Quantum Equivalence and Quantum Signatures in Heat Engines
Raam Uzdin; Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff
2015-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum heat engines (QHE) are thermal machines where the working substance is quantum. In the extreme case the working medium can be a single particle or a few level quantum system. The study of QHE has shown a remarkable similarity with the standard thermodynamical models, thus raising the issue what is quantum in quantum thermodynamics. Our main result is thermodynamical equivalence of all engine type in the quantum regime of small action. They have the same power, the same heat, the same efficiency, and they even have the same relaxation rates and relaxation modes. Furthermore, it is shown that QHE have quantum-thermodynamic signature, i.e thermodynamic measurements can confirm the presence of quantum coherence in the device. The coherent work extraction mechanism enables power outputs that greatly exceed the power of stochastic (dephased) engines.
Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Feng, Zhe
Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.
Topographic Effects on Ambient Dose Equivalent Rates from Radiocesium Fallout
Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Saito, Kimiaki
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Land topography can affect air radiation dose rates by locating radiation sources closer to, or further, from detector locations when compared to perfectly flat terrain. Hills and slopes can also shield against the propagation of gamma rays. To understand the possible magnitude of topographic effects on air dose rates, this study presents calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates at a range of heights above the ground for varying land topographies. The geometries considered were angled ground at the intersection of two planar surfaces, which is a model for slopes neighboring flat land, and a simple conical geometry, representing settings from hilltops to valley bottoms. In each case the radiation source was radioactive cesium fallout, and the slope angle was varied systematically to determine the effect of topography on the air dose rate. Under the assumption of homogeneous fallout across the land surface, and for these geometries and detector locations, the dose rates at high altitudes are more strongly...
Heating Rate Profiles in Galaxy Clusters
Edward C. D. Pope; Georgi Pavlovski; Christian R. Kaiser; Hans Fangohr
2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z
In recent years evidence has accumulated suggesting that the gas in galaxy clusters is heated by non-gravitational processes. Here we calculate the heating rates required to maintain a physically motived mass flow rate, in a sample of seven galaxy clusters. We employ the spectroscopic mass deposition rates as an observational input along with temperature and density data for each cluster. On energetic grounds we find that thermal conduction could provide the necessary heating for A2199, Perseus, A1795 and A478. However, the suppression factor, of the clasical Spitzer value, is a different function of radius for each cluster. Based on the observations of plasma bubbles we also calculate the duty cycles for each AGN, in the absence of thermal conduction, which can provide the required energy input. With the exception of Hydra-A it appears that each of the other AGNs in our sample require duty cycles of roughly $10^{6}-10^{7}$ yrs to provide their steady-state heating requirements. If these duty cycles are unrealistic, this may imply that many galaxy clusters must be heated by very powerful Hydra-A type events interspersed between more frequent smaller-scale outbursts. The suppression factors for the thermal conductivity required for combined heating by AGN and thermal conduction are generally acceptable. However, these suppression factors still require `fine-tuning` of the thermal conductivity as a function of radius. As a consequence of this work we present the AGN duty cycle as a cooling flow diagnostic.
The Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
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Tables for solution of the heat-conduction equation with a time-dependent heating rate
Bergles A. E.
1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Tables are presented for the solution of the transient onedimensional heat flow in a solid body of constant material properties with the heating rate at one boundary dependent on time. These tables allow convenient and ...
Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1
Sciortino, Francesco
Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1 H. Eugene of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process on the cooling/heating rates as well as on the role of aging (the time elapsed in the glass state). We compare
Heat transfer rates in fixed bed catalytic reactors
Levelton, Bruce Harding
1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
HEAT TRANSFER RATES IN FIXED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS H EATTRNSFSAIX DB DNCLR YFNOAXa rRJRuSIX nSeR 1951i HssNIJFu FT SI TSBuR FXO LIXSRXS NRLIeeRXOROt HEAT TRANSFER RATES IN FIXED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS H EATTRNSFSAIX BSar DNCLR YFNOAXa r...RJRuSIX June 1951 HEAT TRANSFER RATES IN FIXED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...
Proceedings of the 1992 EPRI heat rate improvement conference
Henry, R.E. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States))
1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Diverse but compelling forces such as increasing fuel prices, greater power demands, growing competition, and ever more aggressive regulatory incentives are causing utilities to place additional focus on power plant heat rate. The 1992 heat rate improvement conference was a gathering of utility industry experts to share knowledge and concerns on such key issues as on-line measurement of stack gas mass flow rate-increasingly important because of the regulations of the Clean Air Act of 1990. These proceedings present the latest developments by EPRI and the utility industry to improve heat rate. Representatives of utilities, architect/engineering firms, research firms, and manufacturers presented 71 papers, and a panel discussion by the ASME performance test code committee on PTC 46 provided a forum on the overall plant performance test code. These proceedings report on a number of heat rate improvement programs, both in development and in place, including EPRI's Plant Monitoring Workstation (PMW), the State-of-the-Art Power Plant (SOAPP) conceptual design tool, and several developments in boiler performance monitoring, including an on-line system at PEPCO's Morgantown unit 2. Other conference papers describe advances in heat rate improvement through (1) computer software tools modeling boiler cleanliness, heat balance, duct system dynamics, heat rate root cause diagnosis, and conceptual plant design; (2) new instruments and testing systems in the areas of performance testing, heat rate monitoring, circulating water flow measurement, and low-pressure turbine efficiency measurement; and (3) auxiliary equipment improvements such as condensing heat exchangers, macrobiofouling control, condenser in-leakage and air binding control, air heater monitoring, and feedwater heater level control. Individual papers are indexed separately.
Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions
Epstein, R J; Leibfried, D; Wesenberg, J H; Bollinger, J J; Amini, J M; Blakestad, R B; Britton, J; Home, J P; Itano, W M; Jost, J D; Knill, E; Langer, C; Ozeri, R; Shiga, N; Wineland, D J
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We have measured motional heating rates of trapped atomic ions, a factor that can influence multi-ion quantum logic gate fidelities. Two simplified techniques were developed for this purpose: one relies on Raman sideband detection implemented with a single laser source, while the second is even simpler and is based on time-resolved fluorescence detection during Doppler recooling. We applied these methods to determine heating rates in a microfrabricated surface-electrode trap made of gold on fused quartz, which traps ions 40 microns above its surface. Heating rates obtained from the two techniques were found to be in reasonable agreement. In addition, the trap gives rise to a heating rate of 300 plus or minus 30 per second for a motional frequency of 5.25 MHz, substantially below the trend observed in other traps.
Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions
R. J. Epstein; S. Seidelin; D. Leibfried; J. H. Wesenberg; J. J. Bollinger; J. M. Amini; R. B. Blakestad; J. Britton; J. P. Home; W. M. Itano; J. D. Jost; E. Knill; C. Langer; R. Ozeri; N. Shiga; D. J. Wineland
2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z
We have measured motional heating rates of trapped atomic ions, a factor that can influence multi-ion quantum logic gate fidelities. Two simplified techniques were developed for this purpose: one relies on Raman sideband detection implemented with a single laser source, while the second is even simpler and is based on time-resolved fluorescence detection during Doppler recooling. We applied these methods to determine heating rates in a microfrabricated surface-electrode trap made of gold on fused quartz, which traps ions 40 microns above its surface. Heating rates obtained from the two techniques were found to be in reasonable agreement. In addition, the trap gives rise to a heating rate of 300 plus or minus 30 per second for a motional frequency of 5.25 MHz, substantially below the trend observed in other traps.
In-Cylinder Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel Reactivity Stratification In-Cylinder Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel Reactivity Stratification Explores...
Standby Rates for Combined Heat and Power Systems
Sedano, Richard [Regulatory Assistance Partnership; Selecky, James [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.; Iverson, Kathryn [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.; Al-Jabir, Ali [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.
2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Improvements in technology, low natural gas prices, and more flexible and positive attitudes in government and utilities are making distributed generation more viable. With more distributed generation, notably combined heat and power, comes an increase in the importance of standby rates, the cost of services utilities provide when customer generation is not operating or is insufficient to meet full load. This work looks at existing utility standby tariffs in five states. It uses these existing rates and terms to showcase practices that demonstrate a sound application of regulatory principles and ones that do not. The paper also addresses areas for improvement in standby rates.
r-Process Lanthanide Production and Heating Rates in Kilonovae
Lippuner, Jonas
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
r-Process nucleosynthesis in material ejected during neutron star mergers may lead to radioactively powered transients called kilonovae. The timescale and peak luminosity of these transients depend on the composition of the material after nuclear burning ceases, which determines the local heating rate from nuclear decays and the opacity. Kasen et al. (2013, ApJ, 774, 25) and Tanaka & Hotokezaka (2013, ApJ, 775, 113) pointed out that lanthanides can drastically increase the opacity in these outflows. We use the new general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet to carry out a parameter study of r-process nucleosynthesis for a range of initial electron fractions $Y_e$, initial specific entropies $s$, and expansion timescales $\\tau$. We find that the ejecta is lanthanide-free for $Y_e \\gtrsim 0.22 - 0.30$, depending on $s$ and $\\tau$. The heating rate is insensitive to $s$ and $\\tau$, but certain, larger values of $Y_e$ lead to reduced heating rates, due to individual nuclides dominating the heating. With a...
Resistive Wall Heating of the Undulator in High Repetition Rate
Qiang, J; Corlett, J; Emma, P; Wu, J
2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
In next generation high repetition rate FELs, beam energy loss due to resistive wall wakefields will produce significant amount of heat. The heat load for a superconducting undulator (operating at low temperature), must be removed and will be expensive to remove. In this paper, we study this effect in an undulator proposed for a Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) at LBNL. We benchmark our calculations with measurements at the LCLS and carry out detailed parameter studies using beam from a start-to-end simulation. Our preliminarym results suggest that the heat load in the undulator is about 2 W/m or lower with an aperture size of 6 mm for nominal NGLS preliminary design parameters.
Horn, Kevin M.
2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z
A method reconstructs the charge collection from regions beneath opaque metallization of a semiconductor device, as determined from focused laser charge collection response images, and thereby derives a dose-rate dependent correction factor for subsequent broad-area, dose-rate equivalent, laser measurements. The position- and dose-rate dependencies of the charge-collection magnitude of the device are determined empirically and can be combined with a digital reconstruction methodology to derive an accurate metal-correction factor that permits subsequent absolute dose-rate response measurements to be derived from laser measurements alone. Broad-area laser dose-rate testing can thereby be used to accurately determine the peak transient current, dose-rate response of semiconductor devices to penetrating electron, gamma- and x-ray irradiation.
Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Comstock, Jennifer
A cloud properties and radiative heating rates dataset is presented where cloud properties retrieved using lidar and radar observations are input into a radiative transfer model to compute radiative fluxes and heating rates at three ARM sites located in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The cloud properties retrieval is a conditional retrieval that applies various retrieval techniques depending on the available data, that is if lidar, radar or both instruments detect cloud. This Combined Remote Sensor Retrieval Algorithm (CombRet) produces vertical profiles of liquid or ice water content (LWC or IWC), droplet effective radius (re), ice crystal generalized effective size (Dge), cloud phase, and cloud boundaries. The algorithm was compared with 3 other independent algorithms to help estimate the uncertainty in the cloud properties, fluxes, and heating rates (Comstock et al. 2013). The dataset is provided at 2 min temporal and 90 m vertical resolution. The current dataset is applied to time periods when the MMCR (Millimeter Cloud Radar) version of the ARSCL (Active Remotely-Sensed Cloud Locations) Value Added Product (VAP) is available. The MERGESONDE VAP is utilized where temperature and humidity profiles are required. Future additions to this dataset will utilize the new KAZR instrument and its associated VAPs.
Heat rate and maximum load capability improvements through cycle isolation
Coons, K. [Coronado Generating Station, Saint Johns, AZ (United States); Dimmick, J.G. [Leak Detection Services, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)
1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Major improvements in maximum load capability and gross turbine heat rate were obtained at Salt River Project`s Coronado Unit 1, resulting from work done during the Spring 1993 overhaul. Corrected maximum load increased by 13.1 MW -- from 403.8 MW prior to the overhaul compared to 416.9 MW after the overhaul. Corrected gross turbine heat rate was reduced 270 BTU/kWH -- from 7,920 BTU/kWH before the overhaul to 7,650 BTU/kWH after the overhaul. Of the work done, the repair of leaking valves had the largest impact on cycle performance. The reduction of cycle leakage accounted for an increase of 9.9 MW in maximum load capability and a reduction to gross turbine heat rate of 190 BTU. Weekly maximum load tests, which started in August 1992 with the installation of an on-line monitoring system, show that maximum load had decreased approximately 4 MW during the six months prior to the overhaul. During this time there were no significant changes in HP or IP efficiencies, or any other directly-measured cycle parameters. Therefore, this degradation was attributed to cycle isolation valve leakage. Acoustic emission leak detection methods were used to identify leaking valves prior to the outage. Of the 138 valves tested for leakage, 31 valves had medium to very large leaks. Of these 31 leaking valves identified, 30 were repaired or replaced.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
#12;forth through the heat exchangers, thereby phasing the rates at which heat is absorbed balance as shown in Fig. 3 still indi- cated a greater heat loss to the engine coolant than predicted. This was caused by excessive heat leak- age from the hot to the cold working spaces, primarily by the flow leakage
Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps
Daniilidis, N.
We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with a trapping height of approximately 240 ?m. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates ...
Modera, M.P.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Effi~ ciency of Fossil~Fired Heating Systems for LabelingInfo. Division, Ext. 6782 Electric Co-heating: A Methodfor Evaluating Seasonal Heating Efficiencies and Heat Loss
International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Radiation protection instrumentation - ambient and/or directional dose equivalent (rate) meters and/or monitors for beta, X and gamma radiation
Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe1mcfarlane
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy
The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.
Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe370mcfarlane
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy
The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.
Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe1mcfarlane
Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy
2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.
Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe370mcfarlane
Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy
2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.
Bahrami, Majid
7-42 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined. Assumptions The heat engine and the refrigerator operate steadily. Analysis (a) The highest
Marquez Gonzalez, Mayra
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
The survival and germination of Clostridium perfringens spores in different heating media and at different heating rates was studied to determine the fate of C. perfringens spores during abusive cooking and cooling of pork ...
PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES
Sen, Mihir
PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES A Thesis Submitted April 1995 #12;PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES by Xiangwei Zhao Abstract The steady and time-dependentbehavior of a single-row heat exchanger with water and air in the in
Heat Transfer Modeling and Use of Distributed Temperature Measurements to Predict Rate
Hashmi, Gibran Mushtaq
2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z
Heat transfer modeling is important in many fields of engineering. In petroleum engineering, heat transfer modeling has many applications. One such application that this study focused on is flow rate estimation. In this work, two different models...
Calculation Methods for the Heat Release Rate of Materials of Unknown Composition
Biteau, Hubert; Steinhaus, Thomas; Simeoni, Albert; Schemel, Christopher; Marlair, Guy; Bal, Nicolas; Torero, Jose L
The Heat Release Rate (HRR) is a critical parameter to characterise a fire. Different methods have been developed to estimate it. The most widespread techniques are based on mass balance. If the heat of combustion of the ...
Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps
N. Daniilidis; S. Narayanan; S. A. Möller; R. Clark; T. E. Lee; P. J. Leek; A. Wallraff; St. Schulz; F. Schmidt-Kaler; H. Häffner
2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with trapping height of approximately 240 micron. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates over an extended region of the trap. The noise spectral density of the trap falls in the range of noise spectra reported in ion traps at room temperature. We find that during the first months of operation the heating rates increase by approximately one order of magnitude. The increase in heating rates is largest in the ion loading region of the trap, providing a strong hint that surface contamination plays a major role for excessive heating rates. We discuss data found in the literature and possible relation of anomalous heating to sources of noise and dissipation in other systems, namely impurity atoms adsorbed on metal surfaces and amorphous dielectrics.
New blow-up rates for fast controls of Schrdinger and heat equations
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
New blow-up rates for fast controls of Schrödinger and heat equations G. Tenenbaum & M. Tucsnak 11/4/2007, 14h23) Abstract: We consider the null-controllability problem for the Schrödinger and heat the minimal norm control driving the system to zero. Our main results concern the Schrödinger and heat
Heat transfer rates in fixed bed catalytic reactors
Levelton, Bruce Harding
1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
bed. A consideration of thermal effects in a gas-solid tubular reactor involves a number of prime variables, viz. (a) Reynolds number and heat capacity of reactants (b) Tube diameter and length (c) Catalyst particle size, shape and characteristics... conditions than in fixed bed reactors prevail. The problem of determining temperatures in moving-bed catalytic reactors is somewhat similar to that in gas-solid fixed bed reactors, but this investigation will not treat such cases. The mechanism of heat...
Nano-engineering the boiling surface for optimal heat transfer rate and critical heat flux
Phillips, Bren Andrew
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The effects on pool boiling characteristics such as critical heat flux and the heat transfer coefficient of different surface characteristics such as surface wettability, roughness, morphology, and porosity are not well ...
High pressure low heat rate phosphoric acid fuel cell stack
Wertheim, R.J.
1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
A high pressure phosphoric acid fuel cell stack assembly is described comprising: (a) a stack of fuel cells for producing electricity, the stack including cathode means, anode means, and heat exchange means; (b) means for delivering pressurized air to the cathode means; (c) means for delivering a hydrogen rich fuel gas to the anode means for electrochemically reacting with oxygen in the pressurized air to produce electricity and water; (d) first conduit means connected to the cathode means for exhausting a mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water from the cathode means; (e) second conduit means connected to the first conduit means for delivering a water fog to the first conduit means for entrainment in the mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water to form a two phase coolant having a gaseous air phase and an entrained water droplet phase; (f) means for circulating the coolant to the heat exchange means to cool the stack solely through vaporization of the water droplet phase in the heat exchange means whereby a mixed gas exhaust of air and water vapor is exhausted from the heat exchange means; and (g) means for heating the mixed gas exhaust and delivering the heated mixed gas exhaust at reformer reaction temperatures to an autothermal reformer in the stack assembly for autothermal reaction with a raw fuel to form the hydrogen rich fuel.
Protat, Alain
Assessment of uncertainty in cloud radiative effects and heating rates through retrieval algorithm. The effect of uncertainty in retrieved quantities on the cloud radiative effect and radiative heating rates translates into sometimes large differences in cloud shortwave radiative effect (CRE) though the majority
Electric field noise above surfaces: a model for heating rate scaling law in ion traps
Boyer, Edmond
Electric field noise above surfaces: a model for heating rate scaling law in ion traps R. Dubessy try to account for this heating rate by considering typical electric noise sources in conductors, 2008) Abstract We present a model for the scaling laws of the electric field noise spectral density
Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality
Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer
2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.
Dependency of Heat Transfer Rate on the Brinkman Number in Microchannels
H. S. Park
2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
Heat generation from electronics increases with the advent of high-density integrated circuit technology. To come up with the heat generation, microscale cooling has been thought as a promising technology. Prediction of heat transfer rate is crucial in design of microscale cooling device but is not clearly understood yet. This work proposes a new correlation between heat transfer rate and Brinkman number which is nondimensional number of viscosity, flow velocity and temperature. It is expected that the equation proposed by this work can be useful to design microchannel cooling device.
The effect of heat treatments and coatings on the outgassing rate of stainless steel chambers
Mamun, M A; Stutzman, M L; Adderley, P A; Poelker, M
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The outgassing rates of four nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. One chamber remained uncoated throughout, and the last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 {\\deg}C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 {\\deg}C. Measurements for bare steel showed a significant reduction in the outgassing rate by more than a factor of 20 after a 400 {\\deg}C heat treatment (4x10-12 TorrLs-1cm-2 prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7x10-13 following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coa...
Development of an On-Line Expert System: Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor
Sopocy, D. M.; Henry, R. E.; Gehl, S.; Divakaruni, S. M.
and performance monitors in evaluating and diagnosing plant performance. Recognizing an industry-wide need for this advanced capability, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken the development and demonstration of an on-line expert system... called "Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor." This expert system will enhance the logic trees previously developed and documented in EPRI Report CS-4554, "Heat Rate Improvement Guidelines for Existing Fossil Plants" (1), with analytical...
PIERSON, R.M.
2003-09-02T23:59:59.000Z
This document provides an analysis of anticipated radiation dose rates and heat loads for immobilized high level waste (IHW) canisters
Measurement of Ion Motional Heating Rates over a Range of Trap Frequencies and Temperatures
C. D. Bruzewicz; J. M. Sage; J. Chiaverini
2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z
We present measurements of the motional heating rate of a trapped ion at different trap frequencies and temperatures between $\\sim$0.6 and 1.5 MHz and $\\sim$4 and 295 K. Additionally, we examine the possible effect of adsorbed surface contaminants with boiling points below $\\sim$105$^{\\circ}$C by measuring the ion heating rate before and after locally baking our ion trap chip under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We compare the heating rates presented here to those calculated from available electric-field noise models. We can tightly constrain a subset of these models based on their expected frequency and temperature scaling interdependence. Discrepancies between the measured results and predicted values point to the need for refinement of theoretical noise models in order to more fully understand the mechanisms behind motional trapped-ion heating.
