National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for heat gain coefficient

  1. Determining window solar heat gain coefficient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, S.J.; Wonderen, S.J. van . Solar Calorimetry Lab.)

    1994-08-01

    The solar heat gain characteristics of fenestration systems impact daytime building energy performance, occupant comfort and utility load demands. A measure of the fraction of available solar energy entering a building interior per unit window area is defined as the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC). Together with a window's thermal transmittance (U-value), the SHGC is used to compare fenestration products, and it allows for the calculation of energy rating number and annual energy performance. The need to measure and compared advances in window technology has led to the development of experimental and analytical methods for the determination of SHGC performance. Several test facilities currently or previously capable of performing SHGC measurements exist worldwide. Results experimentally determined using these facilities have provided design data for handbook tables, and have been instrumental in the development and validation of predictive analytical methods and computer simulation tools. However, these facilities have operated without a standard test procedure for SHGC performance. Consequently, recent efforts have been focused on developing consensus test procedures for the evaluation of window energy performance.

  2. Evaluation of solar heat gain coefficient for solar-control glazings and shading devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, S.J.; Wonderen, S.J. van

    1998-10-01

    The determination of solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) values for complex fenestration systems is required to evaluate building energy performance, to estimate peak electrical loads, and to ensure occupant comfort. In the past, simplified techniques have been used to calculate the values of SHGC for fenestration systems. As glazing systems that incorporate complex geometries become more common, test methods are required to evaluate these products and to aid in the development of new computational tools. Recently, a unique facility and test method for the experimental determination of SHGC values were developed and demonstrated for simple fenestration systems. The study described in this paper further applies this method to a variety of commercially available glazing and shading systems (e.g., heat-absorbing insulated glazing units (IGUs), reflective film and suspended film IGUs), and shading devices (i.e., slat blinds and shades). Testing was conducted in a solar simulator facility using a specially designed window calorimeter. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of the solar simulator-based test method for the evaluation of SHGC values for solar-control glazings and shading devices.

  3. New recommended heat gains for commercial cooking equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1998-12-31

    Radiant heat gain from cooking equipment can significantly impact the air-conditioning load and/or human comfort in a commercial kitchen. This paper presents and discusses updated heat gain data for several types of commercial cooking equipment based on recent testing by gas and electric utility research organizations. The cooking equipment was tested under exhaust-only, wall-canopy hoods. The fundamentals of appliance heat gain are reviewed and the new data are compared with data published in the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 26, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. These updated data are now incorporated in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 28, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. The paper also discusses appliance heat gain with respect to sizing air-conditioning systems for commercial kitchens and presents representative radiant factors that may be used to estimate heat gain from other sizes or types of gas and electric cooking equipment when appliance specific heat gain data are not avoidable.

  4. A new method for predicting the solar heat gain of complex fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.

    1992-10-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorptances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. This method has been used to determine the solar heat gain coefficient of a double-glazed window with an interior white shade. The resulting solar heat gain coefficient was compared to a direct measurement of the same system using the Mobile Window Thermal Test (MoWiTT) Facility for measuring window energy performance, and the two results agreed. This represents the first in a series of planned validations and applications of the new method.

  5. Scanning measurement of Seebeck coefficient of a heated sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Iwanaga, Shiho

    2016-04-19

    A novel scanning Seebeck coefficient measurement technique is disclosed utilizing a cold scanning thermocouple probe tip on heated bulk and thin film samples. The system measures variations in the Seebeck coefficient within the samples. The apparatus may be used for two dimensional mapping of the Seebeck coefficient on the bulk and thin film samples. This technique can be utilized for detection of defective regions, as well as phase separations in the sub-mm range of various thermoelectric materials.

  6. Total heat gain and the split between radiant and convective heat gain from office and laboratory equipment in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosni, M.H.; Jones, B.W.; Sipes, J.M.; Xu, Y.

    1998-10-01

    An accurate determination of the cooling load is important in the proper sizing of air-conditioning equipment. Improvements on the thermal insulation characteristics of building materials and recent advances in building envelope systems have reduced the building cooling load from external sources. However, the number of internal cooling load sources have increased due to the addition of various office and laboratory equipment (e.g., microcomputer, monitor, printer copier, scanner, overhead projector, microwave oven, incubator, etc.). In this article, typical office and laboratory equipment such as desktop computers (with a Pentium and a 486DX2-33 processor), monitors, a copier, a laser printer, and a biological incubator are evaluated to determine the total heat gain and the split between radiant and convective heat gain from these items. In addition, two standard objects with well-defined radiant heat loss characteristics, a heated flat slab, and a heated sphere are used to verify the accuracy of measurement and data reduction procedures. The total heat gain from tested office equipment was significantly less than the name plate ratings even when operated continuously. The actual power consumption ranged from 14% to 36% of the name plate ratings. Thus, care must be taken when using equipment nameplate ratings in estimating total heat gain for air-conditioning equipment sizing.

  7. Method for passively compensating for temperature coefficient of gain in silicon photomultipliers and similar devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKisson, John E.; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    A method for designing a completely passive bias compensation circuit to stabilize the gain of multiple pixel avalanche photo detector devices. The method includes determining circuitry design and component values to achieve a desired precision of gain stability. The method can be used with any temperature sensitive device with a nominally linear coefficient of voltage dependent parameter that must be stabilized. The circuitry design includes a negative temperature coefficient resistor in thermal contact with the photomultiplier device to provide a varying resistance and a second fixed resistor to form a voltage divider that can be chosen to set the desired slope and intercept for the characteristic with a specific voltage source value. The addition of a third resistor to the divider network provides a solution set for a set of SiPM devices that requires only a single stabilized voltage source value.

  8. Solar Heat Gain Through Fenestration Systems Containing Shading: Procedures for Estimating Performance from Minimal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.

    2000-08-01

    The computational methods for calculating the properties of glazing systems containing shading from the properties of their components have been developed, but the measurement standards and property data bases necessary to apply them have not. It is shown that with a drastic simplifying assumption these methods can be used to calculate system solar-optical properties and solar heat gain coefficients for arbitrary glazing systems, while requiring limited data about the shading. Detailed formulas are presented, and performance multipliers are defined for the approximate treatment of simple glazings with shading. As higher accuracy is demanded, the formulas become very complicated.

  9. Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients Dan Wendt, Greg Mines Idaho National Laboratory The use of mixed working fluids in binary power plants can provide significant increases in plant performance, provided the heat exchangers are designed to take advantage of these fluids non-isothermal phase changes. In the 1980's testing was conducted at DOE's Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) where mixtures of different compositions were vaporized at supercritical pressures and then condensed. This testing had focused on using the data collected to verify that Heat Transfer Research Incorporated (HTRI) codes were suitable for the design of heat exchangers that could be used with mixtures. The HCRF data includes mixture compositions varying from 0% to 40% isopentane and condenser tube orientations of 15{sup o}, 60{sup o}, and 90{sup o} from horizontal. Testing was performed over a range of working fluid and cooling fluid conditions. Though the condenser used in this testing was water cooled, the working fluid condensation occurred on the tube-side of the heat exchanger. This tube-side condensation is analogous to that in an air-cooled condenser. Tube-side condensing heat transfer coefficient information gleaned from the HCRF testing is used in this study to assess the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs for use with mixtures. Results of an air-cooled binary plant process model performed with Aspen Plus indicate that that the optimal mixture composition (producing the maximum net power for the scenario considered) is within the range of compositions for which data exist. The HCRF data is used to assess the impact of composition, tube orientation, and process parameters on the condensing heat transfer coefficients. The sensitivity of the condensing coefficients to these factors is evaluated and the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs with mixtures is assessed. This paper summarizes the evaluation of the HCRF

  10. A new method for predicting the solar heat gain of complex fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.; Kelley, G.O.

    1995-03-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorbances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. The method has been applied to one of the most optically complex systems in common use, a venetian blind in combination with multiple glazings. A comparison between the scanner-based calculation method and direct system calorimetric measurements made on the LBL MoWiTT facility showed good agreement, and is a significant validation of the method accuracy and feasibility.

  11. Solar heat gain through a skylight in a light well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.

    2001-08-01

    Detailed heat flow measurements on a skylight mounted on a light well of significant depth are presented. It is shown that during the day much of the solar energy that strikes the walls of the well does not reach the space below. Instead, this energy is trapped in the stratified air of the light well and eventually either conducted through the walls of the well or back out through the skylight. The standard model for predicting fenestration heat transfer does not agree with the measurements when it is applied to the skylight/well combination as a whole (the usual practice), but does agree reasonably well when it is applied to the skylight alone, using the well air temperature near the skylight. A more detailed model gives good agreement. Design implications and future research directions are discussed.

  12. Fort Yukon Gains Heat and Insight with Biomass Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2005, residents of the Native Village of Fort Yukon were seeking a better, less costly way to heat the village’s common buildings and shared water system. At that time, leaders of the 600-person community eight miles north of the Arctic Circle began researching more efficient fuel options than diesel or fuel oil for their village, which is accessible by boat during the summer but only via snowmobiles and airplanes in the winter.

  13. Solar heat gain through fenestration systems containing shading: Summary of procedures for estimating performance from minimal data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2001-03-01

    The computational methods for calculating the properties of glazing systems containing shading from the properties of their components have been developed, but the measurement standards and property data bases necessary to apply them have not. It is shown that with a drastic simplifying assumption these methods can be used to calculate system solar-optical properties and solar heat gain coefficients for arbitrary glazing systems, while requiring limited data about the shading. Detailed formulas are presented, and performance multipliers are defined for the approximate treatment of simple glazings with shading. As higher accuracy is demanded, the formulas become very complicated.

  14. Dynamic measurement of heat loss coefficients through Trombe wall glazing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A Trombe wall presents a unique opportunity to measure the heat-loss coefficient through the glazing system because the wall itself can be used as a heat meter. Since the instantaneous heat flux through the outer wall surface can be determined, the heat loss coefficient at night can be calculated by dividing by the wall surface-to-ambient temperature difference. This technique has been used to determine heat-loss coefficients for Los Alamos test rooms during the winter of 1980-1981. Glazing systems studied include single and double glazing both with and without night insulation used in conjunction with a flat black paint, and both single and double glazing used in conjunction with a selective surface.

  15. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.

  16. Diurnal heat storage in direct-gain passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Neeper, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified method for predicting temperature swings in direct-gain buildings. It is called the DHC method due to the use of a diurnal heat capacity (DHC). Diurnal heat capacity is a measure of the effective amount of heat stored during a sunny day and then released at night - the typical 24-hour diurnal cycle. This enables prediction of the maximum temperature swings experienced in the building and can be calculated using a single 24-hour harmonic. The advantage is that closed-form analytic solutions can be obtained for a variety of simple and layered-wall configurations. Higher harmonic components are accounted for by a correction factor. The method is suitable for us by hand or on a programmable calculator.

  17. A new method for predicting the solar heat gain of complex fenestration systems: II, Detailed description of the matrix layer calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.

