Sample records for heat indirect drying

  1. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  2. Solar energy for wood drying using direct or indirect collection with supplemental heating: a computer analysis. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tschernitz, J.L.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to judge solar drying on a more quantitative basis, the Forest Products Laboratory has developed a computer analysis for calculating the energy demands in the restricted cases of direct and indirect solar wood dryers using supplemental energy. Calculated energy balances are reported including percent fuel savings compared to the net energy used in conventional dryer operation. Six dryer sizes are considered. Seasonal variation of performance is noted for each of 12 months, in 96 locations throughout the United States. Also discussed is variation of cover thermal properties as these influence the effectiveness of operation. The report attempts to organize these economic elements so that the reader can make reasonable choices for any wood-drying requirements.

  3. The ECA indirectly heated Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlqvist, S.G.; Darche, M.; Ducroux, P.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the beginning of the 1980s the ECA Company designed and manufactured the first French Stirling engine, partially funded by the French government. The ECA engine has several design features of special interest: indirect heating by sodium heat pipes, cylinder block with four double-acting cylinders in line with a single crankshaft, four identical and demountable heat exchanger modules, piston rod seals with recuperation of leakage losses by means of four integrated rod pumps and with hermetic gas and oil seals using four roll socks, and power control by means of three gas valves and a 3.5-MPa helium bottle. The ECA engine ran for the first time and at the first attempt at the end of June 1982 and rapidly delivered a power of 5 kW at reduced pressure. Further testing of this 4-by 113-cm3 engine is under way to obtain a nominal power of 12 kW and an efficiency of 36% (heat to shaft power) with a very simplified design.

  4. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  5. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell (Livermore, CA); Keller, Jay O. (Oakland, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer apparatus includes a first chamber having a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, and an outlet. A first heat transfer gas source provides a first gas flow to the first chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A second gas flow through a second chamber connected to the side of the first chamber, generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling of the first and second gases in the acoustically augmented first chamber. The first chamber may also include a material inlet for receiving material to be dried, in which case the gas outlet serves as a dried material and gas outlet.

  6. Feedstock blending studies with laboratory indirectly heated gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, A.E.S.; Mullin, J.P.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the further development of indirectly heated gasifiers intended to provide fuels for advanced gas turbines, several indirectly heated laboratory gasifiers were constructed. During many comparative tests, advantages and problems with each system were observed. The most useful systems make use of laboratory tube furnaces in conjunction with temperature, time and pressure or volume yield measuring systems and a gas chromatograph with a thermal conductivity detector. In this paper, high temperature pyrolysis results obtained with the latest system are presented. Contrasting feedstocks suitable for commercial systems separately or in blends are used. Yield versus time measurements are used to determine relevant rate constants and outputs. Since the rate constants are mainly reflective of heat transfer effects, cylindrical dowel sticks of varying radii were volatilized. The data set leads to an analytic heat transfer model that considers the hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin components of the dowels. Also developed from the dowel experiments is an approximate procedure for estimating the proportionate releases of CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} for any type of biomass whose component proportions are known.

  7. Mathematical and experimental modelling of heat pump assisted microwave drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiguo Jia (Univ. of Queensland (Australia))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying is one of the most energy intensive operations in industry and agriculture. In the quest to increase drying efficiency and product quality, new technologies and methods are constantly being sought. Of these technologies, heat pump assisted drying and microwave drying have proved to be the most promising contenders. In order to achieve a better understanding and provide a computer design tool for heat pump assisted convective and microwave drying, both mathematical modelling and experimental investigations of heat pump assisted microwave dryers have been undertaken in this study. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the steady-state performance of a heat pump assisted continuous microwave dryer, with emphasis on the simulation of heat and mass transfer processes in the evaporator and drying chamber. The model is intend to serve as a design tool in the study of heat pump dryers. To achieve the optimum design, the influences of the key design and operating parameters, as well as the comparison of different drying configurations, have been examined. Based on investigation results, several methods have been proposed to improve the performance of heat pump assisted microwave drying, such as the use of a recuperator. To validate the above mathematical model, extensive drying tests using foam rubber as the test material have been conducted on a prototype heat pump assisted microwave dryer. The prototype heat pump input power was 5 kW with a maximum microwave input power of 10 kW. The experimental performance data confirmed the veracity of the simulation model. The experimental results on drying test materials indicate that with careful design heat pump assisted microwave drying is comparable to convective drying in energy consumption while with a much higher drying speed.

  8. Heat Recovery and Indirect Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckley, C. C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two thirds of the waste heat sources in the U.S. are in the low temperature range of less than 200 deg F. A primary contributor of this heat is building exhaust. Heat pipe exchangers are ideally suited for recovering this waste. Plant comfort air...

  9. Heat transfer modeling of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geologic codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geologic repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  10. Heat Transfer Modeling of Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geological codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geological repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  11. Heat-transfer characteristics of a dry and wet/dry advanced condenser for cooling towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, H.D.; McIlroy, K.; Webster, D.J.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An EPRI-funded, experimental evaluation of two types of advanced, air-cooled ammonia condensers for a phase-change dry/wet cooling system for electric power plants is described. Condensers of similar design, but much bigger, are being tested in a 15 MWe demonstration plant at the Pacific Gas and Electric Kern Power Station in Bakersfield, California. These condensers, featuring different air-side augmentation, were tested in Union Carbide's ammonia phase-change pilot plant (0.3 MWe). The first unit consisted of the Curtiss-Wright integral shaved-fin extruded aluminum tubing designed for dry operation. Heat transfer and air-side pressure loss characteristics were measured under varying air face velocities (600 to 1000 FPM) and initial temperature differences, ITD (20 to 60/sup 0/F). Overall heat transfer coefficients (based on air-side surface), U, ranged between 7.0 to 8.6 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ F. The second configuration constituted the Hoterv aluminum plate-fin/tube assembly of which two different sizes (5 ft/sup 2/ and 58 ft/sup 2/ frontal area) were performance tested; in both dry and wet modes at 200 to 800 FPM air face velocities, ITD's of 10 to 60/sup 0/F and at water deluge rates up to 3.0 gpm/ft. of core width. In the dry mode, U's ranged from 7.0 to 12.0 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ F. Increasing water deluge greatly enhanced the heat rejection capacity over dry operation - as high as 4 times, depending on operating conditions. This deluge augmentation was greater for lower air relative humidities and lower ITD's. A brief description of the recently completed ammonia phase-change dry/wet-dry cooling demonstration plant at the Kern Power Station concludes this document.

  12. Indirect Heat Transfer Technology For Waste Heat Recovery Can Save You Money

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beyrau, J. A.; Bogel, N. G.; Seifert, W. F.; Wuelpern, L. E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    constraints of an existing installation makes the conventional flue gas to air energy recovery technology impractical to employ. A successful alternative is the transfer of waste heat to an intermediate heat transfer fluid (i.e., DOWTHERM Heat Transfer Fluid...

  13. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

    2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

  14. The effect of drying on the heating value of biomass fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Pablo Gregorio

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been some speculation as to whether or not biomass fuels (such as feedlot manure) may lose volatile matter during the drying process. Since current standards state that heating value analysis may be performed before or after drying...

  15. Geometry for web microwave heating or drying to a desired profile in a waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Habeger, Jr., Charles C.; Patterson, Timothy F.; Ahrens, Frederick W.

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave heater and/or dryer has a nonlinear or curvilinear relative slot profile geometry. In one embodiment, the microwave dryer has at least one adjustable field modifier making it possible to change the geometry of the heater or dryer when drying different webs. In another embodiment, the microwave dryer provides more uniform drying of a web when the field modifier is adjusted in response to a sensed condition of the web. Finally, a method of microwave heating and/or drying a web achieves a uniform heating and/or drying profile.

  16. Heat Transfer Performance of a Dry and Wet / Dry Advanced Cooling Tower Condenser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fricke, H. D.; Webster, D. J.; McIlroy, K.; Bartz, J. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an EPRI-funded experimental evaluation of advanced air-cooled ammonia condensers for a phase. Change dry/wet cooling system for power plants. Two condenser surfaces with different air-side augmentation were tested in an ammonia...

  17. Investigation of combined heat and mass transfer from a wet heat exchanger. Part 2. Experimental results and operational characteristics of heat exchangers in dry/wet operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Kreid, D.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This second part of a two-part paper summarizes the experimental evaluation of a plate finned heat exchanger both with and without the surface wetted by a flowing film of water. The results indicate an increase in heat transfer during wet operation of two to five times over that of dry operation for the same meteorological conditions. The deluge model is shown to accurately predict the wet performance using an experimentally determined deluge film coefficient and the dry performance characteristics.

  18. Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Industrial Technologies Div.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

  19. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells M.J. Kermani1 J and N2, through the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically) an energy equation, written in a form that has enthalpy as the dependent variable. Keywords: PEM fuel cells

  20. High vacuum indirectly-heated rotary kiln for the removal and recovery of mercury from air pollution control scrubber waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawk, G.G.; Aulbaugh, R.A. [Scientific Consulting Labs., Inc., Farmers Branch, TX (United States)] [Scientific Consulting Labs., Inc., Farmers Branch, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    SepraDyne corporation (Denton, TX, US) has conducted pilot-scale treatability studies of dewatered acid plant blowdown sludge generated by a copper smelter using its recently patented high temperature and high vacuum indirectly-heated rotary retort technology. This unique rotary kiln is capable of operating at internal temperatures up to 850 C with an internal pressure of 50 torr and eliminates the use of sweep gas to transport volatile substances out of the retort. By removing non-condensables such as oxygen and nitrogen at relatively low temperatures and coupling the process with a temperature ramp-up program and low temperature condensation, virtually all of the retort off-gases produced during processing can be condensed for recovery. The combination of rotation, heat and vacuum produce the ideal environment for the rapid volatilization of virtually all organic compounds, water and low-to-moderate boiling point metals such as arsenic, cadmium and mercury.

  1. Experimental results and operational characteristics of heat exchangers in dry/wet operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Kreid, D.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This second part of a two-part paper summarizes the experimental evaluation of three air-cooled finned heat exchangers, both with and without the finned surface, wetted by flowing water. In addition, the performance of one of the heat exchangers is compared with predictions from the model which was presented in Part 1. The experimental results are in close agreement with the predictions based on the model. Once the effective film coefficient of the deluge film was determined, deluge performance was predicted using dry heat transfer correlations.

  2. Thermal analysis of an indirectly heat pulsed non-volatile phase change material microwave switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Robert M., E-mail: rm.young@ngc.com; El-Hinnawy, Nabil; Borodulin, Pavel; Wagner, Brian P.; King, Matthew R.; Jones, Evan B.; Howell, Robert S.; Lee, Michael J. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Electronic Systems, P.O. Box 1521, Baltimore, Maryland 21203 (United States)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We show the finite element simulation of the melt/quench process in a phase change material (GeTe, germanium telluride) used for a radio frequency switch. The device is thermally activated by an independent NiCrSi (nickel chrome silicon) thin film heating element beneath a dielectric separating it electrically from the phase change layer. A comparison is made between the predicted and experimental minimum power to amorphize (MPA) for various thermal pulse powers and pulse time lengths. By including both the specific heat and latent heat of fusion for GeTe, we find that the MPA and the minimum power to crystallize follow the form of a hyperbola on the power time effect plot. We also find that the simulated time at which the entire center GeTe layer achieves melting accurately matches the MPA curve for pulse durations ranging from 75–1500?ns and pulse powers from 1.6–4?W.

  3. Black carbon radiative heating effects on cloud microphysics and implications for the aerosol indirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nenes, Athanasios

    thought. 1. Introduction Black Carbon (BC) has important effects on climate, owing to its ability of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125, USA Abstract. This work examines the effect of black carbon (BC) radiative heating on cloud droplet formation. Changes in cloud droplet concentration and cloud albedo due

  4. Experimental evaluation of dry/wet air-cooled heat exchangers. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Gruel, R.L.; Huenefeld, J.C.; Eschbach, E.J.; Johnson, B.M.; Kreid, D.K.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate goal of this project was to contribute to the development of improved cooling facilities for power plants. Specifically, the objective during FY-81 was to experimentally determine the thermal performance and operating characteristics of an air-cooled heat exchanger surface manufactured by the Unifin Company. The performance of the spiral-wound finned tube surface (Unifin) was compared with two inherently different platefin surfaces (one developed by the Trane Co. and the other developed by the HOETERV Institute) which were previously tested as a part of the same continuing program. Under dry operation the heat transfer per unit frontal area per unit inlet temperature difference (ITD) of the Unifin surface was 10% to 20% below that of the other two surfaces at low fan power levels. At high fan power levels, the performances of the Unifin and Trane surfaces were essentially the same, and 25% higher than the HOETERV surface. The design of the Unifin surface caused a significantly larger air-side pressure drop through the heat exchanger both in dry and deluge operation. Generally higher overall heat transfer coefficients were calculated for the Unifin surface under deluged operation. They ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 Btu/hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F as compared to less than 2.0 Btu hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F for the Trane and HOETERV surfaces under similar conditions. The heat transfer enhancement due to the evaporative cooling effect was also measureably higher with the Unifin surface as compared to the Trane surface. This can be primarily attributed to the better wetting characteristics of the Unifin surface. If the thermal performance of the surfaces are compared at equal face velocities, the Unifin surface is as much as 35% better. This method of comparison accounts for the wetting characteristics while neglecting the effect of pressure drop. Alternatively the surfaces when compared at equal pressure drop essentially the same thermal performance.

  5. Mining earth's heat: development of hot-dry-rock geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettitt, R.A.; Becker, N.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy-extraction concept of the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Program, as initially developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is to mine this heat by creating a man-made reservoir in low-permeability, hot basement rock. This concept has been successfully proven at Fenton Hill in northern New Mexico by drilling two holes to a depth of approximately 3 km (10,000 ft) and a bottom temperature of 200/sup 0/C (392/sup 0/F), then connecting the boreholes with a large-diametervertical hydraulic fracture. Water is circulated down one borehole, heated by the hot rock, and rises up the second borehole to the surface where the heat is extracted and the cooled water is reinjected into the underground circulation loop. This system has operated for a cumulative 416 days during engineering and reservoir testing. An energy equivalent of 3 to 5 MW(t) was produced without adverse environmental problems. During one test, a generator was installed in the circulation loop and produced 60 kW of electricity. A second-generation system, recently drilled to 4.5 km (15,000 ft) and temperatures of 320/sup 0/C (608/sup 0/F), entails creating multiple, parallel fractures between a pair of inclined boreholes. This system should produce 5 to 10 MW(e) for 20 years. Significant contributions to underground technology have been made through the development of the program.

  6. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  7. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  8. Dry/wet performance of a plate-fin air-cooled heat exchanger with continuous corrugated fins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Kreid, D.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance and operating characteristics of a plate-fin heat exchanger in dry/wet or deluge operations was experimentally determined. Development of the deluge heat/mass transfer model continued. The experiments were conducted in a specially-designed wind tunnel at the PNL. Air that was first heated and humidified to specified conditions was circulated at a controlled rate through a 2 ft x 6 ft heat exchanger module. The heat exchanger used in the tests was a wavy surface, plate fin on tube configuration. Hot water was circulated through the tubes at high flow rates to maintain an essentially isothermal condition on the tube side. Deionized water sprayed on the top of the vertically oriented plate fins was collected at the bottom of the core and recirculated. Instrumentation was provided for measurement of flow rates and thermodynamic conditions in the air, in the core circulation water, and in the deluge water. Measurements of the air side pressure drop and heat rejection rate were made as a function of air flow rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, deluge water flow rate, and the core inclination from the vertical. An overall heat transfer coefficient and an effective deluge film convective coefficient was determined. The deluge model, for predicting heat transfer from a wet finned heat exchanger was further developed and refined, and a major extension of the model was formulated that permits simultaneous calculation of both the heat transfer and evaporation rates from the wetted surface. The experiments showed an increase in the heat rejection rate due to wetting, accompanied by a proportional increase in the air side pressure drop. For operation at the same air side pressure drop, the enhancement ratio Q/sub w//Q/sub d/ varied between 2 and 5 for the conditions tested. Thus, the potential enhancement of heat transfer due to wetting can be substantial.

  9. Theoretical and testing performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Yi; Xie, Xiaoyun [Department of Building Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirect evaporative chiller is a device used to produce chilled water at a temperature between the wet bulb temperature and dew point of the outdoor air, which can be used in building HVAC systems. This article presents a theoretical analysis and practical performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller. First, the process of the indirect evaporative chiller is introduced; then, the matching characteristics of the process are presented and analyzed. It can be shown that the process that produces cold water by using dry air is a nearly-reversible process, so the ideal produced chilled water temperature of the indirect evaporative chiller can be set close to the dew point temperature of the chiller's inlet air. After the indirect evaporative chiller was designed, simulations were done to analyze the output water temperature, the cooling efficiency relative to the inlet dew point temperature, and the COP that the chiller can performance. The first installation of the indirect evaporative chiller of this kind has been run for 5 years in a building in the city of Shihezi. The tested output water temperature of the chiller is around 14-20 C, which is just in between of the outdoor wet bulb temperature and dew point. The tested COP{sub r,s} of the developed indirect evaporative chiller reaches 9.1. Compared with ordinary air conditioning systems, the indirect evaporative chiller can save more than 40% in energy consumption due to the fact that the only energy consumed is from pumps and fans. An added bonus is that the indirect evaporative chiller uses no CFCs that pollute to the aerosphere. The tested internal parameters, such as the water-air flow rate ratio and heat transfer area for each heat transfer process inside the chiller, were analyzed and compared with designed values. The tested indoor air conditions, with a room temperature of 23-27 C and relative humidity of 50-70%, proved that the developed practical indirect evaporative chiller successfully satisfy the indoor air conditioning load for the demo building. The indirect evaporative chiller has a potentially wide application in dry regions, especially for large scale commercial buildings. Finally, this paper presented the geographic regions suitable for the technology worldwide. (author)

  10. Improvement of industrial drying of natural rubber through analysis of heat and mass transfers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naon, B.; Berthomieu, G.; Benet, J.C.; Saix, C. [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Laboratoire de Mecanique et Genie Civil

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis is presented of convective drying of natural rubber in granule form. Exploitation of the mathematical model developed from analysis of internal transfers requires determination of the drying rate and the energy exchange coefficient between the material and the drying air. This was performed using a portable laboratory dryer at the production site, avoiding the problem of changes in the material during transport. Analysis of the drying kinetics of material in thin layers led to modelling the drying rate at the temperatures, rates and relative humidity values encountered in industrial dryers. The energy exchange coefficient was found by measurement of air and granule temperatures. Thick layer trials showed the suitability of the model for simulation of changes in moisture content and temperature of air and granules in a granular environment. The study as a whole led to the development of a computer program for simulating a zone dryer. This software can be used to optimize the management of an industrial natural rubber drying installation.

  11. Cost benefits from applying advanced heat rejection concepts to a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faletti, D.W.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimized ammonia heat rejection system designs were carried out for three water allocations equivalent to 9, 20, and 31% of that of a 100% wet-cooled plant. The Holt/Procon design of a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant for the Heber site was used as a design basis. The optimization process took into account the penalties for replacement power, gas turbine capital, and lost capacity due to increased heat rejection temperature, as well as added base plant capacity and fuel to provide fan and pump power to the heat rejection system. Descriptions of the three plant designs are presented. For comparison, a wet tower loop was costed out for a 100% wet-cooled plant using the parameters of the Holt/Procon design. Wet/dry cooling was found to increase the cost of electricity by 28% above that of a 100% wet-cooled plant for all three of the water allocations studied (9, 20, and 31%). The application selected for a preconceptual evaluation of the BCT (binary cooling tower) system was the use of agricultural waste water from the New River, located in California's Imperial Valley, to cool a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant. Technical and cost evaluations at the preconceptual level indicated that performance estimates provided by Tower Systems Incorporated (TSI) were reasonable and that TSI's tower cost, although 2 to 19% lower than PNL estimates, was also reasonable. Electrical cost comparisonswere made among the BCT system, a conventional 100% wet system, and a 9% wet/dry ammonia system, all using agricultural waste water with solar pond disposal. The BCT system cost the least, yielding a cost of electricity only 13% above that of a conventional wet system using high quality water and 14% less than either the conventional 100% wet or the 9% wet/dry ammonia system.

  12. Resolution of the direct containment heating issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry containments or subatmospheric containments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Klamerus, E.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report uses the scenarios described in NUREG/CR-6075 and NUREG/CR-6075, Supplement 1, to address the direct containment heating (DCH) issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry or subatmospheric containments. DCH is considered resolved if the conditional containment failure probability (CCFP) is less than 0.1. Loads versus strength evaluations of the CCFP were performed for each plant using plant-specific information. The DCH issue is considered resolved for a plant if a screening phase results in a CCFP less than 0.01, which is more stringent than the overall success criterion. If the screening phase CCFP for a plant is greater than 0.01, then refined containment loads evaluations must be performed and/or the probability of high pressure at vessel breach must be analyzed. These analyses could be used separately or could be integrated together to recalculate the CCFP for an individual plant to reduce the CCFP to meet the overall success criterion of less than 0.1. The CCFPs for all of the Westinghouse plants with dry containments were less than 0.01 at the screening phase, and thus, the DCH issue is resolved for these plants based on containment loads alone. No additional analyses are required.

