D. M. Segal

    2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the laser cooling of a single $^{40}\\text{Ca}^+$ ion in a Penning trap to the motional ground state in one dimension. Cooling is performed in the strong binding limit on the 729-nm electric quadrupole $S_{1/2}\\leftrightarrow D_{5/2}$ transition, broadened by a quench laser coupling the $D_{5/2}$ and $P_{3/2}$ levels. We find the final phonon number to be $\\bar{n}=0.014\\pm0.009$. We measure the heating rate of the trap to be very low with $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=2.5\\pm 0.3\\textrm{s}^{-1}$ and a scaled spectral noise density of $\\omega S_{E}(\\omega)\\sim1.6^{-8}\\textrm{V}^2\\textrm{m}^{-2}\\textrm{Hz}^{-1}\\textrm{s}^{-1}$, which is consistent with the large ion-electrode distance. We perform Rabi oscillations on the sideband-cooled ion and observe a coherence time of $0.7\\pm 0.1\\textrm{ms}$, noting that the practical performance is currently limited by the intensity noise of the probe laser.

  1. Effective Viscosity of Confined Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Sivebaek; V. N. Samoilov; B. N. J. Persson

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity \\mu eff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log(effective viscosity) = C - n log (shear rate), where n varies from 1 (solidlike friction) at very low temperatures to 0 (Newtonian liquid) at very high temperatures, following an inverse sigmoidal curve. Only the shortest chain molecules melt, whereas the longer ones only show a softening in the studied temperature interval 0 < T < 900 K. The results are important for the frictional properties of very thin (nanometer) films and to estimate their thermal durability.

  2. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop:...

  3. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  4. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  5. Hydrocarbon cracking catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lochow, C.F.; Kovacs, D.B.

    1988-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a catalyst composition for cracking hydrocarbons to maximize gasoline comprising: rare earth exchanged ''Y'' crystalline faujasite dispersed in a clay containing matrix material; and which has been subsequently further ion exchanged to contain 0.20 to 3.0 wt% yttrium, calculated as the oxide, whereby the yttrium is chemically combined in the catalyst composition.

  6. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  7. Synthesis of condensed phases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fullerenes and nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods for producing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and nanotubes, comprising: a. heating at least one carbon-containing material to form a condensed phase comprising at least one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; b. collecting at least some of the condensed phase; c. reacting the condensed phase to form fullerenes and/or nanotubes.

  8. Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions R. J. Epstein,* S. Seidelin, D. Leibfried, J. H. Wesenberg, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Amini, R. B. Blakestad, J. Britton,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions R. J. Epstein,* S. Seidelin, D. Leibfried, J. H. Wesenberg, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Amini, R. B. Blakestad, J. Britton, J. P. Home, W. M have measured motional heating rates of trapped atomic ions, a factor that can influence multi

  9. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  10. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  11. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  12. Comparison of Heating Methods for In-Situ Oil Shale Extraction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazra, Kaushik Gaurav

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shales are lamellar, non-porous, impermeable hydrocarbon bearing rocks that contain organic matter called kerogen which, when heated at pyrolysis temperature of approximately 600-800 ?, thermo-chemically decomposes to liberate hydrocarbons...

  13. Comparison of Heating Methods for In-Situ Oil Shale Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazra, Kaushik Gaurav

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shales are lamellar, non-porous, impermeable hydrocarbon bearing rocks that contain organic matter called kerogen which, when heated at pyrolysis temperature of approximately 600-800 ?, thermo-chemically decomposes to liberate hydrocarbons...

  14. 11-14 An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. The rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space, the power input to the compressor, the rate of heat rejection to the environment,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    to the compressor, the rate of heat rejection to the environment, and the COP are to be determined. Assumptions 1 enters the compressor as a saturated vapor at the evaporator pressure, and leaves the condenser space and the power input to the compressor are determined from s and ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) kW1.83 kW7

  15. Process for separating an ethylenically unsaturated hydrocarbon from a hydrocarbon mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    vanEijl, A.T.

    1986-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for separating an ethylenically unsaturated hydrocarbon from a hydrocarbon mixture characterized by: (a) distilling a hydrocarbon mixture containing the unsaturated hydrocarbon with an N-(aminoalkyl) piperazine; and (b) separating the amine/hydrocarbon mixture into at least two factions, one of which contains the amine and the unsaturated hydrocarbon.

  16. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Stanecki, John (Blanco, TX)

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  17. Engineering Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemical Engineering Abstract Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) form a class carriers/supports for NZVI particles to address the in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. We Remediation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Dr. Vijay John Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

  18. HYDROCARBON CONSTITUENTS OF ICELAND LEAF FOSSIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jerry; Calvin, Melvin.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L.S. (1962) Isoprenoid hydrocarbons in petroleum. Anal.and EVANS E. D. (1965) Hydrocarbons in non-reservo; r-rockVI. Distribution of wax hydrocarbons in plants at different

  19. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benner, Linda S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NV~ August 25-29, 1980 HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-catalyzed reduction of CO to hydrocarbons Tropscb. Among theof CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain

  20. Method for recovering light hydrocarbons from coal agglomerates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Getsoian, John (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for removing light hydrocarbons, such as heptane, from coal agglomerates includes an enclosed chamber having a substantially horizontal perforate surface therein. The coal agglomerates are introduced into a water bath within the chamber. The agglomerates are advanced over the surface while steam is substantially continuously introduced through the surface into the water bath. Steam heats the water and causes volatilization of the light hydrocarbons, which may be collected from the overhead of the chamber. The resulting agglomerates may be collected at the opposite end from the surface and subjected to final draining processes prior to transportation or use.

  1. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, December 20-March 19, 1982. Second quarterly report on the effect of rapid heating rate on coal nitrogen and sulfur release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gat, N.

    1982-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser pyrolysis technique is applied to the investigation of the effects of heating rate on release of coal-bound sulfur and nitrogen. An experimental system characterization and calibration has been completed. A detailed documentation was prepared describing the 3-color pyrometer and the data analysis technique. The coal particle feed system has been calibrated to provide accurate mass flow rate at pre-selected particle velocities. The first batch of samples submitted for chemical analysis will be used for the determination of kinetics parameters at a high heating rate (approximately equal to 10/sup 6/ K/s). The coal used presently is a Montana Rosebud. Two other coals are available; one is ILL No. 6 (through EERC) which will need to be pulverized and the second is a Pitt. hv-A (through KVB). It was confirmed that sieve and drag size distribution of coal differ significantly, and that particle shape effects may be significant in the modelling of particle dynamics.

  2. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  3. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop March 18, 2015 8:00AM EDT to...

  4. MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION PRODUCTS FROM HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudbo, Aa. S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FROM HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS RECE1VED Aa. S. Sudbo, P. A.FROM HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS LBL-6966 Aa. S. Sudbo, t P. A.

  5. 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160C at a specified rate as the heat source. The actual and maximum possible thermal efficiencies and the rate of heat rejected from this power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-31 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160ºC at a specified rate and potential energy changes are zero. 3 Steam properties are used for geothermal water. Properties Using saturated liquid properties, the source and the sink state enthalpies of geothermal water are (Table A-4) k

  6. Hydrocarbon sensors and materials therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor and materials for use in sensors. A suitable proton conducting electrolyte and catalytic materials have been found for specific application in the detection and measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons. The sensor comprises a proton conducting electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. At least one of the electrodes is covered with a hydrocarbon decomposition catalyst. Two different modes of operation for the hydrocarbon sensors can be used: equilibrium versus non-equilibrium measurements and differential catalytic. The sensor has particular application for on-board monitoring of automobile exhaust gases to evaluate the performance of catalytic converters. In addition, the sensor can be utilized in monitoring any process where hydrocarbons are exhausted, for instance, industrial power plants. The sensor is low cost, rugged, sensitive, simple to fabricate, miniature, and does not suffer cross sensitivities.

  7. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  8. Assessment of Uncertainty in Cloud Radiative Effects and Heating Rates through Retrieval Algorithm Differences: Analysis using 3-years of ARM data at Darwin, Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Protat, Alain; McFarlane, Sally A.; Delanoe, Julien; Deng, Min

    2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-based radar and lidar observations obtained at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Tropical Western Pacific site located in Darwin, Australia are used to retrieve ice cloud properties in anvil and cirrus clouds. Cloud microphysical properties derived from four different retrieval algorithms (two radar-lidar and two radar only algorithms) are compared by examining mean profiles and probability density functions of effective radius (Re), ice water content (IWC), extinction, ice number concentration, ice crystal fall speed, and vertical air velocity. Retrieval algorithm uncertainty is quantified using radiative flux closure exercises. The effect of uncertainty in retrieved quantities on the cloud radiative effect and radiative heating rates are presented. Our analysis shows that IWC compares well among algorithms, but Re shows significant discrepancies, which is attributed primarily to assumptions of particle shape. Uncertainty in Re and IWC translates into sometimes-large differences in cloud radiative effect (CRE) though the majority of cases have a CRE difference of roughly 10 W m-2 on average. These differences, which we believe are primarily driven by the uncertainty in Re, can cause up to 2 K/day difference in the radiative heating rates between algorithms.

  9. Internal Heat Transfer Coefficient Determination in a Packed Bed From the Transient Response Due to Solid Phase Induction Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geb, David; Zhou, Feng; Catton, Ivan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Solid Phase Induction Heating Nonintrusive measurementsgeneration rate via induction heating. The fluid temperaturetechnique, induction heating, bypass effect, channeling

  10. Evaluating separator performance for hydrocarbon streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, W.F.

    1982-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal for ideal separator selection and design is to separate the hydrocarbon stream into liquid-free gas and gasfree liquid. Separators are mechanical devices for removing and collecting liquids from natural gas. Verticle, horizontal, and spherical separators and their respective capabilities are described. Coalescing gas separators are designed specifically for the removal of mists, oil fogs, rust, and dust from the gas stream. A table lists estimated fabrication and installation cost, performance rating, and time requirements for each filter-coalescer liquid separator based on gas pressure (psig) and gas volumes (MMcfd).

  11. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  12. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires : results and data analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. This report describes a set of fuel regression rates experiments to provide data for the development and validation of models. The experiments were performed with fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool was investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface was measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel was assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  13. HYDROCARBONS FROM AUSTRALIAN OIL, 200 MILLION YEARS OLD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Hoeven, William; Haug, Pat; Burlingame, A.L.; Calvin, Kelvin.

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Moonie Oil "Branched- Cyclic" Hydrocarbon FractionNo. W -7405 -eng -48 HYDROCARBONS FROM AUSTRALIAN OIL, 200and Melvin Calvin July HYDROCARBONS FROM AUSTRALIAN OIL, 200

  14. Process for light-driven hydrocarbon oxidation at ambient temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photochemical reaction for the oxidation of hydrocarbons uses molecular oxygen as the oxidant. A reductive photoredox cycle that uses a tin(IV)- or antimony(V)-porphyrin photosensitizer generates the reducing equivalents required to activate oxygen. This artificial photosynthesis system drives a catalytic cycle, which mimics the cytochrome P.sub.450 reaction, to oxidize hydrocarbons. An iron(III)- or manganese(III)-porphyrin is used as the hydrocarbon-oxidation catalyst. Methylviologen can be used as a redox relay molecule to provide for electron-transfer from the reduced photosensitizer to the Fe or Mn porphyrin. The system is long-lived and may be used in photo-initiated spectroscopic studies of the reaction to determine reaction rates and intermediates.

  15. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  16. Kinetics and intermediate products in the interaction of straight-chain and cyclic hydrocarbon radicals with 9,10-Anthraquinone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladygin, B.V.; Revina, A.A.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors use a pulse radiolysis technique with optical registration of the destruction of hydrocarbon radicals R in determining the rate constants for the interaction of cyclododecyl radicals and n-dodecyl radicals with 9,10-anthraquinone in the corresponding liquid hydrocarbons, at various temperatures. It is shown that in the presence of oxygen, hydrocarbon radicals with the quinone form oxygen-containing species that are capable of propagating the oxidation chain and regenerating the original quinone.

  17. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang; Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  18. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  19. Biological enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of microbial enhanced oil recovery for recovering oil from an oil-bearing rock formation is provided. The methodology uses a consortium of bacteria including a mixture of surfactant producing bacteria and non-surfactant enzyme producing bacteria which may release hydrocarbons from bitumen containing sands. The described bioprocess can work with existing petroleum recovery protocols. The consortium microorganisms are also useful for treatment of above oil sands, ground waste tailings, subsurface oil recovery, and similar materials to enhance remediation and/or recovery of additional hydrocarbons from the materials.

  20. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  1. Convective heat-transfer predictions and experiments in an IC engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of heat transfer in engines is critical to engine efficiency, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions, engine-component thermal stress analysis, as well as engine cycle simulation accuracy. However, the relationship between pressure, heat-release rate, turbulent flow, and the heat transfer is not known. Previous engine heat-transfer models, including the law-of-the-wall used for multi-dimensional calculations, are based on a steady-state incompressible flow which is not the case in engines. A new heat-transfer model was developed which is based on an approximate solution of the linearized and normalized one-dimensional energy equation. An empirical turbulent viscosity relation has been used to include the effects of turbulence. The response of this equation to a unit step function was acquired by multi-parameter fit to the numerical solution. The effects of initial thermal boundary layer formed before compression were also considered. The proposed heat-transfer model was extended to include the effects of combustion. Thus, the relationship between pressure variation, spatially-resolved heat-release rate, local flow condition, initial thermal boundary layer, and the surface heat flux and temperature profile was developed.