    1993-10-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorptances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. A preceding paper outlined the method and provided the physical derivation of the calculation. In this second of a series of related papers the detailed development of the matrix layer calculation is presented.

  18. Measurement of Heat Flux and Heat Transfer Coefficient Due to Spray Application for the Die Casting Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2007-01-01

    Lubricant spray application experiments were conducted for the die casting process. The heat flux was measured in situ using a differential thermopile sensor for three application techniques. First, the lubricant was applied under a constant flowrate while the nozzle was held in the same position. Second, the lubricant was applied in a pulsed, static manner, in which the nozzle was held over the same surface while it was turned on and off several times. Third, the lubricant was applied in a sweeping manner, in which the nozzle was moved along the die surface while it was held open. The experiments were conducted at several die temperatures and at sweep speeds of 20, 23, and 68 cm/s. The heat flux data, which were obtained with a sensor that was located in the centre of the test plate, were presented and discussed. The sensor can be used to evaluate lubricants, monitor the consistency of die lubrication process, and obtain useful process data, such as surface temperature, heat flux, and heat transfer coefficients. The heat removed from the die surface during lubricant application is necessary for (a) designing the cooling channels in the die, i.e. their size and placement, and (b) performing accurate numerical simulations of the die casting process.

  19. Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brantley, Vanston R.; Miller, Donald R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistance heaters. Temperature sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct temperatures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electronics is required to operate the instrument.

  20. Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brantley, V.R.; Miller, D.R.

    1982-05-18

    A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistane heaters. Temperature-sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive-heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct tempertures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional-frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electrons is required to operate the instrument.

  1. A new method for predicting the solar heat gain of complex fenestration systems: 1, Overview and derivation of the matrix Layer calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.

    1993-10-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorptances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. In this first in a series of related papers describing the project, the assumptions and limitations of the calculation method are described and the derivation of the matrix calculation technique from the initial integral equations is presented.

  2. Estimation of instantaneous heat transfer coefficients for a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.M.; Addy, H.E.; Bond, T.H.; Chun, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The main objective of this report was to derive equations to estimate neat transfer coefficients in both the combustion chamber and coolant passage of a rotary engine. This was accomplished by making detailed temperature and pressure measurements in a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine under a range of conditions. For each specific measurement point, the local physical properties of the fluids were calculated. Then an empirical correlation of the coefficients was derived by using a multiple regression program. This correlation expresses the Nusselt number as a function of the Prandtl number and Reynolds number.

  3. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  4. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of Automatic Transmission Fluid Jets with Implications for Electric Machine Thermal Management: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto

    2015-09-29

    Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.

  5. New correlation to predict the heat transfer coefficient in-tube cooling of supercritical CO{sub 2} in horizontal macro-tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Hoo-Kyu; Son, Chang-Hyo

    2010-11-15

    The heat transfer coefficient during gas cooling process of supercritical CO{sub 2} without lubricating oil in horizontal macro-tubes has experimentally investigated. Investigation has done on two stainless steel circular tubes having inside-diameter of 4.55 mm and 7.75 mm and carried out for CO{sub 2} mass fluxes of 200-600 kg/m{sup 2} s, inlet fluid pressures of 7.5-10.0 MPa, and the inlet fluid temperatures of 90-100 C. The experimental results indicate that the gas cooling pressure, the inner tube diameter, the mass flux and the temperature of CO{sub 2} have significant effects on the heat transfer coefficient, especially near pseudo-critical region. The heat transfer coefficient decreases as the cooling pressure increases otherwise increases as mass flux increases. At any temperatures, smaller inner tube diameter shows higher heat transfer coefficient. In comparison between present experimental data and existing correlations from references, most of supercritical heat transfer correlations show large deviations with this present experimental data. Therefore, based on experimental data obtained in this present work, a new correlation is proposed to predict more accurate heat transfer coefficient of supercritical CO{sub 2} in horizontal macro-tubes under cooling conditions. The majority of the experimental values are within 13% of the values predicted by the new correlation. (author)

  6. Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops for R-134a and an ester lubricant mixture in a smooth tube and a micro-fin tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during the evaporation and condensation of mixtures of R-134a and a 150 SUS penta erythritol ester branched-acid lubricant. The smooth tube and micro-fin tube tested in this study had outer diameters of 9.52 mm (3/8 in.). The micro-fin tube had 60 fins, a fin height of 0.2 mm (0.008 in), and a spiral angle of 18{degree}. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the micro-fin tube with R-134a and to determine the effect of circulating lubricant. The experimental results show that the micro-fin tube has distinct performance advantages over the smooth tube. For example, the average heat transfer coefficients during evaporation and condensation in the micro-fin tube were 50--200% higher than those for the smooth tube, while the average pressure drops were on average only 10--50% higher. The experimental results indicate that the presence of a lubricant degrades the average heat transfer coefficients during both evaporation and condensation at high lubricant concentrations. Pressure drops during evaporation increased with the addition of a lubricant in both tubes. For condensation, pressure drops were unaffected by the addition of a lubricant.

  7. Coefficient of the Extraction of the Target Isotope and Optimum Parameters of a Collector of Heated Ions in the Context of the ICR Method of Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karchevskii, A. I.; Potanin, E. P.

    2002-07-15

    The separation parameters of a collector of heated ions are estimated in the context of the ion cyclotron resonance method of isotope separation. The separation power dU, the coefficient {Gamma}{sub C} of the extraction of the target isotope, and the collector efficiency {eta} are calculated. These parameters are investigated as functions of the repulsive potential U of the collector plates, the half-height a of the front screen, and the distance b between the plates. It is shown that the dependence of the collector efficiency {eta} on the distance b between the plates has a pronounced maximum at b Almost-Equal-To 2r{sub L}{sup *}, where r{sub L}{sup *} is the mean ion gyroradius.

  8. Convergence of Distributed Optimal Controls on the Internal Energy in Mixed Elliptic Problems when the Heat Transfer Coefficient Goes to Infinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gariboldi, C.; E-mail: cgariboldi@exa.unrc.edu.ar; Tarzia, D.

    2003-05-21

    We consider a steady-state heat conduction problem P{sub {alpha}} with mixed boundary conditions for the Poisson equation depending on a positive parameter {alpha} , which represents the heat transfer coefficient on a portion {gamma} {sub 1} of the boundary of a given bounded domain in R{sup n} . We formulate distributed optimal control problems over the internal energy g for each {alpha}. We prove that the optimal control g{sub o}p{sub {alpha}} and its corresponding system u{sub go}p{sub {alpha}}{sub {alpha}} and adjoint p{sub go}p{sub {alpha}}{sub {alpha}} states for each {alpha} are strongly convergent to g{sub op},u{sub gop} and p{sub gop} , respectively, in adequate functional spaces. We also prove that these limit functions are respectively the optimal control, and the system and adjoint states corresponding to another distributed optimal control problem for the same Poisson equation with a different boundary condition on the portion {gamma}{sub 1} . We use the fixed point and elliptic variational inequality theories.

  9. Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Voss, Clifford I.; Spane, Frank A.; DeAngelo, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Heat-flow mapping of the western USA has identified an apparent low-heat-flow anomaly coincident with the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, a thick sequence of basalt aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A heat and mass transport model (SUTRA) was used to evaluate the potential impact of groundwater flow on heat flow along two different regional groundwater flow paths. Limited in situ permeability (k) data from the CRBG are compatible with a steep permeability decrease (approximately 3.5 orders of magnitude) at 600–900 m depth and approximately 40°C. Numerical simulations incorporating this permeability decrease demonstrate that regional groundwater flow can explain lower-than-expected heat flow in these highly anisotropic (kx/kz ~ 104) continental flood basalts. Simulation results indicate that the abrupt reduction in permeability at approximately 600 m depth results in an equivalently abrupt transition from a shallow region where heat flow is affected by groundwater flow to a deeper region of conduction-dominated heat flow. Most existing heat-flow measurements within the CRBG are from shallower than 600 m depth or near regional groundwater discharge zones, so that heat-flow maps generated using these data are likely influenced by groundwater flow. Substantial k decreases at similar temperatures have also been observed in the volcanic rocks of the adjacent Cascade Range volcanic arc and at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where they result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration.

  10. Sensitivity of fenestration solar gain to source spectrum and angle of incidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCluney, W.R.

    1996-12-31

    The solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) is the fraction of solar radiant flux incident on a fenestration system entering a building as heat gain. In general it depends on both the angle of incidence and the spectral distribution of the incident solar radiation. In attempts to improve energy performance and user acceptance of high-performance glazing systems, manufacturers are producing glazing systems with increasing spectral selectivity. This poses potential difficulties for calculations of solar heat gain through windows based upon the use of a single solar spectral weighting function. The sensitivity of modern high-performance glazing systems to both the angle of incidence and the shape of the incident solar spectrum is examined using a glazing performance simulation program. It is found that as the spectral selectivity of the glazing system increases, the SHGC can vary as the incident spectral distribution varies. The variations can be as great as 50% when using several different representative direct-beam spectra. These include spectra having low and high air masses and a standard spectrum having an air mass of 1.5. The variations can be even greater if clear blue diffuse skylight is considered. It is recommended that the current broad-band shading coefficient method of calculating solar gain be replaced by one that is spectral based.

  11. Heat

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Release date: April 2015 Revised date: May 2016 Heat pumps Furnaces Indiv- idual space heaters District heat Boilers Pack- aged heating units Other All buildings 87,093 80,078 11,846 8,654 20,766 5,925 22,443 49,188 1,574 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 6,699 868 1,091 1,747 Q 400 3,809 Q 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 7,590 1,038 1,416 2,025 Q 734 4,622 Q 10,001 to 25,000 14,105 12,744 1,477 2,233 3,115 Q 2,008 8,246 Q 25,001 to 50,000 11,917 10,911 1,642 1,439 3,021 213 2,707

  12. Gain Sharing.PDF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... (not first class) on international flights (business class ... pilot programs that include "GAIN SHARING" principles. ... ATTN: Customer Relations If you wish to discuss this report ...

  13. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  14. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Water Heaters » Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating systems. When selecting a heat-transfer fluid, you and your solar heating contractor should consider the following criteria: Coefficient of expansion - the fractional

  15. Making a Difference: Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GHP is a highly efficient technology gaining wide acceptance for both residential and commercial buildings. GHPs are used for space heating and cooling, as well as water heating. ...

  16. Storage Resource Unit (SRU) Formula Coefficients

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formula Coefficients Storage Resource Unit (SRU) Formula Coefficients The coefficients in the Storage Resource Unit (SRU) formula were arrived at from the following considerations:...

  17. Harold Gaines | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    As far back as he can remember, Harold Gaines has had an interest in electronics. "I'm not exactly sure what really triggered that interest in electronics, but it was there," he said. To view a larger version of the image, click on it. As far back as he can remember, Harold Gaines has had an interest in electronics. "I'm not exactly sure what really triggered that interest in electronics, but it was there," he said. To view a larger version of the image, click on it. Harold

  18. α -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear astrophysics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear ...