  13. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  14. Hot Dry Rock Heat Mining Geothermal Energy Development Program - Annual Report Fiscal Year 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duchane, David

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This was a year of significant accomplishment in the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Program. Most importantly, the design, construction, and installation of the surface plant for the Phase II system neared completion by the end of the year. Basic process design work has been completed, and all major components of the system except the gas/particle separator have been procured. For this component, previous design problems have been resolved, and purchase during the first half of FY91 is anticipated. Installation of the surface plant is well underway. The system will be completed and ready for operation by the end of FY91 under the current funding scenario. The operational schedule to be followed will then depend upon the program funding level. Our goal is to start long-term flow testing as soon as possible. Of equal importance, from the standpoint of the long-term viability of HDR technology, during this year, for the first time, it has been demonstrated in field testing that it should be possible to operate HDR reservoirs with water losses of 1-3%, or even less. Our experience in the deep, hot, Phase II reservoir at Fenton Hill is in sharp contrast to the significant water losses seen by Japanese and British scientists working in shallower, cooler, HDR reservoirs. Calculations and modeling based on field data have shown that water consumption declines with the log of time in a manner related to water storage in the reservoir. This work may be crucial in proving that HDR can be an economically viable means for producing energy, and that it is useful even in areas where water is in short supply. In addition, an engineering model was developed to predict and explain water consumption in HDR reservoirs under pressure, the collection and processing of seismic information was more highly automated, and the detection limits for reactive tracers were lowered to less than 1 part per billion. All of these developments will add greatly to our ability to conduct, analyze, and understand the long-term test (LTFT). Water-rights acquisition activities, site clean-up, and improvements in the 1 million gallon storage pond at Fenton Hill have assured that we will have adequate water to carry out a vigorous testing program in a safe and environmentally-sound manner. The 1 million gallon pond was recontoured, and lined with a sophisticated multi-layer plastic barrier. A large part of the work on the pond was paid for with funds from the Laboratory's Health, Safety and Environment Division. Almost all the expected achievements set forth in the FY90 Annual Operating Plan were substantially accomplished this past year, in spite of a $300,000 shortfall in funding. This funding shortfall did delay some work and result in some projects not being completed, however. They have had to go more slowly than they would like on some aspects of the installation of the surface plant for the LTFT, purchase of non-critical equipment, such as a back-up electric generator for Fenton Hill, has been delayed, and some work has not been brought to an adequate conclusion. The fracture healing work, for example, was completed but not written up. they simply did not have the funds to pay for the effort needed to fully document this work. As the program enters FY91, the completion of the surface plant at Fenton Hill is within sight. The long-awaited LTFT can then begin, and the large investment in science and technology represents by the HDR Program will begin to bear still greater dividends.

  15. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. (TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg[sub evap] to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  16. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. [TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg{sub evap} to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  17. Dry effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, J.D. (Anderson, 2000 Inc., Peachtree City, GA (US))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The available choices of pollution control systems depend on what is being burned and how stringent the regulations are. The common systems are gas cooling by a waste heat boiler or an air-air heat exchanger followed by fabric filtration or electrostatic precipitation for particulate removal; alkaline spray absorbers followed by fabric filters (dry scrubbers) for particulate and acid gas removal; wet scrubbers for simultaneous particulate and acid gas removal, and; the newest - spray evaporation, followed by wet scrubbing for particulate and acid gas removal. Each has advantages and each has disadvantages. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the spray evaporator and wet scrubber combination.

  18. Economic predictions for heat mining : a review and analysis of hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tester, Jefferson W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of this study were first, to review and analyze several economic assessments of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy systems, and second, to reformulate an economic model for HDR with revised cost components.

  19. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  20. Problem Set 1 GFD1 Winter 2011 P. Rhines, A.Gray out: Friday 7 Jan 2011 back: Friday 14 Jan 1. Suppose we heat a small sample of dry air confined in a cylinder.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Suppose we heat a small sample of dry air confined in a cylinder. o Calculate the change in thermal energy the same volume as the rigid cylinder. Calculate the change in thermal energy E if the heat addition smaller for ocean water than for air at the same temperature. o the potential energy is 1/2 mass x g x h

  1. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the indirect increase in home heating (and the decrease inincrease the home’s heating load in the heating season (Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces,

  2. 2011-12 Report on the Indirect Costs of Research Program Since 2003 the Federal Indirect Costs of Research Program provides Canadian universities with annual funding to help

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    2011-12 Report on the Indirect Costs of Research Program Since 2003 the Federal Indirect Costs or "indirect" costs of research. Examples of such costs include lighting and heating for research space, salaries for staff that provide technical or administrative research support, training costs for workplace

  3. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    process Improved yield causing need to manufacture fewer pounds of product Avoids air pollution by not evaporating active material Consumes significantly less water ...

  4. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREofNewsletter Newsletter BetterEnergyDepartmentCharles

  5. Research and development of industrial drying concepts using a superheated steam atmosphere with exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dibella, F.A.; Doyle, E.F.; Becker, F.E.; Lang, R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the thermal drying processes where water is to be removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. The concept utilizes a superheated steam drying atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to 55% of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Work on Phase I: Feasibility Investigation, has been completed and the results of this work are given in this Phase I Final Report. Two designs are described for steam drying systems, one directly heated and one indirectly heated. The work on Phase I of the program also concentrated on identifying the most significant industrial applications for this superheated steam drying concept. The work consisted of evaluating information gathered from a literature search, a survey of industrial dryer manufacturers product brochures, and material provided by a major industrial dryer manufacturer. Results from the six tasks in Phase I are given. The tasks were: industrial applicability study; exploration of system configurations; designing system elements; laboratory testing; energy savings analysis; and program management and reporting. Reports on the first 5 tasks have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  6. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  7. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, David W. (9253 Glenoaks Blvd., Sun Valley, CA 91352)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  8. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  9. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L. (Morgantown, WV); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Parsons, Edward L. (Morgantown, WV)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes.

  10. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  11. Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a , Eric Blond1, b , Alain Gasser1 Forbach, France a damintode.kolani@univ-orleans.fr, b eric.blond@univ-orleans.fr Keywords: coal, drying: drying process and pyrolysis of coal. A heat and mass transfer model was developed to simulate the drying

  12. Drying Foods at Home Safely Drying Herbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    jars, freezer bags, and airtight plastic containers. Like other foods dried at home, dried herbs in an airtight container and store in a cool, dry, and dark place. Recommended containers include glass canning

  13. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted on a sheet-fed pilot-scale shoe press to compare impulse drying and double-felted pressing. Both an IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) ceramic coated and Beloit Type A press roll were evaluated for lienrboard sheet structures having a wide range of z-direction permeability. Purpose was to find ways of correcting sheet sticking problems observed in previous pilot-scale shoe press experiments. Results showed that impulse drying was superior to double felted pressing in both press dryness and in important paper physical properties. Impulse drying critical temperature was found to depend on specific surface of the heated layer of the sheet, thermal properties of the press roll surface, and choice of felt. Impulse drying of recycled and two-ply liner was demonstrated for both Southern Pile and Douglas fir-containing furnishes.

  14. The development of a 20-inch indirect fired fluidized bed gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanigan, V.J.; Sitton, O.C.; Huang, W.E

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the design, fabrication and operation of a 20'' I.D. fluidized bed gasifier producing medium Btu gas. The reactor is indirectly heated using 30 x 1-inch U-tubes inserted in the inert bed. The U-tubes are heated using flue gases produced from a propane burner system located at the bottom of the reactor. The feed material was dry wood chips fed into the bed with a 6in. auger. The reactor was fed both into the bed and at the top of the bed. The fluidizing medium was superheated steam which was superheated to 1000/degree/F. The gas produced from the reactor was passed through a cyclone for char removal and routed to the flare for combustion and disposal. The parameters measured during the experimental runs were wood feed rate, steam flow rate, steam temperatures, bed temperatures, free board temperatures, product gas temperatures, bed differential pressures, char production, gas production, gas analyses, and tar production. The parameters measured in the laboratory were moisture contents (wood and char), ash contents (wood and char), and tar content. 9 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Advanced wet-dry cooling tower concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Troxell Kimmel

    The purpose of this years' work has been to test and analyze the new dry cooling tower surface previously developed. The model heat transfer test apparatus built last year has been instrumented for temperature, humidity ...

  16. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  17. Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes Saves Energy Energy Efficiency Research Office PIER This research will use infrared heating technology for peeling tomatoes. Infrared dry peeling, a device, producing less wastewater and preserving product quality. Infrared drypeeling is expected to reduce

  18. Heat Transfer Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lefevre, M. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    crossflow and counterflow plume. 3) COMBINATION OF HET AND DRY TOWERS When there is not enough water available to provide the makeup for a conventional wet cooling tower, the only solution is to use "DRY" cooling to dissipate part of the heat load. a... 11. The water is cooled first in the DRY section because DRY cooling is much more expensive than WET cooling and this arrangement leads to the smallest DRY tower. It must also be kept in mind that the DRY tower has a physical cooling limit equal...

  19. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  20. 7, 37193761, 2007 Aerosol indirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    effects and is defined as the difference in the top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation be- tween present when either a statistical cloud cover scheme or a different aerosol emission inventory are employed. 1ACPD 7, 3719­3761, 2007 Aerosol indirect effects in ECHAM5-HAM U. Lohmann et al. Title Page

  1. Wet-dry cooling demonstration. Test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allemann, R.T.; DeBellis, D.E.; Werry, E.V.; Johnson, B.M.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale test of dry/wet cooling using the ammonia phase-change system, designated the Advanced Concepts Test (ACT), has been operated at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Kern Station at Bakersfield, California. The facility is capable of condensing 60,000 lbs/h of steam from a small house turbine. Two different modes of combining dry and evaporative cooling have been tested. One uses deluge cooling in which water is allowed to flow over the fins of the dry (air-cooled) heat exchanger on hot days; the other uses a separate evaporative condenser in parallel to the dry heat exchanger. A third mode of enhancing the dry cooling system, termed capacitive cooling has been tested. In this system, the ammonia-cooled steam condenser is supplemented by a parallel conventional water-cooled condenser with water supplied from a closed system. This water is cooled during off-peak hours each night by an ammonia heat pump which rejects heat through the ACT Cooling Tower. If operated over the period of a year, each of the wet/dry systems would use only 25% of the water normally required to reject this heat load in an evaporative cooling tower. The third would consume no water, the evaporative cooling being replaced by the delayed cooling of the closed system water supply.

  2. Hog Fuel Drying Using Vapour Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; MacEachen, I.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous hog fuel drying pilot plant based on the principle of mixing hog fuel with a hot oil (e.g., crude tall oil) as the heat transfer medium, and recirculating the suspension through a steam heated exchanger was designed, built...

  3. Heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishman, P.J.

    1983-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system utilizing solar panels and buried ground conduits to collect and store heat which is delivered to a heatpump heat exchanger. A heat-distribution fluid continuously circulates through a ground circuit to transfer heat from the ground to the heat exchanger. The ground circuit includes a length of buried ground conduit, a pump, a check valve and the heat exchanger. A solar circuit, including a solar panel and a second pump, is connected in parallel with the check valve so that the distribution fluid transfers solar heat to the heat exchanger for utilization and to the ground conduit for storage when the second pump is energized. A thermostatically instrumented control system energizes the second pump only when the temperature differential between the solar panel inlet and outlet temperatures exceeds a predetermined value and the ground temperature is less than a predetermined value. Consequently, the distribution fluid flows through the solar panel only when the panel is capable of supplying significant heat to the remainder of the system without causing excessive drying of the ground.

  4. Memorial University of Newfoundland Indirect Costs Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deYoung, Brad

    Memorial University of Newfoundland Indirect Costs Report 2012-13 The grant provided through the Government of Canada Indirect Costs Program (ICP) is essential to Memorial's research success. Funding and impact can be found in the following section. Total 2013 Indirect Costs Grant: $4,318,814 Management

  5. Indirect exporters Fergal McCann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Indirect exporters Fergal McCann Paris School of Economics Université Paris 1 November 2010 G;Indirect Exporters Fergal McCann Universit´e Paris 1, Paris School of Economics. November 3, 2010 Abstract Indirect Exporters are defined as firms exporting through a trade inter- mediary. Despite numerous recent

  6. Drying and Storing Sorghum Grain.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchison, J. E.

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying and Storing Sorghum Grain W. S. ALLEN AND J. W. SORENSON. JR.* lead to insect. niold and heat damage in stored grain. They cause most of the problems encountered in storing grain. High moisture may result from leak- age of outside... moisture through hin walls or from placing high-moisture grain in storage. If the following recornrnendations and procedures are followed. sorghum grain can be stored safely. The! are based on research conducted at Beeville by the Texas Agricultural...

  7. Federal Indirect Costs Program Definition of the indirect costs of research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doedel, Eusebius

    Federal Indirect Costs Program Definition of the indirect costs of research Concordia University defines "Indirect Costs" as costs which cannot be associated specifically with a particular research program or other activity. Indirect costs include the provision and maintenance of physical space

  8. Roles of Dry Friction in Fluctuating Motion of Adiabatic Piston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomohiko G. Sano; Hisao Hayakawa

    2014-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The motion of an adiabatic piston under dry friction is investigated to clarify the roles of dry friction in non-equilibrium steady states. We clarify that dry friction can reverse the direction of the piston motion and causes a discontinuity or a cusp-like singularity for velocity distribution functions of the piston. We also show that the heat fluctuation relation is modified under dry friction.

  9. Method and apparatus for drying web

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orloff, David I. (Atlanta, GA); Kloth, Gerald R. (Kennesaw, GA); Rudemiller, Gary R. (Paducah, KY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drying a web of paper utilizing impulse drying techniques. In the method of the invention for drying a paper web, the paper web is transported through a pair of rolls wherein at least one of the rolls has been heated to an elevated temperature. The heated roll is provided with a surface having a low thermal diffusivity of less than about 1.times.10.sup.-6 m.sup.2 /s. The surface material of the roll is preferably prepared from a material selected from the group consisting of ceramics, polymers, glass, inorganic plastics, composite materials and cermets. The heated roll may be constructed entirely from the material having a low thermal diffusivity or the roll may be formed from metal, such as steel or aluminum, or other suitable material which is provided with a surface layer of a material having a low thermal diffusivity.

  10. Energy-efficient regenerative liquid desiccant drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL); Grodzka, Philomena G. (Huntsville, AL); McCormick, Paul O. (Athens, AL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the use of desiccants in conjunction with an open oop drying cycle and a closed loop drying cycle to reclaim the energy expended in vaporizing moisture in harvested crops. In the closed loop cycle, the drying air is brought into contact with a desiccant after it exits the crop drying bin. Water vapor in the moist air is absorbed by the desiccant, thus reducing the relative humidity of the air. The air is then heated by the used desiccant and returned to the crop bin. During the open loop drying cycle the used desiccant is heated (either fossil or solar energy heat sources may be used) and regenerated at high temperature, driving water vapor from the desiccant. This water vapor is condensed and used to preheat the dilute (wet) desiccant before heat is added from the external source (fossil or solar). The latent heat of vaporization of the moisture removed from the desiccant is reclaimed in this manner. The sensible heat of the regenerated desiccant is utilized in the open loop drying cycle. Also, closed cycle operation implies that no net energy is expended in heating drying air.

  11. Heat Recovery and Indirect Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckley, C. C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I TRU-12~-42.0-144.G-0-14E-14S-AP - 71.0 MODEL NUMBER I TRU-12:;j- 42.C-144.0-6-14E-14S-AP - 71.0 UNIT WEIGHT (5) 1 UNIT NO. 11 15~0. LBS UNIT NO.2: IS50. LBS PERFORMANCE SUMMARY SUP PRESS DAOP I INCHES WC I .88 EXH PRESS DROP (INCHES \\olC) .92...

  12. Biofuels and indirect land use change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation October 2011 #12;About this study), Malaysian Palm Oil Board, National Farmers Union, Novozymes, Northeast Biofuels Collaborative, Patagonia Bio contributed views on a confidential basis. #12;1Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation

  13. The fate of technetium in reduced estuarine sediments: Combining direct and indirect analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Ian

    - mission electron microscopy and gamma camera imaging) and indirect (incubation experiments and chemical extractions) experimental techniques. When TcO4 À was incubated in sediment microcosms at micro-molar (10À6 days), >99% TcOÀ 4 was removed from solution in under 10 min in both micro- bially active and heat

  14. Transfer of hot dry rock technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.C.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program has focused worldwide attention on the facts that natural heat in the upper part of the earth's crust is an essentially inexhaustible energy resource which is accessible almost everywhere, and that practical means now exist to extract useful heat from the hot rock and bring it to the earth's surface for beneficial use. The Hot Dry Rock Program has successfully constructed and operated a prototype hot, dry rock energy system that produced heat at the temperatures and rates required for large-scale space heating and many other direct uses of heat. The Program is now in the final stages of constructing a larger, hotter system potentially capable of satisfying the energy requirements of a small, commercial, electrical-generating power plant. To create and understand the behavior of such system, it has been necessary to develop or support the development of a wide variety of equipment, instruments, techniques, and analyses. Much of this innovative technology has already been transferred to the private sector and to other research and development programs, and more is continuously being made available as its usefulness is demonstrated. This report describes some of these developments and indicates where this new technology is being used or can be useful to industry, engineering, and science.

  15. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  16. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with good mechanical properties - Loading approaching targets - Process parameter optimization necessary to make thinner films with better density characteristics Images of dry...

  17. Transporting Dry Ice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements for Shipping Dry Ice IATA PI 904 Source: Reg of the Day from ERCweb 2006 Environmental Resource Center | 919-469-1585 | webmaster@ercweb.com http:...

  18. Cooking with Dry Beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the nutritonal value and safe storage of dry beans, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: DRI

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DRI ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter On March 19, 2013, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Surety, Facilities, Grid Integration,...

  20. Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic power price (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Flex power perspectives of indirect...

  1. Adsorptive Drying of Organic Liquids- An Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, S.; Humphrey, J. L.; Fair, J. R.

    (which is very heat sensitive and can poly merize in the presence of adsorbents) by freeze drying at -20 0 C and centrifuging the ice crystals. The water oontent was reduced from 700 ppm to 1~0 ppm. Pervaporation One of the recent advances... at The University of Texas at Austin will also be given. INTRODUCTION In the process industries it is often necessary to dry fluids before they can be processed further. For example, if a liquid is to be subjected to cryo genic conditions, its frost point must...

  2. Heat rejection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  3. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concepts for space heating using remote col- lection withheating systems in terms of the fan owing matrix: DIRECT INDIRECT ISOLATED SOUTH APERTURE SHADED ROOF APERTURE ROOF APERTURE REMOTE

  4. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ratecapacity match cathode 12 8. Down-select low cost anode process 50% vs baseline capex + opex 13 9. Scale cathode film to support task 16 10 m 17 10. Lab prototype cell dry...

  5. Freeze drying method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  6. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  7. Accelerated Learning without Semantic Similarity: Indirect Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Nir

    types. Transfer apparently facilitates the learning of this type of information from the input1 Accelerated Learning without Semantic Similarity: Indirect Objects ANAT NINIO* Abstract The hypothesis was tested that transfer and facilitation of learning in early syntactic development does not rely

  8. Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and dimethyl ether) by indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Gasification of coal pro- duces a synthesis gas by coal gasification. The principal con- stituents of ``syngas'' are carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which modern coal gasification facilities in operation to make hydrogen for ammonia production. Also

  9. The impact of upper tropospheric friction and Gill-type heating on the location and strength of the Tropical Easterly Jet: Idealized physics in a dry Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Samrat

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) with idealized and complete physics has been used to evaluate the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) jet. In idealized physics, the role of upper tropospheric friction has been found to be important in getting realistic upper tropospheric zonal wind patterns in response to heating. In idealized physics, the location and strength of the TEJ as a response to Gill heating has been studied. Though the Gill model is considered to be widely successful in capturing the lower tropospheric response, it is found to be inadequate in explaining the location and strength of the upper level TEJ. Heating from the Gill model and realistic upper tropospheric friction does not lead to the formation of a TEJ.

  10. Configuration and performance of the indirect-fired fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural gas, indirect-fired fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFFC) is introduced as a novel power plant system for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20--200 megawatt (MW) size range. The novel indirect-fired carbonate fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFCFC) power plant system configures the ambient pressure carbonate fuel cell with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger. Performance calculations from ASPEN simulations present material and energy balances with expected power output. The results indicate efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFCFC are comparable to conventionally bottomed carbonate fuel cell steam bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components.

  11. Cooking with Dried Potatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    make a tasty vegetable dish. For added flavor, you can add salt and pepper along with small amounts of grated cheese, margarine or butter. Be careful: Adding large amounts of cheese, butter or margarine can turn a low-fat vegetable, such as potatoes..., into a high-fat dish. How to store them Store packages of dried potatoes in a cool, dry, place. After the package is opened, store the potatoes in an airtight container. Store cooked potatoes in a covered dish in the refrigerator. Use within 3 days...

  12. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  13. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  14. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.

  15. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San Jos Convention Center Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a...

  16. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer){sup 2} were observed. The spatial and energy distributions of optically active excitons were used as thermodynamic quantities to construct a phase diagram of the exciton system, demonstrating the existence of distinct phases. Optical and electrical properties of the CQW sample were examined thoroughly to provide deeper understanding of the formation mechanisms of these cold exciton systems. These insights offer new strategies for producing cold exciton systems, which may lead to opportunities for the realization of BEC in solid-state systems.

  17. Cooling Dry Cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , little work has been done on the responses of cooling cows in this period. The dry period is particularly crucial because it involves regen- eration of the mammary gland and rapid fetal growth. This is also when follicles begin develop- ing and maturing...

  18. Optimization and Comparison of Direct and Indirect Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Plant Cycles for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550 C and 750 C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550 C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550 C versus 850 C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of both a direct and indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The direct supercritical CO2 cycle transferred heat directly from a 600 MWt reactor to the supercritical CO2 working fluid supplied to the turbine generator at approximately 20 MPa. The indirect supercritical CO2 cycle assumed a helium-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), operating at a primary system pressure of approximately 7.0 MPa, delivered heat through an intermediate heat exchanger to the secondary indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle, again operating at a pressure of about 20 MPa. For both the direct and indirect cycles, sensitivity calculations were performed for reactor outlet temperature between 550 C and 850 C. The UniSim models used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete reactor and power conversion systems. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating ranges of the cycles were adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing properties of CO2 near the critical point. The results of the analyses showed that, for the direct supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved. For the indirect supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies were approximately 10% lower than those obtained for the direct cycle over the same reactor outlet temperature range.

