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1

Latent Heating and Cooling Rates in Developing and Nondeveloping Tropical Disturbances during TCS-08: Radar-Equivalent Retrievals from Mesoscale Numerical Models and ELDORA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Latent heating and cooling rates have a critical role in predicting tropical cyclone formation and intensification. In a prior study, Park and Elsberry estimated the latent heating and cooling rates from aircraft Doppler radar [Electra Doppler ...

Myung-Sook Park; Andrew B. Penny; Russell L. Elsberry; Brian J. Billings; James D. Doyle

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Heat Rate Program Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power plant facilities with performance or heat rate improvement programs perform better than those that do not have those programs. A heat rate improvement program typically provides sufficient information for decision making with respect to timely maintenance actions and/or operational adjustments. Monitoring the performance of any power plant component includes the trending of parameters that also describe the performance of other plant components, providing insight and information on improving ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

Large-Strain Time-Temperature Equivalence and Adiabatic Heating of Polyethylene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time-temperature equivalence is a well-known phenomenon in time-dependent material response, where rapid events at a moderate temperature are indistinguishable from some occurring at modest rates but elevated temperatures. However, there is as-yet little elucidation of how well this equivalence holds for substantial plastic strains. In this work, we demonstrate time-temperature equivalence over a large range in a previously studied high-density polyethylene formulation (HDPE). At strain-rates exceeding 0.1/s, adiabatic heating confounds the comparison of nominally isothermal material response, apparently violating time-temperature equivalence. Strain-rate jumps can be employed to access the instantaneous true strain rate without heating. Adiabatic heating effects were isolated by comparing a locus of isothermal instantaneous flow stress measurements from strain-rate jumps up to 1/s with the predicted equivalent states at 0.01/s and 0.001/s in compression. Excellent agreement between the isothermal jump condition locus and the quasi-static tests was observed up to 50% strain, yielding one effective isothermal plastic response for each material for a given time-temperature equivalent state. These results imply that time-temperature equivalence can be effectively used to predict the deformation response of polymers during extreme mechanical events (large strain and high strain-rate) from measurements taken at reduced temperatures and nominal strain-rates in the laboratory.

Furmanski, Jevan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

4

2011 Heat Rate Improvement Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the rising cost of fuel and the strong possibility of CO2 emissions regulations and limitations in the near future, utilities and power generation companies are focusing on power plant heat rate and performance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 17th Heat Rate Improvement Conference is the latest in a series of meetings designed to assist attendees in addressing problems with power plant performance and in identifying cost-effective solutions for achieving and sustaining heat rate improve...

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Radiometric, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTSEDASSNDCLASS1 : Model Output Loc. Time Ser. (MOLTS): EDAS

6

Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performance optimization of fossil power plants is a high priority within the electric utilities in the new competitive environment. This manual can help utility engineers establish a heat rate improvement program.

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

7

EPRI's Twelfth Heat Rate Improvement Conference Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Twelfth Heat Rate Improvement Conference, sponsored by EPRI's Heat Rate and Cost Optimization Value Package, is the latest in a series of meetings designed to assist utilities in addressing problems with power plant performance and in identifying cost-effective solutions for achieving and maintaining heat rate improvement. The last conference was held in Baltimore in September 1998.

2001-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

8

Proceedings 2013 Heat Rate Improvement Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the rising cost of fuel and the strong possibility of CO2 emissions regulations and limitations in the near future, utilities and power generation companies are focusing on power plant heat rate and performance. The 18th Heat Rate Improvement Conference is the latest in a series of meetings designed to assist attendees in addressing problems with power plant performance and identifying cost-effective solutions for achieving and sustaining heat rate ...

2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

9

2007 EPRI Heat Rate Improvement Conference Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the rising cost of fuel and the growing possibility of carbon taxes in the not-too-distant future, utilities are once again focusing on the heat rate and performance of coal-fired power plants. The fifteenth Heat Rate Improvement Conference is the latest in this series of meetings designed to assist utilities in addressing problems with power plant performance and in identifying cost-effective solutions for achieving and maintaining heat rate improvement.

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

10

Heating Rate Profiles in Galaxy Clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years evidence has accumulated suggesting that the gas in galaxy clusters is heated by non-gravitational processes. Here we calculate the heating rates required to maintain a physically motived mass flow rate, in a sample of seven galaxy clusters. We employ the spectroscopic mass deposition rates as an observational input along with temperature and density data for each cluster. On energetic grounds we find that thermal conduction could provide the necessary heating for A2199, Perseus, A1795 and A478. However, the suppression factor, of the clasical Spitzer value, is a different function of radius for each cluster. Based on the observations of plasma bubbles we also calculate the duty cycles for each AGN, in the absence of thermal conduction, which can provide the required energy input. With the exception of Hydra-A it appears that each of the other AGNs in our sample require duty cycles of roughly $10^{6}-10^{7}$ yrs to provide their steady-state heating requirements. If these duty cycles are unrealistic, this may imply that many galaxy clusters must be heated by very powerful Hydra-A type events interspersed between more frequent smaller-scale outbursts. The suppression factors for the thermal conductivity required for combined heating by AGN and thermal conduction are generally acceptable. However, these suppression factors still require `fine-tuning` of the thermal conductivity as a function of radius. As a consequence of this work we present the AGN duty cycle as a cooling flow diagnostic.

Edward C. D. Pope; Georgi Pavlovski; Christian R. Kaiser; Hans Fangohr

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

11

Property:HeatRate | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

HeatRate HeatRate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "HeatRate" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A AES Mendota Biomass Facility + 17,873.6 + APS Biomass I Biomass Facility + 8,911 + Acme Landfill Biomass Facility + 12,916.67 + Adrian Energy Associates LLC Biomass Facility + 13,170.6 + Agrilectric Power Partners Ltd Biomass Facility + 17,327.1 + Al Turi Biomass Facility + 15,600.2 + Alabama Pine Pulp Biomass Facility + 15,826.23 + Albany Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility + 11,913.9 + Altamont Gas Recovery Biomass Facility + 10,500 + American Canyon Power Plant Biomass Facility + 10,886.8 + American Ref-Fuel of Delaware Valley Biomass Facility + 18,674.9 +

12

Radiative Heating Rates for Saharan Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combined longwave and shortwave radiative transfer model was used to determine effects of Saharan dust on the radiative fluxes and heating/cooling rates in the atmosphere. Cases are treated for cloud-free and overcast conditions over the ocean ...

Toby N. Carlson; Stanley G. Benjamin

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Self-consistent microwave plasma heating rates  

SciTech Connect

Under conditions within a hot overdense plasma corona where the field frequency is much less than the electron plasma frequency and the field period is much less than the hydrodynamic expansion time it is shown that electron field reversal heating can exceed the combined classical heating rates due to inverse bremsstrahlung (skin effect) and field pressure (PdV) by a factor approximately v/ sub e//2v/sub i/ (half the ratio of electron and ion thermal velocities). In particular this rate can exceed the inertial expansion cooling rate at a collisionless corona density of approximately 1 percent solid core density and could be realized experimentally at core temperatures approximately 3--5 keV and microwave field intensities approximately 1 MG. (auth)

Ensley, D.L.; White, R.H.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

High Heating Rate Thermal Desorption for Molecular Surface ...  

High Heating Rate Thermal Desorption for Molecular Surface Sampling Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing ...

15

Table A6. Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity, and Heat Content ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

State energy information, detailed and overviews. Maps. ... Table A6. Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity, and Heat Content of Electricity, 1949-2011

16

Rainfall and Radiative Heating Rates from TOGA COARE Atmospheric Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric heat and moisture budgets are used to determine rainfall and radiative heating rates over the western Pacific warm pool during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). Results are ...

Richard H. Johnson; Paul E. Ciesielski

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Evaluation of Peak Heat Release Rates in Electrical Cabinet Fires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to reanalyze the peak heat release rates (HRRs) from fires occurring in electrical cabinets of nuclear power plants.

2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

18

Microbase Cloud Products and Associated Heating Rates in the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microbase Cloud Products and Associated Heating Rates in the Tropical Western Pacific J. H. Mather and S. A. McFarlane Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington...

19

ARM - Evaluation Product - Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsBroadband Heating Rate Profile Project ProductsBroadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) 2000.03.01 - 2006.02.28 Site(s) SGP General Description The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties

20

Solar Heating Rates: The Importance of Spherical Geometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A crucial component of any GCM is a scheme for calculating atmospheric heating rates. Since a detailed treatment of all processes involved is time consuming, many approximations are usually made. An approximation used in virtually all GCM ...

D. J. Lary; M. Balluch

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Radiative Heating and Cooling Rates in the Middle Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the limitations to the accurate calculation of radiative heating and cooling rates in the stratosphere and mesosphere has been the lack of accurate data on the atmospheric temperature and composition. Data from the LIMS experiment on ...

John C. Gille; Lawrence V. Lyjak

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Evaluation of Methodologies to Provide Comparative Heat Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power generating companiesand even more so, their coal-fired facilitieshave struggled with the comparison of heat rate values from different periods of time. Comparing a unit's July heat rate to that recorded in January has been difficult because of several factors. First, the ambient temperatures are significantly different and manifest in operational and performance changes whose adjustments, although understood, contain uncertainty. The additional effects of variations in capacity and load following f...

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

23

Evaluation of Fuel Quality Impacts on Heat Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The drive to leverage fuel switching to meet more stringent SO2 and NOX emissions requirements has led to both a reduction in power station efficiency and a poorer net plant heat rate (NPHR) in many cases. The root causes include higher fuel moisture content, lower fuel energy content, poorer combustion efficiency, increased station service, and decreased unit capability. This report demonstrates the sensitivity of the key metrics of power station efficiency and heat rate to coal quality parameters, vari...

2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

24

Turbine Cycle Heat Rate Monitoring: Technology and Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research has been completed on available technology for monitoring turbine cycle heat rate and factors affecting the successful deployment of this technology in fossil generating plants. Information has been gathered from interviews with experienced industry plant staff and vendors. Trends were noted and are described in this report. The report is recommended as guidance for power generation fleets and individual plants seeking to establish a successful program for heat rate reduction.

2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

25

An assessment of the measurement equivalence of rating sources in a multisource feedback system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present study used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate a series of models representing the relations among performance ratings from multiple sources across multiple performance dimensions. The results suggest that the variance in performance ratings can be attributed to three distinct sources. First, there is common variance attributable to performance dimensions or factor loadings. Second, there is variance that can be attributed to the rating source (peer, self, or supervisor). Third, there is unique variance beyond that explained by the performance dimensions and source effects. Further, these results suggest that the rating sources appear to be rating the same performance dimensions, and even tapping the performance constructs to the same extent in some cases. The source effects do account for some variance, but these effects are smaller than the performance dimensions. Additionally, the unique variance accounted for a large component of the variance associated with the performance ratings in the present study.

Sheehan, Mary Kathleen

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Mobile robot path planning algorithm by equivalent conduction heat flow topology optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the path planning problem for a point robot moving in a planar environment filled with obstacles. Our approach is based on the principles of thermal conduction and structural topology optimization and rests on the observation that, ... Keywords: Conduction heat flow, Mobile robot, Path planning, Topology optimization

Jae Chun Ryu; Frank Chongwoo Park; Yoon Young Kim

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of this project is to obtain improved, quantitative understanding of the transient plasticity of bituminous coals under high heating rates and other reaction and pretreatment conditions of scientific and practical interest. To these ends the research plan is to measure the softening and resolidification behavior of two US bituminous coals with a rapid-heating, fast response, high-temperature coal plastometer, previously developed in this laboratory. Specific measurements planned for the project include determinations of apparent viscosity, softening temperature, plastic period, and resolidificationtime for molten coal: (1) as a function of independent variations in coal type, heating rate, final temperature, gaseous atmosphere (inert, 0{sub 2} or H{sub 2}), and shear rate; and (2) in exploratory runs where coal is pretreated (preoxidation, pyridine extraction, metaplast cracking agents), before heating. The intra-coal inventory and molecular weight distribution of pyridine extractables will also be measured using a rapid quenching, electrical screen heater coal pyrolysis reactor. The yield of extractables is representative of the intra-coal inventory of plasticing agent (metaplast) remaining after quenching. Coal plasticity kinetics will then be mathematically modeled from metaplast generation and depletion rates, via a correlation between the viscosity of a suspension and the concentration of deformable medium (here metaplast) in that suspension. Work during this reporting period has been concerned with re-commissioning the rapid heating rate plastometer apparatus.

Darivakis, G.S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Correlation of External Exposure and Dose Equivalent Rates with Uranium Surface Contamination  

SciTech Connect

This report provides both calculated estimates and measured values of exposure in air and tissue dose from external penetrating radiation at a distance of 1 m from uranium contamination on surfaces at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, in support of the Y-12 Site Radiological Characterization Study. Calculated values are based on the total energy from gamma rays and X rays emitted by uranium and its shordaughters at secular equilibrium. Results of a small number of measurements are provided for comparison. Dose rate values derived here are limited to those of external penetrating radiation from distributed sources with limited surface area and from point sources.

Ashley, J.C.; Bogard, J.S.; Brown, K.S.; England, C.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Turner, J.E.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Status of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Status of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP Status of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP Mlawer, Eli Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. Clough, Shepard Atmospheric and Environmental Research Delamere, Jennifer Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Miller, Mark Brookhaven National Laboratory Johnson, Karen Brookhaven National Laboratory Troyan, David Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Shippert, Timothy Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Long, Chuck Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Flynn, Connor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Sivaraman, Chitra Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Heck, Patrick University of Wisconsin Rutan, David Analytical Services & Materials, Inc.

30

Retrofits for Improved Heat Rate and Availability: Circulating Water Heat Recovery Retrofits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Circulating water heat recovery is a means of directly increasing the thermal efficiency of a power plant. If only fuel savings are considered, the economic benefit is often only marginal. However, when increased megawatt output and heat-rate improvements are included in the economic analysis, such retrofits can be attractive, with break-even fuel costs sometimes approaching $1/million Btu.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

31

Table A6. Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity, and Heat Content ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Fossil Fuels 6,7: ... 7 The fossil-fuels heat rate is used as the thermal conversion factor for ... approximate the quantity of fossil fuels replaced by these ...

32

Demonstration of EPRI Heat Rate Guidelines at Southern California Edison Ormond Beach Unit 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using EPRI's heat rate improvement guidelines, Southern California Edison Company (SCE) developed a heat rate improvement program and realized significant fuel cost reduction. Other utilities can follow SCE's example to develop their own effective heat rate improvement programs.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Design and demonstration of heat pipe cooling for NASP and evaluation of heating methods at high heating rates  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of two heating methods for demonstration of NASP leading edge heat pipe technology was conducted. The heating methods were and rf induction heated plasma jet and direct rf induction. Tests were conducted to determine coupling from the argon plasma jet on a surface physically similar to a heat pipe. A molybdenum tipped calorimeter was fabricated and installed in an rf induction heated plasma jet for the test. The calorimetric measurements indicated a maximum power coupling of approximately 500 W/cm{sup 2} with the rf plasma jet. The effect of change in gas composition on the heating rate was investigated using helium. An alternative to the plasma heating of a heat pipe tip, an rf concentrator was evaluated for coupling to the hemispherical tip of a heat pipe. A refractory metal heat pipe was designed, fabricated, and tested for the evaluation. The heat pipe was designed for operation at 1400 to 1900 K with power input to 1000 W/cm{sup 2} over a hemispherical nose tip. Power input of 800 W/cm{sup 2} was demonstrated using the rf concentrator. 2 refs., 13 figs.

Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics S. F. Iacobellis and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California G. M. McFarquhar University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois D. L. Mitchell Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada Introduction A single-column model (SCM) is used to examine the sensitivity of basic quantities such as atmospheric radiative heating rates and surface and top of atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes to various parameter- izations of clouds and cloud microphysics. The SCM was run at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites using forcing data derived from forecast products. The forecast

35

Rate of Change of Heat Storage of the World Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results or a Fourier analysis of climatological fields of the monthly rate of change of heat storage for the world ocean are presented. The amplitude and Phase of the first harmonic are shown, as well as the percent variance of the annual cycle ...

Sydney Levitus

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Survey of Impacts of Environmental Controls on Plant Heat Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental controls for sulfur and nitrogen oxides, particulates, mercury, and other pollutants reduce the efficiency of power plants. This report documents the impacts of state-of-the-art environmental controls on power plant heat rate and identifies ways these impacts may be reduced through operating and design changes.

2009-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

37

A Methodology to Derive Radar Reflectivity–Liquid Equivalent Snow Rate Relations Using C-Band Radar and a 2D Video Disdrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to derive equivalent radar reflectivity factor–liquid equivalent snow rate (Ze–SR) power-law relations for snowfall using the C-band King City operational weather radar and a 2D video disdrometer (2DVD). The 2DVD ...

Gwo-Jong Huang; V. N. Bringi; Robert Cifelli; David Hudak; W. A. Petersen

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Property:Heat Recovery Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rating Rating Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "Heat Recovery Rating" Showing 22 pages using this property. D Distributed Generation Study/10 West 66th Street Corp + 300,000 + Distributed Generation Study/615 kW Waukesha Packaged System + 2,500,000 + Distributed Generation Study/Aisin Seiki G60 at Hooligans Bar and Grille + 46,105 + Distributed Generation Study/Arrow Linen + 3,000,000 + Distributed Generation Study/Dakota Station (Minnegasco) + 290,000 + Distributed Generation Study/Elgin Community College + 11,200,000 + Distributed Generation Study/Emerling Farm + 2,000,000 + Distributed Generation Study/Floyd Bennett + 230,000 + Distributed Generation Study/Harbec Plastics + 3,750,000 + Distributed Generation Study/Hudson Valley Community College + 32,500,000 +

39

The Influence of Different Inflow Water Rate and Temperature on Heat Exchange Performance of Underground Heat Pump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

in the paper, the influence of different inflow water rate and temperature on heat exchange performance of underground heat pump were discussed by experiment, two vital parameters was defined to measure the properties of ground heat exchanger: Energy ... Keywords: heat pump, underground tube, influential factors, parameters

Zheng Min; Li Bai-yi

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

forth through the heat exchangers, thereby phasing the rates at which heat is absorbed and rejected from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;forth through the heat exchangers, thereby phasing the rates at which heat is absorbed balance as shown in Fig. 3 still indi- cated a greater heat loss to the engine coolant than predicted. This was caused by excessive heat leak- age from the hot to the cold working spaces, primarily by the flow leakage

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

SciTech Connect

We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES A Thesis Submitted April 1995 #12;PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES by Xiangwei Zhao Abstract The steady and time-dependentbehavior of a single-row heat exchanger with water and air in the in

Sen, Mihir

43

Evaluation of Methodologies for Real-Time Incremental Heat Rate Determination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reduced staffing, tighter budgets, ISOs, and increased competition have created the need for maintaining up-to-date incremental heat rate information. Combining recent advances in analytics with modern performance monitoring packages and data historians may provide the capability for closer-to-real-time incremental heat rate determination. Many power generating companies either rely on historic data or slow and labor intensive testing to establish incremental heat rate curves. Those curves are ...

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

44

EFFECT OF HEATING RATE ON THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF PULVERIZED COAL  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96224 during the period September 24, 1996 to September 23, 1999 which covers the entire performance period of the project. During this period, modification, alignment, and calibration of the measurement system, measurement of devolatilization time-scales for single coal particles subjected to a range of heating rates and temperature data at these time-scales, and analysis of the temperature data to understand the effect of heating rates on coal thermal properties were carried out. A new thermodynamic model was developed to predict the heat transfer behavior for single coal particles using one approach based on the analogy for thermal property of polymers. Results of this model suggest that bituminous coal particles behave like polymers during rapid heating on the order of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} K/s. At these heating rates during the early stages of heating, the vibrational part of the heat capacity of the coal molecules appears to be still frozen but during the transition from heat-up to devolatilization, the heat capacity appears to attain a sudden jump in its value as in the case of polymers. There are a few data available in the coal literature for low heating rate experiments (10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} K/s) conducted by UTRC, our industrial partner, in this project. These data were obtained for a longer heating duration on the order of several seconds as opposed to the 10 milliseconds heating time of the single particle experiments discussed above. The polymer analogy model was modified to include longer heating time on the order of several seconds to test these data. However, the model failed to predict these low heating rate data. It should be noted that UTRC's work showed reasonably good agreement with Merrick model heat capacity predictions at these low heating rates, but at higher heating rates UTRC observed that coal thermal response was heat flux dependent. It is concluded that at combustion level heating rates (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} K/s) coal structural changes are delayed and attendant increases in heat capacity and thermal conductivity are pushed to higher temperatures or require significant hold times to become manifest.

Ramanathan Sampath

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Relationship between the shear viscosity and heating rate in metallic glasses below the glass transition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been shown that first-order irreversible structural relaxation with distributed activation energies must lead to a linear decrease of the logarithm of Newtonian shear viscosity with the logarithm of heating rate upon linear heating of glass. Such a behavior is indeed observed in the experiments on metallic glasses. Structural relaxation-induced viscous flow leads to infra-low-frequency Maxwell viscoelastic internal friction, which is predicted to increase with the heating rate.

Khonik, Vitaly A.; Kobelev, N. P. [Department of General Physics, State Pedagogical University, Lenin Street 86, 394043 Voronezh (Russian Federation); Institute for Solid State Physics, Chernogolovka, 142432 Moscow District (Russian Federation)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

ARM - PI Product - Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsCloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for ProductsCloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP 2002.01.01 - 2012.02.08 Site(s) TWP General Description A cloud properties and radiative heating rates dataset is presented where cloud properties retrieved using lidar and radar observations are input into a radiative transfer model to compute radiative fluxes and heating rates at three ARM sites located in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The cloud properties retrieval is a conditional retrieval that applies various retrieval techniques depending on the available data, that is if lidar, radar or both instruments detect cloud. This Combined Remote

47

Neutron flux, spectrum, and dose equivalent measurements for a 4500-W(th) /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ general purpose heat source  

SciTech Connect

The total emission rate is (4.5 +- 0.4) 10/sup 7/ n/s, and the average neutron energy is (1.64 +- 0.07) MeV. The factor for converting from neutron fluence to dose equivalent for this spectrum is (3.10 +- 0.24) 10/sup -5/ mRem/n-cm/sup -2/. The factor for converting from neutron fluence to tissue absorbed dose is (3.18 +- 0.26) 10/sup -6/ mRad/n-cm/sup -2/.

Anderson, M.E.

1985-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

48

Dependency of Heat Transfer Rate on the Brinkman Number in Microchannels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat generation from electronics increases with the advent of high-density integrated circuit technology. To come up with the heat generation, microscale cooling has been thought as a promising technology. Prediction of heat transfer rate is crucial in design of microscale cooling device but is not clearly understood yet. This work proposes a new correlation between heat transfer rate and Brinkman number which is nondimensional number of viscosity, flow velocity and temperature. It is expected that the equation proposed by this work can be useful to design microchannel cooling device.

H. S. Park

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

49

EFFECT OF HEATING RATE ON THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF PULVERIZED COAL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96224 during the period March 24, 1999 to September 23, 1999 which covers the last (sixth) six months of the project. During this reporting period, extraction of devolatilization time-scales and temperature data at these time-scales analyzing the high-speed films taken during the experiments was complete. Also a new thermodynamic model was developed to predict the heat transfer behavior for coal particles subjected to a range of heating rates using one approach based on the analogy of polymers. Sensitivity analyses of this model suggest that bituminous coal particles behave like polymers during rapid heating on the order of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 7} K/s. At these heating rates during the early stages within the first few milliseconds of heating time, the vibrational part of the heat capacity of the coal molecules appears to be still frozen but during the transition from heat-up to devolatization, the heat capacity appears to attain a sudden jump in its value as in the case of polymers. There are few data available in the coal literature for 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} K/s obtained by UTRC in their previous studies. These data were obtained for a longer heating duration on the order of several seconds as opposed to the 10 milliseconds heating time in the single particle experiments discussed above. The polymer analogy model is being modified to include longer heating time on the order of several seconds to test these data. It is expected that the model might still do a good job in the case of these larger heating time but very low heating rate experiments. Completion of the numerical analysis of the experimental data and preparation of the final report are in progress.

Ramanathan Sampath

1999-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

50

On the Effects of Cumulus Dimensions on Longwave Irradiance and Heating Rate Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model of a cumulus cloud field, parameterized as right circular cylinders, has been used to estimate the uncertainties in longwave radiation calculations of irradiances and heating rates caused by neglecting the dimensions of the clouds. The ...

Robert G. Ellingson

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

The Impact of Polar Stratospheric Clouds on the Heating Rates of the Winter Polar Stratosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have computed the perturbation to the infrared radiative heating rates of the lower stratosphere due to the occurrence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) during the winter season in the Antarctic and Arctic regions. The calculations were ...

James B. Pollack; Christopher P. McKay

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Calculating Monthly Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates fromMonthly Cloud Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiative transfer model from NCAR’s general circulation model CCM3 is modified to calculate monthly radiative fluxes and heating rates from monthly observations of cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project ...

John W. Bergman; Harry H. Hendon

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

An Efficient Method for Online Calculations of Photolysis and Heating Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present a computationally highly efficient method for the online calculation of photolysis and heating rates, which is especially suited for coupled transport–chemistry models. For this purpose, the spectral range 178.6 nm ? ? ? 752.5 ...