  19. Linda Gaines | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Linda Gaines Transportation System Analyst News Idle hands: New and improved IdleBox tool to aid in reduction of idling E-mail lgaines@anl.gov Publications View Publications Projects Idle Reduction Publications Idle Reduction Research Idle Reduction Tools and Outreach Materials Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Publications Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling and Life Cycle Analysis Reducing Vehicle Idling

  20. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  1. Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

  2. Transport coefficients of gluonic fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e

    2011-06-01

    The shear ({eta}) and bulk ({zeta}) viscous coefficients have been evaluated for a gluonic fluid. The elastic, gg{yields}gg and the inelastic, number nonconserving, gg{yields}ggg processes have been considered as the dominant perturbative processes in evaluating the viscous coefficients to entropy density (s) ratios. Recently the processes: gg{yields}ggg has been revisited and a correction to the widely used Gunion-Bertsch (GB) formula has been obtained. The {eta} and {zeta} have been evaluated for gluonic fluid with the formula recently derived. At large {alpha}{sub s} the value of {eta}/s approaches its lower bound, {approx}1/4{pi}.

  3. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  4. Stirling cycle simulation without differential coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Organ, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    With a simple transformation, the gas processes in the Stirling machine are described for all time and location in an algebraic equation free of differential coefficients of the unknowns. Local instantaneous heat transfer and friction are represented in function of local instantaneous Reynolds number, N{sub re}. The method avoids problems of numerical discretization, stability, convergence, artificial dispersion and diffusion. The paper presents the algebra of the transformation. Specimen solutions cover the temperature field of the gas circuit (exchangers and regenerator) over a representative cycle. When programmed for workstation the core code occupies some 2 dozen lines, and processing calls for seconds of CPU time. Availability of the solution means that intimate details of the gas processes are susceptible to examination using the most basic of computing facilities.

  5. Heat's Role in the Madden-Julian Oscillation | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Cool » Water Heating » Solar Water Heaters » Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating systems. When selecting a heat-transfer fluid, you and your solar heating contractor should consider the following criteria: Coefficient

  6. Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides:'...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ...

  7. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  8. Students gain work experience at WIPP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Students Gain Work Experience at WIPP CARLSBAD, N.M., January 10, 2000 -- Students from two Eddy County high schools are gaining valuable experience by spending time with employees...

  9. Insight Gained from Simplified Dynamic Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Insight Gained from Simplified Dynamic Analysis ... or Everything Old is New Again October 21, 2014 Greg Mertz Consultant

  10. Determination of optimal gains for constrained controllers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwan, C.M.; Mestha, L.K.

    1993-08-01

    In this report, we consider the determination of optimal gains, with respect to a certain performance index, for state feedback controllers where some elements in the gain matrix are constrained to be zero. Two iterative schemes for systematically finding the constrained gain matrix are presented. An example is included to demonstrate the procedures.

  11. Home Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Your choice of heating technologies impacts your energy bill. Learn about the different options for heating your home.

  12. SCALE Continuous-Energy Eigenvalue Sensitivity Coefficient Calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perfetti, Christopher M.; Rearden, Bradley T.; Martin, William R.

    2016-02-25

    Sensitivity coefficients describe the fractional change in a system response that is induced by changes to system parameters and nuclear data. The Tools for Sensitivity and UNcertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation (TSUNAMI) code within the SCALE code system makes use of eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients for an extensive number of criticality safety applications, including quantifying the data-induced uncertainty in the eigenvalue of critical systems, assessing the neutronic similarity between different critical systems, and guiding nuclear data adjustment studies. The need to model geometrically complex systems with improved fidelity and the desire to extend TSUNAMI analysis to advanced applications has motivated the developmentmore » of a methodology for calculating sensitivity coefficients in continuous-energy (CE) Monte Carlo applications. The Contributon-Linked eigenvalue sensitivity/Uncertainty estimation via Tracklength importance CHaracterization (CLUTCH) and Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) eigenvalue sensitivity methods were recently implemented in the CE-KENO framework of the SCALE code system to enable TSUNAMI-3D to perform eigenvalue sensitivity calculations using continuous-energy Monte Carlo methods. This work provides a detailed description of the theory behind the CLUTCH method and describes in detail its implementation. This work explores the improvements in eigenvalue sensitivity coefficient accuracy that can be gained through the use of continuous-energy sensitivity methods and also compares several sensitivity methods in terms of computational efficiency and memory requirements.« less

  13. Gaines Cavern Wind Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ess":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" References "AWEA-US-Wind-Industry-Market-Reports" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGaine...

  14. LED Efficacy: What America Stands to Gain

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    diode) lighting technology have been realized in the past decade, as evidenced by the high-performing products now gaining share in growing numbers of lighting market ...

  15. Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gaining creative control over semiconductor nanowires Using a microfluidic reactor, Los ... Using a microfluidic reactor, Los Alamos researchers transformed the SLS process into a ...

  16. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-03-21

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect.

  17. DESIGN OF A COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGER FOR HEAT RECUPERATION FROM A HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. K. Housley; J.E. O'Brien; G.L. Hawkes

    2008-11-01

    Design details of a compact heat exchanger and supporting hardware for heat recuperation in a high-temperature electrolysis application are presented. The recuperative heat exchanger uses a vacuum-brazed plate-fin design and operates between 300 and 800C. It includes corrugated inserts for enhancement of heat transfer coefficients and extended heat transfer surface area. Two recuperative heat exchangers are required per each four-stack electrolysis module. The heat exchangers are mated to a base manifold unit that distributes the inlet and outlet flows to and from the four electrolysis stacks. Results of heat exchanger design calculations and assembly details are also presented.

  18. GaInNAs laser gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHOW,WENG W.; JONES,ERIC D.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-05-23

    The optical gain spectra for GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of the lasing threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.

  19. Experimental investigation of a reticulated porous alumina heat exchanger for high temperature gas heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, A; Chandran, RB; Davidson, JH

    2015-01-22

    The present study presents an experimental study of a prototype counter-flow heat exchanger designed to recover sensible heat from inert and reactive gases flowing through a high temperature solar reactor for splitting CO2. The tube-in-tube heat exchanger is comprised of two concentric alumina tubes, each filled with reticulated porous alumina with a nominal porosity of 80% and pore density of 5 pores per inch (ppi). The RPC provides high heat transfer surface area per unit volume (917 m(-1)) with low pressure drop. Measurements include the permeability, inertial coefficient, overall heat transfer coefficient, effectiveness and pressure drop. For laminar flow and an inlet gas temperature of 1240 K, the overall heat transfer coefficients are 36-41 W m(-2) K-1. The measured performance is in good agreement with a prior CFD model of the heat exchanger. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. LED Efficacy: What America Stands to Gain | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficacy: What America Stands to Gain LED Efficacy: What America Stands to Gain LED Efficacy-What America Stands to Gain_ November 2015.pdf (280.37 KB)

  1. High temperature absorption heat pump for industrial usage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bugarel, R.; Morillon, R.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study has demonstrated that an absorption heat pump with a water-lithium bromide thermodynamic couple has a practical coefficient of performance of 1.4-1.6 when providing a 280/sup 0/F heat source. The ability to serve as a high-temperature heat source makes this heat pump suitable for certain industrial processes such as drying.

  2. Engine improvement and efficiency gained by teamwork

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engine improvement and efficiency gained by teamwork Engine improvement and efficiency gained by teamwork Together, Cummins and LANL have reduced costs and increased efficiency in diesel engines. April 3, 2012 Engine for R&D Research and development (R&D) efforts focus on improving engine efficiency while meeting future federal and state emissions regulations through a combination of: combustion technologies that minimize in-cylinder formation of emissions ...the company realized a more

  3. Prediction of internal temperature swings in direct-gain passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The diurnal heat capacity method is presented for estimating inside-temperature swings attributable to direct winter solar gain. The procedures are simplified to be suitable for hand analysis, aided by tables of diurnal heat capacity for various materials. The method has been spot checked against computer simulation and has been used successfully by a group of 20 builders in New Mexico to analyze whether temperature swings would be excessive in their designs.

  4. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  5. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  6. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  7. Code System to Calculate Correlation & Regression Coefficients.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-11-23

    Version 00 PCC/SRC is designed for use in conjunction with sensitivity analyses of complex computer models. PCC/SRC calculates the partial correlation coefficients (PCC) and the standardized regression coefficients (SRC) from the multivariate input to, and output from, a computer model.

  8. Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranasinghe, Jatila; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

  9. Heat exchanger with ceramic elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1986-01-01

    An annular heat exchanger assembly includes a plurality of low thermal growth ceramic heat exchange members with inlet and exit flow ports on distinct faces. A mounting member locates each ceramic member in a near-annular array and seals the flow ports on the distinct faces into the separate flow paths of the heat exchanger. The mounting member adjusts for the temperature gradient in the assembly and the different coefficients of thermal expansion of the members of the assembly during all operating temperatures.

  10. Evaporative heat transfer in beds of sensible heat pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arimilli, R.V.; Moy, C.A.

    1989-03-01

    An experimental study of boiling/evaporative heat transfer from heated spheres in vertical packed beds with downward liquid-vapor flow of Refrigerant-113 was conducted. Surface superheats of 1 to 50{degrees}C, mass flow rates of 1.7 to 5.6 Kg/min, sphere diameters of 1.59 and 2.54 cm, quality (i.e., mass fraction of vapor) of the inlet flow of 0.02 to 1.0, and two surface conditions were considered. Instrumented smooth and rough aluminum spheres were used to measure the heat transfer coefficients under steady state conditions. Heat transfer coefficients were independently determined for each sphere at three values three values of surface superheat. The quantitative results of this extensive experimental study are successfully correlated. The correlation equation for the boiling heat transfer coefficients is presented in terms of a homogeneous model. The correlation may be used in the development of numerical models to simulate the transient thermal performance of packed bed thermal energy storage unit while operating as an evaporator. The boiling of the liquid-vapor flow around the spheres in the packed bed was visually observed with a fiber-optic baroscope and recorded on a videotape. The visualization results showed qualitatively the presence of four distinct flow regimes. One of these occurs under saturated inlet conditions and are referred to as the Low-quality, Medium-quality, and High-quality Regimes. The regimes are discussed in detail in this paper.

  11. Reducing gain shifts in photomultiplier tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohn, Charles E.

    1976-01-01

    A means is provided for reducing gain shifts in multiplier tubes due to varying event count rates. It includes means for limiting the number of cascaded, active dynodes of the multiplier tube to a predetermined number with the last of predetermined number of dynodes being the output terminal of the tube. This output is applied to an amplifier to make up for the gain sacrificed by not totally utilizing all available active stages of the tube. Further reduction is obtained by illuminating the predetermined number of dynodes with a light source of such intensity that noise appearing at the output dynode associated with the illumination is negligible.

  12. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  13. Method and system for edge cladding of laser gain media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Caird, John Allyn; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene

    2014-03-25

    A gain medium operable to amplify light at a gain wavelength and having reduced transverse ASE includes an input surface and an output surface opposing the input surface. The gain medium also includes a central region including gain material and extending between the input surface and the output surface along a longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The gain medium further includes an edge cladding region surrounding the central region and extending between the input surface and the output surface along the longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The edge cladding region includes the gain material and a dopant operable to absorb light at the gain wavelength.