  19. HEALTHIER WISCONSIN PARNTERSHIP PROGRAM Direct, Indirect and Unallowable Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HEALTHIER WISCONSIN PARNTERSHIP PROGRAM Direct, Indirect and Unallowable Costs Direct and Indirect Costs The decision of whether a cost is direct or indirect is based on the ability to specifically identify the cost with the project, rather than on the nature of the goods and services. Failure to mention

  20. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    of coal and coke are consumed for heating and reducing iron oxides [2,3]. As a result, BFs have becomeHydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

  1. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

  2. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  3. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  4. 2010 Dry Bean Research Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010 Dry Bean Research Report Assessment of Narrow Row Technology Michigan Dry Edible Bean Production RESEARCH ADVISORY BOARD #12;The Michigan Bean Commission was awarded a grant from the MDA Technology for the Michigan Dry Bean Industry". Expected outcomes from this project are: 1. Identification

  5. 2012 Dry Bean Research Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012 Dry Bean Research Report Assessment of Narrow Row Technology Michigan Dry Edible Bean Production Research Advisory Board #12;The Michigan Bean Commission was awarded a grant from the MDA Technology for the Michigan Dry Bean Industry". Expected outcomes from this project are: 1. Identification

  6. Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative Forcing through Deep Convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ding, Yanni; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol indirect effects, i.e., the interactions of aerosols with clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN), constitute the largest uncertainty in climate forcing and projection. Previous IPCC reported aerosol indirect forcing is negative, which does not account for aerosol-convective cloud interactions because the complex processes involved are poorly understood and represented in climate models. Here we report that aerosol indirect effect on deep convective cloud systems can lead to enhanced regional convergence and a strong top-of atmosphere (TOA) warming. Aerosol invigoration effect on convection can result in a strong radiative warming in the atmosphere (+5.6 W m-2) due to strong night-time warming, a lofted latent heating, and a reduced diurnal temperature difference, all of which could remarkably impact regional circulation and modify weather systems. We further elucidated how aerosols change convective intensity, diabatic heating, and regional circulation under different environmental conditions and concluded that wind shear and cloud base temperature play key roles in determining the significance of aerosol invigoration effect for convective systems.

  7. Drying Rough Rice in Storage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; Crane, L. E.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying. Rough Rice in Storage Ih AGRf""' TURP YPERIMENT STAT10 I. TEXAS SUMMARY Research was conducted at the Rice-Pasture Experiment Station near Beaumont during 7 crop years (1952-53 through 1958-59) to determine the engineering problems... and the practicability of dry- ing rough rice in storage in Texas. Drying rice in storage means drying rice in the same bin in which it is to be stored. Rough rice, with initial moisture contents of 15.0 to 23.0 percent, was dried at depths of 4 to 10 feet...

  8. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  9. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  10. Drying studies for corroded DOE aluminum plate fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lords, R.E.; Windes, W.E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Crepeau, J.C.; Sidwell, R.W. [Idaho Univ., Idaho Falls, ID (United States) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) currently stores a wide variety of spent nuclear fuel. The fuel was originally intended to be stored underwater for a short period of thermal cooling, then removed and reprocessed. However, it has been stored underwater for much longer thank originally anticipated. During this time dust and airborne desert soil have entered the oldest INEL pool, accumulating on the fuel. Also, the aluminum fuel cladding has corroded compromising the exposed surfaces of the fuel. Plans are now underway to move some the the more vulnerable aluminum plate type fuels into dry storage in an existing vented and filtered fuel storage facility. In preparation for dry storage of the fuel a drying and canning station is being built at the INEL. The two primary objectives of this facility are to determine the influence of corrosion products on the drying process and to establish temperature distribution inside the canister during heating.

  11. Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low...

  12. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  13. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  14. SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    process of a solar reformer of dry methane reforming was proposed to operate in a temperature range of 600SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR Khalid Al-Ali 1 including lower melting point, thermal and chemical stability, acting simultaneously as heat transport

  15. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. 2012-13 Report on the Indirect Costs of Research Program Since 2003 the Federal Indirect Costs of Research Program provides Canadian universities with annual funding to help

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    2012-13 Report on the Indirect Costs of Research Program Since 2003 the Federal Indirect Costs of Research Program provides Canadian universities with annual funding to help pay for a portion of the hidden or "indirect" costs

  17. INDIRECT COSTS OF RESEARCH University Policy No: FM5400

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    1 INDIRECT COSTS OF RESEARCH University Policy No: FM5400 Classification: Financial Management recoveries towards the indirect costs associated with externally funded Research conducted at the University Costs of Research include, but are not limited to those costs associated with: the operation

  18. Indirect Search for Dark Matter with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    significant high energy neutrino fluxes. Indirect search for Dark Matter looking at such neutrino fluxes for the Cherenkov light induced by high energy muons during their travel in the sea water throughout the detectorIndirect Search for Dark Matter with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope V. Bertin1 on behalf

  19. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  20. 2013 Dry Bean Research Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page 1 2013 Dry Bean Research Report Black Bean Color Retention and White Mold Control in Narrow Row Production Systems Michigan Dry Edible Bean Production Research Advisory Board #12;Page 2 The Michigan Bean Commission was awarded a grant from the MDARD Specialty Crop Block Grant Program-Farm Bill

  1. Wet-dry cooling demonstration: A transfer of technology: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allemann, R.T.; Johnson, B.M.; Werry, E.V.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wet-dry cooling using the ammonia phase-change system, designated the Advanced Concepts Test, was tested on a large-scale at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Kern Station at Bakersfield, California. The facility is capable of condensing 60,000 lb/h of steam from a small house turbine. Two different modes of combining dry and evaporative cooling were tested. One uses deluge cooling in which water is allowed to flow over the fins of the dry (air-cooled) heat exchanger on hot days; the other uses a separate evaporative condenser in parallel to the dry heat exchanger. A third mode of enhancing the dry-cooling system, termed capacitive cooling, was tested. In this system, the ammonia-cooled steam condenser is supplemented by a parallel conventional water-cooled condenser with water supplied from a closed system. This water is cooled during off-peak hours each night by an ammonia heat pump that rejects heat through the cooling tower. If operated over the period of a year, each of the wet-dry systems would use only 25% of the water normally required to reject this heat load in an evaporative cooling tower. The third would consume no water, the evaporative cooling being replaced by the delayed cooling of the closed system water supply.

  2. Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozubal, Eric Joseph; Slayzak, Steven Joseph

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

  3. Open-loop heat-recovery dryer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A drying apparatus is disclosed that includes a drum and an open-loop airflow pathway originating at an ambient air inlet, passing through the drum, and terminating at an exhaust outlet. A passive heat exchanger is included for passively transferring heat from air flowing from the drum toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the ambient air inlet toward the drum. A heat pump is also included for actively transferring heat from air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the drum. A heating element is also included for further heating air flowing from the heat pump toward the drum.

  4. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0.

  5. Indirect L to T point optical transition in bismuth nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, A. J.

    An indirect electronic transition from the L point valence band to the T point valence band has been previously observed in Bi nanowires oriented along the [011? 2] crystalline direction (used by Black et al. and by Reppert ...

  6. Direct/Indirect Costs - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs. g4301-1chp7.pdf -- PDF Document, 41 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: ID: DOE G 430.1-1 Chp 7...

  7. aerosol indirect effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of direct reciprocal and indirect effects in a host-parasite network Shai Pilosof Fortuna, Miguel A. First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19...

  8. aerosol indirect effect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of direct reciprocal and indirect effects in a host-parasite network Shai Pilosof Fortuna, Miguel A. First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19...

  9. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  10. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  11. DRI Renewable Energy Center (REC) (NV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Broch; Robbins, Curtis; Jacobson, Roger; Turner, Robert

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project was to utilize a flexible, energy-efficient facility, called the DRI Renewable Energy Experimental Facility (REEF) to support various renewable energy research and development (R&D) efforts, along with education and outreach activities. The REEF itself consists of two separate buildings: (1) a 1200-ft2 off-grid capable house and (2) a 600-ft2 workshop/garage to support larger-scale experimental work. Numerous enhancements were made to DRI's existing renewable power generation systems, and several additional components were incorporated to support operation of the REEF House. The power demands of this house are satisfied by integrating and controlling PV arrays, solar thermal systems, wind turbines, an electrolyzer for renewable hydrogen production, a gaseous-fuel internal combustion engine/generator set, and other components. Cooling needs of the REEF House are satisfied by an absorption chiller, driven by solar thermal collectors. The REEF Workshop includes a unique, solar air collector system that is integrated into the roof structure. This system provides space heating inside the Workshop, as well as a hot water supply. The Workshop houses a custom-designed process development unit (PDU) that is used to convert woody biomass into a friable, hydrophobic char that has physical and chemical properties similar to low grade coal. Besides providing sufficient space for operation of this PDU, the REEF Workshop supplies hot water that is used in the biomass treatment process. The DRI-REEF serves as a working laboratory for evaluating and optimizing the performance of renewable energy components within an integrated, residential-like setting. The modular nature of the system allows for exploring alternative configurations and control strategies. This experimental test bed is also highly valuable as an education and outreach tool both in providing an infrastructure for student research projects, and in highlighting renewable energy features to the public.

  12. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal...

  13. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

    1992-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  14. Analysis of radial fin assembly heat transfer with dehumidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosario, L.; Rahman, M.M. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is the analysis of heat transfer in a radial fin assembly during the process of dehumidification. An individual finned tube geometry is a reasonable representation of heat exchangers used in air conditioning. The condensation process involves both heat and mass transfer and the cooling takes place by the removal of sensible as well as latent heat. The ratio of sensible to total heat is an important quantity that defines the heat transfer process during a dehumidifier operation. A one-dimensional model for heat transfer in the fin and the heat exchanger block is developed to study the effects of condensation on the fin surface. The combined heat and mass transfer process is modeled by incorporating the ratio of sensible to total heat in the formulation. The augmentation of heat transfer due to fin was established by comparing heat transfer rate with and without fins under the same operating conditions. Numerical calculations were carried out to study the effects of relative humidity and dry bulb temperature of the incoming air, and cold fluid temperature inside the coil on the performance of the heat exchanger. Results were compared to those published for rectangular fin under humid condition showed excellent agreement when the present model was used to compute that limiting condition. It was found that the heat transfer rate increased with increment in both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity of the air. The augmentation factor, however, decreased with increment in relative humidity and the dry bulb temperature.

  15. Proposal for a novel chemical heat pump dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogura, Hironao; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new chemical heat pump (CHP) system for ecofriendly effective utilization of thermal energy in drying is proposed from the viewpoints of energy saving and environmental impact. CHPs can store thermal energy in the form of chemical energy by an endothermic reaction and release it at various temperature levels for heat demands by exo/endothermic reactions. CHPs have potential for heat recovery and dehumidification in the drying process by heat storage and high/low temperature heat release. In this study, the authors estimate the potential of the CHP application to drying systems for industrial use. Some combined systems of CHPs and dryers are proposed as chemical heat pump dryers (CHPD). The potential for commercialization of CHPDs is discussed.

  16. Spent fuel drying system test results (first dry-run)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site. Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the first dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. The empty test apparatus was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The data from this dry-run test can serve as a baseline for the first two fuel element tests, 1990 (Run 1) and 3128W (Run 2). The purpose of this dry-run was to establish the background levels of hydrogen in the system, and the hydrogen generation and release characteristics attributable to the test system without a fuel element present. This test also serves to establish the background levels of water in the system and the water release characteristics. The system used for the drying test series was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, which is located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodology are given in section 3.0, and the experimental results provided in Section 4.0. These results are further discussed in Section 5.0.

  17. October 1986 R. H. Johnson 721 Lower-Tropospheric Warming and Drying in Tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard H.

    October 1986 R. H. Johnson 721 Lower-Tropospheric Warming and Drying in Tropical Mesoscale components of tropical mesoscale convective systems. It is found that while the apparent heat source Q1 of mesoscale downdrafts within the mesoscale convective systems. The warming and drying at low levels

  18. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  19. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  20. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  3. Alternative Heat Recovery Options for Single-Stage Spray Dryers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many powdered products are dried to their final moisture content by use of spray dryers. A basic spray dryer mixes an aqueous feedstock with heated air, vaporizing the water in the feedstock and producing the final dried powder in a single stage...

  4. Energy, Exergy and Uncertainty Analyses of the Thermal Response Test for a Ground Heat Exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Shayea, Naser Abdul-Rahman

    exchanger, Ground coupled heat pump Corresponding author, Tel.: +1-617-308-7214, Fax: +1-617-253-3484, E calibration DAS data acquisition system g ground H heater loss1 losses from the heating section loss2 losses heating and cooling, water heating, crop drying, agricultural greenhouses, etc. In vertical U

  5. Innovative Drying and Nutrients Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the extraction process. This method evaporates the water from the products but also drives off up to 70 percent dimethyl ether to extract the water from the material. The new process does not require the addition of heat to evaporate the water during the extraction process. Dimethyl ether has a lower heat

  6. CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the University for common or joint projects and cannot be specifically attributed to an individual project. Some examples of indirect costs include accounting staff

  7. Facilities and Administration (Indirect) Costs Rates Facilities and Administrative (indirect) costs rates are the result of negotiations with the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Facilities and Administration (Indirect) Costs Rates Facilities and Administrative (indirect) costs (Indirect Costs) Source of Funds Applicable To F&A Rate DHHS Federally Negotiated Rates: Federal, Non or a different rate has been approved by the Director of OSP. *MTDC Base: Modified total direct costs consist

  8. Diagnosing residual motion via the x-ray self emission from indirectly driven inertial confinement implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pak, A., E-mail: pak5@llnl.gov; Field, J. E.; Benedetti, L. R.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Knauer, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In an indirectly driven implosion, non-radial translational motion of the compressed fusion capsule is a signature of residual kinetic energy not coupled into the compressional heating of the target. A reduction in compression reduces the peak pressure and nuclear performance of the implosion. Measuring and reducing the residual motion of the implosion is therefore necessary to improve performance and isolate other effects that degrade performance. Using the gated x-ray diagnostic, the x-ray Bremsstrahlung emission from the compressed capsule is spatially and temporally resolved at x-ray energies of >8.7 keV, allowing for measurements of the residual velocity. Here details of the x-ray velocity measurement and fitting routine will be discussed and measurements will be compared to the velocities inferred from the neutron time of flight detectors.

  9. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This 3-year project has studied how aerosol pollution influences glaciated clouds. The tool applied has been an 'aerosol-cloud model'. It is a type of Cloud-System Resolving Model (CSRM) modified to include 2-moment bulk microphysics and 7 aerosol species, as described by Phillips et al. (2009, 2013). The study has been done by, first, improving the model and then performing sensitivity studies with validated simulations of a couple of observed cases from ARM. These are namely the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) over the tropical west Pacific and the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over Oklahoma. During the project, sensitivity tests with the model showed that in continental clouds, extra liquid aerosols (soluble aerosol material) from pollution inhibited warm rain processes for precipitation production. This promoted homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and aerosols. Mass and number concentrations of cloud-ice particles were boosted. The mean sizes of cloud-ice particles were reduced by the pollution. Hence, the lifetime of glaciated clouds, especially ice-only clouds, was augmented due to inhibition of sedimentation and ice-ice aggregation. Latent heat released from extra homogeneous freezing invigorated convective updrafts, and raised their maximum cloud-tops, when aerosol pollution was included. In the particular cases simulated in the project, the aerosol indirect effect of glaciated clouds was twice than of (warm) water clouds. This was because glaciated clouds are higher in the troposphere than water clouds and have the first interaction with incoming solar radiation. Ice-only clouds caused solar cooling by becoming more extensive as a result of aerosol pollution. This 'lifetime indirect effect' of ice-only clouds was due to higher numbers of homogeneously nucleated ice crystals causing a reduction in their mean size, slowing the ice-crystal process of snow production and slowing sedimentation. In addition to the known indirect effects (glaciation, riming and thermodynamic), new indirect effects were discovered and quantified due to responses of sedimentation, aggregation and coalescence in glaciated clouds to changing aerosol conditions. In summary, the change in horizontal extent of the glaciated clouds ('lifetime indirect effects'), especially of ice-only clouds, was seen to be of higher importance in regulating aerosol indirect effects than changes in cloud properties ('cloud albedo indirect effects').

  10. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Ursla Levy; John Sale; Nenad Sarunac

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report and results are shown for a drying system utilizing a combination of waste heat from the condenser and thermal energy extracted from boiler flue gas.

  11. Efficient Mining of Indirect Associations Using HI-Mine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An, Aijun

    Efficient Mining of Indirect Associations Using HI-Mine Qian Wan and Aijun An Department. Discovering association rules is one of the important tasks in data mining. While most of the existing algorithms are developed for efficient mining of frequent patterns, it has been noted recently that some

  12. Indirect control and power in mutual control Dominik Karos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    Indirect control and power in mutual control structures Dominik Karos Hans Peters This version of the paper, we axiomatically develop a class of power indices for invariant mutual control structures. We accumulates his Shapley-Shubik power index assignments from controlling other players, diminished by the sum

  13. Fast Error Estimates For Indirect Measurements: Applications To Pavement Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Fast Error Estimates For Indirect Measurements: Applications To Pavement Engineering Carlos that is difficult to measure directly (e.g., lifetime of a pavement, efficiency of an engine, etc). To estimate y computation time. As an example of this methodology, we give pavement lifetime estimates. This work

  14. LEGAL REALISM IN ACTION: INDIRECT COPYRIGHT LIABILITY'S CONTINUING TORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    1 LEGAL REALISM IN ACTION: INDIRECT COPYRIGHT LIABILITY'S CONTINUING TORT FRAMEWORK AND SONY'S DE standard, derived in Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc. from patent law and reasserted for distributors of dual-use technologies. Yet, when one looks to cases decided since Sony, subsequent legislative

  15. DNA Deformation Energy as an Indirect Recognition Mechanism in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Richard H.

    DNA Deformation Energy as an Indirect Recognition Mechanism in Protein-DNA Interactions Kimberly A. Senear Abstract--Proteins that bind to specific locations in genomic DNA control many basic cellular. Deformation energy, which models the energy required to bend DNA from its native shape to its shape when bound

  16. A heat-shock-like response with cytoskeletal disruption occurs following hydrostatic pressure in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos

    A heat-shock-like response with cytoskeletal disruption occurs following hydrostatic pressure in MG,K.A., KLEBE,R., and CAMERON,I.L. 1993. A heat-shock-likeresponse with cytoskeletal disruption occurs following distribution of the cytoskeletal elements and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were followed by indirect

  17. Nonlinear Dynamics of Dry Friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franz-Josef Elmer

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamical behavior caused by dry friction is studied for a spring-block system pulled with constant velocity over a surface. The dynamical consequences of a general type of phenomenological friction law (stick-time dependent static friction, velocity dependent kinetic friction) are investigated. Three types of motion are possible: Stick-slip motion, continuous sliding, and oscillations without sticking events. A rather complete discussion of local and global bifurcation scenarios of these attractors and their unstable counterparts is present.

  18. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  19. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  20. Drying and Storing Cooperative Extension Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    . Sunflowers Joseph P. Harner Extension Agriculture Engineer The fire hazard is DECREASED when the fan can draw for attachment to the drying fan. Guidelines for drying sunflowers are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Use good housekeeping practices. Clean up around the dryer and in the plenum chamber daily. Do not over dry. Ensure continuous

  1. Indirect Dark Matter search with large neutrino telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fermani, Paolo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dark matter is one of the main goals of neutrino astronomy. At present, there are two big neutrino telescopes based on the Cherenkov technique in ice and water: IceCube at the South Pole and ANTARES in the northern hemisphere. Both telescopes are performing an indirect search for Dark Matter by looking for a statistical excess of neutrinos coming from astrophysical massive objects. This excess could be an evidence of the possible annihilation of dark matter particles in the centre of these objects. In one of the most popular scenarios the Dark Matter is composed of WIMP particles. The analysis and results of the ANTARES neutrino telescope for the indirect detection of Dark Matter fluxes from the Sun are here presented, as well as the latest IceCube published sensitivity results, for different Dark Matter models.

  2. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  3. Drying Fruits and Vegetables at Home.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putnam, Peggy H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that are responsible for their maturation, or their becoming ripe. These enzymes cause color and flavor changes, some of which may become more extensive when food surfaces are cut and exposed to air. The changes con tinue during drying and storage unless the enzyme... in recommendations for treatment before dry ing, for methods of drying, for temperatures and length of drying time, and for conditioning prior to storage. You may have to use the "trial and error" approach in finding out which drying technique works best for your...

  4. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  5. Slurry Phase Iron Catalysts for Indirect Coal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, we have studied the attrition behavior of Iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into liquid fuels.

  6. Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1989-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments.

  7. SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

  8. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  9. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  10. Engineering a 70-percent efficient, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.C.; Micheli, P.L.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors introduce the natural gas, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFFC) as a novel power plant system for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20 to 200 megawatt (MW) size range. The NG-IFFC system is a new METC-patented system. This power-plant system links the ambient pressure, carbonate fuel cell in tandem with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger. Performance calculations based on Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulations show material and energy balances with expected power output. Early results indicated efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFFC are comparable to conventionally bottomed, carbonate fuel-cell steam-bottomed cycles. More recent calculations extended the in-tandem concept to produce near-stoichiometric usage of the oxygen. This is made possible by reforming the anode stream to completion and using all hydrogen fuel in what will need to be a special combustor. The performance increases dramatically to 70%.

  11. Microwave drying of ferric oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, C.A.; Xia, D.K. [Queens` Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of microwave energy for the drying of ferric oxide pellets has been investigated and evaluated. It is shown that the microwave drying rates are much higher than those observed in the conventional process. Also there is some potential for improved quality of the product. As a stand-alone technology it is unlikely that microwave drying would be economical for pellets due to the low cost of conventional fuels. However, based on an understanding of the drying mechanisms in the conventional process and in the microwave process, it is shown that microwave-assisted drying offers considerable potential. In this hybrid process, the advantages of the two drying techniques are combined to provide an improved drying process.

  12. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Ilmenau, Weimarer Strasse 25, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute, E-mail: ute.kaiser@uni-ulm.de [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Turchanin, Andrey [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, Bielefeld 33615 (Germany)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  13. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  14. Development of hot dry rock geothermal resources; technical and economic issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tester, J.W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical and economic issues related to the commercial feasibility of hot dry rock geothermal energy for producing electricity and heat are discussed. Topics covered include resource characteristics, reservoir thermal capacity and lifetime, drilling and surface plant costs, financial risk and anticipated rate of return. The current status of research and deveopment efforts in the US are also summarized.

  15. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds . Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds . Abstract:...

  16. High Precision Control of Indirect Drive Systems Based on End-effector Sensor Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Cheng-Huei

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Block diagram of a single-joint indirect drive train witha Figure 4.4: Block diagram of a single-joint indirect driveBlock diagram of the control system given in Section 3.6. Single-Joint

  17. Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  18. Microsoft Word - NGNP Conceptual Design Baseline Document Indirect...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TBD MWth Circulator TBD MWe Heat Exchanger Tube-type (He to Water) Reactor Cavity Cooling System Type - Operational Conditions - Accident Conditions Water Based Active...