J. Landgraf; P. J. Crutzen

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Methods to Mitigate the Effect of Increased Cycling and Load Following on Heat Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the U.S. coal-fired plants currently in service were designed for baseload operation. Today, however, actual generation conditions dictate that many of these units operate in a continuous transient mode, following generation demand. As such, they often experience large load changes throughout the day that result in a poorer plant heat rate. Reducing the throttle pressure, also known as sliding pressure, reduces throttling losses and is a potential method to reduce the heat rate penalties ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

55

Model of home heating and calculation of rates of return to household energy conservation investment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study attempts to find out if households' investments on energy conservation yield expected returns. It first builds a home-heating regression model, then uses the results of the model to calculate the rates of return for households' investments on the energy conservation. The home heating model includes housing characteristics, economic and demographic variables, appliance related variables, and regional dummy variables. Housing characteristic variables are modeled according to the specific physical relationship between the house and its heating requirement. Data from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) of 1980-1981 is used for the empirical testing of the model. The model is estimated for single-detached family houses separately for three major home-heating fuel types: electricity, natural gas and fuel oil. Four scenarios are used to calculate rates of return for each household. The results show in the Northern areas the rates of return in most of the cases are a lot higher than market interest rates. In the Western and Southern areas, with few exceptions, the rates of return are lower than market interest rates. The variation of heating degree days and energy prices can affect the rates of return up to 20 percentage points.

Hsueh, L.M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Existing and Past Methods of Test and Rating Standards Related to Integrated Heat Pump Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates existing and past US methods of test and rating standards related to electrically operated air, water, and ground source air conditioners and heat pumps, 65,000 Btu/hr and under in capacity, that potentiality incorporate a potable water heating function. Two AHRI (formerly ARI) standards and three DOE waivers were identified as directly related. Six other AHRI standards related to the test and rating of base units were identified as of interest, as they would form the basis of any new comprehensive test procedure. Numerous other AHRI and ASHRAE component test standards were also identified as perhaps being of help in developing a comprehensive test procedure.

Reedy, Wayne R. [Sentech, Inc.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Tropical Precipitation Rates during SOP-1, FGGE, Estimated from Heat and Moisture Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents global estimates of precipitation rates from 30°N to 30°S, derived from the “apparent” heat source (Q1) and “apparent” moisture sink (Q2) budgets using the NASA Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres Level III-b analyses collected ...

Catherine B. Pedigo; Dayton G. Vincent

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Parametric Analysis of a 6500-Btu/kWh Heat Rate Dispersed Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost and performance assessments of two alternative system designs for a 2-MW molten carbonate fuel cell power plant yielded encouraging results: a 6500-Btu/kWh heat rate and a total plant investment of $1200-$1300/kW. Differences between the two designs establish a permissible range of operating conditions for the fuel cell that will help guide its development.

1985-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

59

Scale Dependence of Solar Heating Rates in Convective Cloud Systems with Implications to General Circulation Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors examine 3D solar radiative heating rates within tropical convective–cirrus systems to identify the scales that contribute significantly to the spatial average over a climate model’s grid cell (i.e., its grid mean), and determine their ...

A. M. Vogelmann; V. Ramanathan; I. A. Podgorny

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

EFFECT OF HEATING RATE ON THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF PULVERIZED COAL  

SciTech Connect

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96224 during the period September 24, 1998 to March 23, 1999 which covers the fifth six months of the project. Devolatilization is an important initial step in virtually all commercial fossil fuel applications such as combustion, gasification, and liquefaction. Characterization of the temperature history of pulverized coal particles under high heating rates, representative of coal combustors, is critical to the understanding of devolatilization. During this reporting period, characterization experiments were continued from the previous reporting period and completed to a total of 28 single coal particles. These particles were caught in the electrodynamic balance and their volume, external surface area, mass, and density were measured. The same single particles were then heated bidirectionally with a pulsed (10 ms pulse width) Nd:YAG laser beams of equal intensity with heating rates (10{sup 4} - 10{sup 7} K/s) representative of coal combustors. The temporal power variation in the laser pulse was monitored for use in the heat transfer analysis by an ultra-fast fiber optic uv light transmitter included in the beam path and coupled to a silicon photodiode. Transient surface temperatures of the particles were measured using a single-color pyrometer. Dynamics of volatile evolution and particle swelling were recorded using well established time-resolved high-speed cinematography. Presently, extraction of devolatilization time-scales and temperature data at these time-scales running the high-speed films taken during the experiments employing a 16mm movie projector are in progress. Heat transfer analyses for the devolatilization time-scales, and temperature measurements (and hence an understanding of the effect of heating rates on coal thermal properties) are also in progress. Shipment of the donated heated grid system components from our industrial partner, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), CT to CAU was complete during the previous reporting period. Testing of the heated grid system components at CAU and sensitivity analyses of the heated grid heat transfer calculations are also in progress.

Ramanathan Sampath

1999-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

EFFECT OF HEATING RATE ON THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF PULVERIZED COAL  

SciTech Connect

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96224 during the period March 24, 1998 to September 23, 1998 which covers the fourth six months of the project. Existing laser heating set-up at the Single Particle Laboratory, Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV would work only in the range of 10 to 10 4 5 K/s. During this reporting period, appropriate changes were made to the laser heating system to heat particles in the range of 10 to 10 K/s. Also, calibration for all the components of the 4 7 electrodynamic balance measurement system including single-color pyrometer and heating laser was successfully completed. Following the calibration, a large number of single coal particles were caught in the electrodynamic balance and their volume, external surface area, mass, and density were measured. The same single particles were then heated bidirectionally with a pulsed (10 ms pulse width) Nd:YAG laser beams of equal intensity. The temporal power variation in the laser pulse was monitored for use in the heat transfer analysis by an ultra-fast fiber optic uv light transmitter included in the beam path and coupled to a silicon photodiode. Measurements of changes in particle size that accompanied rapid heating was made by means of the high-speed diode array imaging system discussed in our previous reports. Dynamics of volatile evolution and particle swelling were recorded using well established time-resolved high-speed cinematography. Measurements of the radiant emissive power from the heated and cooled (when the laser is turned off) particles was made using the single-color pyrometer. The above experiments are being repeated for a significant number of coal particles for a number of heating rates in between 10 - 10 K/s at FETC, Morgantown. 4 7 Shipment of the donated heated grid system components from our industrial partner, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), CT to CAU was complete during this reporting period. Testing of the heated grid system components at CAU is also in progress.

RAMANATHAN SAMPATH

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

62

AN EFFICIENT APPROXIMATION OF THE CORONAL HEATING RATE FOR USE IN GLOBAL SUN–HELIOSPHERE SIMULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The origins of the hot solar corona and the supersonically expanding solar wind are still the subject of debate. A key obstacle in the way of producing realistic simulations of the Sun–heliosphere system is the lack of a physically motivated way of specifying the coronal heating rate. Recent one-dimensional models have been found to reproduce many observed features of the solar wind by assuming the energy comes from Alfvén waves that are partially reflected, then dissipated by magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. However, the nonlocal physics of wave reflection has made it difficult to apply these processes to more sophisticated (three-dimensional) models. This paper presents a set of robust approximations to the solutions of the linear Alfvén wave reflection equations. A key ingredient of the turbulent heating rate is the ratio of inward-to-outward wave power, and the approximations developed here allow this to be written explicitly in terms of local plasma properties at any given location. The coronal heating also depends on the frequency spectrum of Alfvén waves in the open-field corona, which has not yet been measured directly. A modelbased assumption is used here for the spectrum, but the results of future measurements can be incorporated easily. The resulting expression for the coronal heating rate is self-contained, computationally efficient, and applicable directly to global models of the corona and heliosphere. This paper tests and validates the approximations by comparing the results to exact solutions of the wave transport equations in several cases relevant to the fast and slow solar wind. Key words: interplanetary medium – magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) – solar wind – Sun: corona – turbulence – waves Online-only material: tar file of source code 1.

Steven R. Cranmer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Electric field noise above surfaces: a model for heating rate scaling law in ion traps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a model for the scaling laws of the electric field noise spectral density as a function of the distance, $d$, above a conducting surface. Our analytical approach models the patch potentials by introducing a correlation length, $\\zeta$, of the electric potential on the surface. The predicted scaling laws are in excellent agreement with two different classes of experiments (cold trapped ions and cantilevers), that span at least four orders of magnitude of $d$. According to this model, heating rate in miniature ion traps could be greatly reduced by proper material engineering.

Dubessy, Romain; Guidoni, Luca

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Electric field noise above surfaces: a model for heating rate scaling law in ion traps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a model for the scaling laws of the electric field noise spectral density as a function of the distance, $d$, above a conducting surface. Our analytical approach models the patch potentials by introducing a correlation length, $\\zeta$, of the electric potential on the surface. The predicted scaling laws are in excellent agreement with two different classes of experiments (cold trapped ions and cantilevers), that span at least four orders of magnitude of $d$. According to this model, heating rate in miniature ion traps could be greatly reduced by proper material engineering.

Romain Dubessy; Thomas Coudreau; Luca Guidoni

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

65

Sensitivity of shortwave radiative flux density, forcing, and heating rates to the aerosol vertical profile  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the aerosol vertical distribution on the solar radiation profiles, for idealized and measured profiles of optical properties (extinction and single-scattering albedo (SSA)) during the May 2003 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Observation Period (AIOP), has been investigated using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model Shortwave (RRTM_SW) code. Calculated profiles of down-welling and up-welling solar fluxes during the AIOP have been compared with the data measured by up- and down-looking solar broadband radiometers aboard a profiling research aircraft. The measured profiles of aerosol extinction, SSA, and water vapor obtained from the same aircraft that carried the radiometers served as the inputs for the model calculations. It is noteworthy that for this study, the uplooking radiometers were mounted on a stabilized platform that kept the radiometers parallel with respect to the earth’s horizontal plane. The results indicate that the shape of the aerosol extinction profiles has very little impact on direct radiative forcings at the top of atmosphere and surface in a cloud-free sky. However, as long as the aerosol is not purely scattering, the shape of the extinction profiles is important for forcing profiles. Identical extinction profiles with different absorption profiles drastically influence the forcing and heating rate profiles. Using aircraft data from 19 AIOP profiles over the Southern Great Plains (SGP), we are able to achieve broadband down-welling solar flux closure within 0.8% (bias difference) or 1.8% (rms difference), well within the expected measurement uncertainty of 1 to 3%. The poorer agreement in up-welling flux (bias -3.7%, rms 10%) is attributed to the use of inaccurate surface albedo data. The sensitivity tests reveal the important role accurate, vertically resolved aerosol extinction data plays in tightening flux closure. This study also suggests that in the presence of a strongly absorbing substance, aircraft flux measurements from a stabilized platform have the potential to determine heating rate profiles. These measurement-based heating rate profiles provide useful data for heating rate closure studies and indirect estimates of single scattering albedo assumed in radiative transfer calculations.

Guan, Hong; Schmid, Beat; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bergstrom, Robert

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Comments on the use of boiler efficiencies to determine unit heat rate  

SciTech Connect

The expression for boiler efficiency defined in ASME PTC4.1 was developed for evaluating boiler performance, carrying out acceptance tests on boilers and computing the effects of changes in parameters such as fuel characteristics on boiler performance. While satisfactory for applications such as these, this particular definition of boiler efficiency can result in substantial errors when used for computing unit performance. Sample calculations are presented for a 600 MW coal fired unit which show errors in net unit heat rate of 1 to 3 percent due to inconsistent definitions for boiler efficiency.

Levy, E.K.; Sarunac, N. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (USA). Energy Research Center); Leyse, R. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect

This document has been prepared to assist research reactor operators possessing spent fuel containing enriched uranium of United States origin to prepare part of the documentation necessary to ship this fuel to the United States. Data are included on the nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate, and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies. Isotopic masses of U, Np, Pu and Am that are present in spent research reactor fuel are estimated for MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assembly types. The isotopic masses of each fuel assembly type are given as functions of U-235 burnup in the spent fuel, and of initial U-235 enrichment and U-235 mass in the fuel assembly. Photon dose rates of spent MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assemblies are estimated for fuel assemblies with up to 80% U-235 burnup and specific power densities between 0.089 and 2.857 MW/kg[sup 235]U, and for fission product decay times of up to 20 years. Thermal decay heat loads are estimated for spent fuel based upon the fuel assembly irradiation history (average assembly power vs. elapsed time) and the spent fuel cooling time.

Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Latent Heating and Cooling Rates in Developing and Nondeveloping Tropical Disturbances during TCS-08: TRMM PR versus ELDORA Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unique sets of Electra Doppler Radar (ELDORA) observations in both developing and nondeveloping tropical disturbances in the western North Pacific are used to retrieve latent heating and cooling rates. During the reintensification of Sinlaku, ...

Myung-Sook Park; Russell L. Elsberry

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

On-Line Heat Rate Monitor Assessment, Part 2: Results of the Demonstration and Application of Exergetic Systems' Calculational Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes EPRI demonstrations of Exergetic Systems' Calculational Engine, an on-line heat rate monitor, at two pulverized-coal-fired plants. It also summarizes results from independent installations and tests of the Calculational Engine.

2004-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

70

Influence of Mean Zonal Motion and Meridional Temperature Gradients on the Solar Semidiurnal Atmospheric Tide: A Revised Spectral Study with Improved Heating Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Calculations of the semidiurnal atmospheric tide at solstice using improved heating rates are presented. The heating rates for solar absorption by water vapor are based on a global water vapor distribution (Jenne, 1969, 1975; Jenne et al., 1974), ...

R. L. Walterscheid; J. G. DeVore; S. V. Venkateswaran

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Recent Developments on the Broadband Heating Rate Profile Value-Added Product  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recent Developments on the Recent Developments on the Broadband Heating Rate Profile Value-Added Product E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts M. A. Miller and K. L. Johnson Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York T. R. Shippert and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington R. G. Ellingson Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida M. H. Zhang State University of New York - Stony Brook Albany, New York R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia R. T. Cederwall and S. C. Xie Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico J. A. Ogren National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

72

Expert Meeting Report: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exploring the Disconnect Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems M. Hoeschele and E. Weitzel Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) May 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,

73

Conformity or Equivalent Diameter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...7(a), at left) and two external (Fig. 7(b), at right). The equations for the equivalent diameter, DE, are given in Fig. 7 for both modes. The equivalent diameter is the size of wheel that

74

Crack growth rates of irradiated austenitic stainless steel weld heat affected zone in BWR environments.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.

Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

75

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. First technical progress report for the fourth quarter 1989  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of this project is to obtain improved, quantitative understanding of the transient plasticity of bituminous coals under high heating rates and other reaction and pretreatment conditions of scientific and practical interest. To these ends the research plan is to measure the softening and resolidification behavior of two US bituminous coals with a rapid-heating, fast response, high-temperature coal plastometer, previously developed in this laboratory. Specific measurements planned for the project include determinations of apparent viscosity, softening temperature, plastic period, and resolidificationtime for molten coal: (1) as a function of independent variations in coal type, heating rate, final temperature, gaseous atmosphere (inert, 0{sub 2} or H{sub 2}), and shear rate; and (2) in exploratory runs where coal is pretreated (preoxidation, pyridine extraction, metaplast cracking agents), before heating. The intra-coal inventory and molecular weight distribution of pyridine extractables will also be measured using a rapid quenching, electrical screen heater coal pyrolysis reactor. The yield of extractables is representative of the intra-coal inventory of plasticing agent (metaplast) remaining after quenching. Coal plasticity kinetics will then be mathematically modeled from metaplast generation and depletion rates, via a correlation between the viscosity of a suspension and the concentration of deformable medium (here metaplast) in that suspension. Work during this reporting period has been concerned with re-commissioning the rapid heating rate plastometer apparatus.

Darivakis, G.S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Heat transfer rates for filmwise, dropwise, and superhydrophobic condensation on silicon substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Condensation, a two-phase heat transfer processes, is commonly utilized in industrial systems. Condensation heat transfer can be optimized by using surfaces in which dropwise condensation (DWC) occurs, and even further ...

Hery, Travis M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By:...

78

Expert Meeting Report: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

Water heating represents a major residential energy end use, especially in highly efficient homes where space conditioning loads and energy use has been significantly reduced. Future efforts to reduce water heating energy use requires the development of an improved understanding of equipment performance, as well as recognizing system interactions related to the distribution system and the fixture use characteristics. By bringing together a group of water heating experts, we hope to advance the shared knowledge on key water heating performance issues and identify additional data needs that will further this critical research area.

Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

MEASURED AND CALCULATED HEATING AND DOSE RATES FOR THE HFIR HB4 BEAM TUBE AND COLD SOURCE  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was upgraded to install a cold source in horizontal beam tube number 4. Calculations were performed and measurements were made to determine heating within the cold source and dose rates within and outside a shield tunnel surrounding the beam tube. This report briefly describes the calculations and presents comparisons of the measured and calculated results. Some calculated dose rates are in fair to good agreement with the measured results while others, particularly those at the shield interfaces, differ greatly from the measured results. Calculated neutron exposure to the Teflon seals in the hydrogen transfer line is about one fourth of the measured value, underpredicting the lifetime by a factor of four. The calculated cold source heating is in good agreement with the measured heating.

Slater, Charles O [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Selby, Douglas L [ORNL; Ferguson, Phillip D [ORNL; Bucholz, James A [ORNL; Popov, Emilian L [ORNL

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Activation, Heating and Exposure Rates for Mo?99 Experiments with 25?Disk Targets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An MCNPX model of the 25-disk target assembly inside the vacuum cube inside the shielded box was prepared. This was used to calculate heating and photon and neutron fluxes throughout the model. Production rates for photonuclear reaction products were calculated using the photon fluxes and ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Measured isomer to ground state yield ratios were used where available. Where not available the new correlation between spin deficit and isomer to ground state yield ratios presented at AccApp'11 was used. The photonuclear production rates and neutron fluxes were input to CINDER2008 for transmutation calculations. A cross section update file was used to supply (n,n') reactions missing from CINDER2008 libraries. Decay photon spectra produced by CINDER2008 were then used to calculate exposure rates using the MCNPX model. Two electron beam irradiations were evaluated. The first was for a thermal test at 15 MeV with 1300 {micro}A incident on one target end and the second was for a production test at 35 MeV with 350 {micro}A incident on both target ends (700 {micro}A total current on target). For the thermal test 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h irradiation times were simulated, each followed by decay time steps out to 42 days. For the production test 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h irradiation times were simulated followed by the same decay periods. For all simulations beam FWHMs in x and y were both assumed to be 6 mm. Simulations were run for Mo-100 enriched and natural Mo targets for both tests. It is planned that thermal test will be run for 4 h with natural target disks and production test will be run for 24 h with enriched target disks. Results for these two simulations only are presented in this report. Other results can be made available upon request. Post irradiation exposure rates were calculated at 30 cm distances from left, right, front and back of the following configurations: (1) Shielded box with everything in it (beam pipes, cooling pipes, vacuum cube, target housing weldment and target assembly), (2) Shielded box with everything in it except the target assembly, (3) Shielded box with nothing in it, (4) Target assembly taken outside of shielded box, (5) Target disks in cradle (target assembly with thermocouple weldment and flange removed), (6) Empty cradle, and (7) Target disks alone. Decay photon spectra from the CINDER2008 calculations were used as sources for the exposure rate calculations in the same model used for the flux calculations with beam on. As components were removed to simulate the seven cases considered the material compositions were changed to air and their respective sources were turned off. The MCNPX model geometry is plotted in Figure 1. The left and right detector locations for cases 1, 2 and 3 were 30 cm from the shielded box walls and 30 cm from the beam pipe openings in the left and right sides of the model (they are not in the beam line). A zoomed in plot of the target assembly alone is in Figure 2. Exposure rates for the seven cases are plotted as a function of time after irradiation in Figures 3, 4 and 5. To aid in comparison between the cases, all of these figures have been plotted using the same scale. Figures 3 and 4 are respectively the thermal and production test results for cases 1 through 6. Figure 5 includes case 7 results for both. Differences between cases 1 and 2 for both tests are not statistically significant showing that activation of components other than the target assembly, many of which are also shielding the target assembly, dominates exposure rates outside the shielded box. Case 3 shows the contribution from activation of the shield box itself. In front where shielded box wall is thickest box activation accounts for essentially all of the exposure rate outside. Differences between cases 4 and 5 are also minimal, showing that the contribution to target assembly exposure rates from the thermocouple flange and weldment are small compared to the target disks and cradle. From the numerical results the contribution is about 1%. Results for case 6, the cradle itself, are ini

Kelsey, Charles T. IV [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Heating Rate within the Upper Ocean in Relation to its Bio–optical State  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar radiation absorption and local heating within the upper layers of the open ocean are strongly influenced by the abundance of phytoplankton as depicted by the chlorophyll concentration. According to whether this concentration is high or low, ...

André Morel; David Antoine

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Efficiency of Equivalence Algorithms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper was first presented at the Symposium on Complexity of Computer Computations, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York, on March 22, 1972. The equivalence problem is to determine the ...

Fischer, Michael J.

1972-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

MODEL FOR ALFVEN WAVE TURBULENCE IN SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS: HEATING RATE PROFILES AND TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been suggested that the solar corona may be heated by dissipation of Alfven waves that propagate up from the solar photosphere. According to this theory, counterpropagating Alfven waves are subject to nonlinear interactions that lead to turbulent decay of the waves and heating of the chromospheric and coronal plasma. To test this theory, better models for the dynamics of Alfven waves in coronal loops are required. In this paper, we consider wave heating in an active region observed with the Solar Dynamics Observatory in 2010 May. First a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic model of the region is constructed, and ten magnetic field lines that match observed coronal loops are selected. For each loop we construct a 3D magnetohydrodynamic model of the Alfven waves near the selected field line. The waves are assumed to be generated by footpoint motions inside the kilogauss magnetic flux elements at the two ends of the loop. Based on such models, we predict the spatial and temporal profiles of the heating along the selected loops. We also estimate the temperature fluctuations resulting from such heating. We find that the Alfven wave turbulence model can reproduce the observed characteristics of the hotter loops in the active region core, but the loops at the periphery of the region have large expansion factors and are predicted to be thermally unstable.

Asgari-Targhi, M.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

84

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Planning & Projects Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates Power Revenue Requirement Worksheet (FY 2014) (Oct 2013 - Sep 2014) (PDF - 30K) PRR Notification Letter (Sep 27, 2013) (PDF - 959K) FY 2012 FP% True-Up Calculations(PDF - 387K) Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) PRR Forecast FY14-FY17 (May 23, 2013) (PDF - 100K) Forecasted Transmission Rates (May 2013) (PDF - 164K) Past Rates 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Historical CVP Transmission Rates (April 2013) (PDF - 287K) Rate Schedules Power - CV-F13 - CPP-2 Transmission - CV-T3 - CV-NWT5 - PACI-T3 - COTP-T3 - CV-TPT7 - CV-UUP1 Ancillary - CV-RFS4 - CV-SPR4 - CV-SUR4 - CV-EID4 - CV-GID1 Federal Register Notices - CVP, COTP and PACI

85

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marketing > RATES Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1 Ancillary CV-RFS4 CV-SPR4 CV-SUR4 CV-EID4 CV-GID1 Future and Other Rates SNR Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K)

86

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RATES RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K) Appendix D - Western Transmission System Facilities Map (PDF - 274K) Appendix E - Estimated FY12 FP and BR Customer (PDF - 1144K) Appendix F - Forecasted Replacements and Additions FY11 - FY16 (PDF - 491K) Appendix G - Definitions (PDF - 1758K) Appendix H - Acronyms (PDF - 720K)

87

Nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel acceptance criteria, the mass of uranium and transuranic elements in spent research reactor fuel must be specified. These data are, however, not always known or readily determined. It is the purpose of this report to provide estimates of these data for some of the more common research reactor fuel assembly types. The specific types considered here are MTR, TRIGA and DIDO fuel assemblies. The degree of physical protection given to spent fuel assemblies is largely dependent upon the photon dose rate of the spent fuel material. These data also, are not always known or readily determined. Because of a self-protecting dose rate level of radiation (dose rate greater than 100 ren-x/h at I m in air), it is important to know the dose rate of spent fuel assemblies at all time. Estimates of the photon dose rate for spent MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assemblies are given in this report.

Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity Aur´elien Alvarez and Damien Gaboriau February 18, 2009 Abstract We study the analogue in orbit equivalence of free product decomposition and free indecomposability for countable groups. We introduce the (orbit equivalence invariant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

Wen, J

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Data Assimilation of Satellite-Derived Heating Rates as Proxy Surface Wetness Data into a Regional Atmospheric Mesoscale Model. Part I: Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A satellite data assimilation method is developed which incorporates satellite-observed infrared heating rates into a mesoscale atmospheric model to retrieve model soil moisture. The method builds upon previous work with the model’s surface ...

Andrew S. Jones; Ingrid C. Guch; Thomas H. Vonder Haar

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Data Assimilation of Satellite-Derived Heating Rates as Proxy Surface Wetness Data into a Regional Atmospheric Mesoscale Model. Part II: A Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A satellite data assimilation method is applied which incorporates satellite-observed heating infrared rates into a mesoscale atmospheric model to retrieve model soil moisture. In a 3D case study, the method is successful at retrieving realistic ...

Andrew S. Jones; Ingrid C. Guch; Thomas H. Vonder Haar

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Effect of Heating Rate on the Thermodynamic Properties of Pulverized Coal  

SciTech Connect

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed under DOE Grant No.DE-FG22-96PC96224 during the period September 24, 1997 to April 23, 1998 which covers the third six months of the project. During this reporting period, several components of the electrodynamic balance measurement system, Single Particle Laboratory, Federal Energy Technology center, Morgantown, WV, were successfully calibrated. A large number of single polystyrenespheres covering a size range of 80 - 200 microns in diameter were caught in the electrodynamic balance. The size counts of their projected images obtained using the top video-based imaging system, bottom video-based imaging system, and diode-array imaging system were calibrated against the actual size of the particles to within ± 3 microns. Signals obtained by the particle position control system were also calibrated against the actual movement of a polystyrene particle in the balance to within ± 1 microns. Presently, calibration of the Single Color Pyrometer to measure coal particle temperature histories is in progress. Donation agreement for the Heated-Grid measurement system from our industrial partner, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), CT, was obtained and the arrangement for the completion of the shipment of the grid system components from UTRC to CAU is in progress. Several theoretical analyses were conducted to improve the model performance of the present work and the results were compared with data available from our previous studies. These activities resulted in several publications including three conference papers, and one student poster paper during this reporting period.

Ramanathan Sampath

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

The Equivalence Principle Revisited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A precise formulation of the strong Equivalence Principle is essential to the understanding of the relationship between gravitation and quantum mechanics. The relevant aspects are reviewed in a context including General Relativity, but allowing for the presence of torsion. For the sake of brevity, a concise statement is proposed for the Principle: "An ideal observer immersed in a gravitational field can choose a reference frame in which gravitation goes unnoticed". This statement is given a clear mathematical meaning through an accurate discussion of its terms. It holds for ideal observers (time-like smooth non-intersecting curves), but not for real, spatially extended observers. Analogous results hold for gauge fields. The difference between gravitation and the other fundamental interactions comes from their distinct roles in the equation of force.

R. Aldrovandi; P. B. Barros; J. G. Pereira

2002-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

94

Conversion factors for energy equivalents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Conversion factors for energy equivalents, For your convenience, you may convert energies online below. Or display factors as: ...

95

Partial fuel stratification to control HCCI heat release rates : fuel composition and other factors affecting pre-ignition reactions of two-stage ignition fuels.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion with fully premixed charge is severely limited at high-load operation due to the rapid pressure-rise rates (PRR) which can lead to engine knock and potential engine damage. Recent studies have shown that two-stage ignition fuels possess a significant potential to reduce the combustion heat release rate, thus enabling higher load without knock.

Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.; Cannella, William (Chevron USA Inc.); Yang, Yi; Dronniou, Nicolas

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Equatorial Waves in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere Forced by Latent Heating Estimated from TRMM Rain Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Equatorial atmospheric waves in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), excited by latent heating, are investigated by using a global spectral model. The latent heating profiles are derived from the 3-hourly Tropical Rainfall ...

Jung-Hee Ryu; M. Joan Alexander; David A. Ortland

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

THERMAL DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR LOW FLOW RATE SINGLE-PHASE AND TWO-PHASE MICRO-CHANNEL HEAT SINKS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Engine Cooling Systems,'' Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics, and Thermodynamics 1997, June 1997, ``A Correlation for Boiling Heat Transfer to Saturated Fluids in Convective Flow,'' Ind. Eng. Chem the engines in automotive applications. Heat is transferred essentially under subcooled flow boiling

Qu, Weilin

98

A Comparison of Mass Rate and Steam Quality Reductions to Optimize  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

i A Comparison of Mass Rate and Steam Quality Reductions to Optimize Steamflood Performance Topical and steam quality cuts for equivalent heat injection rates, one-eighth five-spot model 31 4. Comparison 32 5. Comparison of tapering injection mass rates with tapering injected steam qualities

99

HQFMSP Chapter 16, Equivalencies and Exemptions | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6, Equivalencies and Exemptions HQFMSP Chapter 16, Equivalencies and Exemptions October 2013 2013 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 16, Equivalencies and...

100

Equivalence between therm and gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce the notion of thermal entropy density, and first demonstrated that there exists an equivalence between therm and gravity without depending on the definition of temperature or horizon. This equivalence indicates that gravity possesses thermal features, or, therm possesses effects of gravity. This may shed light on the nature of gravity.

Yang, Rong-Jia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Basis of conversion factors for energy equivalents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Basis of conversion factors for energy equivalents Conversion factors for energy equivalents are derived from the following relations: ...

102

Conversion factors for energy equivalents: All factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Conversion factors for energy equivalents Return to online conversions. Next page of energy equivalents. Definition of uncertainty ...

103

PSNC Energy (Gas) - Green Building Rate Discount | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PSNC Energy (Gas) - Green Building Rate Discount PSNC Energy (Gas) - Green Building Rate Discount PSNC Energy (Gas) - Green Building Rate Discount < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Solar Lighting Windows, Doors, & Skylights Heating Buying & Making Electricity Water Heating Wind Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Utility Rate Discount Rebate Amount $0.05 discount/therm Provider PSNC Energy This discounted rate is available to commercial customers whose building meets the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification or equivalent. To qualify, the customer must be on the Rate 125. Qualifying customers pay $.05 per therm

104

Heat and Buoyancy Budgets and Mixing Rates in the Upper Thermocline of the Indian and Global Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diapycnal and diathermal diffusivity values in the upper thermocline are estimated from buoyancy and heat budgets for water volumes bounded by isopycnals and isotherms, the air–sea interface, and coastline where applicable. Comprehensive analysis ...

Huai-Min Zhang; Lynne D. Talley

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Electric circuit networks equivalent to chaotic quantum billiards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formulate two types of electric RLC resonance network equivalent to quantum billiards. In the network of inductors grounded by capacitors squared resonant frequencies are eigenvalues of the quantum billiard. In the network of capacitors grounded by inductors squared resonant frequencies are given by inverse eigen values of the billiard. In both cases local voltages play role of the wave function of the quantum billiard. However as different from quantum billiards there is a heat power because of resistance of the inductors. In the equivalent chaotic billiards we derive the distribution of the heat power which well describes numerical statistics.

Evgeny N. Bulgakov; Dmitrii N. Maksimov; Almas F. Sadreev

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Volatile compound evolution from the programmed temperature pyrolysis of Big Clifty and McKittrick tar sands at a 10 degrees C/min heating rate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Big Clifty (Kentucky) and McKittrick (California) tar sands were pyrolyzed at a 10{degrees}C/min heating rate from room temperature to 900{degrees}C. The volatile compounds were detected on-line and in real time by tandem mass spectrometry using MS and MS/MS detection. This paper reports the programmed temperature pyrolysis behaviors of Big Clifty and McKittrick tar sands and compares their results. 48 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Conversion factors for energy equivalents: All factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Previous page of energy equivalents. Definition of uncertainty notation eg, 123(45) | Basis of conversion factors for energy equivalents. Top. ...

108

7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160C at a specified rate as the heat source. The actual and maximum possible thermal efficiencies and the rate of heat rejected from this power plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7-31 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160ºC at a specified rate and potential energy changes are zero. 3 Steam properties are used for geothermal water. Properties Using saturated liquid properties, the source and the sink state enthalpies of geothermal water are (Table A-4) k

Bahrami, Majid

109

Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, December 20-March 19, 1982. Second quarterly report on the effect of rapid heating rate on coal nitrogen and sulfur release  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A laser pyrolysis technique is applied to the investigation of the effects of heating rate on release of coal-bound sulfur and nitrogen. An experimental system characterization and calibration has been completed. A detailed documentation was prepared describing the 3-color pyrometer and the data analysis technique. The coal particle feed system has been calibrated to provide accurate mass flow rate at pre-selected particle velocities. The first batch of samples submitted for chemical analysis will be used for the determination of kinetics parameters at a high heating rate (approximately equal to 10/sup 6/ K/s). The coal used presently is a Montana Rosebud. Two other coals are available; one is ILL No. 6 (through EERC) which will need to be pulverized and the second is a Pitt. hv-A (through KVB). It was confirmed that sieve and drag size distribution of coal differ significantly, and that particle shape effects may be significant in the modelling of particle dynamics.

Gat, N.

1982-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

110

A Test of a Lapse Rate/Wind Speed Model for Estimating Heat Island Magnitude in an Urban Airshed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the winter of 1975/76 a helicopter was used to obtain temperature profiles across the city of Calgary. This operation was supported by airborne measurements of wind speed and lapse rate at the edge of the city, upwind. Regression analysis ...

Lawrence C. Nkemdirim

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Equilibrium Modeling of Combined Heat and Power deployment in Philadelphia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Combined heat and power (CHP) generates electricity and heat from the same fuel source and can provide these services at higher equivalent conversion efficiency relative… (more)

Govindarajan, Anand

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Assessment of Uncertainty in Cloud Radiative Effects and Heating Rates through Retrieval Algorithm Differences: Analysis using 3-years of ARM data at Darwin, Australia  

SciTech Connect

Ground-based radar and lidar observations obtained at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Tropical Western Pacific site located in Darwin, Australia are used to retrieve ice cloud properties in anvil and cirrus clouds. Cloud microphysical properties derived from four different retrieval algorithms (two radar-lidar and two radar only algorithms) are compared by examining mean profiles and probability density functions of effective radius (Re), ice water content (IWC), extinction, ice number concentration, ice crystal fall speed, and vertical air velocity. Retrieval algorithm uncertainty is quantified using radiative flux closure exercises. The effect of uncertainty in retrieved quantities on the cloud radiative effect and radiative heating rates are presented. Our analysis shows that IWC compares well among algorithms, but Re shows significant discrepancies, which is attributed primarily to assumptions of particle shape. Uncertainty in Re and IWC translates into sometimes-large differences in cloud radiative effect (CRE) though the majority of cases have a CRE difference of roughly 10 W m-2 on average. These differences, which we believe are primarily driven by the uncertainty in Re, can cause up to 2 K/day difference in the radiative heating rates between algorithms.

Comstock, Jennifer M.; Protat, Alain; McFarlane, Sally A.; Delanoe, Julien; Deng, Min

2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

113

Oil shale retorting: a correlation of selected infrared absorbance bands with process heating rates and oil yeild  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The measured absorbance for specific infrared bands of Colorado shale oil is correlated with process oil yield and retorting rate. The results show excellent correlations using bands associated with olefinic groups (910, 990 and 1640 cm/sup -1/); analyses were carried out using both quantitative and qualitative infrared methods. No pretreatment of the crude shale oil is required. The results are encouraging enough that, with further development, the method may have potential use as an on-line monitoring technique for various retorting processes.

Evans, R.A.; Campbell, J.H.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering an estimated energy equivalent of nearly 1.1 million barrels of oil annually. Energy recovered by these units has been used to either preheat process supply air or to heat plant comfort make-up air. Heat pipe heat exchangers have been applied to an ever-expanding variety of industrial processes. One notable application in recent years has been for combustion airs preheat of fired heaters in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants. Another recent development has been a waste heat recovery boiler using heat pipes. This device has a number of advantageous features. Field operational experience of several units in service has been excellent.

Ruch, M. A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Snow water equivalent estimation using blackbox optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 23, 2011 ... Abstract: Accurate measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) is an ... managing water resources for hydroelectric power generation.

116

Heating Rates in Tropical Anvils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction of infrared and solar radiation with tropical cirrus anvils is addressed. Optical properties of the anvils are inferred from satellite observations and from high-altitude aircraft measurements. An infrared multiple-scattering ...

Thomas P. Ackerman; Kuo-Nan Liou; Francisco P. J. Valero; Leonhard Pfister

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Defense Program Equivalencies for Technical Qualification Standard  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Defense Program Equivalencies for Technical Qualification Standard Defense Program Equivalencies for Technical Qualification Standard Competencies12/12/1995 Defense Program Equivalencies for Technical Qualification Standard Competencies12/12/1995 Defense Programs has undertaken an effort to compare the competencies in the General Technical Base Qualification Standard and the Functional Area Qualification Standards with various positions in the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and the commercial nuclear industry. The purpose of this effort is to determine if equivalencies can be granted for competencies based on previous training and experience in these areas. The equivalency crosswalk was developed by subject matter experts who held positions in the Navy and/or the commercial nuclear power program. To date, equivalencies have been

118

Property:Equivalent URI | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Equivalent URI Equivalent URI Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI is a special property in Semantic MediaWiki with a built-in meaning: it marks a page in the wiki as having a well-known meaning beyond this wiki, in an external URI. For example an extension to the Semantic MediaWiki extension might introduce its own property, and all wikis should use the same equivalent URI for it. In RDF Export the "Equivalent URI" special property exports as owl:sameAs. Pages using the property "Equivalent URI" This property is a special property in this wiki. Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 2 2010 Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada: Third Edition + http://cleanenergysolutions.org/content/2010-carbon-sequestration-atlas-united-states-and-canada-third-edition +

119

Chapter_16_Equivalencies_and_Exemptions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for requesting and approving "equivalencies and exemptions" to the requirements in DOE directives. These categories are defined in the Headquarters (HQ) Implementation...

120

Snow water equivalent estimation using blackbox optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 7, 2011 ... Abstract: Accurate measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) is an important factor in managing water resources for hydroelectric power ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Brief Equivalence of hybrid dynamical models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper establishes equivalences among five classes of hybrid systems: mixed logical dynamical (MLD) systems, linear complementarity (LC) systems, extended linear complementarity (ELC) systems, piecewise affine (PWA) systems, and max-min-plus-scaling ... Keywords: Equivalent models, Hybrid systems, Piecewise affine systems

W. P. M. H. Heemels; B. De Schutter; A. Bemporad

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Tips: Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Tips: Heat Pumps June 24, 2013 - 5:48pm Addthis Heat pumps can be a cost-effective choice in moderate climates, especially if you heat your home with electricity. Heat pumps can be a cost-effective choice in moderate climates, especially if you heat your home with electricity. Heat pumps are the most efficient form of electric heating in moderate climates. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide equivalent space conditioning at as little as one quarter of the cost of operating conventional heating or cooling appliances. A heat pump does double duty as a central air conditioner by collecting the heat inside your house and pumping it outside. There are three types of heat pumps: air-to-air, water source, and geothermal. They collect heat from the air, water, or ground outside your

123

Microwave heating for adsorbents regeneration and oil sands coke activation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microwave heating has unique advantages compared to convection-radiation heating methods including fast heating rate and selective heating of objects. This thesis studied two applications of… (more)

Chen, Heng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar heat; • refrigeration loads that can be met either by standard equipment or absorption equivalents; • hot-water and space-heating

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

Wolowodiuk, Walter (New Providence, NJ)

1976-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

126

Models of translational equivalence among words  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parallel texts (bitexts) have properties that distinguish them from other kinds of parallel data. First, most words translate to only one other word. Second, bitext correspondence is typically only partial---many words in each text have no clear equivalent ...

I. Dan Melamed

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

On Formulas for Equivalent Potential Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several new formulas for pseudoadiabatic equivalent potential temperature (EPT) are devised and compared to previous ones. The maximum errors of all the formulas are determined from calculations on a dense grid of points in the region of a ...

Robert Davies-Jones

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

The Computation of Equivalent Potential Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simplified procedure is described for computation of equivalent potential temperature which remains valid in situations such as in the tropics where a term which is omitted in the derivation of the conventional formula can lead to an error of ...

David Bolton

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interest Rate Reduction Program Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program Eligibility Residential Savings For Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial...

130

Decidability and Coincidence of Equivalences for Concurrency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are two fundamental problems concerning equivalence relations in con-currency. One is: for which system classes is a given equivalence decidable? The second is: when do two equivalences coincide? Two well-known equivalences are history preserving bisimilarity (hpb) and hereditary history preserving bisimi-larity (hhpb). These are both ‘independence ’ equivalences: they reflect causal dependencies between events. Hhpb is obtained from hpb by adding a ‘back-tracking ’ requirement. This seemingly small change makes hhpb computationally far harder: hpb is well-known to be decidable for finite-state systems, whereas the decidability of hhpb has been a renowned open problem for several years; only recently it has been shown undecidable. The main aim of this thesis is to gain insights into the decidability problem for hhpb, and to analyse when it coincides with hpb; less technically, we might say, to analyse the power of the interplay between concurrency, causality, and conflict. We first examine the backtracking condition, and see that it has two dimen-

Sibylle Fröschle

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

132

Instability of Equivalent-Barotropic Riders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown, by the integration of numerical initial-value problems, that modon-with-rider solutions to the equivalent barotropic equation are unstable in the parametric range relevant to Gulf Stream rings. The fastest growing mode is found to ...

Mark Swenson

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

THE NEW WIND CHILL EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE CHART  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formula used in the U.S. and Canada to express the combined effect of wind and low temperature on how cold it feels was changed in November 2001. Many had felt that the old formula for equivalent temperature, derived in the 1960s from Siple ...

Randall Osczevski; Maurice Bluestein

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

CALIFORNIA IGETC EQUIVALENCIES TO BINGHAMTON UNIVERSITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA IGETC EQUIVALENCIES TO BINGHAMTON UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK GENERAL of courses that prospective transfer students attending California Community Colleges may complete to satisfy the lower-division breadth and general education requirements at both the University of California

Suzuki, Masatsugu

135

Core equivalence in economy for modal logic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate a pure exchange economy under uncertainty with emphasis on the logical point of view; the traders are assumed to have a multi-modal logic with non-partitional information structures.We propose a generalized notion of rational expectations ... Keywords: core equivalence theorem, ex-post core, multi-modal logic, pure exchange economy under reflexive information structure, rational expectations equilibrium

Takashi Matsuhisa

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

Fitch, V. L.

1972-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

137

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Gasoline Gallon Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition

138

Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

139

Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

140

Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

142

Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

143

Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

144

Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

145

Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

146

Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

147

Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

148

Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

149

West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

150

Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

151

On Heat Flux Boundary Conditions for Ocean Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent modeling studies of thermohaline variability have imposed rapid damping of modeled sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies equivalent to assuming the atmosphere has an infinite heat capacity. Such surface heat flux parameterizations ...

Richard Seager; Yochanan Kushnir; Mark A. Cane

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing...

153

Measurement of the Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Rooftop Lawns in a Hot-Climate Wind Tunnel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a very hot summer equivalent to a Guangzhou summer, the reduction of heat coming into rooms is very important with respect to thermal comfort and energy efficiency. The objective of this study is to investigate the evaporation cooling effect on a rooftop lawn. A hot-climate wind tunnel experiment was carried out in order to obtain and analyze the heat and moisture transport in the rooftop lawn. Furthermore, a calculation with the energy conservation equation was carried out using the results of the hot-climate wind tunnel experiment. The calculated equivalent thermal resistance and synthesis exterior surface heat transfer coefficient were in fairly good agreement with that in the design standard for energy efficiency of residential buildings in the hot summer and warm winter zone, while the average velocity in hot-climate wind tunnel equals the summer average outdoor velocity in Guangzhou.

Meng, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Equivalence between executable OOZE and algebraic specification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper two algorithms are presented: one which turns an executable OOZE specification into an algebraic specification and another which does the reverse operation. In this way, we shall be able to prove in a constructive way that executable OOZE and algebraic specification are equivalent and that, generally speaking, state-based specification is equivalent to to algebraic specification. We shall discuss whether these results can be made to cover other object-oriented Z dialects. 1 Introduction Formal methods are a constant subject of research within the field of Software Engineering. They have been being developed since the mid 70's, and are nowadays beginning to be applied in industry (see [Hal90]) and are expected to become a most favourable tool for saving the time and effort which is spent in the development of applications. This very same objective is shared by object-oriented programming. This new style of programming, which helps to reduce costs during the development pr...

Vicent-Ramon Palasi Lallana

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)

1997-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Quantal Definition of the Weak Equivalence Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work analyzes the meaning of the Weak Equivalence Principle in the context of quantum mechanics. A quantal definition for this principle is introduced. This definition does not require the concept of trajectory and relies upon the phase shift induced by a gravitational field in the context of a quantum interference experiment of two coherent beams of particles. In other words, it resorts to wave properties of the system and not to classical concepts as the idea of trajectory.

Abel Camacho; Arturo Camacho-Guardian

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

157

Kinetic Energy and the Equivalence Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to the general theory of relativity, kinetic energy contributes to gravitational mass. Surprisingly, the observational evidence for this prediction does not seem to be discussed in the literature. I reanalyze existing experimental data to test the equivalence principle for the kinetic energy of atomic electrons, and show that fairly strong limits on possible violations can be obtained. I discuss the relationship of this result to the occasional claim that ``light falls with twice the acceleration of ordinary matter.''

S. Carlip

1999-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

158

Interface Heat Transfer Effects for Solidification Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solidification rate of a casting is governed by the rate of heat extraction, which in turn is dominated by the rate of heat transfer across the casting-mold ...

159

Heat pipe heat amplifier  

SciTech Connect

In a heat pipe combination consisting of a common condenser section with evaporator sections at either end, two working fluids of different vapor pressures are employed to effectively form two heat pipe sections within the same cavity to support an amplifier mode of operation.

Arcella, F.G.

1978-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Heat transfer via dropwise condensation on hydrophobic microstructured surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dropwise condensation has the potential to greatly increase heat transfer rates. Heat transfer coefficients by dropwise condensation and film condensation on microstructured silicon chips were compared. Heat transfer ...

Ruleman, Karlen E. (Karlen Elizabeth)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Heat Transfer Enhancement in Thermoelectric Power Generation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heat transfer plays an important role in thermoelectric (TE) power generation because the higher the heat-transfer rate from the hot to the cold side of… (more)

Hu, Shih-yung

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Radiant Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat...

163

Realistic Carbon Equivalent for Underwater Welding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon equivalent (CE) formulas have been used for many years to provide a general idea of the weldability of steels. These formulas reduce the significant composition variables to a single number or CE that is calculated from the base metal composition and includes no other variables. The current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code case N-516-2 specifies an equation to be used for calculating the CE. It additionally states that if all the elements required for the formula are not listed...

2002-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

164

Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Equivalence of three-dimensional spacetimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A solution to the equivalence problem in three-dimensional gravity is given and a practically useful method to obtain a coordinate invariant description of local geometry is presented. The method is a nontrivial adaptation of Karlhede invariant classification of spacetimes of general relativity. The local geometry is completely determined by the curvature tensor and a finite number of its covariant derivatives in a frame where the components of the metric are constants. The results are presented in the framework of real two-component spinors in three-dimensional spacetimes, where the algebraic classifications of the Ricci and Cotton-York spinors are given and their isotropy groups and canonical forms are determined. As an application we discuss Goedel-type spacetimes in three-dimensional General Relativity. The conditions for local space and time homogeneity are derived and the equivalence of three-dimensional Goedel-type spacetimes is studied and the results are compared with previous works on four-dimensional Goedel-type spacetimes.

F. C. Sousa; J. B. Fonseca; C. Romero

2007-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

166

Assessing Snowfall Rates from X-Band Radar Reflectivity Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Realistic aggregate snowflake models and experimental snowflake size distribution parameters are used to derive X-band power-law relations between the equivalent radar reflectivity factor Ze and the liquid equivalent snowfall precipitation rate S ...

Sergey Y. Matrosov; Carroll Campbell; David Kingsmill; Ellen Sukovich

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Chemical turbulence equivalent to Nikolavskii turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We find evidence that a certain class of reaction-diffusion systems can exhibit chemical turbulence equivalent to Nikolaevskii turbulence. The distinctive characteristic of this type of turbulence is that it results from the interaction of weakly stable long-wavelength modes and unstable short-wavelength modes. We indirectly study this class of reaction-diffusion systems by considering an extended complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation that was previously derived from this class of reaction-diffusion systems. First, we show numerically that the power spectrum of this CGL equation in a particular regime is qualitatively quite similar to that of the Nikolaevskii equation. Then, we demonstrate that the Nikolaevskii equation can in fact be obtained from this CGL equation through a phase reduction procedure applied in the neighborhood of a codimension-two Turing--Benjamin-Feir point.

Dan Tanaka

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Tile Roofs with and without Batten Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clay and concrete tile roofs were installed on a fully instrumented attic test facility operating in East Tennessee s climate. Roof, attic and deck temperatures and heat flows were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventionally pigmented and direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The data were used to benchmark a computer tool for simulation of roofs and attics and the tool used to develop an approach for computing an equivalent seasonal R-value for sub-tile venting. The approach computed equal heat fluxes through the ceilings of roofs having different combinations of surface radiation properties and or building constructions. A direct nailed shingle roof served as a control for estimating the equivalent thermal resistance of the air space. Simulations were benchmarked to data in the ASHRAE Fundamentals for the thermal resistance of inclined and closed air spaces.

Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Are vortices in rotating superfluids breaking the Weak Equivalence Principle?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to the breaking of gauge symmetry in rotating superfluid Helium, the inertial mass of a vortex diverges with the vortex size. The vortex inertial mass is thus much higher than the classical inertial mass of the vortex core. An equal increase of the vortex gravitational mass is questioned. The possibility that the vortices in a rotating superfluid could break the weak equivalence principle in relation with a variable speed of light in the superfluid vacuum is debated. Experiments to test this possibility are investigated on the bases that superfluid Helium vortices would not fall, under the single influence of a uniform gravitational field, at the same rate as the rest of the superfluid Helium mass.

Clovis Jacinto de Matos

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Tracer Equivalent Latitude: A Diagnostic Tool for Isentropic Transport Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Area equivalent latitude based on potential vorticity (PV) is a widely used diagnostic for isentropic transport in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Here, an alternate method for calculating equivalent latitude is explored, namely, a ...

Douglas R. Allen; Noboru Nakamura

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

deposition rates and production costs were reviewed todiscussion of heat mirror production cost Most of our effortcoating plastic film. Production costs for coating glass

Selkowitz, S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Local Equivalence of Rank-Two Quantum Mixed States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the equivalence of quantum mixed states under local unitary transformations. For a class of rank-two mixed states, a sufficient and necessary condition of local equivalence is obtained by giving a complete set of invariants under local unitary transformations, such that two states in this class are locally equivalent if and only if all these invariants have equal values for them.

Sergio Albeverio; Shao-Ming Fei; Debashish Goswami

2007-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

173

Fundamental heat transfer experiments of heat pipes for turbine cooling  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental heat transfer experiments were carried out for three kinds of heat pipes that may be applied to turbine cooling in future aero-engines. In the turbine cooling system with a heat pipe, heat transfer rate and start-up time of the heat pipe are the most important performance criteria to evaluate and compare with conventional cooling methods. Three heat pipes are considered, called heat pipe A, B, and C, respectively. All heat pipes have a stainless steel shell and nickel sintered powder metal wick. Sodium (Na) was the working fluid for heat pipes A and B; heat pipe C used eutectic sodium-potassium (NaK). Heat pipes B and C included noncondensible gas for rapid start-up. There were fins on the cooling section of heat pipes. In the experiments, an infrared image furnace supplied heat to the heat pipe simulating turbine blade surface conditions. In the results, heat pipe B demonstrated the highest heat flux of 17 to 20 W/cm{sup 2}. The start-up time was about 6 minutes for heat pipe B and about 6 minutes for heat pipe A. Thus, adding noncondensible gas effectively reduced start-up time. Although NaK is a liquid phase at room temperature, the start-up time of heat pipe C (about 7 to 8 minutes) was not shorter than the heat pipe B. The effect of a gravitational force on heat pipe performance was also estimated by inclining the heat pipe at an angle of 90 deg. There was no significant gravitational dependence on heat transport for heat pipes including noncondensible gas.

Yamawaki, S. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, T.; Taki, M.; Mimura, F. [National Aerospace Lab., Tokyo (Japan)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Design and technology of heat pipes for cooling and heat exchange  

SciTech Connect

This new book presents a comprehensive account of heat pipe design, technology, and operation. It is based on insights and techniques developed by the author during more than twenty years of investigating high-performance heat pipe systems. The book provides information on a unique device with the capability to transport heat isothermally at high rates with no external power input. Emphasis is on high-performance liquid metal heat pipes, although nonliquid metal heat pipes are treated, as well. The first three chapters deal with the nonmathematical background for understanding heat pipe operation and heat transport capability. Remaining chapters detail heat pipe characteristics and design methods. Of special interest are simplified equations for obtaining heat pipe heat transport limits, heat pipe heat exchangers, heat pipe transient behavior, and inverted (nonwetting) heat pipes. Operational boundaries on heat pipe temperature and heat transport rate are described, and step-by-step procedures are given for involved calculations.

Silverstein, C.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Guidance for an Effective Heat Exchanger Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat exchangers are used extensively in the nuclear power generation industry. Their proper operation is essential for reliable and safe nuclear plant operation. Increased emphasis on heat exchanger reliability at nuclear power plants has resulted in the development of engineering programs or equivalent actions to maintain the required thermal performance and structural integrity.

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

176

Heating Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...are used in many varied applications--from small household appliances to large industrial process heating systems and furnaces. In appliances or industrial process heating, the heating elements are usually either open

177

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A variety of heating technologies are available today. In addition to heat pumps, which are discussed separately, many homes and buildings use the following approaches:

179

Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated by Joule effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Internal sources of heat are due to convection from flow of the heat transfer fluid through the pipes. Heat (material, diameter, spacing, and burial depth), (4) system flow rates, (5) heat transfer fluid properties · heat transfer fluid = 42% propylene glycol @ a flow rate of 350 gpm · heat pump model = Water Furnace

180

A Comparison of Mass Rate and Steam Quality Reductions to Optimize Steamflood Performance  

SciTech Connect

Many operators of steamdrive projects will reduce the heat injection rate as the project matures. The major benefit of this practice is to reduce the fuel costs and thus extend the economic life of the project. However, there is little industry consensus on whether the heat cuts should take the form of: (1) mass rate reductions while maintaining the same high steam quality, or (2) steam quality decreases while keeping the same mass rate. Through the use of a commercial three-phase, three-dimensional simulator, the oil recovery schedules obtained when reducing the injected steam mass rate or quality with time were compared under a variety of reservoir and operating conditions. The simulator input was validated for Kern River Field conditions by using the guidelines developed by Johnson, et at. (1989) for four steamflood projects in Kern River. The results indicate that for equivalent heat injection rates, decreasing the steam injection mass rate at a constant high quality will yield more economic oil than reducing the steam quality at a constant mass rate. This conclusion is confirmed by a sensitivity analysis which demonstrates the importance of the gravity drainage/steam zone expansion mechanism in a low-pressure, heavy oil steamflood with gravity segregation. Furthermore, the impact of discontinuous silts and nonuniform initial temperatures within the steamflood zone was studied, indicating again that a decreasing mass rate injection strategy is a superior operating practice.

Messner, Gregory L.

1999-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

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181

Definition: Heat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat Heat Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Heat Heat is the form of energy that is transferred between systems or objects with different temperatures (flowing from the high-temperature system to the low-temperature system). Also referred to as heat energy or thermal energy. Heat is typically measured in Btu, calories or joules. Heat flow, or the rate at which heat is transferred between systems, has the same units as power: energy per unit time (J/s).[1][2][3][4] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition In physics and chemistry, heat is energy in transfer between a system and its surroundings other than by work or transfer of matter. The transfer can occur in two simple ways, conduction, and radiation, and in a more complicated way called convective circulation. Heat is not a property

182

Joint spacing criterion for equivalent continuum model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Currently, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is investigating the feasibility of the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the unsaturated Topopah Spring formation. The Topopah Spring formation is a heavily fractured, predominantly vertically jointed, welded tuff, and the potential disposal area is cut by the Ghost Dance fault and bounded by several other faults structures. The joints in the tuff and the faults may have an impact on the emplacement drift or borehole stability, as well as on the movement of fluids through the rock mass. The design of the repository drifts and layout, the waste emplacement scheme, and the thermomechanical performance of the rock mass will be analyzed using various numerical models. These models may be based on different assumptions regarding the representation of the fracture behavior under given applied stresses, and will range from discrete models where individual mechanically active fractures are treated distinctly, to continuum models where the joint behavior is smeared over a representative volume. There is always the question of applicability of a model with respect to a given material domain to be analyzed. For the mechanical analysis of the rock mass response around a repository drift, the applicability of an equivalent continuum model is dependent on the joint spacing in the rock mass. Considering the joint spacings that may be encountered at the potential repository site, a ratio of joint spacing to the planned drift diameter may be adopted as a criterion for evaluating the applicability of the Compliant Joint Model (CJM) in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. In this paper, this criterion is established by reviewing basic continuum concepts and numerical approximation implications used to build the CJM and by examining rock mass conditions that may be encountered at the potential Yucca Mountain repository site.

Tsai, F.C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

Heat pipe transient response approximation.  

SciTech Connect

A simple and concise routine that approximates the response of an alkali metal heat pipe to changes in evaporator heat transfer rate is described. This analytically based routine is compared with data from a cylindrical heat pipe with a crescent-annular wick that undergoes gradual (quasi-steady) transitions through the viscous and condenser boundary heat transfer limits. The sonic heat transfer limit can also be incorporated into this routine for heat pipes with more closely coupled condensers. The advantages and obvious limitations of this approach are discussed. For reference, a source code listing for the approximation appears at the end of this paper.

Reid, R. S. (Robert Stowers)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Reconstruction of chronic dose equivalents for Rongelap and Utirik residents: 1954 to 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From June 1946 to August 1958, the US Department of Defense and Atomic Energy Commission conducted nuclear weapons tests in the Northern Marshall Islands. BRAVO, an aboveground test in the Castle series, resulted in radioactive fallout contaminating Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. On March 3, 1954, the inhabitants of these atolls were relocated until radiation exposure rates declined to acceptable levels. Environmental and personnel radiological monitoring programs were begun in the mid 1950's by Brookhaven National Laboratory to ensure that dose equivalents received or committed remained within US Federal Radiation Council Guidelines for members of the general public. Body burden and dose equivalent histories along with activity ingestion patterns post return are presented. Dosimetric methods, results, and internal dose equivalent distributions for subgroups of the population are also described.

Lessard, E.T.; Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

The Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ellingson Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida M. H. Zhang State University of New York at Albany Albany, New York Stony Brook R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and...

186

Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual: Training Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performance optimization of fossil power plants has always been a high priority within the electric power industry. However, it has become of paramount importance in meeting the challenges mandated by operating within a competitive environment. Recently, many power producers have downsized and currently lack experienced staff required to maintain optimal performance. Thus, a resource was needed to capture the lost experience to aid in the retaining of less experienced personnel. The objective of this pro...

1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

187

Translation equivalents for health/medical terminology in Xitsonga.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A comparative study of translation equivalents for health/medical terminology in Xitsonga was conducted. The research involved studying a selection of terms from a glossary (the… (more)

Mabasa, Tirhani Abigail

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Optimization Online - Asymptotic equivalence and Kobayashi-type ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 13, 2008 ... Asymptotic equivalence and Kobayashi-type estimates for nonautonomous monotone operators in Banach spaces. F Alvarez (falvarez ***at*** ...

189

,"Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012...

190

,"U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Bcf)",1,"Monthly","92013" ,"Release...

191

,"New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

192

,"Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

193

,"Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

194

,"Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

195

Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-Open Compliant Simulations Description The Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology...

196

Defense Program Equivalencies for Technical Qualification Standard Competencies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2, 1995 2, 1995 MEMORANDUM FOR Distribution FROM: Thomas W. Evans Technical Personnel Program Coordinator SUBJECT: Defense Program Equivalencies for Technical Qualification Standard Competencies Defense Programs has undertaken an effort to compare the competencies in the General Technical Base Qualification Standard and the Functional Area Qualification Standards with various positions in the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and the commercial nuclear industry. The purpose of this effort is to determine if equivalencies can be granted for competencies based on previous training and experience in these areas. The equivalency crosswalk was developed by subject matter experts who held positions in the Navy and/or the commercial nuclear power program. To date, equivalencies have been

197

Effect of Heat Treating Alfalfa Hay on Chemical Composition and Ruminal In Vitro Protein Degradation1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventional (unshredded) and shredded alfalfa hays were heated in either a forced-air oven or a steam pressure cooker at different times and temperatures to determine the effect of heat treatment on chemical composition and ruminal protein degradability. Rates of protein degradation and extents of protein escape were estimated using a ruminal inhibitor in vitro system. Both rates and extents were corrected for the proportion of total N in ADIN. Estimated net protein escape (total escape minus ADIN-bound CP) of unshredded and shredded hays was increased by oven or steam heating. Optimal oven treatments, as indicated by the greatest increase in net protein escape, were 120 min at 150°C and 60 min at 160'C. Net protein escapes of shredded hay were greater than unshredded hay when neither was heated and when hays were heated to the same extent. Equivalent protein protection was obtained by oven heating for 120 min at 140'C, 60 rnin at 150"C, and 30 rnin at lWC, which gave net protein escapes of 55, 54, and 54% for shredded hay and 44, 45, and 43% for unshredded hay, respectively. Similar protein protection was obtained at lower

J. H. Yang; A. Broderick; R. G. Koegel

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

HEAT TRANSFER METHOD  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.

Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.

1960-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

199

Near-field heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a rough surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we focus on the surface roughness correction to the near-field radiative heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a material with a rough surface utilizing a direct perturbation theory up to second order in the surface profile. We discuss the different distance regimes for the local density of states above the rough material and the heat flux analytically and numerically. We show that the heat transfer rate is larger than that corresponding to a flat surface at short distances. At larger distances it can become smaller due to surface polariton scattering by the rough surface. For distances much smaller than the correlation length of the surface profile, we show that the results converge to a proximity approximation, whereas in the opposite limit the rough surface can be replaced by an equivalent surface layer.

Svend-Age Biehs; Jean-Jacques Greffet

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

200

Heat Conduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Differential equations for heat conduction in solids...conduction in solids General form with variable thermal properties General form with constant thermal properties General form, constant properties, without heat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

Daman, Ernest L. (Westfield, NJ); McCallister, Robert A. (Mountain Lakes, NJ)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

NOTES ON THERMAL PROPERTIES AND HEAT TRANSFER OF SYNTACTIC FOAM SUBSEA INSULATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1. The properties that make syntactic foam an efficient buoyancy material also make it a good subsea thermal insulator: low density, high strength, and resistance to water penetration. The hollow spherical fillers in the foam contain air and prevent its compres-sion by hydrostatic force. The air in turn acts as a very effective insulator, slowing heat transfer as long as structural integrity is maintained. 2. Heat transfer textbooks list three modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Radiation is seldom a factor in “wet ” subsea insulation, and convection plays a role only when water is free to circulate, a condition normally avoided. Therefore, this paper focuses on conduction as the principal way in which heat travels through syntactic foam insulation. 3. A glossary of heat transfer properties is given on Page 4. The following definitions apply to the terms we will be using most frequently: Density: Mass per unit volume is symbolized by the Greek letter rho (_); it is usually numerically equivalent to weight per unit volume, but caution is required to make sure the correct values are always used. Thermal Conductivity: The rate at which heat is conducted through the material in question. The higher the conductivity (k-value), the more easily heat will be transmitted from the “hot ” to the

Lou Watkins

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

The Estimation of Snowfall Rate Using Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between liquid equivalent snowfall rate and visibility is investigated using data collected at the National Center for Atmospheric Research Marshall Snowfall Test Site during two winter field seasons and using theoretical ...

Roy M. Rasmussen; Jothiram Vivekanandan; Jeffrey Cole; Barry Myers; Charles Masters

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Nonlinear thermomechanical finite-element modeling, analysis and characterization of multi-turn oscillating heat pipes .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oscillating heat pipes (OHPs) are promising heat dissipation devices for modern electronic systems due to their high heat transfer rate, simple construction and low manufacturing… (more)

Peng, Hao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

206

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 222 194 17...

207

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,100...

208

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,928 1,316...

209

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

210

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

211

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

212

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

213

Group classification for the nonlinear heat conductivity equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Symmetry properties of the nonlinear heat conductivity equations of the general form $u_t=[E(x,u)u_x]_x + H(x,u)$ is studied. The point symmetry analysis of these equations is considered as well as an equivalence classification which admits an extension by one dimension of the principal Lie algebra of the equation. The invariant solutions of equivalence transformations and classification of the nonlinear heat conductivity equations among with additional operators are also given.

Mahdipour-Shirayeh, Ali

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Rate...

215

Experimental study on turbulent natural convection heat transfer in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 16, 2010 ... ments are conducted to investigate flow and heat transfer ... turbulent region, the heat transfer deterioration occurs for a bubble flow rate Q = 33 ...

216

Heat transfer via dropwise condensation on hydrophobic microstructured surfaces.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Dropwise condensation has the potential to greatly increase heat transfer rates. Heat transfer coefficients by dropwise condensation and film condensation on microstructured silicon chips were… (more)

Ruleman, Karlen E. (Karlen Elizabeth)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Fish Life History Parameter Values for Equivalent Adult and Production Foregone Models: Comprehensive Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A previous Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) report (1008471) provided guidance on the use of two types of extrapolation models used in economic benefits analyses related to entrainment and impingement at power plant intake structures: equivalent adult (EA) models and production foregone (PF) models. To facilitate applications of these models by EPRI members, a follow-on report (1008832) provided estimates of species-specific mortality and growth rate parameters for 25 fish and macroinvertebrate s...

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

218

Dosimetric verification of the anisotropic analytical algorithm in lung equivalent heterogeneities with and without bone equivalent heterogeneities  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study, the authors evaluated the accuracy of dose calculations performed by the convolution/superposition based anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) in lung equivalent heterogeneities with and without bone equivalent heterogeneities. Methods: Calculations of PDDs using the AAA and Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP4C) were compared to ionization chamber measurements with a heterogeneous phantom consisting of lung equivalent and bone equivalent materials. Both 6 and 10 MV photon beams of 4x4 and 10x10 cm{sup 2} field sizes were used for the simulations. Furthermore, changes of energy spectrum with depth for the heterogeneous phantom using MCNP were calculated. Results: The ionization chamber measurements and MCNP calculations in a lung equivalent phantom were in good agreement, having an average deviation of only 0.64{+-}0.45%. For both 6 and 10 MV beams, the average deviation was less than 2% for the 4x4 and 10x10 cm{sup 2} fields in the water-lung equivalent phantom and the 4x4 cm{sup 2} field in the water-lung-bone equivalent phantom. Maximum deviations for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field in the lung equivalent phantom before and after the bone slab were 5.0% and 4.1%, respectively. The Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated an increase of the low-energy photon component in these regions, more for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field compared to the 4x4 cm{sup 2} field. Conclusions: The low-energy photon by Monte Carlo simulation component increases sharply in larger fields when there is a significant presence of bone equivalent heterogeneities. This leads to great changes in the build-up and build-down at the interfaces of different density materials. The AAA calculation modeling of the effect is not deemed to be sufficiently accurate.

Ono, Kaoru; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Department of Radiation Physics, Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, 1-31 Kawaramachi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0856 (Japan); Quantum Energy Applications, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 730-8527 (Japan); Center of Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, 17 Minami 1 Jo, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, 1-31 Kawaramachi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0856 (Japan)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 121 116 93 1970's 79 55 70 71 75 68 61 45 64 49 1980's 41 29 40 55 61 145 234 318 272 254 1990's 300 395 604 513 513 582 603 734 732 879 2000's 586 691 566 647 634 700 794 859 1,008 1,295 2010's 4,578 8,931 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Processing

220

On equivalence of thinning fluids used for hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper aims to answer the question: if and how non-Newtonian fluids may be compared in their mechanical action when used for hydraulic fracturing? By employing the modified formulation of the PKN problem we obtain its simple analytical solutions in the cases of perfectly plastic and Newtonian fluids. Since the results for shear thinning fluids are intermediate between those for these cases, the obtained equation for the fracture length suggests a criterion of the equivalence of various shear thinning fluids for the problem of hydraulic fractures. We assume fluids equivalent in their hydrofracturing action, when at a reference time they produce fractures of the same length. The equation for the fracture length translates the equivalence in terms of the hydraulic fracture length and treatment time into the equivalence in terms of the properties of a fracturing fluid (behavior and consistency indices). Analysis shows that the influence of the consistency and behavior indices on the fracture length, particle v...

Linkov, Alexander

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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221

Violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle in Bekenstein's theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bekenstein has shown that violation of Weak Equivalence Principle is strongly supressed in his model of charge variation. In this paper, it is shown that nuclear magnetic energy is large enough to produce observable effects in Eotvos experiments.

L. Kraiselburd; H. Vucetich

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

222

The Lorentz Condition is Equivalent to Maxwell Equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that the Lorentz condition which is a conservation law on the electromagnetic four-vector-density A, plus the Lorentz transformation, taken together, are equivalent to the microscopic Maxwell's equations.

Edmund A. Di Marzio

2008-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

223

Development of an Equivalent Wind Plant Power-Curve: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Development of an equivalent wind plant power-curve becomes highly desirable and useful in predicting plant output for a given wind forecast. Such a development is described and summarized in this paper.

Wan, Y. H.; Ela, E.; Orwig, K.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Return Levels of Northern Great Plains Snow Water Equivalents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper estimates return levels of extreme snow water equivalents (SWE) in the northern Great Plains region, containing North and South Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. The return levels are estimated from extreme-value methods using a ...

Andrew J. Grundstein; Qi Qi Lu; Robert Lund

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

General Technical Base Qualification Equivalencies Based On Previous  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

General Technical Base Qualification Equivalencies Based On General Technical Base Qualification Equivalencies Based On Previous Experience, 12/12/95 General Technical Base Qualification Equivalencies Based On Previous Experience, 12/12/95 "The header lists the general field of experience, Commercial Nuclear Power or Navy Nuclear Power Program, with all other categories under these two areas. The subheader lists the position title of the military or job category within that industry. The next level lists the qualification standard subject with the competencies associated with it listed below. To locate the equivalencies that you may claim, locate the position title of your prior military or job category, then find the qualification standards and listed competencies that apply to your current position. The competencies listed below the qualification standards are those you

226

Water heater heat reclaimer  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to the conservation of energy in a domestic gas water heater by utilizing the hot exhaust gases in a gas water heater for the preheating of the incoming unheated water into the water heater. The exhaust gases from a domestic gas water heater carry wasted heat and the present invention provides a mean to reclaim part of the wasted heat for the preheating of the incoming unheated water during hot water usage periods. During non hot water usage periods the heat in the exhaust gases is not reclaimed to prevent overheating of the water and also to prevent the formation of water deposit in the preheating assembly or heat reclaimer. During the non hot water usage periods the heat produced in the water heater is normally needed only to maintain the desired water temperature of the stored water in the water tank of the water heater. Due to the rapid heating or recovery rate, the present invention enables the use of a smaller water heater. The use of a smaller water heater reduces the normal heat loss from the stored hot water thereby further reduces energy consumption.

Wie, C.T.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

227

Liquid metal heat pipe behavior under transient cooling and heating  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation of the transient behavior of a liquid metal heat pipe. A 0.457 m long, screen-wick, sodium heat pipe with 0.0127 m outer diameter was tested in sodium loop facility. The heat pipe reversed under a pulse heat load applied at the condenser. The time at which the heat pipe reversed was dependent of the heat pipe properties, the sodium loop flow rate and heating conditions at the condenser. The start-up and the operational shut-down by forced cooling of the condenser were also studied. During the start-up process, at least part of the heat pipe was active. The active region extended gradually down to the end of the condenser until all working fluid in the heat pipe was molten. With forced cooling at the condenser, the heat pipe approached its heat transport limit before section of the condenser became frozen. The measured heat transport limit was in agreement with the theoretical value. 5 refs.

Nguyen, H.X.; Hahn, T.O.; Hahn, O.J.; Chow, L.C.; Tagavi, K.A.; Morgan, M.J. (Kentucky, University, Lexington (United States) USAF, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Rate Schedules  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

229

Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission. Axially-grooved heat pipe: accelerated life test results  

SciTech Connect

The results through SIG/Galileo contract close-out of accelerated life testing performed from June 1978 to June 1979 on axially-grooved, copper/water heat pipes are presented. The primary objective of the test was to determine the expected lifetime of axially-grooved copper/water heat pipes. The heat pipe failure rate, due to either a leak or a build-up of non-condensible gas, was determined. The secondary objective of the test was to determine the effects of time and temperature on the thermal performance parameters relevant to long-term (> 50,000 h) operation on a space power generator. The results showed that the gas generation rate appears to be constant with time after an initial sharp rise although there are indications that it drops to approximately zero beyond approx. 2000 h. During the life test, the following pipe-hours were accumulated: 159,000 at 125/sup 0/C, 54,000 at 165/sup 0/C, 48,000 at 185/sup 0/C, and 8500 at 225/sup 0/C. Heated hours per pipe ranged from 1000 to 7500 with an average of 4720. Applying calculated acceleration factors yields the equivalent of 930,000 pipe-h at 125/sup 0/C. Including the accelerated hours on vendor tested pipes raises this number to 1,430,000 pipe-hours at 125/sup 0/C. It was concluded that, for a heat pipe temperature of 125/sup 0/C and a mission time of 50,000 h, the demonstrated heat pipe reliability is between 80% (based on 159,000 actual pipe-h at 125/sup 0/C) and 98% (based on 1,430,000 accelerated pipe-h at 125/sup 0/C). Measurements indicate some degradation of heat transfer with time, but no detectable degradation of heat transport. (LCL)

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Heat Stroke  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

stress, from exertion or hot environments, places stress, from exertion or hot environments, places workers at risk for illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Heat Stroke A condition that occurs when the body becomes unable to control its temperature, and can cause death or permanent disability. Symptoms â–  High body temperature â–  Confusion â–  Loss of coordination â–  Hot, dry skin or profuse sweating â–  Throbbing headache â–  Seizures, coma First Aid â–  Request immediate medical assistance. â–  Move the worker to a cool, shaded area. â–  Remove excess clothing and apply cool water to their body. Heat Exhaustion The body's response to an excessive loss of water and salt, usually through sweating. Symptoms â–  Rapid heart beat â–  Heavy sweating â–  Extreme weakness or fatigue â– 

231

Heat reclaimer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A device for reclaiming heat from stove pipes and the like. A semi-circular shaped hollow enclosed housing with a highly thermal-conductive concave surface is mounted contactingly to surround approximately one-half of the circumference of the stove pipe. The concave surface is formed to contact the pipe at a maximum number of points along that surface. The hollow interior of the housing contains thin multi-surfaced projections which are integral with the concave surface and conductively transfer heat from the stove pipe and concave surface to heat the air in the housing. A fan blower is attached via an air conduit to an entrance opening in the housing. When turned on, the blower pushes the heated interior air out a plurality of air exit openings in the ends of the housing and brings in lower temperature outside air for heating.

Parham, F.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

232

Heat transfer. [heat transfer roller employing a heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

A heat transfer roller embodying a heat pipe is disclosed. The heat pipe is mounted on a shaft, and the shaft is adapted for rotation on its axis.

Sarcia, D.S.

1978-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

233

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, M.A.

1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

234

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Rates - WAPA-137 Rate Order  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WAPA-137 Rate Order WAPA-137 Rate Order 2009 CRSP Management Center Customer Rates Second Step Presentation from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Handout Materials from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Customer Comment Letters ATEA CREDA Farmington ITCA AMPUA Rate Adjustment Information The second step of WAPA-137 SLCA/IP Firm Power, CRSP Transmission and Ancillary Services rate adjustment. FERC Approval of Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Notice Of Filing for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Letter to Customers regarding the published Notice of Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 FRN Follow-up Public Information and Comment Forum Flier WAPA-137 Customer Meetings and Rate Adjustment Schedule

236

Energy Basics: Heat Pump Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating Heat...

237

Self-contained passive solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A self-contained passive solar heating system includes first and second heat pipes, each having a refrigerant medium therein, a condenser portion and an evaporator portion, with the condenser portion of the first heat pipe being coupled to the evaporator portion of the second heat pipe for transferring heat thereto when the pressure within the first heat pipe is greater than the pressure within the second heat pipe. The evaporator portion of the first heat pipe is adapted to be exposed to a source of heat and the condenser portion of the second heat pipe contacts a medium to be heated. A temperature control mechanism may be installed as the coupling between the first and second heat pipes for uncoupling the same when the temperature within the first heat pipe falls below a predetermined temperature. Also, a third heat pipe may be provided having a thermostatic portion operatively connected to the condenser portion of the second heat pipe by a piston means so that changes in pressure within the thermostatic portion occasioned by changes in temperature of the medium to be heated will cause movement of the pistons to vary the size of the condensing portion of the second heat pipe to increase or decrease the rate of heat transfer to the medium.

Maldonado, E.A.; Woods, J.E.

1983-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

238

Heat reclaimer  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for reclaiming heat from the discharge gas from a combustion fuel heating unit, which has: inlet and outlet sections; an expansion section whose circumference gradually increases in the direction of flow, thereby providing an increased area for heat transfer; flow splitter plates which lie within and act in conjunction with the expansion section wall to form flow compartments, which flow splitter plates and expansion section wall have a slope, with respect to the centroidal axis of the flow compartment not exceeding 0.1228, which geometry prevents a separation of the flow from the enclosing walls, thereby increasing heat transfer and maintaining the drafting function; and a reduction section which converges the flow to the outlet section.

Horkey, E.J.

1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

239

Process Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update uses real world examples to discuss applications of electrotechnology in industrial process heating and to highlight some of the emerging technologies in this field. These emerging technologies, when implemented in a plant, will provide significant energy savings as well as increase productivity. The report presents three case studies of successful implementation of two different electric process-heating technologies in three different industries. The case studies show that in some ...

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

240

HEAT EXCHANGER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

1962-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Containment, Equivalence and Coreness from CSP to QCSP and beyond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) and its quantified extensions, whether without (QCSP) or with disjunction (QCSP_or), correspond naturally to the model checking problem for three increasingly stronger fragments of positive first-order logic. Their complexity is often studied when parameterised by a fixed model, the so-called template. It is a natural question to ask when two templates are equivalent, or more generally when one "contain" another, in the sense that a satisfied instance of the first will be necessarily satisfied in the second. One can also ask for a smallest possible equivalent template: this is known as the core for CSP. We recall and extend previous results on containment, equivalence and "coreness" for QCSP_or before initiating a preliminary study of cores for QCSP which we characterise for certain structures and which turns out to be more elusive.

Madelaine, Florent

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

Metz, Philip D. (Rocky Point, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Flow equivalence of shifts of finite type via positive factorizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Together with M. Boyle and D. Huang (2000), this paper gives an alternate development of the Huang classification of shifts of finite type up to flow equivalence, and provides additionalfunctorialinformation, used to analyze the action of the mapping class group of the mapping torus of a shift of finite type on the “isotopy futures” group, which is introduced here. For a shift of finite type ?A, this group is isomorphic to the Bowen-Franks group cok(I ?A). The action on the isotopy futures group of a subshift is the flow equivalence analogue of the dimension group representation.

Mike Boyle

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Equivalence of string and fusion loop-spin structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of the fusion relation of loops was recognized in the context of spin structures on the loop space by Stolz and Teichner and further developed by Waldorf. On a spin manifold M the equivalence classes of `fusive' spin structures on the loop space LM, incorporating the fusion property, strong regularity and reparameterization-invariance, are shown to be in 1-1 correspondence with equivalence classes of string structures on M. The identification is through the affine space of `string' cohomology classes considered by Redden.

Chris Kottke; Richard Melrose

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Using the Northeast as a regional focus for heating oil, the typical oil-heated household consumes about 680 gallons of oil during the winter, assuming that weather is "normal." The previous three winters were warmer than average and generated below normal consumption rates. Last winter, consumers saw large increases over the very low heating oil prices seen during the winter of 1998-1999 but, outside of the cold period in late January/early February they saw relatively low consumption rates due to generally warm weather. Even without particularly sharp cold weather events this winter, we think consumers are likely to see higher average heating oil prices than were seen last winter. If weather is normal, our projections imply New England heating oil

247

Heat Recovery in Building Envelopes  

SciTech Connect

Infiltration has traditionally been assumed to contribute to the energy load of a building by an amount equal to the product of the infiltration flow rate and the enthalpy difference between inside and outside. Application of such a simple formula may produce an unreasonably high contribution because of heat recovery within the building envelope. Previous laboratory and simulation research has indicated that such heat transfer between the infiltrating air and walls may be substantial. In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics was used to simulate sensible heat transfer in typical envelope constructions. The results show that the traditional method may over-predict the infiltration energy load by up to 95 percent at low leakage rates. A simplified physical model has been developed and used to predict the infiltration heat recovery based on the Peclet number of the flow and the fraction of the building envelope active in infiltration heat recovery.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Energy Rating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consistent, accurate, and uniform ratings based on a single statewide rating scale Reasonable estimates of potential utility bill savings and reliable recommendations on cost-effective measures to improve energy efficiency Training and certification procedures for home raters and quality assurance procedures to promote accurate ratings and to protect consumers Labeling procedures that will meet the needs of home buyers, homeowners, renters, the real estate industry, and mortgage lenders with an interest in home energy ratings

Cabec Conference; Rashid Mir P. E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Insertion Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HOME > Insertion Rates. TECH HEADLINES. Research Explores a New Layer in Additive Manufacturin... Grand Opening Slated for Electron Microscopy Facility.

250

Water Heating | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Heating Water Heating Dataset Summary Description Provides total and average household expenditures on energy for water heating in the United States in 2005. Source EIA Date Released September 01st, 2008 (6 years ago) Date Updated January 01st, 2009 (6 years ago) Keywords Energy Expenditures Residential Water Heating Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Total.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 70.1 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Avg.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 69.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote

251

The heat transfer mechanism in aqueous foam flow in a channel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Heat transfer mechanism in two-phase aqueous foam flow was investigated for developing energy-efficient heat exchangers. Such heat exchangers can provide low consumption of energy resources due to enhanced heat transfer rates. An enhanced heat transfer ... Keywords: aqueous foam flow, heat exchangers, heat transfer

Irena Gabrielaitien?; Jonas Gylys; Rolandas Jonynas; Tadas Ždankus

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

An ideal independent source as an equivalent 1-port  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a 1-port, not necessarily linear, with a dependent source, appearing at the port. The control of the source is entirely internal for the 1-port. If this source is a parallel voltage source, then the equivalent circuit is an ideal independent voltage source, and if it is a series current source, then the equivalent circuit is an ideal independent current source. (As usual, "ideal" source is defined as a source whose proposed function is independent of the load.) In the simple LTI case, these results can be obtained, respectively, by either taking RTh zero in the Thevenin equivalent, or taking RN infinite in the Norton equivalent; however the very fact that the final circuits do not include any linear elements indicates the possibility of generalization to nonlinear 1-ports. Some limitations on the circuit's structure (functional dependencies in it) are required, and the clearness of these limitations, i.e. clearness of the conditions for the 1-port to be an ideal source for any load, is the aesthetical point.

Emanuel Gluskin; Anatoly Patlakh

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

253

Scanning multichannel microwave radiometer snow water equivalent assimilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climatic driver through the surface albedo's role in energy and water budgets [e.g., Yeh et al., 1983Scanning multichannel microwave radiometer snow water equivalent assimilation Jiarui Dong,1 due to complicating effects, including distance to open water, presence of wet snow, and presence

Houser, Paul R.

254

Laboratory Protocol to Demonstrate Equivalency for Plant Wastewater Cotreatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adding chemical metal-cleaning wastes to ash ponds can be an inexpensive, effective method for removing contaminant metals from both wastes and ponds.This proposed laboratory protocol defines steps for determining the usefulness of ash pond comixing on a case-by-case basis and for demonstrating the equivalency of comixing with dedicated waste treatment, as required by EPA.

1987-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

255

Probability Models for Annual Extreme Water-Equivalent Ground Snow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical analysis of annual extreme water-equivalents of ground snow (reported as inches of water) measured up through the winter of 1979–80 at 76 weather stations in the northeast quadrant of the United States is presented. The analysis ...

Bruce Ellingwood; Robert K. Redfield

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

A Few Equivalences of Wall-Sun-Sun Prime Conjecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we prove a few lemmas concerning Fibonacci numbers modulo primes and provide a few statements that are equivalent to Wall-Sun-Sun Prime Conjecture. Further, we investigate the conjecture through heuristic arguments and propose a few additional conjectures for future research.

Saha, Arpan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Compositional Synthesis of Maximally Permissive Supervisors Using Supervision Equivalence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a general framework for efficient synthesis of supervisors for discrete event systems. The approach is based on compositional minimisation, using concepts of process equivalence. In this context, a large number of ways are suggested ... Keywords: Controllability, Discrete event systems, Finite state automata, Model reduction, Nonblocking, Supervisory control, Synthesis

Hugo Flordal; Robi Malik; Martin Fabian; Knut Åkesson

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Determination of equivalent circuit for PVDF shock-pressure gauges  

SciTech Connect

Broadband impedance measurements of a PVDF shock-pressure gauge are used to build an equivalent circuit for the gauge. The essential components are a gauge capacitance and a low-loss transmission line. Component features are consistent with the physical characteristics. With knowledge of this circuit, troublesome oscillations can be anticipated and prevented.

Kotulski, J.D.; Anderson, M.U.; Brock, B.C.; Gomez, J.; Graham, R.A.; Vittitoe, C.N.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Determination of equivalent circuit for PVDF shock-pressure gauges  

SciTech Connect

Broadband impedance measurements of a PVDF shock-pressure gauge are used to build an equivalent circuit for the gauge. The essential components are a gauge capacitance and a low-loss transmission line. Component features are consistent with the physical characteristics. With knowledge of this circuit, troublesome oscillations can be anticipated and prevented. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

Kotulski, J.D.; Anderson, M.U.; Brock, B.C.; Gomez, J.; Graham, R.A.; Vittitoe, C.N. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-5800 (United States))

1994-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

260

Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,127 971 1,334 1970's 1,270 1,217 1,058 878 679 567 520 367 485 1,146 1980's 553 830 831 633 618 458 463 437 811 380 1990's 445 511 416 395 425 377 340 300 495 5,462 2000's 11,377 15,454 16,477 11,430 13,697 14,308 14,662 13,097 10,846 18,354 2010's 18,405 11,221 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,499 3,667 3,475 1970's 3,235 2,563 1,197 1,118 952 899 823 674 883 1,308 1980's 1,351 1,327 1,287 1,258 1,200 1,141 1,318 1,275 1,061 849 1990's 800 290 413 507 553 488 479 554 451 431 2000's 377 408 395 320 254 231 212 162 139 168 2010's 213 268 424 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

262

Heat pipe turbine vane cooling  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

Rate schedule  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Rate/Charges Effective Through (or until superceded) Firm Sales (SLIP-F9) Composite Rate SLIP 29.62 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Demand Charge SLIP $5.18/kW-month 9/30/2015 Energy Charge SLIP 12.19 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) SLIP 0 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Transmission Service Provided by Current Rates effective10/12 - 9/15 (or until superceded) Rate Schedule Effective Through Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-PTP7) CRSP $1.14 per kW-month $13.69/kW-year $0.00156/kW-hour $0.04/kW-day $0.26/kW-week 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Network Integration Transmission (SP-NW3) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Non-Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-NFT6) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Ancillary Services Provided by Rate Rate Schedule

264

HEAT GENERATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Heat is generated by the utilization of high energy neutrons produced as by nuclear reactions between hydrogen isotopes in a blanket zone containing lithium, a neutron moderator, and uranium and/or thorium effective to achieve multtplicatton of the high energy neutron. The rnultiplied and moderated neutrons produced react further with lithium-6 to produce tritium in the blanket. Thermal neutron fissionable materials are also produced and consumed in situ in the blanket zone. The heat produced by the aggregate of the various nuclear reactions is then withdrawn from the blanket zone to be used or otherwise disposed externally. (AEC)

Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

1963-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

266

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating...

267

Heat reclaimer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heat reclaimer for the exhaust flue of a heating unit comprises a housing having an air input space, an air output space, and an exhaust space, with a plurality of tubes connected between and communicating the air input space with the air output space and extending through the exhaust space. The exhaust flue of the heating unit is connected into the exhaust space of the housing and an exhaust output is connected to the housing extending from the exhaust space for venting exhaust coming from the heater into the exhaust space to a chimney, for example. A float or level switch is connected to the housing near the bottom of the exhaust space for switching, for example, an alarm if water accumulates in the exhaust space from condensed water vapor in the exhaust. At least one hole is also provided in the housing above the level of the float switch to permit condensed water to leave the exhaust space. The hole is provided in case the float switch clogs with soot. A wiping device may also be provided in the exhaust space for wiping the exterior surfaces of the tubes and removing films of water and soot which might accumulate thereon and reduce their heat transfer capacity.

Bellaff, L.

1981-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

268

Heat Pipe Embedded AlSiC Plates for High Conductivity - Low CTE Heat Spreaders  

SciTech Connect

Heat pipe embedded aluminum silicon carbide (AlSiC) plates are innovative heat spreaders that provide high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Since heat pipes are two phase devices, they demonstrate effective thermal conductivities ranging between 50,000 and 200,000 W/m-K, depending on the heat pipe length. Installing heat pipes into an AlSiC plate dramatically increases the plate’s effective thermal conductivity. AlSiC plates alone have a thermal conductivity of roughly 200 W/m-K and a CTE ranging from 7-12 ppm/ deg C, similar to that of silicon. An equivalent sized heat pipe embedded AlSiC plate has effective thermal conductivity ranging from 400 to 500 W/m-K and retains the CTE of AlSiC.

Johnson, Matthew (DOE/NNSA Kansas City Plant (United States)); Weyant, J.; Garner, S. (Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (Lancaster, PA (United States)); Occhionero, M. (CPS Technologies Corporation, Norton, MA (United States))

2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

269

Energy Basics: Absorption Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

270

Energy Basics: Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

271

High temperature heat pipes for waste heat recovery  

SciTech Connect

Operation of heat pipes in air at temperatures above 1200/sup 0/K has been accomplished using SiC as a shell material and a chemical vapor deposit (CVD) tungsten inner liner for protection of the ceramic from the sodium working fluid. The CVD tungsten has been used as a distribution wick for the gravity assisted heat pipe through the development of a columnar tungsten surface structure, achieved by control of the metal vapor deposition rate. Wick performance has been demonstrated in tests at approximately 2 kW throughput with a 19-mm-i.d. SiC heat pipe. Operation of ceramic heat pipes in repeated start cycle tests has demonstrated their ability to withstand temperature rise rates of greater than 1.2 K/s.

Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Short-range tests of the equivalence principle  

SciTech Connect

We tested the equivalence principle at short length scales by rotating a 3 ton {sup 238}U attractor around a compact torsion balance containing Cu and Pb test bodies. The observed differential acceleration of the test bodies toward the attractor, a{sub Cu}-a{sub Pb}=(1.0{+-}2.8)x10{sup -13} cm/s{sup 2}, should be compared to the corresponding gravitational acceleration of 9.2x10{sup -5} cm/s{sup 2}. Our results set new constraints on equivalence-principle violating interactions with Yukawa ranges down to 1 cm, and improve by substantial factors existing limits for ranges between 10 km and 1000 km. Our data also set strong constraints on certain power-law potentials that can arise from two-boson exchange processes. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

Smith, G. L. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Hoyle, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Gundlach, J. H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Adelberger, E. G. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Heckel, B. R. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Swanson, H. E. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Hermitian K-theory, derived equivalences and Karoubi's Fundamental Theorem.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within the framework of dg categories with weak equivalences and duality that have uniquely 2-divisible mapping complexes, we show that higher Grothendieck-Witt groups (aka. hermitian K-groups) are invariant under derived equivalences and that Morita exact sequences induce long exact sequences of Grothendieck-Witt groups. This implies an algebraic Bott sequence and a new proof and generalization of Karoubi's Fundamental Theorem. For the higher Grothendieck-Witt groups of vector bundles of (possibly singular) schemes with an ample family of line-bundles such that 2 is invertible in the ring of regular functions, we obtain Mayer-Vietoris long exact sequences for Nisnevich coverings and blow-ups along regularly embedded centers, projective bundle formulas, and a Bass fundamental theorem. For coherent Grothendieck-Witt groups, we obtain a localization theorem analogous to Quillen's K'-localization theorem.

Marco Schlichting

274

Equivalent Effect Function and Fast Intrinsic Mode Decomposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Equivalent Effect Function (EEF) is defined as having the identical integral values on the control points of the original time series data; the EEF can be obtained from the derivative of the spline function passing through the integral values on the control points. By choosing control points with different criteria, the EEF can be used to find the intrinsic mode function(IMF, fluctuation) and the residue (trend); to fit the curve of the original data function; and to take samples on original data with equivalent effect. As examples of application, results of trend and fluctuation on real stock historical data are calculated on different time scales. A new approach to extend the EEF to 2D intrinsic mode decomposition is introduced to resolve the inter slice non continuity problem, some photo image decomposition examples are presented.

Lu, Louis Yu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Dialogue on the Principle of Mass-Energy Equivalence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is directed to the readers who are familiar with the earlier papers by the author on the topic of mass-energy equivalence. A number of important questions about the total energy equation H=mv^2 and its implications are answered qualitatively. The relationship between the equation H=mv^2 and the 4-vector (Minkowski) representation of Special Relativity is discussed in detail. Other issues, such as de Broglie's original formulation of wave mechanics, are also discussed.

Ezzat G. Bakhoum

2004-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

276

Teleparallel Equivalent of the Kaluza-Klein Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relying upon the equivalence between a gauge theory for the translation group and general relativity, a teleparallel version of the original Kaluza-Klein theory is developed. In this model, only the internal space (fiber) turns out to be five dimensional, spacetime being kept always four dimensional. A five-dimensional translational gauge theory is obtained which unifies, in the sense of Kaluza-Klein theories, gravitational and electromagnetic interactions.

V. C. de Andrade; L. C. T. Guillen; J. G. Pereira

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Design, construction and implementation of spherical tissue equivalent proportional counter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are used for medical and space activities whenever a combination of high and low LET (lineal energy transfer) radiations are present. With the frequency and duration of space activities increasing, exposure to fast heavy ions from galactic cosmic radiation and solar events is a major concern. The optimum detector geometry is spherical; to obtain an isotropic response, but simple spherical detectors have the disadvantage of a non-uniform electric field. In order to achieve a uniform electric field along the detector axis, spherical tissue equivalent proportional counters have been designed with different structures to modify the electric field. Some detectors use a cylindrical coil that is coaxial with the anode, but they are not reliable because of their sensitivity to microphonic noise and insufficient mechanical strength. In this work a new spherical TEPC was developed. The approach used was to divide the cathode in several rings with different thicknesses, and adjust the potential difference between each ring and the anode to produce an electric field that is nearly constant along the length of the anode. A-150 tissue equivalent plastic is used for the detector walls, the insulator material between the cathode rings is low density polyethylene, and the gas inside the detector is propane. The detector, along with the charge sensitive preamplifier, is encased in a stainless steel vacuum chamber. The gas gain was found to be 497.5 at 782 volts and the response to neutrons as a function of angle was constant ±7%. This spherical tissue equivalent proportional counter detector system will improve the accuracy of dosimetry in space, and as a result improve radiation safety for astronauts.

Perez Nunez, Delia Josefina

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Heat Sink Performance Analysis through Numerical Technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increase in dissipated power per unit area of electronic components sets higher demands on the performance of the heat sink. Also if we continue at our current rate of miniaturisation, laptops and other electronic devices can get heated up tremendously. Hence we require a better heat dissipating system to overcome the excess heat generating problem of using nanoelectronics, which is expected to power the next generation of computers. To handle the excessive and often unpredictable heating up of high performance electronic components like microprocessors, we need to predict the temperature profile of the heat sink used. This also helps us to select the best heat sink for the operating power range of any microprocessor. Understanding the temperature profile of a heat sink and a microprocessor helps us to handle its temperature efficiently for a range of loads. In this work, a method to estimate the normal response of a heat sink to various loads of a microprocessor is explained.

Aravindh, B Sri; Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 115,177 140,290 179,117 1970's 193,209 195,072 197,967 206,833 194,329 189,541 172,584 166,392 161,511 165,515 1980's 142,171 142,423 128,858 124,193 132,501 117,736 115,604 124,890 120,092 121,425 1990's 119,405 129,154 132,656 130,336 128,583 146,048 139,841 150,008 144,609 164,794 2000's 164,908 152,862 152,724 124,955 133,434 103,381 105,236 110,745 94,785 95,359 2010's 102,448 95,630 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

280

Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,351 3,244 2,705 1970's 2,330 2,013 1,912 1,581 1,921 2,879 6,665 11,494 14,641 15,686 1980's 15,933 14,540 14,182 13,537 12,829 11,129 11,644 10,876 10,483 9,886 1990's 8,317 8,103 8,093 7,012 6,371 6,328 6,399 6,147 5,938 5,945 2000's 5,322 4,502 4,230 3,838 4,199 3,708 3,277 3,094 3,921 2,334 2010's 2,943 2,465 2,480 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 34,803 32,639 30,334 1970's 29,901 27,585 24,156 17,498 17,201 15,221 14,125 13,567 13,288 10,720 1980's 8,583 7,278 14,113 14,943 15,442 16,973 16,203 15,002 14,892 13,376 1990's 12,424 11,786 12,385 12,053 11,250 11,509 12,169 11,600 10,242 10,762 2000's 11,063 11,060 12,982 13,971 14,061 13,748 14,056 13,521 13,972 13,722 2010's 13,244 12,095 12,755 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

282

Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 11,500 8,573 8,579 1970's 6,574 6,133 6,063 5,441 5,557 5,454 5,231 4,764 6,192 3,923 1980's 6,845 5,638 6,854 6,213 6,516 6,334 4,466 2,003 2,142 1,444 1990's 1,899 2,181 2,342 2,252 2,024 2,303 2,385 2,404 2,263 2,287 2000's 1,416 1,558 1,836 1,463 2,413 1,716 2,252 1,957 2,401 3,270 2010's 4,576 4,684 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014

283

North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 5,150 5,428 4,707 1970's 4,490 3,592 3,199 2,969 2,571 2,404 2,421 2,257 2,394 2,986 1980's 3,677 5,008 5,602 7,171 7,860 8,420 6,956 7,859 6,945 6,133 1990's 6,444 6,342 6,055 5,924 5,671 5,327 4,937 5,076 5,481 5,804 2000's 6,021 6,168 5,996 5,818 6,233 6,858 7,254 7,438 7,878 10,140 2010's 11,381 14,182 26,156 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1/7/2014

284

Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 433,684 457,117 447,325 1970's 466,016 448,288 470,105 466,143 448,993 435,571 428,635 421,110 393,819 352,650 1980's 350,312 345,262 356,406 375,849 393,873 383,719 384,693 364,477 357,756 343,233 1990's 342,186 353,737 374,126 385,063 381,020 381,712 398,442 391,174 388,011 372,566 2000's 380,535 355,860 360,535 332,405 360,110 355,589 373,350 387,349 401,503 424,042 2010's 433,622 481,308 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

285

SOME EQUIVALENCES FOR MARTIN’S AXIOM IN ASYMMETRIC TOPOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We find some statements in the language of asymmetric topology and continuous partial orders which are equivalent to the statements ? Martin’s Axiom has many equivalent statements, consequences, and variations in the literature which can be stated in topological terms. Most of the treatments we have seen so far from set-theoretic topologists assume that spaces are Hausdorff. In view of recent interest in asymmetric topology, in which even T1 spaces are a highly symmetric special case, we give some equivalences for Martin’s Axiom which utilize the terms of this field. Our reference for properties related to Martin’s Axiom is [2], and for properties related to continuous lattices we referred to [6]. Definition 1. A partially ordered set (P, ?) is upwards-ccc if any uncountable subset of P must have two distinct members which have a common upper bound in P. The cardinal m is the least cardinal such that there exists a non-empty upwards-ccc partially ordered set (P, ?) and a collection {D? | ? Martin’s Axiom of the title is the statement m = c. Definition 2. A topological space is ccc if any uncountable collection of open sets has two distinct members which are not disjoint. A space is locally compact if every open set contains a compact neighborhood of each of its

Bruce S. Burdick

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 46,149 48,635 50,484 1970's 52,647 53,810 54,157 55,782 54,986 56,109 61,778 72,484 77,653 62,107 1980's 59,457 60,544 56,857 56,304 58,580 53,953 51,295 65,156 63,355 61,594 1990's 66,626 70,463 75,520 83,193 86,607 85,668 108,341 109,046 106,665 107,850 2000's 110,411 108,958 110,036 111,292 105,412 101,064 99,971 96,250 92,579 94,840 2010's 91,963 90,291 84,562 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

287

Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 4,126 4,546 4,058 1970's 3,405 4,152 4,114 4,674 6,210 9,620 11,944 13,507 13,094 12,606 1980's 12,651 13,427 12,962 11,314 10,771 11,913 10,441 10,195 11,589 13,340 1990's 13,178 15,822 18,149 18,658 19,612 25,225 23,362 28,851 24,365 26,423 2000's 29,105 29,195 31,952 33,650 35,821 34,782 36,317 38,180 53,590 67,607 2010's 82,637 90,801 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

288

Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 236 1970's 225 281 243 199 501 694 661 933 1,967 4,845 1980's 4,371 4,484 4,727 4,709 5,123 5,236 4,836 4,887 4,774 5,022 1990's 4,939 4,997 5,490 5,589 5,647 5,273 5,361 4,637 4,263 18,079 2000's 24,086 13,754 14,826 11,293 15,133 13,759 21,065 19,831 17,222 17,232 2010's 19,059 17,271 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages:

289

Heat Exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 16   Ceramic heat exchanger systems...Soaking pit 870â??1230 1600â??2250 Fe, Si, alkalis Solar Turbines â?¦ 4â??8 OD Ã? 180 long (440 tubes) Aluminum melt furnaces 1010 1850 Alkali salts Plate fin GTE 0.6, 1.6 25â??46 Multiple 870â??1370 1600â??2250 Clean (good), alkalis (poor) Coors 0.25, 1.0 30 Ã? 30 Ã? 46 Multiple Clean (good), alkalis (poor) Radiant...