  14. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  15. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  16. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  17. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  19. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  20. Enhancing optical gains in Si nanocrystals via hydrogenation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Variable stripe length technique was used to obtain gains. At 0.3 Wcmsup 2 pumping power density of pulsed laser, net gains were observed together with gain enhancements after ...

  1. Loss/gain on ignition test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winstead, M.L.

    1996-01-10

    Document provides the results of tests done on Product Cans from the HC-21C sludge stabilization process. Tests included running a simulated Thermogravimetric Analysis, TGA, on the processed material that have received Loss On Ignition (LOI) sample results that show a gain on ignition or a high LOI and reprocessing product cans with high LOIs. Also, boat material temperatures in the furnace were tracked during the testing.

  2. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, H. P. Thakor, P. B. Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  3. Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200

    2000-07-15

    Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  4. Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lousteau, Angela L; York, Robbie Lynn; Livesay, Jake

    2012-03-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity

  5. Utilization of sensitivity coefficients to guide the design of a thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackwell, B.F.; Dowding, K.J.; Cochran, R.J.; Dobranich, D.

    1998-08-01

    Equations are presented to describe the sensitivity of the temperature field in a heat-conducting body to changes in the volumetric heat source and volumetric heat capacity. These sensitivity equations, along with others not presented, are applied to a thermal battery problem to compute the sensitivity of the temperature field to 19 model input parameters. Sensitivity coefficients, along with assumed standard deviation in these parameters, are used to estimate the uncertainty in the temperature prediction. From the 19 parameters investigated, the battery cell heat source and volumetric heat capacity were clearly identified as being the major contributors to the overall uncertainty in the temperature predictions. The operational life of the thermal battery was shown to be very sensitive to uncertainty in these parameters.

  6. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  7. Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, James; Aldrich, Robb

    2015-08-19

    Traditionally, air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) have been used more often in warmer climates; however, some new ASHPs are gaining ground in colder areas. These systems operate at subzero (Fahrenheit) temperatures and many do not include backup electric resistance elements. There are still uncertainties, however, about capacity and efficiency in cold weather. Also, questions such as “how cold is too cold?” do not have clear answers. These uncertainties could lead to skepticism among homeowners; poor energy savings estimates; suboptimal system selection by heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning contractors; and inconsistent energy modeling. In an effort to better understand and characterize the heating performance of these units in cold climates, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), monitored seven inverter-driven, ductless ASHPs across the Northeast. Operating data were collected for three Mitsubishi FE18 units, three Mitsubishi FE12 units, and one Fujitsu 15RLS2 unit. The intent of this research was to assess heat output, electricity consumption, and coefficients of performance (COPs) at various temperatures and load conditions. This assessment was accomplished with long- and short-term tests that measured power consumption; supply, return, and outdoor air temperatures; and airflow through the indoor fan coil.

  8. Gratings for Increasing Solid-State Laser Gain and Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erlandson, A C; Britten, J A; Bonlie, J D

    2010-04-16

    We introduce new concepts for increasing the efficiency of solid state lasers by using gratings deposited on laser slabs or disks. The gratings improve efficiency in two ways: (1) by coupling out of the slab deleterious amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and (2) by increasing the absorption efficiency of pump light. The gratings also serve as antireflective coatings for the extracting laser beam. To evaluate the potential for such coatings to improve laser performance, we calculated optical properties of a 2500 groove/mm, tantala-silica grating on a 1cm x 4cm x 8cm titanium-doped sapphire slab and performed ray-trace calculations for ASE and pump light. Our calculations show substantial improvements in efficiency due to grating ASE-coupling properties. For example, the gratings reduce pump energy required to produce a 0.6/cm gain coefficient by 9%, 20% and 35% for pump pulse durations of 0.5 {micro}s, 1{micro}s and 3{micro}s, respectively. Gratings also increase 532-nm pump-light absorption efficiency, particularly when the product slab overall absorption is small. For example, when the single-pass absorption is 1 neper, absorption efficiency increases from 66%, without gratings, to 86%, when gratings are used.

  9. Semiconductor radiation detector with internal gain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwanczyk, Jan; Patt, Bradley E.; Vilkelis, Gintas

    2003-04-01

    An avalanche drift photodetector (ADP) incorporates extremely low capacitance of a silicon drift photodetector (SDP) and internal gain that mitigates the surface leakage current noise of an avalanche photodetector (APD). The ADP can be coupled with scintillators such as CsI(Tl), NaI(Tl), LSO or others to form large volume scintillation type gamma ray detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy, photon counting, gamma ray counting, etc. Arrays of the ADPs can be used to replace the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) used in conjunction with scintillation crystals in conventional gamma cameras for nuclear medical imaging.

  10. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  11. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  12. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrett, David M.

    1996-01-01

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit.

  13. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrett, D.M.

    1996-11-05

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit. 5 figs.

  14. Effect of electron collisions on transport coefficients induced by the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bendib, A.; Tahraoui, A.; Bendib, K.; Mohammed El Hadj, K.; Hueller, S.

    2005-03-01

    The transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas under the influence of a high-frequency electric field are derived solving numerically the electron Fokker-Planck equation using a perturbation method, parametrized as a function of the electron mean-free-path {lambda}{sub ei} compared to the spatial scales L. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions of the inverse bremsstrahlung heating are considered. Electron-electron collision terms are kept in the analysis, which allows us to consider with sufficient accuracy to describe plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. Practical numerical fits of the transport coefficients are proposed as functions of Z and the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L.

  15. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  16. Measurement of the iodine partition coefficient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furrer, M.; Cripps, R.C.; Gubler, R.

    1985-08-01

    The hydrolysis of iodine is complicated because it involves a number of species that differ considerably in their individual volatilities. Large uncertainties exist in the thermodynamic data of some of the iodine species, especially at temperatures above 25C. Because of this, an experiment was undertaken to measure the partition coefficient under varying physical and chemical conditions. Measurements of P were made for a temperature range of 21 to 113C under well-defined conditions (liquid molar concentration, pH, and redox potential) for inorganic iodine. The experimental results are interpreted with the aid of an analytical model and published thermodynamic data. A good agreement between calculated and measured values was found. The experimental setup allows the determination of very high partition coefficients up to a value of 2.0 X 10W. This is demonstrated by adding cesium-iodide to the fuel pool water of a boiling water reactor.

  17. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  19. Heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, V. J.

    1981-02-10

    A solar energy heating apparatus is described comprising means for concentrating solar energy incident thereon at an absorption station, an absorber located at the said absorption station for absorbing solar energy concentrated thereat, a first passageway associated with the said energy concentrating means for directing fluid so as to be preheated by the proportion of the incident energy absorbed by the said means, a second passageway associated with the absorber for effecting principal heating of fluid directed therethrough. The second passageway is such that on directing fluid through the first passageway it is initially preheated by the proportion of the incident energy absorbed by the energy concentrating means, the preheated fluid thereafter being directed to the second passageway where the principal heating takes place.

  20. Coefficients of thermal expansiion of common encapsulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adolf, D.B.

    1988-07-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of common electronic encapsulating polymers were measured over the temperature range of /minus/ 50/degree/C to approximately 120/degree/C. CTE's are presented for these systems as continuous functions of temperature in contrast to previous measurements. Comparison between the historical '' property chart'' CTE's and those obtained in this study are made when possible. The procedures used in this study are presented in detail so that, unlike the property chart, users will fully understand the accuracy and limitations of these values. 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Bounds on Transport Coefficients of Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J G

    2005-03-21

    An analytical formulation of conductivity bounds by Bergman and Milton is used in a different way to obtain rigorous bounds on the real transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and/or fluid permeability) of a fluid-saturated porous medium. These bounds do not depend explicitly on the porosity, but rather on two formation factors--one associated with the pore space and the other with the solid frame. Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for transport in random polycrystals of porous-material laminates will also be discussed.

  2. CONSTRUCTION OF KEY CLEANUP PROJECT GAINS GOOD GROUND AT SRS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONSTRUCTION OF KEY CLEANUP PROJECT GAINS GOOD GROUND AT SRS CONSTRUCTION OF KEY CLEANUP PROJECT GAINS GOOD GROUND AT SRS June 1, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis CONSTRUCTION OF KEY CLEANUP ...

  3. Caterpillar and Cummins Gain Edge Through Argonnne's Rare Computer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Caterpillar and Cummins Gain Edge Through Argonnne's Rare Computer Modeling and Analysis Resources PDF icon catcumminscomputingsuccessstorydec2015...

  4. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

  5. Progress toward high-gain laser fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, E.

    1988-09-28

    A 1985-1986 Review of the US inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (/approximately/1--10% of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (/approximately/10%, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an /approximately/100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (/approximately/1%), and can we control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Environmental concerns gaining importance in industry operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that environmental concerns have leapt to the forefront of industry's concerns in operating in Latin America. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro June 3-14 focused a strong world spotlight on the region's environmental and commercial resources. Protection of the region's rain forests, which accounts for a huge share of the world's total, is emerging as an especially contentious issue. Ecuador's Oriente region may well prove the litmus test of how or whether oil and gas companies are able to operate in Latin American rain forests. Controversy over industry operations in the Oriente have heated to the point that environmentalist and native groups have routinely picketed company offices in Quito and used mass fundraiser mailings in North America.

  7. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  8. Hodges residence: performance of a direct gain passive solar home in Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, L.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the performance of the Hodges residence, a 2200-square-foot earth-sheltered direct gain passive solar home in Ames, Iowa, during the 1979-80 heating season, its first occupied season. No night insulation was used on its 500 square feet of double-pane glass. Total auxiliary heat required was 43 GJ (41 MBtu) gross and 26 GJ (25 MBtu) net, amounting, respectively, to 60 and 36 kJ/C/sup 0/-day-m/sup 2/ (2.9 and 1.8 Btu/F/sup 0/-day-ft/sup 2/). The heating season was unusually cloudy and included the cloudiest January in the 21 years of Ames insolation measurements. Results are also presented for the performance of the hollowcore floor which serves as the main storage mass and for the comfort range in the house.

  9. Hodges residence: performance of a direct gain passive solar home in Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, L.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the performance of the Hodges Residence, a 2200-square-foot earth-sheltered direct gain passive solar home in Ames, Iowa, during the 1979-80 heating season, its first occupied season. No night insulation was used on its 500 square feet of double-pane glass. Total auxiliary heat required was 43 GJ (41 MBTU) gross and 26 GJ (25 MBTU) net, amounting, respectively, to 60 and 36 kJ/C/sup 0/-day-m/sup 2/ (2.9 and 1.8 BTU/F/sup 0/-day-ft/sup 2/). The heating season was unusually cloudy and included the cloudiest January in the 21 years of Ames insolation measurements. Results are also presented for the performance of the hollow-core floor which serves as the main storage mass and for the comfort range in the house.