  19. Dry melting of high albite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anovitz, L.M.: Blencoe, J.G.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of albitic melts are central to thermodynamic models for synthetic and natural granitic liquids. The authors have analyzed published phase-equilibrium and thermodynamic data for the dry fusion of high albite to develop a more accurate equation for the Biggs free energy of this reaction to 30 kbar and 1,400 C. Strict criteria for reaction reversal were sued to evaluate the phase-equilibrium data, and the thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid albite were evaluated using the published uncertainties in the original measurements. Results suggest that neither available phase-equilibrium experiments nor thermodynamic data tightly constrain the location of the reaction. Experimental solidus temperatures at 1 atm range from 1,100 to 1,120 C. High-pressure experiments were not reversed completely and may have been affected by several sources of error, but the apparent inconsistencies among the results of the various experimentalists are eliminated when only half-reversal data are considered. Uncertainties in thermodynamic data yield large variations in permissible reaction slopes. Disparities between experimental and calculated melting curves are, therefore, largely attributable to these difficulties, and there is no fundamental disagreement between the available phase-equilibrium and thermodynamic data for the dry melting of albite. Consequently, complex speciation models for albitic melts, based on the assumption that these discrepancies represent a real characteristic of the system, are unjustified at this time.

  20. Desiccant-based, heat actuated cooling assessment for DHC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.; Patch, K.; Becker, F.

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the project is to perform a conceptual design, systems analysis and case study evaluation of an application of a desiccant-based, heat actuated cooling system in a District Heating System. The results of this study will encourage the deployment of cooler transport temperatures in District Heating Systems. The proposed concept includes a liquid or solid desiccant-based air cooling and drying system that can be integrated with an existing HVAC system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Indirect Combustion Noise: Experimental Investigation of the Vortex Sound Generation in a Choked

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Indirect Combustion Noise: Experimental Investigation of the Vortex Sound Generation in a Choked-27 April 2012, Nantes, France 2315 #12;Combustion noise in gas turbines consists of direct noise related to the unsteady combustion process itself and indirect noise. As known, indirect noise is produced when entropy

  2. Indirect Evidence and the Poverty of the Stimulus: The Case of Anaphoric One

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regier, Terry

    Indirect Evidence and the Poverty of the Stimulus: The Case of Anaphoric One Stephani Foraker learn a standard poverty-of-stimulus example, anaphoric one, from realistic input by relying on indirect constraints. Keywords: Language acquisition; Poverty of the stimulus; Indirect evidence; Bayesian learning

  3. Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Nancy

    Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ livingPattern : Room ­? behaviour; setTemp : Room ­? num; heatSwitchOn, heatSwitchOff, userReset : simple

  4. Sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon to elevated and non-elevated heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuang, Zhiming

    for the South Asian monsoon via a ``sensible-heat-driven air-pump''. In their proposed mech- anism, sensible from cold and dry extratropical air or by providing a source of elevated heating. Here we show heat fluxes from mountain slopes produce rising motion that draws surrounding air toward the mountains

  5. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  6. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains.

  7. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  8. Freeze-drying bovine spermatozoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faris, Harvey Lee

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~~to t~ roi'ipxg QQ ca dry ai gjuu QQjQigog aud ta Qst~~co cho ~~grso Qg 86lhVdratiea KXpkos Q~Kd Wlthstsud?. V~4MK Qhaersat9ZBE3 Vora used apprs~w~~~ a%oct@ a8 virious uaistma Eoroko as assess hot~& driad. OC WQQ QVBSd Chat horaous gQ Sud 2' hours...KK Hmm 'tiaao ZXZ"d. XnCEICno ~. ?n~ cpa~ Vms::Hach. . UIadpicoKdSq. X6, ESP& S&~o~c. L947, Tha Eccaaacii"cLBCII @IE HacCai. 'La Ljy Uqrlaj. ':. J? QvaacaL EELaoabiaKagyp X. " HSR;. K7p EESCKQ~~UZp g. 8 X956. ParCELU HaIILaa Saciemi HHCaC THicaa...

  9. Using and Storing Nonfat Dry Milk Nonfat dry milk is convenient to store, easy to use and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a cool, dry place. s Dry milk products are very sensitive to temperature and humidity. The area where your dry milk is stored should be kept as cool as possible. s Dry milk will absorb moisture and odorsUsing and Storing Nonfat Dry Milk Nonfat dry milk is convenient to store, easy to use

  10. Indirect Gas Species Monitoring Using Tunable Diode Lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Drasek, William A. (Oak Forest, IL); Saucedo, Victor M. (Willowbrook, IL)

    2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for indirect gas species monitoring based on measurements of selected gas species is disclosed. In situ absorption measurements of combustion species are used for process control and optimization. The gas species accessible by near or mid-IR techniques are limited to species that absorb in this spectral region. The absorption strength is selected to be strong enough for the required sensitivity and is selected to be isolated from neighboring absorption transitions. By coupling the gas measurement with a software sensor gas, species not accessible from the near or mid-IR absorption measurement can be predicted.

  11. Indirect Excitonics | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)HydrogenRFP »summerlectures [ICO] NameIndirect Excitonics

  12. Cold vacuum drying system conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the activities involved in the removal of the SNF from the leaking basins and to place it in stable dry storage.

  13. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M. (A123 Systems, Inc.)

    2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  14. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  15. Cooking with Non-fat Dry Milk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of non-fat dry milk, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  16. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  17. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 2: dry deposition and resuspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semanin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Papers are presented under the headings: dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particles, wind erosion, plutonium deposition and resuspension, air-sea exchange, tropical and polar, global scale, and future studies.

  18. Dry Storage of Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel - 13321

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.M.; Dunsmuir, M.D.; Leduc, D.R.; Severynse, T.F.; Sindelar, R.L. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Moore, E.N. [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC (United States)] [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent fuel from domestic and foreign research reactors is received and stored at the Savannah River Site's L Area Material Storage (L Basin) Facility. This DOE-owned fuel consists primarily of highly enriched uranium in metal, oxide or silicide form with aluminum cladding. Upon receipt, the fuel is unloaded and transferred to basin storage awaiting final disposition. Disposition alternatives include processing via the site's H Canyon facility for uranium recovery, or packaging and shipment of the spent fuel to a waste repository. A program has been developed to provide a phased approach for dry storage of the L Basin fuel. The initial phase of the dry storage program will demonstrate loading, drying, and storage of fuel in twelve instrumented canisters to assess fuel performance. After closure, the loaded canisters are transferred to pad-mounted concrete overpacks, similar to those used for dry storage of commercial fuel. Unlike commercial spent fuel, however, the DOE fuel has high enrichment, very low to high burnup, and low decay heat. The aluminum cladding presents unique challenges due to the presence of an oxide layer that forms on the cladding surface, and corrosion degradation resulting from prolonged wet storage. The removal of free and bound water is essential to the prevention of fuel corrosion and radiolytic generation of hydrogen. The demonstration will validate models predicting pressure, temperature, gas generation, and corrosion performance, provide an engineering scale demonstration of fuel handling, drying, leak testing, and canister backfill operations, and establish 'road-ready' storage of fuel that is suitable for offsite repository shipment or retrievable for onsite processing. Implementation of the Phase I demonstration can be completed within three years. Phases II and III, leading to the de-inventory of L Basin, would require an additional 750 canisters and 6-12 years to complete. Transfer of the fuel from basin storage to dry storage requires integration with current facility operations, and selection of equipment that will allow safe operation within the constraints of existing facility conditions. Examples of such constraints that are evaluated and addressed by the dry storage program include limited basin depth, varying fuel lengths up to 4 m, (13 ft), fissile loading limits, canister closure design, post-load drying and closure of the canisters, instrument selection and installation, and movement of the canisters to storage casks. The initial pilot phase restricts the fuels to shorter length fuels that can be loaded to the canister directly underwater; subsequent phases will require use of a shielded transfer system. Removal of the canister from the basin, followed by drying, inerting, closure of the canister, and transfer of the canister to the storage cask are completed with remotely operated equipment and appropriate shielding to reduce personnel radiation exposure. (authors)

  19. An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Kamal Raoji

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    % moisture removed oven dried mass of handsheet, g mass of handsheet after drying test, g mass of handsheet before drying test, g relative moisture removed from handsheet moisture removed by drying, % initial moisture (im) initial handsheet sample mass..., and the effects on the paper sheet and drying felt can be detrimental. Elevated temperatures reduce water viscosity which permits reduced resistance to water flow in the sheet. Pressing with a drying temperature of 95 C gives increased drying capacity, reduced...

  20. Cooking and Using Dried Beans and Peas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooking and Using Dried Beans and Peas Beans and peas are good for you Beans and peas beans with rice or corn to provide high quality complete protein. If you are on a special diet, remember that beans and peas are low in sodium and fat. How to store dried beans and peas Store beans and peas

  1. Growing Dry Beans for an Emerging Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Growing Dry Beans for an Emerging Market JOIN US FOR AN EVENING WITH JACK LAZOR, OF BUTTERWORKS FARM AND JOE BOSSEN, OF VERMONT BEAN CRAFTERS APRIL 10TH , 2012, 6:15-8PM AT THE KELLOGG-HUBBARD LIBRARY EAST MONTPELIER ROOM 135 MAIN ST., MONTPELIER, VT 05602 Jack Lazor has grown dry beans for local

  2. Spent-fuel dry-storage testing at E-MAD (March 1978-March 1982)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.; Milnes, R.D.; Marinkovich, B.A.; Kubancsek, G.M.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From March 1978 through March 1982, spent fuel dry storage tests were conducted at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site to confirm that commercial reactor spent fuel could be encapsulated and passively stored in one or more interim dry storage cell concepts. These tests were: electrically heated drywell, isolated and adjacent drywell, concrete silo, fuel assembly internal temperature measurement, and air-cooled vault. This document presents the test data and results as well as results from supporting test operations (spent fuel calorimetry and canister gas sampling).

  3. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  4. Development of Thermal Analysis Capability of Dry Storage Cask for Spend Fuel Interim Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu-Kuang Ko; Liang, Thomas K.S.; Chung-Yu Yang [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research P.O. Box 3-3, Longtan, 32500, Taiwan (China)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As most of the nuclear power plants, on-site spent fuel pools (SFP) of Taiwan's plants were not originally designed with a storage capacity for all the spent fuel generated over the operating life by their reactors. For interim spent fuel storage, dry casks are one of the most reliable measures to on-site store over-filled assemblies from SFPs. The NUHOMS{sup R}-52B System consisting of a canister stored horizontally in a concrete module is selected for thermal evaluation in this paper. The performance of each cask in criticality, radioactive, material and thermal needs to be carefully addressed to ensure its enduring safety. Regarding the thermal features of dry storage casks, three different kinds of heat transfer mechanisms are involved, which include natural convection heat transfer outside and/or inside the canister, radiation heat transfer inside and outside the canister, and conduction heat transfer inside the canister. To analyze the thermal performance of dry storage casks, RELAP5-3D is adopted to calculate the natural air convection and radiation heat transfer outside the canister to the ambient environment, and ANSYS is applied to calculate the internal conduction and radiation heat transfer. During coupling iteration between codes, the heat energy across the canister wall needs to be conserved, and the inner wall temperature of the canister needs to be converged. By the coupling of RELAP5-3D and ANSYS, the temperature distribution within each fuel assembly inside canisters can be calculated and the peaking cladding temperature can be identified. (authors)

  5. Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for 1) cleaning, developing or etching, 2) rinsing, and 3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material.

  6. Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britten, J.A.

    1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for (1) cleaning, developing or etching, (2) rinsing, and (3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material. 5 figs.

  7. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  8. Geothermal heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aureille, M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the viability of geothermal heating projects in energy and economic terms and to provide nomograms from which an initial estimate may be made without having to use data-processing facilities. The effect of flow rate and temperature of the geothermal water on drilling and on the network, and the effect of climate on the type of housing are considered.

  9. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  10. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  11. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...

  12. An Indirect Search for WIMPs with Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Habig; for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2001-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A potential source of high energy neutrinos is the annihilation of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) collecting in gravitational potential wells such as the centers of the Earth, the Sun, or the Galaxy. A search for such a WIMP annihilation signal using the Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) detector is presented. Super-K observes 1.1 upward through-going muons per day. These events are caused by high energy (typical E_nu ~ 100 GeV) nu_mu interactions in the rock under the detector, and are generally consistent with the expected flux from atmospheric neutrinos. No enhancement of the neutrino signal due to WIMP annihilation is seen, so upper limits on the possible flux of WIMPS are set. These limits are compared to those from other such indirect searches, and a model-independent method is used to compare the Super-K results with direct-detection WIMP experiments.

  13. Observations of the first aerosol indirect effect in shallow cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Barnard, James C.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.

    2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) are used to estimate the impact of both aerosol indirect effects and cloud dynamics on the microphysical and optical properties of shallow cumuli observed in the vicinity of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Not surprisingly, we find that the amount of light scattered by the clouds is dominated by their liquid water content (LWC), which in turn is driven by cloud dynamics. However, removing the effect of cloud dynamics by examining the scattering normalized by LWC shows a strong sensitivity of scattering to pollutant loading. These results suggest that even moderately sized cities, like Oklahoma City, can have a measureable impact on the optical properties of shallow cumuli.

  14. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  15. Safety Aspects of Dry Spent Fuel Storage and Spent Fuel Management - 13559

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P. [TUV NORD Nuclear c/o TUV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co.KG, Dept. Radiation Protection and Waste Disposal, Am TueV 1, 30519 Hannover (Germany)] [TUV NORD Nuclear c/o TUV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co.KG, Dept. Radiation Protection and Waste Disposal, Am TueV 1, 30519 Hannover (Germany); Voelzke, H.; Wolff, D.; Kasparek, E. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing Division 3.4 Safety of Storage Containers Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)] [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing Division 3.4 Safety of Storage Containers Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry storage systems are characterized by passive and inherent safety systems ensuring safety even in case of severe incidents or accidents. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of such passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more and more obvious. As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Following safety aspects must be achieved throughout the storage period: - safe enclosure of radioactive materials, - safe removal of decay heat, - securing nuclear criticality safety, - avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. Furthermore, transport capability must be guaranteed during and after storage as well as limitation and control of radiation exposure. The safe enclosure of radioactive materials in dry storage casks can be achieved by a double-lid sealing system with surveillance of the sealing system. The safe removal of decay heat must be ensured by the design of the storage containers and the storage facility. The safe confinement of radioactive inventory has to be ensured by mechanical integrity of fuel assembly structures. This is guaranteed, e.g. by maintaining the mechanical integrity of the fuel rods or by additional safety measures for defective fuel rods. In order to ensure nuclear critically safety, possible effects of accidents have also to be taken into consideration. In case of dry storage it might be necessary to exclude the re-positioning of fissile material inside the container and/or neutron moderator exclusion might be taken into account. Unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by the cask or canister vault system itself. In Germany dry storage of SF in casks fulfills both transport and storage requirements. Mostly, storage facilities are designed as concrete buildings above the ground, but due to regional constraints, one storage facility has also been built as a rock tunnel. The decay heat is always removed by natural air flow; further technical equipment is not needed. The removal of decay heat and shielding had been modeled and calculated by state-of-the-art computer codes before such a facility has been built. TueV and BAM present their long experience in the licensing process for sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Different storage systems and facilities in Germany, Europe and world-wide are compared with respect to the safety aspects mentioned above. Initial points are the safety issues of wet storage of SF, and it is shown how dry storage systems can ensure the compliance with the mentioned safety criteria over a long storage period. The German storage concept for dry storage of SF and HLW is presented and discussed. Exemplarily, the process of licensing, erection and operation of selected German dry storage facilities is presented. (authors)

  16. Dead heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Boyle, R.H.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the prospect of global warming. This paper proposes a workable solution, and a road map for getting there. The author explains how we became addicted to fossil fuels and evokes a bleak picture should this dependence continue. But the book also explores how industry can become a vehicle for solving, instead of precipitating, the global environmental crisis. The decoupling of energy from pollution can be accomplished without sacrificing prosperity by powering the economy with solar energy. Dead Heat takes us step by step to a greenhouse-friendly world fueled only by the sun.

  17. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  18. Dry cooling: Perspectives on future needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guyer, E.C. (Yankee Scientific, Inc., Ashland, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The factors that can be expected to determine the future role of dry cooling in the United States electric power generation industry are identified and characterized. Focus is primarily on the issues of water availability for the electric power industry and the environmental impacts of evaporative cooling systems. The question of future water availability is addressed in terms of both limitations and opportunities facing the industry. A brief review of the status of dry cooling applications is provided. Included is a summary of an extensive survey of electric utility industry perspectives on the future requirements and role for dry cooling. Some regional assessments of the expected future requirements for this technology are also provided. Conclusions are a qualitative characterization of the expected future role of dry cooling in the electric power industry. 72 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Dry Cask Storage Study Feb 1989

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report on the use of dry-cask-storage technologies at the sites of civilian nuclear power reactors has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE} in response to the requirements of...

  20. Resuspension and dry deposition research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author concludes that better predictive models are needed for the signifcant health, ecological, and economic impacts of resuspended particles and their subsequent dry deposition. Both chemical and radioactive aerosols are discussed. (PSB)

  1. High strength air-dried aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

  3. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo [NASA/GSFC] [NASA/GSFC

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    1. OVERVIEW Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000]. Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 1999]. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd, 2005]. Recently, a detailed spectral-bin microphysical scheme was implemented into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions. A spectral-bin microphysical model is very expensive from a computational point of view and has only been implemented into the 2D version of the GCE at the present time. The model is tested by studying the evolution of deep tropical clouds in the west Pacific warm pool region and summertime convection over a mid-latitude continent with different concentrations of CCN: a low "clean" concentration and a high "dirty" concentration. The impact of atmospheric aerosol concentration on cloud and precipitation will be investigated. 2. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND CASE STUDIES 2.1 GCE MODEL The model used in this study is the 2D version of the GCE model. Modeled flow is anelastic. Second- or higher-order advection schemes can produce negative values in the solution. Thus, a Multi-dimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) has been implemented into the model. All scalar variables (potential temperature, water vapor, turbulent coefficient and all five hydrometeor classes) use forward time differencing and the MPDATA for advection. Dynamic variables, u, v and w, use a second-order accurate advection scheme and a leapfrog time integration (kinetic energy semi-conserving method). Short-wave (solar) and long-wave radiation as well as a subgrid-scale TKE turbulence scheme are also included in the model. Details of the model can be found in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003). 2.2 Microphysics (Bin Model) The formulation of the explicit spectral-bin microphysical processes is based on solving stochastic kinetic equations for the size distribution functions of water droplets (cloud droplets and raindrops), and six types of ice particles: pristine ice crystals (columnar and plate-like), snow (dendrites and aggregates), graupel and frozen drops/hail. Each type is described by a special size distribution function containing 33 categories (bin

  4. Compression of cooked freeze-dried carrots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macphearson, Bruce Alan

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to precompression characteristics (Brockmann, 1966). Hsmdy (1962) found that acceptable, compressed and freeze-dried spinach could be obtained by plasticizing the product to a moisture content of 9X before compression. Ishler (1962) reported that spraying... the dehydrated food before compression with either water, glycerine or propylene glycol produced bars with excellent rehydra- tion characteristics. He recommended spraying freeze-dried cellu- lar foods to 5-13X moisture, compressing, and redrying to lees than...

  5. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  6. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  7. Ceramic heat-exchanger applications study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlin, D.J.; Sgamboti, C.T.; Lessard, R.D.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To put the potential benefits of ceramic heat exchangers (CHX) applications into quantitative perspective, several industrial cogeneration and electric utiity power generation systems were surveyed and evaluated. This study was focused on coal-based fuel fired applications, for which system performance and economic assessments were made. Seven CHX applications in the industrial cogeneration sector were selected for evaluation. These include (1) Gasified Coal-Fired Gas Turbine, (2) Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (PFBC)-Gas Turbine, (3) Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (AFBC)-Gas Turbine, (4 and 5) AFBC Combined Cycle with and without reheat and (6 and 7) Indirect Coal-Fired Gas Turbine and Combined Cycle. The performance and economics of these cogeneration systems were evaluated and compared with other competing systems (both advanced and State-of-the-Art). For the electric utility power generation sector five applications utilizing a CHX were selected and evaluated; their performance and cost factors were compared to those of a reference pulverized coal-fired steam plant with flue gas desulfurization. These five applications included (1) PFBC-Combined Cycle, (2) AFBC-Combined Cycle, (3) Industrial Coal Gasifier-Combined Cycle, (4) Indirect Coal-Fired Combined Cycle, and (5) Indirect Coal-Fired Simple Cycle. Of the five CHX applications evaluated in the power generation sector, only the AFBC system showed a clear gain over the reference pulverized coal system.

  8. Determination of Water Saturation in Relatively Dry Porous Media...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Saturation in Relatively Dry Porous Media Using Gas-phase Tracer Tests. Determination of Water Saturation in Relatively Dry Porous Media Using Gas-phase Tracer Tests....

  9. Rate of drying and stresses in the first period of drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, S.J.; Rybicki, A.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents a computer simulated processes and illustrate how the drying induced stresses are influenced by the rate of drying. It is shown that the moisture transport coefficient, and thus the rate of drying, depends on the thermal state of the drying material, defined by the wet-bulb temperature. Through these simulated processes one can observe the evolution of the moisture content and stress distributions during drying at constant, but in each process different, wet-bulb temperatures. A convective drying process of a bar with rectangular cross-section is considered as example, and a two-dimensional initial-boundary value problem is solved numerically with the use of the finite element method. The numerical results are visualized in spatial diagrams.

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying facility HVAC system design description (SYS 30-1 THRU 30-5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVAC). The CVDF HVAC system consists of the Administrative building HVAC system, the process bay recirculation HVAC system, the process bay local HVAC and process vent system, the process general supply/exhaust HVAC system, and the Reference air system. These HVAC sub-systems support the CVDF process and provide secondary confinement of contamination and the required filtration of exhaust.