290

Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices. 11 figures.

Wilson, D.G.

1993-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

291

Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

Wilson, David G. (Winchester, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

Wilson, David Gordon (Winchester, MA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING PLANT Dr.sc.ing. Agnese Lickrastina M.Sc. Normunds European Heat Pump Summit 2013, Nuremberg, 15-16.10.2013 · Riga District Heating company · Operation #12;JSC RGAS SILTUMS · the biggest District Heating company in Latvia and in the Baltic states

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

294

Electrically heated liquid tank employing heat pipe heat transfer means  

SciTech Connect

The heating apparatus for applying heat to the interior of a chamber includes a modular, removable, electrical, heat-producing unit and a heat pipe mountable in a wall of the chamber with one end of the pipe arranged to receive heat from the electrical heat producing unit exterior of the housing and with another end of the pipe constructed and arranged to apply heat to the medium within the chamber. The heat pipe has high conductivity with a low temperature differential between the ends thereof and the heat producing unit includes an electric coil positioned about and removably secured to the one end of the heat pipe. The electric coil is embedded in a high thermal conducitivity, low electrical conductivity filler material which is surrounded by a low thermal conductivity insulating jacket and which is received around a metal core member which is removably secured to the one end of the heat pipe.

Shutt, J.R.

1978-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

295

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tariff Rates FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2011 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2010 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

296

Solar heat collector  

SciTech Connect

A solar heat collector comprises an evacuated transparent pipe; a solar heat collection plate disposed in the transparent pipe; a heat pipe, disposed in the transparent pipe so as to contact with the solar heat collection plate, and containing an evaporable working liquid therein; a heat medium pipe containing a heat medium to be heated; a heat releasing member extending along the axis of the heat medium pipe and having thin fin portions extending from the axis to the inner surface of the heat medium pipe; and a cylindrical casing surrounding coaxially the heat medium pipe to provide an annular space which communicates with the heat pipe. The evaporable working liquid evaporates, receiving solar heat collected by the heat collection plate. The resultant vapor heats the heat medium through the heat medium pipe and the heat releasing member.

Yamamoto, T.; Imani, K.; Sumida, I.; Tsukamoto, M.; Watahiki, N.

1984-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

297

Current developments in oil shale research at the Laramie Energy Research Center. [Review of studies in 4 areas: concurrent gasification and retorting; high pressure retorting; abnormal heating rate of interior of large blocks of oil shale; and in-situ combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current oil shale research being conducted at the Laramie Energy Research Center is many faceted, and some of the recent developments in these areas are presented. Concurrent gasification and retorting of oil shale where the effects of operating pressure and amounts of oxygen and water injection on quality and quantity of gas and oil produced is being studied. This work has resulted in off gas with heating values varying from 50 to 1,300 Btu/ft/sup 3/ and oil recovery of up to 80 vol percent of Fischer assay. The effects of retorting atmosphere, pressure, and external heating rate are being studied in a high pressure batch retort. Results from this work indicate that a nitrogen atmosphere decreases oil yield slightly while a hydrogen atmosphere increases the oil yield significantly. Large blocks of oil shale are being retorted in a 150-ton aboveground retort to study the abnormal heating rate of the interior of the blocks. This could be caused by an oxidation exotherm similar to that found in limited DTA studies. Some early results from the Rock Springs site 9 in-situ experiment are also presented. This is the fifth in-situ combustion experiment and is being performed in a 40-foot-thick oil shale bed having an average Fischer assay of 23 gallons per ton.

Jacobson, I.A. Jr.; Burwell, E.L.; Harak, A.E.; Long, A.; Wise, R.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Geothermal district heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

Budney, G.S.; Childs, F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Energy Basics: Radiant Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

very low heat capacity and have the quickest response time of any heating technology. More Information Visit the Energy Saver website for more information about radiant heating...

302

Energy Basics: Radiant Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

low heat capacity and have the quickest response time of any heating technology. More Information Visit the Energy Saver website for more information about radiant heating in homes...

303

Geothermal Energy: Residential Space Heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study, which was carried out under the auspices of the DGRST, was to determine the best way to use geothermal hot water for residential space heating. It quickly became apparent that the type of heating apparatus used in the housing units was most important and that heat pumps could be a valuable asset, making it possible to extract even more geothermal heat and thus substantially improve the cost benefit of the systems. Many factors play a significant role in this problem. Therefore, after a first stage devoted to analyzing the problem through a manual method which proved quite useful, the systematic consideration of all important aspects led us to use a computer to optimize solutions and process a large number of cases. The software used for this general study can also be used to work out particular cases: it is now available to any interested party through DGRST. This program makes it possible to: (1) take climatic conditions into account in a very detailed manner, including temperatures as well as insolation. 864 cases corresponding to 36 typical days divided into 24 hours each were chosen to represent the heating season. They make it possible to define the heating needs of any type of housing unit. (2) simulate and analyze the behavior in practice of a geothermal heating system when heat is extracted from the well by a simple heat exchanger. This simulation makes it possible to evaluate the respective qualities of various types of heating apparatus which can be used in homes. It also makes it possible to define the best control systems for the central system and substations and to assess quite accurately the presence of terminal controls, such as radiators with thermostatically controlled valves. (3) determine to what extent the addition of a heat pump makes it possible to improve the cost benefit of geothermal heating. When its average characteristics and heating use conditions (price, coefficient of performance, length of utilization, electrical rates, etc.) are taken into account, the heat pump should not be scaled for maximum heating power. Consequently, the program considers several possible sizes, with different installation schemes, and selects for each case the value which corresponds to the lowest cost of heating.

None

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Heat transfer and heat exchangers reference handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with an understanding of the basic concepts of heat transfer and the operation of heat exchangers.

Not Available

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Heating systems for heating subsurface formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

306

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, Phillip J. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Efficiency of unitary heat pumps  

SciTech Connect

The efficiencies of approximately 500 unitary heat pumps, from 30 different manufacturers, certified by the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) were examined. The certified units account for about 90% of all unitary heat pumps manufactured in the U.S. with a rated cooling capacity below 135,000 Btu/hr, and thus represent a comprehensive data file of the efficiencies of unitary heat pumps offered for sale in the U.S. A computer was used to group the heat pumps according to type and capacity, and to calculate their coefficients of performance (COP) using the data contained in ARI current Directory (April 1 to July 31, 1973) of Certified Unitary Heat Pumps. The results show that the COP of the heat pumps varied from a low of 1.5 to a high of 3.15 or a factor of 2 between the lowest and the highest efficiency, and that the average COP was 2.1 in cooling and 2.4 in heating. The variations of COP with heat pump size, type, manufacturer and outdoor temperature are presented.

Nwude, J.K.; Roman, A.J.

1973-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Teleparallel Equivalent of Non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the equivalence between a gauge theory for the translation group and general relativity, a teleparallel version of the non-abelian Kaluza-Klein theory is constructed. In this theory, only the fiber-space turns out to be higher-dimensional, spacetime being kept always four-dimensional. The resulting model is a gauge theory that unifies, in the Kaluza-Klein sense, gravitational and gauge fields. In contrast to the ordinary Kaluza-Klein models, this theory defines a natural length-scale for the compact sub-manifold of the fiber space, which is shown to be of the order of the Planck length.

A. L. Barbosa; L. C. T. Guillen; J. G. Pereira

2002-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

309

Tomographic Quantum Cryptography: Equivalence of Quantum and Classical Key Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.

Dagmar Bruss; Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Berthold-Georg Englert; Dagomir Kaszlikowski; Chiara Macchiavello

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Water Heater: up to $275 Heat Pump Replacement: $400 Provider Rock Hill Utilities Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed above. If both the water heater and heat pump are purchased then the customer may qualify for the Great Rate program. The Great Rate program will add a 25% discount to a

311

Crude Distillation Unit Heat Recovery Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Baytown's Pipe Still 3 is a 95,000 barrel per day crude distillation unit. A comprehensive heat recovery and energy utilization study was done on Pipe Still 3 after a preliminary cursory study had indicated that an overall look at the total picture could produce much better results than a series of improvements done piecemeal. The study did meet its objective by identifying the maximum heat recovery that is technically and economically feasible. It showed a potential for dramatic improvement - a 39 percent reduction in fuel, plus a 43 percent increase in the quantity of process steam generated, equivalent to a 48 percent reduction in net energy consumed. Techniques employed included a Source/Sink Profile (which is described later); a combining of oil heating, steam generation, and air preheat to best advantage; and a computer program to design the required heat exchanger trains.

John, P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Radiofrequency plasma heating: proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The conference proceedings include sessions on Alfven Wave Heating, ICRF Heating and Current Drive, Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive, and ECRF Heating. Questions of confinement, diagnostics, instabilities and technology are considered. Individual papers are cataloged separately. (WRF)

Swenson, D.G. (ed.)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Distributed resonance self-shielding using the equivalence principle  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an extension of the equivalence principle to allow distributed resonance self-shielding in a multi-region fuel configuration. Rational expansion of fuel-to-fuel collision probability is applied in order to establish equivalence between the actual fuel configuration and a homogeneous mixture of hydrogen and resonant absorber, which is a commonly used model to calculate library tables of resonance integrals. The main steps in derivation are given along with the basic physics assumptions on which the presented approach relies. The method has been implemented in the lattice code WIMS-AECL and routinely used for calculation of CANDU-type reactor lattices. Its capabilities are illustrated by comparison of WIMS-AECL and MCNP results of {sup 238}U resonance capture in a CANDU lattice cell. In order to determine optimal rational expansion of fuel-to-fuel collision probability, the calculations were carried out by varying the number of rational terms from 1 to 6. The results show that 4 terms are sufficient. The further increase of the number of terms affects the computing time, while the impact on accuracy is negligible. To illustrate the convergence of the results, the fuel subdivision is gradually refined varying the number of fuel pin subdivisions from 1 to 32 equal-area annuli. The results show very good agreement with the reference MCNP calculation. (authors)

Altiparmakov, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Photovoltaic roof heat flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and could the heat transfer processes be modeled to estimateindicating that the heat transfer processes were modeled w i

Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Heat pipe methanator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

Ranken, William A. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

316

Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Heat reclaimer for a heat pump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This invention relates to a heat reclaiming device for a heat pump. The heat reclaimer is able to absorb heat from the compressor by circulating cooling fluid through a circuit which is mounted in good heat transfer relationship with the condenser, then around the shell of the motor-compressor and lastly around the hollow tube which connects the condenser to the compressor. The reclaiming circuit is connected into a fluid circulating loop which is used to supply heat to the evaporator coil of the heat pump.

Beacham, W.H.

1981-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

318

Segmented heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

319

Dual source heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Jones-Onslow EMC - Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Jones-Onslow EMC - Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program Jones-Onslow EMC - Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program Jones-Onslow EMC - Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Central AC (15 SEER or greater): $35 Central AC (16 SEER or greater): $50 Heat Pump (15 SEER or greater): $250 Geothermal Heat Pump (19 EER or greater): $350 Provider Jones-Onslow EMC Jones-Onslow Electric Membership Corporation offers rebates to residential members who install energy efficient heating and cooling equipment. Members can replace an existing central AC or heat pump, which does not have a SEER rating greater than 13, with a central AC, heat pump, or geothermal heat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

On the Wave Spectrum Generated by Tropical Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Convective heating profiles are computed from one month of rainfall rate and cloud-top height measurements using global Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and infrared cloud-top products. Estimates of the tropical wave response to this heating ...

David A. Ortland; M. Joan Alexander; Alison W. Grimsdell

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2009 Rates and Rate Schedule 2008 Rates and...

323

Suggested Equivalencies for General Technical Base Qualification Standard  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Base Base Qualification Equivalencies Based On Previous Experience The following information was distributed by Thomas W. Evans (HR 1.5) in a memorandum dated December 12, 1995. The memorandum is on file in DOE-ID Training and if needed can be referenced as "DOE Memorandum, Course Catalog and Competency to Course Matching", dated December 12, 1995. DOE Technical Qualification Program Standards specify competencies that technical DOE employees must possess to accomplish their assigned tasks and activities. These competencies can be gained in a number of ways including through training, education, or prior military or job experience. This material contains lists of the military or job experience and the competencies that were gained as a result of that

324

Neutron scattered dose equivalent to a fetus from proton radiotherapy of the mother  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scatteredneutrondose equivalent to a representative point for a fetus is evaluated in an anthropomorphic phantom of the mother undergoing protonradiotherapy. The effect on scatteredneutrondose equivalent to the fetus of changing the incident proton beam energy

Geraldine Mesoloras; George A. Sandison; Robert D. Stewart; Jonathan B. Farr; Wen C. Hsi

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Interannual variability of monsoon precipitation and local subcloud equivalent potential"! temperature#!  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

! "! Interannual variability of monsoon precipitation and local subcloud equivalent potential.hurley@yale.edu"&! "'! Keywords: monsoon, interannual variability, convective quasi-equilibrium, equivalent potential"(! temperature")! #12;! #! ABSTRACT"*! The interannual variability of monsoon precipitation is described

326

Human equivalent antenna model for HF exposures: analytical versus numerical approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the human exposure to HF radiation is analyzed using the simplified human equivalent antenna model featuring analytical and numerical approach, respectively. Namely, the human body is represented by an equivalent receiving straight thin ...

Dragan Poljak; Silvestar Sesnic; Ivana Zulim

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Uniform Logical Characterizations of Testing Equivalences for Nondeterministic, Probabilistic and Markovian Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Logical characterizations of nondeterministic, probabilistic, and Markovian variants of bisimulation equivalence rely on similar modal languages, each including true, negation, conjunction, and diamond. Likewise, logical characterizations of the corresponding ... Keywords: Markovian processes, modal logic, nondeterministic processes, probabilistic processes, testing equivalence

Marco Bernardo

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Novel heat pipe combination  

SciTech Connect

The basic heat pipe principle is employed in a heat pipe combination wherein two heat pipes are combined in opposing relationship to form an integral unit; such that the temperature, heat flow, thermal characteristics, and temperature-related parameters of a monitored environment or object exposed to one end of the heat pipe combination can be measured and controlled by controlling the heat flow of the opposite end of the heat pipe combination.

Arcella, F.G.

1978-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

329

Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

330

A desiccant dehumidifier for electric vehicle heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vehicle heating requires a substantial amount of energy. Engines in conventional cars produce enough waste heat to provide comfort heating and defogging/defrosting, even under very extreme conditions. Electric vehicles (EVs), however, generate little waste heat. Using battery energy for heating may consume a substantial fraction of the energy storage capacity, reducing the vehicle range, which is one of the most important parameters in determining EV acceptability. Water vapor generated by the vehicle passengers is in large part responsible for the high heating loads existing in vehicles. In cold climates, the generation of water vapor inside the car may result in water condensation on the windows, diminishing visibility. Two strategies are commonly used to avoid condensation on windows: windows are kept warm, and a large amount of ambient air is introduced in the vehicle. Either strategy results in a substantial heating load. These strategies are often used in combination, and a trade-off exists between them. If window temperature is decreased, ventilation rate has to be increased. Reducing the ventilation rate requires an increase of the temperature of the windows to prevent condensation. An alternative solution is a desiccant dehumidifier, which adsorbs water vapor generated by the passengers. Window temperatures and ventilation rates can then be reduced, resulting in a substantially lower heating load. This paper explores the dehumidifier heating concept. The first part shows the energy savings that could be obtained by using this technology. The second part specifies the required characteristics and dimensions of the system. The results indicate that the desiccant system can reduce the steady-state heating load by 60% or more under typical conditions. The reduction in heating load is such that waste heat may be enough to provide the required heating under most ambient conditions. Desiccant system dimensions and weight appear reasonable for packaging in an EV.

Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

A Seasonal Heat Budget across the Extent of the California Current  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A seasonal heat budget is based on observations that span the broad California Current (CC) region. Budget terms are estimated from satellite data (oceanic heat advection), repeat ship transects (heat storage rate), and the Comprehensive Ocean–...

Kathleen A. Edwards; Kathryn A. Kelly

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Development of a compensation chamber for use in a multiple condenser loop heat pipe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The performance of many electronic devices is presently limited by heat dissipation rates. One potential solution lies in high-performance air-cooled heat exchangers like PHUMP, the multiple condenser loop heat pipe presented ...

Roche, Nicholas Albert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Department Chair/Equivalent Unit Director Mid-appointment Review Cover Sheet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Department Chair/Equivalent Unit Director Mid-appointment Review Cover Sheet The review committee:______________________________________________________________________________ 1. A copy of the committee report has been given to the department chair/equivalent unit director. 2. The committee has discussed its report with the department chair/ equivalent unit director. 3. A copy

334

The Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately accounting for radiative energy balance between the incoming solar and the outgoing infrared radiative fluxes is very important in modeling the Earth's climate. Water vapor absorption plays a critical role in the radiative heating rate ...

D. D. Turner; E. J. Mlawer

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Multiple source heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

A ''Toolbox''21 Equivalent Process for Safety Analysis Software  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software) identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls that prevent or mitigate potential accidents. The development and maintenance of a collection, or ''toolbox,'' of multiple-site use, standard solution, Software Quality Assurance (SQA)-compliant safety software is one of the major improvements identified in the associated DOE Implementation Plan (IP). The DOE safety analysis toolbox will contain a set of appropriately quality-assured, configuration-controlled, safety analysis codes, recognized for DOE-broad, safety basis applications. Currently, six widely applied safety analysis computer codes have been designated for toolbox consideration. While the toolbox concept considerably reduces SQA burdens among DOE users of these codes, many users of unique, single-purpose, or single-site software may still have sufficient technical justification to continue use of their computer code of choice, but are thwarted by the multiple-site condition on toolbox candidate software. The process discussed here provides a roadmap for an equivalency argument, i.e., establishing satisfactory SQA credentials for single-site software that can be deemed ''toolbox-equivalent''. The process is based on the model established to meet IP Commitment 4.2.1.2: Establish SQA criteria for the safety analysis ''toolbox'' codes. Implementing criteria that establish the set of prescriptive SQA requirements are based on implementation plan/procedures from the Savannah River Site, also incorporating aspects of those from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (SNL component) and the Yucca Mountain Project. The major requirements are met with evidence of a software quality assurance plan, software requirements and design documentation, user's instructions, test report, a configuration and control procedure, an error notification and corrective action process, and evidence of available training on use of the software. The process is best performed with an independent SQA evaluator, i.e., a technically knowledgeable individual in the application area who is not part of the development team. The process provides a consistent, systematic approach based on the experience gained with SQA evaluations of the toolbox codes. Experience has shown that rarely will existing software be fully compliant with SQA criteria. Instead, the typical case is where SQA elements are deficient. For this case, it is recommended that supplemental remedial documentation be generated. Situations may also arise where the SQA evaluator must weigh whether the entire SQA suite be reconstituted. Regardless, the process is described sufficiently to guide a comprehensive evaluation. If the candidate software is successful in meeting process requirements, the software is ''toolbox-equivalent''. The benefit of the methodology outlined is that it provides a standard evaluation technique for choosing the most applicable software for a given application. One potential outcome is that the software of choice will be found to be applicable with ample SQA justification. Alternatively, the software in question may be found not to meet SQA process requirements. In this case, the analyst may then make an informed decision and possibly select one of the multiple-use, toolbox codes. With either outcome, the DSA is improved.

O'KULA, KR

2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

337

Experimental study of mixed convection heat transfer in vertical helically coiled tube heat exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the mixed convection heat transfer in a coil-in-shell heat exchanger for various Reynolds numbers, various tube-to-coil diameter ratios and different dimensionless coil pitch was experimentally investigated. The experiments were conducted for both laminar and turbulent flow inside coil. Effects of coil pitch and tube diameters on shell-side heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger were studied. Different characteristic lengths were used in various Nusselt number calculations to determine which length best fits the data and several equations were proposed. The particular difference in this study in comparison with the other similar studies was the boundary conditions for the helical coils. The results indicate that the equivalent diameter of shell is the best characteristic length. (author)

Ghorbani, N. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, England (United Kingdom); Taherian, H. [Department of Engineering Technology and Industrial Distribution, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Gorji, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol Noushirvani University of Technology, Babol (Iran); Mirgolbabaei, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar branch, Jouybar (Iran)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

Assessment of the Effective Dose Equivalent for External Photon Radiation: Volume 2: Calculational Techniques for Estimating Externa l Effective Dose Equivalent from Dosimeter Readings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent revisions to the radiation protection standards contained in Title 10 Part 20 of the Code of Federal Regulations require nuclear power plants to assess a worker's "effective dose equivalent" (EDE). This report explains the concept of effective dose equivalent and describes research to improve the dosimetric methods presently used for assessing EDE.

1995-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

339

The Effect of High Cooling Rate and Powder Composition on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coatings were deposited by applying different types of thermal spray systems. Influence of the heating and cooling rates on coating microstructure and ...

340

Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Because of the higher projected crude oil prices and because of Because of the higher projected crude oil prices and because of increased tightening in the Northeast heating oil market since the last Outlook, we now expect prices this winter for residential heating oil deliveries to peak at $1.52 per gallon in January. This is significantly above the monthly peak reached last winter. Because these figures are monthly averages, we expect some price movements for a few days to be above the values shown on the graph. This winter's expected peak price would be the highest on record in nominal terms, eclipsing the high set in February 2000. However, in real (constant dollar) terms, both of these prices remain well below the peak reached in March 1981, when the average residential heating oil price was $1.29 per gallon, equivalent to over $2.50 per gallon today.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Notes: Because of the higher projected crude oil prices and because of increased tightening in the Northeast heating oil market since the last Outlook, we now expect prices this winter for residential heating oil deliveries to peak at about $1.52 per gallon in January. This is significantly above the monthly peak reached last winter. Because these figures are monthly averages, we expect some price movements for a few days to be above the values shown on the graph. This winter's expected peak price would be the highest on record in nominal terms, eclipsing the high set in February 2000. However, in real (constant dollar) terms, both of these prices remain well below the peak reached in March 1981, when the average residential heating oil price was $1.29 per gallon, equivalent to over $2.50 per gallon today.

342

Making Use of Low-Level Heat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Immense amounts of energy are being thrown away every day in petroleum refineries, chemical plants, and throughout all types of industrial operations. Much of this energy is at temperature levels below 350OF and is typically rejected to the atmosphere through cooling towers and air fin coolers. We will designate this as "low-level heat". Between 20 to 30% of all the energy that enters a plant is lost as low-level heat. In a 100,000 BPD refinery, this is the equivalent of about 2,500 BPD of oil, or 15 billion Btu's per day. If any improvement can be made in the recovery and reuse of this heat, the energy efficiency of our plants would be significantly increased.

Plaster, W. E.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Utility Incentives for Combined Heat and Power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utility Incentives for Combined Heat and Power Utility Incentives for Combined Heat and Power Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Utility Incentives for Combined Heat and Power Focus Area: Solar Topics: Policy Impacts Website: www.epa.gov/chp/documents/utility_incentives.pdf Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/utility-incentives-combined-heat-and- Language: English Policies: Financial Incentives This report reviews a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency study that researched 41 U.S. utilities and found that nearly half provided some kind of support for combined heat and power (CHP). Here they profile 16 utility programs that support CHP in ways excluding direct financial incentives. References Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Utility_Incentives_for_Combined_Heat_and_Power&oldid=514610

344

Equivalent circuit modeling of hybrid electric vehicle drive train  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main goals of the advanced vehicles designer are to improve efficiency, to decrease emissions and to meet customer's requirements. The design of such vehicles is challenging and cannot efficiently be achieved without an appropriate tool. The objective of this work is to develop and validate a modeling and design method adapted to advanced vehicles conception. The designer, as a system engineer, needs performances predictions and physical understanding of the system dynamics. In order to achieve this objective, a methodology based on electrical analogies and transducers theory is presented in this work. Using the powerful circuit theory to solve multi-disciplinary problems is not revolutionary, but applied to the design of advanced vehicles, it brings a strong insight and a visual, intuitive interpretation of the set of differential equations. The equivalent circuit obtained from this method offers an elegant alternative to traditional methods and is especially adapted to the study of the interactions between the mechanical and the electrical side of any electromechanical system.

Routex, Jean-Yves

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Geothermal heating for Caliente, Nevada  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Utilization of geothermal resources in the town of Caliente, Nevada (population 600) has been the objective of two grants. The first grant was awarded to Ferg Wallis, part-owner and operator of the Agua Caliente Trailer Park, to assess the potential of hot geothermal water for heating the 53 trailers in his park. The results from test wells indicate sustainable temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/F. Three wells were drilled to supply all 53 trailers with domestic hot water heating, 11 trailers with space heating and hot water for the laundry from the geothermal resource. System payback in terms of energy cost-savings is estimated at less than two years. The second grant was awarded to Grover C. Dils Medical Center in Caliente to drill a geothermal well and pipe the hot water through a heat exchanger to preheat air for space heating. This geothermal preheater served to convert the existing forced air electric furnace to a booster system. It is estimated that the hospital will save an average of $5300 in electric bills per year, at the current rate of $.0275/KWH. This represents a payback of approximately two years. Subsequent studies on the geothermal resource base in Caliente and on the economics of district heating indicate that geothermal may represent the most effective supply of energy for Caliente. Two of these studies are included as appendices.

Wallis, F.; Schaper, J.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Effect of Heat Treatment Variations on the Hardness and Mechanical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the greatest impact on hardness with increasing cooling rate increasing fully heat treated hardness. A specimen test program was then initiated to determine the ...

347

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates Loveland Area Project Firm Power Rates Transmission and Ancillary Services Rates 2012 Rate Adjustment-Transmission and Ancillary Services 2010 Rate Adjustment-Firm Power 2009...

348

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process DSW Multiple System Transmission...

349

Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Geothermal heat pumps use the constant temperature of the earth as an exchange medium for heat. Although many parts of the country experience seasonal temperature extremes—from scorching heat in...

350

Absorption heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Absorption heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

Grossman, G.

1982-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

352

SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ON ~m Small Particle Heat Exchangers Arion J. Hunt June 1978d. LBL 7841 Small Particle Heat Exchangers by Arlon J. Huntgenerally to non-solar heat exchangers. These may be of the

Hunt, A.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Heat Pump Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate...

354

Photovoltaic roof heat flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of ~24°C, indicating that heat conduction was small. T h i sday, indicating large heat conduction a n d storage. Control2.1.3 showed that conduction heat flux through the roof was

Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Passive Passive Solar Heating Applications StephenHEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS StephenMIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS Stephen

Selkowitz, S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

357

Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

358

Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating...

359

San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

360

Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

362

City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

363

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

364

Thermal Energy Storage/Waste Heat Recovery Applications in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cement industry is the most energy-intensive industry in the United States in terms of energy cost as a percentage of the product according to a 1973 report by the Cost of Living Council. Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver Division, and the Portland Cement Association have studied the potential benefits of using waste heat recovery methods and thermal energy storage systems in the cement manufacturing process. This work was performed under DOE Contract No. EC-77-C-01-50S4. The study has been completed and illustrates very attractive cost benefits realized from waste heat recovery/thermal storage systems. This paper will identify and quantify the sources of rejected energy in the cement manufacturing process, establish uses of this energy, exhibit various energy storage concepts, and present a methodology for selection of most promising energy storage systems. Two storage systems show the best promise - rock beds and draw salt storage. Thermal performance and detailed economic analyses have been performed on these systems and will be presented. Through use of thermal energy storage in conjunction with waste heat electric power generation units, an estimated 2.4 x 1013 BTU per year, or an equivalent of 4.0 x 10 barrels of oil per year, can be conserved. Attractive rates of return on investment of the proposed systems are an incentive for utilization and further development.

Beshore, D. G.; Jaeger, F. A.; Gartner, E. M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Woven heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

Piscitella, R.R.

1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

366

Solar heat collector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar heat collector is described that pre-heats water for a household hot water heating system, and also heats the air inside a house. The device includes solar heating panels set into an A-shape, and enclosing an area therein containing a water tank and a wristatic fan that utilize the heat of the enclosed air, and transmit the thermal energy therefrom through a water line and an air line into the house.

Sykes, A.B.

1981-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

367

Energy Basics: Heating Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of energy sources, including electricity, boilers, solar energy, and wood and pellet-fuel heating. Small Space Heaters Used when the main heating system is inadequate or when...

368

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

369

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

370

Mass and Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building (air to air heat exchanger). In my papers I use (water to air heat exchanger) as a heat recovery and I use the water as a mass recovery. The source of mass and heat recovery is the condensate water which we were dispose and connect it to the drain lines.

Hindawai, S. M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Tankless Demand Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil & Indirect Water Heaters Water Heating A variety of...

372

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

373

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

374

Urban Heat Catastrophes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The curve shows the heat index, which reflects the combined effect of temperature and humidity. Last year's Chicago heat wave created a great deal of human discomfort and,...

375

Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The heat pump system used for recycling and reusing waste heat in s high school bathroom was minutely analyzed in its coefficient of performance, onetime utilization ratio of energy, economic property and so on. The results showed that this system has good economic property, can conserve energy and protects the environment. Therefore, there is a large potential for its development. In addition, three projects using this system are presented and contrasted, which indicate that a joint system that uses both the heat pump and heat exchanger to recycle waste heat is a preferable option.

Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Geothermal heat pump analysis article  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

heat pump transfers heat from the ground or ground water to provide space heating. In the summer, the heat transfer process is reversed; the ground or groundwater

377

Heat Transfer of a Multiple Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Using a Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present study has focused on the use of coil heat exchangers (CHEs) with microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) slurries to understand if CHEs can yield greater rates of heat transfer. An experimental study was conducted using a counterflow CHE consisting of 3 helical coils. Two separate tests were conducted, one where water was used as heat transfer fluid (HTF) on the coil and shell sides, respectively; while the second one made use of MPCM slurry and water on the coil and shell sides, respectively. The NTU-effectiveness relationship of the CHE when MPCM fluid is used approaches that of a heat exchanger with a heat capacity ratio of zero. The heat transfer results have shown that when using a MPCM slurry, an increase in heat transfer rate can be obtained when compared to heat transfer results obtained using straight heat transfer sections. It has been concluded that the increased specific heat of the slurry as well as the fluid dynamics in helical coil pipes are the main contributors to the increased heat transfer.

Gaskill, Travis

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Effects of particle concentration and surfactant use in convective heat transfer of CuO nanofluids in microchannel flow.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heat exchange systems used in everything from cars to microelectronics have rapidly advanced in recent years to offer high heat transfer rates in increasingly smaller… (more)

Byrne, Matthew Davidson

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

NBSBR 84-2867 Test Procedures for Rating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NBSBR 84-2867 Test Procedures for Rating Residential Heating and Cooling Absorption Equipment U HEATING AND COOLING ABSORPTION EQUIPMENT Brian Weber Reinhard Radermacher David Didion U.S. DEPARTMENT-fired absorption devices operating in either the heating or cooling modes. These procedures are designed to include

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

380

ARM - Measurement - Sensible heat flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsSensible heat flux govMeasurementsSensible heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Sensible heat flux The time rate of flow for the energy transferred from a warm or hot surface to whatever is touching it, typically air. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

ARM - Measurement - Latent heat flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsLatent heat flux govMeasurementsLatent heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Latent heat flux The time rate of flow for the specific enthalpy difference between two phases of a substance at the same temperature, typically water. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station

382

Rates & Repayment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current and Historical Rate Information Collbran Power Rates CRSP Power Rates CRSP Transmission System Rates CRSP Management Center interest rates Falcon-Amistad Power Rates Provo River Power Rates Rio Grande Power Rates Seedskadee Power Rates SLCA/IP Power Rates Rate Schedules & Supplemental Rate Information Current Rates for Firm Power, Firm & Non-firm Transmission Service, & Ancillary Services Current Transmission & Ancillary Services Rates Tariffs Components of the SLCA/IP Existing Firm Power Rate Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Page MOA Concerning the Upper Colorado River Basin

383

Heat Treatment, Microstructure, and Creep Strength of ?/? - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

gas flow was used as a cooling medium was made in comparison with the high rate solidification .... of density, heat transfer rate, and high temperature stability. The temperature was measured at ... cross section were encir- cled by the ordered ...

384

Rotary magnetic heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

Kirol, Lance D. (Shelly, ID)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Direct fired heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Woven heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

Piscitella, Roger R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Rotary magnetic heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

Kirol, L.D.

1987-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

388

Article published in Geothermics 47 (2013) 69-79 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2013.02.005 1 Geothermal contribution to the energy mix of a heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and projected district heating networks. This article focuses on a remaining issue: estimating the geothermal contribution to the energy mix of a district heating network over time when using an ATES. This result would and providing energy to a new low-temperature district heating network heating 7,500 housing-equivalents. Non

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

Heat recovery in building envelopes  

SciTech Connect

Infiltration has traditionally been assumed to contribute to the energy load of a building by an amount equal to the product of the infiltration flow rate and the enthalpy difference between inside and outside. Some studies have indicated that application of such a simple formula may produce an unreasonably high contribution because of heat recovery within the building envelope. The major objective of this study was to provide an improved prediction of the energy load due to infiltration by introducing a correction factor that multiplies the expression for the conventional load. This paper discusses simplified analytical modeling and CFD simulations that examine infiltration heat recovery (IHR) in an attempt to quantify the magnitude of this effect for typical building envelopes. For comparison, we will also briefly examine the results of some full-scale field measurements of IHR based on infiltration rates and energy use in real buildings. The results of this work showed that for houses with insulated walls the heat recovery is negligible due to the small fraction of the envelope that participates in heat exchange with the infiltrating air. However; there is the potential for IHR to have a significant effect for higher participation dynamic walls/ceilings or uninsulated walls. This result implies that the existing methods for evaluating infiltration related building loads provide adequate results for typical buildings.

Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Thulium-170 heat source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Thulium-170 heat source  

SciTech Connect

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

1990-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

392

Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated motional heating of laser-cooled 9Be+ ions held inradio-frequency (Paul) traps. We have measured heating rates in a variety oftraps with different geometries, electrode materials, and characteristic sizes.The results show that heating is due to electric-field noise from the trapelectrodes which exerts a stochastic fluctuating force on the ion. The scalingof the heating rate with trap size is much stronger than that expected from aspatially uniform noise source on the electrodes (such as Johnson noise fromexternal circuits), indicating that a microscopic uncorrelated noise source onthe electrodes (such as fluctuating patch-potential fields) is a more likelycandidate for the source of heating.

Turchette, Q A; King, B E; Leibfried, D; Meekhof, D M; Myatt, C J; Rowe, M A; Sackett, C A; Wood, C S; Itano, W M; Monroe, C; Wineland, D J

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

AN OPTIMIZED TWO-CAPACITY ADVANCED ELECTRIC HEAT PUMP S. E. Veyo, Manager, Heat Exchange Systems Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exchanger, comfort. #12;AN OPTIMIZED TWO-CAPACITY ADVANCED ELECTRIC HEAT PUMP S. E. Veyo* ABSTRACT A two constrained optimization procedure was used to select heat exchanger proportions, air flow rates National Laboratory. * S. E. Veyo, Mgr., Heat Exchange Systems, Westinghouse R&D Center, Pittsburgh, PA

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

394

Water Heating Products and Services | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services May 29, 2012 - 7:04pm Addthis Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for water heating. Product Information Solar Pool Heating Systems Florida Solar Energy Center Listing of solar pool heating systems evaluated by the Florida Solar Energy Center. Certified Solar Collectors and Systems Solar Rating and Certification Corporation Information on solar collectors and pool heating systems certified under the various Solar Rating and Certification Corporation's rating programs.

395

Water Heating Products and Services | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services May 29, 2012 - 7:04pm Addthis Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for water heating. Product Information Solar Pool Heating Systems Florida Solar Energy Center Listing of solar pool heating systems evaluated by the Florida Solar Energy Center. Certified Solar Collectors and Systems Solar Rating and Certification Corporation Information on solar collectors and pool heating systems certified under the various Solar Rating and Certification Corporation's rating programs.

396

Heat pipe system  

SciTech Connect

A heat pipe diode device for transferring heat from a heat source component to a heat sink wall is described. It contains a heat pipe body member attached to the best source; the heat source having a wall forming at least a portion of the normal evaporator section of the heat pipe diode; a working fluid within the body member; a cover for the heat pipe diode forming at least a portion of the heat sink wall; the cover forming the normal condenser for the heat pipe diode; a wick connected between the condenser and the evaporator of the heat pipe diode; means for retaining the wick adjacent the heat pipe wall; a wick support plate adjacent to the cover; the wick being attached to the support plate; means for holding the wick in contact with the cover; and means, responsive to excessive temperatures at the heat sink wall, for moving the support plate and a portion of the wick away from the cover to thereby substantially reduce heat flow in the reverse direction through said heat pipe diode device.

Kroebig, H.L.; Riha, F.J. III

1974-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

397

Application of district heating system to U. S. urban areas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the last few decades district-heating systems have been widely used in a number of European countries using waste heat from electric generation or refuse incineration, as well as energy from primary sources such as geothermal wells or fossil-fired boilers. The current world status of district-heat utilization is summarized. Cost and implementation projections for district-heating systems in the U. S. are discussed in comparison with existing modes of space conditioning and domestic water heating. A substantial fraction, i.e., up to approximately one-half of the U.S. population could employ district-heating systems using waste heat, with present population-distribution patterns. U.S. energy usage would be reduced by an equivalent of approximately 30 percent of current oil imports. Detailed analyses of a number of urban areas are used to formulate conceptual district energy-supply systems, potential implementation levels, and projected energy costs. Important national ancillary economic and social benefits are described, and potential difficulties relating to the implementation of district-heating systems in the U.S. are discussed. District-heating systems appear very attractive for meeting future U.S. energy needs. The technology is well established. The cost/benefit yield is favorable, and the conservation potential is significant. District heating can be applied in urban and densely populated suburban areas. The remaining demand, in rural and low-population-density communities, appears to be better suited to other forms of system substitution.

Karkheck, J.; Powell, J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Comparison of natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermosyphon heat exchangers are used in indirect solar water heating systems to avoid using a pump to circulate water from the storage tank to the heat exchanger. In this study, the authors consider the effect of heat exchanger design on system performance. They also compare performance of a system with thermosyphon flow to the same system with a 40W pump in the water loop. In the first part of the study, the authors consider the impact of heat exchanger design on the thermal performance of both one- and two-collector solar water heaters. The comparison is based on Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) OG300 simulations. The thermosyphon heat exchangers considered are (1) a one-pass, double wall, 0.22 m{sup 2}, four tube-in-shell heat exchanger manufactured by AAA Service and Supply, Inc., (the Quad-Rod); (2) a two-pass, double wall, 0.2 m{sup 2}, tube-in-shell made by Heliodyne, Inc., but not intended for commercial development; (3) a one-pass, single wall, 0.28 m{sup 2}, 31 tube-in-shell heat exchanger from Young Radiator Company, and (4) a one-pass single-wall, 0.61 m{sup 2}, four coil-in-shell heat exchanger made by ThermoDynamics Ltd. The authors compare performance of the systems with thermosyphon heat exchangers to a system with a 40 W pump used with the Quad-Rod heat exchanger. In the second part of the study, the effects of reducing frictional losses through the heat exchanger and/or the pipes connecting the heat exchanger to the storage tank, and increasing heat transfer area are evaluated in terms of OG300 ratings.

Davidson, J.; Liu, W.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

NIST: X-Ray Mass Atten. Coef. - Tissue-Equivalent Gas ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table of Contents Back to table 4 Tissue-Equivalent Gas (Propane Based) HTML table format. Energy, ?/?, ? en /?. (MeV), (cm 2 /g), (cm 2 /g). ...

400

Heat conduction in 2D strongly-coupled dusty plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform non-equilibrium simulations to study heat conduction in two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasmas. Temperature gradients are established by heating one part of the otherwise equilibrium system to a higher temperature. Heat conductivity is measured directly from the stationary temperature profile and heat flux. Particular attention is paid to the influence of damping effect on the heat conduction. It is found that the heat conductivity increases with the decrease of the damping rate, while its magnitude confirms previous experimental measurement.

Hou, Lu-Jing

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Estimation of radiation-induced cancer from three-dimensional dose distributions: Concept of organ equivalent dose  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Estimates of secondary cancer risk after radiotherapy are becoming more important for comparative treatment planning. Modern treatment planning systems provide accurate three-dimensional dose distributions for each individual patient. These data open up new possibilities for more precise estimates of secondary cancer incidence rates in the irradiated organs. We report a new method to estimate organ-specific radiation-induced cancer incidence rates. The concept of an organ equivalent dose (OED) for radiation-induced cancer assumes that any two dose distributions in an organ are equivalent if they cause the same radiation-induced cancer incidence. Methods and Materials: The two operational parameters of the OED concept are the organ-specific cancer incidence rate at low doses, which is taken from the data of the atomic bomb survivors, and cell sterilization at higher doses. The effect of cell sterilization in various organs was estimated by analyzing the secondary cancer incidence data of patients with Hodgkin's disease who were treated with radiotherapy in between 1962 and 1993. The radiotherapy plans used at the time the patients had been treated were reconstructed on a fully segmented whole body CT scan. The dose distributions were calculated in individual organs for which cancer incidence data were available. The model parameter that described cell sterilization was obtained by analyzing the dose and cancer incidence rates for the individual organs. Results: We found organ-specific cell radiosensitivities that varied from 0.017 for the mouth and pharynx up to 1.592 for the bladder. Using the two model parameters (organ-specific cancer incidence rate and the parameter characterizing cell sterilization), the OED concept can be applied to any three-dimensional dose distribution to analyze cancer incidence. Conclusion: We believe that the concept of OED presented in this investigation represents a first step in assessing the potential risk of secondary cancer induction after the clinical application of radiotherapy.

Schneider, Uwe [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, City Hospital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: uwe.schneider@psi.ch; Zwahlen, Daniel [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, City Hospital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland); Ross, Dieter [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, City Hospital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaser-Hotz, Barbara [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radio-Oncology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland)

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Energy Basics: Absorption Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat...

403

Diabatic Heating in the UCLA General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diabatic heating rates calculated in the UCLA general circulation model are analyzed. The heating rates are for the December–January–February season for the mean of four climatological runs and the mean of four runs with observed 1982/83 sea ...

Bryan C. Weare

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Latent heat accumulating greenhouse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This invention relates to a latent heat accumulating greenhouse utilizing solar heat. The object of the invention is to provide a greenhouse which is simple in construction, of high efficiency for heat absorbing and capable of much absorbing and accumulating of heat. A heat accumulating chamber partitioned by transparent sheets is provided between the attic and a floor surface facing north in the greenhouse. A blower fan is disposed to confront an opening provided at the lower portion in said heat accumulating chamber. Also, in the heat accumulating chamber, a heat accumulating unit having a large number of light transmitting windows and enclosing a phase transformation heat accumulating material such as CaC1/sub 2/.6H/sub 2/O, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/.10H/sub 2/O therein is detachably suspended in a position close to windowpanes at the north side.

Yano, N.; Ito, H.; Makido, I.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

405

Energy Basics: Air-Source Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

406

Effect of Cooling Rate From Solution Heat Treatment on Waspaloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the oil quench commonly specified to achieve high mechanical strengths. ... precipitation temperature range of 982 through 760°C. Oil quench data from ...

407

Temperature and heating rate of ion crystals in Penning traps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... plasma energy (the sum of the potential and kinetic energies) per ion ... That is, the energy increase of an ion, after the cooling ... [15] A. Sørensen and K ...

2004-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

408

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Effects of coal type on coal plasticity are investigated. Seven coals, from the Argonne premium sample bank ranging from lignite to low volatile bituminous, are studied. Different indices and structural data of a coal are shown to affect its plastic behavior. A coal-specific parameter incorporating the effects of labile bridges, oxygen, and hydrogen on plasticity has been used to successfully correlate measured values of maximum plasticity (i.e. minimum apparent viscosity) at elevated temperature with coal type.

Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

The NIST 3 Megawatt Quantitative Heat Release Rate Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A pair of disposable flat disk filters is used to ... is a constant if the speeds of the roof and control ... generated pulse shapes such as a flatter top section ...

2004-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

410

Measurement and Mapping of Pulse Combustion Impingement Heat Transfer Rates .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current research shows that pulse combustion impingement drying is an improvement over the steady impingement drying currently in commercial use. Pulse combustion impingement has higher… (more)

Hagadorn, Charles C., III

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Atmospheric Solar Heating Rate in the Water Vapor Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmosphere is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are ...

Ming-Dah Chou

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Heat transfer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

Not Available

1980-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

413

Heat transfer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Laundry heat recovery system  

SciTech Connect

A laundry heat recovery system includes a heat exchanger associated with each dryer in the system, the heat exchanger being positioned within the exhaust system of the dryer. A controller responsive to the water temperature of the heat exchangers and the water storage for the washer selectively circulates the water through a closed loop system whereby the water within the exchangers is preheated by the associated dryers. By venting the exhaust air through the heat exchanger, the air is dehumidified to permit recirculation of the heated air into the dryer.

Alio, P.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

415

Wound tube heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Heat transfer characteristics of a three-phase volume boiling direct contact heat exchanger  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The advantages of direct contact heat transfer over heat transfer utilizing conventional metallic heat exchangers are listed. The performance characteristics of a three-phase direct contact heat exchanger in near counterflow operation were evaluated using water as the continuous phase fluid and refrigerant 113 as the dispersed phase fluid. Conclusions are drawn from the results having to do with refrigerant injection technique, vessel operating height, mass flow rate of refrigerant, water inlet temperature, operation at pinch point temperature differences below 13 to 20/sup 0/C, and operation with a dispersed phase fluid less dense than water. (MHR)

Blair, C.K.; Boehm, R.F.; Jacobs, H.R.

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates  

SciTech Connect

A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

418

Design of a tube bank waste heat reclaimer for residential heating systems  

SciTech Connect

Forced convection tube bank heat reclaimers are analyzed in detail for residential natural gas and oil-fired furnaces that are controlled by natural draft. Optimum reclaimer designs are obtained based on improved system efficiency, and considerations regarding manufacturing costs. Each reclaimer meets safety restrictions regarding allowable system pressure losses and minimum chimney gas temperatures. Reclaimer size and overall weight are also considered. Computer-generated solutions aid in determining heat recovery as a function of furnace fuel, furnace efficiency, ambient temperature, flue pipe size, and chimney height. The analysis considers a range of furnace efficiencies from 50 to 80%, and ambient temperatures from 0 to 60/sup 0/F, which are values considered typical for most domestic combustion heating equipment. Flue pipe sizes range from 4 to 6 inches in diameter and are 2 to 4 feet long. Chimney sizes range from 5 to 7 inches in equivalent diameter and include draft heights from 15 to 35 feet. The piping sizes correspond to furnace input capacities ranging from 50,000 to 170,000 Btu/h. For many domestic heating systems, the potential exists to recover the lost heat by as much as 30%, and to reduce fuel costs by as much as 15% by installing a flue pipe heat reclaimer.

Gretsinger, K.M.; Elias, T.I.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems May 30, 2012 - 3:40pm Addthis Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper, because it is a good thermal conductor and has greater resistance to corrosion. Types of Heat Exchangers Solar water heating systems use three types of heat exchangers: Liquid-to-liquid A liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger uses a heat-transfer fluid that

420

Size-Abundance Relationships in an Amazonian Bird Community: Implications for the Energetic Equivalence Rule  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

abstract: We studied size-abundance relationships in a speciesrich Amazonian bird community and found that the slope of the logarithmic relationship between population density and body mass ( b p ?0.22) is significantly shallower than expected under Damuth’s energetic equivalence rule (EER), which states that population energy use (PEU) is independent of species body mass. We used estimates of avian field metabolic rates to examine the logarithmic relationship between PEU and body mass and its variation among ecological guilds. The relationship for all species had a significantly positive slope ( b p 0.46), indicating that PEU of larger species was greater than that of smaller species. Analyses of guilds revealed significant variation. The slopes of the frugivore-omnivore, insectivore, and granivore guilds were all significantly positive, with that of the frugivore-omnivore guild being the steepest. In contrast, PEU did not vary significantly with species body mass among raptors. These results were confirmed in analyses using both species values and phylogenetically independent contrasts, and the results do not support the EER in this community. The spatial distribution of resources and mechanisms of interference competition within guilds may explain why most patterns differed from the predictions of the EER. Other sources of variation, including the effects of scale, are also discussed.

Sabrina E. Russo; Scott K. Robinson; John Terborgh

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

System Modeling of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump  

SciTech Connect

To improve the system performance of the GHP, modeling and experimental study has been made by using desiccant system in cooling operation (particularly in high humidity operations) and suction line waste heat recovery to augment heating capacity and efficiency. The performance of overall GHP system has been simulated by using ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Software, which is used to predict steady-state heating and cooling performance of variable-speed vapor compression air-to-air heat pumps for a wide range of operational variables. The modeling includes: (1) GHP cycle without any performance improvements (suction liquid heat exchange and heat recovery) as a baseline (both in cooling and heating mode), (2) the GHP cycle in cooling mode with desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine incorporated, (3) GHP cycle in heating mode with heat recovery (recovered heat from engine). According to the system modeling results, by using desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine, the SHR can be lowered to 40%. The waste heat of the gas engine can boost the space heating efficiency by 25% in rated operating conditions.

Mahderekal, Isaac [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shen, Bo [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Heat pipe effect in porous medium  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis a parametric study of the thermal and hydrologic characteristics of the fractured porous tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada was conducted. The effects of different fracture and matrix properties including permeability, thermal conductivity, specific heat, porosity, and tortuosity on heat pipe performance in the vicinity of the waste package were observed. Computer simulations were carried out using TOUGH code on a Cray YMP-2 supercomputer. None of the fracture parameters affected the heat pipe performance except the mobility of the liquid in the fracture. Matrix permeability and thermal conductivity were found to have significant effect on the heat pipe performance. The effect of mass injection was studied for liquid water and air injected at the fracture boundary. A high rate of mass injection was required to produce any effect on the heat pipe. The fracture-matrix equilibrium is influenced by the matrix permeability and the matrix thermal conductivity.

Joseph, M.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Dynamics of heat transfer between nano systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a dynamical theory of heat transfer between two nano systems. In particular, we consider the resonant heat transfer between two nanoparticles due to the coupling of localized surface modes having a finite spectral width. We model the coupled nanosystem by two coupled quantum mechanical oscillators, each interacting with its own heat bath, and obtain a master equation for the dynamics of heat transfer. The damping rates in the master equation are related to the lifetimes of localized plasmons in the nanoparticles. We study the dynamics towards the steady state and establish connection with the standard theory of heat transfer in steady state. For strongly coupled nano particles we predict Rabi oscillations in the mean occupation number of surface plasmons in each nano particle.

Svend-Age Biehs; Girish S. Agarwal

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

424

Outgassing rate of the copper-plated beam tube for ISABELLE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ultrahigh vacuum system of the intersecting storage accelerator, ISABELLE, will consist of two interlaced rings of stainless steel beam tubes with a circumference 2-1/2 miles each. To obtain a good heat conduction during bakeout and to reduce the resistive wall instability during beam operation, a lmm thick copper coating will be electroplated to the outer surface of this 1.5 mm thick beam tube. To minimize the beam loss due to beam-gas collision, the pressure inside the beam tube is required to be 1 x 10/sup -11/ Torr (N/sub 2/ equivalent) or less. To achieve this ultrahigh vacuum, the outgassing rate of the 304 LN stainless steel tubes has been reduced to approx. 1 x 10/sup -13/ Torr. l/cm/sup 2/. sec by vacuum firing at 950/sup 0/C for one hour. However, during acid-bath electroplating of copper, significant amount of hydrogen will be reintroduced and trapped in stainless steel which will substantially increase the outgassing rate (to approx. 2 x 10/sup -12/ Torr . l/cm/sup 2/ sec). The outgassing characteristics of these copper-plated beam tubes are studied and discussed within the scope of diffusion and energy of activation. Methods to reduce the outgassing rate to an acceptable level (approx. 1 x 10/sup -13/ Torr . l/cm/sup 2/ . sec) are also given.

Hseuh, H.C.; Gaudet, E.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Section D: SPACE HEATING  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Central warm-air furnace with ducts to individual rooms other than a heat pump ..... 03 Steam/Hot water ... REVERSE Heat pump ... Don't have a separate water heater ...

426

Electric Resistance Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to...

427

Space Heating and Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as...

428

Heat pipe fabrication  

SciTech Connect

A heat pipe is disclosed which is fabricated with an artery arranged so that the warp and weave of the wire mesh are at about a 45/sup 0/ angle with respect to the axis of the heat pipe.

Leinoff, S.; Edelstein, F.; Combs, W.

1977-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

429

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

430

Control system for fluid heated steam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

Boland, James F. (Bonneville County, ID); Koenig, John F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Control system for fluid heated steam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

432

HEAT TRANSFER IN UNDERGROUND HEATING EXPERIMENTS IN GRANITE, STRIPA, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of. Nonlinear Heat Transfer Problems." Report no.Berkeley, Ca. , APPENDIX A. HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION ANDMeeting, Technical Session on Heat Transfer in Nuclear Waste

Chan, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

434

HEAT TRANSFER IN UNDERGROUND HEATING EXPERIMENTS IN GRANITE, STRIPA, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CLOSED-FORM INTEGRAL SOLUTIONS FOR LINEAR HEAT CONDUCTION.For linear heat conduction in a homogeneous, isotropiclaw of similitude for linear heat conduction was utilized to

Chan, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Expert Meeting Report: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems Expert Meeting Report: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems Water heating represents a major residential energy end use, especially in highly efficient homes where space conditioning loads and energy use has been significantly reduced. Future efforts to reduce water heating energy use requires the development of an improved understanding of equipment performance, as well as recognizing system interactions related to the distribution system and the fixture use characteristics. By bringing together a group of water heating experts, we hope to advance the shared knowledge on key water heating performance issues and identify additional

436

Solar heat receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Solar heat receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

438

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

Ernst, D.M.

1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

439

Flue heat reclaimer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A flue heat reclaimer is constructed to be mounted on the exterior of a flue duct of a heater and provide a spiral-shaped heat transfer passage extending around the flue duct. A fan causes air to flow through the heat transfer passage so that the temperature of this air is elevated by reason at its extended heat transfer relationship with the flue duct.

Paolino, R.J.

1983-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

440

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Application Study of a Single House Horizontal Heating System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is imperative to get new heating systems into the market and implement rate structures with heat meters for the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. Based on analysis of current heating technology, this paper analyzes the different forms of heating systems suited for single household metering. We introduce especially the single house horizontal spanning system and show how to select the heat flow rate of the radiator. We also study the distribution rule of the heat intermedium of horizontal heating system. To simplify the workload of engineering process and make the design more accurate, a new method for calculating the average temperature of the intermedium and the heat flow rate of this heating system is put forward. Comparison is also made between the system in question and the heating system in series. A few important questions are raised and discussed, such as the computation of combining different forms of radiators, the verification of the pipe radiation, the end of the radiator without spanning pipe, and the selection of the pipe diameter. At the same time, we study the influence of the horizontal heating system on the whole heating network, describe the characteristics of a single household horizontal heating system and the importance of its hydraulic computation, and analyze the influence of the gravitational head to this heating system. We also study the hydraulic condition of the single house horizontal system and the relationship of each party under the adjustment. In addition, the operation of single household horizontal heating system is verified in a real project, and its reliability is testified. This paper provides a method for further research on related issues of a single household metering heating system and is valuable for design, operation and management.

Hang, Y.; Ying, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Heat generation in natural gas adsorption systems  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted using a high-surface-area carbon as an adsorbent for methane to determine the impact of the heat of adsorption upon the storage capacity. The rapid filling of an adsorption storage system under conditions in which the heat of adsorption is not dissipated results in only about 75% of the methane being stored at 3.44 MPa (500 psia) as can be stored by a slow fill rate with heat dissipation. These results depend upon the initial temperature of the absorbent bed and upon the characteristics of the substrate itself. 4 refs., 5 figs.

Remick, R.J.; Tiller, A.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

HEAT TRANSFER MEANS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger is adapted to unifomly cool a spherical surface. Equations for the design of a spherical heat exchanger hav~g tubes with a uniform center-to-center spining are given. The heat exchanger is illustrated in connection with a liquid-fueled reactor.

Fraas, A.P.; Wislicenus, G.F.

1961-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

444

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

A corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Richlen, S.L.

1987-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

446

Energy Basics: Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Geothermal Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps use the constant temperature of the earth as an exchange medium for heat. Although many parts of the country...

447

Absorption heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Applied heat transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat transfer principles are discussed with emphasis on the practical aspects of the problems. Correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop from several worldwide sources for flow inside and outside of tubes, including finned tubes are presented, along with design and performance calculations of heat exchangers economizers, air heaters, condensers, waste-heat boilers, fired heaters, superheaters, and boiler furnaces. Vibration analysis for tube bundles and heat exchangers are also discussed, as are estimating gas-mixture properties at atmospheric and elevated pressures and life-cycle costing techniques. (JMT)

Ganapathy, V.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Heat Transfer Operators Associated with Quantum Operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Any quantum operation applied on a physical system is performed as a unitary transformation on a larger extended system. If the extension used is a heat bath in thermal equilibrium, the concomitant change in the state of the bath necessarily implies a heat exchange with it. The dependence of the average heat transferred to the bath on the initial state of the system can then be found from the expectation value of a hermitian operator, which is named as the heat transfer operator (HTO). The purpose of this article is the investigation of the relation between the HTOs and the associated quantum operations. Since, any given quantum operation on a system can be realized by different baths and unitaries, many different HTOs are possible for each quantum operation. On the other hand, there are also strong restrictions on the HTOs which arise from the unitarity of the transformations. The most important of these is the Landauer erasure principle. This article is concerned with the question of finding a complete set of restrictions on the HTOs that are associated with a given quantum operation. An answer to this question has been found only for a subset of quantum operations. For erasure operations, these characterizations are equivalent to the generalized Landauer erasure principle. For the case of generic quantum operations however, it appears that the HTOs obey further restrictions which cannot be obtained from the entropic restrictions of the generalized Landauer erasure principle.

Ç. Aksak; S. Turgut

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

450

Plasma heat pump and heat engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model system where cold charged particles are locally confined in a volume V{sub P} within a warm plasma of volume V (V{sub P}kilowatts is possible with the present day technology. Second, we discuss the feasibility of constructing an electrostatic heat engine which converts plasma heat into mechanical work via plasma electric fields. Effects of P{sub E} are shown to be observable in colloidal solutions.

Avinash, K. [Centre for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States) and Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

HEAT TRANSFER IN UNDERGROUND HEATING EXPERIMENTS IN GRANITE, STRIPA, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

law of similitude for linear heat conduction was utilized tothe analogy between heat conduction and fluid flow in por­the effects of heat conduction through the vermiculite heat

Chan, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems. Technical progress report, May 15, 1996--July 14, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This progress report very briefly summarizes study results and includes an experimental plan developed for the fundamental study of heat transfer in thermosyphon side-arm heat exchangers. The study will investigate the influence of the Reynolds and Grashof numbers on the thermosyphon flow side of the heat exchanger, and the influence of the flow rate on the forced flow side of the heat exchanger. Detailed temperature, flow rate, and pressure data will be obtained for four, seven, and nine tube-in-shell heat exchanger designs. Correlations will be developed for the heat transfer and friction coefficients, and a semi-empirical model will be developed to predict the performance of thermosyphon heat exchangers in solar water heaters.

Davidson, J.H.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reactors and processes are disclosed that can utilize high heat fluxes to obtain fast, steady-state reaction rates. Porous catalysts used in conjunction with microchannel reactors to obtain high rates of heat transfer are also disclosed. Reactors and processes that utilize short contact times, high heat flux and low pressure drop are described. Improved methods of steam reforming are also provided.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Gao, Yufei (Kennewick, WA)

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

454

Heat pump apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and past heating season. As you can see, prices have started the heating season, about 40 to 50 cents per gallon higher than last year at this time. The data presented are from EIA's State Heating Oil and Propane Program. We normally collect and publish this data twice a month, but given the low stocks and high prices, we started tracking the prices weekly. These data will also be used to determine the price trigger mechanism for the Northeast Heating Oil Reserve. The data are published at a State and regional level on our web site. The slide is to give you some perspective of what is happening in these markets, since you probably will get a number of calls from local residents about their heating fuels bills

456

Active microchannel heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The active microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA); Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA); Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Switchable heat pipe assembly  

SciTech Connect

The heat pipe assembly is formed into an H-shape or a Y-shape. The H-shaped configuration comprises two heat pipes, each having condenser and evaporator sections with wicking therein coupled by a tube with wick at their evaporator sections. The Y-shaped configuration utilizes a common evaporator section in place of the two evaporator sections of the H-shaped configuration. In both configurations, the connection between the vapor spaces of the two heat pipes equalizes vapor pressure within the heat pipes. Although both heat pipes have wicks, they have sufficient fluid only to saturate a single pipe. If heat is applied to the condenser section of one of the pipes, this heat pipe becomes inoperative since all the fluid is transferred to the second pipe which can operate with a lower thermal load.

Sun, T.H.; Basiulis, A.

1977-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

Windjammer solar-water-heating system. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of the Windjammer Solar-Water-Heating System tests showed that it was not as an efficient system as a comparable conventional system for converting solar energy into heat energy. However, it was determined that the innovative mode used less electric back-up energy for water heating. Reduced fossil fuel energy consumption being the ultimate objective of a solar water heating, the principle employed has been shown to be a workable energy saving concept. The differential mode of temperature control emerged as the more efficient mode of operation for the innovative system and under comparable conditions is projected to be nearly equivalent to the conventional solar system. Although the concept has proven workable, the costs feasible, and the potential for considereable improvements exists, additional research and development is needed to advance the design into its most practical application.

Windham, J.R.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Fundamental Photoemission Brightness Limit from Disorder Induced Heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We determine the limit of the highest achievable photoemitted electron brightness, due to heating just after emission into vacuum, applicable to both relativistic and nonrelativistic photoelectron production. This heating is due to poorly screened Coulomb interactions equivalent to disorder induced heating seen in ultracold neutral plasmas. Owing to the multi-scale nature of the initial interactions of such systems, an N-body tree algorithm is used to compute the universal scaling of the disorder induced heating in fully contained bunches, and is shown to agree well with a simple model utilizing the tabulated correlated energy of one component plasmas. We also present simulations for beams undergoing Coulomb explosion at the photocathode, and demonstrate that both the temperature growth and subsequent cooling must be characterized by correlated effects, as well as correlation-frozen dynamics. In either case, the induced temperature is found to be of several meV for typical photoinjector beam densities, a sign...

Maxson, Jared; Coleman-Smith, Christopher; Wan, Weishi; Padmore, Howard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

HEAT TRANSFER IN UNDERGROUND HEATING EXPERIMENTS IN GRANITE, STRIPA, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

standing of the heat transfer processes associated withto investigate the heat transfer and related processes in an

Chan, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Carbon Material Based Heat Exchanger for Waste Heat Recovery ...  

Industrial processing plants Nuclear power Solar power ... Carbon Material Based Heat Exchanger for Waste Heat Recovery from Engine Exhaust Contact:

462

A model for improvement of water heating heat exchanger designs for residential heat pump water heaters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heat pump water heaters are a promising technology to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. A key component is the water heating heat exchanger.… (more)

Weerawoot, Arunwattana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

,"Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_smt_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_smt_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

464

,"Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sks_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sks_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

465

,"Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sal_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sal_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

466

,"California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sca_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sca_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

467

,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sok_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sok_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

468

,"Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_soh_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_soh_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

469

,"Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sut_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sut_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

470

2012 CERTS R&M Peer Review - Development of Attribute Preserving Network Equivalents - Tom Overbye  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Network Equivalents Thomas J. Overbye Fox Family Professor of Electrical and Computer Eng. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign overbye@illinois.edu Graduate Students Wonhyeok Jang (wjang7@illinois.edu) Saurav Mohapatra (smohapa2@illinois.edu) August 7-8, 2012 CERTS Meeting Overview  Objective - develop attribute preserving power system network equivalents - preserve the essence of a model for some purpose  Desirable properties include... - Economic analysis of electric power systems including transfer capacity - Transient stability response - LMP characteristics - Application Dependent!!  Present focus is on developing equivalents that preserve the line limits of the original system 2 Applications of Previous Work

471

,"Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sla_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sla_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

472

,"Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sne_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sne_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

473

,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_spa_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_spa_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

474

,"South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_ssd_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_ssd_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

475

,"Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_swy_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_swy_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

476

Does Quantum Mechanics Clash with the Equivalence Principle - and Does it Matter?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With an eye on developing a quantum theory of gravity, many physicists have recently searched for quantum challenges to the equivalence principle of general relativity. However, as historians and philosophers of science are well aware, the principle of equivalence is not so clear. When clarified, we think quantum tests of the equivalence principle won't yield much. The problem is that the clash/not-clash is either already evident or guaranteed not to exist. Nonetheless, this work does help teach us what it means for a theory to be geometric.

Okon, Elias

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

,"Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sak_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sak_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

478

,"Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sin_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sin_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

479

,"Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_smi_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_smi_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

480

,"Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sfl_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sfl_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat rate equivalents" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

,"Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sms_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sms_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

482

,"Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_stx_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_stx_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

483

Utility Rate Discounts | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Discounts Discounts Jump to: navigation, search A few electric utilities offer rate discounts to encourage residential energy efficiency. For homes that meet certain energy efficiency criteria, such as those established by the federal Energy Star program, the owner or tenant is awarded a percentage discount on each monthÂ’s electric bill. [1] Contents 1 Utility Rate Discount Incentives 2 References Utility Rate Discount Incentives CSV (rows 1 - 14) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Cleco Power - Power Miser New Home Program (Louisiana) Utility Rate Discount Louisiana Residential Building Insulation Central Air conditioners Clothes Washers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Doors Duct/Air sealing Furnaces Heat pumps

484

Residential on site solar heating systems: a project evaluation using the capital asset pricing model  

SciTech Connect

An energy source ready for immediate use on a commercial scale is solar energy in the form of On Site Solar Heating (OSSH) systems. These systems collect solar energy with rooftop panels, store excess energy in water storage tanks and can, in certain circumstances, provide 100% of the space heating and hot water required by the occupants of the residential or commercial structure on which the system is located. Such systems would take advantage of a free and inexhaustible energy source--sunlight. The principal drawback of such systems is the high initial capital cost. The solution would normally be a carefully worked out corporate financing plan. However, at the moment it is individual homeowners and not corporations who are attempting to finance these systems. As a result, the terms of finance are excessively stringent and constitute the main obstacle to the large scale market penetration of OSSH. This study analyzes the feasibility of OSSH as a private utility investment. Such systems would be installed and owned by private utilities and would displace other investment projects, principally electric generating plants. The return on OSSH is calculated on the basis of the cost to the consumer of the equivalent amount of electrical energy that is displaced by the OSSH system. The hurdle rate for investment in OSSH is calculated using the Sharpe--Lintner Capital Asset Pricing Model. The results of this study indicate that OSSH is a low risk investment having an appropriate hurdle rate of 7.9%. At this rate, OSSH investment appears marginally acceptable in northern California and unambiguously acceptable in southern California. The results also suggest that utility investment in OSSH should lead to a higher degree of financial leverage for utility companies without a concurrent deterioration in the risk class of utility equity.

Schutz, S.R.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State Alabama Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount 7% interest rate 5 or 10 year pay schedule maximum of $12,000 Provider Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative The Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative offers a heat pump loan program to eligible residential members. To qualify, members must have had power with Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative for at least one year, have the home electric bill and deeds in the same name, and pass a credit check. Heat pumps must be installed by a [http://www.smec.coop/heatpumpcontractors.htm

486

Intermountain Gas Company (IGC) - Gas Heating Rebate Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Intermountain Gas Company (IGC) - Gas Heating Rebate Program Intermountain Gas Company (IGC) - Gas Heating Rebate Program Intermountain Gas Company (IGC) - Gas Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Program Info State Idaho Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Furnace: $200/unit Provider Customer Service The Intermountain Gas Company's (IGC) Gas Heating Rebate Program offers customers a $200 per unit rebate when they convert to a high efficiency natural gas furnace that replaces a heating system using another energy source. New furnaces must meet a minimum AFUE efficiency rating of 90%, and the home must have been built at least three years prior to the furnace conversion to qualify for the rebate. Visit IGC's program web site for more

487

PreHeat: controlling home heating using occupancy prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Home heating is a major factor in worldwide energy use. Our system, PreHeat, aims to more efficiently heat homes by using occupancy sensing and occupancy prediction to automatically control home heating. We deployed PreHeat in five homes, three in the ... Keywords: energy, environment, home heating, prediction, sensing

James Scott; A.J. Bernheim Brush; John Krumm; Brian Meyers; Michael Hazas; Stephen Hodges; Nicolas Villar

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Energy Basics: Heat Pump Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of air-source heat pumps. Absorption Heat Pump Uses heat as its energy source. Geothermal Heat Pumps Use the constant temperature of the earth as the exchange medium instead...

489

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

A Simple Method for Specifying Snowpack Water Equivalent in the Northeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistical regression models were developed to estimate snowpack water equivalent (SWE) using only meteorological variables available at National Co-operative Observer Program (co-op) sites. These include the square root of snow depth, the ...

D. Samelson; D. S. Wilks

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Learning Spanish-Galician translation equivalents using a comparable corpus and a bilingual dictionary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

So far, research on extraction of translation equivalents from comparable, non-parallel corpora has not been very popular. The main reason was the poor results when compared to those obtained from aligned parallel corpora. The method proposed in this ...

Pablo Gamallo Otero; José Ramom Pichel Campos

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Equivalence of Fluctuation Splitting and Finite Volume for One-Dimensional Gas Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equivalence of the discretized equations resulting from both fluctuation splitting and finite volume schemes is demonstrated in one dimension. Scalar equations are considered for advection, diffusion, and combined advection/diffusion. Analysis of ...

Wood William A.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

A Linear Equivalent Barotropic Model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current with Realistic Coastlines and Bottom Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear equivalent barotropic (EB) model is applied to study the effects of the bottom topography H and baroclinicity on the total transport and the position of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The model is based on the observation of ...

Alexander Krupitsky; Vladimir M. Kamenkovich; Naomi Naik; Mark A. Cane

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Equivalent Transformations in the Model of Programs with Commuting and Monotone Operators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fundamental problem in the theory of algebraic program models is considered. It consists in constructing a system of equivalent transformations of program schemes that is complete in the model. It is solved for a model different from those considered ...

R. I. Podlovchenko

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Feasibility Test of Multifrequency Radiometric Data Assimilation to Estimate Snow Water Equivalent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A season-long, point-scale radiometric data assimilation experiment is performed in order to test the feasibility of snow water equivalent (SWE) estimation. Synthetic passive microwave observations at Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and ...

Michael Durand; Steven A. Margulis

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Satellite-Scale Snow Water Equivalent Assimilation into a High-Resolution Land Surface Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four methods based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) are tested to assimilate coarse-scale (25 km) snow water equivalent (SWE) observations (typical of passive microwave satellite retrievals) into finescale (1 km) land model simulations. ...

Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy; Rolf H. Reichle; Paul R. Houser; Kristi R. Arsenault; Niko E. C. Verhoest; Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Estimating Snow Water Equivalent Using Snow Depth Data and Climate Classes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many practical applications snow depth is known, but snow water equivalent (SWE) is needed as well. Measuring SWE takes 20 times as long as measuring depth, which in part is why depth measurements outnumber SWE measurements worldwide. Here a ...

Matthew Sturm; Brian Taras; Glen E. Liston; Chris Derksen; Tobias Jonas; Jon Lea

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Equivalent electric circuit modeling of differential structures in PCB with genetic algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces an equivalent circuit extraction technique for differential structures using a hybrid genetic algorithm. The procedure searches for the proper parameters of lumped circuit elements to fit the scattering parameters which can be obtained ...

Jong Kang Park; Yong Ki Byun; Jong Tae Kim

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Automated Quality Control Procedure for the "Water Equivalent of Snow on the Ground" Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow water equivalent (SWE) has been measured daily by the United States National Weather Service since 1952, whenever snow depth is 2 in. (5 cm) or greater. These data are used to develop design snow loads for buildings, for hydrological ...

Thomas W. Schmidlin; Daniel S. Wilks; Megan McKay; Richard P. Cember

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z