  10. Comparative analysis of compact heat exchangers for application as the intermediate heat exchanger for advanced nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartel, N.; Chen, M.; Utgikar, V. P.; Sun, X.; Kim, I. -H.; Christensen, R.; Sabharwall, P.

    2015-04-04

    A comparative evaluation of alternative compact heat exchanger designs for use as the intermediate heat exchanger in advanced nuclear reactor systems is presented in this article. Candidate heat exchangers investigated included the Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) and offset strip-fin heat exchanger (OSFHE). Both these heat exchangers offer high surface area to volume ratio (a measure of compactness [m2/m3]), high thermal effectiveness, and overall low pressure drop. Helium–helium heat exchanger designs for different heat exchanger types were developed for a 600 MW thermal advanced nuclear reactor. The wavy channel PCHE with a 15° pitch angle was found to offer optimum combination of heat transfer coefficient, compactness and pressure drop as compared to other alternatives. The principles of the comparative analysis presented here will be useful for heat exchanger evaluations in other applications as well.

  11. Comparative analysis of compact heat exchangers for application as the intermediate heat exchanger for advanced nuclear reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bartel, N.; Chen, M.; Utgikar, V. P.; Sun, X.; Kim, I. -H.; Christensen, R.; Sabharwall, P.

    2015-04-04

    A comparative evaluation of alternative compact heat exchanger designs for use as the intermediate heat exchanger in advanced nuclear reactor systems is presented in this article. Candidate heat exchangers investigated included the Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) and offset strip-fin heat exchanger (OSFHE). Both these heat exchangers offer high surface area to volume ratio (a measure of compactness [m2/m3]), high thermal effectiveness, and overall low pressure drop. Helium–helium heat exchanger designs for different heat exchanger types were developed for a 600 MW thermal advanced nuclear reactor. The wavy channel PCHE with a 15° pitch angle was found to offer optimummore » combination of heat transfer coefficient, compactness and pressure drop as compared to other alternatives. The principles of the comparative analysis presented here will be useful for heat exchanger evaluations in other applications as well.« less

  12. Hydroxide absorption heat pumps with spray absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summerer, F.; Alefeld, G.; Zeigler, F.; Riesch, P.

    1996-11-01

    The absorber is one of the most expensive components of an absorption heat pump or chiller, respectively. In order to reduce the cost of a heat exchanger, much effort is invested into searching for additives for heat transfer enhancement. Another way to reduce heat exchanger cost, especially for machines with low capacities, is to use an adiabatic spray absorber. The basic principles of the spray absorber is to perform heat and mass transfer separated from each other in two different components. In this way the heat can be rejected effectively in a liquid-liquid heat exchanger, whereas the mass transfer occurs subsequently in a simple vessel. The spray technique can not only save heat exchanger cost in conventional absorption systems working with water and lithium bromide, it also allows the use of quite different working fluids such as hydroxides, which have lower heat transfer coefficients in falling films. Moreover, the separated heat transfer can easily be performed in a liquid-to-air heat exchanger. Hence it is obvious to use hydroxides that allow for a high temperature lift for building an air-cooled chiller with spray absorber. In this presentation theoretical and experimental investigations of the spray absorber as well as the setup will be described. Finally, possible applications will be outlined.

  13. Study on the heat transfer of heat exchangers for the Stirling Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanzaka, M. ); Iwabuchi, M. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that heat-transfer characteristics in heated tubes under periodically reversing flow conditions have been investigated experimentally using a test apparatus that simulates the heat exchangers for the actual Sterling engine. It was shown that the heat-transfer characteristics under these conditions were greatly affected by the piston phase-angle difference that generates the reversing flow of the working gas, and this phenomenon was proper to the heat transfer under the periodically reversing flow and was different from conventional heat transfer in steady flow. The experimental correlation considering the influence of the piston phase-angle difference for the heat-transfer coefficient has been induced by the use of the working gas velocity evaluated from the Schmidt cycle model which is one of the ideal Sterling cycles.

  14. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  15. Mechanism of the metallic metamaterials coupled to the gain material

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Zhixiang; Droulias, Sotiris; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2014-10-11

    We present evidence of strong coupling between the gain material and the metallic metamaterials. It is of vital importance to understand the mechanism of the coupling of metamaterials with the gain medium. Using a four-level gain system, the numerical pump-probe experiments are performed in several configurations (splitring resonators (SRRs), inverse SRRs and fishnets) of metamaterials, demonstrating reduction of the resonator damping in all cases and hence the possibility for loss compensation. We find that the differential transmittance ?T/T can be negative in different SRR configurations, such as SRRs on the top of the gain substrate, gain in the SRR gapmoreand gain covering the SRR structure, while in the fishnet metamaterial with gain ?T/T is positive.less

  16. Mechanism of the metallic metamaterials coupled to the gain material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhixiang; Droulias, Sotiris; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2014-10-11

    We present evidence of strong coupling between the gain material and the metallic metamaterials. It is of vital importance to understand the mechanism of the coupling of metamaterials with the gain medium. Using a four-level gain system, the numerical pump-probe experiments are performed in several configurations (splitring resonators (SRRs), inverse SRRs and fishnets) of metamaterials, demonstrating reduction of the resonator damping in all cases and hence the possibility for loss compensation. We find that the differential transmittance ?T/T can be negative in different SRR configurations, such as SRRs on the top of the gain substrate, gain in the SRR gap and gain covering the SRR structure, while in the fishnet metamaterial with gain ?T/T is positive.

  17. Heat exchanger with transpired, highly porous fins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kutscher, Charles F.; Gawlik, Keith

    2002-01-01

    The heat exchanger includes a fin and tube assembly with increased heat transfer surface area positioned within a hollow chamber of a housing to provide effective heat transfer between a gas flowing within the hollow chamber and a fluid flowing in the fin and tube assembly. A fan is included to force a gas, such as air, to flow through the hollow chamber and through the fin and tube assembly. The fin and tube assembly comprises fluid conduits to direct the fluid through the heat exchanger, to prevent mixing with the gas, and to provide a heat transfer surface or pathway between the fluid and the gas. A heat transfer element is provided in the fin and tube assembly to provide extended heat transfer surfaces for the fluid conduits. The heat transfer element is corrugated to form fins between alternating ridges and grooves that define flow channels for directing the gas flow. The fins are fabricated from a thin, heat conductive material containing numerous orifices or pores for transpiring the gas out of the flow channel. The grooves are closed or only partially open so that all or substantially all of the gas is transpired through the fins so that heat is exchanged on the front and back surfaces of the fins and also within the interior of the orifices, thereby significantly increasing the available the heat transfer surface of the heat exchanger. The transpired fins also increase heat transfer effectiveness of the heat exchanger by increasing the heat transfer coefficient by disrupting boundary layer development on the fins and by establishing other beneficial gas flow patterns, all at desirable pressure drops.

  18. Behavior of the particle transport coefficients near the density limit in MTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinak, M.M.

    1993-04-01

    The perturbed particle transport coefficients were determined for a range of plasma conditions in the Alcator C tokamak, a component of the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX), from analysis of density perturbations created in gas modulation experiments. Density measurements from a 15 chord far-infrared interferometer were sufficiently detailed to allow radial profiles of the transport coefficients to be resolved. Gas modulation experiments were carried out on plasmas over a range of relatively low currents and a wide variety of line-averaged densities, including values near the Greenwald density limit. With this technique the perturbed diffusion coefficient D and the perturbed convection velocity V can be determined simultaneously. Measured profiles of D rise toward the outside of the plasma column in a manner generally similar to those determined previously for {chi}{sub e,HP} from sawtooth heat pulse propagation. Values of D are typically smaller than those of {chi}{sub e,HP} given for the same line-averaged densities by a factor of 2-5. Diffusion coefficients from a series of discharges at constant current showed little variation with density through most of the saturated ohmic confinement regime. At the Greenwald density limit threshold a dramatic increase occurred in both the perturbed convective and diffusive transport coefficients in the outer region of the plasma. The increases were most pronounced at the outermost range of the radii where coefficients were determined (r/a = 0.8), but were apparent over a region which extended well into the plasma interior. Density profiles maintained a similar shape near the density limit, congruous with the similar behavior of the transport coefficients. No dramatic deterioration was evident in the global energy confinement.

  19. Decay heat removal by natural convection - the RVACS system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tzanos, C. P.

    1999-08-17

    In conclusion, this work shows that for sodium coolant the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) is an effective passive heat removal system if the reactor power does not exceed about 1600 MW(th). Its effectiveness is limited by the effective radiative heat transfer coefficient in the inner gap. In a lead cooled system, economic considerations may impose a lower limit.

  20. DHC: a diurnal heat capacity program for microcomputers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program has been developed that can predict the temperature swing in direct gain passive solar buildings. The diurnal heat capacity (DHC) program calculates the DHC for any combination of homogeneous or layered surfaces using closed-form harmonic solutions to the heat diffusion equation. The theory is described, a Basic program listing is provided, and an example solution printout is given.

  1. Performance characteristics of recently developed high-performance heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlitt, R.

    1995-01-01

    For future space projects such as Earth orbiting platforms, space stations, but also Moon or Mars bases, the need to manage waste heat up to 100 kW has been identified. For this purpose large heat pipe radiators have been proposed with heat pipe lengths of 15 m and heat transport capabilities up to 4 kW. It is demonstrated that conventional axially grooved heat pipes can be improved to provide 1 kWm heat transport capability. Higher heat loads can be handled only by high-composite wick designs with large liquid cross sections and circumferential grooves in the evaporator. With these high-performance heat pipes, heat transfer coefficients of about 200 kW/m{sup 2}K and transport capabilities of 2 kW over 15 m can be reached. Configurations with liquid fillets and axially tapered liquid channels are proposed to improve the ability of the highly composite wick to prime.

  2. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1979-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  3. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  4. Heat transfer and heat exchangers reference handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-15

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with an understanding of the basic concepts of heat transfer and the operation of heat exchangers.

  5. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  6. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, P.J.

    1983-12-08

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  7. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-01-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  8. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-04-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  9. Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D

    2013-12-03

    A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.

  10. Computation of radiative heat transport across a nanoscale vacuum gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budaev, Bair V. Bogy, David B.

    2014-02-10

    Radiation heat transport across a vacuum gap between two half-spaces is studied. By consistently applying only the fundamental laws of physics, we obtain an algebraic equation that connects the temperatures of the half-spaces and the heat flux between them. The heat transport coefficient generated by this equation for such structures matches available experimental data for nanoscale and larger gaps without appealing to any additional specific mechanisms of energy transfer.

  11. Use of a photonic crystal for optical amplifier gain control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; El-Kady, Ihab

    2006-07-18

    An optical amplifier having a uniform gain profile uses a photonic crystal to tune the density-of-states of a gain medium so as to modify the light emission rate between atomic states. The density-of-states of the gain medium is tuned by selecting the size, shape, dielectric constant, and spacing of a plurality of microcavity defects in the photonic crystal. The optical amplifier is particularly useful for the regeneration of DWDM signals in long optical fibers.