The Effect of Heat Treatments and Coatings on the Outgassing Rate of Stainless Steel Chambers
Mamum, Md Abdullah A. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A, [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Stutzman, Marcy L. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Adderley, Philip A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Poelker, Matthew [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The outgassing rates of four nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. One chamber remained uncoated throughout, and the last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 deg C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 deg C. Measurements for bare steel showed a significant reduction in the outgassing rate by more than a factor of 20 after a 400 deg C heat treatment (3.5 x 10{sup 12} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7 x 10{ sup -13} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coating was successfully preserved throughout a series of bakes. The TiN coated chamber exhibited remarkably low outgassing rates, up to four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated stainless steel. An evaluation of coating composition suggests the presence of elemental titanium which could provide pumping and lead to an artificially low outgassing rate. The outgassing results are discussed in terms of diffusion-limited versus recombination-limited processes.
The effect of heat treatments and coatings on the outgassing rate of stainless steel chambers
M. A. Mamun; A. A. Elmustafa; M. L. Stutzman; P. A. Adderley; M. Poelker
2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z
The outgassing rates of three nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. The last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 {\\deg}C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 {\\deg}C. Measurements for bare steel showed a significant reduction in the outgassing rate by nearly a factor of 20 after a 400 {\\deg}C heat treatment (3.5x10-12 Torr L s-1 cm-2 prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7x10-13 Torr L s-1 cm-2 following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coating was successfully preserved throughout a series of bakes. The TiN coated chamber exhibited remarkably low outgassing rates, up to four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated stainless steel, but the uncertainty in these rates is large due to the sensitivity limitations of the spinning rotor gauge accumulation measurement and the possibility of a small pump speed due to inhomogeneity in the TiN coating. The outgassing results are discussed in terms of diffusion-limited versus recombination-limited processes.
Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Transfer Rate Using a Thin-Skin Calorimeter
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
1.1 This test method covers the design and use of a thin metallic calorimeter for measuring heat transfer rate (also called heat flux). Thermocouples are attached to the unexposed surface of the calorimeter. A one-dimensional heat flow analysis is used for calculating the heat transfer rate from the temperature measurements. Applications include aerodynamic heating, laser and radiation power measurements, and fire safety testing. 1.2 Advantages 1.2.1 Simplicity of ConstructionThe calorimeter may be constructed from a number of materials. The size and shape can often be made to match the actual application. Thermocouples may be attached to the metal by spot, electron beam, or laser welding. 1.2.2 Heat transfer rate distributions may be obtained if metals with low thermal conductivity, such as some stainless steels, are used. 1.2.3 The calorimeters can be fabricated with smooth surfaces, without insulators or plugs and the attendant temperature discontinuities, to provide more realistic flow conditions for ...
Existing and Past Methods of Test and Rating Standards Related to Integrated Heat Pump Technologies
Reedy, Wayne R. [Sentech, Inc.
2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report evaluates existing and past US methods of test and rating standards related to electrically operated air, water, and ground source air conditioners and heat pumps, 65,000 Btu/hr and under in capacity, that potentiality incorporate a potable water heating function. Two AHRI (formerly ARI) standards and three DOE waivers were identified as directly related. Six other AHRI standards related to the test and rating of base units were identified as of interest, as they would form the basis of any new comprehensive test procedure. Numerous other AHRI and ASHRAE component test standards were also identified as perhaps being of help in developing a comprehensive test procedure.
Heat Balance Analysis to Validate the Heat Dissipation Rate of a Man-Made Lake as a Heat Rejection
Song, L.; Hayes, T.; Dawson, M.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. In addition, the analysis is to identify the most dominant variables for enhancing the lake dissipation rate and hence provide cost-effective measures to enhance the power plant efficiency. The case study power plant has 900 MW of power capacity with five...
Heat-rate improvements obtained by retubing condensers with new, enhanced tube types
Rabas, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Taborek, J. [Consulting Services, Virginia Beach, VA (United States)
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Significant fuel savings can be achieved at power plants by retubing the condensers with enhanced tubes. Because of the higher overall heat-transfer coefficient, the exhaust steam is condensed at a lower pressure and the plant efficiency is therefore increased or plant heat rate is reduced. Only the spirally indented type of enhanced tube is currently being used in the U.S. and most other countries; however, different types of enhanced tubes have been proposed for power-plant condensers, each with their own set of attributes. This paper determines what attributes and their magnitudes of enhanced tubes lead to the most energy savings as measured by reduction of the plant heat rate. The particular attributes considered are the inside and outside enhancement levels, the inside efficiency index (inside enhancement level divided by pressure-drop increase), and the enhanced-tube fouling-rate multiplier. Two particular condensers were selected because all necessary information were known from previous heat-rate studies such as the condenser geometry, the circulating-water pump and system information, and the low-pressure turbine characteristics. These are {open_quotes}real-world{close_quotes} condensers and therefore the finding will be representative for many other condenser-retubing applications. However, the authors strongly recommend that an economic evaluation be performed at each site to determine the energy savings and payback time. This generic investigation showed that the outside enhancement level is the most important attribute, and a value of about 1.5 can lead to heat-rate savings of about 20 to 40 Btu/kW-hr. Increasing the inside enhancement is less effective because of the increased pressure drop that leads to a reduction of the coolant flow rate and velocity.
JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS
Shupe, Matthew
JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS Matthew D. Shupe* Science and Technology Corporation, NOAA/ETL, Boulder, CO Paquita Zuidema National Research Council, NOAA/ETL, Boulder, CO Taneil Uttal NOAA, Environmental Technology Laboratory, Boulder, CO
Development of an On-Line Expert System: Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor
Sopocy, D. M.; Henry, R. E.; Gehl, S.; Divakaruni, S. M.
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An on-line expert system for fossil-fueled power plants, the "Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor," is being developed. This expert system will operate on a microcomputer and will interface with existing plant data acquisition and/or thermal...
Bahrami, Majid
7-39 7-106 A reversible heat pump is considered. The temperature of the source and the rate of heat; #12;K294kW/K1.5294KkJ/h5400 LLH TTQ The coefficient of performance of a Carnot heat pump depends on the temperature limits in the cycle only, and can be expressed as #12; K)/(2941 1 /1 1 COPHP LHL TTT TL House 21
Electric field noise above surfaces: a model for heating rate scaling law in ion traps
Romain Dubessy; Thomas Coudreau; Luca Guidoni
2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
We present a model for the scaling laws of the electric field noise spectral density as a function of the distance, $d$, above a conducting surface. Our analytical approach models the patch potentials by introducing a correlation length, $\\zeta$, of the electric potential on the surface. The predicted scaling laws are in excellent agreement with two different classes of experiments (cold trapped ions and cantilevers), that span at least four orders of magnitude of $d$. According to this model, heating rate in miniature ion traps could be greatly reduced by proper material engineering.
Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP 1bbhrpripbe1mcfarlane
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy
The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.
Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP 1bbhrpripbe1mcfarlane
Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy
2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.
Equivalence and Order Section 1: Equivalence
Bernstein, Daniel
Unit EO Equivalence and Order Section 1: Equivalence The concept of an equivalence relation to us, as "equivalence relation" turns out to be just another name for "partition of a set." Our start with the definition. Definition 1 (Equivalence relation) An equivalence relation on a set
Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology
2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z
Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.
Moeykens, S.A. [Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States); Newton, B.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Pate, M.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.
1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Testing was conducted with R-134a through an overfeed ratio range of 1.4 to 7.9 in order to evaluate the effects of Reynolds number on shell-side heat transfer performance in the spray evaporation environment. The overfeed ratio is defined as the ratio of the refrigerant flow rate supplied to the tube bundle to the refrigerant flow rate that vaporizes. Data were taken with a fixed refrigerant supply rate while varying the shell-side heat flux from 40 kW/m{sup 2} (12,688 Btu/[h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}]) to 19 kW/m{sup 2} (6,027 Btu/[h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}]). Both triangular and square-pitch tube bundles were tested to determine the effects of bundle geometry on heat transfer performance. Two enhanced condensation surfaces, one enhanced boiling surface, and one low-finned surface tube were used in this study. Plain-surface bundle testing was conducted in parallel with the enhanced surface testing to determine the degree of improvement obtained with the different surface enhancements relative to that of a smooth tube. In addition, the effect of bundle depth on heat transfer performance was evaluated. Refrigerant was introduced into the test section with wide-angle, solid-cone nozzles. To determine the amount of refrigerant contacting the tube bundle, collector testing was performed in parallel with the heat transfer analysis experiments. Using results form the collector tests, bundle overfeed ratios were calculated and are reported. Heat transfer performance showed dependence on film-feed supply rate (i.e., overfeed ratio) to varying degrees, depending on the type of surface enhancement. Those surfaces that limited axial flow of the liquid film yielded poor heat transfer performance in lower rows of the bundle. The spray evaporation heat transfer performance for one of the enhanced condensation surfaces was better than the flooded evaporator performance for the enhanced boiling surface.
Heating from free-free absorption and the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to supernovae
Björnsson, C.-I.; Lundqvist, P., E-mail: bjornsson@astro.su.se, E-mail: peter@astro.su.se [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
An accurate determination of the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to core-collapse supernovae is often limited by uncertainties pertaining to various model assumptions. It is shown that under conditions when the temperature of the circumstellar medium is set by heating due to free-free absorption, observations of the accompanying free-free optical depth allow a direct determination of the mass-loss rate from observed quantities in a rather model-independent way. The temperature is determined self-consistently, which results in a characteristic time dependence of the free-free optical depth. This can be used to distinguish free-free heating from other heating mechanisms. Since the importance of free-free heating is quite model dependent, this also makes possible several consistency checks of the deduced mass-loss rate. It is argued that the free-free absorption observed in SN 1993J is consistent with heating from free-free absorption. The deduced mass-loss rate of the progenitor star is, approximately, 10{sup –5} M {sub ?} yr{sup –1} for a wind velocity of 10 km s{sup –1}.
Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report
Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.
1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.
Heat transfer rates for filmwise, dropwise, and superhydrophobic condensation on silicon substrates
Hery, Travis M
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Condensation, a two-phase heat transfer processes, is commonly utilized in industrial systems. Condensation heat transfer can be optimized by using surfaces in which dropwise condensation (DWC) occurs, and even further ...
Chiaverini, John
We present measurements of trapped-ion motional-state heating rates in niobium and gold surface-electrode ion traps over a range of trap-electrode temperatures from approximately 4 K to room temperature (295 K) in a single ...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates FY 15 PRR worksheet (PDF - 31K) FY...
A comparison of techniques for on-line monitoring of unit heat rate of coal fired units
Sarunac, N.; Levy, E. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (USA). Energy Research Center); Williams, S.; Cramer, D. (Potomac Electric Power Co. (US)); Leyse, R. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The input/output method is one of the most commonly used approaches for measuring unit performance, but it is rarely used on-line because of difficulties in accurate on-line measurement of coal heating value and flow rate. Two other techniques for monitoring unit heat rate are much more suitable for on-line application. One of these, the boiler turbine cycle efficiency. The output/loss method utilizes information on turbine cycle performance along with measurements of stack gas flow rate, unburned carbon and other commonly available information such as O{sub 2} levels, gas and air temperatures and gross and auxiliary power. This paper provides a summary of the three techniques, describes their characteristics, gives instrumentation requirements and compares accuracies. Guidelines on the applications for which each technique should be considered are also given.
Feasibility Study of a Multi-Purpose Computer Program for Optimizing Heat Rates in Power Cycles
Menuchin, Y.; Singh, K. P.; Hirota, N.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
going through a tedious trial-and-error procedure of complicated fluid mechanics and heat transfer models. In addition, since heat exchangers per 450 ESL-IE-81-04-76 Proceedings from the Third Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX...
Hufnagel, Todd C.
2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z
Materials subjected to extreme conditions, such as very rapid heating, behave differently than materials under more ordinary conditions. In this program we examined the effect of rapid heating on solid-state chemical reactions in metallic materials. One primary goal was to develop experimental techniques capable of observing these reactions, which can occur at heating rates in excess of one million degrees Celsius per second. One approach that we used is x-ray diffraction performed using microfocused x-ray beams and very fast x-ray detectors. A second approach is the use of a pulsed electron source for dynamic transmission electron microscopy. With these techniques we were able to observe how the heating rate affects the chemical reaction, from which we were able to discern general principles about how these reactions proceed. A second thrust of this program was to develop computational tools to help us understand and predict the reactions. From atomic-scale simulations were learned about the interdiffusion between different metals at high heating rates, and about how new crystalline phases form. A second class of computational models allow us to predict the shape of the reaction front that occurs in these materials, and to connect our understanding of interdiffusion from the atomistic simulations to measurements made in the laboratory. Both the experimental and computational techniques developed in this program are expected to be broadly applicable to a wider range of scientific problems than the intermetallic solid-state reactions studied here. For example, we have already begun using the x-ray techniques to study how materials respond to mechanical deformation at very high rates.
Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.
2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
and PACI Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
- 392K) Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...
Asgari-Targhi, M.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
It has been suggested that the solar corona may be heated by dissipation of Alfven waves that propagate up from the solar photosphere. According to this theory, counterpropagating Alfven waves are subject to nonlinear interactions that lead to turbulent decay of the waves and heating of the chromospheric and coronal plasma. To test this theory, better models for the dynamics of Alfven waves in coronal loops are required. In this paper, we consider wave heating in an active region observed with the Solar Dynamics Observatory in 2010 May. First a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic model of the region is constructed, and ten magnetic field lines that match observed coronal loops are selected. For each loop we construct a 3D magnetohydrodynamic model of the Alfven waves near the selected field line. The waves are assumed to be generated by footpoint motions inside the kilogauss magnetic flux elements at the two ends of the loop. Based on such models, we predict the spatial and temporal profiles of the heating along the selected loops. We also estimate the temperature fluctuations resulting from such heating. We find that the Alfven wave turbulence model can reproduce the observed characteristics of the hotter loops in the active region core, but the loops at the periphery of the region have large expansion factors and are predicted to be thermally unstable.
Particle loading rates for HVAC filters, heat exchangers, and ducts Nomenclature
Siegel, Jeffrey
particle mass emission rate distribution func- tion for resuspension (mg/lm h) Es particle mass emission The results in this paper suggest important factors that lead to particle deposition on HVAC components
Wallraff, Andreas
in the literature and the possible relation of anomalous heating to sources of noise and dissipation in otherFabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps This article has been of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About
Heat Transfer Modeling and Use of Distributed Temperature Measurements to Predict Rate
Hashmi, Gibran Mushtaq
2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z
/(lbf/ft2) cp Tubing fluid heat capacity, Btu/lbm °F CT Thermal storage parameter, dimensionless d𝑝/d𝑧 Tubing pressure gradient, psi/ft g Gravitational acceleration, ft/sec2 gc Conversion factor, 32.17 (lbm-ft)/lbf/sec2 gG Geothermal gradient, °F... by 𝑄 = ? 2𝜋𝑘𝑒 𝑇𝐷(𝑡𝐷) (𝑇𝑓 ? 𝑇𝑒𝑖) (4) In Eq. 4, we assume the geothermal gradient to be linear with depth, i.e., 𝑇𝑒𝑖 = 𝑇𝑒𝑖𝑏? ? 𝑔𝐺(𝐿 ? 𝑧) (5) The dimensionless temperature, TD(tD ), is a function of dimensionless time...
Bahrami, Majid
7-22 7-58 A commercial refrigerator with R-134a as the working fluid is considered. The evaporator inlet and exit states are specified. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant and the rate of heat rejected are to be determined. Assumptions 1 The refrigerator operates steadily. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes
What is Wind Chill Temperature? It is the temperature it "feels like" outside and is based on the rate of heat loss from exposed skin caused by the effects of wind and cold. As the wind increases, the body is cooled at a faster rate causing the skin temperature to drop. Wind Chill does not impact
Testing Model Nesting and Equivalence
Peter M. Bentler; Albert Satorra
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
sense of observational equivalence, implying that theirModel Nesting and Equivalence* Peter M. Bentler UniversityModel Nesting and Equivalence Using existing technology, it
Testing Model Nesting and Equivalence
Bentler, Peter M.; Satorra, Albert
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
sense of observational equivalence, implying that theirModel Nesting and Equivalence* Peter M. Bentler UniversityModel Nesting and Equivalence Using existing technology, it
Heating, Current Drive, Operations and Diagnostics Issues Operations · Understand implications of ECRH to improve startup. Heating · ICRF is the base line heating system, compare with NBI and ECRH withstand the anticipated heat loads? Diagnostics · Capability of beam diagnostics for J(r), E(r), etc
Morita equivalence and duality
Albert Schwarz
1998-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
It was shown by Connes, Douglas, Schwarz[1] that one can compactify M(atrix) theory on noncommutative torus. We prove that compactifications on Morita equivalent tori are physically equivalent. This statement can be considered as a generalization of non-classical duality conjectured in [1] for two-dimensional tori.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Supporting Technical Document for the Radiological Release Accident Investigation Report (Phase II Report)
Nonequivalence of equivalence principles
Eolo Di Casola; Stefano Liberati; Sebastiano Sonego
2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z
Equivalence principles played a central role in the development of general relativity. Furthermore, they have provided operative procedures for testing the validity of general relativity, or constraining competing theories of gravitation. This has led to a flourishing of different, and inequivalent, formulations of these principles, with the undesired consequence that often the same name, "equivalence principle", is associated with statements having a quite different physical meaning. In this paper we provide a precise formulation of the several incarnations of the equivalence principle, clarifying their uses and reciprocal relations. We also discuss their possible role as selecting principles in the design and classification of viable theories of gravitation.
Sideband cooling an ion to the quantum ground state in a Penning trap with very low heating rate
J. F. Goodwin; G. Stutter; R. C. Thompson; D. M. Segal
2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z
We report the laser cooling of a single $^{40}\\text{Ca}^+$ ion in a Penning trap to the motional ground state in one dimension. Cooling is performed in the strong binding limit on the 729-nm electric quadrupole $S_{1/2}\\leftrightarrow D_{5/2}$ transition, broadened by a quench laser coupling the $D_{5/2}$ and $P_{3/2}$ levels. We find the final phonon number to be $\\bar{n}=0.014\\pm0.009$. We measure the heating rate of the trap to be very low with $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=2.5\\pm 0.3\\textrm{s}^{-1}$ and a scaled spectral noise density of $\\omega S_{E}(\\omega)\\sim1.6^{-8}\\textrm{V}^2\\textrm{m}^{-2}\\textrm{Hz}^{-1}\\textrm{s}^{-1}$, which is consistent with the large ion-electrode distance. We perform Rabi oscillations on the sideband-cooled ion and observe a coherence time of $0.7\\pm 0.1\\textrm{ms}$, noting that the practical performance is currently limited by the intensity noise of the probe laser.
Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsu, Hsiao-Hua (Los Alamos, NM); Casson, William H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kleck, Jeffrey H. (Menlo Park, CA); Beverding, Anthony (Foster City, CA)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.
Koetter, Ralf
In earlier work, we described an equivalence result for network capacity. Roughly, that result is as follows. Given a network of noisy, memoryless, point-to-point channels, replace each channel by a noiseless, memoryless ...
Broughton, S. Allen
1 Equivalence of Real Elliptic CurvesEquivalence of Real Elliptic Curves Part 2Part 2 -- Birational EquivalenceBirational Equivalence Allen Broughton Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology #12;2 CreditsCredits Discussion with Ken McMurdy #12;3 OutlineOutline -- 11 Recap of linear equivalence Complex elliptic curves
Equivalence and Strong Equivalence between Sparsest and Least ...
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Equivalence and Strong Equivalence between. Sparsest and Least l1-Norm Nonnegative Solutions of. Linear Systems and Their Application. YUN-BIN ZHAO ?.
Confounding Equivalence in Causal Inference
Pearl, Judea; Paz, Azaria
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
July 2010 Confounding Equivalence in Causal Inference Judeawise process of testing c-equivalence, T ? T 1 ? T 2 ? . . .wish to assess, using c-equivalence tests, whether a given
Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity Aur´elien Alvarez and Damien Gaboriau February 18, 2009 Abstract We study the analogue in orbit equivalence of free product decomposition and free indecomposability for countable groups. We introduce the (orbit equivalence invariant
Equivalence relations which reduce all Borel equivalence relations
Clemens, John D.