  11. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, S.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building`s energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  12. A theory for heat exchangers with liquid-desiccant-wetted surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otterbein, R.T. [Otterbein Engineering, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following theory extends the wet surface model of Maclaine-cross and Banks (1981) to include heat exchangers that heat or cool moist air with liquid-desiccant-wetted surfaces. The theory uses a wall boundary condition that forces the moist air to be at an arbitrary relative humidity that is less than totally saturated. The theory defines a new temperature scale (brine-bulb temperature) for which the wet-bulb temperature is a special case. Brine-bulb heat capacitance and heat transfer coefficient are defined. By using an analogy to the dry surface heat exchanger theory, the performance of these heat exchangers can then be estimated from the performance of geometrically identical heat exchangers with a dry surface. Charts to utilize the theory at various elevations are shown.

  13. Design of a high temperature hot water central heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, E.L.; Johnson, R.C.; Weaver, J.M.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews the conceptual design of a central heating system at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The resource considered for this heating system design was hot dry rock geothermal energy. Design criteria were developed to ensure reliability of energy supply, to provide flexibility for adaptation to multiple energy resources, to make optimum use of existing equipment and to minimize reinvestment cost. A variable temperature peaking high temperature water system was selected for this purpose.

  14. Direct and indirect detection of dissipative dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JiJi Fan; Andrey Katz; Jessie Shelton

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the constraints from direct detection and solar capture on dark matter scenarios with a subdominant dissipative component. This dissipative dark matter component in general has both a symmetric and asymmetric relic abundance. Dissipative dynamics allow this subdominant dark matter component to cool, resulting in its partial or total collapse into a smaller volume inside the halo (e.g., a dark disk) as well as a reduced thermal velocity dispersion compared to that of normal cold dark matter. We first show that these features considerably relax the limits from direct detection experiments on the couplings between standard model (SM) particles and dissipative dark matter. On the other hand, indirect detection of the annihilation of the symmetric dissipative dark matter component inside the Sun sets stringent and robust constraints on the properties of the dissipative dark matter. In particular, IceCube observations force dissipative dark matter particles with mass above 50 GeV to either have a small coupling to the SM or a low local density in the solar system, or to have a nearly asymmetric relic abundance. Possible helioseismology signals associated with purely asymmetric dissipative dark matter are discussed, with no present constraints.

  15. Deposition and corrosion phenomena on aluminum surfaces under deluged dry cooling-tower condisions. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, K.R.; May, R.P.; Douglas, J.G.; Tylczak, J.H.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deposition and corrosion on aluminum heat exchanger surfaces resulting from deluge in wet/dry cooling towers is simulated in a laboratory Corrosion/Deposition Loop (CDL). Heat exchanger deposition buildup was found to be linearly dependent on concentration factor and number of wet/dry cycles. Deionized water rising after deluge reduced rate of deposition. Laboratory data obtained from CDL relates directly to operation of the Advanced Concepts Test (ACT) demonstration cooling tower. Technology transferable to ACT shows that deposition from supersaturated solution can be effectively controlled by attention to water chemistry, pH, water conditioning, and good heat transfer design. The additional mechanism of deposition by water film evaporation is effectively managed by soft water rinsing and uniform surface wetting. Exposure of a model TRANE surface (the ACT wet/dry exchanger) produced short-term deposition extrapolating to 0.011 mm buildup in three years. Studies continue to verify 4X as maximum cycles of concentration through control of water chemistry and rinsing after deluge. Deluge water used at ACT facility is sufficiently aggressive to warrant use of Alclad to extend tube service life.

  16. Policy Name: Indirect Costs of Research Originating/Responsible Department: Vice-President (Research and International)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    Policy Name: Indirect Costs of Research Originating/Responsible Department: Vice: Associate Vice-President (Research Planning and Operations Policy: Indirect costs of research are real costs that benefit and support research. These costs must be included in budget requests to external sponsors

  17. THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MILWAUKEE FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (INDIRECT) COSTS POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MILWAUKEE FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (INDIRECT) COSTS POLICY Facilities and Administrative (Indirect) costs are real costs that provide reimbursement for actual or contract. The costs result from shared services such as libraries, plant operation and maintenance, utility

  18. Lazy learning indirect control for discrete-time non-linear systems Gianluca Bontempi, Mauro Birattari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bontempi, Gianluca

    Lazy learning indirect control for discrete-time non-linear systems Gianluca Bontempi, Mauro propose a hybrid architecture for the indirect control of non linear discrete time plants from of the resulting controller in a simplified case. Experimental results in the control of some non linear benchmarks

  19. Predicted climate change alters the indirect effect of predators on an ecosystem process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Predicted climate change alters the indirect effect of predators on an ecosystem process Janet R to occur with climate change will likely influence how predators indirectly affect an essential ecosystem and severity of droughts (1, 2). Changes in rainfall will likely affect ecosystem processes such as primary

  20. Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas on recycled paper #12;1 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production. Melillo*, John M. Reilly§ , and Sergey Paltsev§ Abstract The production of cellulosic biofuels may have

  1. Creep Compliance Analysis Technique for the Flattened Indirect Tension Test of Asphalt Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Creep Compliance Analysis Technique for the Flattened Indirect Tension Test of Asphalt Concrete: ­ Cored Sample (Cylindrical) Indirect tensile testing (IDT) (Strength/Creep) ­ AASHTO T-322 Damage under and Flattened IDT · 1000-sec creep tests on three replicates · 0, -10, and -20 deg. C · Displacement

  2. Indirect Search of Dark Matter with the ANTARES Neutrino on behalf of the ANTARES Collaboration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    significant high energy neutrino fluxes. Indirect search for Dark Matter looking at such neutrino fluxes for the Cherenkov light induced by high energy muons during their travel in the sea water throughout the detectorIndirect Search of Dark Matter with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope V. Bertin1 on behalf

  3. Expected magnitude of the aerosol shortwave indirect effect in springtime Arctic liquid water clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reflection of photons between the snow or sea ice surface and cloud base, the shortwave first indirect effect of high quality longwave spectral radiation measurements in the Arctic from which the indirect effect can clouds both absorb and scatter radiation. We therefore do not yet have a comparable spectral capability

  4. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (I kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.0 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a representative stainless steel spent fuel canister, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD as well as for four constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  5. Heat-Of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps--Possible Configurations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L. D.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, heat driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump working fluid is reactive...

  6. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Andreas Weber; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2005, and December 31, 2005, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas from coal combustion. A field test was conducted to examine the extent to which RTI's supported sorbent can be regenerated in a heated, hollow screw conveyor. This field test was conducted at the facilities of a screw conveyor manufacturer. The sorbent was essentially completely regenerated during this test, as confirmed by thermal desorption and mass spectroscopy analysis of the regenerated sorbent. Little or no sorbent attrition was observed during 24 passes through the heated screw conveyor system. Three downflow contactor absorption tests were conducted using calcined sodium bicarbonate as the absorbent. Maximum carbon dioxide removals of 57 and 91% from simulated flue gas were observed at near ambient temperatures with water-saturated gas. These tests demonstrated that calcined sodium carbonate is not as effective at removing CO{sub 2} as are supported sorbents containing 10 to 15% sodium carbonate. Delivery of the hollow screw conveyor for the laboratory-scale sorbent regeneration system was delayed; however, construction of other components of this system continued during the quarter.

  8. Measurement of Atmospheric Sea Salt Concentration in the Dry Storage Facility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masumi Wataru; Hisashi Kato; Satoshi Kudo; Naoko Oshima; Koji Wada [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry - CRIEPI (Japan); Hirofumi Narutaki [Electric Power Engineering Systems Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent nuclear fuel coming from a Japanese nuclear power plant is stored in the interim storage facility before reprocessing. There are two types of the storage methods which are wet and dry type. In Japan, it is anticipated that the dry storage facility will increase compared with the wet type facility. The dry interim storage facility using the metal cask has been operated in Japan. In another dry storage technology, there is a concrete overpack. Especially in USA, a lot of concrete overpacks are used for the dry interim storage. In Japan, for the concrete cask, the codes of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the governmental technical guidelines are prepared for the realization of the interim storage as well as the code for the metal cask. But the interim storage using the concrete overpack has not been in progress because the evaluation on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the canister is not sufficient. Japanese interim storage facilities would be constructed near the seashore. The metal casks and concrete overpacks are stored in the storage building in Japan. On the other hand, in USA they are stored outside. It is necessary to remove the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel in the cask from the storage building. Generally, the heat is removed by natural cooling in the dry storage facility. Air including the sea salt particles goes into the dry storage facility. Concerning the concrete overpack, air goes into the cask body and cools the canister. Air goes along the canister surface and is in contact with the surface directly. In this case, the sea salt in the air attaches to the surface and then there is the concern about the occurrence of the SCC. For the concrete overpack, the canister including the spent fuel is sealed by the welding. The loss of sealability caused by the SCC has to be avoided. To evaluate the SCC for the canister, it is necessary to make clear the amount of the sea salt particles coming into the storage building and the concentration on the canister. In present, the evaluation on that point is not sufficient. In this study, the concentration of the sea salt particles in the air and on the surface of the storage facility are measured inside and outside of the building. For the measurement, two sites of the dry storage facility using the metal cask are chosen. This data is applicable for the evaluation on the SCC of the canister to realize the interim storage using the concrete overpack. (authors)

  9. San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility San Bernardino District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating...

  10. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  11. Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating...

  12. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  13. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Midland District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Midland,...

  14. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  15. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  16. Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat pump system used for recycling and reusing waste heat in s high school bathroom was minutely analyzed in its coefficient of performance, onetime utilization ratio of energy, economic property and so on. The results showed that this system...

  17. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -expanding variety of industrial processes. One notable application in recent years has been for combustion airs preheat of fired heaters in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants. Another recent development has been a waste heat recovery boiler using heat...

  18. Direct Gas Fired Air Heating For 40 to 50% Fuel Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Searcy, J. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between direct and indirect gas fired unit heaters show why there is a minimum of 40% fuel savings. The application of direct gas-fired make-up heaters for industrial space heating as well as the safety of the direct gas fired systems, a simple...

  19. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  20. Annotated Bibliography for Drying Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebecca E. Smith

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internationally, the nuclear industry is represented by both commercial utilities and research institutions. Over the past two decades many of these entities have had to relocate inventories of spent nuclear fuel from underwater storage to dry storage. These efforts were primarily prompted by two factors: insufficient storage capacity (potentially precipitated by an open-ended nuclear fuel cycle) or deteriorating quality of existing underwater facilities. The intent of developing this bibliography is to assess what issues associated with fuel drying have been identified, to consider where concerns have been satisfactorily addressed, and to recommend where additional research would offer the most value to the commercial industry and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  1. Hog Fuel Drying Using Vapour Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; MacEachen, I.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    complicated and capital intensive drying process, yields a product of approximately 15% moisture, which due to its particle size, may only be burnt in suspension. iii) From an energy standpotnt the processes are inefficient as only a fractton... fuel. TR.e evaporated moisture is sep rated from the dried hog fuel-oil slurry n 768 ESL-IE-84-04-133 Proceedings from the Sixth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference Volume II, Houston, TX, April 15-18, 1984 l'ltlwr d separate vessel...

  2. Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, T.; White, D. A.; Knowles, T. P. J.

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics T. Mu¨ller,1 D. A. White,1 and T. P. J. Knowles1, a) Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, United Kingdom (Dated: 25 November 2014) We present an approach... for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on...

  3. Self-protection in dry recycle technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.; Stanford, G.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the INFCE conclusions, the U.S. undertook development of a new dry fuel cycle. Dry recycle processes have been demonstrated to be feasible. Safeguarding such fuel cycles will be dramatically simpler than the PUREX fuel cycle. At every step of the processes, the materials meet the {open_quotes}spent-fuel standard.{close_quotes} The scale is compatible with collocation of power reactors and their recycle facility, eliminating off-site transportation and storage of plutonium-bearing materials. Material diverted either covertly or overtly would be difficult (relative to material available by other means) to process into weapons feedstock.

  4. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantine, Christopher (Safety Harbor, FL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  5. Moisture effects in low-slope roofs: Drying rates after water addition with various vapor retarders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedersen, C.R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Petrie, T.W. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Courville, G.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Childs, P.W.; Wilkes, K.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests have been conducted in the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS) of the US. Building Envelope Research Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to investigate downward drying rates of various unvented, low-slope roof systems. A secondary objective was to study heat flow patterns so as to understand how to control latent heat effects on impermeable heat flux transducers. Nine test sections were tested simultaneously. The sections had a p deck above fibrous-glass insulation and were examples of cold-deck systems. These five sections had various vapor retarder systems on a gypsum board ceiling below the insulation. The other four sections had a lightweight insulating concrete deck below expanded polystyrene insulation and the same vapor retarder systems, and were examples of warm-deck systems. The cold-deck systems had materials that were relatively permeable to water vapor, while the materials in the warm-deck systems were less permeable. All test sections were topped by an impermeable roofing membrane. The test sections were instrumented with thermocouples between all layers and with small heat flux transducers at the bottom and top of the fibrous-glass insulation and in the middle of the expanded polystyrene insulation. Two different kinds of moisture probes were used to qualitatively monitor the movement of the moisture. The heat flux measurements showed that heat conduction dominates the system using impermeable insulation materials, with only a slight increase due to increased thermal conductivity of wet expanded polystyrene. There was significant transfer of latent heat in the test sections with permeable insulation, causing the peak heat fluxes to increase by as much as a factor of two. With temperatures imposed that are typical of summer days, latent heat transfer associated with condensation and evaporation of moisture in the test sections was measured to be as important as the heat transfer by conduction.

  6. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  8. Locating Heat Recovery Opportunities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic concepts of heat recovery are defined as they apply to the industrial community. Methods for locating, ranking, and developing heat recovery opportunities are presented and explained. The needs for useful heat 'sinks' are emphasized as equal...

  9. Locating Heat Recovery Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic concepts of heat recovery are defined as they apply to the industrial community. Methods for locating, ranking, and developing heat recovery opportunities are presented and explained. The needs for useful heat 'sinks' are emphasized as equal...

  10. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transient the heat transfer model. T h i s required the roofto develop and calibrate heat transfer models to be able toE S station, the heat transfer models described i n sections

  11. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  12. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  13. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  14. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Esherick, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Parmeter, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Rieger, Dennis J. (Tijeras, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for dry etching of transition metals. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorous-containing .pi.-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the .pi.-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the .pi.-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex.

  15. Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste is a nightmare for any construction engineer of the concrete or cement paste surface. Inspired by the art of molecular cooking a team of TU Delft scientists for instance sodium alginates. When sprayed on the surface of concrete or cement paste, a rapid chemical

  16. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  17. Spent fuel integrity during dry storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinnon, M.A.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information on spent fuel integrity is of interest in evaluating the impact of long-term dry storage on the behavior of spent fuel rods. Spent fuel used during cask performance tests at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offers significant opportunities for confirmation of the benign nature of long-term dry storage. The cask performance tests conducted at INEL included visual observation and ultrasonic examination of the condition of cladding, fuel rods, and fuel assembly hardware before dry storage and consolidation of the fuel; and a qualitative determination of the effect of dry storage and fuel consolidation on fission gas release from the spent fuel rods. A variety of cover gases and cask orientations were used during the cask performance tests. Cover gases included vacuum, nitrogen, and helium. The nitrogen and helium backfills were sampled and analyzed to detect leaking spent fuel rods. At the conclusion of each performance test, periodic gas sampling was conducted on each cask as part of a surveillance and monitoring activity. Continued surveillance and monitoring activities are being conducted for intact fuel in a CASTOR V/21 cask and for consolidated fuel in a VSC-17 cask. The results of the gas sampling activities are reported in this paper.

  18. Hot dry rock geothermal energy. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This second EPRI workshop on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy, held in May 1994, focused on the status of worldwide HDR research and development and used that status review as the starting point for discussions of what could and should be done next: by U.S. federal government, by U.S. industry, by U.S. state governments, and by international organizations or through international agreements. The papers presented and the discussion that took place indicate that there is a community of researchers and industrial partners that could join forces, with government support, to begin a new effort on hot dry rock geothermal development. This new heat mining effort would start with site selection and confirmatory studies, done concurrently. The confirmatory studies would test past evaluations against the most current results (from the U.S. site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, and from the two sites in Japan, the one in Russia, and the two in western Europe) and the best models of relevant physical and economic aspects. Site selection would be done in the light of the confirmatory studies and would be influenced by the need to find a site where success is probable and which is representative enough of other sites so that its success would imply good prospects for success at numerous other sites. The test of success would be circulation between a pair of wells, or more wells, in a way that confirmed, with the help of flow modeling, that a multi-well system would yield temperatures, flows and lifetimes that support economically feasible power generation. The flow modeling would have to have previously achieved its own confirmation from relevant data taken from both heat mining and conventional hydrothermal geothermal experience. There may be very relevant experience from the enhancement of ''hot wet rock'' sites, i.e., sites where hydrothermal reservoirs lack, or have come to lack, enough natural water or steam and are helped by water injected cold and produced hot. The new site would have to be selected in parallel with the confirmatory studies because it would have to be modeled as part of the studies and because its similarity to other candidate sites must be known well enough to assure that results at the selected site are relevant to many others. Also, the industry partners in the joint effort at the new site must be part of the confirmatory studies, because they must be convinced of the economic feasibility. This meeting may have brought together the core of people who can make such a joint effort take place. EPRI sponsored the organization of this meeting in order to provide utilities with an update on the prospects for power generation via heat mining. Although the emerging rules for electric utilities competing in power generation make it very unlikely that the rate-payers of any one utility (or small group of utilities) can pay the differential to support this new heat mining research and development effort, the community represented at this meeting may be able to make the case for national or international support of a new heat mining effort, based on the potential size and economics of this resource as a benefit for the nation as a whole and as a contribution to reduced emissions of fossil CO{sub 2} worldwide.

  19. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model investigation of the indirect radiative effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model investigation of the indirect Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA V. Ramaswamy, Paul A. Ginoux, and Larry W. Horowitz Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New

  20. A New Indirect Adaptive Control Scheme for Time-Varying Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ioannou, Petros

    A New Indirect Adaptive Control Scheme for Time-Varying Plants Absrmcr of the indirectadaptiveschemewhicharemoreappropriatefortime-varying plants that for successful estimation. the oyerall plant is notrestrictedto var?slowl)withtime. The new estimatorandcontrol

  1. Fast prototyping and Indirect Adaptive GPC temperature control of a class of passive HVAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fast prototyping and Indirect Adaptive GPC temperature control of a class of passive HVAC TAWEGOUM (temperature, moisture) is a dominating factor, on the one hand to deal with the market quantitative

  2. Kriging direct and indirect estimates of sulfate deposition: A comparison. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reams, G.A.; Huso, M.M.P.; Vong, R.J.; McCollum, J.M.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to logistical and cost constraints, acidic deposition is rarely measured at forest research or sampling locations. A crucial first step to assessing the effects of acid rain on forests is an accurate estimate of acidic deposition at forest sample sites. The authors examine two methods (direct and indirect) for estimating sulfate deposition at atmospherically unmonitored forest sites. The direct method only uses directly measured deposition data, while the indirect method additionally incorporates precipitation measurements from a spatially denser network of monitoring sites. Sulfate deposition values were estimated by point kriging using both the direct and indirect methods. By using the supplemental data from the precipitation monitoring network, estimates of sulfate deposition improved substantially, particularly at sites that are relatively isolated to the acid deposition monitoring network. Cross-validated procedures indicate that by using the indirect method, a reduction of approximately 20 to 25 percent in the predicted error sum of squares occurred.

  3. Modeling the Direct and Indirect Effects of Atmospheric Aerosols on Tropical Cyclones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Keun-Hee

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    precipitation even in the weakest hurricane. When comparing the model performance between aerosol indirect and direct effect by ensemble experiments, the adjustment time of the circulation due to modification of the aerosol radiative forcing by aerosol layers...

  4. FY 2011 Third Quarter Report Estimate of Historical Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects estimated from Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations are -0.06 W m-2 and -1.39 W m-2, respectively.

  5. Heat pumps: Industrial applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning design, development, and applications of heat pumps for industrial processes. Included are thermal energy exchanges based on air-to-air, ground-coupled, air-to-water, and water-to-water systems. Specific applications include industrial process heat, drying, district heating, and waste processing plants. Other Published Searches in this series cover heat pump technology and economics, and heat pumps for residential and commercial applications. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. The development of an indirect fluorescent antibody test for Trypanosoma vivax in Colombia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platt, Kenneth Bradley

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDIRECT FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TEST FOR TRYPANOSOMA VIVAX IN COLOMBIA A Thesis KENNETH BRADLEY PLATT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A Es M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTEB OF SCIENCE May 1974 Ma]or Sub]ect: Veterinary Miorobiology THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDIRECT FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TEST FOR TRYPANOSOMA VIVAX IN COLOMBIA A Thesis by KENNETH BRADLEY PLATT Approved as to style end content by: Co-Cha rman...

  7. FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect effect is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the direct effects are small due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.

  8. Non-Linear Drying Diffusion and Viscoelastic Drying Shrinkage Modeling in Hardened Cement Pastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Chin K.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    modeling with an average diffusion coefficient and with determined viscoelastic parameters from creep tests agreed well compared to the shrinkage data from experiments, indicating that drying shrinkage of cement paste may be considered as a poroviscoelastic...

  9. Non-Linear Drying Diffusion and Viscoelastic Drying Shrinkage Modeling in Hardened Cement Pastes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Chin K.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of diffusion rate over short drops of ambient relative humidity. Techniques to determine drying isotherms prior to full equilibration of mass loss, as well as converting mass loss into concentration of water vapor were developed. Using the measured water vapor...

  10. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, Lance D. (Shelly, ID)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  11. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  12. Mass and Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building...