  12. Critical Materials Institute Gains Ten Industrial and Research Affiliates |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Critical Materials Institute Gains Ten Industrial and Research Affiliates Critical Materials Institute Gains Ten Industrial and Research Affiliates April 12, 2016 - 10:32am Addthis News release from the Ames Laboratory, April 11, 2016. The Critical Materials Institute, a U.S. Department of Energy Innovation Hub led by the Ames Laboratory, has gained ten new affiliates to its research program, seeking ways to eliminate and reduce reliance on rare-earth metals and other

  13. Heat Pipe Embedded AlSiC Plates for High Conductivity - Low CTE Heat Spreaders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Matthew ); Weyant, J.; Garner, S. ); Occhionero, M. )

    2010-01-07

    Heat pipe embedded aluminum silicon carbide (AlSiC) plates are innovative heat spreaders that provide high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Since heat pipes are two phase devices, they demonstrate effective thermal conductivities ranging between 50,000 and 200,000 W/m-K, depending on the heat pipe length. Installing heat pipes into an AlSiC plate dramatically increases the plates effective thermal conductivity. AlSiC plates alone have a thermal conductivity of roughly 200 W/m-K and a CTE ranging from 7-12 ppm/ deg C, similar to that of silicon. An equivalent sized heat pipe embedded AlSiC plate has effective thermal conductivity ranging from 400 to 500 W/m-K and retains the CTE of AlSiC.

  14. Special heat transfer monitor (HTM) for the Trane Company OTEC heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Panchal, C.B.; Gavin, A.P.

    1981-02-01

    A Heat Transfer Monitor (HTM) is a sensitive device which quantifies development of biofouling in the OTEC heat exchanger surfaces in terms of degrading heat transfer coefficient as biofouling progresses. The Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) type HTM has been successfully utilized to date for plain circular OTEC heat exchanger tubes. With the development of compact heat exchangers for OTEC with non-circular and/or complex tube geometries, a device independent HTM (Universal Monitor) concept is being sought. For the meantime, however, novel methods have been developed to extend the principles of the CMU type HTM to noncircular tube geometries. The theory, formulation, analytical solutions and laboratory test results are presented for the novel use of the CMU HTM concept with such a special tube for the Trane Company heat exchanger for OTEC.

  15. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.; Christensen, R.N.

    1992-10-01

    This project was designed to find effective surfactant friction reducing additives for use in district heating systems with temperatures of 50 to 90[degrees]C and effective additives fore district cooling systems with temperatures of 5 to 15[degrees]C. Heat transfer measurements in conventional shell and tube heat exchangers and in plate heat exchangers were also carried out to see how seriously these surfactant drag reducing additives reduce heat transfer coefficients.

  16. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.; Christensen, R.N.

    1992-10-01

    This project was designed to find effective surfactant friction reducing additives for use in district heating systems with temperatures of 50 to 90{degrees}C and effective additives fore district cooling systems with temperatures of 5 to 15{degrees}C. Heat transfer measurements in conventional shell and tube heat exchangers and in plate heat exchangers were also carried out to see how seriously these surfactant drag reducing additives reduce heat transfer coefficients.

  17. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_crane.pdf (549.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle Applications Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS,

  18. Ames Laboratory-developed titanium powder processing gains internation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    processing gains international customer base Contacts: For release: Dec. 7, 2015 Iver Anderson, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, 515-294-9791 Steve Karsjen, Public...

  19. USDA Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Information Network (GAIN) provides timely information on the agricultural economy, products and issues in foreign countries since 1995 that are likely to have an...

  20. Material gain: Research a step toward more efficient solar panels |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Material gain: Research a step toward more efficient solar panels 10.7.2014

  1. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Goodyear operates more than 60 facilities in 26 countries, including the Union City, Tennessee, plant pictured above. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After ...

  2. Efficient surface plasmon amplification in gain-assisted silver nanotubes and associated dimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, HaiQun; Jiang, ShuMin; Wu, DaJian

    2015-04-21

    SPASER (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) properties in active SiO{sub 2}Ag nanotubes and associated dimers have been investigated by using the scattering theory and the finite element method. In the active Ag nanotube, as the gain coefficient of the core increases to a critical value, a super-resonance occurs. The SPASER phenomenon also can be found in the active Ag nanotube dimer. The strong couplings between two nanotubes lead to larger gain threshold for the active Ag nanotube dimer compared with the active Ag nanotube. At the super-resonance, the maximal surface enhanced Raman scattering factor at the hot spot in the active Ag nanotube dimer can achieve about 8??10{sup 18}, which is large enough for single molecule detection. Furthermore, with increasing the separation between two Ag nanotubes, the gain threshold value for the super-resonance of the active Ag nanotube dimer decreases, while the corresponding super-resonance wavelength increases first and then decreases.

  3. Heat pipe methanator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

  4. Boiler heat transfer modeling using CEMS data with application to fouling analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zibas, S.J.; Idem, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    A mathematical boiler heat transfer simulation for coal-fired plants is described. Required model input includes boiler geometry, fuel composition, and limited CEMS data that are typically available. Radiation heat transfer in the furnace is calculated using curve-fits to the Hottel charts. The model employs empirical heat transfer coefficient correlations to evaluate convection heat transfer to various boiler component surfaces. Fouling/slagging can be accounted for by including fouling resistance in the calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient of each component. Model performance predictions are compared to cases available in the literature. Results from parametric studies are presented.

  5. Heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert; Hofler, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    A heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts receives heat from a heat source. The acoustic cooling engine comprises an elongated resonant pressure vessel having first and second ends. A compressible fluid having a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave is contained in the resonant pressure vessel. The heat source supplies heat to the first end of the vessel. A first heat exchanger in the vessel is spaced-apart from the first end and receives heat from the first end. A first thermodynamic element is adjacent to the first heat exchanger and converts some of the heat transmitted by the first heat exchanger into acoustic power. A second thermodynamic element has a first end located spaced-apart from the first thermodynamic element and a second end farther away from the first thermodynamic element than is its first end. The first end of the second thermodynamic element heats while its second end cools as a consequence of the acoustic power. A second heat exchanger is adjacent to and between the first and second thermodynamic elements. A heat sink outside of the vessel is thermally coupled to and receives heat from the second heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one-fourth wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir.

  6. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  7. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  8. TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS FOR PV MODULES AND ARRAYS: MEASUREMENT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ASTM also specifies that temperature coefficients are determined using a standard solar ... fixture, illuminating the cell with a solar simulator, measuring the cell's ...

  9. Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U.

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The GreenKubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.

  10. Isopiestic Determination of the Osmotic and Activity Coefficients...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    model with an ionic-strength dependent third virial coefficient, as well as those of ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 58 ...

  11. Scale dependence of sorption coefficients for contaminant transport...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fractured rock Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scale dependence of sorption coefficients for contaminant transport in saturated fractured rock You are ...

  12. Scale dependence of sorption coefficients for contaminant transport...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fractured rock Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scale dependence of sorption coefficients for contaminant transport in saturated fractured rock No abstract prepared. ...

  13. Temperature coefficients for PV modules and arrays: Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The term temperature coefficient has been applied to several different photovoltaic ... Resource Relation: Conference: 26. IEEE photovoltaic specialists conference, Anaheim, CA ...

  14. Predicting Local Transport Coefficients at Solid-Gas Interfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the predictability of the coefficient quantifying this local process, the surface permeability , by means of a two-scale simulation approach. Methane tracer-release from the...

  15. Fresnel reflection from a cavity with net roundtrip gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-03-24

    A planewave incident on an active etalon with net roundtrip gain may be expected to diverge in field amplitude, yet applying the Fresnel formalism to Maxwell's equations admits a convergent solution. We describe this solution mathematically and provide additional insight by demonstrating the response of such a cavity to an incident beam of light. Cavities with net roundtrip gain have often been overlooked in the literature, and a clear understanding of their behavior yields insight to negative refraction in nonmagnetic media, a duality between loss and gain, amplified total internal reflection, and the negative-index lens.

  16. Absolute Time-Resolved X-Ray Laser Gain Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mocek, T.; Sebban, S.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Faivre, G.; Hallou, A.; Rousseau, J.P.; Maynard, G.; Cros, B.; Fajardo, M.; Kazamias, S.; Dubau, J.; Aubert, D.; Lacheze-Murel, G. de

    2005-10-21

    We present the first direct measurement of the time evolution of the gain of a soft x-ray laser amplifier. The measurement is based on the injection of a seed pulse, obtained by high-order harmonic generation, into an x-ray laser medium. Strong amplification occurs when the seed pulse is synchronized with the gain period. By precisely varying the delay between the x-ray laser plasma creation and the seed pulse injection, the actual temporal evolution of the soft x-ray amplifier gain is obtained with a subpicosecond resolution.

  17. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  18. Study of heat flux gages using sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowding, K.J.; Blackwell, B.F.; Cochran, R.J.

    1998-08-01

    The response and operation of a heat flux gage is studied using sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis is the process by which one determines the sensitivity of a model output to changes in the model parameters. This process uses sensitivity coefficients that are defined as partial derivatives of field variables--e.g., temperature--with respect to model parameters--e.g., thermal properties and boundary conditions. Computing sensitivity coefficients, in addition to the response of a heat flux gage, aids in identifying model parameters that significantly impact the temperature response. A control volume, finite element-based code is used to implement numerical sensitivity coefficient calculations, allowing general problems to be studied. Sensitivity coefficients are discussed for the well known Gardon gage.

  19. Solar heating panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellsworth, R.L.

    1983-01-18

    A solar heating panel for collecting solar heat energy and method for making same having a heat insulative substrate with a multiplicity of grooves and structural supporting ribs formed therein covered by a thin, flexible heat conductive film to form fluid conducting channels which in turn are connected to manifolds from which fluid is directed into the channels and heated fluid is removed therefrom.

  20. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. |...

  1. Big performance gains at NERSC hack-a-thon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization hack-a-thon Big performance gains at NERSC hack-a-thon February 27, 2015 by Jack Deslippe & Richard Gerber At this year's NERSC user group meeting we tried something...

  2. Review of health and productivity gains from better IEQ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.

    2000-08-01

    The available scientific data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  3. Micro- and macroscale coefficients of friction of cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomboy, Gilson; Sundararajan, Sriram; Wang, Kejin

    2013-12-15

    Millions of metric tons of cementitious materials are produced, transported and used in construction each year. The ease or difficulty of handling cementitious materials is greatly influenced by the material friction properties. In the present study, the coefficients of friction of cementitious materials were measured at the microscale and macroscale. The materials tested were commercially-available Portland cement, Class C fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag. At the microscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from the interaction forces between cementitious particles using an Atomic Force Microscope. At the macroscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from stresses on bulk cementitious materials under direct shear. The study indicated that the microscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.020 to 0.059, and the macroscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.56 to 0.75. The fly ash studied had the highest microscale coefficient of friction and the lowest macroscale coefficient of friction. -- Highlights: •Microscale (interparticle) coefficient of friction (COF) was determined with AFM. •Macroscale (bulk) COF was measured under direct shear. •Fly ash had the highest microscale COF and the lowest macroscale COF. •Portland cement against GGBFS had the lowest microscale COF. •Portland cement against Portland cement had the highest macroscale COF.