Equivalence relations which reduce all Borel equivalence relations John D. Clemens June 25, 2007 Abstract We study equivalence relations E such that every Borel equiva- lence relation is Borel reducible of equality of Borel sets, and show that this is not a minimal such re- lation among co-analytic equivalence
Equivalence Principle and Clocks
T. Damour
1999-04-14T23:59:59.000Z
String theory suggests the existence of gravitational-strength scalar fields ("dilaton" and "moduli") whose couplings to matter violate the equivalence principle. This provides a new motivation for high-precision clock experiments, as well as a generic theoretical framework for analyzing their significance.
Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions R. J. Epstein,* S. Seidelin, D of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA Received 10 July 2007; published 19 September 2007 We have measured motional heating rates of trapped atomic ions, a factor that can influence multi
Kostic, Milivoje M.
to the compressor, the rate of heat rejection to the environment, and the COP are to be determined. Assumptions 1 enters the compressor as a saturated vapor at the evaporator pressure, and leaves the condenser space and the power input to the compressor are determined from s and ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) kW1.83 kW7
GENERATING EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS BY HOMEOMORPHISMS
Clemens, John D.
GENERATING EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS BY HOMEOMORPHISMS JOHN D. CLEMENS Abstract. We give a construction of a single homeomorphism of 2N which generates the equivalence relation E0. We then consider ways of generating this equivalence relation using homeomorphisms with nicer structural properties, and show
Bahrami, Majid
7-31 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160ºC at a specified rate and potential energy changes are zero. 3 Steam properties are used for geothermal water. Properties Using saturated liquid properties, the source and the sink state enthalpies of geothermal water are (Table A-4) k
Geb, David; Zhou, Feng; Catton, Ivan
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
to Solid Phase Induction Heating Nonintrusive measurementsgeneration rate via induction heating. The fluid temperaturetechnique, induction heating, bypass effect, channeling
Kim, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2013 Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University Linear model: y = 1.063 x SEER/3.413 (R² = 0.82) 2 3 4 5 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 C O P 95 (n o fa n, d ef au lt f an p ow er r em ov ed ) Rated SEER FSEC Data Linear (FSEC Data) SE E R 1 3... Figure 1: Plot of COP95 with Default Fan Power Removed versus Rated SEER FSEC model: y = 1.718 x HSPF/3.413 Linear model: y = 1.643 x HSPF/3.413 (R² = 0.45) 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 C O P 47 (n o fa n, d ef au lt f an p ow er r em...
Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality
Sherman, Max
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality M. H.have a method for determining equivalence in terms of eitherwe need to establish an equivalence principle that allows
Recursion theory and countable Borel equivalence relations
Marks, Andrew
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and countable Borel equivalence ii 2 Overture 2.1 A simplecountable Borel equivalence relations 3.1 Consequences ofof arithmetic equivalence . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Ergodicity
Expression equivalence checking using interval analysis
Ghodrat, Mohammad Ali; Givargis, Tony; Nicolau, Alex
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Z. Zhou and W. Burleson, “Equivalence checking of datapathsusing combinational equivalence for extensible processor,”et al. : EXPRESSION EQUIVALENCE CHECKING USING INTERVAL
Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity
Gaboriau, Damien
Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity Aurélien Alvarez and Damien free products of non-amenable groups with vanishing first 2-Betti numbers is induced by measure in free product decompo- sitions, in the measurable context. To this end, we will take full advantage
Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity
d'Orléans, Université
Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity Aurélien Alvarez and Damien two free products of non-amenable groups with vanishing first 2-Betti numbers is induced by measure in free product decompo- sitions, in the measurable context. To this end, we will take full advantage
Waste Heat Recovery Using a Circulating Heat Medium Loop
Manning, E., Jr.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, and the coker; the heat is used to reboil a butylenes splitter column and to preheat boiler feed Water. The heat that is recovered is equivalent to some 660 B/D of fuel: at an illustrative fuel value of say $30 per barrel, the value of the recovered heat is $20...
Mathematical Equivalence vs. Physical Equivalence between Extended Theories of Gravitations
L. Fatibene; M. Francaviglia
2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z
We shall show that although Palatini f(R)-theories are equivalent to Brans-Dicke theories, still the first pass the Mercury precession of perihelia test, while the second do not. We argue that the two models are not physically equivalent due to a different assumptions about free fall. We shall also go through perihelia test without fixing a conformal gauge (clocks or rulers) in order to highlight what can be measured in a conformal invariant way and what cannot. We shall argue that the conformal gauge is broken by choosing a definition of clock, rulers or, equivalently, of masses.
CONFIDENTIAL: DO NOT QUOTE 1 Equivalence in Ventilation and
CONFIDENTIAL: DO NOT QUOTE 1 Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality M. H. Sherman, I ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum
Analytic equivalence relations and bi-embeddability
Ros, Luca Motto
Analytic equivalence relations and bi-embeddability Luca Motto Ros Kurt G¨odel Research Center Analytic equivalence relations and bi-embeddability #12;Analytic equivalence relations A subset of a Polish Analytic equivalence relations and bi-embeddability #12;Analytic equivalence relations A subset of a Polish
ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article) |govInstrumentsmfrirt Documentation ARM DatagovInstrumentsuhsasSizegovMeasurementsPrecipitation ARM Datareflectivity
Morita Equivalence in Deformation Quantization Henrique Bursztyn
Bursztyn, Henrique
Morita Equivalence in Deformation Quantization by Henrique Bursztyn Engineer (Universidade Federal at Berkeley Spring 2001 #12;Morita Equivalence in Deformation Quantization Copyright 2001 by Henrique Bursztyn #12;1 Abstract Morita Equivalence in Deformation Quantization by Henrique Bursztyn Doctor
Analytic equivalence of geometric transitions
Michele Rossi
2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper \\emph{analytic equivalence} of geometric transition is defined in such a way that equivalence classes of geometric transitions turn out to be the \\emph{arrows} of the \\cy web. Then it seems natural and useful, both from the mathematical and physical point of view, look for privileged arrows' representatives, called \\emph{canonical models}, laying the foundations of an \\emph{analytic} classification of geometric transitions. At this purpose a numerical invariant, called \\emph{bi--degree}, summarizing the topological, geometric and physical changing properties of a geometric transition, is defined for a large class of geometric transitions.
Farlow, Jerry
Section 3.3 Equivalence Relations1 Section 3.3 Equivalence RelationSection 3.3 Equivalence RelationSection 3.3 Equivalence RelationSection 3.3 Equivalence Relationssss Purpose of SectionPurpose of SectionPurpose of SectionPurpose of Section To introduce the concept of an equivalence relationequivalence
Heat pipe array heat exchanger
Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)
1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z
A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.
Equivalence of Learning Algorithms Julien Audiffren1
Equivalence of Learning Algorithms Julien Audiffren1 and Hachem Kadri2 1 CMLA, ENS Cachan is to introduce a concept of equivalence between machine learn- ing algorithms. We define two notions of algorithmic equivalence, namely, weak and strong equivalence. These notions are of paramount importance
Stretching rates and equivalent length near the tropopause
Legras, Bernard
the tropopause, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 4394, doi:10.1029/2002JD002988, 2003. 1. Introduction [2] Transport
EQUIVARIANT FLOW EQUIVALENCE FOR SHIFTS OF FINITE TYPE, BY MATRIX EQUIVALENCE OVER
Boyle, Mike
EQUIVARIANT FLOW EQUIVALENCE FOR SHIFTS OF FINITE TYPE, BY MATRIX EQUIVALENCE OVER GROUP RINGS MIKE equivalence of nontrivial irreducible shifts of finite type in terms of (i) elementary equivalence of matrices. In the case G = Z/2, we have the classification for twistwise flow equivalence. We include some algebraic
EQUIVARIANT FLOW EQUIVALENCE FOR SHIFTS OF FINITE TYPE, BY MATRIX EQUIVALENCE OVER
Sullivan, Michael
EQUIVARIANT FLOW EQUIVALENCE FOR SHIFTS OF FINITE TYPE, BY MATRIX EQUIVALENCE OVER GROUP RINGS MIKE equivalence of nontrivial irreducible shifts of #12;nite type in terms of (i) elementary equivalence vertex. In the case G = Z=2, we have the classi#12;cation for twistwise ow equivalence. We include some
Heat transfer via dropwise condensation on hydrophobic microstructured surfaces
Ruleman, Karlen E. (Karlen Elizabeth)
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Dropwise condensation has the potential to greatly increase heat transfer rates. Heat transfer coefficients by dropwise condensation and film condensation on microstructured silicon chips were compared. Heat transfer ...
Heat release by controlled continuous-time Markov jump processes
Paolo Muratore-Ginanneschi; Carlos Mejía-Monasterio; Luca Peliti
2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
We derive the equations governing the protocols minimizing the heat released by a continuous-time Markov jump process on a one-dimensional countable state space during a transition between assigned initial and final probability distributions in a finite time horizon. In particular, we identify the hypotheses on the transition rates under which the optimal control strategy and the probability distribution of the Markov jump problem obey a system of differential equations of Hamilton-Bellman-Jacobi-type. As the state-space mesh tends to zero, these equations converge to those satisfied by the diffusion process minimizing the heat released in the Langevin formulation of the same problem. We also show that in full analogy with the continuum case, heat minimization is equivalent to entropy production minimization. Thus, our results may be interpreted as a refined version of the second law of thermodynamics.
Snow water equivalent estimation using blackbox optimization
Alarie et al.
2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z
Feb 23, 2011 ... Abstract: Accurate measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) is an ... managing water resources for hydroelectric power generation.
Optimization Online - Equivalence of Convex Problem Geometry ...
Robert Freund
2009-02-07T23:59:59.000Z
Feb 7, 2009 ... Equivalence of Convex Problem Geometry and Computational Complexity in the Separation Oracle Model. Robert Freund (rfreund ***at*** ...
EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS ON ALGEBRAIC CYCLES UWE JANNSEN
EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS ON ALGEBRAIC CYCLES UWE JANNSEN Mathematisches Institut Universit¨at zu K, and it is common to study the groups of algebraic cycles via socalled adequate equivalence relations. For example, the basic Chow groups are defined by considering cycles modulo rational equivalence. Rational, algebraic
Characterizing Contextual Equivalence in Calculi with Passivation
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Characterizing Contextual Equivalence in Calculi with Passivation Sergue¨i Lengleta , Alan Schmittb We study the problem of characterizing contextual equivalence in higher-order languages of contextual equivalence in the HOP calculus, an extension of the higher-order -calculus with passivation
ACQUIRED EQUIVALENCE CHANGES STIMULUS REPRESENTATIONS , D. SHOHAMY
Shohamy, Daphna
ACQUIRED EQUIVALENCE CHANGES STIMULUS REPRESENTATIONS M. MEETER 1 , D. SHOHAMY 2 , AND C.E. MYERS 3 UNIVERSITY 3 DEPT. OF PSYCHOLOGY, RUTGERS UNIVERSITY Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which of feature salience. A different way of conceptualizing acquired equivalence is in terms of strategic
Operational Equivalence of Graph Transformation Systems
Sarna-Starosta, Beata
Operational Equivalence of Graph Transformation Systems Frank Raiser and Thom FrÂ¨uhwirth Faculty. With the growing number of GTS- based applications the comparison of operational equivalence of two GTS becomes an important area of research. This work introduces a notion of operational equivalence for graph
Categorical Equivalence of Varieties and Invariant Relations
Jipsen, Peter
Categorical Equivalence of Varieties and Invariant Relations K. Denecke and O. Lders August 21. In applications the weaker concept of an equivalence between categories is used more often than the concept is equivalent with the category of all vector spaces which are dual to the vector spaces from C. For two
8 Equivalence Relations 8.1 Relations
Gera, Ralucca
8 Equivalence Relations 8.1 Relations 1. for sets A and B we define a relation from A to B have that if (a, b) R and (b, c) R then (a, c) R 8.3 Equivalence Relations 1. a relation is an equivalence relation if it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive 2. if a relation R on a set
Equivalence of Julesz Ensembles and Frame Models
Ying Nian Wu; Song Chun Zhu; Xiu Wen Liu
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
o f , A . 1979. " T h e equivalence of ensembles a n d G i bEquivalence of Julesz Ensembles and F R A M E Models Y i n gr i n c i p l e of equivalence of ensembles i n statistical
Orbit equivalence for Cantor minimal Zd
Putnam, Ian F.
Orbit equivalence for Cantor minimal Zd -systems Thierry Giordano Department of Mathematics on the Cantor set is (topologically) orbit equivalent to an AF relation. As a consequence, this extends the classification up to orbit equivalence of minimal dynamical systems on the Cantor set to include AF relations
The Non-Equivalence of Empirically Equivalent Theories: The Case of Hidden Variables in
Chopra, Samir
The Non-Equivalence of Empirically Equivalent Theories: The Case of Hidden Variables in Quantum 43rd Street New York, NY 10036 schopra@broadway.gc.cuny.edu September 28, 2000 1 #12; The Non-Equivalence of Empirically Equivalent Theories: The Case of Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics 1 Introduction The problem
Limits of Equivalence: Thinking Gay Male Subjectivity Outside Feminist Theory
Galloway, Samuel R.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Limits of Equivalence: Thinking Gay Male Subjectivityor this limit of equivalence? The problem, of course, ispaper, the limits of equivalence emerge: while all subjects
Cox, Myron Isaiah
1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, Gambusia ai'finis (Baird and Girard) and the Red Sh', ~Nt 1 1t ' (2 ' d dG d). (Ny1970) Myron I. Cox, B. S. , University of Utah Directed by: Dr. Kirk Strawn Nosquitofish and red shiners were collected from the Little Brazos River and Country Club Lake... CONCLUSIONS. 8 e 22 26 31 31 34 39 4B 59 REI"ERENCES. VITA. 63 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Analysis of covariance of heat resistances of mosquitofish collected June 28, 1968 from Country Club lake and tested at 40 C ~ Table 2. Analysis of covs...
About Orientifold Planar Equivalence on the Lattice
Agostino Patella
2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
The orientifold planar equivalence is the equivalence in the large-N limit of the bosonic sectors of the super Yang-Mills and the QCD with a quark in the antisymmetric representation. I give a sketch of the proof of the orientifold planar equivalence in the strong-coupling and large-mass phase on the lattice. It is still matter of discussion, if its validity extends also in the continuum limit.
Snow water equivalent estimation using blackbox optimization
StÃ©phane Alarie
2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z
Mar 7, 2011 ... Abstract: Accurate measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) is an important factor in managing water resources for hydroelectric power ...
Morita Equivalence in Deformation Quantization Henrique Bursztyn
Bursztyn, Henrique
do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) 1996 M.Sc. (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2 Morita equivalence of unital algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2
Optimization Online - Equivalence of an Approximate Linear ...
Alejandro Toriello
2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z
Feb 7, 2013 ... Equivalence of an Approximate Linear Programming Bound with the Held-Karp Bound for the Traveling Salesman Problem. Alejandro Toriello ...
Optimization Online - On Equivalence of Semidefinite Relaxations ...
Yichuan Ding
2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
Apr 28, 2010 ... On Equivalence of Semidefinite Relaxations for Quadratic Matrix Programming. Yichuan Ding(y7ding ***at*** stanford.edu) Dongdong ...
Dynamical ensembles equivalence in fluid mechanics
Giovanni Gallavotti
1996-05-09T23:59:59.000Z
Dissipative Euler and Navier Stokes equations are discussed with the aim of proposing several experiments apt to test the equivalence of dynamical ensembles and the chaotic hypothesis.
Guo, Zhixiong "James"
Global heat transfer analysis in Czochralski silicon furnace with radiation on curved specular method are adopted to solve the global heat transfer and the radiative heat exchange, respectively rate QJ diffuse radiation heat transfer rate QX net rate of radiative heat loss QT heat generation rate
Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.
Guessing Attacks and the Computational Soundness of Static Equivalence
Warinschi, Bogdan
Guessing Attacks and the Computational Soundness of Static Equivalence Martin Abadi1 , Mathieu static equivalence. Static equivalence depends on an underlying equa- tional theory. The choice, fundamental cryp- tographic operations. This equational theory yields a notion of static equivalence
Borel equivalence relations which are highly unfree Greg Hjorth
Hjorth, Greg
* Borel equivalence relations Abstract There is an ergodic, measure preserving, countable Borel equivalence rel* *ation E equivalence relati* *ons may be reduced to Borel equivalence relations arising from a free group action
Characterization of Revenue Equivalence Birgit Heydenreich1
Sandholm, Tuomas W.
Characterization of Revenue Equivalence Birgit Heydenreich1 Rudolf MÂ¨uller1 Marc Uetz1 Rakesh Vohra strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. In this paper we give a characterization. The characterization holds for any (possibly infinite) outcome space and many of the known results about revenue
Remarks on statistical errors in equivalent widths
Klaus Vollmann; Thomas Eversberg
2006-07-03T23:59:59.000Z
Equivalent width measurements for rapid line variability in atomic spectral lines are degraded by increasing error bars with shorter exposure times. We derive an expression for the error of the line equivalent width $\\sigma(W_\\lambda)$ with respect to pure photon noise statistics and provide a correction value for previous calculations.
The Equivalence of Linear Programs and Zero-Sum Games
2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
In 1951, Dantzig showed the equivalence of linear programming problems and ... This note concerns the equivalence between linear programming (LP) ...
THEOREM 1.1.1 The distinct equivalence classes of an equivalence ...
Preliminary Notions Ch.1. THEOREM 1.1.1 The distinct equivalence classes of an equivalence relation on A provide us with a decomposition of A as a union of ...
Equivalence Relations in Set Theory, Computation Theory and Complexity Theory
Equivalence Relations in Set Theory, Computation Theory and Complexity Theory Denable Equivalence-preserving transformations Unitary equivalence of unitary operators Conformal equivalence of Riemann surfaces These are analytic (1 1 with parameters) equivalence relations on Polish spaces (think of the reals) #12;Equivalence
Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Hendricks, Terry Lee [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Ghandhi, Jaal B [University of Wisconsin
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The piston of a heavy-duty single-cylinder research engine was instrumented with 11 fast-response surface thermocouples, and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit the signals from the moving piston. The raw thermocouple data were processed using an inverse heat conduction method that included Tikhonov regularization to recover transient heat flux. By applying symmetry, the data were compiled to provide time-resolved spatial maps of the piston heat flux and surface temperature. A detailed comparison was made between conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion operations at matched conditions of load, speed, boost pressure, and combustion phasing. The integrated piston heat transfer was found to be 24% lower, and the mean surface temperature was 25 C lower for reactivity-controlled compression ignition operation as compared to conventional diesel combustion, in spite of the higher peak heat release rate. Lower integrated piston heat transfer for reactivity-controlled compression ignition was found over all the operating conditions tested. The results showed that increasing speed decreased the integrated heat transfer for conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. The effect of the start of injection timing was found to strongly influence conventional diesel combustion heat flux, but had a negligible effect on reactivity-controlled compression ignition heat flux, even in the limit of near top dead center high-reactivity fuel injection timings. These results suggest that the role of the high-reactivity fuel injection does not significantly affect the thermal environment even though it is important for controlling the ignition timing and heat release rate shape. The integrated heat transfer and the dynamic surface heat flux were found to be insensitive to changes in boost pressure for both conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. However, for reactivity-controlled compression ignition, the mean surface temperature increased with changes in boost suggesting that equivalence ratio affects steady-state heat transfer.
Energy Conservation Project Evaluation by Investment Equivalents
Larson, R. J.
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using discounted cash flow techniques, a new parameter for the quick economic evaluation of energy conservation ideas is calculated. The meaning of the calculated value, an 'Investment Equivalent of Energy Saving', is: 'The maximum amount...
Bisimulations Meet PCTL Equivalences for Probabilistic Automata
Song, Lei; Godskesen, Jens Chr
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Probabilistic automata (PA) have been successfully applied in the formal verification of concurrent and stochastic systems. Efficient model checking algorithms have been studied, where the most often used logics for expressing properties are based on PCTL and its extension PCTL*. Various behavioral equivalences are proposed for PAs, as a powerful tool for abstraction and compositional minimization for PAs. Unfortunately, the behavioral equivalences are well-known to be strictly stronger than the logical equivalences induced by PCTL or PCTL*. This paper introduces novel notions of strong bisimulation relations, which characterizes PCTL and PCTL* exactly. We also extend weak bisimulations characterizing PCTL and PCTL* without next operator, respectively. Thus, our paper bridges the gap between logical and behavioral equivalences in this setting.
On Process Equivalence = Equation Solving in CCS
Bundy, Alan; Monroy, Raul; Green, Ian
Unique Fixpoint Induction (UFI) is the chief inference rule to prove the equivalence of recursive processes in the Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) (Milner 1989). It plays a major role in the equational approach to verification. Equational...