  13. 1997 DRY BEAN VARIETY CANNING TRIALS MICHIGAN DRY BEAN PRODUCTION RESEARCH ADVISORY BOARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1997 DRY BEAN VARIETY CANNING TRIALS MICHIGAN DRY BEAN PRODUCTION RESEARCH ADVISORY BOARD Rating 1=poor, 2=fair, 3=good, 4=above average, 5=excellent NAVY LIGHT RED KIDNEY BEANS VARIETY GRATIOT HURON 8.4 3.3 ASG96YT8 2.1 1.8 DARK RED KIDNEY BEANS ASG96YT37 3.4 2.1 VARIETY MONTCALM BAY 7 YEAR AVE ASG96YT

  14. A Study of the Dielectric Properties of Dry and Saturated Green River Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, J; Roberts, J; Harben, P

    2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We measured dielectric permittivity of dry and fluid-saturated Green River oil shale samples over a frequency range of 1 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Dry sample measurements were carried out between room temperature and 146 C, saturated sample measurements were carried out at room temperature. Samples obtained from the Green River formation of Wyoming and from the Anvil Points Mine in Colorado were cored both parallel and perpendicular to layering. The samples, which all had organic richness in the range of 10-45 gal/ton, showed small variations between samples and a relatively small level of anisotropy of the dielectric properties when dry. The real and imaginary part of the relative dielectric permittivity of dry rock was nearly constant over the frequency range observed, with low values for the imaginary part (loss factor). Saturation with de-ionized water and brine greatly increased the values of the real and imaginary parts of the relative permittivity, especially at the lower frequencies. Temperature effects were relatively small, with initial increases in permittivity to about 60 C, followed by slight decreases in permittivity that diminished as temperature increased. Implications of these observations for the in situ electromagnetic, or radio frequency (RF) heating of oil shale to produce oil and gas are discussed.

  15. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  16. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  17. Mass and Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - 1 - MASS AND HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM SALAH MAHMOUD HINDAWI DIRECTOR HINDAWI FOR ENGINEERING SERVICES & CONTRACTING NEW DAMIETTA , EGYPT ABSTRACT : In the last few years heat recovery was under spot . and in air conditioning fields... ) as a heat recovery . and I use the water as a mass recovery . The source of mass and heat recovery is the condensate water which we were dispose and connect it to the drain lines . THE BENEFIT OF THIS SYSTEM ARE : 1) Using the heat energy from...

  18. Indirect heating of Pt by non-equilibrium electrons in Au in a nanoscale Pt/Au bilayer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahill, David G.

    -line equivalent-circuit. For optical exciation of either the Pt or Au side of the bilayer, the majority of energy excitations which are then driven out of thermal equilibrium with the vibrations of the atomic lattice.1

  19. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L. (Sacramento, CA); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Sudhoff, Frederick A. (Morgantown, WV)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

  20. Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, T; Knowles, T P J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an approach for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on-chip microfluidic spray nozzle and subsequent solvent removal provides the basis for the real-time determination of dry solute mass. Moreover, this detection scheme does not suffer from the decrease in the sensor quality factor and the viscous drag present if the measurement is performed in a liquid environment, yet allows solutions to be analysed. We demonstrate the sensitivity and reliability of our approach by controlled deposition of nanogram levels of salt and protein from a micrometer-sized channel.

  1. Heat Integrate Heat Engines in Process Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.; Townsend, D. W.

    ~C. T min Table 3. Problem Table Algorithm Applied to Petrochemicals Process Interval GJ ltiour 'Temperatures ! C! 2 ) ? ~ Cold. Hot Aecumulated Heat Heat FJ.owa Interval Streams StrePlS Deficit. Input OUtput -OUtt!utInput. 20 30 -2... of heat which can be passed on in this manner is performed in column 2 and column 3 of Table 3. It is initially assumed that the heat input from external utilities is zero. This is represented in Table 3 by a zero input to the top interval. Having...

  2. Wall Drying in Hot and Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, K.; Weston, T.; Pascual, X.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WALL DRYING IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATES Kimdolyn Boone Theresa Weston, PhD Xuaco Pascual Product Development Engineer Building Scientist Field Services Engineer E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Richmond, VA ABSTRACT... time based on the varying weather conditions. Constant interior conditions of 70?F and 55% RH were chosen. This corresponds to typical interior temperatures and a high level of moisture production within the house. This was chosen as a worse...

  3. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility hazard analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krahn, D.E.

    1998-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) hazard analysis to support the CVDF phase 2 safety analysis report (SAR), and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, and implements the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  4. Experimental Research on Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Z.; Zheng, M.; Liu, W.; Wang, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage. In this system, solar energy is the major heat source for a heat pump, and the supplementary heat source is soil. The disagreement in time between the space heat load and heat collected by solar...

  5. Dry Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry (non-aqueous) separations technologies have been used for treatment of used nuclear fuel since the 1960s, and they are still being developed and demonstrated in many countries. Dry technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. Within the Department of Energy’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, an electrochemical process employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. Much of the development of this technology is based on treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel, which is metallic. Electrochemical treatment of the EBR-II fuel has been ongoing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. More than 3.8 metric tons of heavy metal of metallic fast reactor fuel have been treated using this technology. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including high-level waste work. A historic perspective on the background of dry processing will also be provided.

  6. On the dry deposition of submicron particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesely, M. L.

    1999-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The air-surface exchange of particles can have a strong role in determining the amount, size, and chemical composition of particles in the troposphere. Here the authors consider only dry processes (deposition processes not directly aided by precipitation) and mostly address particles less than about 2 {micro}m in diameter (often referred to as submicron particles because most of such particles are less than 1 {micro}m in diameter). The processes that control the dry exchange of particulate material between the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth are numerous, highly varied, and sometimes poorly understood. As a result, determining which of the surface processes to parameterize or simulate in modeling the tropospheric mass budget of a particulate substance can be a significant challenge. Dry deposition, for example, can be controlled by a combination of Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, and gravitational settling, depending on the size of the particles, the roughness of the surface on both micrometeorological and microscopic scales, the geometrical structure of vegetative canopies, and other surface characteristics such as wetness. Particles can be added to the lower atmosphere by resuspension from land surfaces and sea spray. The roles of rapid gas-to-particle conversion and growth or shrinkage of particles as a result of water condensation or evaporation in the lower few meters of the atmosphere can also have a significant impact on particle concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Here, a few micrometeorological observations and inferences on particle air-surface exchange are briefly addressed.

  7. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  8. Fabrication process development for micro heat pipes using orientation dependent etching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Akther Salehuddin

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between the chip and the working fluid. FINS CONOENSER WICK sELLows sacrloN GROOVE EVAPORAIOR CHIP Fig. 2. Indirect heat pipe application of Eldridge and Peterson [14] Kroman et al (1986) proposed an integral heat pipe where heat generated... wafer would have to be vertically etched to obtain that structure. 23 NOZZLE CHARGING EL ECTROOE DEFLECTION PLATES PAPER (IOO SI I V O N 4I (IIO) n-Sl P I I n-SI . 5mm ~ ~ ~ ~ 4I250 V ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ 7. 5 mm ~ i ~ ~ GUTTER Oto...

  9. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano [University of Trento, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Insubria University of Varese, Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  10. Dry friction avalanches: Experiment and theory Sergey V. Buldyrev,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buldyrev, Sergey

    Dry friction avalanches: Experiment and theory Sergey V. Buldyrev,1 John Ferrante,2 and Fredy R and theoretical models are presented supporting the conjecture that dry friction stick-slip is described by self in systems presenting stick-slip due to dry friction has been under scrutiny 11 . Experimental evidence

  11. 11 The Prandtl-Tomlinson Model for Dry Photodetector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    11 The Prandtl-Tomlinson Model for Dry Friction Cantilever Photodetector Laser Beam 11-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 #12;156 11 The Prandtl-Tomlinson Model for Dry Friction model." Prandtl considered properties of dry friction. Actually, we must apply a minimum force to the body so that a mac- roscopic

  12. Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction Eugene I. Butikov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butikov, Eugene

    by viscous and dry (Coulomb) friction are investigated analytically and with the help of computer simulations-state oscillations. 1. Introduction Mechanical vibration systems with combined viscous and dry (Coulomb) friction. Even the simplest dry friction model, the Coulomb friction, can explain the principal peculiarities

  13. Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction Eugene Butikov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butikov, Eugene

    at investigation of free oscillations of a torsion spring pendulum damped by dry (Coulomb) friction. An idealizedTorsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction Manual Eugene Butikov Annotation. The manual includes as a prerequisite for the virtual lab "Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction." The manual includes also a set

  14. Review of Drying Methods for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Large, W.S.

    1999-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    SRTC is developing technology for direct disposal of aluminum spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The development program includes analyses and tests to support design and safe operation of a facility for ''road ready'' dry storage of SNF-filled canisters. The current technology development plan includes review of available SNF drying methods and recommendation of a drying method for aluminum SNF.

  15. Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process Vijay Singh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process Vijay Singh1 , Kent D. Rausch1 *, Ping Yang2 , Hosein Shapouri3-265-0697). #12;Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process ­ University of Illinois 2 Table of Contents 1. Introductory.....................................................................................................7 3.2. Dry Grind Ethanol

  16. HEATING6 verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, C.B.; Childs, K.W.; Giles, G.E.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The HEATING series of general purpose, finite-difference, conduction heat transfer codes have been in use for many years. During this time the codes have been used extensively, and a general confidence has been developed in regard to their accuracy. However, there has never been a formal verification in a published, citable document. This report documents just such a verification study for the latest code in the HEATING series, HEATING6. This study confirms that HEATING6 is capable of producing accurate results for a large class of heat transfer problems. 11 refs., 170 figs., 82 tabs.

  17. Oven rack having integral lubricious, dry porcelain surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose, Jeffrey A; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail; Sikka, Vinod K; Qu, Jun

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A lubricious glass-coated metal cooking article capable of withstanding repeated heating and cooling between room temperature and at least 500.degree. F. without chipping or cracking the glass coating, wherein the glass coating includes about 0.1 to about 20% by weight of a homogeneously distributed dry refractory lubricant material having a particle size less than about 200 .mu.m. The lubricant material is selected from the group consisting of carbon; graphite; boron nitride; cubic boron nitride; molybdenum (FV) sulfide; molybdenum sulfide; molybdenum (IV) selenide; molybdenum selenide, tungsten (IV) sulfide; tungsten disulfide; tungsten sulfide; silicon nitride (Si.sub.3N.sub.4); TiN; TiC; TiCN; TiO.sub.2; TiAlN; CrN; SiC; diamond-like carbon; tungsten carbide (WC); zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2); zirconium oxide and 0.1 to 40 weight % aluminum oxide; alumina-zirconia; antimony; antimony oxide; antimony trioxide; and mixtures thereof.

  18. Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) [3] Yayun FAN. Experimental study on a heat pump technology in solar thermal utilization[J]. Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica, Oct.,2002; Vol.23,No.5 ? 581-585.(In Chinese) [4] Nengxi JIANG. Air-conditioning Heat Pump Technology and Its Applications...

  19. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  20. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  1. Project W-441, cold vacuum drying facility design requirements document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This document has been prepared and is being released for Project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document sets forth the physical design criteria, Codes and Standards, and functional requirements that were used in the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document contains section 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements Document. The remaining sections will be issued at a later date. The purpose of the Facility is to dry, weld, and inspect the Multi-Canister Overpacks before transport to dry storage.

  2. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  3. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  4. DistrictHeating Nuevasaladecalderasydistribucin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    DistrictHeating Nuevasaladecalderasydistribución decaloreneláreauniversitariade AZapateira Jesús, difusión. DISTRICT HEATING O CALEFACCIÓN DE BARRIO #12;MATERIALIZACIÓN INTEGRACIÓN VISUAL DE ELEMENTOS rendimiento global de la instalación. - Contabilización de pérdidas en tuberías de distribución. #12;DISTRICT

  5. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

  6. MA HEAT Loan Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents information on the success of Massachusetts's HEAT loan offerings and how the financing tool is funded.

  7. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  8. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  9. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  10. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, M. E.; Solomon, N. G.; Tabb, E. S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT RECOVREY M. E. Ward and N. G. Solomon E. S. Tabb Solar Turbines International and Gas Research Institute San Diego, California Chicago, Illinois ABSTRACT i I One hundred fifty reports were reviewed along with interviews... tests, promising low temperature heat exchanger tube alloys and coated surfaces were identified. 1INTROUCTION of advanced technology heat recovery techniques 1_ Recovering waste heat from the flue gases of the pr~ary objective. Specific objectives...

  11. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  12. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

  13. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

  14. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  15. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  17. Lithographic dry development using optical absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olynick, Deirdre; Schuck, P. James; Schmidt, Martin

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel approach to dry development of exposed photo resist is described in which a photo resist layer is exposed to a visible light source in order to remove the resist in the areas of exposure. The class of compounds used as the resist material, under the influence of the light source, undergoes a chemical/structural change such that the modified material becomes volatile and is thus removed from the resist surface. The exposure process is carried out for a time sufficient to ablate the exposed resist layer down to the layer below. A group of compounds found to be useful in this process includes aromatic calixarenes.

  18. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2Climate,CobaltCold Vacuum Drying

  19. Dry lake reveals evidence of Southwestern 'megadroughts'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscovering HowAna MooreDrought-induced treeDry lake

  20. Dry Creek Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrict ofDongjin Semichem CoDow CorningDrive5Drum)Dry

  1. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner About Us Drew BittnerHomeDry Process

  2. dry-regen | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., ..., ,+ .-detonation7 ComparisonDry Regenerable

  3. Acoustic Heating Peter Ulmschneider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulmschneider, Peter

    mechanisms. 1. The acoustic heating theory Only a few years after Edlen's (1941) discovery that the solar acoustic wave radiation- · b. field acoustic wave Figure 1. Panel a: Acoustic heating in late-type stars: effective temperature TeJ f, gravity g and mixing length parameter fr. Panel b: Acoustic heating in early

  4. Heat Transfer Guest Editorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer

  5. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To install and monitor an innovative WaterFurnace geothermal system that is technologically advanced and evolving; To generate hot water heating from a heat pump that uses non-ozone depleting refrigerant CO2. To demonstrate the energy efficiency of this system ground source heat pump system.

  6. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  7. Development of an advanced concept of dry/wet cooling of power-generating plants. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, B.M. (ed.)

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale test of dry/wet cooling using the ammonia phase-charge system, designated the Advanced Concepts Test, is being constructed at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Kern Station at Bakersfield. The test facility described in this document will be capable of condensing 60,000 lbs/h of steam from a small house turbine and will use only 25% of the water normally required to reject this heat load in evaporative cooling towers. Two different modes of combining dry and evaporative cooling are being tested. One uses deluge cooling in which water is allowed to flow over the heat exchanger on hot days. The other uses a separate evaporative condenser in parallel to the dry heat exchanger. The design of the cooling system and major components is described and the technology developed to support the design is summarized. The facility is scheduled for completion April 1981. An extensive period of operational acceptance tests will follow. Research testing is anticipated to begin about the middle of 1981.

  8. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Wei Zhang

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the ninth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, comparative analyses were performed for lignite and PRB coals to determine how unit performance varies with coal product moisture. Results are given showing how the coal product moisture level and coal rank affect parameters such as boiler efficiency, station service power needed for fans and pulverizers and net unit heat rate. Results are also given for the effects of coal drying on cooling tower makeup water and comparisons are made between makeup water savings for various times of the year.

  9. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, W.; Yan, H.; Hooda, U.; Wild, M.P.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)] [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was initiated by an Institute of Paper Science and Technology finding that heating softwood in a low-headspace environment removed much of the VOCs without removing the water. This offered the possibility of removing VOCs from wet wood, capturing them as a product, and then drying the VOC-depleted wood conventionally with little or no VOC controls. Two means of low-headspace heating were explored: steam and radiofrequency (RF). It was found in the previous year, that while both steam and RF were able to drive out VOCs, steam was impracticably slow for lumber. Hence the effect of RF or microwave on wood was the principal focus of the work reported here. Finally, in order to understand the mechanism of VOC release, the transport of the VOCs in wood was studied, together with the seasonal effects that influence VOC concentration in trees.

  10. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  11. Calculation of Heating Values for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Joshua L [ORNL] [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculating the amount of energy released by a fission reaction (fission Q value) and the heating rate distribution in a nuclear reactor is an important part of the safety analysis. However, these calculations can become very complex. One of the codes that can be used for this type of analyses is the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5. Currently it is impossible to calculate the Q value and heating rate disposition for delayed beta and delayed gamma particles directly from MCNP5. The purpose of this paper is to outline a rigorous method for indirectly calculating the Q values and heating rates in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), based on previous similar studies carried out for very high-temperature reactor configurations. This method has been applied in this study to calculate heating rates for the beginning of cycle (BOC) and end-of-cycle (EOC) states of HFIR. In addition, the BOC results obtained for HFIR are compared with corresponding results for the Advanced Test Reactor. The fission Q value for HFIR was calculated as 200.2 MeV for the BOC and 201.3 MeV for the EOC. It was also determined that 95.1% and 95.4% of the heat was deposited within the HFIR fuel plates for the BOC and EOC models, respectively. This methodology can also be used for heating rate calculations for HFIR experiments.

  12. Self drying roofs: What! No dripping!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, A.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Many roofs are replaced because water accumulates in portions of the roofing system.These accumulations can cause dripping, accelerated membrane failure, poor thermal performance, the threat of structural decay, and the depreciation of building assets. Traditionally, the roofing industry has been concerned with controlling the inflow of water into the roof. An example of this strategy would be the development of a more reliable membrane. However, roof membranes inevitably leak. For this reason, the roof design strategy of the future must be concerned with controlling water outflow. The requirements of this type of roof system are described. Under normal operating conditions (no leaks), the total moisture content of a self-drying roof system shall not increase with time and condensation shall not occur under the membrane during winter uptake. Moisture vapor movement by convection must be eliminated and the flow of water by gravity through imperfections in the roof system must be controlled. After a leak has occurred, no condensation on the upper surface of the deck shall be tolerated and the water introduced by the leak must be dissipated to the building interior in a minimum amount of time. Finite difference computer modeling is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design. The impact of deck and insulation permeance, climate, leaks, and wintertime water uptake are simulated. A database of simulations is qualitatively described; this database will be used in future work to produce a simplified means of assessing the design parameters of a self-drying roof system.

  13. Economics of dry FGD by sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naulty, D.J.; Hooper, R.G.; McDowell, D.A.; Scheck, R.W.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The body of information in this paper is directed to engineers involved in desulfurization of boiler flue gas. The problems of wet scrubbing SO/sub 2/ from power plant flue gases have been well documented. The utility industry has been interested in developing new processes that would overcome problems associated with wet slurry systems. While spray dryer technology for FGD may alleviate many of these problems, this concept has problems as well. Dry injection FGD takes the development process one step further to a totally dry system, thus eliminating the difficulties of wet slurry handling. The concept of using the fabric filter as a chemical contactor for the SO/sub 2/ absorption was proposed in the late 1960s by Chaffee and Hill. In the early 1970s, Superior Oil Company, Wheelabrator Frye, Carborundum, and others investigated the use of nahcolite for SO/sub 2/ removal. Nahcolite is a natural occurring sodium bicarbonate found in great quantities in the oil shale regions of Colorado. In general, these developments were found viable in certain circumstances, but commercialization was hampered by the lack of nahcolite suppliers.

  14. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  15. Applied heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer principles are discussed with emphasis on the practical aspects of the problems. Correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop from several worldwide sources for flow inside and outside of tubes, including finned tubes are presented, along with design and performance calculations of heat exchangers economizers, air heaters, condensers, waste-heat boilers, fired heaters, superheaters, and boiler furnaces. Vibration analysis for tube bundles and heat exchangers are also discussed, as are estimating gas-mixture properties at atmospheric and elevated pressures and life-cycle costing techniques. (JMT)

  16. Heat pump apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  17. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  18. Long term prediction of far-field heat conduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassersharif, B.; Ma, L. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three dimensional numerical conduction only heat transfer model was developed to predict repository rock temperatures under the assumption of completely isolated burial. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the values of the thermal properties of the rock medium. Results indicate that rock temperatures at a distance of 100 m from the center of the repository peak at approximately 3000 years. A dry zone was established extending to approximately 80 times the volume of the repository after 10,000 years.

  19. Effect of dry-heat processing on the expansion of different sorghum cultivars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akoma, Uzoma Chike

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -waxy Yellow Non-waxy Non-waxy Non-waxy Yellow Non~axy Non-waxy Waxy Waxy, Heteroyellow Non-waxy Heterowaxy, Heteroyellow Waxy, Yellow Non-waxy Yellow 18 barley peatier containing - carborundum wheel 6 inches in diameter, Then, the stocks were...

  20. An experiment to simulate the heat transfer properties of a dry, horizontal spent nuclear fuel assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovett, Phyllis Maria

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear power reactors generate highly radioactive spent fuel assemblies. Initially, the spent fuel assemblies are stored for a period of several years in an on-site storage facility to allow the radioactivity levels of ...

  1. Evaluation of heat transfer processes in the lower 1420 feet of dry cold frontal zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Bill Chatten

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . , the 30-ft level, as was w. The first law of thermodynamics for a perfect gas can be written ? =c ? -o~ dH dT d dt p dt dt (9) and from this primary relationship it is seen that dH n de n Pe Be ae Be + u + v + w J dt ~e dt = + Bt a. ay a. (10) Also... on the 14 Dc 6 u D right of equation (20), ? , should be small, especially when C Dt C is greater than u, a condition that is prevalent in the cases studied except in the cold air behind the frontal zone. Clarke (1961) states that ae aei De ~(u-C) + w...

  2. Effect of dry heat processing of sorghum on nitrogen solubility and utilization in the ruminant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connelly, Jon Christie

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    variety. At 12 hr fermentation the W sorghum showed higher ammonia (FA) and free amino acids (FAA) concentrations, Landry- Moureaux fractionation of proteins demonstrated no significant differences between starch types in sorghum. However, alterations... parameters (as measured by internal and external marker studies), rumen FA and FAA concentrations or nitrogen balance, although biological tendencies were marked and are discussed. Propionic acid was highest (P&. 05) in rumen fluid of animals on the P...

  3. Type A: Magma-heated, Dry Steam Resource | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, IndianaTurtle Airships Jump

  4. Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies in Canada IEA Heat Pump Workshop London, UK November 13 in the world, with an average of 16,995 kilowatt-hours per annum. #12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat

  5. Counter flow cooling drier with integrated heat recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shivvers, Steve D. (Prole, IA)

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A drier apparatus for removing water or other liquids from various materials includes a mixer, drying chamber, separator and regenerator and a method for use of the apparatus. The material to be dried is mixed with a heated media to form a mixture which then passes through the chamber. While passing through the chamber, a comparatively cool fluid is passed counter current through the mixture so that the mixture becomes cooler and drier and the fluid becomes hotter and more saturated with moisture. The mixture is then separated into drier material and media. The media is transferred to the regenerator and heated therein by the hot fluid from the chamber and supplemental heat is supplied to bring the media to a preselected temperature for mixing with the incoming material to be dried. In a closed loop embodiment of the apparatus, the fluid is also recycled from the regenerator to the chamber and a chiller is utilized to reduce the temperature of the fluid to a preselected temperature and dew point temperature.