  4. Two energy technology projects from Los Alamos gain DOE funding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy technology projects gain DOE funding Two energy technology projects from Los Alamos gain DOE funding Funding to help businesses move promising energy technologies from DOE's National Laboratories to the marketplace. June 21, 2016 This first department-wide round of funding through the Technology Commercialization Fund (TCF) will support 54 projects at 12 national labs involving 52 private-sector partners. This first department-wide round of funding through the Technology Commercialization

  5. Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools Print Thursday, 05 May 2016 11:21 For the past eight years, Hewlett Packard Labs, the central research organization of Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), has been using cutting-edge ALS techniques to advance some of their most promising technological research. Hewlett Packard Labs researchers, including Suhas Kumar, Catherine Graves, and John Paul Strachan,

  6. Army Veteran Gains Experience at EM Site | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Army Veteran Gains Experience at EM Site Army Veteran Gains Experience at EM Site May 29, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Army Capt. Mark Spurlock is photographed while stationed in Afghanistan. Army Capt. Mark Spurlock is photographed while stationed in Afghanistan. Army Capt. Mark Spurlock Army Capt. Mark Spurlock Army Capt. Mark Spurlock is photographed while stationed in Afghanistan. Army Capt. Mark Spurlock AIKEN, S.C. - Army Capt. Mark Spurlock supports the EM program at the Savannah River Site as

  7. Internships Help Future Energy Leaders Gain Hands-On Experience |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Internships Help Future Energy Leaders Gain Hands-On Experience Internships Help Future Energy Leaders Gain Hands-On Experience August 23, 2013 - 10:19am Addthis EM Office of External Affairs Acting Communications Director Dave Borak talks with EM intern Valerie Edwards. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. EM Office of External Affairs Acting Communications Director Dave Borak talks with EM intern Valerie Edwards. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. Rebecca

  8. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  9. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  10. Concentrating solar heat collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattor, A.P.

    1980-09-23

    A heat storage unit is integrated with a collection unit providing a heat supply in off-sun times, and includes movable insulation means arranged to provide insulation during off-sun times for the heat storage unit.

  11. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  12. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  13. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  14. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  15. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) (3.31 MB) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical ...

  16. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  17. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  18. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  19. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  20. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. ... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery ......

  1. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-05-15

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.

  2. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    among the most effcient and comfortable heating and cooling technologies available because they use the earth's natural heat to provide heating, cooling, and often, water heating. ...

  3. Heat transfer and flow resistance of a shell and plate-type evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uehara, H.; Stuhltraeger, E.; Miyara, A.; Murakami, H.; Miyazaki, K.

    1997-05-01

    The performance test of a shell-and-plate-type evaporator designed for OTEC plants, geothermal power plants, and heat pump systems is reported. This evaporator contains 30 plates with a unit area of 0.813 m{sup 2}, coated with aluminum powder on the working fluid side. Freon 22 is used as working fluid. Results show an overall heat transfer coefficient of about 5,000 W/(m{sup 2}K) when the heating water velocity is 1M/s. The mean boiling heat transfer coefficient is compared with a precious correlation proposed by Nakaoka and Uehara (1988). The water-side pressure loss is also reported.

  4. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  5. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  6. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  7. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  8. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, Roger R.

    1987-05-05

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  9. Seal assembly for materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minford, Eric

    2009-09-01

    Seal assembly comprising (a) two or more seal elements, each element having having a coefficient of thermal expansion; and (b) a clamping element having a first segment, a second segment, and a connecting segment between and attached to the first and second segments, wherein the two or more seal elements are disposed between the first and second segments of the clamping element. The connecting segment has a central portion extending between the first segment of the clamping element and the second segment of the clamping element, and the connecting segment is made of a material having a coefficient of thermal expansion. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the material of the connecting segment is intermediate the largest and smallest of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials of the two or more seal elements.

  10. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E.; Van Konynenburg, Richard; VanSant, James H.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  11. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Saro, Robert; Bateman, Willis

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  12. Experimental study of mixed convection heat transfer in vertical helically coiled tube heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghorbani, N. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, England (United Kingdom); Taherian, H. [Department of Engineering Technology and Industrial Distribution, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Gorji, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol Noushirvani University of Technology, Babol (Iran); Mirgolbabaei, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar branch, Jouybar (Iran)

    2010-10-15

    In this study the mixed convection heat transfer in a coil-in-shell heat exchanger for various Reynolds numbers, various tube-to-coil diameter ratios and different dimensionless coil pitch was experimentally investigated. The experiments were conducted for both laminar and turbulent flow inside coil. Effects of coil pitch and tube diameters on shell-side heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger were studied. Different characteristic lengths were used in various Nusselt number calculations to determine which length best fits the data and several equations were proposed. The particular difference in this study in comparison with the other similar studies was the boundary conditions for the helical coils. The results indicate that the equivalent diameter of shell is the best characteristic length. (author)

  13. ORISE: Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wounds Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated Wounds Dose coefficients for 38 radionuclides based on NCRP Wound Model and ICRP biokinetic models This report is intended to assist health physics and medical staff in more rapidly assessing the potential dosimetric consequences of a contaminated wound. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Wound Model describing the retention of selected radionuclides at the site of a contaminated wound and their

  14. Higher order matrix differential equations with singular coefficient matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fragkoulis, V. C.; Kougioumtzoglou, I. A.; Pantelous, A. A.; Pirrotta, A.

    2015-03-10

    In this article, the class of higher order linear matrix differential equations with constant coefficient matrices and stochastic process terms is studied. The coefficient of the highest order is considered to be singular; thus, rendering the response determination of such systems in a straightforward manner a difficult task. In this regard, the notion of the generalized inverse of a singular matrix is used for determining response statistics. Further, an application relevant to engineering dynamics problems is included.

  15. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J.; Taher, Mahmoud A.

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  16. BWR Core Heat Transfer Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-04-27

    Version 00 MOXY is used for the thermal analysis of a planar section of a boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel element during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The code emplyoys models that describe heat transfer by conduction, convection, and thermal radiation, and heat generation by metal-water reaction and fission product decay. Models are included for considering fuel-rod swelling and rupture, energy transport across the fuel-to-cladding gap, and the thermal response of the canister. MOXY requires thatmore » time-dependent data during the blowdown process for the power normalized to the steady-state power, for the heat-transfer coefficient, and for the fluid temperature be provided as input. Internal models provide these parameters during the heatup and emergency cooling phases.« less

  17. Self supporting heat transfer element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Story, Grosvenor Cook (Livermore, CA); Baldonado, Ray Orico (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides an improved internal heat exchange element arranged so as to traverse the inside diameter of a container vessel such that it makes good mechanical contact with the interior wall of that vessel. The mechanical element is fabricated from a material having a coefficient of thermal conductivity above about 0.8 W cm.sup.-1.degree. K.sup.-1 and is designed to function as a simple spring member when that member has been cooled to reduce its diameter to just below that of a cylindrical container or vessel into which it is placed and then allowed to warm to room temperature. A particularly important application of this invention is directed to a providing a simple compartmented storage container for accommodating a hydrogen absorbing alloy.

  18. GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP GROUTING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALLAN,M.

    1998-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts has been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. The cement-sand grouts were also tested for rheological characteristics, bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the thermal conductivity, permeability, bonding and exotherm data for selected cementitious grouts. The theoretical reduction in bore length that could be achieved with the BNL-developed cement-sand grouts is examined. Finally, the FY 98 research and field trials are discussed.

  19. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems This presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems (August 20, 2009) (494.7 KB) More

  20. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper,

  1. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0°more » to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.« less

  2. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0° to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.

  3. Heat pump/refrigerator using liquid working fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Paulson, Douglas N.; Allen, Paul C.; Knight, William R.; Warkentin, Paul A.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer device is described that can be operated as a heat pump or refrigerator, which utilizes a working fluid that is continuously in a liquid state and which has a high temperature-coefficient of expansion near room temperature, to provide a compact and high efficiency heat transfer device for relatively small temperature differences as are encountered in heating or cooling rooms or the like. The heat transfer device includes a pair of heat exchangers that may be coupled respectively to the outdoor and indoor environments, a regenerator connecting the two heat exchangers, a displacer that can move the liquid working fluid through the heat exchangers via the regenerator, and a means for alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the working fluid. The liquid working fluid enables efficient heat transfer in a compact unit, and leads to an explosion-proof smooth and quiet machine characteristic of hydraulics. The device enables efficient heat transfer as the indoor-outdoor temperature difference approaches zero, and enables simple conversion from heat pumping to refrigeration as by merely reversing the direction of a motor that powers the device.

  4. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, Anoop

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during

  5. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  6. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  7. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  8. Identification of Bayesian posteriors for coefficients of chaos expansions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnst, M. Ghanem, R.; Soize, C.

    2010-05-01

    This article is concerned with the identification of probabilistic characterizations of random variables and fields from experimental data. The data used for the identification consist of measurements of several realizations of the uncertain quantities that must be characterized. The random variables and fields are approximated by a polynomial chaos expansion, and the coefficients of this expansion are viewed as unknown parameters to be identified. It is shown how the Bayesian paradigm can be applied to formulate and solve the inverse problem. The estimated polynomial chaos coefficients are hereby themselves characterized as random variables whose probability density function is the Bayesian posterior. This allows to quantify the impact of missing experimental information on the accuracy of the identified coefficients, as well as on subsequent predictions. An illustration in stochastic aeroelastic stability analysis is provided to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

  9. Coupling coefficients for tensor product representations of quantum SU(2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groenevelt, Wolter

    2014-10-15

    We study tensor products of infinite dimensional irreducible {sup *}-representations (not corepresentations) of the SU(2) quantum group. We obtain (generalized) eigenvectors of certain self-adjoint elements using spectral analysis of Jacobi operators associated to well-known q-hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials. We also compute coupling coefficients between different eigenvectors corresponding to the same eigenvalue. Since the continuous spectrum has multiplicity two, the corresponding coupling coefficients can be considered as 2 2-matrix-valued orthogonal functions. We compute explicitly the matrix elements of these functions. The coupling coefficients can be considered as q-analogs of Bessel functions. As a results we obtain several q-integral identities involving q-hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials and q-Bessel-type functions.

  10. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  11. Fusion heating technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    John Lawson established the criterion that in order to produce more energy from fusion than is necessary to heat the plasma and replenish the radiation losses, a minimum value for both the product of plasma density and confinement time t, and the temperature must be achieved. There are two types of plasma heating: neutral beam and electromagnetic wave heating. A neutral beam system is shown. Main development work on negative ion beamlines has focused on the difficult problem of the production of high current sources. The development of a 30 keV-1 ampere multisecond source module is close to being accomplished. In electromagnetic heating, the launcher, which provides the means of coupling the power to the plasma, is most important. The status of heating development is reviewed. Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), lower hybrid heating (HHH), and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are reviewed.