Energy Conservation Project Evaluation by Investment Equivalents
Larson, R. J.
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using discounted cash flow techniques, a new parameter for the quick economic evaluation of energy conservation ideas is calculated. The meaning of the calculated value, an 'Investment Equivalent of Energy Saving', is: 'The maximum amount...
Equivalence semantics for concurrency: comparison and application
Galpin, Vashti C
are described by structured operational semantics, and expressed as labelled transition systems. I first consider a hierarchy of bisimulations for extensions to CCS, using both existing and new results to describe the relationships between their equivalences...
Near-field heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a rough surface
Svend-Age Biehs; Jean-Jacques Greffet
2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we focus on the surface roughness correction to the near-field radiative heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a material with a rough surface utilizing a direct perturbation theory up to second order in the surface profile. We discuss the different distance regimes for the local density of states above the rough material and the heat flux analytically and numerically. We show that the heat transfer rate is larger than that corresponding to a flat surface at short distances. At larger distances it can become smaller due to surface polariton scattering by the rough surface. For distances much smaller than the correlation length of the surface profile, we show that the results converge to a proximity approximation, whereas in the opposite limit the rough surface can be replaced by an equivalent surface layer.
Testing Equivalence Probabilistically Adnan Darwiche and Jinbo Huang
Huang, Jinbo
Testing Equivalence Probabilistically Adnan Darwiche and Jinbo Huang Computer Science Department the equivalence of two Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) can be decided in polynomial time, the equivalence the interest in testing their equivalence. We show that the probabilistic equivalence test for FBDDs holds
Equivalence Structures and Isomorphisms in the Difference Hierarchy
Cenzer, Douglas
Equivalence Structures and Isomorphisms in the Difference Hierarchy D. Cenzer, G. LaForte and J- ence hierarchy, and of equivalence structures in particular. A equivalence structure A = (A, E) has universe A = and an equivalence relation E. The equivalence class [a] of a A is {b A : a
Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Rate...
Kearton, Cherry
S-EQUIVALENCE OF KNOTS C. KEARTON Abstract. S-equivalence of classical knots is investigated. Finally, we show that every knot is S-equivalent to a prime knot. 1. Introduction An oriented knot k matrices of the same knot are S-equivalent: the definition of S-equivalence is given in, for example, [14
On the Equivalence of Constrained and Compound Optimal Designs
R. Dennis Cook; Weng-Kee Wong
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
O n the Equivalence o f C o n s t r a i n e d and C o m p owww.jstor.org On the Equivalence of Constrained and Compoundstandard methodology. Equivalence theorems for specific
SOME APPLICATIONS OF SUPERRIGIDITY TO BOREL EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS
Thomas, Simon
SOME APPLICATIONS OF SUPERRIGIDITY TO BOREL EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS SIMON THOMAS Abstract.There exists a countable Borel equivalence relation E countable Borel equivalence re* *la- tions. (For example, see [2], [11], [12].) In particular, Adams [1
On the equivalence of nonadiabatic fluids
W. Barreto
2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
Here we show how an anisotropic fluid in the diffusion limit can be equivalent to an isotropic fluid in the streaming out limit, in spherical symmetry. For a particular equation of state this equivalence is total, from one fluid we can obtain the other and vice versa. A numerical master model is presented, based on a generic equation of state, in which only quantitative differences are displayed between both nonadiabatic fluids. From a deeper view, other difference between fluids is shown as an asymmetry that can be overcome if we consider the appropriate initial-boundary conditions. Equivalence in this context can be considered as a first order method of approximation to study dissipative fluids.
Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...
Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...
Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...
Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...
Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...
Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...
On Equivalence of Semidefinite Relaxations for Quadratic Matrix ...
2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
Apr 28, 2010 ... 2.2 Equivalence of Vector and Matrix Lifting for QMP1 .... A Schur complement argument now implies the equivalence of this relaxation to the ...
Static modules and equivalences Robert Wisbauer
Wisbauer, Robert
Static modules and equivalences Robert Wisbauer Mathematical Institute of the University 40225 D by the functor HomR(P, -). In R-Mod these are the P-static (= P-solvable) modules. In this context properties" under P S HomR(P, -). Following Nauman [20] and Alperin [3] we call these modules P-static. Other names
Equivalences on Observable Processes Irek Ulidowski
Ulidowski, Irek
and finitely observable. We define copy+refusal testing equivalence as indistinguishabil- ity by copy, provided their operational meaning is defined by realistically implementable transition rules. Process behaviour which can be established by so-called local testing but not global testing is called locally
Application Study of a Single House Horizontal Heating System
Hang, Y.; Ying, D.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
It is imperative to get new heating systems into the market and implement rate structures with heat meters for the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. Based on analysis of current heating technology, this paper analyzes...
Heat release rate markers for premixed combustion
Nikolaou, Zacharias M.; Swaminathan, Nedunchezhian
2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z
of CO, H2, H2O, CO2 and CH4 and the mole fraction percentages of these species are given in Table 1. This composition is typical of a BFG mixture [18], or a low hydrogen content syngas mixture [21–23]. At these conditions the laminar flame speed is sl... -based correlation and propose new correlations, if required, for a syngas containing multiple fuel species and other species, specifically CO, H2, CH4, H2O and CO2 in a proportion akin to Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). Although this gas has low calorific value, its use...
Property:HeatRate | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaPLawrence County,1980) | OpenAl.,PetroAsiaPotterProperty EditProperty Edit with form HistoryProperty
Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability
Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Janus, Michael C. (Baltimore, MD); Griffith, Richard A. (Morgantown, WV)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.
Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability
Richards, G.A.; Janus, M.C.; Griffith, R.A.
2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z
The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.
An Equivalence Between Sparse Approximation and Support Vector Machines 1
Poggio, Tomaso
An Equivalence Between Sparse Approximation and Support Vector Machines 1 Federico Girosi Center is equivalent to SVM in the following sense: if applied to the same data set the two techniques give the same; Chen, Donoho and Saunders, 1995), are actually equivalent, in the case of noiseless data. By equivalent
Guessing Attacks and the Computational Soundness of Static Equivalence
Abadi, MartÃn
Guessing Attacks and the Computational Soundness of Static Equivalence MartÂ´in Abadi1 , Mathieu static equivalence. Static equivalence depends on an underlying equa- tional theory. The choice, fundamental cryp- tographic operations. This equational theory yields a notion of static equivalence
A Stronger Notion of Equivalence for Logic Programs
New South Wales, University of
A Stronger Notion of Equivalence for Logic Programs Ka-Shu Wong University of New South Wales Sydney 2052, Australia #12;Abstract Several different notions of equivalence have been proposed for logic programs with answer set semantics, most notably strong equivalence. However, strong equivalence
EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS FOR TWO VARIABLE REAL ANALYTIC FUNCTION GERMS
EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS FOR TWO VARIABLE REAL ANALYTIC FUNCTION GERMS SATOSHI KOIKE & ADAM PARUSI´NSKI Abstract. For two variable real analytic function germs we compare the blow- analytic equivalence in the sense of Kuo to the other natural equivalence relations. Our main theorem states that C1 equivalent
THIN EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS AND INNER MODELS PHILIPP SCHLICHT
Schlicht, Philipp
THIN EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS AND INNER MODELS PHILIPP SCHLICHT Abstract. We describe the inner models with representatives in all equiv- alence classes of thin equivalence relations in a given projective pointclass does not add equivalence classes to thin projective equivalence relations. For example, we show
CCZ and EA Equivalence between Mappings over Finite Abelian Groups
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
CCZ and EA Equivalence between Mappings over Finite Abelian Groups Alexander Pott1 and Yue Zhou1, 410073 Changsha, P.R.China alexander.pott@ovgu.de,yue.zhou@st.ovgu.de Abstract. CCZ- and EA-equivalence abelian groups G and H. We obtain an extension theorem for CCZ- equivalent but not EA-equivalent mappings
COUNTABLE ABELIAN GROUP ACTIONS AND HYPERFINITE EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS
Gao, Su
COUNTABLE ABELIAN GROUP ACTIONS AND HYPERFINITE EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS SU GAO AND STEVE JACKSON Abstract. An equivalence relation E on a standard Borel space is hyperfinite if E is the increasing union of countably many Borel equivalence relations En where all En-equivalence classs are finite. In this article we
The Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Tile Roofs with and without Batten Systems
Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Clay and concrete tile roofs were installed on a fully instrumented attic test facility operating in East Tennessee s climate. Roof, attic and deck temperatures and heat flows were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventionally pigmented and direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The data were used to benchmark a computer tool for simulation of roofs and attics and the tool used to develop an approach for computing an equivalent seasonal R-value for sub-tile venting. The approach computed equal heat fluxes through the ceilings of roofs having different combinations of surface radiation properties and or building constructions. A direct nailed shingle roof served as a control for estimating the equivalent thermal resistance of the air space. Simulations were benchmarked to data in the ASHRAE Fundamentals for the thermal resistance of inclined and closed air spaces.
Modeling of Residential Buildings and Heating Systems
Masy, G.; Lebrun, J.
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of the central heating plant, with measurements of water temperatures and flow rates is used to adjust the parameters of the boiler model....
Modeling of Residential Buildings and Heating Systems
Masy, G.; Lebrun, J.
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of the central heating plant, with measurements of water temperatures and flow rates is used to adjust the parameters of the boiler model....
Strong Equivalence of Qualitative Optimization Problems
Faber, Wolfgang; Woltran, Stefan
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce the framework of qualitative optimization problems (or, simply, optimization problems) to represent preference theories. The formalism uses separate modules to describe the space of outcomes to be compared (the generator) and the preferences on outcomes (the selector). We consider two types of optimization problems. They differ in the way the generator, which we model by a propositional theory, is interpreted: by the standard propositional logic semantics, and by the equilibrium-model (answer-set) semantics. Under the latter interpretation of generators, optimization problems directly generalize answer-set optimization programs proposed previously. We study strong equivalence of optimization problems, which guarantees their interchangeability within any larger context. We characterize several versions of strong equivalence obtained by restricting the class of optimization problems that can be used as extensions and establish the complexity of associated reasoning tasks. Understanding strong equiv...
Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Quenched Meson Spectrum
Biagio Lucini; Gregory Moraitis; Agostino Patella; Antonio Rago
2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z
A numerical study of Orientifold Planar Equivalence is performed in SU(N) Yang-Mills theories for N=2,3,4,6. Quenched meson masses are extracted in the antisymmetric, symmetric and adjoint representations for the pseudoscalar and vector channels. An extrapolation of the vector mass as a function of the pseudoscalar mass to the large-N limit shows that the numerical results agree within errors for the three theories, as predicted by Orientifold Planar Equivalence. As a byproduct of the extrapolation, the size of the corrections up to O(1/N^3) are evaluated. A crucial prerequisite for the extrapolation is the determination of an analytical relationship between the corrections in the symmetric and in the antisymmetric representations, order by order in a 1/N expansion.
Equivalence principle in scalar-tensor gravity
Dirk Puetzfeld; Yuri N. Obukhov
2015-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
We present a direct confirmation of the validity of the equivalence principle for unstructured test bodies in scalar tensor gravity. Our analysis is complementary to previous approaches and valid for a large class of scalar-tensor theories of gravitation. A covariant approach is used to derive the equations of motion in a systematic way and allows for the experimental test of scalar-tensor theories by means of extended test bodies.
Quantal Definition of the Weak Equivalence Principle
Abel Camacho; Arturo Camacho-Guardian
2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z
The present work analyzes the meaning of the Weak Equivalence Principle in the context of quantum mechanics. A quantal definition for this principle is introduced. This definition does not require the concept of trajectory and relies upon the phase shift induced by a gravitational field in the context of a quantum interference experiment of two coherent beams of particles. In other words, it resorts to wave properties of the system and not to classical concepts as the idea of trajectory.
Einstein's Apple: His First Principle of Equivalence
Engelbert L. Schucking; Eugene J. Surowitz
2012-08-09T23:59:59.000Z
After a historical discussion of Einstein's 1907 principle of equivalence, a homogeneous gravitational field in Minkowski spacetime is constructed. It is pointed out that the reference frames in gravitational theory can be understood as spaces with a flat connection and torsion defined through teleparallelism. This kind of torsion was introduced by Einstein in 1928. The concept of torsion is discussed through simple examples and some historical observations.
Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate
Adi Armoni; Biagio Lucini; Agostino Patella; Claudio Pica
2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric) representation and $N_f$ flavours of Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation have the same large $N$ value for any value of the mass of the (degenerate) fermions. Assuming the invariance of the theory under charge conjugation, we prove this statement on the lattice for staggered quenched condensates in SU($N$) Yang-Mills in the large $N$ limit. Then, we compute numerically those quenched condensates for $N$ up to 8. After separating the even from the odd corrections in $1/N$, we are able to show that our data support the equivalence; however, unlike other quenched observables, subleading terms in $1/N$ are needed for describing the data for the symmetric and antisymmetric representation at $N$=3. Possible lessons for the unquenched case are discussed.
Phase Change Heat Transfer Device for Process Heat Applications
Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson
2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to approx.1300 K) and industrial scale power transport (=50MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a thermal device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via ‘pumping a fluid’, a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization/condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e., without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) of vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.
Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system
Metz, Philip D. (Rocky Point, NY)
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.
Tidal heating in multilayered terrestrial exoplanets
Henning, Wade G.; Hurford, Terry, E-mail: wade.g.henning@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The internal pattern and overall magnitude of tidal heating for spin-synchronous terrestrial exoplanets from 1 to 2.5 R{sub E} is investigated using a propagator matrix method for a variety of layer structures. Particular attention is paid to ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths, where a significant ice mantle is modeled to rest atop an iron-silicate core, and may or may not contain a liquid water ocean. We find multilayer modeling often increases tidal dissipation relative to a homogeneous model, across multiple orbital periods, due to the ability to include smaller volume low viscosity regions, and the added flexure allowed by liquid layers. Gradations in parameters with depth are explored, such as allowed by the Preliminary Earth Reference Model. For ice-silicate hybrid worlds, dramatically greater dissipation is possible beyond the case of a silicate mantle only, allowing non-negligible tidal activity to extend to greater orbital periods than previously predicted. Surface patterns of tidal heating are found to potentially be useful for distinguishing internal structure. The influence of ice mantle depth and water ocean size and position are shown for a range of forcing frequencies. Rates of orbital circularization are found to be 10-100 times faster than standard predictions for Earth-analog planets when interiors are moderately warmer than the modern Earth, as well as for a diverse range of ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths. Circularization rates are shown to be significantly longer for planets with layers equivalent to an ocean-free modern Earth, as well as for planets with high fractions of either ice or silicate melting.
Gaskill, Travis
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
The present study has focused on the use of coil heat exchangers (CHEs) with microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) slurries to understand if CHEs can yield greater rates of heat transfer. An experimental study was conducted using a...
Lunar Laser Ranging Tests of the Equivalence Principle
James G. Williams; Slava G. Turyshev; Dale Boggs
2012-03-09T23:59:59.000Z
The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) experiment provides precise observations of the lunar orbit that contribute to a wide range of science investigations. In particular, time series of highly accurate measurements of the distance between the Earth and Moon provide unique information that determine whether, in accordance with the Equivalence Principle (EP), both of these celestial bodies are falling towards the Sun at the same rate, despite their different masses, compositions, and gravitational self-energies. Analyses of precise laser ranges to the Moon continue to provide increasingly stringent limits on any violation of the EP. Current LLR solutions give (-0.8 +/- 1.3) x 10^{-13} for any possible inequality in the ratios of the gravitational and inertial masses for the Earth and Moon, (m_G/m_I)_E - (m_G/m_I)_M. Such an accurate result allows other tests of gravitational theories. Focusing on the tests of the EP, we discuss the existing data and data analysis techniques. The robustness of the LLR solutions is demonstrated with several different approaches to solutions. Additional high accuracy ranges and improvements in the LLR data analysis model will further advance the research of relativistic gravity in the solar system, and will continue to provide highly accurate tests of the Equivalence Principle.
Merrigan, M.A.
1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.
Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.
Corrosive resistant heat exchanger
Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.
Energy Efficiency Supporting Policy and Heat Pumping Technology in Japan
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
% improvement energy consumption per real GDP of Japan> Ref: METI/ Energy Data Modeling Centre, comprehensive energy statistics *Total consumption of primary energy (tons in crude oil equivalent) / real GDP heating , 25% Cooling, 2% Water heating, 29% Power, etc., 36% cooking , 8% Energy consumption by end- use
The Equivalence Principle in a Quantum World
N. E. J. Bjerrum-Bohr; John F. Donoghue; Basem Kamal El-Menoufi; Barry R. Holstein; Ludovic Planté; Pierre Vanhove
2015-05-19T23:59:59.000Z
We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the Equivalence Principle, for instance through introduction of non-locality from quantum physics, embodied in the Uncertainty Principle. When the energy is small we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry - general coordinate invariance - that is used to organize the effective field theory.
Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence
J. I. McDonald; Graham M. Shore
2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z
The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.
AKS systems and Lepage equivalent problems
Santiago Capriotti
2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z
The integrable systems known as "AKS systems" admit a natural formulation in terms of a Hamiltonian picture. The Lagrangian side of these systems are far less known; a version in these terms can be found in a work of Feher et al. The purpose of these notes in to provide a novel description of AKS systems in terms of a variational problem different from the usual in mechanics. Additionally, and using techniques borrowed from an article of M. Gotay, it was possible to build the Hamiltonian side of this variational problem, allowing us to establish the equivalence with the usual approach to these integrable systems.
Equivalence Principle and the Baryon Acoustic Peak
Baldauf, Tobias; Simonovi?, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation $\\delta(\\lambda_L)$ on short distance physics. In the non-relativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at $l_{\\rm BAO}$, this naive expectation breaks down for $\\lambda_Lpower spectrum. Finally, the success of BAO reconstruction schemes is argue...
The Equivalence Principle in a Quantum World
Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal; Holstein, Barry R; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the Equivalence Principle, for instance through introduction of non-locality from quantum physics, embodied in the Uncertainty Principle. When the energy is small we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry - general coordinate invariance - that is used to organize the effective field theory.
Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values
Ashurst, W. Robert
Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values Mass 1 kg = 1000 g = 0.001 metric ton = 2.921 inHg at 0 C Energy 1 J = 1 N·m = 107 ergs = 107 dyne·cm = 2.778×10-7 kW·h 1 J = 0.23901 cal = 0·R 10.73 psia·ft3 lbmol·R 62.36 liter·torr mol·K 0.7302 ft3·atm lbmol·R Temperature Conversions: T
AGN Heating through Cavities and Shocks
P. E. J. Nulsen; C. Jones; W. R. Forman; L. P. David; B. R. McNamara; D. A. Rafferty; L. Birzan; M. W. Wise
2006-11-04T23:59:59.000Z
Three comments are made on AGN heating of cooling flows. A simple physical argument is used to show that the enthalpy of a buoyant radio lobe is converted to heat in its wake. Thus, a significant part of ``cavity'' enthalpy is likely to end up as heat. Second, the properties of the repeated weak shocks in M87 are used to argue that they can plausibly prevent gas close to the AGN from cooling. As the most significant heating mechanism at work closest to the AGN, shock heating probably plays a critical role in the feedback mechanism. Third, results are presented from a survey of AGN heating rates in nearby giant elliptical galaxies. With inactive systems included, the overall AGN heating rate is reasonably well matched to the total cooling rate for the sample. Thus, intermittent AGN outbursts are energetically capable of preventing the hot atmospheres of these galaxies from cooling and forming stars.
Heat exchanger for power generation equipment
Nirmalan, Nirm Velumylm; Bowman, Michael John
2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z
A heat exchanger for a turbine is provided wherein the heat exchanger comprises a heat transfer cell comprising a sheet of material having two opposed ends and two opposed sides. In addition, a plurality of concavities are disposed on a surface portion of the sheet of material so as to cause hydrodynamic interactions and affect a heat transfer rate of the turbine between a fluid and the concavities when the fluid is disposed over the concavities.
Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System
Day, Nancy
Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ livingPattern : Room ? behaviour; setTemp : Room ? num; heatSwitchOn, heatSwitchOff, userReset : simple
Asymptotic Equivalence and Adaptive Estimation for Robust Nonparametric Regression
Zhou, Harrison Huibin
Asymptotic Equivalence and Adaptive Estimation for Robust Nonparametric Regression T. Tony Cai1 and Harrison H. Zhou2 University of Pennsylvania and Yale University Abstract Asymptotic equivalence theory. In this paper we develop asymptotic equivalence results for robust nonparametric regression with unbounded loss
Borel equivalence relations and everywhere faithful actions of free products
Miller, Benjamin
Borel equivalence relations and everywhere faithful actions of free products Benjamin D. Miller July 13, 2006 Abstract We study the circumstances under which an aperiodic countable Borel equivalence equivalence class. An action of a group G on a set X is faithful if g G x X (g · x = x). The orbits of a G
Weak Order Equivalence for Logic Programs with Preferences
Schaub, Torsten
Weak Order Equivalence for Logic Programs with Preferences Kathrin Konczak Institut fÂ¨ur Informatik, notions of equivalence for Answer Set Programming have been stud- ied intensively and were shown to be beneficial for modular programming and automated optimization. In [9], the novel notion of strong equivalence
Checking NFA equivalence with bisimulations up to congruence
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Checking NFA equivalence with bisimulations up to congruence Filippo Bonchi CNRS, ENS Lyon--We introduce bisimulation up to congruence as a technique for proving language equivalence of non algorithm. I. INTRODUCTION Checking language equivalence of finite automata is a clas- sical problem
On the Equivalence of Constraint Satisfaction Francesca Rossi1
On the Equivalence of Constraint Satisfaction Problems Francesca Rossi1 Charles Petrie MCC 3500 W equivalent if they have the same solution set. We nd this de nition limiting, and develop a more general de a pair of CSPs equivalent even if they have di erent solutions. The basic idea behind the extended scheme
Isomorphism of subshifts is a universal countable Borel equivalence relation
Clemens, John D.
Isomorphism of subshifts is a universal countable Borel equivalence relation John D. Clemens July 17, 2007 Abstract We use the theory of Borel equivalence relations to analyze the equiva- lence relation of isomorphism among one-dimensional subshifts. We show that this equivalence relation
Checking NFA equivalence with bisimulations up to congruence
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Checking NFA equivalence with bisimulations up to congruence Filippo Bonchi Damien Pous CNRS, ENS introduce bisimulation up to congruence as a technique for proving language equivalence of non Language Equivalence, Automata, Bisimulation, Coin- duction, Up-to techniques, Congruence, Antichains. 1
Reducing Equational Theories for the Decision of Static Equivalence #
Treinen, Ralf - Laboratoire Preuves, Programmes et SystÃ¨mes, UniversitÃ© Paris 7
Reducing Equational Theories for the Decision of Static Equivalence # Steve Kremer 1 , Antoine, CNRS, France Abstract. Static equivalence is a well established notion of indistinÂ guishability of sequences of terms which is useful in the symbolic analysis of cryptographic protocols. Static equivalence
A Language-Independent Proof System for Mutual Program Equivalence
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
A Language-Independent Proof System for Mutual Program Equivalence S¸tefan Ciob^aca1 , Dorel Lucanu, France 3 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA Abstract. Two programs are mutually equivalent if they both diverge or they end up in similar states. Mutual equivalence is an adequate no- tion
Regular Equivalence and Dynamic Logic Maarten Marx and Michael Masuch
Amsterdam, University of
Regular Equivalence and Dynamic Logic Maarten Marx #3; and Michael Masuch Institure for Logic equivalence relation on a social network. That is, a formal language of position terms is de#12;ned with the property that on #12;nite networks, two actors are regularly equivalent if and only if they cannot
ccsd00003913, ZETA FUNCTIONS AND BLOW-NASH EQUIVALENCE
ccsd00003913, version 1 17 Jan 2005 ZETA FUNCTIONS AND BLOW-NASH EQUIVALENCE GOULWEN FICHOU Abstract. We propose a re#12;nement of the notion of blow-Nash equivalence between Nash function germs, which has been introduced in [2] as an analog in the Nash setting of the blow-analytic equivalence de#12
ASYMPTOTIC EQUIVALENCE FOR INHOMOGENEOUS JUMP DIFFUSION PROCESSES AND WHITE NOISE.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
ASYMPTOTIC EQUIVALENCE FOR INHOMOGENEOUS JUMP DIFFUSION PROCESSES AND WHITE NOISE. ESTER MARIUCCI Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann, Grenoble. Abstract. We prove the global asymptotic equivalence between the experi. These asymptotic equivalences are established by constructing explicit Markov kernels that can be used to reproduce
On the Equivalence of Distributed Systems with Queries and Communication$
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
On the Equivalence of Distributed Systems with Queries and Communication$ Serge Abiteboula , Balder a common goal, such as eval- uating some query. We study the equivalence of such systems. We model for performing tasks such as sending, receiving and querying data. As our model is quite general, the equivalence
Mining Complex Boolean Expressions for Sequential Equivalence Checking
Ramakrishnan, Naren
Mining Complex Boolean Expressions for Sequential Equivalence Checking Neha Goel, Michael S. Hsiao-flops in a sequential circuit for sequential equivalence checking. In contrast to traditional learning methods, our be arbitrary boolean expressions and can thus prune a large don't care space during equivalence checking
Stutter Equivalence for In nite State Systems Zhendong Su
Su, Zhendong
Stutter Equivalence for In#12;nite State Systems Zhendong Su EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley zhendong@cs.berkeley.edu Abstract. In this paper, we study the state equivalences closure of bisimilarity is a full abstract semantics for STL AU . Next, we suggest a new state equivalence
Equivalence Relations Definition of a relation on a set
Singman, David
Equivalence Relations Definition of a relation on a set Let A be any set. Any subset have 1R1, 2R3, 3R1, 2 R2, 3 R2, etc. #12;A special kind of relation- an Equivalence relation There is a type of relation, it's known as an equivalence relation, which is particularly useful. Definition
On the Equivalence of Distributed Systems with Queries and Communication
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
On the Equivalence of Distributed Systems with Queries and Communication Serge Abiteboul INRIA, such as evaluate some query. We study the equivalence of such systems. We model a dis- tributed system such as sending, receiving and querying data. As our model is quite general, the equivalence problem turns out
On the Complexity of the Equivalence Problem for Probabilistic Automata
Ouaknine, Joël
On the Complexity of the Equivalence Problem for Probabilistic Automata Stefan Kiefer1 , Andrzej S equivalence of probabilistic automata is a key prob- lem for establishing various behavioural and anonymity properties of probabilistic systems. In recent experiments a randomised equivalence test based on polynomial
Complexity of Equivalence Problems for Concurrent Systems of Finite Agents
Rabinovich, Alexander
Complexity of Equivalence Problems for Concurrent Systems of Finite Agents Alexander Rabinovich@math.tau.ac.il 1 #12; Running head: Equivalence of Concurrent Systems Mailing address: Alexander Rabinovich that one wants to check whether p Â¸ q for one of the commonly used equivalence Â¸. We show that this ques
INVARIANTS OF TWISTWISE FLOW EQUIVALENCE MICHAEL C. SULLIVAN
Sullivan, Michael
equivalent suspension flows. The suspension flow is a onedimension flow obtained by taking the cross product an example. The map is just the horseshoe map. A piece of an orbit of a suspension flow is shown. The sectionINVARIANTS OF TWISTWISE FLOW EQUIVALENCE MICHAEL C. SULLIVAN Abstract. Flow equivalence
On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits
Kagan, Mikhail
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equvalent resistance of non-trivial electrical ciruits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. At the end, we derive - in a closed form - the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The final result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. For the more inquisitive reader, additional proofs and technical details are provided in the appendix.
SIMULATION OF COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS USING GLOBAL REGRESSION AND SOFT COMPUTING
Sen, Mihir
SIMULATION OF COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS USING GLOBAL REGRESSION AND SOFT COMPUTING A Dissertation investigates enhancement in accuracy of heat rate predictions in compact fin-tube heat exchangers. The sources determined and later applied to heat exchanger data. The direct heat-rate estimations are more accurate. #12
Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement
Wilson, David Gordon
2001-04-17T23:59:59.000Z
Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.
Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement
Wilson, David Gordon (Winchester, MA)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.
Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement
Wilson, David G. (Winchester, MA)
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
still com- monly used in home heating and smoking rates arefound exposure to coal home heating and ETS increase youngcigarette smoke, coal heating, and respiratory symptoms of
Gustavsen, Arild; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Curcija, Charlie; Kohler, Christian
2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z
While window frames typically represent 20-30% of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows that incorporate very low-conductance glazing. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we conclude that current procedures specified in ISO standards are not sufficiently adequate for accurately evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities for improving the modeling of heat transfer through low-conductance frames are: (1) Add 2D view-factor radiation to standard modeling and examine the current practice of averaging surface emissivity based on area weighting and the process of making an equivalent rectangular frame cavity. (2) Asses 3D radiation effects in frame cavities and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. (3) Assess existing correlations for convection in vertical cavities using CFD. (4) Study 2D and 3D natural convection heat transfer in frame cavities for cavities that are proven to be deficient from item 3 above. Recommend improved correlations or full CFD modeling into ISO standards and design fenestration tools, if appropriate. (5) Study 3D hardware short-circuits and propose methods to ensure that these effects are incorporated into ratings. (6) Study the heat transfer effects of ventilated frame cavities and propose updated correlations.
Heat Recovery From Solid Waste
Underwood, O. W.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
to briefly mention the reasons why there is more opportunity for a successful waste-to-energy program. Number One: incineration is not new. It has existed for years -- primarily without heat re covery in this country. Today, it is much more common... pound. The equivalent energy recovery value is equal to about 84 gallons of #2 fuel oil per ton of waste. However, the characteristics of our sludge wastes depend primarily on the type of op eration. Therefore, the conversion of solid waste...
Proceedings of HT'03 2003 Summer Heat Transfer Conference
Walker, D. Greg
Proceedings of HT'03 2003 Summer Heat Transfer Conference July 2123, 2003, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA HT2003-47016 A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR HEAT FLUX DETERMINATION D.G. Walker Department of Mechanical@vt.edu ABSTRACT A new method for estimating heat fluxes from heating rate measurements and an approach to measure
Original article Heat balance of a multistage spray-dryer
Boyer, Edmond
into account. From these data, the heat balance showed a dif- ference between inputs and outputs of 2.9% which may be interpreted as heat losses and probable errors. The specific heat consumption was close to 4 of the small flow rates of air used in both fluid beds. This specific heat consumption corresponds to 2.1 times
HEAT OF HYDRATION OF SALTSTONE MIXES-MEASUREMENT BY ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETRY
Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Tommy Edwards, T
2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z
This report provides initial results on the measurement of heat of hydration of Saltstone mixes using isothermal calorimetry. The results were obtained using a recently purchased TAM Air Model 3116 Isothermal Conduction Calorimeter. Heat of hydration is an important property of Saltstone mixes. Greater amounts of heat will increase the temperature of the curing mix in the vaults and limit the processing rate. The heat of hydration also reflects the extent of the hydraulic reactions that turn the fluid mixture into a ''stone like'' solid and consequently impacts performance properties such as permeability. Determining which factors control these reactions, as monitored by the heat of hydration, is an important goal of the variability study. Experiments with mixes of portland cement in water demonstrated that the heats measured by this technique over a seven day period match very well with the literature values of (1) seven day heats of hydration using the standard test method for heat of hydration of hydraulic cement, ASTM C 186-05 and (2) heats of hydration measured using isothermal calorimetry. The heats of hydration of portland cement or blast furnace slag in a Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) simulant revealed that if the cure temperature is maintained at 25 C, the amount of heat released over a seven day period is roughly 62% less than the heat released by portland cement in water. Furthermore, both the blast furnace slag and the portland cement were found to be equivalent in heat production over the seven day period in MCU. This equivalency is due to the activation of the slag by the greater than 1 Molar free hydroxide ion concentration in the simulant. Results using premix (a blend of 10% cement, 45% blast furnace slag, and 45% fly ash) in MCU, Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) simulants reveal that the fly ash had not significantly reacted (undergone hydration reactions) after seven days (most likely less than 5%). There were clear differences in the amount of heat released and the peak times of heat release for the three different simulants. It turns out that SWPF simulant mixes give off greater heat than does MCU and DDA simulant mixes. The temperature dependence of the heat of hydration was measured by carrying out these measurements at 25, 40 and 55 C. In general, the peak times shifted to shorter times as the isothermal temperature increased and the amount of heat released was independent of temperature for DDA and MCU but slightly higher at higher temperatures for SWPF. The goal of this study is to apply this technique to the measurement of the heat of hydration of mixes that will be made as part of the variability study. It is important to understand which variables will impact (and to what extent) the amount of heat generated and the peak times for the heat release. Those variables that can be controlled can then be tuned to adjust the heat of hydration as long as the other properties are still acceptable. The first application of heat of hydration measurements to the variability study was completed and the results presented in this report. These measurements were made using Phase VI mixes (SWPF simulants) following a statistical design that included variation in the compositional and operational variables. Variation in both the amount of heat released and the peak times for the heat release were observed. The measured ranges were 23 Joules per gram of premix for the heat release and 23 hours for the peak time of heat release at 25 C. Linear models with high R{sup 2} values and no statistical evidence for lack of fit were developed that relate the amount of heat release and the peak time for heat release for the Phase VI mixes to certain variables. The amount of heat released was a function of the aluminate and portland cement concentrations as well as the temperature of mixing. The peak time for heat release was a function of aluminate, portland cement and total nitrate plus nitrite concentrations. A comparison was made of the mea
Introduction to Heat Exchangers
Heller, Barbara
Introduction to Heat Exchangers #12;Agenda 1. Heat exchanger description 2. Parallel flow heat exchangers 3. Counter flow heat exchangers 4. Effectiveness 5. NTU 6. Phase Change 7. Constant specific heat 8. Examples #12;Reason for Heat Exchangers A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built
Spectral equivalences from Bethe Ansatz equations
Dorey, P; Tateo, R; Dorey, Patrick; Dunning, Clare; Tateo, Roberto
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger equation for the potential $x^6+\\alpha x^2 +l(l+1)/x^2$ has many interesting properties. For certain values of the parameters l and alpha the equation is in turn supersymmetric (Witten), quasi-exactly solvable (Turbiner), and it also appears in Lipatov's approach to high energy QCD. In this paper we signal some further curious features of these theories, namely novel spectral equivalences with particular second- and third-order differential equations. These relationships are obtained via a recently-observed connection between the theories of ordinary differential equations and integrable models. Generalised supersymmetry transformations acting at the quasi-exactly solvable points are also pointed out, and an efficient numerical procedure for the study of these and related problems is described. Finally we generalise slightly and then prove a conjecture due to Bessis, Zinn-Justin, Bender and Boettcher, concerning the reality of the spectra of certain PT-symmetric quantum-mecha...
Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.
SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGERS
Hunt, A.J.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Small Particle Heat Exchange Receiver (SPHER) for Solarof the small particle heat exchange receiver (or SPHER), asabsorption process, the heat exchange to the gas, the choice
Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps
Kessler, A. F.
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...
Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps
Kessler, A. F.
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...
Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes
Ruch, M. A.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...
Orbit Equivalence and Von Neumann Rigidity for Actions of Wreath Product Groups
Sizemore, James Owen
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
B. Weiss. “An amenable equivalence relation is gen- eratedFur99] Alex Furman. “Orbit equivalence rigidity. ” Ann. ofand Yehuda Shalom. “Orbit equivalence rigidity and bounded
[Semantic equivalence of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the "Body Change Inventory"].
Conti, MA; Ferreira, ME; Amaral, AC; Hearst, N; Cordás, TA; Scagliusi, FB
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Inventory” Semantic Equivalence of the Brazilian Portugueseuation for semantic equivalence of the BCI in the Portuguese3) evaluation of semantic equivalence; and (4) assessment of
Applying modality and equivalence concepts to pattern finding in social process-produced data
Hanneman, Robert A.; Shelton, Christian R.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
on generalized concepts of equivalence. J Math Sociol 19(1):53 Everett MG (1994) Regular equivalence: general theory. JHC (1971) Structural equivalence of individuals in social
A reassessment of equivalence in yield from marine reserves and traditional fisheries management
White, Crow; Kendall, Bruce E.
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and Botsford, L. W. 1999. Equivalence in yield from marineJune 2007 A reassessment of equivalence in yield from marineidentical model generates equivalence in yield between the
Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)
2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z
Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.
Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Heat exchangers transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water. Learn how to choose the best model for your household.
Derivation of Equivalent Continuous Dilution for Cyclic, Unsteady Driving Forces
Mortensen, Dorthe K.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
problem of determining equivalency for different approaches to ventilationproblem at hand. Although we are often more accustomed to dealing with ventilation
Gin Flat Snow Water Equivalent Estimation from Field Methods
Vida, Jordan; Sa, Nathaniel; Lem, Dylan
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
like to get involved with water resource management becauseJournal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA).Deformation Mechanisms on Snow Water Equivalent Pressure
Optimization Online - On the equivalence of the method of conjugate ...
Anders Forsgren
2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z
Mar 9, 2015 ... Abstract: In this paper we state necessary and sufficient conditions for equivalence of the method of conjugate gradients and quasi-Newton ...
Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers
Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.
1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.
Oppenheimer, M.; Boyle, R.H.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper reports on the prospect of global warming. This paper proposes a workable solution, and a road map for getting there. The author explains how we became addicted to fossil fuels and evokes a bleak picture should this dependence continue. But the book also explores how industry can become a vehicle for solving, instead of precipitating, the global environmental crisis. The decoupling of energy from pollution can be accomplished without sacrificing prosperity by powering the economy with solar energy. Dead Heat takes us step by step to a greenhouse-friendly world fueled only by the sun.
Integrated heat pump and heat storage system
Katz, A.
1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z
An integrated heat pump and heat storage system is disclosed comprising a heat pump, a first conduit for supplying return air from an enclosure to the heat pump, a second conduit for supplying heated air from the heat pump to the enclosure, heat storage apparatus. A first damper is operative in a first orientation to permit return air from the enclosure to enter the first conduit and to prevent return air from passing through the heat storage apparatus and operative in a second orientation to cause return air to pass through the heat storage apparatus for being heated thereby before entering the first conduit. A second damper is operative in a first orientation to cause heated air from the second conduit to pass through the heat storage apparatus for giving up a portion of its heat for storage and operative in a second orientation to prevent heated air from the second conduit from passing through the heat storage apparatus and to permit the heated air from the second conduit to reach the enclosure. The heat storage apparatus may comprise phase change materials.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Heat pumps can be a cost-effective choice in moderate climates, especially if you heat your home with electricity.
Rheology and Convective Heat Transfer of Colloidal Gas Aphrons in Horizontal Minichannels
Tseng, H.; Pilon, L.; Warrier, G.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
volumetric flow rates and heat input of 2.68×10 -6 m 3 /s attime for different heat input but identical pump setting.per channel, m 3 /s total heat input in the five channels, W
Development of a compensation chamber for use in a multiple condenser loop heat pipe
Roche, Nicholas Albert
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The performance of many electronic devices is presently limited by heat dissipation rates. One potential solution lies in high-performance air-cooled heat exchangers like PHUMP, the multiple condenser loop heat pipe presented ...
Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.
An equivalent problem to the Twin Prime Conjecture
F. Balestrieri
2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z
In this short paper we will show, via elementary arguments, the equivalence of the Twin Prime Conjecture to a problem which might be simpler to prove. Some conclusions are drawn, and it is shown that proving the Twin Prime Conjecture is equivalent to proving that there cannot be an infinite string of consecutive natural numbers satisfying some specified equations.
Using the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression
Sollich, Peter
Using the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression Peter Sollich Dept.k.i.williams@ed.ac.uk Abstract The equivalent kernel [1] is a way of understanding how Gaussian pro cess regression works processes. Consider the supervised regression problem for a dataset D with entries (x i ; y i ) for i = 1
Using the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression
Sollich, Peter
Using the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression Peter Sollich Dept.k.i.williams@ed.ac.uk Abstract The equivalent kernel [1] is a way of understanding how Gaussian pro- cess regression works processes. Consider the supervised regression problem for a dataset D with entries (xi, yi) for i = 1
Virginia Tech
Spring 2014 1 Heat Transfer - 1 Consider a cylindrical nuclear fuel rod of length L and diameter df the fuel rod, and the volumetric generation rate is known to vary sinusoidally with distance along the rod to exist between the surface of the rod and the water. Axial conduction can be neglected in rod and fluid
Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling
Garg, S.C.
1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building`s energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.
Dosimetric equivalence of non-standard high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy catheter patterns
Cunha, J Adam M; Pouliot, Jean
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To determine whether alternative HDR prostate brachytherapy catheter patterns can result in improved dose distributions while providing better access and reducing trauma. Methods: Prostate HDR brachytherapy uses a grid of parallel needle positions to guide the catheter insertion. This geometry does not easily allow the physician to avoid piercing the critical structures near the penile bulb nor does it provide position flexibility in the case of pubic arch interference. On CT data from ten previously-treated patients new catheters were digitized following three catheter patterns: conical, bi-conical, and fireworks. The conical patterns were used to accommodate a robotic delivery using a single entry point. The bi-conical and fireworks patterns were specifically designed to avoid the critical structures near the penile bulb. For each catheter distribution, a plan was optimized with the inverse planning algorithm, IPSA, and compared with the plan used for treatment. Irrelevant of catheter geometry, a p...
R1S-M-2322 TABLE OF EXPOSURE RATE CONSTANTS AND DOSE EQUIVALENT
a point source . 4 5. DOSE BUILD-UP FACTORS 7 6. MASS ENERGY ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS AND LINEAR in units of MeV/photon , (pen/p)air in cm2 /g gives r in R»m2 /Ci«h if the following conversion factors, the contributions from photon energies below 30 keV and X-rays are omitted. (Continue on next page) December 1982
Childs, K.W.
1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
HEATING is a general-purpose conduction heat transfer program written in Fortran 77. HEATING can solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one-, two-, or three-dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time- and temperature-dependent. The thermal conductivity may also be anisotropic. Materials may undergo change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heat-generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time- and position-dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface-to-environment or surface-to-surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time- and/or temperature-dependent. General gray-body radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING uses a runtime memory allocation scheme to avoid having to recompile to match memory requirements for each specific problem. HEATING utilizes free-form input. Three steady-state solution techniques are available: point-successive-overrelaxation iterative method with extrapolation, direct-solution, and conjugate gradient. Transient problems may be solved using any one of several finite-difference schemes: Crank-Nicolson implicit, Classical Implicit Procedure (CIP), Classical Explicit Procedure (CEP), or Levy explicit method. The solution of the system of equations arising from the implicit techniques is accomplished by point-successive-overrelaxation iteration and includes procedures to estimate the optimum acceleration parameter.
Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
1 Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental Value Grid-interactive renewable water heaters have smart controls that quickly change their charge rate and...
Observable Equivalence between General Relativity and Shape Dynamics
Tim Koslowski
2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z
In this conceptual paper we construct a local version of Shape Dynamics that is equivalent to General Relativity in the sense that the algebras of Dirac observables weakly coincide. This allows us to identify Shape Dynamics observables with General Relativity observables, whose observables can now be interpreted as particular representative functions of observables of a conformal theory at fixed York time. An application of the observable equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics is to define the quantization of General Relativity through quantizing Shape Dynamics and using observable equivalence. We investigate this proposal explicitly for gravity in 2+1 dimensions.
Heat-Of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps--Possible Configurations
Kirol, L. D.
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Chemical heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, heat driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump working fluid is reactive...
Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.
Economic Analysis of Home Heating and Cooling
Wagers, H. L.
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF HOME HEATING AM) COOLING HERB WAGERS Geothermal, Inc. Tomball. Texas ABSTRACT Over the last eleven years Houston Lighting & Power has raised utility rates an average of 17% per year. Over the last 3% years the utility... electrical fiervice in the winter months. An example of HLbP's support of the heat pump is the current HLLP rebate program that offers ae much as $500.00 per unit rebate for any eyetem that is rated at 9+ SEER. GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS An air conditioning...
Ghorbani, N. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, England (United Kingdom); Taherian, H. [Department of Engineering Technology and Industrial Distribution, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Gorji, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol Noushirvani University of Technology, Babol (Iran); Mirgolbabaei, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar branch, Jouybar (Iran)
2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this study the mixed convection heat transfer in a coil-in-shell heat exchanger for various Reynolds numbers, various tube-to-coil diameter ratios and different dimensionless coil pitch was experimentally investigated. The experiments were conducted for both laminar and turbulent flow inside coil. Effects of coil pitch and tube diameters on shell-side heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger were studied. Different characteristic lengths were used in various Nusselt number calculations to determine which length best fits the data and several equations were proposed. The particular difference in this study in comparison with the other similar studies was the boundary conditions for the helical coils. The results indicate that the equivalent diameter of shell is the best characteristic length. (author)
Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...
Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...
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I. Introduction Equivalent loading of induction machines are
Szabados, Barna
described, the rotor is used as an energy storing device, equivalent to a flywheel. The energy stored depends upon speed and moment of inertia of the machine. The speed response capacity of this "flywheel
On equivalence of thinning fluids used for hydraulic fracturing
Linkov, Alexander
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The paper aims to answer the question: if and how non-Newtonian fluids may be compared in their mechanical action when used for hydraulic fracturing? By employing the modified formulation of the PKN problem we obtain its simple analytical solutions in the cases of perfectly plastic and Newtonian fluids. Since the results for shear thinning fluids are intermediate between those for these cases, the obtained equation for the fracture length suggests a criterion of the equivalence of various shear thinning fluids for the problem of hydraulic fractures. We assume fluids equivalent in their hydrofracturing action, when at a reference time they produce fractures of the same length. The equation for the fracture length translates the equivalence in terms of the hydraulic fracture length and treatment time into the equivalence in terms of the properties of a fracturing fluid (behavior and consistency indices). Analysis shows that the influence of the consistency and behavior indices on the fracture length, particle v...
Violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle in Bekenstein's theory
L. Kraiselburd; H. Vucetich
2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z
Bekenstein has shown that violation of Weak Equivalence Principle is strongly supressed in his model of charge variation. In this paper, it is shown that nuclear magnetic energy is large enough to produce observable effects in Eotvos experiments.
Equivalence of the Husain and the Pleba?ski equations
M. Jakimowicz; J. Tafel
2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z
We show that Husain's reduction of the self-dual Einstein equations is equivalent to the Pleba\\'nski equation. The B\\"acklund transformation between these equations is found. Contact symmetries of the Husain equation are derived.
Behavioral Model Equivalence Checking for Large Analog Mixed Signal Systems
Singh, Amandeep
2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis proposes a systematic, hierarchical, optimization based semi-formal equivalence checking methodology for large analog/mixed signal systems such as phase locked loops (PLL), analog to digital convertors (ADC) and input/output (I...
An equivalent form of Young's inequality with upper bound
E. Minguzzi
2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z
Young's integral inequality is complemented with an upper bound to the remainder. The new inequality turns out to be equivalent to Young's inequality, and the cases in which the equality holds become particularly transparent in the new formulation.
Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery
Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The heat pump system used for recycling and reusing waste heat in s high school bathroom was minutely analyzed in its coefficient of performance, onetime utilization ratio of energy, economic property and so on. The results showed that this system...
Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes
Ruch, M. A.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
-expanding variety of industrial processes. One notable application in recent years has been for combustion airs preheat of fired heaters in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants. Another recent development has been a waste heat recovery boiler using heat...
Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)
2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z
Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).
Influence of Gravitation on Mass-Energy Equivalence Relation
R. V. R. Pandya
2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study influence of gravitational field on the mass-energy equivalence relation by incorporating gravitation in the physical situation considered by Einstein (Ann. Physik, 17, 1905, English translation in ref. [1]) for his first derivation of mass-energy equivalence. In doing so, we also refine Einstein's expression (Ann. Physik, 35, 1911, English translation in ref. [3]) for increase in gravitational mass of the body when it absorbs E amount of radiation energy.
Group classification of heat conductivity equations with a nonlinear source
Zhdanov, Renat
Group classification of heat conductivity equations with a nonlinear source R.Z. Zhdanov Institute. It is shown that there are three, seven, twenty eight and twelve inequivalent classes of partial differential to the class under study and admitting symmetry group of the dimension higher than four is locally equivalent
Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]
273 9 34 35 6 120 1 22 7 12 27 Heating Equipment (more than one may apply) Heat Pumps ... 153 8 26 15 4 59 1 13 3 7 16 Packaged Heat...
Grossman, G.
1982-06-16T23:59:59.000Z
The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.
SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGERS
Hunt, A.J.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
heat exchangers. These types of heat exchangers have limitedheat exchanger to solar collection systems that utilize linear trough- typenon-solar heat exchangers. These may be of the type used to
Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.
Samady, Mezhgan Frishta
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
transient the heat transfer model. T h i s required the roofto develop and calibrate heat transfer models to be able toE S station, the heat transfer models described i n sections
Locating Heat Recovery Opportunities
Waterland, A. F.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Basic concepts of heat recovery are defined as they apply to the industrial community. Methods for locating, ranking, and developing heat recovery opportunities are presented and explained. The needs for useful heat 'sinks' are emphasized as equal...
Locating Heat Recovery Opportunities
Waterland, A. F.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Basic concepts of heat recovery are defined as they apply to the industrial community. Methods for locating, ranking, and developing heat recovery opportunities are presented and explained. The needs for useful heat 'sinks' are emphasized as equal...
Piscitella, R.R.
1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.
On thermoelectric power conversion from heat re-circulating combustion systems F. J. Weinberg
On thermoelectric power conversion from heat re-circulating combustion systems F. J. Weinberg Fax: 4420 7594 5604 Word count: 3750 Diags. equivalent: 1600 5350 #12;On thermoelectric power the absolute maximum efficiency of energy conversion by thermoelectric devices that operate as part of the heat
Intergalactic dust and its photoelectric heating
Akio K. Inoue; Hideyuki Kamaya
2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
We have examined the dust photoelectric heating in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The heating rate in a typical radiation field of the IGM is represented by $\\Gamma_{\\rm pe} = 1.2\\times10^{-34}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-3}$ $({\\cal D}/10^{-4})(n_{\\rm H}/10^{-5} {\\rm cm^{-3}})^{4/3} (J_{\\rm L}/10^{-21} {\\rm erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} Hz^{-1} sr^{-1}})^{2/3} (T/10^4 {\\rm K})^{-1/6}$, where ${\\cal D}$ is the dust-to-gas mass ratio, $n_{\\rm H}$ is the hydrogen number density, $J_{\\rm L}$ is the mean intensity at the hydrogen Lyman limit of the background radiation, and $T$ is the gas temperature, if we assume the new X-ray photoelectric yield model by Weingartner et al. (2006) and the dust size distribution in the Milky Way by Mathis, Rumpl, & Nordsieck (1977). This heating rate dominates the HI and HeII photoionization heating rates when the hydrogen number density is less than $\\sim10^{-6}$ cm$^{-3}$ if ${\\cal D}=10^{-4}$ which is 1% of that in the Milky Way, although the heating rate is a factor of 2--4 smaller than that with the old yield model by Weingartner & Draine (2001). The grain size distribution is very important. If only large ($\\ge0.1$ $\\mu$m) grains exist in the IGM, the heating rate is reduced by a factor of $\\simeq5$. Since the dust heating is more efficient in a lower density medium relative to the photoionization heating, it may cause an inverted temperature--density relation in the low density IGM suggested by Bolton et al. (2008). Finally, we have found that the dust heating is not very important in the mean IGM before the cosmic reionization.
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Find out if one is right for your home.
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Makes Sense Conventional Generation Combined Heat and Power 5 MW Natural Gas Combustion Turbine and Heat Recovery Boiler 51% ...OVERALL EFFICIENCY... 75% 147 Units Fuel 100 Units...
Analysis of radial fin assembly heat transfer with dehumidification
Rosario, L.; Rahman, M.M. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The aim of this paper is the analysis of heat transfer in a radial fin assembly during the process of dehumidification. An individual finned tube geometry is a reasonable representation of heat exchangers used in air conditioning. The condensation process involves both heat and mass transfer and the cooling takes place by the removal of sensible as well as latent heat. The ratio of sensible to total heat is an important quantity that defines the heat transfer process during a dehumidifier operation. A one-dimensional model for heat transfer in the fin and the heat exchanger block is developed to study the effects of condensation on the fin surface. The combined heat and mass transfer process is modeled by incorporating the ratio of sensible to total heat in the formulation. The augmentation of heat transfer due to fin was established by comparing heat transfer rate with and without fins under the same operating conditions. Numerical calculations were carried out to study the effects of relative humidity and dry bulb temperature of the incoming air, and cold fluid temperature inside the coil on the performance of the heat exchanger. Results were compared to those published for rectangular fin under humid condition showed excellent agreement when the present model was used to compute that limiting condition. It was found that the heat transfer rate increased with increment in both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity of the air. The augmentation factor, however, decreased with increment in relative humidity and the dry bulb temperature.
Sun, Y.; Buscheck, T. A.; Lee, K. H.; Hao, Y.; James, S. C.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
package spac- ing and waste-package heat generation rate,Radioactive heat of decay from waste packages emplaced inwaste packages and emplacement drifts, and for heat ?ow at
Kihm, IconKenneth David
transfer density. CONSTRUCTAL DESIGN: THE GENERATION OF MULTI-SCALE HEAT AND FLUID FLOW STRUCTURES-scale structures in natural convection with the objective of maximizing the heat transfer density, or the heat transfer rate per unit of volume§ . The flow volume is filled with vertical equidistant heated blades
Revamping Pre-Heat Trains for Energy Saving
Yeap, B. L.; Wilson, I.; Pretty, B.; Polley, G. T.
through increased heat recovery. For brevity, we do not consider throughput changes. Only pre-heat train performance is considered. The interaction between pre-heat train and crude oil distillation column performance is considered elsewhere [1... of these divisions are fixed and more significant than the 'pinch point' itself; (iv) The rate of fouling encountered in pre heat train exchangers is dependent upon crude oil velocity and exchanger wall temperature. This means that the 'pinch technology...
Kirol, L.D.
1987-02-11T23:59:59.000Z
A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.
Kirol, Lance D. (Shelly, ID)
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.
Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.
Piscitella, Roger R. (Idaho Falls, ID)
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.
Hindawai, S. M.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building...
Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic?
Williams, Jos. B.
primarily of greater metabolic inten- sities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient500 Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic/22/2007; Electronically Published 7/13/2007 ABSTRACT We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR
5. Heat transfer Ron Zevenhoven
Zevenhoven, Ron
) Heat conductance as Gheat =1/Rheat = Q/T (unit: W/K or W/°C) For a plane material with thickness L (m) and conductivity (W/mK): Gheat = ·A/L Rheat = L/(·A) . . . Åbo Akademi University | Thermal and Flow Engineering rate Q through a cross-sectional area A (m2). If is a constant: with thermal conductivity , unit: W
Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating...
Knowledge of Mathematical Equivalence in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from investigated understanding of mathematical equivalence in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and mathematical equivalence problems. Problem solutions and explanations were coded for accuracy and problem
Equivalence of Conventionally-Derived and Parthenote-Derived Human Embryonic Stem Cells
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Equivalence of Conventionally-Derived and Parthenote-6 | Issue 1 | e14499 Equivalence of hESC and phESC Figure 4.to determine points of equivalence and differences between
De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)
2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z
Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.
Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.
Reedy, W.R.
1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
An integrated heat pump and hot water system is described that includes: a heat pump having an indoor heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger that are selectively connected to the suction line and the discharge line respectively of a compressor by a flow reversing means, and to each other by a liquid line having an expansion device mounted therein, whereby heating and cooling is provided to an indoor comfort zone by cycling the flow reversing means, a refrigerant to water heat exchanger having a hot water flow circuit in heat transfer relation with a first refrigerant condensing circuit and a second refrigerant evaporating circuit, a connection mounted in the liquid between the indoor heat exchanger and the expansion device, control means for regulating the flow of refrigerant through the refrigerant to water heat exchanger to selectively transfer heat into and out of the hot water flow circuit.
Containment, Equivalence and Coreness from CSP to QCSP and beyond
Madelaine, Florent
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) and its quantified extensions, whether without (QCSP) or with disjunction (QCSP_or), correspond naturally to the model checking problem for three increasingly stronger fragments of positive first-order logic. Their complexity is often studied when parameterised by a fixed model, the so-called template. It is a natural question to ask when two templates are equivalent, or more generally when one "contain" another, in the sense that a satisfied instance of the first will be necessarily satisfied in the second. One can also ask for a smallest possible equivalent template: this is known as the core for CSP. We recall and extend previous results on containment, equivalence and "coreness" for QCSP_or before initiating a preliminary study of cores for QCSP which we characterise for certain structures and which turns out to be more elusive.
Mesoscale symmetries explain dynamical equivalence of food webs
Aufderheide, Helge; Gross, Thilo
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A present challenge in complex systems is to identify mesoscale structures that have distinct dynamical implications. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of a previously observed dynamical equivalence of certian ecological food webs. We show that this equivalence is rooted in mesoscale symmetries that exist in these webs. Certain eigenvectors of the Jacobian describing dynamical modes of the system, such as specific instabilities or responses to perturbations, localize on these symmetric motifs. On the one hand this means that by removing a symmetry from the network one obtains a system which has identical dynamics except for the removal of the localized mode. This explains the previously observed equivalence. On the other hand it means that we can identify dynamical modes that only depend on the symmetric motif. Symmetric structures thus provide an example for mesoscale network motifs having distinct and exact implications for the dynamics.
Hindawai, S. M.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
- 1 - MASS AND HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM SALAH MAHMOUD HINDAWI DIRECTOR HINDAWI FOR ENGINEERING SERVICES & CONTRACTING NEW DAMIETTA , EGYPT ABSTRACT : In the last few years heat recovery was under spot . and in air conditioning fields... ) as a heat recovery . and I use the water as a mass recovery . The source of mass and heat recovery is the condensate water which we were dispose and connect it to the drain lines . THE BENEFIT OF THIS SYSTEM ARE : 1) Using the heat energy from...
Thermoelectric heat exchange element
Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)
2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.
The Equivalence Principle and the Constants of Nature
Thibault Damour
2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
We briefly review the various contexts within which one might address the issue of ``why'' the dimensionless constants of Nature have the particular values that they are observed to have. Both the general historical trend, in physics, of replacing a-priori-given, absolute structures by dynamical entities, and anthropic considerations, suggest that coupling ``constants'' have a dynamical nature. This hints at the existence of observable violations of the Equivalence Principle at some level, and motivates the need for improved tests of the Equivalence Principle.
Intern equivalency at the Energy Resources Conservation Board: a report
Collins, Gerald, 1949-
2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z
stream_source_info 4019367.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 91788 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name 4019367.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 INTERN EQUIVALENCY AT THE ENERGY... Engineering INTERN EQUIVALENCY AT THE ENERGY RESOURCES CONSERVATION BOARD A Report by Gerald Collins Approved as to styleand content by (ChairmanJifi?'Commi ttee) (Member) (Member) December 1980 ABSTRACT The author had seven years' engineering...
Electrical charges in gravitational fields, and Einstein's equivalence principle
Gerold Gründler
2015-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
According to Larmor's formula, accelerated electric charges radiate electromagnetic waves. Hence charges should radiate, if they are in free fall in gravitational fields, and they should not radiate if they are supported at rest in gravitational fields. But according to Einstein's equivalence principle, charges in free fall should not radiate, while charges supported at rest in gravitational fields should radiate. In this article we point out indirect experimental evidence, indicating that the equivalence principle is correct, while Larmor's formula must be interpreted different than commonly accepted.
Equivalent circuit modeling of hybrid electric vehicle drive train
Routex, Jean-Yves
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
: Electromechanical model of the DC motor drive. . Figure 4. 4. 2: First equivalent circuit of the DC motor drive Figure 4. 4. 3: Final equivalent circuit of the DC motor drive. Figure 4. 4. 4: Synchronous machine stator circuit. Figure 4. 4. 5: Electromechanical... of the synchronous motor drive. . Figure 4. 4. 9: General torque-speed characteristic of the motor. . . . Figure 4. 5. 1: Electromechanical model of the ICE. Figure 4. 5. 2: Electromechanical model of the gas turbine. Figure 4. 5. 3: Electrical model of the fuel...
N Yabuuchi; Y Lu; A Mansour; S Chen; Y Shao-Horn
2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} samples were prepared from NiMnO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in a range of temperatures from 900 to 1050 C. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} segregated into one major Ni{sup 2+}O-enriched phase and one minor Li{sub 2}Mn{sup 4+}O{sub 3}-enriched phase, where the extent of segregation decreased with increasing synthesis temperature from 900 to 1050 C. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the segregated domains exist in individual particles. Although all of the LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} samples showed comparable specific capacity ({approx}200 mAh/g) and capacity retention at low current densities, the rate capability of LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} of 900 C is lower than that of LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} of 1000 C. As X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that all of the LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} samples had comparable surface chemistry, the higher rate capability of LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} of 1000 C can be attributed to reduced cation segregation of Ni{sup 2+}O-enriched domains in the layered structure of the major phase, having potentially faster lithium diffusion than that of LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} of 900 C.
Heat Integrate Heat Engines in Process Plants
Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.; Townsend, D. W.