  2. aromatic hydrocarbon components: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS 2005 April 19 ABSTRACT Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) infrared emission features 26 Dehydrogenation of polycyclic aromatic...

  3. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct...

  4. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Abstract: Many...

  5. ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwellingpolarization ARM Data Discovery

  6. Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi KlavŸzar a,# , Petra Ÿ Zigert a , Ivan hydrocarbon: CL is equal to the minimum number of straight lines required to intersect all hexagons theory; Clar formula; Clar number; Resonance graph; Benzenoid hydrocarbons 1. Introduction Within

  7. Aromaticity of Polycyclic Conjugated Hydrocarbons Milan Randic*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    Aromaticity of Polycyclic Conjugated Hydrocarbons Milan Randic´* National Institute of Chemistry Chemistry 3462 G. Clar 6n Rule versus Hu¨ckel 4n + 2 Rule 3464 H. Hydrocarbons versus Heteroatomic Systems Ordering 3476 VI. On Enumeration of Benzenoid Hydrocarbons 3477 VII. Kekule´ Valence Structures Count 3479

  8. Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi Klavzara, , Petra Zigerta , Ivan Gutmanb sextets in any of the Clar formulae) of a catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbon: CL is equal to the minimum; Resonance graph; Benzenoid hydrocarbons 1. Introduction Within the theory that was formulated [1, 2

  9. Cuticular Hydrocarbon Research1 Marion Page2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Cuticular Hydrocarbon Research1 Marion Page2 We have been studying existing taxonomies of forest in the utility of cuticular (surface) hydrocarbons as taxonomic characters (Haverty and others 1988, 1989, Page to be genetically fixed. Because the insects studied so far synthesize all or most of their hydrocarbon components

  10. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

  11. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  12. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in peat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapaport, R.A.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrations (ng/g), accumulation rates (ug/m/sup 2/=yr) and burdens were determined for DDT (1,1,1-trichlorophenyl2-2'bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane), polychlorinated biphenyls. Toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and a,b,g-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in peat cores taken across the mid-latitudes of North America. Because peat bogs are ombrotrophic, thereby receiving all contaminant inputs from the atmosphere and because peat cores were dated, atmospheric input functions were constructed for all of the compounds listed above excepting the HCHs. Compound inventories (burdens) in peat cores of PCBs, HCB, HCHs, Toxaphene, DDT, Pb and Zn were compared, indicating a strong influence from areas proximate to industrial sources and the atmospheric transport from source regions. Untransformed parent DDT (p,p' and o,p'-DDT) in surface peat and in precipitation provides evidence for the long range transport of DDT from neighboring countries where use has increased over the past 10-15 years. Present accumulation rates of DDT in peat are about 10-20% of maximum levels associated with peak use in the US around 1960. The DDT input function that was developed can be used to date peat cores. Transformations of DDT and PCBs were also examined in peat cores. First order transformation rates of DDT (p,p' and o,p') to DDD in anaerobic peat core environments ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 yr/sup -1/ with differences related to temperature. Aerobic transformation of PCB congeners in peat cores and microcosms was rapid for 2,3 and several 4 chlorinated congeners (T/sub 1/2 less than or equal to 0.2 to 3 years) and declined with increasing chlorine number.

  13. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  14. Plasma-induced conversion of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackinger, W.M.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results are reported for an electrical device for direct conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. A microchannel plate is excited with electrons from a photoemissive source, and electron impact ionization of methane on the inner surfaces of the microchannels creates an ion feedback process. The resulting low-density plasma creates higher hydrocarbons when charged particles impact the surfaces at grazing incidence. The production Of C{sub 2} to C{sub 8}-containing gases was noted, with a selectivity for C{sub 2} of 39% in one case. The proportions of converted products and the conversion rates depend upon the electrical voltage, the microchannel geometry, and the operating pressure. Conversion rates increase with operating pressure.

  15. Plasma-induced conversion of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackinger, W.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results are reported for an electrical device for direct conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. A microchannel plate is excited with electrons from a photoemissive source, and electron impact ionization of methane on the inner surfaces of the microchannels creates an ion feedback process. The resulting low-density plasma creates higher hydrocarbons when charged particles impact the surfaces at grazing incidence. The production Of C{sub 2} to C{sub 8}-containing gases was noted, with a selectivity for C{sub 2} of 39% in one case. The proportions of converted products and the conversion rates depend upon the electrical voltage, the microchannel geometry, and the operating pressure. Conversion rates increase with operating pressure.

  16. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION IN THE PROPLYD HST10: WHAT IS THE MECHANISM BEHIND PHOTOEVAPORATION?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vicente, S.; Kamp, I. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands); Berne, O. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huelamo, N. [CAB (INTA-CSIC), LAEFF, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Pantin, E. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM - CNRS - Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAP, F-91191 sur Yvette (France); Carmona, A. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France)

    2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Proplyds are photodissociation-region-(PDR)-like cometary cocoons around young stars which are thought to originate through photoevaporation of the central protoplanetary disk by external UV radiation from the nearby OB stars. This Letter presents spatially resolved mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the proplyd HST10 obtained with the Very Large Telescope/VISIR instrument. These observations allow us to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the proplyd PDR and to study the general properties of PAHs in proplyds for the first time. We find that PAHs in HST10 are mostly neutral and at least 50 times less abundant than typical values found for the diffuse interstellar medium or the nearby Orion Bar. With such a low PAH abundance, photoelectric heating is significantly reduced. If this low abundance pertains also to the original disk material, gas heating rates could be too low to efficiently drive photoevaporation unless other processes can be identified. Alternatively, the model behind the formation of proplyds as evaporating disks may have to be revised.

  17. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  18. Underground caverns for hydrocarbon storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barron, T.F. [Exeter Energy Services, Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Large, international gas processing projects and growing LPG imports in developing countries are driving the need to store large quantities of hydrocarbon liquids. Even though underground storage is common in the US, many people outside the domestic industry are not familiar with the technology and the benefits underground storage can offer. The latter include lower construction and operating costs than surface storage, added safety, security and greater environmental acceptance.

  19. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  20. In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes providing a drive fluid to a first hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the first layer. At least some of the mobilized hydrocarbons are allowed to flow into a second hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation. Heat is provided to the second layer from one or more heaters located in the second layer. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the second layer of the formation.

  1. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  2. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be attributed to patterns determining the origin of the air masses sampled. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were in general significantly higher in air masses that passed over anthropocentrically impacted regions. Interspecies correlations and ratios gave some indications of the possible sources for the different aromatic hydrocarbons in the source regions defined in the paper. The highest contribution of aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to ozone formation potential was also observed in plumes passing over anthropocentrically impacted regions.

  3. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  4. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Westmont, IL); Gatsis, John G. (Des Plaines, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  5. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  6. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Presentation by Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Argonne National Laboratory, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the...

  7. Geothermal heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aureille, M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the viability of geothermal heating projects in energy and economic terms and to provide nomograms from which an initial estimate may be made without having to use data-processing facilities. The effect of flow rate and temperature of the geothermal water on drilling and on the network, and the effect of climate on the type of housing are considered.

  8. Heat transfer via dropwise condensation on hydrophobic microstructured surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruleman, Karlen E. (Karlen Elizabeth)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dropwise condensation has the potential to greatly increase heat transfer rates. Heat transfer coefficients by dropwise condensation and film condensation on microstructured silicon chips were compared. Heat transfer ...

  9. Hydrocarbon Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California:Project JumpHyEnergyHydrocarbon Technologies

  10. Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795 nm rubidium laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Sheldon Shao Quan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and R. J. Beach, "Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795-a Reliable Diode-Pumped Hydrocarbon-Free 795-nm Rubidiumand R. J. Beach, "Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795-

  11. Alteration, HFSE mineralisation and hydrocarbon formation in peralkaline igneous systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    hydrothermal alteration to produce hydrocarbons via a Fischer­Tropsch synthesis. As a result, hydrocarbons alteration; Abiogenic hydrocarbons; Fischer­Tropsch; HFSE mineralization; Strange Lake Lithos 91 (2006) 19

  12. Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY); Fallon, Peter (East Moriches, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the production of economically significant amounts of ethyl and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene, from coal is disclosed wherein coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500.degree. C. to 1100.degree. C. at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

  13. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for fullerene synthesis in flames

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.

    2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides improved methods for combustion synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, employing multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels selected for high carbon conversion to extractable fullerenes. The multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels include those that contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. More specifically, multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain a substantial amount of indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof. Coal tar and petroleum distillate fractions provide low cost hydrocarbon fuels containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including without limitation, indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof.

  14. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre (Rijswijk, NL); Schoeling, Lanny Gene (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  15. Hydrocarbon conversion process and catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.40 A, a water adsorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of between 10% and 15% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; am amorphous cracking component, a binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  16. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  17. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  18. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

  19. Thermal response of process equipment to hydrocarbon fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solberg, D.M.; Borgnes, O.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Requirements for active fire-fighting equipment such as fixed and portable powder extinguishers, foam generators, water guns, and deluge systems, are given in various codes and standards. However, very little is to be found about fire design conditions and passive fire protection. For safety verification of process plants and for designing adequate passive fire protection it is necessary to know the total incident heat fluxes which can occur under realistic conditions and the effects that such heat fluxes may have on process equipment and structures. During the last few years, Det Norske Veritas has been invloved in investigations aimed at estimating realistic fire loads from different types of hydrocarbon fires and the thermal response of process equipment and structures exposed to such fires. These investigations are still in progress and are especially focused on the conditions on off-shore oil and gas production platforms. However, many fire problems will be the same in the land-based process industry. The present paper concentrates on the thermal response of pipes and vessels exposed to a severe hydrocarbon fire with a defined thermal load. (JMT)

  20. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

  1. Commercialization of IH2® Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and...

  2. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  3. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons...

  4. Sampling precautions for the measurement of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Sampling precautions for the measurement of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and of their oxidation products, such as nitrated and oxygenated PAHs hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Sampling

  5. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two aromatic hydrocarbons, 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 8 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) were carried out during hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  6. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  7. TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating purposes. BACKGROUND The reduction of heat transfer rates by the use of thermal infraredheating applications should become available on the marketplace. Due to their high reflectivity to thermal infrared

  8. OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

    2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of Ni-YSZ anodes were carried out.

  9. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL] [ORNL; Bell, Jason R [ORNL] [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL] [ORNL; Joseph III, Robert Anthony [ORNL] [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL] [ORNL; Weaver, Samuel P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon thermal fluids showing thermally stability to 600 C have been tested for solar thermal-power applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C indicated that the fluid isomerized and degraded at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components in trough solar electric generating systems, such as the waste heat rejection exchanger, may become coated or clogged affecting loop performance. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene, without addition of stabilizers, does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the temperatures greater than 500 C. The performance of a concentrating solar loop using high temperature fluids was modeled based on the National Renewable Laboratory Solar Advisory Model. It was determined that a solar-to-electricity efficiency of up to 30% and a capacity factor of near 60% could be achieved using a high efficiency collector and 12 h thermal energy storage.

  10. Heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels. Latent heat models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumpinsky, E. [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States)] [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Latent heat models were developed to calculate heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels for two cases: (1) heating with a condensable fluid flowing through coils and jackets; (2) vacuum reflux cooling with an overhead condenser. In either case the mathematical treatment, based on macroscopic balances, requires no iterative schemes. In addition to providing heat-transfer coefficients, the models predict flow rates of service fluid through the coils and jackets, estimate the percentage of heat transfer due to latent heat, and compute reflux rates.

  11. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Munsterman, Erwin Henh (Amsterdam, NL); Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus (Amsterdam, NL); Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius (Amsterdam, NL)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  12. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  13. Heat resistances and thermal acclimation rates in the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard) and the red shiner, Notropis lutrensis (Baird and Girard)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Myron Isaiah

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Gambusia ai'finis (Baird and Girard) and the Red Sh', ~Nt 1 1t ' (2 ' d dG d). (Ny1970) Myron I. Cox, B. S. , University of Utah Directed by: Dr. Kirk Strawn Nosquitofish and red shiners were collected from the Little Brazos River and Country Club Lake... CONCLUSIONS. 8 e 22 26 31 31 34 39 4B 59 REI"ERENCES. VITA. 63 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Analysis of covariance of heat resistances of mosquitofish collected June 28, 1968 from Country Club lake and tested at 40 C ~ Table 2. Analysis of covs...