  6. INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS YOU KNOW WHAT THE TUITION, STIPEND AND EQUIPMENT COSTS ARE YOU KNOW WHAT THE TOTAL COST IS CALCULATION IS USING THE 2010 FED F&A RATE FOR WSU OF 52% (.52) [ DIRECT COST ­ TUITION ­ STIPEND ­ EQUIPMENT] (.52 ) + DIRECT

  7. POLICY ON INDIRECT COSTS RECOVERY FROM RESEARCH FUNDING AGENCIES NOT ACCREDITED BY SIRU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doedel, Eusebius

    POLICY ON INDIRECT COSTS RECOVERY FROM RESEARCH FUNDING AGENCIES NOT ACCREDITED BY SIRU Effective of this policy is to appropriately recognize and recover the costs incurred by the University in supporting research grant activity. DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this policy: Direct costs means costs that can

  8. Impacts of Indirect Blocks on Buffer Cache Energy Efficiency Jianhui Yue, Yifeng Zhu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yifeng

    - ing small but frequently accessed indirected blocks over all memory chips reduce the energy saving new scheme can save memory energy up to 16.8% and 15.4% in the I/O-intensive server workloads TPC in fewer energy saving opportunities through memory chip powerdown and DMA overlapping. · This paper

  9. Inversion in indirect optimal control: constrained and unconstrained F. Chaplais and N. Petit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract-- This paper focuses on using non linear inversion in optimal control problems. This technique, we address the case of linear systems with a control affine cost to be minimized under inputInversion in indirect optimal control: constrained and unconstrained cases F. Chaplais and N. Petit

  10. indirect study, coal was oxidatively de-graded with sodium dichromate and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    indirect study, coal was oxidatively de- graded with sodium dichromate and the esterified products- vestigators concluded (17, p. 380) that "thiophene derivatives must be indige- nous to coal." The direct XANES conmpounds yielded spectra that bore little resemblance to the coal spec- trum. For example, simulations

  11. MONITORING AND MODELING NEARSHORE DREDGE DISPOSAL FOR INDIRECT BEACH NOURISHMENT, OCEAN BEACH, SAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MONITORING AND MODELING NEARSHORE DREDGE DISPOSAL FOR INDIRECT BEACH NOURISHMENT, OCEAN BEACH, SAN FRANCISCO Patrick L. Barnard1 , Daniel M. Hanes1 , Jamie Lescinski1 and Edwin Elias2 Nearshore dredge toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over

  12. Reply to Quaas et al.: Can satellites be used to estimate indirect climate forcing by aerosols?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, J. E.; Zhou, Cheng; Xu, Li; Wang, Minghuai

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We welcome the comments by Quaas et al. (1). In our paper (2), we used a model to show that the methods used to estimate indirect aerosol forcing using satellite data, especially those based on relating the slope of present-day (PD) drop number (Nc) to aerosol optical depth (AOD), underestimate the forcing calculated when both PD and preindustrial (PI) data are available.

  13. Global Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Global Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence Energy security) requires 36 billion gallons of ethanol by 2022 to replace about 20 percent of U.S. gasoline consumption. Since 2001 ethanol produc- tion, mainly from corn, has increased dramatically at an annual average

  14. Jasmonate-deficient plants have reduced direct and indirect defences against herbivores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paré, Paul W.

    REPORT Jasmonate-deficient plants have reduced direct and indirect defences against herbivores@botany.utoronto.ca Abstract Plants employ a variety of defence mechanisms, some of which act directly by having a negative defences in plants. We examined the performance of herbivores (direct defence) and the attraction

  15. Direct and Indirect Impacts of Weed Management Practices on Soil Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    : although effective weed management and enhancement of soil quality are necessary components of sustainable275 18 Direct and Indirect Impacts of Weed Management Practices on Soil Quality Richard G. Smith, crop yield, and agricultural sustainability (Kar- len et al., 2001), the impact that weed management

  16. Indirect Adaptive Robust Control of Electro-Hydraulic Systems Driven by Single-Rod Hydraulic Actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    Indirect Adaptive Robust Control of Electro-Hydraulic Systems Driven by Single-Rod Hydraulic) of electro-hydraulic systems driven by single- rod hydraulic actuators. Unlike the tracking that the proposed IARC achieves good tracking performance and accurate parameter estimation. INTRODUCTION Electro-hydraulic

  17. Improving Energy Use Forecast for Campus Micro-grids using Indirect Indicators Department of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasanna, Viktor K.

    and institutional campuses can significantly contribute to energy conservation. The rollout of smart grids of occupants, and is a micro-grid test-bed for the DoE sponsored Los Angeles Smart Grid Demonstration ProjectImproving Energy Use Forecast for Campus Micro-grids using Indirect Indicators Saima Aman

  18. Indirect Evidence and the Poverty of the Stimulus: The Case of Anaphoric One

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regier, Terry

    Indirect Evidence and the Poverty of the Stimulus: The Case of Anaphoric One Stephani Foraker this latter view by showing that a Bayesian model can learn a standard "poverty-of-stimulus" example knowledge may itself be acquired without linguistic constraints. Keywords: language acquisition; poverty

  19. Indirect rotor-position estimation techniques for switched reluctance motors -A review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husain, Iqbal

    motor drives. The sensing schemes are broadly classified into non-intrusive and active probing methods. The methods of indirect position sensing can be broadly classified into two categories: (i) Non-intrusive and associated computations, and (ii) intrusive (or active probing) methods, where low-level, high

  20. CLOUD DROPLET SPECTRAL DISPERSION AND THE INDIRECT AEROSOL EFFECT: COMPARISON OF TWO TREATMENTS IN A GCM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to be a radiative forcing by Forster et al. [2007], but global climate models (GCMs) that include both effects canCLOUD DROPLET SPECTRAL DISPERSION AND THE INDIRECT AEROSOL EFFECT: COMPARISON OF TWO TREATMENTS effect are compared in a global climate model. The earlier scheme specifies , the ratio of droplet

  1. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  2. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  3. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  4. Application of the MELCOR code to design basis PWR large dry containment analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Jesse; Notafrancesco, Allen (USNRC, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Rockville, MD); Tills, Jack Lee (Jack Tills & Associates, Inc., Sandia Park, NM)

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MELCOR computer code has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories under USNRC sponsorship to provide capability for independently auditing analyses submitted by reactor manufactures and utilities. MELCOR is a fully integrated code (encompassing the reactor coolant system and the containment building) that models the progression of postulated accidents in light water reactor power plants. To assess the adequacy of containment thermal-hydraulic modeling incorporated in the MELCOR code for application to PWR large dry containments, several selected demonstration designs were analyzed. This report documents MELCOR code demonstration calculations performed for postulated design basis accident (DBA) analysis (LOCA and MSLB) inside containment, which are compared to other code results. The key processes when analyzing the containment loads inside PWR large dry containments are (1) expansion and transport of high mass/energy releases, (2) heat and mass transfer to structural passive heat sinks, and (3) containment pressure reduction due to engineered safety features. A code-to-code benchmarking for DBA events showed that MELCOR predictions of maximum containment loads were equivalent to similar predictions using a qualified containment code known as CONTAIN. This equivalency was found to apply for both single- and multi-cell containment models.

  5. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  6. Summer HeatSummer Heat Heat stress solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    occur (then drink a lightly salted beverage like a sports drink). The water's temperature should be cool How should gardeners avoid becoming a safety threat to themselves and others when it's hot? Start to the heat. Become a weather watcher. Set up a small weather station (with a high/low thermom eter, rain

  7. Dynamics of Dry Friction: A Numerical Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. F. Lim; Kan Chen

    1998-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform extended numerical simulation of the dynamics of dry friction, based on a model derived from the phenomenological description proposed by T. Baumberger et al.. In the case of small deviation from the steady sliding motion, the model is shown to be equivalent to the state- and rate-dependent friction law which was first introduced by Rice and Ruina on the basis of experiments on rocks. We obtain the dynamical phase diagram that agrees well with the experimental results on the paper-on-paper systems. In particular, the bifurcation between stick-slip and steady sliding are shown to change from a direct (supercritical) Hopf type to an inverted (subcritical) one as the driving velocity increases, in agreement with the experiments.

  8. Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

  9. Application of Desiccant Drying in Plastic Molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M.; Connors, G.; Moore, D.

    and high moisture conditions. As the delivered dew point approaches freezing, coil frosting becomes a concern. Also if low humidity air is supplied to an occupied space, additional energy fm heating it back to a comfonable temperature, reheating.... Generally, cooling dehumidification is preferred for high temperatures where it is most efficient and frosting of the coil is not a concern. As the dew point approaches 32?F, condensate removed from the passing air stream begins to freeze on the cooling...

  10. Curing and drying effects upon the quality of Spanish peanuts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristizabal, Leon

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Treatments . Atmospheric Drying Pr ewa s hing Vacuum Drying Air Separation Roasting Chemical Analyses Moisture Content Oil Content Reducing Sugars Physical Analyses Surface Color Percent Transmittance of the Oil Tenure . Density Organoleptic... PEANUTS 48 Table Pa ge THE EFFECTS OF VACUUM DRYING TREAT- MENTS ON THE ORGANOLEPTIC AND PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES OF IMMATURE (I) AND MATURE (M) SPANISH PEANUTS 52 10 SIMPLE CORRELATIONS AMONG THE CHEMICAL, PHYSICA L AND ORGANOLEPTIC ATTRIBUTES...

  11. Assessment of technologies for constructing self-drying low-slope roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, D.M.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Issues associated with removing excessive moisture from low-slope roofs have been assessed. The economic costs associated with moisture trapped in existing roofs have been estimated. The evidence suggests that existing moisture levels cause approximately a 40% overall reduction in the R-value of installed roofing insulation in the United States. Excess operating costs are further increased by a summertime heat transfer mode unique to wet insulation, caused by the daily migration of water within the roof. By itself, this effect can increase peak electrical demand for air conditioning by roughly 15 W/m{sup 2} of roofing, depending on the type of insulation. This effect will increase peak demand capacity required of utilities in any geographic region (e.g., 900 MW in the South). A simple formula has been derived for predicting the effect that self-drying roofs can have upon time-averaged construction costs. It is presumed that time-averaged costs depend predominantly upon (1) actual service life and (2) the likelihood that the less expensive recover membranes can be installed safely over old roofs. For example, an increase in service life from 15 to 20 years should reduce the current cost of roofing ($12 billion/year) by 21%. Another simple formula for predicting the reroofing waste volume indicates that an increase in service life from 15 to 20 years might reduce the current estimated 0.4 billion ft{sup 3}/year of waste by 25%. A finite-difference computer program has been used to study the flow of heat and moisture within typical existing roofs for a variety of US climates. Nearly all publicly available experimental drying data have been consulted. The drying times for most existing low-slope roofs in the United States are controlled largely climate and the permeability of the structural deck to water vapor.

  12. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    potentially significant impact on nuclear plant licensing and operations. While dry storage of lower burnup SNF less than 45 gigawatt days per metric ton uranium (GWD MTU)...

  13. antarctic dry valley: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UK b Department of Geological Sciences and Institute.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Uranium isotopes; Dry Valleys; Antarctica; Weathering; Lake chemistry 1 isotopes. The supply...

  14. antarctic dry valleys: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UK b Department of Geological Sciences and Institute.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Uranium isotopes; Dry Valleys; Antarctica; Weathering; Lake chemistry 1 isotopes. The supply...

  15. Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico- Tracer Test Results Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System,...

  16. aerosol dry deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    43 Drying and deposition of poly(ethylene oxide) droplets determined by Pclet number Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: We report results of a detailed experimental...

  17. atmospheric dry deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water vapor, and we confirm such predictions in a numerical model. There have been a number 38 Dual nitrate isotopes in dry deposition: Utility for partitioning NOx source...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  19. Membranes and MEAs for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions - Kick off 4 3...

  20. Water volume okay; early runoff leads to dry year declaration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water-volume-okay-early-runoff-leads-to-dry-year-declaration Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  2. Gas Composition Transients in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACKER, M.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculations with plotted results presented as confirmation bases for selected problems involving the prediction of transient gas compositions during Cold Vacuum Drying Operations.

  3. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  4. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  5. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  6. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  7. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  8. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  9. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  10. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  11. air dried soil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    102 Concentration, size distribution, and dry deposition rate of particle-associated metals in the Los Angeles region University of California eScholarship Repository Summary:...

  12. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI); Zidan, Ragaiy A. (Honolulu, HI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  13. Process and composition for drying of gaseous hydrogen halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tom, Glenn M. (New Milford, CT); Brown, Duncan W. (Wilton, CT)

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for drying a gaseous hydrogen halide of the formula HX, wherein X is selected from the group consisting of bromine, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine, to remove water impurity therefrom, comprising: contacting the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide with a scavenger including a support having associated therewith one or more members of the group consisting of: (a) an active scavenging moiety selected from one or more members of the group consisting of: (i) metal halide compounds dispersed in the support, of the formula MX.sub.y ; and (ii) metal halide pendant functional groups of the formula -MX.sub.y-1 covalently bonded to the support, wherein M is a y-valent metal, and y is an integer whose value is from 1 to 3; (b) corresponding partially or fully alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, of the metal halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); wherein the alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, when present, are reactive with the gaseous hydrogen halide to form the corresponding halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); and M being selected such that the heat of formation, .DELTA.H.sub.f of its hydrated halide, MX.sub.y.(H.sub.2 O).sub.n, is governed by the relationship: .DELTA.H.sub.f .gtoreq.n.times.10.1 kilocalories/mole of such hydrated halide compound wherein n is the number of water molecules bound to the metal halide in the metal halide hydrate. Also disclosed is an appertaining scavenger composition and a contacting apparatus wherein the scavenger is deployed in a bed for contacting with the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide.

  14. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  15. Quantifying the Uncertainties of Aerosol Indirect Effects and Impacts on Decadal-Scale Climate Variability in NCAR CAM5 and CESM1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sungsu

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project is to systematically quantify the major uncertainties of aerosol indirect effects due to the treatment of moist turbulent processes that drive aerosol activation, cloud macrophysics and microphysics in response to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations using the CAM5/CESM1. To achieve this goal, the P.I. hired a postdoctoral research scientist (Dr. Anna Fitch) who started her work from the Nov.1st.2012. In order to achieve the project goal, the first task that the Postdoc. and the P.I. did was to quantify the role of subgrid vertical velocity variance on the activation and nucleation of cloud liquid droplets and ice crystals and its impact on the aerosol indirect effect in CAM5. First, we analyzed various LES cases (from dry stable to cloud-topped PBL) to check whether this isotropic turbulence assumption used in CAM5 is really valid. It turned out that this isotropic turbulence assumption is not universally valid. Consequently, from the analysis of LES, we derived an empirical formulation relaxing the isotropic turbulence assumption used for the CAM5 aerosol activation and ice nucleation, and implemented the empirical formulation into CAM5/CESM1, and tested in the single-column and global simulation modes, and examined how it changed aerosol indirect effects in the CAM5/CESM1. These results were reported in the poster section in the 18th Annual CESM workshop held in Breckenridge, CO during Jun.17-20.2013. While we derived an empirical formulation from the analysis of couple of LES from the first task, the general applicability of that empirical formulation was questionable, because it was obtained from the limited number of LES simulations. The second task we did was to derive a more fundamental analytical formulation relating vertical velocity variance to TKE using other information starting from basic physical principles. This was a somewhat challenging subject, but if this could be done in a successful way, it could be directly implemented into the CAM5 as a practical parameterization, and substantially contributes to achieving the project goal. Through an intensive research for about one year, we found appropriate mathematical formulation and tried to implement it into the CAM5 PBL and activation routine as a practical parameterized numerical code. During these processes, however, the Postdoc applied for another position in Sweden, Europe, and accepted a job offer there, and left NCAR in August 2014. In Sweden, Dr. Anna Fitch is still working on this subject in a part time, planning to finalize the research and to write the paper in a near future.

  16. Heat storage duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both the amount and duration of heat storage in massive elements of a passive building are investigated. Data taken for one full winter in the Balcomb solar home are analyzed with the aid of sub-system simulation models. Heat storage duration is tallied into one-day intervals. Heat storage location is discussed and related to overall energy flows. The results are interpreted and conclusions drawn.

  17. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 53, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2006 41 A High-Performance Sensorless Indirect Stator Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and rotor winding resistance. Ls, Lr Stator and rotor self-inductance. M Mutual inductance. Np Number-Performance Sensorless Indirect Stator Flux Orientation Control of Induction Motor Drive Mohamed Boussak, Member, IEEE, and Kamel Jarray Abstract--A new method for the implementation of a sensorless indirect stator

  18. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  19. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  20. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  1. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the TechnologySystem ......

  2. Passive solar space heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

  3. HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning the 850/sup 0/C IDC reactor vessel; primary cooling system; secondary helium system; steam generator; heat cycle evaluations for the 850/sup 0/C IDC plant; 950/sup 0/C DC reactor vessel; 950/sup 0/C DC steam generator; direct and indirect cycle reformers; methanation plant; thermochemical pipeline; methodology for screening candidate synfuel processes; ECCG process; project technical requirements; process gas explosion assessment; HTGR program economic guidelines; and vendor respones.

  4. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SWENSON JA; CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; PLYS MG

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to receive KOP material, enhances heat conduction, and functions as a heat source and sink during drying operations. This use of the copper insert represents a significant change to the thermal model compared to that used for the fuel calculations. A number of cases were run representing a spectrum of normal and upset conditions for the drying process. Dozens of cases have been run on cold vacuum drying of fuel MCOs. Analysis of these previous calculations identified four cases that provide a solid basis for judgments on the behavior of MCO in drying operations. These four cases are: (1) Normal Process; (2) Degraded vacuum pumping; (3) Open MCO with loss of annulus water; and (4) Cool down after vacuum drying. The four cases were run for two sets of input parameters for KOP MCOs: (1) a set of parameters drawn from safety basis values from the technical data book and (2) a sensitivity set using parameters selected to evaluate the impact of lower void volume and smaller particle size on MCO behavior. Results of the calculations for the drying phase cases are shown in Table ES-2. Cases using data book safety basis values showed dry out in 9.7 hours and heat rejection sufficient to hold temperature rise to less than 25 C. Sensitivity cases which included unrealistically small particle sizes and corresponding high reactive surface area showed higher temperature increases that were limited by water consumption. In this document and in the attachment (Apthorpe, R. and M.G. Plys, 2010) cases using Technical Databook safety basis values are referred to as nominal cases. In future calculations such cases will be called safety basis cases. Also in these documents cases using parameters that are less favorable to acceptable performance than databook safety values are referred to as safety cases. In future calculations such cases will be called sensitivity cases or sensitivity evaluations Calculations to be performed in support of the detailed design and formal safety basis documentation will expand the calculations presented in this document to include: additional features of th

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased: September,

  6. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:

  7. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:

  8. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  9. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  10. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  11. IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER MODELS IN THE ENERGYPLUS #12;ii IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER MODELS IN THE ENERGYPLUS............................................................... 2 1.3. Overview of the Parameter Estimation Water-to-Water Heat Pump Model ........... 5 1

  12. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  13. First university owned district heating system using biomass heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Highlights · First university owned district heating system using biomass heat · Capacity: 15 MMBtu Main Campus District Heating Performance · Avoided: 3500 tonnes of CO2 · Particulate: less than 10 mg District Heating Goals To displace 85% of natural gas used for core campus heating. Fuel Bunker Sawmill

  14. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

  15. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  16. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  17. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  18. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  19. Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivtsov, Anton M.

    Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model Anton M. Krivtsov a of percussive drilling assuming a dry friction mechanism to explain the experimentally observed drop in pene as a frictional pair, and this can generate the pattern of the impact forces close to reality. Despite quite

  20. Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group Purdue Improved Drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    to maintain quality of grain in storage. n Farmers primarily depended on open air solar drying after logistics Grain & pest management Pre-Harvest losses from: Insect, molds and birds Harvesting & handling of PICS, technology Open Air Solar Drying of Maize in Ejura Market, Ashanti Region, Ghana #12;4 Chronology

  1. Horizontal Air Flow Drying Foods at Home Safely

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horizontal Air Flow Drying Foods at Home Safely Choosing a Food Dehydrator Drying is one. The thermostat should go up to 160 degrees F. The unit should have a fan or blower for air circulation. Mesh purposes. Types of Dehydrators There are two main types of dehydrators: those with vertical air flow

  2. How to make dried blood dots for genetic studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schall, Joseph J.

    How to make dried blood dots for genetic studies If a vertebrate is in-hand, and blood being taken, it is easy to make both a blood smear and dried blood dots. Modern research on malaria parasites demands that BOTH a blood smear and blood samples be taken. Blood can be stored in lysis buffers of various kinds

  3. RISO-M-2438 Dry deposition and resuspension of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO RISO-M-2438 2 S Dry deposition and resuspension of particulate matter in city environments N 1984 få #12;RISØ-M-2438 DRY DEPOSITION AND RESUSPENSION OF PARITUCLATE NATTER IN CITY ENVIRONMENTS N.O. Jensen Abstract. The report describes, mostly in qualitative terms, the deposition and resuspension

  4. Union County - La Grande, Oregon geothermal district heating: feasibility assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, H. II; Giddings, M.; Hanson, P.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an assessment of geothermal district heating in the City of La Grande, Oregon. Eight study area districts were analyzed to determine their economic feasibility. Results from the analyses conclude that certain districts within the City of La Grande are economically feasible if certain assumptions are correct. Development of geothermal district heating for these areas would provide direct energy and dollar savings to the building owners and would also provide direct and indirect benefits to low and moderate income households within the City.

  5. Indriect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Mult-Component Natural Gas By Heating The Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Torrance, CA)

    2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a natural gas by heating the gas. In two embodiments, the heating energy is correlated to the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into the model equation. If the diluent concentrations other than nitrogen (typically carbon dioxide) are known, the model equation can be solved for the nitrogen concentration.