  12. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  13. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Atmospheric Heat Budget shows where the atmospheric heat energy comes from and where it goes. Practically all this energy ultimately comes from the sun in the form of the ...

  14. ARM - Heat Index Calculations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Heat Index Calculations Heat Index is an index that ...

  15. Electron Heat Transport Measured

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Transport Measured in a Stochastic Magnetic Field T. M. Biewer, * C. B. Forest, ... limit of s &29; 1, RR assumed the electron heat flux to be diffusive, obeying Fourier's ...

  16. Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys and Coatings for Die inserts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Heat Checking and ...

  17. Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used ...

  18. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  19. Measurement of Heat Flux at Metal-Mold Interface during Casting Solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    All previous studies on interfacial heat transfer coefficient have been based on indirect methods for estimating the heat flux that employed either inverse heat transfer analysis procedures or instrumentation arrangements to measure temperatures and displacements near the metal-mold interface. In this paper, the heat transfer at the metal-mold interfaces is investigated using a sensor for the direct measurement of heat flux. The heat flux sensor (HFS) was rated for 700oC and had a time response of less than 10 ms. Casting experiments were conducted using graphite molds for aluminum alloy A356. Several casting experiments were performed using a graphite coating and a boron nitride coating. The measurement errors were estimated. The temperature of the mold surface was provided by the HFS while the temperature of the casting surface was measured using a thermocouple. Results for the heat transfer coefficients were obtained based on measured heat flux and temperatures. Four stages were clearly identified for the variation in time of the heat flux. Values of the heat transfer coefficient were in good agreement with data from previous studies.

  20. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  1. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  2. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.; Hansen, Leif J.; Evans, David B.

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  3. MA HEAT Loan Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents information on the success of Massachusetts's HEAT loan offerings and how the financing tool is funded.

  4. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to $2.97 per gallon. That's down $1.05 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.94 per gallon, down 6.7 cents from last week, and down $1.07

  5. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to $2.91 per gallon. That's down $1.10 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.88 per gallon, down 6.8 cents from last week, and down $1.13

  6. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to $2.84 per gallon. That's down $1.22 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.80 per gallon, down 7.4 cents from last week, and down $1.23

  7. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.1 cents from a week ago to $2.89 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.84 per gallon, down 5.4 cents from last week

  8. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to $3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.01 per gallon, down 3.6 cents from last week, and down $1.01

  9. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  10. Lattice-structures and constructs with designed thermal expansion coefficients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spadaccini, Christopher; Hopkins, Jonathan

    2014-10-28

    A thermal expansion-managed lattice structure having a plurality of unit cells each having flexure bearing-mounted tabs supported on a base and actuated by thermal expansion of an actuator having a thermal expansion coefficient greater than the base and arranged so that the tab is inwardly displaced into a base cavity. The flexure bearing-mounted tabs are connected to other flexure-bearing-mounted tabs of adjacent unit cells so that the adjacent unit cells are spaced from each other to accommodate thermal expansion of individual unit cells while maintaining a desired bulk thermal expansion coefficient of the lattice structure as a whole.

  11. Heat pipes for industrial waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Development work on the high temperature ceramic recuperator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described and involved material investigations, fabrication methods development, compatibility tests, heat pipe operation, and the modeling of application conditions based on current industrial usage. Solid ceramic heat pipes, ceramic coated refractory pipes, and high-temperature oxide protected metallic pipes have been investigated. Economic studies of the use of heat-pipe based recuperators in industrial furnaces have been conducted and payback periods determined as a function of material, fabrication, and installation cost.

  12. Students gain valuable supercomputing skills while getting paid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer summer institute Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Students gain valuable supercomputing skills while getting paid Laboratory summer institute provides unique internship experience September 1, 2015 Laboratory intern Destiny Velasquez. Laboratory intern Destiny Velasquez. Contact Community Programs Director Kathy Keith Email Editor Ute Haker Email Over the past

  13. Sandia Research on Rooftop Structural Strength Gains Attention

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Rooftop Structural Strength Gains Attention - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management

  14. High gain preamplifier based on optical parametric amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jovanovic, Igor; Bonner, Randal A.

    2004-08-10

    A high-gain preamplifier based on optical parametric amplification. A first nonlinear crystal is operatively connected to a second nonlinear crystal. A first beam relay telescope is operatively connected to a second beam relay telescope, to the first nonlinear crystal, and to the second nonlinear crystal. A first harmonic beamsplitter is operatively connected to a second harmonic beamsplitter, to the first nonlinear crystal, to the second nonlinear crystal, to the first beam relay telescope, and to the second beam relay telescope.

  15. Wind Gains ground, hitting 33 GW of installed capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-15

    The U.S. currently has 33 GW of installed wind capacity. Wind continues to gain ground, accounting for 42 percent of new capacity additions in the US in 2008.Globally, there are now 146 GW of wind capacity with an impressive and sustained growth trajectory that promises to dominate new generation capacities in many developing countries. The U.S., however, lags many European countries, with wind providing roughly 2 percent of electricity generation.

  16. Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools Print For the past eight years, Hewlett Packard Labs, the central research organization of Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), has been using cutting-edge ALS techniques to advance some of their most promising technological research. Hewlett Packard Labs researchers, including Suhas Kumar, Catherine Graves, and John Paul Strachan, recently made the cover of Applied Physics Letters with an ALS-based project that revealed key

  17. Performance of dehumidifying heat exchangers with and without wetting coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, K.; Webb, R.L.

    1999-11-01

    Limited previous work has shown that use of special hydrophilic coatings will provide lower air pressure drop in finned tube heat exchangers operated under dehumidifying conditions. However, no detailed work has been reported on the effect of different coating types, or different fin surface geometries on the wet pressure drop. In this study, wind tunnel tests were performed on three different fin geometries (wavy, lanced, and louver) under wet and dry conditions. All dehumidification tests were done for fully wet surface conditions. For each geometry, the tests were performed on uncoated and coated heat exchangers. For all three fin geometries, the wet-to-dry pressure drop ratio was 1.2 at 2.5 m/s frontal air velocity. The coatings have no influence on the wet or dry heat transfer coefficient. However, the wet surface heat transfer coefficient was 10 to 30% less than the dry heat transfer coefficient, depending on the particular fin geometry. The effect of the fin press oil on wet pressure drop was also studied. If the oil contains a surfactant, good temporary wetting can be obtained on an uncoated surface; however, this effect is quickly degraded as the oil is washed from the surface during wet operation. This work also provides a critical assessment of data reduction methods for wet surface operation, including calculation of the fin efficiency.

  18. U-142: HP Onboard Administrator Bugs Let Remote Users Gain Access...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: HP Onboard Administrator Bugs Let Remote Users Gain Access, Obtain Information, and Conduct URL Redirection Attacks U-142: HP Onboard Administrator Bugs Let Remote Users Gain...

  19. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery .......................................................................................... 2 5 1.2. Challenges and Barriers for Waste Heat Recovery ..................................................................... 13 6 1.3. Public

  20. HEAT TRANSFER MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraas, A.P.; Wislicenus, G.F.

    1961-07-11

    A heat exchanger is adapted to unifomly cool a spherical surface. Equations for the design of a spherical heat exchanger hav~g tubes with a uniform center-to-center spining are given. The heat exchanger is illustrated in connection with a liquid-fueled reactor.

  1. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    defined as geothermal heat pump unit with all the necessary functional components, except for installation materials. These include geothermal heat pump, air handler, heat ...

  2. Solar Process Heat Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Process Heat Basics Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for ...

  3. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  5. Solar-assisted heat pump systems and energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaygusuz, K.; Comakli, Oe.; Ahyan, T. )

    1991-01-01

    An experimental solar-assisted heat pump system with solar energy storage in encapsulated phase change material (PCM) packings at the Karadeniz Technical University in Trabzon, Turkey is described. It includes 30 m{sup 2} solar collectors, a latent-heat thermal energy storage tank filled with PCM, a heat exchanger, a heat pump with double evaporators and condenser, and a conventional air conditioning channel. The authors have analyzed the system's behavior from July to August, 1990. The data processed has shown that each of the systems has apparently performed adequately. Collector efficiency is 0.80, heat pump coefficient of performance range is around 7, and the storage efficiency reaches 0.60. When the investigations are accomplished, they will publish the experimental results in detail.

  6. Microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and method for its fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1982-08-31

    A microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and a method for its fabrication are disclosed. The heat exchanger is formed from a stack of thin metal sheets which are bonded together. The stack consists of alternating slotted and unslotted sheets. Each of the slotted sheets includes multiple parallel slots which form fluid flow channels when sandwiched between the unslotted sheets. Successive slotted sheets in the stack are rotated ninety degrees with respect to one another so as to form two sets of orthogonally extending fluid flow channels which are arranged in a crossflow configuration. The heat exchanger has a high surface to volume ratio, a small dead volume, a high heat transfer coefficient, and is suitable for use with fluids under high pressures. The heat exchanger has particular application in a Stirling engine that utilizes a liquid as the working substance.

  7. Microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and method for its fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1985-05-14

    A microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and a method for its fabrication are disclosed. The heat exchanger is formed from a stack of thin metal sheets which are bonded together. The stack consists of alternating slotted and unslotted sheets. Each of the slotted sheets includes multiple parallel slots which form fluid flow channels when sandwiched between the unslotted sheets. Successive slotted sheets in the stack are rotated ninety degrees with respect to one another so as to form two sets of orthogonally extending fluid flow channels which are arranged in a crossflow configuration. The heat exchanger has a high surface to volume ratio, a small dead volume, a high heat transfer coefficient, and is suitable for use with fluids under high pressures. The heat exchanger has particular application in a Stirling engine that utilizes a liquid as the working substance. 9 figs.

  8. Microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and method for its fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert; Wheatley, John C.

    1985-01-01

    A microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and a method for its fabrication are disclosed. The heat exchanger is formed from a stack of thin metal sheets which are bonded together. The stack consists of alternating slotted and unslotted sheets. Each of the slotted sheets includes multiple parallel slots which form fluid flow channels when sandwiched between the unslotted sheets. Successive slotted sheets in the stack are rotated ninety degrees with respect to one another so as to form two sets of orthogonally extending fluid flow channels which are arranged in a crossflow configuration. The heat exchanger has a high surface to volume ratio, a small dead volume, a high heat transfer coefficient, and is suitable for use with fluids under high pressures. The heat exchanger has particular application in a Stirling engine that utilizes a liquid as the working substance.

  9. Heat recovery casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawn, J.

    1980-10-01

    Plants and factories could apply a great variety of sources and uses for valuable waste heat. Applications may be evaluated on the basis of real use for a specific waste heat, high-enough temperature and quality of work, and feasibility of mechanical heat transfer method. Classification may be by temperature, application, heat-transfer equipment, etc. Many buildings and industrial processes lend themselves well to heat-recovery strategies. Five case histories describe successful systems used by the Continental Corporation Data Center; Nabisco, Inc.; Kasper Foundry Company; Seven Up Bottling Company of Indiana; and Lehr Precision Tool company. (DCK)

  10. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.