  14. Water solubility data for 151 hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Pan, Xiang; Lin, Xiaoyin (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility of a hydrocarbon in water is important from both an environmental and a safety perspective. This information is required by engineers who design or operate stripping processes that remove hydrocarbons from air or water, or who must determine the amount of a hydrocarbon that has dissolved in water following a chemical spill. In particular, the water solubilities of paraffins are increasingly important because of more-stringent government regulations. Paraffins, along with naphthenes and aromatics, are the three major components of unrefined fuels. The water solubilities of 151 paraffins are listed in tables. The data are valid between 25 and 121 C, typical temperature in air- and steam-stripping operations. Also included is a correlation equation that allows users to estimate hydrocarbon solubilities above the given temperature range.

  15. Toxicity Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naspinski, Christine S.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment and are generated by many sources. Though the potential of PAH-rich mixtures to cause health effects has been known for almost a century, there are still unanswered...

  16. Hydrocarbon habitat of the west Netherlands basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jager, J. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)); Doyle, M. (Petroleum Development Oman, Muscat (Oman)); Grantham, P. (KSEPL/Shell Research, Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Mabillard, J. (Shell Nigeria, Port Harcourt (Nigeria))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.

  17. Characterization of biodegradation rates of separated diesel components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Jennifer Jean

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Studies with complex mixtures, like whole fuels, have shown that hydrocarbons in petroleum do not follow a simple degradation sequence and the biodegradation rates of specific compounds vary among fuels (Elmendorf, 1994, Mulikins-Phillips and Stewart 1974...

  18. Characterization of biodegradation rates of separated diesel components 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Jennifer Jean

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Studies with complex mixtures, like whole fuels, have shown that hydrocarbons in petroleum do not follow a simple degradation sequence and the biodegradation rates of specific compounds vary among fuels (Elmendorf, 1994, Mulikins-Phillips and Stewart 1974...

  19. Isolation, Determination of Absolute Stereochemistry, and Asymmetric Synthesis of Insect Methyl-Branched Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bello, Jan Edgar

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    d’Ettore, P. In Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry,A.G. In Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry, ChemicalMillar, J.G. In Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry,

  20. Massively-parallel electrical-conductivity imaging of hydrocarbons using the Blue Gene/L supercomputer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONDUCTIVITY IMAGING OF HYDROCARBONS USING THE BLUE GENE/Lidentification of hydrocarbon filled layers in deepwater,”Remote sensing of hydrocarbon layers by seabed logging (

  1. Design and Testing of a Labview- Controlled Catalytic Packed- Bed Reactor System For Production of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Street, J.; Yu, F.; Warnock, J.; Wooten, J.; Columbus, E.; White, M. G.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasified woody biomass (producer gas) was converted over a Mo/H+ZSM-5 catalyst to produce gasolinerange hydrocarbons. The effect of contaminants in the producer gas showed that key retardants in the system included ammonia and oxygen. The production of gasoline-range hydrocarbons derived from producer gas was studied and compared with gasoline-range hydrocarbon production from two control syngas mixes. Certain mole ratios of syngas mixes were introduced into the system to evaluate whether or not the heat created from the exothermic reaction could be properly controlled. Contaminant-free syngas was used to determine hydrocarbon production with similar mole values of the producer gas from the gasifier. Contaminant-free syngas was also used to test an ideal contaminant-free synthesis gas situation to mimic our particular downdraft gasifier. Producer gas was used in this study to determine the feasibility of using producer gas to create gasoline-range hydrocarbons on an industrial scale using a specific Mo/H+ZSM-5 catalyst. It was determined that after removing the ammonia, other contaminants poisoned the catalyst and retarded the hydrocarbon production process as well.

  2. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  4. Determination of Thermal-Degradation Rates of Some Candidate Rankine-Cycle Organic Working Fluids for Conversion of Industrial Waste Heat Into Power 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, M. L.; Demirgian, J.; Krazinski, J. L.; Bushby, H.; Mattes, H.; Purcell, J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    performance and economic on system performance, reliability, and overall considerations (rate of return on investment economics have impeded widespread development and [ROI]), six organic fluids were identified to deployment of organic Rankine-cycle power... included with the GC unit inte grates the peaks and produc s a report consisting of retention time, peak area, and area percent. The detector's analog output is connected via an A/D converter to a Perkin Elmer (PE) Sigma 15 chromatography data station...

  5. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  6. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  7. Rates & Repayment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and...

  8. Pyrolysis process for producing condensed stabilized hydrocarbons utilizing a beneficially reactive gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy (Culver City, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for recovery of values contained in solid carbonaceous material, the solid carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to pyrolysis, in the presence of a carbon containing solid particulate source of heat and a beneficially reactive transport gas in a transport flash pyrolysis reactor, to form a pyrolysis product stream. The pyrolysis product stream contains a gaseous mixture and particulate solids. The solids are separated from the gaseous mixture to form a substantially solids-free gaseous stream which comprises volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals newly formed by pyrolysis. Preferably the solid particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing part of the separated particulate solids. The beneficially reactive transport gas inhibits the reactivity of the char product and the carbon-containing solid particulate source of heat. Condensed stabilized hydrocarbons are obtained by quenching the gaseous mixture stream with a quench fluid which contains a capping agent for stabilizing and terminating newly formed volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals. The capping agent is partially depleted of hydrogen by the stabilization and termination reaction. Hydrocarbons of four or more carbon atoms in the gaseous mixture stream are condensed. A liquid stream containing the stabilized liquid product is then treated or separated into various fractions. A liquid containing the hydrogen depleted capping agent is hydrogenated to form a regenerated capping agent. At least a portion of the regenerated capping agent is recycled to the quench zone as the quench fluid. In another embodiment capping agent is produced by the process, separated from the liquid product mixture, and recycled.

  9. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  10. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution.

  11. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two;2 Abstract The size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH derivatives of compounds. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated

  12. Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, Carlos (Alamo, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus (10), including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO.sub.2 aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions (18) are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor (12) having a transparent window (16), by hydrogen and CO, C.sub.2 H.sub.4 or C.sub.2 H.sub.6 gas mixtures (20), and exposed to radiation (34) from a light source (32) external to the reactor (12), to produce the short chain hydrocarbons (36).

  13. Calculating the hyperWiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Calculating the hyper­Wiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons Petra Zigert1 , Sandi Klavzar1) is not easy, especially in the case of large polycyclic molecules, such as benzenoid hydrocarbons. Some time

  14. Calculating the hyper--Wiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Calculating the hyper--Wiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons Petra Ÿ Zigert 1 , Sandi KlavŸ zar 1. (1) is not easy, especially in the case of large polycyclic molecules, such as benzenoid hydrocarbons

  15. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. ...

  16. Seismic Analysis Using Wavelet Transform for Hydrocarbon Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Rui

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    result in successful hydrocarbon finds because abnormal seismic amplitude variations can sometimes be caused by other factors, such as alternative lithology and residual hydrocarbons in certain depositional environments. Furthermore, not all gas fields...

  17. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. acep03rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO...

  18. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (OFCVT). deer07rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO...

  19. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in...

  20. Effect of surface derived hydrocarbon impurities on Ar plasma properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox-Lyon, Nick; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S., E-mail: Oehrlein@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Institute for Research and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Godyak, Valery [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on Langmuir probe measurements that show that hydrocarbon surfaces in contact with Ar plasma cause changes of electron energy distribution functions due to the flux of hydrogen and carbon atoms released by the surfaces. The authors compare the impact on plasma properties of hydrocarbon species gasified from an etching hydrocarbon surface with injection of gaseous hydrocarbons into Ar plasma. They find that both kinds of hydrocarbon injections decrease electron density and slightly increase electron temperatures of low pressure Ar plasma. For low percentages of impurities (?1% impurity in Ar plasma explored here), surface-derived hydrocarbon species and gas phase injected hydrocarbon molecules cause similar changes of plasma properties for the same number of hydrocarbon molecules injected into Ar with a decrease in electron density of ?4%.

  1. Method and apparatus for low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reagen, William Kevin (Stillwater, MN); Janikowski, Stuart Kevin (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for decomposing halogenated hydrocarbons are provided. The halogenated hydrocarbon is mixed with solvating agents and maintained in a predetermined atmosphere and at a predetermined temperature. The mixture is contacted with recyclable reactive material for chemically reacting with the recyclable material to create dehalogenated hydrocarbons and halogenated inorganic compounds. A feature of the invention is that the process enables low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons.

  2. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  3. Hydrocarbon Formation in Metallic Iron/Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Hydrocarbon Formation in Metallic Iron/Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G , , § T I M O T H Y J . C-labeled hydrocarbons are produced. In the absence of chlorinated ethenes, however, lower con- centrations of many of the same hydrocarbons (methane and C2-C6 alkanes and alkenes) are also produced. Hardy and Gillham (1996

  4. RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS PART I: ALLENE developed in our laboratory for the reactions of C3-C4 unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main reaction pathways2007 #12;3 INTRODUCTION Soots and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are present in the exhaust gas

  5. The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton Stephanie Lyn Shaw Center for Global://web.mit.edu/cgcs/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton by Stephanie of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton by Stephanie Lyn Shaw Submitted to the Department of Earth

  6. Binary coding of Kekule structures of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Binary coding of Kekul´e structures of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi Klavzar of benzenoids Key words: benzenoid hydrocarbons, benzenoid graph, resonance graph, Kekul´e structure, algorithm easily be recovered from its binary code. Key words: benzenoid hydrocarbons, benzenoid graph, resonance

  7. Atomic displacements due to spinspin repulsion in conjugated alternant hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benzi, Michele

    Atomic displacements due to spin­spin repulsion in conjugated alternant hydrocarbons Ernesto-induced atomic displacements in conjugated alt- ernant hydrocarbons. It appears to be responsible alternant hydrocarbons (CAHs) have played a fun- damental role in the development of theoretical chemistry

  8. Wiener Numbers of Pericondensed Benzenoid Hydrocarbons Sandi Klav zar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Wiener Numbers of Pericondensed Benzenoid Hydrocarbons Sandi Klav#20;zar Department of Mathematics expressions for W for several homologous series of pericondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons. An elementary proof polycyclic systems studied were catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons. 11{14 Few years ago the situation

  9. Original article Hydrocarbons and monoesters of propolis waxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Hydrocarbons and monoesters of propolis waxes from Brazil Giuseppina Negri* Maria yielded mono- esters as main constituents, followed by hydrocarbons. The methyl and acetyl esters of the car- boxylic acids and alcohols, respectively, derived from the monoesters, and the hydrocarbons were

  10. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent liver development and hepatotoxicity are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradfield, Christopher A.

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent liver development and hepatotoxicity are mediated by different for review June 7, 2005) The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays a role in three areas of biology recombinase ductus venosus endothelial cell hepatocyte dioxin The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic

  11. Binary coding of Kekule structures of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Binary coding of Kekulâ??e structures of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi KlavŸzar, aâ??e structures of benzenoids Key words: benzenoid hydrocarbons, benzenoid graph, resonance graph, Kekul easily be recovered from its binary code. Key words: benzenoid hydrocarbons, benzenoid graph, resonance

  12. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

    1984-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  13. Production of hydrocarbons from hydrates. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, P.L.

    1981-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An economical and safe method of producing hydrocarbons (or natural gas) from in situ hydrocarbon-containing hydrates is given. Once started, the method will be self-driven and will continue producing hydrocarbons over an extended period of time (i.e., many days).

  14. Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard reference material 1649a (urban dust) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic

  15. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1981-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  16. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  17. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  18. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  19. Trace elements and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Trace elements and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in snow and ice sampled at Colle designed, built and tested. Melt water from inner part of ice core section was pumped to an ICP-SFMS and ICP-OES. Melt water from outer section was on-line extracted by solid-phase cartridges for semi

  20. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. The isolated consortia and bacteria are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. The isolated consortia, bacteria, and dispersants are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  1. Apparatus and method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willms, R. Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephen A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbon feed material. The feed material is caused to flow over a heated catalyst which fosters the water-gas shift reaction (H.sub.2 O+COH.sub.2 +CO.sub.2) and the methane steam reforming reaction (CH.sub.4 +H.sub.2 O3 H.sub.2 +CO). Both of these reactions proceed only to partial completion. However, by use of a Pd/Ag membrane which is exclusively permeable to hydrogen isotopes in the vicinity of the above reactions and by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side of the membrane, product hydrogen isotopes are removed and the reactions are caused to proceed further toward completion. A two-stage palladium membrane reactor was tested with a feed composition of 28% CQ.sub.4, 35% Q.sub.2 O (where Q=H, D, or T), and 31% Ar in 31 hours of continuous operation during which 4.5 g of tritium were processed. Decontamination factors were found to increase with decreasing inlet rate. The first stage was observed to have a decontamination factor of approximately 200, while the second stage had a decontamination factor of 2.9.times.10.sup.6. The overall decontamination factor was 5.8.times.10.sup.8. When a Pt/.alpha.-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst is employed, decoking could be performed without catalyst degradation. However, by adjusting the carbon to oxygen ratio of the feed material with the addition of oxygen, coking could be altogether avoided.

  2. A spatially resolved study of photoelectric heating and [CII] cooling in the LMC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Rubin; S. Hony; S. C. Madden; A. G. G. M Tielens; M. Meixner; R. Indebetouw; W. Reach; A. Ginsburg; S. Kim; K. Mochizuki; B. Babler; M. Block; S. B Bracker; C. W. Engelbracht; B. -Q. For; K. Gordon; J. L. Hora; C. Leitherer; M. Meade; K. Misselt; M. Sewilo; U. Vijh; B. Whitney

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    (abridged) We study photoelectric heating throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud. We quantify the importance of the [CII] cooling line and the photoelectric heating process of various environments in the LMC and investigate which parameters control the extent of photoelectric heating. We use the BICE [CII] map and the Spitzer/SAGE infrared maps. We examine the spatial variations in the efficiency of photoelectric heating: photoelectric heating rate over power absorbed by grains. We correlate the photoelectric heating efficiency and the emission from various dust constituents and study the variations as a function of H\\alpha emission, dust temperatures, and the total infrared luminosity. From this we estimate radiation field, gas temperature, and electron density. We find systematic variations in photoelectric efficiency. The highest efficiencies are found in the diffuse medium, while the lowest coincide with bright star-forming regions (~1.4 times lower). The [CII] line emission constitutes 1.32% of the far infrared luminosity across the whole of the LMC. We find correlations between the [CII] emission and ratios of the mid infrared and far infrared bands, which comprise various dust constituents. The correlations are interpreted in light of the spatial variations of the dust abundance and by the local environmental conditions that affect the dust emission properties. As a function of the total infrared surface brightness, S_{TIR}, the [CII] surface brightness can be described as: S_{[CII]}=1.25 S_{TIR}^{0.69} [10^{-3} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} sr^{-1}]. The [CII] emission is well-correlation with the 8 micrometer emission, suggesting that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons play a dominant role in the photoelectric heating process.

  3. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  4. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of hydrocarbons having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 340 to 360/sup 0/C, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, CH/sub 3/OH is produced in an amount of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture, and comprised 1 mole % of the effluent gas.

  5. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  6. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Conversion method for gas streams containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard G. (Norman, OK); Lobban, Lance (Norman, OK); Liu, Chang-jun (Tianjin, CN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and a method of using the apparatus are provided for converting a gas stream containing hydrocarbons to a reaction product containing effluent molecules having at least one carbon atom, having at least one interior surface and at least one exterior surface, a first electrode and a second electrode with the first and second electrodes being selectively movable in relation to each other and positioned within the housing so as to be spatially disposed a predetermined distance from each other, a plasma discharge generator between the first and second electrodes, gas stream introducer and a collector for collecting the reaction product effluent produced by the reaction of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons with the plasma discharge between the first and second electrodes.

  8. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  9. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  10. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  12. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  13. Production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from peat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodle, W.W.; Punwani, D.; Weil, S.A.

    1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from peat providing wide variation of the composite proportion of liquid-gas output while maintaining high overall carbon conversion to useful fuel. The process and apparatus utilizes three process stages in a single vessel providing functions of drying wet peat, provisions for addition of both wet and dry peat to a hydropyrolysis zone and gasification of the peat char.

  14. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

    1988-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  15. Heat release rate markers for premixed combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolaou, Zacharias M.; Swaminathan, Nedunchezhian

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of CO, H2, H2O, CO2 and CH4 and the mole fraction percentages of these species are given in Table 1. This composition is typical of a BFG mixture [18], or a low hydrogen content syngas mixture [21–23]. At these conditions the laminar flame speed is sl... -based correlation and propose new correlations, if required, for a syngas containing multiple fuel species and other species, specifically CO, H2, CH4, H2O and CO2 in a proportion akin to Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). Although this gas has low calorific value, its use...

  16. The Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafetyTed5, 2015 IndependentThe

  17. Real-time method for the identification and quantification of hydrocarbon pyrolysis products: Part I. Development and validation of the Infra Red technique.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to large heat load encountered in high speed flight (over Mach 5), the regenerative cooling of the engine hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene) are determined. The method, based on classical-Mass Spectrometer; supercritical state; coke. 1. Introduction Ramjet and SCRamjet (Supersonic Combustion Ramjet

  18. Application Study of a Single House Horizontal Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hang, Y.; Ying, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is imperative to get new heating systems into the market and implement rate structures with heat meters for the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. Based on analysis of current heating technology, this paper analyzes...

  19. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  20. Heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishman, P.J.

    1983-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system utilizing solar panels and buried ground conduits to collect and store heat which is delivered to a heatpump heat exchanger. A heat-distribution fluid continuously circulates through a ground circuit to transfer heat from the ground to the heat exchanger. The ground circuit includes a length of buried ground conduit, a pump, a check valve and the heat exchanger. A solar circuit, including a solar panel and a second pump, is connected in parallel with the check valve so that the distribution fluid transfers solar heat to the heat exchanger for utilization and to the ground conduit for storage when the second pump is energized. A thermostatically instrumented control system energizes the second pump only when the temperature differential between the solar panel inlet and outlet temperatures exceeds a predetermined value and the ground temperature is less than a predetermined value. Consequently, the distribution fluid flows through the solar panel only when the panel is capable of supplying significant heat to the remainder of the system without causing excessive drying of the ground.

  1. Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  2. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Delfino, R. J; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coupled out- door/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration in combustionbound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons K. A. , Morris, J. ,

  3. Toxicity cutoff of aromatic hydrocarbons for luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Toxicity cutoff of aromatic hydrocarbons for luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri So Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons a b s t r a c t Effects of individual petroleum hydrocarbons hydrocarbons, including benzene and its derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were chosen

  4. The Stimulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs with Subsurface Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.

    2000-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Between 1965 and 1979 there were five documented and one or more inferred attempts to stimulate the production from hydrocarbon reservoirs by detonating nuclear devices in reservoir strata. Of the five documented tests, three were carried out by the US in low-permeability, natural-gas bearing, sandstone-shale formations, and two were done in the USSR within oil-bearing carbonates. The objectives of the US stimulation efforts were to increase porosity and permeability in a reservoir around a specific well by creating a chimney of rock rubble with fractures extending beyond it, and to connect superimposed reservoir layers. In the USSR, the intent was to extensively fracture an existing reservoir in the more general vicinity of producing wells, again increasing overall permeability and porosity. In both countries, the ultimate goals were to increase production rates and ultimate recovery from the reservoirs. Subsurface explosive devices ranging from 2.3 to about 100 kilotons were used at depths ranging from 1208 m (3963 ft) to 2568 m (8427 ft). Post-shot problems were encountered, including smaller-than-calculated fracture zones, formation damage, radioactivity of the product, and dilution of the BTU value of tie natural gas with inflammable gases created by the explosion. Reports also suggest that production-enhancement factors from these tests fell short of expectations. Ultimately, the enhanced-production benefits of the tests were insufficient to support continuation of the pro-grams within increasingly adversarial political, economic, and social climates, and attempts to stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs with nuclear devices have been terminated in both countries.

  5. Role of minerals in formation of hydrocarbons during pyrolysis of organic matter - a material balance approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monterey Formation and Green River Formation kerogens (types II and I, respectively) were isolated, mixed with common sedimentary minerals, and pyrolyzed under dry and hydrous conditions for various times and temperatures. Analysis of all the pyrolyses products were conducted to perform a material balance and to infer reaction kinetics and mechanisms. Material balance of the pyrolyses products, in the presence and absence of minerals, reveals that the kerogen degradation results in the formation of bitumen rich in high molecular weight compounds in the initial stages, followed by additional cracking of kerogen and bitumen. However, amount and type of hydrocarbons in the pyrolyses products of kerogen in the presence of montmorillonite are markedly different from those produced by heating kerogen alone or with other minerals. The initial amounts of products in the presence of montmorillonite, and in particular the quantities of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, are higher than those in the presence of illite, calcite, and kerogen alone. The composition of these low molecular weight compounds is dominated by branched hydrocarbons, indicating catalytic cracking via carbonium ion mechanism, which is initiated on acidic sites of the clay. Composition differences are evident also in the distribution of n-alkanes and in the pristane/phytane ratio. The catalytic effect of montmorillonite, however, disappears in the presence of excess water. These differences may have important implications for the composition and quantities of petroleum generated from source rocks with different mineralogies.

  6. Augmentation of condensation heat transfer with electrohydrodynamics on vertical enhanced tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motte, Edouard

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for various heat loads . 48 . 49 . 58 NOMENCLATURE cr D ha k Nu qual Re V area, m', or current, A specific heat at constant pressure, J/kgK diameter, m electric field strength, V/m gravity, (9. 81 m/s') heat transfer coefficient, W... fluorocarbon or a hydrocarbon, the temperature of heat addition from the primary fluid to the secondary working fluid tends to be lower, thereby increasing the amount of heat rejected. In many cases the waste heat can be rejected through a condensation...

  7. Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    aging, etc. deer09devarakonda.pdf More Documents & Publications The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and...

  8. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of catalyst materials to facilitate the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) emissions. deer08...

  9. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Lewis Center, OH); LaPlante, Timothy J. (Columbus, OH); Rankin, Scott (Columbus, OH); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick (Columbus, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Mazanec, Terry (Solon, OH) Daymo, Eric (Dublin, OH)

    2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  10. Ozone production and hydrocarbon reactivity in Hong Kong, Southern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Middleton, P. , and Wang, T. : Ozone precursor relationshipsJ. Zhang et al. : Ozone production and hydrocarbonKiang, C. S. : Ground- level ozone pollution in Hong Kong,

  11. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with...

  12. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  13. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  14. adsorption equilibria hydrocarbons: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Phase equilibria of polydisperse hydrocarbons: moment free energy method analysis Mathematical Physics (arXiv) Summary: We analyze the phase...

  15. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium...

  16. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  17. aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogenesis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Ecology Websites Summary: ), and there are oil refineries on the shore. In this environment, input of aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum and the Yarra River Estuary J. David...

  18. aromatic hydrocarbon tracers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Ecology Websites Summary: ), and there are oil refineries on the shore. In this environment, input of aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum and the Yarra River Estuary J. David...

  19. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster Location P-19 Gregory K. Lilik, Andr L. Boehman Department of Energy & Mineral Engineering EMS Energy...

  20. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste FeedstocksEnhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage...

  1. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, Philip D. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  2. Heat Transfer of a Multiple Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Using a Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaskill, Travis

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study has focused on the use of coil heat exchangers (CHEs) with microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) slurries to understand if CHEs can yield greater rates of heat transfer. An experimental study was conducted using a...

  3. Heat Transfer of a Multiple Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Using a Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaskill, Travis

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study has focused on the use of coil heat exchangers (CHEs) with microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) slurries to understand if CHEs can yield greater rates of heat transfer. An experimental study was conducted using a...

  4. Fundamental measure theory of hydrated hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor F. Sokolov; Gennady N. Chuev

    2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    To calculate the solvation of hydrophobic solutes we have developed the method based on the fundamental measure treatment of the density functional theory. This method allows us to carry out calculations of density profiles and the solvation energy for various hydrophobic molecules with a high accuracy. We have applied the method to the hydration of various hydrocarbons (linear, branched and cyclic). The calculations of the entropic and the enthalpic parts are also carried out. We have examined a question about temperature dependence of the entropy convergence. Finally, we have calculated the mean force potential between two large hydrophobic nanoparticles immersed in water.

  5. HYDROCARBONS OF BIOLOGICAL ORIGIN FROM A ONE-BILLION YEAR OLD SEDIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eglinton, Geoffrey.; Scott, P.M.; Belsky, Ted.; Burlingame, A.L.; Calvin, Melvin.; Cloud Jr., Preston E.

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contract No. W-7405-eng-48 HYDROCARBONS OF BIOLOGICAL ORIGINAbstract The isoprenoid hydrocarbons, phytane (C 20H4Z) andThe identification of these hydrocarbons augurs well for the

  6. Stimulating the anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments by providing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Stimulating the anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments to simulate the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic contaminated sediments was investigated as the sole electron acceptor. Providing graphite electrodes as an electron acceptor in hydrocarbon

  7. Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons the in situ anaerobic attenuation of hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer underly- ing a former refinery. Metabolite profiles associated with anaerobic hydrocarbon decay revealed the microbial utilization

  8. Lasius niger ants discriminate aphids based on their cuticular hydrocarbons Corsin Langa,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Lasius niger ants discriminate aphids based on their cuticular hydrocarbons Corsin Langa,1 chemical communication cuticular hydrocarbon interspecific communication Lasius niger mutualism species covered with aphid cuticular hydrocarbons. Neutral control objects were antennated, but the ants quickly

  9. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage...

  10. Cyclic Versus Linear Isomers Produced by Reaction of the Methylidyne Radical (CH) with Small Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulay, Fabien

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with Small Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Fabien Goulay, 1, †,‡react with the selected hydrocarbon in a helium gas flow.Small cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons such as c-C 3 H, c-C 3

  11. HYDROCARBON LIQUID FLOW CALIBRATION SERVICE NIST Special Publication 250-1039

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    HYDROCARBON LIQUID FLOW CALIBRATION SERVICE NIST Special Publication 250-1039 T. T. Yeh, Jesús and Technology Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD 20899 #12;Hydrocarbon......................................... 3 4.0 Description of the Hydrocarbon Liquid Flow Standard

  12. The Hydrophobic Effect Drives the Recognition of Hydrocarbons by an Anionic Metal-Ligand Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biros, Shannon

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drives the Recognition of Hydrocarbons by an Anionic Metal-Drives the Recognition of Hydrocarbons by an Anionic Metal-including saturated hydrocarbons, 11,12 in aqueous solution,

  13. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea, in spite of the fact that these areas do not have highest potential for future hydrocarbon reserves. Opportunities for improving the mapping and assessment of Arctic hydrocarbon resources include: 1) Refining hydrocarbon potential on a basin-by-basin basis, 2) Developing more realistic and detailed distribution of gas hydrate, and 3) Assessing the likely future scenarios for development of infrastructure and their interaction with hydrocarbon potential. It would also be useful to develop a more sophisticated approach to merging conventional and gas hydrate resource potential that considers the technical uncertainty associated with exploitation of gas hydrate resources. Taken together, additional work in these areas could significantly improve our understanding of the exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbons as ice-free areas increase in the future.

  14. Spatial variations and chronologies of aliphatic hydrocarbons in Lake Michigan sediments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doskey, P. V.; Environmental Research

    2001-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Four sediment cores were collected in fine-grained depositional areas of the southern basin of Lake Michigan. Spatial variations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in surficial sediments were consistent with a lakeward movement of riverine sediments in a series of resuspension-settling cycles in which an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons associated with dense sediments is deposited in nearshore areas, fine-grained sediments of terrestrial origin accumulate in the deep basin, and planktonic hydrocarbons are depleted by microbial degradation during transport to the deep basin. The rate of accumulation of the UCM (a marker of petroleum residues) in deep basin sediments has increased by more than an order of magnitude since 1880, from 60 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1} to approximately 960 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1} in 1980. Crude estimates of the atmospheric loading of the UCM (1100 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}) indicate that accumulations in deep-basin sediments might be supported by atmospheric deposition. Agreement was poor between the atmospheric flux of the terrestrial n-alkanes ({Sigma}C{sub 25}, C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 31}) to the deep basin (3200 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}) and the sediment accumulation rate (660 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}). Understanding of atmospheric fluxes, estimated from the very few available data, would be improved by more frequent measurement of the levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons in air and precipitation and a better knowledge of the particle deposition velocities and precipitation scavenging coefficients.

  15. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert T. (Livermore, CA); Jackson, Kenneth J. (San Leandro, CA); Duba, Alfred G. (Livermore, CA); Chen, Ching-I (Danville, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating.

  16. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, R.T.; Jackson, K.J.; Duba, A.G.; Chen, C.I.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants are described. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating. 21 figs.

  17. Effect of hydrocarbon adsorption on the wettability of rare earth oxide ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Daniel J.; Miljkovic, Nenad; Sack, Jean; Queeney, John; Wang, Evelyn N., E-mail: enwang@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Enright, Ryan [Thermal Management Research Group, Efficient Energy Transfer (etaET) Department, Bell Labs Ireland, Dublin 15 (Ireland)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor condensation is routinely used as an effective means of transferring heat, with dropwise condensation exhibiting a 5???7x heat transfer improvement compared to filmwise condensation. However, state-of-the-art techniques to promote dropwise condensation rely on functional hydrophobic coatings, which are often not robust and therefore undesirable for industrial implementation. Natural surface contamination due to hydrocarbon adsorption, particularly on noble metals, has been explored as an alternative approach to realize stable dropwise condensing surfaces. While noble metals are prohibitively expensive, the recent discovery of robust rare earth oxide (REO) hydrophobicity has generated interest for dropwise condensation applications due to material costs approaching 1% of gold; however, the underlying mechanism of REO hydrophobicity remains under debate. In this work, we show through careful experiments and modeling that REO hydrophobicity occurs due to the same hydrocarbon adsorption mechanism seen previously on noble metals. To investigate adsorption dynamics, we studied holmia and ceria REOs, along with control samples of gold and silica, via X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic time-resolved contact angle measurements. The contact angle and surface carbon percent started at ?0 on in-situ argon-plasma-cleaned samples and increased asymptotically over time after exposure to laboratory air, with the rare earth oxides displaying hydrophobic (>90°) advancing contact angle behavior at long times (>4 days). The results indicate that REOs are in fact hydrophilic when clean and become hydrophobic due to hydrocarbon adsorption. Furthermore, this study provides insight into how REOs can be used to promote stable dropwise condensation, which is important for the development of enhanced phase change surfaces.

  18. Solubility of hydrocarbons in salt water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Lin, X. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the design and operation of industrial processes, physical and thermodynamic property data are required. Increasingly stringent regulations are making water solubility of substances even more critical. Water solubility data of naphthenes, or cycloalkanes, is applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations, including water without salt to water saturated with salt. The results are intended for use in initial engineering and environmental applications. Solubility values from the correlation are useful in determining the distribution of a hydrocarbon spill on its contact with sea water. Solubility values at other salt concentrations also may be computed. Results are presented for water solubility of hydrocarbons (naphthenes) as a function of salt concentration (log(S) = A + BX + CX[sup 2]). The correlation constants, A, B and C, are displayed in an easy-to-use tabular format that is applicable for rapid engineering use with the personal computer or hand-held calculator. The results for solubility in salt water are applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations. This range covers water without salt, X = 0, to water saturated with salt, X = 358,700 ppM(wt). Correlation and experimental results are in favorable agreement.

  19. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  20. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  1. Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  2. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for a combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  3. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

  4. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  5. ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS H. MATSUOKA1 , T] or meniscus force [3], which have been neglected in the conventional and relatively large mechani- cal systems forces between mica surfaces in under- saturated vapors of several kind of hydrocarbon liquids are mea

  6. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons resulting Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of Summary: fuel. (d) Lubricating oil. - 300 400 Wavelength (nm) Results Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons... Aust. J....

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of Summary: fuel. (d) Lubricating oil. - 300 400 Wavelength (nm) Results Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons... Bay...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of Summary: fuel. (d) Lubricating oil. - 300 400 Wavelength (nm) Results Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons... Bay...

  10. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization...

  11. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  12. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  13. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  14. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  15. AGN Heating through Cavities and Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. E. J. Nulsen; C. Jones; W. R. Forman; L. P. David; B. R. McNamara; D. A. Rafferty; L. Birzan; M. W. Wise

    2006-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Three comments are made on AGN heating of cooling flows. A simple physical argument is used to show that the enthalpy of a buoyant radio lobe is converted to heat in its wake. Thus, a significant part of ``cavity'' enthalpy is likely to end up as heat. Second, the properties of the repeated weak shocks in M87 are used to argue that they can plausibly prevent gas close to the AGN from cooling. As the most significant heating mechanism at work closest to the AGN, shock heating probably plays a critical role in the feedback mechanism. Third, results are presented from a survey of AGN heating rates in nearby giant elliptical galaxies. With inactive systems included, the overall AGN heating rate is reasonably well matched to the total cooling rate for the sample. Thus, intermittent AGN outbursts are energetically capable of preventing the hot atmospheres of these galaxies from cooling and forming stars.

  16. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000%C2%B0C showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  17. Heat exchanger for power generation equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nirmalan, Nirm Velumylm; Bowman, Michael John

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger for a turbine is provided wherein the heat exchanger comprises a heat transfer cell comprising a sheet of material having two opposed ends and two opposed sides. In addition, a plurality of concavities are disposed on a surface portion of the sheet of material so as to cause hydrodynamic interactions and affect a heat transfer rate of the turbine between a fluid and the concavities when the fluid is disposed over the concavities.

  18. Geology and hydrocarbon prospects of Latvia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freimanis, A. (Latvian Dept. of Geology, Riga (Latvia)); Margulis, L.; Brangulis, A.; Kanev, S.; Pomerantseva, R. (Inst. of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Riga (Latvia))

    1993-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil prospects in Latvia are associated with the Baltic syneclise. Latvia occupies about one fourth of that large tectonic depression; zones of oil accumulation continue there from adjacent areas: the Telshai rampart (Lithuania) and the Leba nose (Polish offshore). The oil prospects in separate areas are determined by their position regarding the sources of oil generation--the Gdansk-Kura and Liepaya depressions. The most prospective areas are the Liepaya-Saldus zone of highs and the Pape-Barta trough. The Liepaya-Saldus zone was situated so that the hydrocarbon migration path crossed it. It probably is an important oil accumulation zone. The paper describes the geology of Latvia and the one oil field in Latvia.

  19. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  20. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  1. Microbial hydrocarbons: back to the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The defining challenge of energy research in the 21st century is the development and deployment of technologies for large-scale reconfiguration of global energy infrastructure. Modern society is built upon a concentrated yet finite reservoir of diverse hydrocarbons formed through the photosynthetic transformation of several hundred million years of solar energy. In human history, the fossil energy era will be short lived and never repeated. Although the timing of peak oil is extensively debated, it is an eventuality. It is, therefore, imperative that projections for both when it will occur and the degree to which supply will fall short of demand be taken into serious consideration, especially in the sectors of energy technology development, political and economic decision making, and societal energy usage. The requirement for renewable energy systems is no longer a point for discussion, and swift advances on many fronts are vital to counteract current and impending crises in both energy and the environment.

  2. Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Yongchun; Periana, Roy; Chen, Weiqun; van Duin, Adri; Nielsen, Robert; Shuler, Patrick; Ma, Qisheng; Blanco, Mario; Li, Zaiwei; Oxgaard, Jonas; Cheng, Jihong; Cheung, Sam; Pudar, Sanja

    2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Final Report of the five-year project Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes (DE-FC36-04GO14276, July 1, 2004- June 30, 2009), in which we present our major accomplishments with detailed descriptions of our experimental and theoretical efforts. Upon the successful conduction of this project, we have followed our proposed breakdown work structure completing most of the technical tasks. Finally, we have developed and demonstrated several optimized homogenously catalytic methane conversion systems involving applications of novel ionic liquids, which present much more superior performance than the Catalytica system (the best-to-date system) in terms of three times higher reaction rates and longer catalysts lifetime and much stronger resistance to water deactivation. We have developed in-depth mechanistic understandings on the complicated chemistry involved in homogenously catalytic methane oxidation as well as developed the unique yet effective experimental protocols (reactors, analytical tools and screening methodologies) for achieving a highly efficient yet economically feasible and environmentally friendly catalytic methane conversion system. The most important findings have been published, patented as well as reported to DOE in this Final Report and our 20 Quarterly Reports.

  3. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Missallati, A.A. (Agip (N.A.M.E.)Ltd., Tripoli (Libya))

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  4. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    still com- monly used in home heating and smoking rates arefound exposure to coal home heating and ETS increase youngcigarette smoke, coal heating, and respiratory symptoms of

  5. Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Nancy

    Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ livingPattern : Room ­? behaviour; setTemp : Room ­? num; heatSwitchOn, heatSwitchOff, userReset : simple

  6. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2001-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

  7. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David Gordon (Winchester, MA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

  8. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David G. (Winchester, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

  9. Non-Sticking of Helium Buffer Gas to Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, James F E

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lifetimes of complexes formed during helium-hydrocarbon collisions at low temperature are estimated for symmetric top hydrocarbons. The lifetimes are obtained using a density-of-states approach. In general the lifetimes are less than 10-100 ns, and are found to decrease with increasing hydrocarbon size. This suggests that clustering will not limit precision spectroscopy in helium buffer gas experiments. Lifetimes are computed for noble-gas benzene collisions and are found to be in reasonable agreement with lifetimes obtained from classical trajectories as reported by Cui {\\it et al}.

  10. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  11. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Hydrocarbon Production in the Green Microalga Botryococcus braunii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Taylor Leigh

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Algae biofuels ................................................................................ 1 Algae .............................................................................................. 2 Botryococcus braunii... ..................................................................... 4 General biology ........................................................................ 4 Biofuel potential ....................................................................... 9 Hydrocarbon synthesis...

  12. Hydrocarbons on Harvester Ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) Middens Guide Foragers to the Nest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Deborah

    Hydrocarbons on Harvester Ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) Middens Guide Foragers to the Nest Shelby J hydrocarbons are used by social insects in nestmate recognition. Here, we showed that hydrocarbons found-specific hydrocarbons, which ants use to distinguish nestmates from non-nestmates, are found on the midden pebbles

  13. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, Edward J. (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); Wijesinghe, Ananda M. (Tracy, CA); Viani, Brian E. (Oakland, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

  14. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, E.J.; Anderson, B.L.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced. 3 figs.

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - area blockage rate Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of increase of the differential pressure across the generating bank is correlated... the heat transfer impact of fouling is an important issue, heat transfer rates are easily...

  16. Proceedings of HT'03 2003 Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    Proceedings of HT'03 2003 Summer Heat Transfer Conference July 21­23, 2003, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA HT2003-47016 A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR HEAT FLUX DETERMINATION D.G. Walker Department of Mechanical@vt.edu ABSTRACT A new method for estimating heat fluxes from heating rate measurements and an approach to measure

  17. Original article Heat balance of a multistage spray-dryer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    into account. From these data, the heat balance showed a dif- ference between inputs and outputs of 2.9% which may be interpreted as heat losses and probable errors. The specific heat consumption was close to 4 of the small flow rates of air used in both fluid beds. This specific heat consumption corresponds to 2.1 times

  18. aromatic hydrocarbon emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Detection of mid-infrared Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features from the Small Magellanic Cloud Astrophysics...

  19. aromatic hydrocarbon cations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NITROGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CATIONS FROM 0.7 TO 2.5...

  20. aromatic hydrocarbon emission: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Detection of mid-infrared Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features from the Small Magellanic Cloud Astrophysics...

  1. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  2. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

  3. Whole Ecosystem Measurements of Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emissions Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Whole Ecosystem Measurements of Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emissions Final Report ARB Award No. 98 of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management Ecosystem Sciences Division 151 Hilgard Hall University Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Mangement Ecosystem Sciences Division 151 Hilgard Hall

  4. Subcontinuum mass transport of condensed hydrocarbons in nanoporous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falk, Kerstin

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional reservoirs, the so-called shale gas, has exploded recently, reliable predictions of resource availability and extraction are missing because conventional tools fail to ...

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution of urban topsoil in Ibadan city, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onianwa, P.C. [Univ. of Ibadan (Nigeria)] [Univ. of Ibadan (Nigeria)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbon in topsoils from various parts of Ibadan city, Nigeria, was studied. Samples were selected from around the following zones: (a) railway tracks, (b) petrol stations, (c) refuse dumps, (d) residential areas, (e) high traffic density areas, (f) mechanical workshops, and (g) control zones. Contamination of the topsoil with hydrocarbons was significant only around petrol stations and mechanical workshops where the factors of accumulation were 10.1 and 4.72, respectively. The general trend in hydrocarbon levels was petrol station > mechanical workshop > refuse dumps > high traffic areas {ge} rail tracks > control residential areas. The results highlight the need to monitor urban environments that are remote from petroleum exploration activities for petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Ken Rapp, Liyu Li, Jonathan Male, Dave King...

  7. Biodegradability of select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Anuradha M.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmentally significant because of their ubiquity and the toxicity of some. Their recalcitrance and persistence makes them problematic environmental contaminants. Microbial degradation is considered...

  8. Modeling the biodegradability and physicochemical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitriou-Christidis, Petros

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The biodegradability and physicochemical properties of unsubstituted and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated. The focus was on the development of models expressing the influence of molecular structure and properties...

  9. Faults as potential hydrocarbon barriers, Arroyo Grande, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Switek, Daniel Paul

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Faulting in a sandstone introduces properties which are different from the country rock. Previous work has shown that these new properties can significantly impede the flow of hydrocarbons through the country rock. This thesis seeks to analyze...

  10. Vertimass licenses ORNL biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    McCorkle Communications and Media Relations 865.574.7308 Vertimass licenses ORNL biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology Vertimass LLC, a California-based start-up...

  11. Conversion of methane and acetylene into gasoline range hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkhawaldeh, Ammar

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , indene, azulene, fluorene, and biphenyl substituted compounds. Also, lighter hydrocarbons, such as ethylene and isobutene were produced. The reaction was conducted at different operating temperatures and different molar feed composition. The results...

  12. Biodegradability of select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Anuradha M.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmentally significant because of their ubiquity and the toxicity of some. Their recalcitrance and persistence makes them problematic environmental contaminants. Microbial degradation is considered...

  13. active natural hydrocarbon: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 2 Assessment of natural and anthropogenic...

  14. Kinetics simulation for natural gas conversion to unsaturated C? hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Li

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) techniques are being studied to convert natural gas to useful hydrocarbon liquids, which can be transported with far less cost. Direct pyrolysis of methane, followed by catalytic reaction, is a promising technology that can be commercialized in industry...

  15. An upgraded heat transfer fluid eliminates odors and leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At Morton, persistent leakage of an aromatics-based heat transfer fluid left its mark--a black, oxidized residue at flange and valve locations. By switching to a high-purity fluid from a paraffinic hydrocarbon base stock, the firm eliminated odors and sticky residue, and improved heat transfer. After four years of operation with the paraffinic heat transfer fluid, Morton continues to have no odor problems and virtually no flange or packing leakage. As an added bonus, the heat transfer coefficient of the new fluid allows Morton to operate the systems 10--15 F cooler than when the company used the traditional, aromatic fluid. This has cut fuel use and reduced the potential for thermal damage to the heat transfer fluid, process fluid and process equipment.

  16. NBSBR 84-2867 Test Procedures for Rating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    NBSBR 84-2867 Test Procedures for Rating Residential Heating and Cooling Absorption Equipment U the heating mode. Both air-source and ground water source absorption heat pumps are considered, as well as air for estimating the heating and cooling seasonal performance and cost of operation of residential water chillers

  17. Efficiency Ratings for the Daiken AC (Americas), Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficiency Ratings for the Daiken AC (Americas), Inc. Altherma Air-to-Water Source Heat Pump System is used to provide water heating, the EF for that separate water heater shall be used for performance Description Model No. Capacity (tons) Space Heating Space Cooling SEER Water Heating Efficiency

  18. Petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the Galveston Bay system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schropp, Steven James

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Department) (Membge' ) I, (Member) December, 1979 ABSTRACT Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in the Galveston Bay System {December 1979) Steven James Schropp: B. S. , Texas A&M University Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. John R. Schwarz... about the distribution and abundance of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrad- ing bacteria in the Galveston Bay system. Several parts of the Galveston Bay system were sampled during this study. Petroleum input to the study area ranged from relatively small...

  19. Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons in east-central Texas groundwaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coffman, Bryan Keith

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; Follett, 1974). The high transmissivity and sandy lithology of the Sparta are much like those of the Queen City, as is the quality of water. 40 LIGNITE STREAKS 30 Laminated and discontinuous lenticular. Trough cross bedded siltstones. 20 ROAD l... hydrocarbons simply reflects a difference in the 5 C of the substrate. Sparta lignite is about 7%%do enriched in ' C relative to Yegua lignite, comparable to the difference seen in the gaseous hydrocarbons. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Steven...

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in Mississippi Fan sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, William Allan

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON DISTRIBUTIONS IN MISSISSIPPI FAN SEDIMENTS A Thesis by WILLIAM ALLAN SANDBERG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Oceanography POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON DISTRIBUTIONS IN MISSISSIPPI FAN SEDIMENTS A Thesis by WILLIAM ALLAN SANDBERG Approved as to style and content by: James M. Brooks (Chairman of Committee) Leis M...

  1. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  2. Transient discharges from marine hydrocarbon seeps: spatial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    seeps Æ Bubble Introduction The global flux of methane to the atmosphere is of interest because it is a potent greenhouse gas, at least twenty times more effective in radiative heating than carbon dioxide- carbon seepage (Hovland and others 1993; Hornafius and others 1999; Milkov 2000), methane emitted from

  3. Tailoring hydrocarbon streams for asphaltene removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Bianco, A.; Stroppa, F.; Bertero, L.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oilfield production is often hindered by asphaltene precipitation which tends to fill the pores of the reservoir rocks and plug the wellbore tubing as well as the other auxiliary equipment used during crude oil recovery. Several remedies to remove these deposits have been proposed and patented but the injection of aromatic solvents such as toluene and light petroleum distillates is normally preferred. Previous studies with a number of pure aromatic hydrocarbons have shown that the solvent capacity of these molecules may be very different and that the degree of condensation plays an important role. In this regard, tetralins and naphthalenes are superior to alkylbenzenes. However, because the use of pure compounds is not economically feasible, the authors examined various industrial streams and the authors correlated their chemical composition to the solvent capacity. This work allowed the identification of the pseudo-components whose relative concentration is crucial for evaluating the solvent performances. Based on these data, the authors were able to find new products with ideal characteristics. The efficiency of one of these products was confirmed by the analysis of the data obtained when using this new solvent to remove asphaltene in damaged wells of an Italian field.

  4. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanshan Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH emission, as well as emission profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the total PAH emission in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The emission profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% of the total emission, respectively. Total emission, emission density, emission intensity, and emission per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher emission density, while those in western and northern China featured higher emission intensity and population-normalized emission. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, annual emission of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Integrated process and apparatus for the primary and secondary catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuderer, A.

    1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for the essentially autothermal, integrated primary and secondary reforming of hydrocarbons comprising: (a) an internally insulated outer reactor shell adapted for the positioning of primary and secondary reforming zones therein; (b) means defining a primary reforming zone within the outer reactor shell and having catalyst-containing reformer tubes positioned therein, the primary reforming zone not requiring an external fuel fired source of heat for the endothermic primary reforming reaction occurring therein; (c) means for introducing a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream and steam to the outer reactor shell for passage through the reformer tubes in the primary reforming zone; (d) means defining a secondary reforming zone within the outer reactor shell comprising a secondary reforming catalyst bed, a catalyst-free reaction space defining a feed end adjacent to the catalyst bed and a discharge end at the opposite side of the secondary reforming catalyst bed to the feed end; and (e) conduit means positioned entirely within the outer reactor shell and extending through the secondary reforming catalyst bed for passing partly reformed product effluent from the primary reforming zone to the catalyst-free reaction space in the secondary reforming zone.

  6. Cardiac toxicity of 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is differentially dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 isoform during zebrafish development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardiac toxicity of 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is differentially dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 isoform during zebrafish development John P. Incardona , Tiffany L. Linbo, Nathaniel L aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), commonly occur as com- plex mixtures in the environment. Recent studies using

  7. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 81. Hydrocarbons with Water and Seawater Revised and Updated. Part 7. C8H12C8H18 Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 81. Hydrocarbons with Water and Seawater Revised and Updated. Part 7. C8H12­C8H18 Hydrocarbons with Water Volume Editors David G. Shawa... University of Alaska on the evaluation of the all experimental data for a given homologous series of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons

  8. Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  9. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  10. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  11. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  12. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  13. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...

  14. ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES. II. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jerry; McCarthy, E.D.; Van Hoeven Jr., William; Calvin, Melvin; Bradley, W. H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significantly to the hydrocarbons of higher molecular weightDISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA,T E DISTRIBUTION O ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS H F A PRELIMINARY

  15. Long-range transport of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at Cape Hedo remote island site in the East China Sea between 2005 and 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 2004. Atmos.of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air throughpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air of Hong Kong.

  16. Hydrocarbon Seeps of the Mesozoic Great Valley Group Forearc Strata and Franciscan Complex, Northern and Central California, U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keenan, Kristin Euphrat

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Cretaceous Gastropods from Hydrocarbon Seeps in ForearcPeregrinella-Dominated Hydrocarbon-Seep Deposit on the1999. Signatures of Hydrocarbon Venting in a Middle Devonian

  17. Molecular and isotopic partitioning of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons during migration and gas hydrate precipitation in deposits of a high-flux seepage site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bohrmann, G. , 2007. In situ hydrocarbon concentrations fromM. , Bohrmann, G. , 2003. Hydrocarbon gases in deposits fromMethane and other hydrocarbon gases in marine sediment.

  18. Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

  19. Intra-channel mass and heat-transfer modeling in diesel oxidation catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    02FCC-140 Intra-channel mass and heat-transfer modeling in diesel oxidation catalysts Kalyana transfer in modeling the performance of diesel oxidation catalysts. Many modeling studies have assumed experimental measurements of CO and hydrocarbon oxidation in diesel exhaust re- veal that actual mass

  20. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  1. Nanofluids and a method of making nanofluids for ground source heat pumps and other applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, John Melvin

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention covers nanofluids. Nanofluids are a combination of particles between 1 and 100 nanometers, a surfactant and the base fluid. The nanoparticles for this invention are either pyrogenic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. These nanofluids improve the heat transfer of the base fluids. The base fluid can be ethylene glycol, or propylene glycol, or an aliphatic-hydrocarbon based heat transfer fluid. This invention also includes a method of making nanofluids. No surfactant is used to suspend the pyrogenic nanoparticles in glycols.

  2. Experiments Upon the Explosions of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Fred

    1904-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appeared at i n t e r v a l s i n the s c i e n t i f i c papers and magazines on the heat and explosion engine, hut not u n t i l recently has the subject been considered of any great impor­ tance. After a time a magazine devoted excl u s i v e l y...

  3. Development of a compensation chamber for use in a multiple condenser loop heat pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Nicholas Albert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of many electronic devices is presently limited by heat dissipation rates. One potential solution lies in high-performance air-cooled heat exchangers like PHUMP, the multiple condenser loop heat pipe presented ...