  6. Solar heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  7. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru, E-mail: babac@itu.edu.tr [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey)] [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Reese, Jason M. [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  8. Improved solar heating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  9. The US Hot Dry Rock project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.H.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy project began in the early 1970's with the objective of developing a technology to make economically available the large ubiquitous thermal energy of the upper earth crust. The program has been funded by the Department of Energy (and its predecessors) and for a few years with participation by West Germany and Japan. An energy reservoir was accessed by drilling and hydraulically fracturing in the precambrian basement rock outside the Valles Caldera of north-central New Mexico. Water was circulated through the reservoir (Phase I, 1978-1980) producing up to 5 MWt at 132/sup 0/C. A second (Phase II) reservoir has been established with a deeper pair of holes and an initial flow test completed producing about 10 MWt at 190/sup 0/C. These accomplishments have been supported and paralleled by developments in drilling, well completion and instrumentation hardware. Acoustic or microseismic fracture mapping and geochemistry studies in addition to hydraulic and thermal data contribute to reservoir analyses. Studies of some of the estimated 430,000 quads of HDR resources in the United States have been made with special attention focused on sites most advantageous for early development.

  10. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.S. Tang

    2004-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Dry Transfer Facility No.1 (DTF-1) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, and ship out loaded waste packages and empty casks. Doses received by workers due to maintenance operations are also included in this revision. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation, excluding the remediation area of the building. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the DTF-1 and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  11. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  12. Indirect-direct band gap transition through electric tuning in bilayer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Si, M. S., E-mail: sims@lzu.edu.cn; Wang, Y. H.; Gao, X. P. [Key laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730 000 (China)] [Key laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730 000 (China); Sung, Dongchul; Hong, Suklyun [Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143 747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143 747 (Korea, Republic of); He, Junjie [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411 105 (China)] [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411 105 (China)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the electronic properties of bilayer MoS{sub 2} exposed to an external electric field by using first-principles calculations. It is found that a larger interlayer distance, referring to that by standard density functional theory (DFT) with respect to that by DFT with empirical dispersion corrections, makes indirect-direct band gap transition possible by electric control. We show that external electric field effectively manipulates the valence band contrast between the K- and ?-valleys by forming built-in electric dipole fields, which realizes an indirect-direct transition before a semiconductor-metal transition happens. Our results provide a novel efficient access to tune the electronic properties of two-dimensional layered materials.

  13. Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

  14. An alternative route for efficient optical indirect-gap excitation in Ge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Shuhei; Fukatsu, Susumu, E-mail: cfkatz@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Yasutake, Yuhsuke [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We explored optical excitation pathways in the multivalley semiconductor Ge in an attempt to expedite selective electron injection into the indirect L-band-edge. An off-peak resonant excitation route was developed, which offers the pumping efficiency outperforming the phonon-assisted near-indirect-edge absorption by more than six orders of magnitude. The valley selectivity results from the intra-valley relaxation that separates electrons and holes in momentum space following excitation. Fortuitously, the widely used green laser, 532?nm, is found to be nearly ideally suited to the efficient L-valley-selective excitation in Ge. Such valley-specific pumping may help clarify the otherwise complicated electron dynamics involving intervalley processes.

  15. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs.

  16. Heat Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heat flow values as high as several watts per meter squared can be found. Systematic interpretation of heat flow patterns sheds light on heat transfer mechanisms at depth on...

  17. Horizontal Inequity and Vertical Redistribution with Indirect Taxes: the Greek Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplanoglou, G; Newbery, David

    should be treated equally, or whether wealth conveys greater security than work (or vice versa) and whether the pursuit of either is affected differently by the proposed income tax. The treatment of equals by indirect taxes has received much less... of alcohol would reduce drunk driving by 7-8% (more for women than men). Other estimates (surveyed in Cnossen, 2005) suggest that higher alcohol taxes would reduce rapes, assaults (particularly domestic violence) and murder, and reduce sickness...

  18. Economic Options for Upgrading Waste Heat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are at least six major types of equipment that upgrade waste heat: (1) thermocompressor; (2) electric drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat...

  19. Economic Options for Upgrading Waste Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are at least six major types of equipment that upgrade waste heat: (1) thermocompressor; (2) electric drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat...

  20. Heat-Of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps--Possible Configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L. D.

    for water and gas connections, and temperature variations. Recent work on heat pump cycles using complex compound reactions includes development of energy storage systems at laboratories in Europe (11) and the United States (12), and residential...ABSTRACT Chemical heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, hl~a: driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump working fluid...

  1. Dealing with big circulation flow, small temperature difference based on verified dynamic model simulations of a hot water district heating system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, L.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEALING WITH “BIG CIRCULATION FLOW RATE, SMALL TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE” BASED ON VERIFIED DYNAMIC MODEL SIMULATIONS OF A HOT WATER DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM Li Lian Zhong, Senior Sales Consultant, Danfoss Automatic Controls Management (Shanghai...) Co.,Ltd, Anshan, China ABSTRACT Dynamic models of an indirect hot water district heating system were developed based on the first principle of thermodynamics. The ideal model was verified by using measured operational data. The ideal...

  2. ELECTRIC CO-HEATING: A METHOD FOR EVALUATING SEASONAL HEATING EFFICIENCIES AND HEAT LOSS RATES IN DWELLINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effi~ ciency of Fossil~Fired Heating Systems for LabelingInfo. Division, Ext. 6782 Electric Co-heating: A Methodfor Evaluating Seasonal Heating Efficiencies and Heat Loss

  3. Workshop on Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop on Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Thursday, October 9, 2014 List of Attendees OrganizationAttendees DOE - John Cymbalsky - Ashley Armstrong - Johanna...

  4. City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility City of Klamath Falls...

  5. Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility 6801 Industrial Road Springfield, VA Date: October 9, 2014 Time:...

  6. Proceedings: Heat exchanger workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer processes are of controlling importance in the operation of a thermal power plant. Heat exchangers are major cost items and are an important source of problems causing poor power plant availability and performance. A workshop to examine the improvements that can be made to heat exchangers was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on June 10-11, 1986, in Palo Alto, California. This workshop was attended by 25 engineers and scientists representing EPRI-member utilities and EPRI consultants. A forum was provided for discussions related to the design, operation and maintenance of utility heat transfer equipment. The specific objectives were to identify research directions that could significantly improve heat exchanger performance, reliability and life cycle economics. Since there is a great diversity of utility heat transfer equipment in use, this workshop addressed two equipment categories: Boiler Feedwater Heaters (FWH) and Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG). The workshop was divided into the following panel sessions: functional design, mechanical design, operation, suggested research topics, and prioritization. Each panel session began with short presentations by experts on the subject and followed by discussions by the attendees. This report documents the proceedings of the workshop and contains recommendations of potentially valuable areas of research and development. 4 figs.

  7. Micro heat barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  8. Integrating preconcentrator heat controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Arakaki, Lester H. (Edgewood, NM); Varley, Eric S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling the electric resistance heating of a metallic chemical preconcentrator screen, for example, used in portable trace explosives detectors. The length of the heating time-period is automatically adjusted to compensate for any changes in the voltage driving the heating current across the screen, for example, due to gradual discharge or aging of a battery. The total deposited energy in the screen is proportional to the integral over time of the square of the voltage drop across the screen. Since the net temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, of the screen, from beginning to end of the heating pulse, is proportional to the total amount of heat energy deposited in the screen during the heating pulse, then this integral can be calculated in real-time and used to terminate the heating current when a pre-set target value has been reached; thereby providing a consistent and reliable screen temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, from pulse-to-pulse.

  9. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2. Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M. C.; Taylor, Z. T.; Bartlett, R.; Gilbride, T.; Hefty, M.; Love, P. M.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder?s team?from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  10. Granular Brownian motion with dry friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gnoli; A. Puglisi; H. Touchette

    2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The interplay between Coulomb friction and random excitations is studied experimentally by means of a rotating probe in contact with a stationary granular gas. The granular material is independently fluidized by a vertical shaker, acting as a 'heat bath' for the Brownian-like motion of the probe. Two ball bearings supporting the probe exert nonlinear Coulomb friction upon it. The experimental velocity distribution of the probe, autocorrelation function, and power spectra are compared with the predictions of a linear Boltzmann equation with friction, which is known to simplify in two opposite limits: at high collision frequency, it is mapped to a Fokker-Planck equation with nonlinear friction, whereas at low collision frequency, it is described by a sequence of independent random kicks followed by friction-induced relaxations. Comparison between theory and experiment in these two limits shows good agreement. Deviations are observed at very small velocities, where the real bearings are not well modeled by Coulomb friction.

  11. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  12. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe ...

  13. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  14. Optimization of Heat Exchanger Cleaning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegell, J. H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of heat integration systems is quantified in terms of the amount of heat that is recovered. This decreases with time due to increased fouling of the heat exchange surface. Using the "Total Fouling Related Expenses (TFRE)" approach...

  15. Thermal Analysis of a Dry Storage Concept for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    There are 1,936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project is conducted under the assumption that the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event that vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. The Capsule Advisory Panel (CAP) was created by the Project Manager for the Hanford Site Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP). The purpose of the CAP is to provide specific technical input to the CDSP; to identify design requirements; to ensure design requirements for the project are conservative and defensible; to identify and resolve emerging, critical technical issues, as requested; and to support technical reviews performed by regulatory organizations, as requested. The CAP will develop supporting and summary documents that can be used as part of the technical and safety bases for the CDSP. The purpose of capsule dry storage thermal analysis is to: (1) Summarize the pertinent thermal design requirements sent to vendors, (2) Summarize and address the assumptions that underlie those design requirements, (3) Demonstrate that an acceptable design exists that satisfies the requirements, (4) Identify key design features and phenomena that promote or impede design success, (5) Support other CAP analyses such as corrosion and integrity evaluations, and (6) Support the assessment of proposed designs. It is not the purpose of this report to optimize or fully analyze variations of postulated acceptable designs. The present evaluation will indicate the impact of various possible design features, but not systematically pursue design improvements obtainable through analysis refinements and/or relaxation of conservatisms. However, possible design improvements will be summarized for future application. All assumptions and related design features, while appropriate for conceptual designs, must be technically justified for the final design. The pertinent thermal design requirements and underlying assumptions are summarized in Section 1.3. The majority of the thermal analyses, as described in Sections 4.2 and 4.3, focus on an acceptable conceptual design arrived at by refinement of a preliminary but unacceptable design. The results of the subject thermal analyses, as presented in Section 4.0, satisfy items 3 and 4 above.

  16. Structural Sensitivity of Dry Storage Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Karri, Naveen K.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This LS-DYNA modeling study evaluated a generic used nuclear fuel vertical dry storage cask system under tip-over, handling drop, and seismic load cases to determine the sensitivity of the canister containment boundary to these loads. The goal was to quantify the expected failure margins to gain insight into what material changes over the extended long-term storage lifetime could have the most influence on the security of the containment boundary. It was determined that the tip-over case offers a strong challenge to the containment boundary, and identifies one significant material knowledge gap, the behavior of welded stainless steel joints under high-strain-rate conditions. High strain rates are expected to increase the material’s effective yield strength and ultimate strength, and may decrease its ductility. Determining and accounting for this behavior could potentially reverse the model prediction of a containment boundary failure at the canister lid weld. It must be emphasized that this predicted containment failure is an artifact of the generic system modeled. Vendor specific designs analyze for cask tip-over and these analyses are reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Another location of sensitivity of the containment boundary is the weld between the base plate and the canister shell. Peak stresses at this location predict plastic strains through the whole thickness of the welded material. This makes the base plate weld an important location for material study. This location is also susceptible to high strain rates, and accurately accounting for the material behavior under these conditions could have a significant effect on the predicted performance of the containment boundary. The handling drop case was largely benign to the containment boundary, with just localized plastic strains predicted on the outer surfaces of wall sections. It would take unusual changes in the handling drop scenario to harm the containment boundary, such as raising the drop height or changing the impact angle. The seismic load case was derived from the August 23, 2011 earthquake that affected the North Anna power station. The source of the data was a monitoring station near Charlottesville, Virginia, so the ground motion is not an exact match. Stresses on the containment boundary were so low, even from a fatigue standpoint, that the seismic load case is generally not a concern. Based on this study, it is recommended that high strain rate testing of welded stainless steel test samples be pursued to define the currently unknown material behavior. Additional modeling is recommended to evaluate specific dry storage cask system designs subjected to tip-over loads using a high level of model detail. Additional modeling of the canister interior components (basket, fuel assemblies, etc.) is also recommended, to evaluate the feasibility of fuel retrievability after a tip-over incident. Finally, additional modeling to determine how much degradation a system could undergo and still maintain the integrity of the confinement barrier should be performed.

  17. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  18. Molecular heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvira Segal; Abraham Nitzan

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a novel molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the desired direction. The heat flow is examined in the slow and fast modulation limits and for different modulation waveforms, thus making it possible to optimize the device performance.

  19. Specifying Waste Heat Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    or hydrochloric acid vapor should be mentioned upfront so the HRSG designer can take proper precauations while designing the unit.Material selection is also impacted by the presence of corrosive gases.If partial pressure of hydrogen is high in the gas stream...SPECIFYING WASTE HEAT BOILERS V.Ganapathy.ABCO Industries Abilene,Texas ABSTRACT Waste heat boilers or Heat Recovery Steam 'Generators(HRSGs) as they are often called are used to recover energy from waste gas streams in chemical plants...

  20. Methanol-based heat pump for solar heating, cooling, and storage. Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Offenhartz, P O'D; Rye, T V; Malsberger, R E; Schwartz, D

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of CH/sub 3/OH vapor with solid (pellet) CaCl/sub 2/ to form the solid phase compound CaCll/sub 2/ . 2CH/sub 3/OH can be used as the basis of a combined solar heat pump/thermal energy storage system. Such a system is capable of storing heat indefinitely at ambient temperature, and can be used for space and domestic hot water heating, and for air conditioning with forced air (dry) heat rejection. It combines all features required of a residential or commercial space conditioning system except for solar collection. A detailed thermal analysis shows that the coefficient of performance for heating is greater than 1.5, and for cooling, greater than 0.5. This has been confirmed by direct experimental measurement on an engineering development test unit (EDTU). The experimental rate of CH/sub 3/OH absorption is a strong function of the absorber-evaporator temperature difference. The minimum practical hourly rate, 0.10 moles CH/sub 3/OH per mole CaCl/sub 2/, was observed with the salt-bed heat transfer fluid at 40/sup 0/C and the CH/sub 3/OH evaporator at -15/sup 0/C. a detailed performance and economic analysis was carried out for a system operated in Washington, DC. With 25 square meters of evacuated tube solar collectors, the CaCl/sub 2/-CH/sub 3/OH chemical heat pump should be capable of meeting over 90% of the cooling load, 80% of the heating load, and 70% of the domestic hot water load with nonpurchased energy in a typical well-insulated single family residence, thus saving about $600 per year. In small-scale production, the installed cost of the system, including solar collectors and backup, is estimated to be about $10,000 greater than a conventional heating and cooling system, and a much lower cost should be possible in the longer term.

  1. Kinetics of the clay roofing tile convection drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, S. (Univ. of Osijek (Croatia). Faculty of Food Technology); Skansi, D. (Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology); Sokele, M. (Croatian Post and Telecommunications, Zagreb (Croatia). Telecommunications Center)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kinetics of the convection drying process of flat tile has been investigated experimentally in an industrial tunnel dryer. Several velocities of wet tile movement through the dryer were tested to obtain maximum allowable drying rate curve. As there are various models to describe the kinetics of convection drying, finding a model that would fairly well approximate the kinetics of the whole drying process was part of the research. Especially the polynomial and exponential models were tested. It was found that exponential model of the type: B(t) = (a[minus]B[sub e])[center dot]EXP([minus]bt[sup 2])+B[sub e], ([minus]dB(t)/dt) = 2bt(B(t)[minus]B[sub e]) significantly correlates the kinetics of the whole tile drying process. Applying the maximum allowable drying rate curve obtained for flat tile in the first period of drying, a grapho-analytic model for the optimal conducting of the process has been developed.

  2. Electro-osmotic infusion for joule heating soil remediation techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA); Nitao, John J. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electro-osmotic infusion of ground water or chemically tailored electrolyte is used to enhance, maintain, or recondition electrical conductivity for the joule heating remediation technique. Induced flows can be used to infuse electrolyte with enhanced ionic conductivity into the vicinity of the electrodes, maintain the local saturation of near-electrode regions and resaturate a partially dried out zone with groundwater. Electro-osmotic infusion can also tailor the conductivity throughout the target layer by infusing chemically modified and/or heated electrolyte to improve conductivity contrast of the interior. Periodic polarity reversals will prevent large pH changes at the electrodes. Electro-osmotic infusion can be used to condition the electrical conductivity of the soil, particularly low permeability soil, before and during the heating operation. Electro-osmotic infusion is carried out by locating one or more electrodes adjacent the heating electrodes and applying a dc potential between two or more electrodes. Depending on the polarities of the electrodes, the induced flow will be toward the heating electrodes or away from the heating electrodes. In addition, electrodes carrying a dc potential may be located throughout the target area to tailor the conductivity of the target area.

  3. Examination of Spent Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Rods After 15 Years in Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einziger, Robert E. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Tsai Hanchung [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Billone, Michael C. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Hilton, Bruce A. [Argonne National Laboratory-West (United States)

    2003-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For [approximately equal to]15 yr Dominion Generation's Surry Nuclear Station 15 x 15 Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel was stored in a dry inert-atmosphere Castor V/21 cask at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory at peak cladding temperatures that decreased from {approx}350 to 150 deg. C. Before storage, the loaded cask was subjected to thermal-benchmark tests, during which time the peak temperatures were greater than 400 deg. C. The cask was opened to examine the fuel rods for degradation and to determine if they were suitable for extended storage. No fuel rod breaches and no visible degradation or crud/oxide spallation from the fuel rod surface were observed. The results from profilometry, gas release measurements, metallographic examinations, microhardness determination, and cladding hydrogen behavior are reported in this paper.It appears that little or no fission gas was released from the fuel pellets during either the thermal-benchmark tests or the long-term storage. In the central region of the fuel column, where the axial temperature gradient in storage is small, the measured hydrogen content in the cladding is consistent with the thickness of the oxide layer. At {approx}1 m above the fuel midplane, where a steep temperature gradient existed in the cask, less hydrogen is present than would be expected from the oxide thickness that developed in-reactor. Migration of hydrogen during dry storage probably occurred and may signal a higher-than-expected concentration at the cooler ends of the rod. The volume of hydrides varies azimuthally around the cladding, and at some elevations, the hydrides appear to have segregated somewhat to the inner and outer cladding surfaces. It is, however, impossible to determine if this segregation occurred in-reactor or during transportation, thermal-benchmark tests, or the dry storage period. The hydrides retained the circumferential orientation typical of prestorage PWR fuel rods. Little or no cladding creep occurred during thermal-benchmark testing and dry storage. It is anticipated that the creep would not increase significantly during additional storage because of the lower temperature after 15 yr, continual decrease in temperature from the reduction in decay heat, and concurrent reductions in internal rod pressure and stress. This paper describes the results of the characterization of the fuel and intact cladding, as well as the implications of these results for long-term (i.e., beyond 20 yr) dry-cask storage.

  4. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

  5. Meat Alternate Cookery: Eggs, Nuts, Soybeans, Dried Beans and Peas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeten, Mary K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sources of B vitamins . Nuts, because of the high fat content, are more readily digested if eaten in combination with cereals, vegetables or fruits . Dried beans and peas make nourishing dishes which are very filling. These legumes are good sources... . Soybeans are the best vegetable protein source to re place meat. Dry soybeans contain 1 V2 times as much protein as other dried beans and 11 times as much fat. Soybeans are limited in one of the essential amino acids so they must be combined...

  6. Liquid Phase Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mordt, E. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature Water (HTW) central district heating systems are far superior to steam systems in large, spread out installations such as airports, universities and office complexes. Water, pressurized to keep it in the liquid state, is distributed at 400o...

  7. Composite heat damage assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janke, C.J.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Philpot, H.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Powell, G.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of heat damage were determined on the residual mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of IM6/3501-6 laminates, and potential nondestructive techniques to detect and assess material heat damage were evaluated. About one thousand preconditioned specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures, then cooled to room temperature and tested in compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, shore-D hardness, weight loss, and change in thickness. Specimens experienced significant and irreversible reduction in their residual properties when exposed to temperatures exceeding the material upper service temperature of this material (350{degrees}F). The Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Laser-Pumped Fluorescence techniques were found to be capable of rapid, in-service, nondestructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501- 6. These techniques also have the potential applicability to detect and assess heat damage effects in other polymer matrix composites.

  8. Mechanical Compression Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apaloo, T. L.; Kawamura, K.; Matsuda, J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to develop, design and test compressors built to meet the needs of the mechanically demanding industrial heat pump applications which often require high compression ratios and temperatures in excess of 200 degrees F. This paper will review the theoretical...

  9. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e l Atmosphere ceiling, back panel roof, exposed roof insideSAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A Thesis submitted i no n Convection Exposed Roof Temperature Seasonal Temperature

  10. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    under the offset unit's solar panel, the hf formula (16) wasdrop below the angle unit's solar panel at night time. D u rfor both the units, the solar panel covered roof was a heat

  11. Passive solar heating analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Jones, R.W.; Mc Farland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book discusses about the design of solar heating systems. The terms and symbols are clearly defined. Step-by-step procedures are indicated. Worked examples are given with tables, graphs, appendixes.

  12. Mechanical Compression Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apaloo, T. L.; Kawamura, K.; Matsuda, J.

    dampened because there is a current abundance of the basic sources of industrial energy (namely oil and natural gas). Meanwhile, Mycom used the window of the current opportunities to develop, design and test compressors built to meet the needs... requirements of the compressors which constitute the heart and soul of the system. It will also provide a quick survey of the available types of compressors for heat pumping and some of the industrial processes where simultaneous heating and cooling...

  13. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  14. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  15. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  16. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  17. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  18. Insights into the historical construction of species-rich Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests: the diversification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Mark

    Insights into the historical construction of species-rich Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical, Mesoamerica, niche conservatism, seasonally dry tropical forests. Summary · Mesoamerican arid biomes epitomize the vast species richness of Meso- american seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), and to evaluate

  19. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  20. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen