Sample records for heat flow measurements

  1. Heat transfer in katabatic flow Measurements on the Morteratsch glacier, Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Heat transfer in katabatic flow Measurements on the Morteratsch glacier, Switzerland M. de Graaf #12;Heat transfer in katabatic flow Measurements on the Morteratsch glacier, Switzerland Martin de is used to calculate surface heat fluxes over glaciers. As determination of surface fluxes still

  2. UW -Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems 1 1-D Heat Flow Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taya, Minoru

    : Calibrate Seebeck Coefficient for TFTC(Thin Film Thermocouples) x y Heater (70°C) Water (19°C) #12;UW ANSYS Simulation Used Data Water Temp. 2 Measured Temp. (Channel 14, 15) Heater size Assumption. Factor 2.258 #12;UW - Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems 3 2-D Heat Flow Measurement x y Heater

  3. Local heat transfer and pressure drop measurements in a wavy channel with and without flow disturbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, S.; Kmelius, D. [Western New England College, Springfield, MA (United States); Saniei, N. [Southern Illinois Univ., Edwardsville, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been performed to measure local heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop in a wavy channel for Reynolds numbers of 2,900 and 7,000. Additionally, the effect of flow disturbers mounted on the first two peaks on one surface was investigated. The transient method and liquid crystals were used for the local heat transfer measurements. Initial experimental results indicate that addition of ribs into the passage stimulates flow instabilities which enhance the heat transfer performance with moderate effect on pressure drop. Measurements were conducted on a 6 in x 3/8 in x 12 in wavy channel with a wave length of one inch. The highest local heat transfer was detected on the second, followed by the third and fourth peaks at Re = 7000; wheras for Re = 2900 the highest heat transfer was along the next peak detected immediately after the disturbers. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that ribbed passages would yield higher heat transfer with moderate change in pressure drop compared with non-ribbed channels.

  4. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  5. Rényi entropy flows from quantum heat engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad H. Ansari; Yuli V. Nazarov

    2015-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate Renyi entropy flows from generic quantum heat engines (QHE) to a weakly-coupled probe environment kept in thermal equilibrium. We show that the flows are determined not only by heat flow but also by a quantum coherent flow that can be separately measured in experiment apart from the heat flow measurement. The same pertains to Shanon entropy flow. This appeals for a revision of the concept of entropy flows in quantum nonequlibrium thermodynamics.

  6. Cooling Flows or Heating Flows?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2003-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    It is now clear that AGN heat cooling flows, largely by driving winds. The winds may contain a relativistic component that generates powerful synchrotron radiation, but it is not clear that all winds do so. The spatial and temporal stability of the AGN/cooling flow interaction are discussed. Collimation of the winds probably provides spatial stability. Temporal stability may be possible only for black holes with masses above a critical value. Both the failure of cooling flows to have adiabatic cores and the existence of X-ray cavities confirm the importance of collimated outflows. I quantify the scale of the convective flow that the AGN Hydra would need to drive if it balanced radiative inward flow by outward flow parallel to the jets. At least in Virgo any such flow must be confined to r<~20 kpc. Hydrodynamical simulations suggest that AGN outbursts cannot last longer than ~25 Myr. Data for four clusters with well studied X-ray cavities suggests that heating associated with cavity formation approximately balances radiative cooling. The role of cosmic infall and the mechanism of filament formation are briefly touched on.

  7. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  8. Triaxial thermopile array geo-heat-flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrigan, C.R.; Hardee, H.C.; Reynolds, G.D.; Steinfort, T.D.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A triaxial thermopile array geothermal heat flow sensor is designed to measure heat flow in three dimensions in a reconstituted or unperturbed subsurface regime. Heat flow can be measured in conductive or permeable convective media. The sensor may be encased in protective pvc tubing and includes a plurality of thermistors and an array of heat flow transducers produce voltage proportional to heat flux along the subsurface regime and permit direct measurement of heat flow in the subsurface regime. The presence of the thermistor array permits a comparison to be made between the heat flow estimates obtained from the transducers and heat flow calculated using temperature differences and Fourier's Law. The device is extremely sensitive with an accuracy of less than 0.1 Heat Flow Units (HFU) and may be used for long term readings. 6 figs.