  4. Rheology and Convective Heat Transfer of Colloidal Gas Aphrons in Horizontal Minichannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, H.; Pilon, L.; Warrier, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    volumetric flow rates and heat input of 2.68×10 -6 m 3 /s attime for different heat input but identical pump setting.per channel, m 3 /s total heat input in the five channels, W

  5. Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-BIOREMEDIATED SOIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRIGMON, ROBIN

    2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between toxicity and soil contamination must be understood to develop reliable indicators of environmental restoration for bioremediation. Two bacterial rapid bioassays: SOS chromotest and umu-test with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mixture) were used to evaluate genotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil following bioremediation treatment. The soil was taken from an engineered biopile at the Czor Polish oil refinery. The bioremediation process in the biopile lasted 4 years, and the toxicity measurements were done after this treatment. Carcinogens detected in the soil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were reduced to low concentrations (2 mg/kg dry wt) by the bioremediation process. Genotoxicity was not observed for soils tested with and without metabolic activation by a liver homogenate (S-9 mixture). However, umu-test was more sensitive than SOS-chromotest in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil. Analytical results of soil used in the bioassays confirmed that the bioremediation process reduced 81 percent of the petroleum hydrocarbons including PAHs. We conclude that the combined test systems employed in this study are useful tools for the genotoxic examination of remediated petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  7. Dead heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Boyle, R.H.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the prospect of global warming. This paper proposes a workable solution, and a road map for getting there. The author explains how we became addicted to fossil fuels and evokes a bleak picture should this dependence continue. But the book also explores how industry can become a vehicle for solving, instead of precipitating, the global environmental crisis. The decoupling of energy from pollution can be accomplished without sacrificing prosperity by powering the economy with solar energy. Dead Heat takes us step by step to a greenhouse-friendly world fueled only by the sun.

  8. Spring 2014 Heat Transfer -1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Spring 2014 1 Heat Transfer - 1 Consider a cylindrical nuclear fuel rod of length L and diameter df the fuel rod, and the volumetric generation rate is known to vary sinusoidally with distance along the rod to exist between the surface of the rod and the water. Axial conduction can be neglected in rod and fluid

  9. Quantitative Changes in Hydrocarbons over Time in Fecal Pellets of Incisitermes minor May Predict Whether Colonies Are Alive or Dead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Vernard R.; Nelson, Lori J.; Haverty, Michael I.; Baldwin, James A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    termite species by the hydrocarbons in their feces. J. Chem.effects on the cuticular hydrocarbons of the host-specificG. J. 1990. Cuticular hydrocarbons of eight species of North

  10. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  11. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  12. In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri (Houston, TX)

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

  13. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic SafetyGeothermal/Ground-Source HeatSwept AwaytoSynergiesTruck

  14. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tariff Rates FY 2015 Rates and Rate Schedules **Effective October 1, 2014** FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

  15. Hydrocarbon anions in interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Millar; C. Walsh; M. A. Cordiner; R. Ní Chuimín; Eric Herbst

    2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent detection of the hydrocarbon anion C6H- in the interstellar medium has led us to investigate the synthesis of hydrocarbon anions in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments. We find that the anion/neutral abundance ratio can be quite large, on the order of at least a few percent, once the neutral has more than five carbon atoms. Detailed modeling shows that the column densities of C6H- observed in IRC+10216 and TMC-1 can be reproduced. Our calculations also predict that other hydrocarbon anions, such as C4H- and C8H-, are viable candidates for detection in IRC+10216, TMC-1 and photon-dominated regions such as the Horsehead Nebula.

  16. Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

  17. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

  18. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Lessing, P.A.

    1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: (a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; (b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; (c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and (d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed. 4 figs.

  19. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  20. Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental Value Grid-interactive renewable water heaters have smart controls that quickly change their charge rate and...

  1. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, S.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building`s energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  2. Phase equilibria of polydisperse hydrocarbons: moment free energy method analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Speranza; Francesca Di Patti; Alessandro Terenzi

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the phase equilibria of systems of polydisperse hydrocarbons by means of the recently introduced moment method. Hydrocarbons are modelled with the Soave-Redlick-Kwong and Peng-Robinson equations of states. Numerical results show no particular qualitative difference between the two equations of states. Furthermore, in general the moment method proves to be an excellent method for solving phase equilibria of polydisperse systems, showing excellent agreement with previous results and allowing a great improvement in generality of the numerical scheme and speed of computation.

  3. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, J.W.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the sea bed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the sea bed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. 20 figures.

  4. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  5. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, James L. (Scottsdale, AZ)

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  6. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  7. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  8. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external floatation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration.

  9. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  10. Hydrocarbon emission features in the IR spectra of warm supergiants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, R.H. Jr.; Cohen, M.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Werner, M.W.; Bregman, J.D. (NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA))

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations in the 3-13 micron range are presented for two objects possessing the unidentified 21-micron feature, IRAS 22272 and IRAS 07134, which were obtained in the course of search for circumstellar aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission bands. The 3.3 and 6.2 micron bands are attributed to circumstellar PAH molecules, and the 6-9 micron plateau and the 12- and 6.9-micron lines are attributed to larger, aromatic hydrocarbon clusters. These are the coolest stars known to exhibit the IR emission bands. The 21-micron feature is conjectured to also originate in a carbonaceous carrier. 29 refs.

  11. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2015 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule 2009 Rates and...

  12. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2015 Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process...

  13. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, IONIZED GAS, AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES OF COOL-CORE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, Megan; Mark Voit, G.; Hoffer, Aaron [Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); De Messieres, Genevieve E.; O'Connell, Robert W. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); McNamara, Brian R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nulsen, Paul E. J., E-mail: donahue@pa.msu.edu, E-mail: voit@pa.msu.edu, E-mail: hofferaa@msu.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of 5-25 {mu}m emission features of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with strong optical emission lines in a sample of nine cool-core clusters of galaxies observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. These systems provide a view of dusty molecular gas and star formation, surrounded by dense, X-ray-emitting intracluster gas. Past work has shown that BCGs in cool-core clusters may host powerful radio sources, luminous optical emission-line systems, and excess UV, while BCGs in other clusters never show this activity. In this sample, we detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), extremely luminous, rotationally excited molecular hydrogen line emission, forbidden line emission from ionized gas ([Ne II] and [Ne III]), and infrared continuum emission from warm dust and cool stars. We show here that these BCGs exhibit more luminous forbidden neon and H{sub 2} rotational line emission than star-forming galaxies with similar total infrared luminosities, as well as somewhat higher ratios of 70 {mu}m/24 {mu}m luminosities. Our analysis suggests that while star formation processes dominate the heating of the dust and PAHs, a heating process consistent with suprathermal electron heating from the hot gas, distinct from star formation, is heating the molecular gas and contributing to the heating of the ionized gas in the galaxies. The survival of PAHs and dust suggests that dusty gas is somehow shielded from significant interaction with the X-ray gas.

  14. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N nature of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) they are mostly bound to the sludge and escape aerobic

  15. Evaluation of biological treatment for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a wastewater treatment plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Pradipta Ranjan

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon can be an effective treatment method applied to control oil pollution in both fresh water and marine environments. Hydrocarbon degraders, both indigenous and exogenous, are responsible for utilizing petroleum...

  16. Asphalt compositions containing spurted polyolefin fibers with improved dispersibility in hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jabloner, H.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A cutback asphalt composition is described comprising asphalt and a hydrocarbon solvent. The improvement composition comprises a water-dispersible spurted polyolefin pulp having precipitated a natural rubber or synthetic elastomer that is swellable in hydrocarbon solvents.

  17. Oil & Chemical Pollution 6 (19'X)} 81-Hydrocarbon Pollution of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    distribution offuel distillates is evident with only a small contribution from lubricating and heavier oilOil & Chemical Pollution 6 (19'X)} 81- pollution as all oils contain aromatic hydrocarbons while few, if any, biogenic aromatic hydrocarbons

  18. Interpretation of side-scan sonar images from hydrocarbon seep areas of the Louisiana continental slope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Rusheng

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Side-scan sonar images from the Louisiana continental slope were examined to study hydrocarbon seepage and related surficial geologic seafloor features. Three study areas are located in the Green Canyon area and the Garden Bank area. Hydrocarbon...

  19. Improved Resolution of Hydrocarbon Structures and Constitutional Isomers in Complex Mixtures Using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. The classification of unknown hydrocarbons hydrocarbon mixture. Chemical analyses of environmental contamination often rely on chemical speciation

  20. Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over Pd/ZnO...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over PdZnOAl2O3 and ZSM-5 Composite Catalyst System. Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over PdZnOAl2O3 and ZSM-5...

  1. Glow Discharge Enhanced Chemical Reaction: Application in Ammonia Synthesis and Hydrocarbon Gas Cleanup 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ming, Pingjia

    2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    , but cannot be used in sensitive energy conversion systems, like solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Utilizing small amount of energy to clean up and reform heavier hydrocarbon into synthesis gas is necessary when using hydrocarbon sources which contain heavier...

  2. Heating 7. 2 user's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATING is a general-purpose conduction heat transfer program written in Fortran 77. HEATING can solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one-, two-, or three-dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time- and temperature-dependent. The thermal conductivity may also be anisotropic. Materials may undergo change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heat-generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time- and position-dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface-to-environment or surface-to-surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time- and/or temperature-dependent. General gray-body radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING uses a runtime memory allocation scheme to avoid having to recompile to match memory requirements for each specific problem. HEATING utilizes free-form input. Three steady-state solution techniques are available: point-successive-overrelaxation iterative method with extrapolation, direct-solution, and conjugate gradient. Transient problems may be solved using any one of several finite-difference schemes: Crank-Nicolson implicit, Classical Implicit Procedure (CIP), Classical Explicit Procedure (CEP), or Levy explicit method. The solution of the system of equations arising from the implicit techniques is accomplished by point-successive-overrelaxation iteration and includes procedures to estimate the optimum acceleration parameter.

  3. Development of in vitro screening assays for potentially neurotoxic polyaromatic hydrocarbons in SY5Y and C6 cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Yan

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Some congeners produce extreme toxicity in laboratory Animal studies. While much attention has been ...

  4. aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover a highly hydrocarbons in the cuticular waxes of bees are widely assumed to func- tion as recognition cues (for nestmate hydrocarbons may label individuals in colonies according to the tasks they under- take and that the compounds

  5. Isomer discrimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Murchison meteorite by resonant ionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Vries, Mattanjah S.

    Isomer discrimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Murchison meteorite by resonant between isomers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Murchison meteorite. We measured the 2C-R2PI: Resonant ionization; Jet cooling; Mass spectrometry; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Murchison meteorite

  6. Rapid uplift of nonmethane hydrocarbons in a cold front over central Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoskins, Brian

    Rapid uplift of nonmethane hydrocarbons in a cold front over central Europe R. M. Purvis,1 A. C of 21 C2­C7 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) has been determined in planetary boundary layer (PBL between the PBL and FT was observed for all short and medium lifetime hydrocarbons (e.g., average iso

  7. Hydrocarbon Signatures of Egg Maternity, Caste Membership and Reproductive Status in the Common Wasp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenseleers, Tom

    Hydrocarbon Signatures of Egg Maternity, Caste Membership and Reproductive Status in the Common-laid and worker-laid eggs has never been investigated. Our aim, therefore, was to investigate if hydrocarbons on the surface of newly-laid eggs, and that there are pronounced quantitative differences in the hydrocarbon

  8. Computational Physics (Computational) : Oral Atomistic Simulation of Di#usion of Hydrocarbons in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    Computational Physics (Computational) : Oral Atomistic Simulation of Di#usion of Hydrocarbons, due to their unique structure and stability. This project deals with the transport of hydrocarbons to animate di#usion of hydrocarbons inside the carbon nanotube, in order to observe typical features

  9. Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid-Vapor Pressure Isotope Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid hydrocarbons and their perdeuterated analogues have been determined by correlation-gas chromatography of cyclohexane-d12 and benzene-d6. Other hydrocarbons studied include the perdeuterated forms of hexane, toluene

  10. Cuticular Hydrocarbons: Species and Population-Level Discrimination in Termites1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Cuticular Hydrocarbons: Species and Population-Level Discrimination in Termites1 Michael I. Haverty Marion Page Barbara L. Thorne Pierre Escoubas2 Abstract: Hydrocarbons in the cuticle of insects and the apparent species-specificity of cuticular hydrocarbon mixtures make them excellent taxo nomic characters

  11. Hydrocarbons emitted by waggle-dancing honey bees stimulate colony foraging activity by causing experienced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrocarbons emitted by waggle-dancing honey bees stimulate colony foraging activity by causing of the hydrocarbons emitted by waggle-dancing bees are investigated in this study. First, we test the hypothesis itself. waggle dance / cuticular hydrocarbon / nectar foraging / semiochemical / pheromone 1

  12. Author's personal copy Temporal and spatial trends of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Author's personal copy Temporal and spatial trends of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the seawater hydrocarbons Bohai Bay Temporal and spatial trends Seawater a b s t r a c t The temporal and spatial distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the seawater of Tianjin Bohai Bay during 1996

  13. Research article The role of cuticular hydrocarbons as chemical cues for nestmate recognition in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsutsui, Neil Durie

    Research article The role of cuticular hydrocarbons as chemical cues for nestmate recognition of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in nestmate recognition of this highly damaging invasive ant using three super of hydrocarbons trans- ferred to individual ants and performed gas chromatogra- phy-mass spectrometry (GC

  14. Cuticular hydrocarbons mediate discrimination of reproductives and nonreproductives in the ant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danchin, Etienne

    Cuticular hydrocarbons mediate discrimination of reproductives and nonreproductives in the ant Contributed by Bert Ho¨ lldobler, July 9, 2003 In many species of social insects, the cuticular hydrocarbons of long-chained hydrocarbons present both on the cuticle and in the postpharyngeal gland. The purified