~C. T min Table 3. Problem Table Algorithm Applied to Petrochemicals Process Interval GJ ltiour 'Temperatures ! C! 2 ) ? ~ Cold. Hot Aecumulated Heat Heat FJ.owa Interval Streams StrePlS Deficit. Input OUtput -OUtt!utInput. 20 30 -2... of heat which can be passed on in this manner is performed in column 2 and column 3 of Table 3. It is initially assumed that the heat input from external utilities is zero. This is represented in Table 3 by a zero input to the top interval. Having...
2014 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan- Chapter 16, Equivalencies and Exemptions
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
2014 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 16, Equivalencies and Exemptions Describes DOE Headquarters procedures for requesting Equivalencies and Exemptions to DOE security directives.
On the Equivalence of Nonnegative Matrix Factorization and K-means - Spectral Clustering
Ding, Chris; He, Xiaofeng; Simon, Horst D.; Jin, Rong
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
He, and H.D. Simon. On the equivalence of nonnegative matrixOn the Equivalence of Nonnegative Matrix Factorization and
System Modeling of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump
Mahderekal, Isaac [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
To improve the system performance of the GHP, modeling and experimental study has been made by using desiccant system in cooling operation (particularly in high humidity operations) and suction line waste heat recovery to augment heating capacity and efficiency. The performance of overall GHP system has been simulated by using ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Software, which is used to predict steady-state heating and cooling performance of variable-speed vapor compression air-to-air heat pumps for a wide range of operational variables. The modeling includes: (1) GHP cycle without any performance improvements (suction liquid heat exchange and heat recovery) as a baseline (both in cooling and heating mode), (2) the GHP cycle in cooling mode with desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine incorporated, (3) GHP cycle in heating mode with heat recovery (recovered heat from engine). According to the system modeling results, by using desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine, the SHR can be lowered to 40%. The waste heat of the gas engine can boost the space heating efficiency by 25% in rated operating conditions.
Experimental Research on Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage
Han, Z.; Zheng, M.; Liu, W.; Wang, F.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage. In this system, solar energy is the major heat source for a heat pump, and the supplementary heat source is soil. The disagreement in time between the space heat load and heat collected by solar...
Dealing with Uncertainties During Heat Exchanger Design
Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.
heat capacity flow rate of 30 kW/K. The cold stream flowing through E I bas a heat capacity flow rate of 55 kW/K and that flowing through E2 a value of 35 kW/K. 123 ESL-IE-01-05-20 Proceedings from the Twenty-third National Industrial Energy... Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 1-4, 2001 E2 Area = 100 m 2 cp= 35 kW/K El Area = 300 m 2 Figure 1. Simple Heat Exchanger Network CP = 30 kW/K CP= 55 kWIK Assume that exchangers EI (of heat transfer area 100 m 2 ) and E2 (of 300 m 2...
Dynamics of heat transfer between nano systems
Svend-Age Biehs; Girish S. Agarwal
2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a dynamical theory of heat transfer between two nano systems. In particular, we consider the resonant heat transfer between two nanoparticles due to the coupling of localized surface modes having a finite spectral width. We model the coupled nanosystem by two coupled quantum mechanical oscillators, each interacting with its own heat bath, and obtain a master equation for the dynamics of heat transfer. The damping rates in the master equation are related to the lifetimes of localized plasmons in the nanoparticles. We study the dynamics towards the steady state and establish connection with the standard theory of heat transfer in steady state. For strongly coupled nano particles we predict Rabi oscillations in the mean occupation number of surface plasmons in each nano particle.
Control system for fluid heated steam generator
Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.
1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z
A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.
Control system for fluid heated steam generator
Boland, James F. (Bonneville County, ID); Koenig, John F. (Idaho Falls, ID)
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.
Cultural evolution is not equivalent to Darwinian evolution
Reader, Simon
Cultural evolution is not equivalent to Darwinian evolution Dwight W. Read Department://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/anthro/faculty/read/ Abstract: Darwinian evolution, defined as evolution arising from selection based directly on the properties. The difficulty with linking Darwinian evolution to structural properties of cultural constructs is exemplified
A Theory of Operational Equivalence for Interaction Nets
FernÃ¡ndez, Maribel
A Theory of Operational Equivalence for Interaction Nets Maribel Fernâ??andez 1 and Ian Mackie 2 1. In this paper we apply these (now standard) techniques to interactions nets, a graphical programming language in interaction nets since it can be applied to untyped systems, thus all systems of interaction nets are captured
Equivalence for Varieties in General and for BOOL in Particular
Porst, Hans-E. Fachbereich 3
algebras of fixed orders m and the variety BOOL of Boolean algebras are obtained; moreover it can be shownEquivalence for Varieties in General and for BOOL in Particular HansE. Porst Abstract power construction of a variety and McKenzie's modification of classes of algebras [22] become
ON OBSERVATIONAL EQUIVALENCE AND ALGEBRAIC SPECIFICATION --Extended abstract i --
Sannella, Don
operations on nat and bool), and suppose A and B are ~-algebras with tAIbunch = the set of finite setsON OBSERVATIONAL EQUIVALENCE AND ALGEBRAIC SPECIFICATION -- Extended abstract i -- Donald Sannella which is adequate to handle reachable algebras only, and show how to extend it to cope with unreachable
Equivalent roughness height for plane bed under oscillatory flow
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
, the bed roughness height of a flat and fixed bed is given in terms of the Nikuradse roughness height (ks may be several orders of magnitude larger than for a fixed bed. This is probably causedEquivalent roughness height for plane bed under oscillatory flow Beno^it Camenen , Magnus Larson
Equivalent Roughness Height for Plane Bed under Steady Flow
US Army Corps of Engineers
current conditions. In general, owing to dimensional reasons, the bed roughness height of a flat and fixed orders of magnitude larger than for a fixed bed. This is probably caused by the increased energyEquivalent Roughness Height for Plane Bed under Steady Flow Benoît Camenen, Ph.D.1 ; Atilla Bayram
CONTROLLED TOPOLOGICAL EQUIVALENCE OF MAPS IN THE THEORY OF
Hughes, Bruce
CONTROLLED TOPOLOGICAL EQUIVALENCE OF MAPS IN THE THEORY OF STRATIFIED SPACES AND APPROXIMATE connections among the theories of topological stability of maps, controlled topology, and stratified spaces FIBRATIONS Bruce Hughes Ã?Ã?Ã? Ã?Âº Ideas from the theory of topological stability of smooth maps are trans
Flat systems, equivalence and trajectory R. M. Murray
Murray, Richard M.
Flat systems, equivalence and trajectory generation Ph. Martin R. M. Murray P. Rouchon Technical report, April 2003 Abstract Flat systems, an important subclass of nonlinear control systems in- troduced the infinite dimensional geometry devel- oped by Vinogradov and coworkers: a control system is a diffiety
Nordstrom's scalar theory of gravity and the equivalence principle
Nathalie Deruelle
2011-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
Nordstrom's theory of gravity, which describes gravity by a scalar field in flat spacetime, is observationally ruled out. It is however the only theory of gravity with General Relativity to obey the strong equivalence principle. I show in this paper that this remarkable property is true beyond post-newtonian level and can be related to the existence of a 'Nordstrom-Katz' superpotential.
The Equivalence Principle as a Probe for Higher Dimensions
Paul S. Wesson
2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z
Higher-dimensional theories of the kind which may unify gravitation with particle physics can lead to significant modifications of general relativity. In five dimensions, the vacuum becomes non-standard, and the Weak Equivalence Principle becomes a geometrical symmetry which can be broken, perhaps at a level detectable by new tests in space.
An ideal independent source as an equivalent 1-port
Emanuel Gluskin; Anatoly Patlakh
2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a 1-port, not necessarily linear, with a dependent source, appearing at the port. The control of the source is entirely internal for the 1-port. If this source is a parallel voltage source, then the equivalent circuit is an ideal independent voltage source, and if it is a series current source, then the equivalent circuit is an ideal independent current source. (As usual, "ideal" source is defined as a source whose proposed function is independent of the load.) In the simple LTI case, these results can be obtained, respectively, by either taking RTh zero in the Thevenin equivalent, or taking RN infinite in the Norton equivalent; however the very fact that the final circuits do not include any linear elements indicates the possibility of generalization to nonlinear 1-ports. Some limitations on the circuit's structure (functional dependencies in it) are required, and the clearness of these limitations, i.e. clearness of the conditions for the 1-port to be an ideal source for any load, is the aesthetical point.
Equivalence in Knowledge Representation: Automata, Recurrent Neural Networks,
Giles, C. Lee
Equivalence in Knowledge Representation: Automata, Recurrent Neural Networks, and Dynamical Fuzzy finite state automata (DFA) can be synthesized by or mapped into recurrent neural networks by directly programming the DFA structure into the weights of the neural network. Based on those results, a synthesis
DISCUSSIONS AND CLOSURES Discussion of "Equivalent Static Wind
Chen, Xinzhong
. By definition, the ESWL is a wind force and when it is applied statically, the response found by static analysis not occur without a cost. The ESWL in Eq. 10 of the original paper was developed for any particular windDISCUSSIONS AND CLOSURES Discussion of "Equivalent Static Wind Loads on Buildings: New Model
The Equivalence between Row and Column Linear Regression
Tresp, Volker
The Equivalence between Row and Column Linear Regression: A Surprising Feature of Linear Regression and Communications 81730 M¨unchen, Germany Abstract The rows of the design matrix in linear regression are the inputs of the training data set. Normal regression is row regression: the goal is to predict a training target from
Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.
Not Available
1980-03-07T23:59:59.000Z
A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.
Bryan, C.B.; Childs, K.W.; Giles, G.E.
1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The HEATING series of general purpose, finite-difference, conduction heat transfer codes have been in use for many years. During this time the codes have been used extensively, and a general confidence has been developed in regard to their accuracy. However, there has never been a formal verification in a published, citable document. This report documents just such a verification study for the latest code in the HEATING series, HEATING6. This study confirms that HEATING6 is capable of producing accurate results for a large class of heat transfer problems. 11 refs., 170 figs., 82 tabs.
McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.
Childs, K.W.
1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
HEATING is a FORTRAN program designed to solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one-, two-, or three- dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time- and temperature-dependent. The thermal conductivity may be anisotropic. Materials may undergo change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heating generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time- and position-dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface-to-boundary or surface-to-surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time- and/or temperature-dependent. General graybody radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING is variably dimensioned and utilizes free-form input. Three steady-state solution techniques are available: point-successive-overrelaxation iterative method with extrapolation, direct-solution (for one-dimensional or two-dimensional problems), and conjugate gradient. Transient problems may be solved using one of several finite-difference schemes: Crank-Nicolson implicit, Classical Implicit Procedure (CIP), Classical Explicit Procedure (CEP), or Levy explicit method (which for some circumstances allows a time step greater than the CEP stability criterion). The solution of the system of equations arising from the implicit techniques is accomplished by point-successive-overrelaxation iteration and includes procedures to estimate the optimum acceleration parameter.
Surface-induced heating of cold polar molecules
Stefan Yoshi Buhmann; M. R. Tarbutt; Stefan Scheel; E. A. Hinds
2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z
We study the rotational and vibrational heating of diatomic molecules placed near a surface at finite temperature on the basis of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics. The internal molecular evolution is governed by transition rates that depend on both temperature and position. Analytical and numerical methods are used to investigate the heating of several relevant molecules near various surfaces. We determine the critical distances at which the surface itself becomes the dominant source of heating and we investigate the transition between the long-range and short-range behaviour of the heating rates. A simple formula is presented that can be used to estimate the surface-induced heating rates of other molecules of interest. We also consider how the heating depends on the thickness and composition of the surface.
Low Temperature Heat Recovery for Boiler Systems
Shook, J. R.; Luttenberger, D. B.
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
to or below water dewpoint, thus releasing significant quantities of latent (condensing)energy. This latent energy can be recovered if a large, cold heat sink is available. Process or district heating boilers with large cold make-up water requirements can... BTU recovpry rate will be realized with the greatest L?'TD aval.1able. It is therefore recommended that the coldest possible heat sink be located for a condensing economizer system. Tt is important to model the I'ntire steam balance of the system...
Evaporation and Condensation Heat Transfer Performance of Flammable Refrigerants in a
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Evaporation and Condensation Heat Transfer Performance of Flammable Refrigerants in a Brazed Plate and Condensation Heat Transfer Performance of Flammable Refrigerants in a Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger Sheila C ........................................................... 8 3. Average relative difference (%) in calculated heat transfer rates for refrigerants and HTF
Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...
Uncertainty in the Oceanic Heat and Carbon Uptake and Their Impact on Climate Projections
. These disagreements are, in part, due to differences in the rate of the penetration of heat into the deep ocean. SinceUncertainty in the Oceanic Heat and Carbon Uptake and Their Impact on Climate Projections Andrei P in the rate of heat and carbon uptake by the deep ocean on climate response to increases in greenhouse gas
Weber, Richard
11 Kalman Filtering and Certainty Equivalence We presents the important concepts of the Kalman. In the Gaussian case, it is also the maximum likelihood estimator. 11.2 The Kalman filter Let us make the LQG for these two quantities. Theorem 11.2 (The Kalman filter) Suppose that conditional on W0, the initial state x0
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...
Lenert, Andrej
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...
DistrictHeating Nuevasaladecalderasydistribucin
Fraguela, Basilio B.
DistrictHeating Nuevasaladecalderasydistribución decaloreneláreauniversitariade AZapateira Jesús, difusión. DISTRICT HEATING O CALEFACCIÓN DE BARRIO #12;MATERIALIZACIÓN INTEGRACIÓN VISUAL DE ELEMENTOS rendimiento global de la instalación. - Contabilización de pérdidas en tuberías de distribución. #12;DISTRICT
Samady, Mezhgan Frishta
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
influence on the heat transfer as the radiation. Since thethe heat transfer analysis, the difference of net radiationheat transfer involved i n this project were conduction, convection and radiation.
Samady, Mezhgan Frishta
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Webinar of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's presentation about residential solar water heating technologies and applications.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Presents information on the success of Massachusetts's HEAT loan offerings and how the financing tool is funded.
Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.
Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.
1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
If you live in a hot, humid climate, a dehumidifying heat pipe may improve comfort by reducing indoor humidity.
Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)
1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z
A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.
Ernst, D.M.
1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z
A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.
Virtual Laboratories > 1. Foundations > 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5. Equivalence Relations
Demeio, Lucio
Virtual Laboratories > 1. Foundations > 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5. Equivalence Relations A relation on a nonempty set S that is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive is said to be an equivalence relation on S. As the name and notation suggest, an equivalence relation is intended to define a type of equivalence among
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND THE THERMODYNAMIC FORMALISM: A NEW PROOF OF THE EQUIVALENCE OF ENSEMBLES a
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND THE THERMODYNAMIC FORMALISM: A NEW PROOF OF THE EQUIVALENCE OF ENSEMBLES a J The Equivalence of Ensembles In statistical mechanics the problem of the equivalence of ensembles goes back, the microcanonical measures and the grand canonical measures are equivalent; making precise the meaning
Orbit equivalence of Cantor minimal systems: A survey and a new proof
Putnam, Ian F.
Orbit equivalence of Cantor minimal systems: A survey and a new proof Ian F. Putnam, Department Abstract We give a new proof of the classification, up to topological orbit equivalence, of minimal AF-equivalence on the structure of AF-equivalence relations and the theory of dimension groups; we give a short survey
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Abstract: Full sequential equivalence checking by state space traversal has been shown, Simulation, SAT) to transform the sequential equivalence checking problem into a combinational equivalence successful in general, they are not able to reach proof of equivalence in presence of complex transformations
ON ALMOST BLOW-ANALYTIC EQUIVALENCE GOULWEN FICHOU AND MASAHIRO SHIOTA
Boyer, Edmond
ON ALMOST BLOW-ANALYTIC EQUIVALENCE GOULWEN FICHOU AND MASAHIRO SHIOTA Abstract. We study the analytic equivalence of real analytic function germs after desin- gularization and state the cardinality of the classes under this equivalence relation. We consider also the Nash case, and compare these equivalences
Pansu, Pierre
Metric problems in sub-Riemannian geometry Gromov's dimension approach to the H¨older equivalence problem Gromov's cochain approach to the H¨older equivalence problem Rumin's complex Quasisymmetric H¨older-Lipschitz equivalence problem Differential forms and the H¨older equivalence problem P. Pansu September 1st, 2014 P
ccsd-00004260,version1-15Feb2005 Galois coverings, Morita equivalence and smash
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
ccsd-00004260,version1-15Feb2005 Galois coverings, Morita equivalence and smash extensions to Morita equivalence of k-categories. For this purpose we describe processes providing Morita equivalences that there is a coincidence up to Morita equivalence between Galois coverings of k-categories and smash extensions
Acoustic Heating Peter Ulmschneider
Ulmschneider, Peter
Acoustic Heating Peter Ulmschneider lnstitut fiir Theoretische Astrophysik der Universitat waves are a viable and prevalent heating mechanism both in early- and in late-type stars. Acoustic heating appears to be a dominant mechanism for situations where magnetic fields are weak or absent
Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)
2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.
Kandlikar, Satish
Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer
A corrosive resistant heat exchanger
Richlen, S.L.
1987-08-10T23:59:59.000Z
A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Water Heating | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Energy Saver Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs....
Magnetars as cooling neutron stars with internal heating
A. D. Kaminker; D. G. Yakovlev; A. Y. Potekhin; N. Shibazaki; P. S. Shternin; O. Y. Gnedin
2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
We study thermal structure and evolution of magnetars as cooling neutron stars with a phenomenological heat source in a spherical internal layer. We explore the location of this layer as well as the heating rate that could explain high observable thermal luminosities of magnetars and would be consistent with the energy budget of neutron stars. We conclude that the heat source should be located in an outer magnetar's crust, at densities rho heat intensity of the order of 1e20 erg/s/cm^3. Otherwise the heat energy is mainly emitted by neutrinos and cannot warm up the surface.
A climatic heat budget study of the Gulf of Mexico
Etter, Paul Courtney
1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of heat storage (G ) is calo~ lated apparently for the first time directly by use of available bathythermograph (BT) data. Heat flux di rergence due to currents (0 ), calculated as a residual in the heat budget equation, is small. The monthly mean... surface ( CA) . . 16 C. The rate of heat storage (Q ) 32 0. Solution of the oceanic heat budget 39 Comparison with Earlier Studies Summary 56 References Appendix A App ndix 3 Vita 61 79 vi LIST OF TA. '3LES Table Page Number of observations...
On the design of heat-transfer probes
Brich, M.A.; Ganzha, V.L.; Saxena, S.C. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)
1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Saxena and coworkers have reported heat-transfer coefficient values for magnetofluidized beds using electrically heated heat-transfer probes. Here, a two-dimensional heat-transfer model is employed to investigate the influence of significant design features on measured parameters. Numerical calculations reveal that the thermal conductivity of the probe material has an insignificant contribution but the material of end caps and relative sizes and locations of the probe and heater appreciably influence the heat-transfer rates through end-conduction.
Equivalence problem for the orthogonal webs on the sphere
Caroline Cochran; Raymond G. McLenaghan; Roman G. Smirnov
2010-09-22T23:59:59.000Z
We solve the equivalence problem for the orthogonally separable webs on the three-sphere under the action of the isometry group. This continues a classical project initiated by Olevsky in which he solved the corresponding canonical forms problem. The solution to the equivalence problem together with the results by Olevsky forms a complete solution to the problem of orthogonal separation of variables to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation defined on the three-sphere via orthogonal separation of variables. It is based on invariant properties of the characteristic Killing two-tensors in addition to properties of the corresponding algebraic curvature tensor and the associated Ricci tensor. The result is illustrated by a non-trivial application to a natural Hamiltonian defined on the three-sphere.
Ganapathy, V.
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Heat transfer principles are discussed with emphasis on the practical aspects of the problems. Correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop from several worldwide sources for flow inside and outside of tubes, including finned tubes are presented, along with design and performance calculations of heat exchangers economizers, air heaters, condensers, waste-heat boilers, fired heaters, superheaters, and boiler furnaces. Vibration analysis for tube bundles and heat exchangers are also discussed, as are estimating gas-mixture properties at atmospheric and elevated pressures and life-cycle costing techniques. (JMT)
Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.
Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J
2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.
Heat Integrate Heat Engines in Process Plants
Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.; Townsend, D. W.
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a novel method for the integration of heat engines into total processes to effect large energy savings. Paybacks are often short. The method is applicable to new designs and retrofits and is ...
Torsion-balance tests of the weak equivalence principle
T. A. Wagner; S. Schlamminger; J. H. Gundlach; E. G. Adelberger
2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z
We briefly summarize motivations for testing the weak equivalence principle and then review recent torsion-balance results that compare the differential accelerations of beryllium-aluminum and beryllium-titanium test body pairs with precisions at the part in $10^{13}$ level. We discuss some implications of these results for the gravitational properties of antimatter and dark matter, and speculate about the prospects for further improvements in experimental sensitivity.
Development of design tool for statically equivalent deepwater mooring systems
Udoh, Ikpoto Enefiok
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
system which has been reduced in size and which matches the static properties of the full depth system in the same number of rigid body degrees of freedom and over some specified range of loads or offsets is best described as a ?statically equivalent... restoring forces and global stiffness in some specified number of rigid body degrees of freedom, and over some specified loads or offsets. Other parameters typically included are natural frequencies of the free vibration of the floater. ? Designing...
MOSFETMOSFET ffTT MOSFET small-signal equivalent circuits
Pulfrey, David L.
--parametersparameters 1. fT is related to the short-circuit current gain 2. |id/ig|2 = |y23/y33|2 3. Extrapolated f to one using z-parameters 2. It's now easy to add in the parasitic R's 3. fT is related to the short-circuit1 MOSFETMOSFET ffTT LECTURE 17 · MOSFET small-signal equivalent circuits · 2-port parameters · y
Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions
Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Gao, Yufei (Kennewick, WA)
2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z
Reactors and processes are disclosed that can utilize high heat fluxes to obtain fast, steady-state reaction rates. Porous catalysts used in conjunction with microchannel reactors to obtain high rates of heat transfer are also disclosed. Reactors and processes that utilize short contact times, high heat flux and low pressure drop are described. Improved methods of steam reforming are also provided.
Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions
Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Wang, Yong; Wegeng, Robert S.; Gao, Yufei
2003-09-09T23:59:59.000Z
Reactors and processes are disclosed that can utilize high heat fluxes to obtain fast, steady-state reaction rates. Porous catalysts used in conjunction with microchannel reactors to obtain high rates of heat transfer are also disclosed. Reactors and processes that utilize short contact times, high heat flux and low pressure drop are described. Improved methods of steam reforming are also provided.
Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.
Active microchannel heat exchanger
Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.
Heat Transfer Operators Associated with Quantum Operations
Ç. Aksak; S. Turgut
2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z
Any quantum operation applied on a physical system is performed as a unitary transformation on a larger extended system. If the extension used is a heat bath in thermal equilibrium, the concomitant change in the state of the bath necessarily implies a heat exchange with it. The dependence of the average heat transferred to the bath on the initial state of the system can then be found from the expectation value of a hermitian operator, which is named as the heat transfer operator (HTO). The purpose of this article is the investigation of the relation between the HTOs and the associated quantum operations. Since, any given quantum operation on a system can be realized by different baths and unitaries, many different HTOs are possible for each quantum operation. On the other hand, there are also strong restrictions on the HTOs which arise from the unitarity of the transformations. The most important of these is the Landauer erasure principle. This article is concerned with the question of finding a complete set of restrictions on the HTOs that are associated with a given quantum operation. An answer to this question has been found only for a subset of quantum operations. For erasure operations, these characterizations are equivalent to the generalized Landauer erasure principle. For the case of generic quantum operations however, it appears that the HTOs obey further restrictions which cannot be obtained from the entropic restrictions of the generalized Landauer erasure principle.
Impingement cooling and heat transfer measurement using transient liquid crystal technique
Huang, Yizhe
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A heat transfer study on jet impingement cooling is presented. The study focuses on the effect of impingement jet flow rate, jet angle, and flow exit direction on various target surface heat transfer distributions. A two-channel test section...
Greenberg, Steve
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
rates of each fluid (water and air) to be known for eachcontained two separate air-to-water heat exchangers, rathercontained two, larger air-to-water heat exchangers, compared
PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP W. D. C. Richards and W. L. Auxer General Electric Company Space Division King of Prussia, Pa. ABSTRACT A heat activated heat pump (HAHP by the heat pump effect. The Stirling engine/Rankine cycle refrigeration loop heat pump being developed would
Radiant Heating | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating. Radiant heating has a number of advantages. It is...
Anisotropic turbulent model for solar coronal heating
B. Bigot; S. Galtier; H. Politano
2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z
Context : We present a self-consistent model of solar coronal heating, originally developed by Heyvaert & Priest (1992), in which we include the dynamical effect of the background magnetic field along a coronal structure by using exact results from wave MHD turbulence (Galtier et al. 2000). Aims : We evaluate the heating rate and the microturbulent velocity for comparison with observations in the quiet corona, active regions and also coronal holes. Methods :The coronal structures are assumed to be in a turbulent state maintained by the slow erratic motions of the magnetic footpoints. A description for the large-scale and the unresolved small-scale dynamics are given separately. From the latter, we compute exactly (or numerically for coronal holes) turbulent viscosites that are finally used in the former to close self-consistently the system and derive the heating flux expression. Results : We show that the heating rate and the turbulent velocity compare favorably with coronal observations. Conclusions : Although the Alfven wave turbulence regime is strongly anisotropic, and could reduce a priori the heating efficiency, it provides an unexpected satisfactory model of coronal heating for both magnetic loops and open magnetic field lines.
Compressor Selection and Equipment Sizing for Cold Climate Heat Pumps
Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In order to limit heating capacity degradation at -25 C (-13 F) ambient to 25%, compared to the nominal rating point capacity at 8.3 C (47 F), an extensive array of design and sizing options were investigated, based on fundamental equipment system modeling and building energy simulation. Sixteen equipment design options were evaluated in one commercial building and one residential building, respectively in seven cities. The energy simulation results were compared to three baseline cases: 100% electric resistance heating, a 9.6 HSPF single-speed heat pump unit, and 90% AFUE gas heating system. The general recommendation is that variable-speed compressors and tandem compressors, sized such that their rated heating capacity at a low speed matching the building design cooling load, are able to achieve the capacity goal at low ambient temperatures by over-speeding, for example, a home with a 3.0 ton design cooling load, a tandem heat pump could meet this cooling load running a single compressor, while running both compressors to meet heating load at low ambient temperatures in a cold climate. Energy savings and electric resistance heat reductions vary with building types, energy codes and climate zones. Oversizing a heat pump can result in larger energy saving in a less energy efficient building and colder regions due to reducing electric resistance heating. However, in a more energy-efficient building or for buildings in warmer climates, one has to consider balance between reduction of resistance heat and addition of cyclic loss.
Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems
Meisner, Gregory P
2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z
Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.
Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate
Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.
2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.
HEATING7.3. 1,2, or 3-d Heat Conduction Program
Childs, K.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab, TN (United States)
1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
HEATING7.2I and 7.3 is the most recent developmant in a series of heat-transfer codes and obsoletes all previous versions. HEATING can solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one, two, or three-dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical coordinates or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time and temperature dependent. The thermal conductivity can be anisotropic. Materials may undergo a change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heat-generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time and position dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface to environment or surface to surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time-and/or temperature dependent. General graybody radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING uses a run time memory allocation scheme to avoid having to recompile to match memory requirements for each specific problem. HEATING utilizes free-form input.
Thermal stability of a spherical shell heated by convection and cooled by boiling
Qaim-Maqami, Hassan
1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
such high heat transfer rates by forced convection would require extremely high veloc- ities with subsequent high pressure dropsy With nuclee, boiling, however, such high heat transfe. rates an be obtained at much smaller velocities. Boiling heat...THERMAL STABILITY OF A. SPHERICAL SHELL HEATED BY CONVECTION AND COOLED BY BOILING A Thesis HASSAN @AIM-MAQAMI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...
ARM - Evaluation Product - Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP)
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The Impulsive Heating Rate in Shocked O Star Winds
Cohen, David
-4 of wind KE ...How is this small fraction of the wind kinetic energy extracted ? Trumpler 14 in Carina the wind, generally above some onset radius r =1.5R* 1-D radiation-hydro simulation Line Deshadowing% of the mass of the wind is emitting X-rays >99% of the wind is cold and X-ray absorbing #12;1-D rad-hydro
Property:Heat Recovery Rating | Open Energy Information
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Status of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP
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Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5(Million Cubic Feet) Oregon (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million CubicRefinersUpcoming Release ofTableScientiststom D mDepartmentVerticalSensitivity of
RATE OF ELECTRON HEATING IN A MULTIDIPOLE PLASMA
Leung, K.N.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, under contract No. W-of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, under contract W-7405-
Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies in Canada IEA Heat Pump Workshop London, UK November 13 in the world, with an average of 16,995 kilowatt-hours per annum. #12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat
Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps
Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.
is operating at the waste heat leveL The gaseous ligand refrigerant enters the reactor as superheated gas or, if the insulation is inadequate, as a two phase fluid at a quality of x=O.95 or higher adequate for the adsorption. Condensation on the top... fins and wire mesh. A reaction rate reduction of 50% was observed. The experiments were performed with a 10mm layer of NaBr as the adsorbent and ammonia as the ligand. The mechanical support of the salt can be performed by a thin plastic plate or...
Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.
1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z
An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.
Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.
Optimization of Heat Exchangers
Ivan Catton
2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.
Pruess, K.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
effects on heat extraction rates and the water content ofof heat extraction for CO 2 and water- based systems, we hadover water-based systems, including larger heat extraction
Simulation of a High Efficiency Multi-bed Adsorption Heat Pump
TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Humble, Paul H.; Sweeney, J. B.
2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Attaining high energy efficiency with adsorption heat pumps is challenging due to thermodynamic losses that occur when the sorbent beds are thermally cycled without effective heat recuperation. The multi-bed concept described here effectively transfers heat from beds being cooled to beds being heated, which enables high efficiency in thermally driven heat pumps. A simplified lumped-parameter model and detailed finite element analysis are used to simulate the performance of an ammonia-carbon sorption compressor, which is used to project the overall heat pump coefficient of performance. The effects of bed geometry and number of beds on system performance are explored, and the majority of the performance benefit is obtained with four beds. Results indicate that a COP of 1.24 based on heat input is feasible at AHRI standard test conditions for residential HVAC equipment. When compared on a basis of primary energy input, performance equivalent to SEER 13 or 14 are theoretically attainable with this system.
Fluidized bed heat treating system
Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L
2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.
Volumetric In Situ Electrical Heating: An Unexploited Electrotechnology
Bridges, J. E.
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
ELECTRICAL HEATING: AN UNEXPLOITED ELECTROTECHNOLOGY J. E. BRIDGES, SENIOR SCIENCE ADVISOR, lIT RESEARCH INSTITUTE, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ABSTRACT The use of electrical energy to heat large volumes of earth in place ("in situ") offers significant advantages... over conventional in situ heat-transfer methods. For example, where properly applied, the near-wellbore application of electrical energy can triple flow rates from heavy-oil wells for an incremental operational cost of only a few dollars per...
Rapid Measurement of Neutron Dose Rate for Transport Index
Morris, R.L.
2000-02-27T23:59:59.000Z
A newly available neutron dose equivalent remmeter with improved sensitivity and energy response has been put into service at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). This instrument is being used to expedite measurement of the Transport Index and as an ALARA tool to identify locations where slightly elevated neutron dose equivalent rates exist. The meter is capable of measuring dose rates as low as 0.2 {mu}Sv per hour (20 {mu}rem per hour). Tests of the angular response and energy response of the instrument are reported. Calculations of the theoretical instrument response made using MCNP{trademark} are reported for materials typical of those being shipped.
Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)
2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z
A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.
Process for heating coal-oil slurries
Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)
1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z
Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.
Process for heating coal-oil slurries
Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.
1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z
Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.
Condensing Heat Exchangers Optimize Steam Boilers
Sullivan, B.; Sullivan, P. A.
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the flue gas from the p~oducts of combustion faom natural gas from 300 to the dew point of 129 results in an efficiency increase of 3%. Further cooling, resulting in condensa tion of water vapor, increases the rate of heat recovery dramatically and a...
Ganapathy, V.
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of the HRSG; alternatively saturated steam trom the HRSG could be taken for process and a lesser quantity may be superheated.The superheater design has to consider' these requi rements. A schematic diagram is helpful particularly in multi-pressure HRSG... HEAT BOILERS V.Ganapathy.ABCO Industries Abilene,Texas ABSTRACT Waste heat boilers or Heat Recovery Steam 'Generators(HRSGs) as they are often called are used to recover energy from waste gas streams in chemical plants, refineries...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the TechnologySystem ......
None
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.
Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.
Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)
2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z
A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.
Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)
2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z
A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.
Equivalent forms of the Bessis-Moussa-Villani conjecture
Elliott H. Lieb; Robert Seiringer
2004-01-09T23:59:59.000Z
The BMV conjecture for traces, which states that $Tr exp(A -\\lambda B)$ is the Laplace transform of a positive measure, is shown to be equivalent to two other statements: (i) The polynomial $\\lambda\\mapsto Tr(A+\\lambda B)^p$ has only non-negative coefficients for all $A, B \\geq 0$, $p\\in N$ and (ii) $\\lambda\\mapsto \\Tr (A+\\lambda B)^{-p}$ is the Laplace transform of a positive measure for $A, B \\geq 0$, $p>0$.
The equivalence of inverse Compton scattering and the undulator concept
Ng, K.Y,; /Fermilab
2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Inverse Compton scattering is a method to produce very high frequency photon beam. However, the production mechanism can also be viewed as a undulator emission. This is because the electron sees electric and magnetic fields of the incident laser beam and is driven into transverse oscillatory motion in exactly the same way when the electron passes through a undulator consisting of alternating magnetic field. This note gives a detailed examination of the similarity about the two views. Equivalent undulator parameters are derived for the incident laser beam, as well as the differential cross section of photon emission.
Commutation Relations for Double Tensors of Two Equivalent D Electrons
Chin-Sheng Wu
2007-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
We apply the Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients to calculate the double tensors for two equivalent d electrons. We also obtain the commutation relations for these double tensors and choose certain quantum numbers, which produce a subgroup. From the root vectors of the commutation relations, we identify them with Lie algebra B2. Once we have the correct Lie algebra, it is feasible to use the Wigner-Eckart theorem to find matrix elements for transition states among atomic spectra or nuclear shell models.
Equivalence principle and experimental tests of gravitational spin effects
A. J. Silenko; O. V. Teryaev
2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z
We study the possibility of experimental testing the manifestations of equivalence principle in spin-gravity interactions. We reconsider the earlier experimental data and get the first experimental bound on anomalous gravitomagnetic moment. The spin coupling to the Earth's rotation may also be explored at the extensions of neutron EDM and g-2 experiments. The spin coupling to the terrestrial gravity produces a considerable effect which may be discovered at the planned deuteron EDM experiment. The Earth's rotation should also be taken into account in optical experiments on a search for axionlike particles.
Union Power Cooperative- Residential Energy Efficient Heat Pump Loan Program
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Union Power Cooperative offers low interest loans to help its qualifying residential customers finance new, energy-efficient heat pumps. Interest rates, currently at 9%, will be fixed for the term...
Haywood EMC- Residential Heat Pump and Weatherization Loan Program
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Haywood EMC offers a low interest loan to residential customers to finance the purchase of an energy efficient heat pump and certain weatherization measures. The current interest rate is 5% and the...
Oscillating side-branch enhancements of thermoacoustic heat exchangers
Swift, Gregory W.
2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z
A regenerator-based engine or refrigerator has a regenerator with two ends at two different temperatures, through which a gas oscillates at a first oscillating volumetric flow rate in the direction between the two ends and in which the pressure of the gas oscillates, and first and second heat exchangers, each of which is at one of the two different temperatures. A dead-end side branch into which the gas oscillates has compliance and is connected adjacent to one of the ends of the regenerator to form a second oscillating gas flow rate additive with the first oscillating volumetric flow rate, the compliance having a volume effective to provide a selected total oscillating gas volumetric flow rate through the first heat exchanger. This configuration enables the first heat exchanger to be configured and located to better enhance the performance of the heat exchanger rather than being confined to the location and configuration of the regenerator.
Energy effectiveness of simultaneous heat and mass exchange devices
Narayan, G. Prakash
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Simultaneous heat and mass exchange devices such as cooling towers, humidifiers and dehumidifiers are widely used in the power generation, desalination, air conditioning, and refrigeration industries. For design and rating ...
Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants
Mathur, Anoop [Terrafore Inc.] [Terrafore Inc.
2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during experimentation.
PreHeat: Controlling Home Heating Using Occupancy Prediction
Krumm, John
PreHeat: Controlling Home Heating Using Occupancy Prediction James Scott1 , A.J. Bernheim Brush2 efficiently heat homes by using occupancy sensing and occupancy prediction to automatically control home heating. We deployed PreHeat in five homes, three in the US and two in the UK. In UK homes, we controlled
First university owned district heating system using biomass heat
Northern British Columbia, University of
Highlights · First university owned district heating system using biomass heat · Capacity: 15 MMBtu Main Campus District Heating Performance · Avoided: 3500 tonnes of CO2 · Particulate: less than 10 mg District Heating Goals To displace 85% of natural gas used for core campus heating. Fuel Bunker Sawmill
Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust
Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)
2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z
An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.
Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Railway Companies (South Carolina)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This legislation applies to public utilities and entities furnishing natural gas, heat, water, sewerage, and street railway services to the public. The legislation addresses rates and services,...
On the equivalence theorem in f(R)-type generalized gravity
Y. Ezawa; H. Iwasaki; Y. Ohkuwa; S. Watanabe; N. Yamada; T. Yano
2009-03-26T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate whether the equivalence theorem in f(R)-type gravity is valid also in quantum theory. It is shown that, if the canonical quantization is assumed, equivalence does not hold in quantum theory.
Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust
Chuen-Sen Lin
2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data, the synthetic fuel contained slightly less heat energy and fewer emissions. Test results obtained from adding different levels of a small amount of hydrogen into the intake manifold of a diesel-operated engine showed no effect on exhaust heat content. In other words, both synthetic fuel and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen may not have a significant enough effect on the amount of recoverable heat and its feasibility. An economic analysis computer program was developed on Visual Basic for Application in Microsoft Excel. The program was developed to be user friendly, to accept different levels of input data, and to expand for other heat recovery applications (i.e., power, desalination, etc.) by adding into the program the simulation subroutines of the desired applications. The developed program has been validated using experimental data.
Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery
Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Pump Cool water Fig. 1 The flow chart of project ? 41? 31? Condenser Evaporator Water meters Heat exchanger 46? 5? Compressor Cool water Water tank Bathroom Water pool Water supply tubes Drainage tubes 8? Pump Pump Cool water Fig. 2 The flow...
Microchannel heat sink assembly
Bonde, Wayne L. (Livermore, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA)
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.
Microchannel heat sink assembly
Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.
1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.
Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.
Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.
Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.
Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...
114 CHAPTER 2. REGULAR LANGUAGES 2.17 Right-Invariant Equivalence Relations on
Gallier, Jean
114 CHAPTER 2. REGULAR LANGUAGES 2.17 Right-Invariant Equivalence Relations on Let D = (Q, , , q0 an equivalent DFA Dr such that L(D) = L(Dr), where all the states of Dr are reachable. From now on, we assume-INVARIANT EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS ON 115 Recall that an equivalence relation on a set A is a relation which is reflexive
Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.
Babac, Gulru, E-mail: babac@itu.edu.tr [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey)] [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Reese, Jason M. [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.
Improved solar heating systems
Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.
1980-05-16T23:59:59.000Z
An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.
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On the equivalence of state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics
Keimel, Klaus
On the equivalence of state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics Dedicated and the author [13] have worked out the equivalence between state transformer semantics and predicate transformer the last section, where the equivalence of predicate and state transformer semantics is finally put
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Kareem, Ahsan
EQUIVALENT STATIC WIND LOAD DISTRIBUTION OF COUPLED BUFFETING RESPONSE OF BRIDGES Xinzhong Chen in terms of the equivalent static wind loads. The gust response factor (GRF) approach that assumes the equivalent static loads having the same distribution of the mean static wind loads is widely used
1 Copyright 2004 by ASME DESIGN FOR CRASHWORTHINESS OF VEHICLE STRUCTURES VIA EQUIVALENT
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Strong and uniform equivalence of nonmonotonic theories --an algebraic Miroslaw Truszczynski
Truszczynski, Miroslaw
Strong and uniform equivalence of nonmonotonic theories -- an algebraic approach Miroslaw Truszczy We show that the concepts of strong and uniform equivalence of logic programs can be generalized and uniform equivalence for sev- eral nonmonotonic logics including logic programming with aggregates, default
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Shpilrain, Vladimir
The Stable Equivalence and Cancellation Problems Leonid Makar-Limanov #3; Peter van Rossum Vladimir are isomorphic. In this paper, we focus on a related problem: given two varieties with equivalent (under an automorphism of A n+1 ) cylinders V 1 #2;A 1 and V 2 #2;A 1 , are V 1 and V 2 equivalent under an automorphism
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Hu, Wayne
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Paris-Sud XI, Université de
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