  15. Hydrocarbon Characteristics in Fusion Edge Plasmas from Electron-Molecule and Ion-Surface Collision Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 EX/P4-1 Hydrocarbon Characteristics in Fusion Edge Plasmas from Electron- Molecule and Ion proceeding in the volume before and at the wall. Surface processes involving hydrocarbons and their ions, which are probable vacuum contaminants in plasma devices, and the role of hydrocarbon chemistry

  16. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of Port Phillip Bay of aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal waters, using solvent extraction and fluorescence emission analysis, shows and the Yarra River estuary. Introduction Pollution of the marine environment by petroleum hydrocarbons

  17. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 28, No. 5, May 2002 (C 2002) EVALUATION OF SYNTHETIC HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 28, No. 5, May 2002 (C 2002) EVALUATION OF SYNTHETIC HYDROCARBONS of five straight-chain hydrocarbons (C24, C25, C26, C28, C30) to detached elytra of the red milkweed, and placed them in an exposed location outdoors. The amount of hydrocarbons on the elytra did not change over

  18. Selective oxidation of hydrocarbons in a catalytic dense membrane reactor: Catalytic properties of BIMEVOX (Me = Ta)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Selective oxidation of hydrocarbons in a catalytic dense membrane reactor: Catalytic properties for syngas or H2 production from light hydrocarbons. #12;2 Keywords: Dense membrane reactor, BIMEVOX, BITAVOX to decouple the two steps of the redox mechanism that prevails in selective oxidation of hydrocarbons [1

  19. Hydrocarbon filling history from diagenetic evidence: Brent Group, UK North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    U N C O R R EC TED PR O O F Hydrocarbon filling history from diagenetic evidence: Brent Group, UK Reconstruction of the hydrocarbon filling history of a reservoir is important for prediction of field show for only a single phase of hydrocarbon filling, which occurred after the diagenetic reactions had

  20. Quantitative traits loci (QTL) involved in body colour, wing morphometry, cuticular hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantitative traits loci (QTL) involved in body colour, wing morphometry, cuticular hydrocarbons for wing morphometry, 12 for cuticular hydrocarbons and five for venom components. We detected 50 QTL / cuticular hydrocarbons / venom 1. INTRODUCTION The first genetic map built from RAPD markers (Hunt and Page

  1. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons William Hanshaw, Marjorie Nutt, and James S. Chickos* Department of Chemistry and liquid vapor pressures from T ) 298.15 K to T ) 510 K of a series of polyaromatic hydrocarbons have been protocols are also made, and agreement generally is quite good. Introduction Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  2. EIGENVALUES OF SATURATED HYDROCARBONS D. J. KLEIN AND C. E. LARSON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Craig E.

    EIGENVALUES OF SATURATED HYDROCARBONS D. J. KLEIN AND C. E. LARSON Abstract. A simplified H¨uckel-type molecular-orbital (MO) model for the valence electrons of saturated hydrocarbons is proposed and half negative. Keywords: saturated hydrocarbons, alkanes, stellation, para-line graph. 1. Saturated

  3. UPTAKE AND LOSS OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS BY THE MUSSEL, MYTILUS EDULIS, IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UPTAKE AND LOSS OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS BY THE MUSSEL, MYTILUS EDULIS, IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS ROBERT C. CLARK, JR., AND JOHN S. FINLEY' ABSTRACT Petroleum paraffin hydrocarbons (n-CI4H30 to n-C37H76 system that simulated tides. The mussels were exposed to levels of petroleum hydrocarbons from a surface

  4. Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model of solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water. For this purpose, we first validate our methodology for fluid phase equilibria predictions of aromatic hydrocarbons and gas (CO2, C2H6) mixtures. Finally, we

  5. Quantification of OH and HO2 radicals during the lowtemperature oxidation of hydrocarbons by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Quantification of OH and HO2 radicals during the lowtemperature oxidation of hydrocarbons of hydrocarbons and biofuels is of critical importance to allow the development of new combustion) but has never been applied to real hydrocarbons and lowtemperature oxidation. H atoms (10

  6. 192 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 7, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2007 Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Monitoring by MIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Werner

    192 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 7, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2007 Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Monitoring of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon molecules on a Ni coil (CE), the products detectable by metal­ insulator Terms--Fluorocarbons, hydrocarbons, metal­ insulator­semiconductor (MIS) and metal

  7. Controls on H sub 2 concentration and hydrocarbon destruction in Smackover Formation, southwest Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wade, W.J.; Hanor, J.S.; Sassen, R. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H{sub 2}S generated by thermal sulfate reduction and oxidation of hydrocarbons in deeply-buried Smackover reservoirs is preferentially destroyed by reaction with metal ions to form sulfide minerals in the underlying Norphlet Formation. Resulting H{sub 2}S concentrations differences can be described by calculated molecular diffusion profiles within the Smackover Formation. Theoretical H{sub 2}S diffusion coefficients extrapolated for 45 Alabama Smackover fields and measured H{sub 2}s concentrations from those fields are in agreement with model steady-state profiles. Factors controlling reservoir H{sub 2}S concentration in this model are porosity, permeability, tortuosity, and thickness of the Smackover Formation. Lesser factors are nature of pore phase (oil, gas, or formation water), temperature (in excess of critical reaction temperature), and pressure. Although calculated H{sub 2}S diffusion profiles can successfully describe or predict H{sub 2}S concentration gradients, rates of molecular diffusion are insufficient to account for observed reservoir concentrations of H{sub 2}S. It is thus probable that advective dispersion resulting from convective overturn is the means by which the inferred steady-state profiles are maintained. The rate of destruction of hydrocarbons by thermal sulfate reduction is partly dependent on H{sub 2}S flux, which may be estimated from the H{sub 2}S concentration gradient, convection rate, and temperature. Economic basement for Smackover reservoirs therefore varies. Reliable estimates of porosity, permeability, and thickness trends allow (1) prediction of H{sub 2}S concentrations in the Smackover Formation with reasonable accuracy, and (2) estimation of local economic basement for Smackover reservoirs.

  8. Heat-Of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps--Possible Configurations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L. D.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, heat driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump working fluid is reactive...

  9. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  10. Geothermal heating for Caliente, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallis, F.; Schaper, J.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of geothermal resources in the town of Caliente, Nevada (population 600) has been the objective of two grants. The first grant was awarded to Ferg Wallis, part-owner and operator of the Agua Caliente Trailer Park, to assess the potential of hot geothermal water for heating the 53 trailers in his park. The results from test wells indicate sustainable temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/F. Three wells were drilled to supply all 53 trailers with domestic hot water heating, 11 trailers with space heating and hot water for the laundry from the geothermal resource. System payback in terms of energy cost-savings is estimated at less than two years. The second grant was awarded to Grover C. Dils Medical Center in Caliente to drill a geothermal well and pipe the hot water through a heat exchanger to preheat air for space heating. This geothermal preheater served to convert the existing forced air electric furnace to a booster system. It is estimated that the hospital will save an average of $5300 in electric bills per year, at the current rate of $.0275/KWH. This represents a payback of approximately two years. Subsequent studies on the geothermal resource base in Caliente and on the economics of district heating indicate that geothermal may represent the most effective supply of energy for Caliente. Two of these studies are included as appendices.

  11. 2004-01-2299 Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters Hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paré, Paul W.

    the enzymatic conversion of alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides contribute to flavor differences detected between, unique essential oils, secondary metabolites, and phytochemicals not found in other crop plants1 of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and sulfur derivatives. Odd-chain ketones are emitted from onion

  12. Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sattler, Klaus

    exhausts,7­17 coal-fired, electricity generating power plants,18,19 tobacco smoke,20 residential wood hydrocarbons PAHs are in our air environment1­3 in the form of volatile and particulate pollutants4 or coal combustion,21­24 burning of plastics,25 and area sources such as forest fires and agricultural

  13. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moos, Daniel (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  14. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Levels in Fishes and Shellfishes of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the utilization by humans of the vast protein resources in the sea. Chlorinated hydrocarbons from both agricultural and industrial chemicals have been found repeatedly in marine organisms throughout the world also analyzed a few samples of fish eggs, liver. oil. and meal. Finfishes from the northeastern Pacific

  15. aryl hydrocarbon nuclear: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nuclear First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 ACCELERATED COMMUNICATION The Aryl Hydrocarbon...

  16. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  17. UV Irradiation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Clemett,3 Richard N. Zare3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultra meteorites. Hydrogen and deu- terium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain abundant and widespread class of carbon-car- rying gaseous species is believed to be PAHs (3­5). In dense

  18. Desorption Kinetics for Field-Aged Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockne, Karl J.

    Harbor Estuary. Desorption kinetics for PAHs with a log octanol- water partition coefficient greater than This study considers desorption kinetics for 12 field-aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) desorbing 6 were well- described by a one-domain diffusion model that assumes that PAHs are initially

  19. Biodegradation of Bicyclic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockne, Karl J.

    solubility of oxygen in water. Therefore, our present understanding of PAH degradation in aerobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be biodegraded under aerobic conditions, most contaminated sediments are anaerobic. With recent results demonstrating that some bicyclics and PAHs can

  20. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howson, P.E.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.

    1996-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  1. Preliminary investigation of the nature of hydrocarbon migration and entrapment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, Jianyong

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrocarbon accumulation is much longer in oil-water systems than in oil-gas-water systems. Faults are classified into charging faults and 'back doors' faults other than charging faults in stacked fault-bounded reservoirs. The lower the displacement pressure...

  2. Plantwide Energy Management for Hydrocarbon and Petrochemical Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, A.; Clinkscales, T.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the hydrocarbon and petrochemical industry the generation and utilization of various forms of energy is a highly complex and dynamic process. The process plant normally generates steam and fuel in the form of process off-gas. The same process...

  3. Finding hydrocarbons in the classroom using "free" seismic interpretation software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finding hydrocarbons in the classroom using "free" seismic interpretation software WAYNE D Technological Univer- sity, we recently introduced a new course in seismic processing and interpretation of this paper is to pro- vide details of the class assignment in seismic interpretation, and to encourage

  4. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C.K.

    2000-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another.

  5. The toxicity of certain new chlorinated hydrocarbons to cotton pests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merkl, Marvin Eugene

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS TO COTTON PESTS A Dissertation 5y MARVIN EUGENE MERKL Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of CouBlttee Head of Departnent May 19*3 THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED... .....................................................78 CONCLUSIONS............................................... ..81 BIBLIOGRAPHI .............................................. ..82 Pag? FIGURES 1* Dosage-?ortality curve for the toxicity of endrin to aphids...

  6. Energy Conservation Opportunities in Hydrocarbon Resin Manufacturing Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganji, A. R.; Hackett, B.; Chow, S.; Lonergan, R.; Wimer, J.

    "The results of a plant-wide assessment of the manufacturing facilities of Neville Chemical Company, a manufacturer of hydrocarbon resins will be presented in this paper. The project was co-funded by US Department of Energy under its Plant...

  7. The toxicity of certain new chlorinated hydrocarbons to cotton pests 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merkl, Marvin Eugene

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS TO COTTON PESTS A Dissertation 5y MARVIN EUGENE MERKL Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of CouBlttee Head of Departnent May 19*3 THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED... .....................................................78 CONCLUSIONS............................................... ..81 BIBLIOGRAPHI .............................................. ..82 Pag? FIGURES 1* Dosage-?ortality curve for the toxicity of endrin to aphids...

  8. Fluid system for controlling fluid losses during hydrocarbon recovery operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.H.; Smejkal, K.D.

    1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid system is described for controlling fluid losses during hydrocarbon recovery operations, comprising: water; a distribution of graded calcium carbonate particle sizes; and at least one modified lignosulfonate, which is a lignosulfonate modified by polymerizing it at least to an extent effective to reduce its water solubility.

  9. Elimination Rate Constants of 46 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Unionid Mussel, Elliptio complanata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cope, W. Gregory

    contaminants, such as PAHs (James 1989; Neff 1979), as well as the large quantity of water that mussels individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocar- bons (PAHs) including both parent and alkyl homologues, t1/2, and t95 values reported in the literature for PAHs and other classes of hydrophobic organic

  10. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  11. Waste control alternatives for chlorinated hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, Terry Allan

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT. . . 3. 1 Variation of Cell Mass with Holding Time. . . . . . . . . 3. 2 Variation of Exit COZ with Holding Time. . . . . . . . . . 3. 3 Specific COZ Production and Utilization Rates. . . . 3. 4 Analysis of Total Organic.... 32 3. RESULTS OF BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT As described in Chapter 2, five continuous reactors were op- erated utilizing six different growth media. Results for both illuminated and aerobic cultures were obtained with four of the feed...

  12. Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jos. B.

    primarily of greater metabolic inten- sities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient500 Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic/22/2007; Electronically Published 7/13/2007 ABSTRACT We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR

  13. San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility San Bernardino District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating...

  14. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  15. Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating...

  16. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  17. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Midland District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Midland,...

  18. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  19. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  20. Application Study of a Single House Horizontal Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hang, Y.; Ying, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the different forms of heating systems suited for single household metering. We introduce especially the single house horizontal spanning system and show how to select the heat flow rate of the radiator. We also study the distribution rule of the heat...