  9. Triaxial thermopile array geo-heat-flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Reynolds, Gerald D. (Tijeras, NM); Steinfort, Terry D. (Tijeras, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A triaxial thermopile array geothermal heat flow sensor is designed to measure heat flow in three dimensions in a reconstituted or unperturbed subsurface regime. Heat flow can be measured in conductive or permeable convective media. The sensor may be encased in protective pvc tubing and includes a plurality of thermistors and an array of heat flow transducers arranged in a vertical string. The transducers produce voltage proportional to heat flux along the subsurface regime and permit direct measurement of heat flow in the subsurface regime. The presence of the thermistor array permits a comparison to be made between the heat flow estimates obtained from the transducers and heat flow calculated using temperature differences and Fourier's Law. The device is extremely sensitive with an accuracy of less than 0.1 Heat Flow Units (HFU) and may be used for long term readings.

  10. Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer,...

  11. Heat Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heat flow values as high as several watts per meter squared can be found. Systematic interpretation of heat flow patterns sheds light on heat transfer mechanisms at depth on...

  12. The measurement of heat transfer rates in contaminated, high enthalpy flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muniz, Edelmiro

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    '"i, ally it, was decided that a spectral absor'pticn techinicue would. bc the simplest nd best way to cietcr- I1ine hcw LIuch a Lurilirrcm c ointa, ciri, ', ti, 0 . ' wBS produced couipled with a Bto'res-i'. CLI od g:, ", e to measure thc pressuri...

  13. Colorado Heat Flow Data from IHFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: The International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado IHFC Data Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: Abstract: This layer contains the heat flow sites and data of the State of Colorado compiled from the International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC) of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI) global heat flow database (www.heatflow.und.edu/index2.html). The data include different items: Item number, descriptive code, name of site, latitude and longitude, elevation, depth interval, number of temperature data, temperature gradient, number of conductivity measurement, average conductivity, number of heat generation measurements, average heat production, heat flow, number of individual sites, references, and date of publication. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4522121.800672 m Left: 165356.134075 m Right: 621836.776246 m Bottom: 4097833.419676 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude Of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  14. TESTING THE ACCRETION FLOW WITH PLASMA WAVE HEATING MECHANISM FOR SAGITTARIUS A* BY THE 1.3 mm VLBI MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Lei [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, The University of Sciences and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026 (China); Takahashi, Rohta [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shen Zhiqiang, E-mail: mlhuang@ustc.edu.c [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vicinity of the supermassive black hole associated with the compact radio source Sagittarius (Sgr) A* is believed to dominate the observed emission at wavelengths near and shorter than approx1 millimeter. We show that a general relativistic accretion flow, heated via the plasma wave heating mechanism, is consistent with the polarization and recent millimeter-VLBI observations of Sgr A* for an inclination angle of approx45{sup 0}, position angle of approx140{sup 0}, and spin approx<0.9. Structure in visibilities produced by the black hole shadow can potentially be observed by 1.3 mm-VLBI on the existing Hawaii-CARMA and Hawaii-SMT baselines. We also consider eight additional potential millimeter-VLBI stations, including sites in Chile and New Zealand, finding that with these the basic geometry of the emission region can be reliably estimated.

  15. Geothermal Heat Flow and Existing Geothermal Plants | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Geothermal Heat Flow and Existing Geothermal Plants Geothermal Heat Flow and Existing Geothermal Plants Geothermal Heat Flow and Existing Plants With plants in development. Click...

  16. Experimental measurements in a radio frequency discharge heated supersonic flow: Evaluation of a potential electric propulsion thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wantuck, P.J.; Hull, D.E.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An operational radio frequency discharge-driven supersonic flow system, which utilizes an inductively and capacitively coupled plasma (ICCP) tube to produce high enthalpy source gas, is described. The ICCP coupled to a properly designed nozzle represents a potential electric propulsion device. The high gas temperatures achieved in the plasma discharge (> 5000 K) and the electrodeless nature of the tube's operation offers potentially high thruster performance coupled and long operational lifetime. A preliminary characterization of the current system was established using emission and probe-based measurements. A nominal peak specific impulse of 155 s was estimated for operation with argon. The calculated thrust based upon the peak velocity and mass flow through the device is 1.1 N. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  17. A statistical method for estimating wood thermal diffusivity and probe geometry using in situ heat response curves from sap flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xingyuan; Miller, Gretchen R.; Rubin, Yoram; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat pulse method is widely used to measure water flux through plants; it works by inferring the velocity of water through a porous medium from the speed at which a heat pulse is propagated through the system. No systematic, non-destructive calibration procedure exists to determine the site-specific parameters necessary for calculating sap velocity, e.g., wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing. Such parameter calibration is crucial to obtain the correct transpiration flux density from the sap flow measurements at the plant scale; and consequently, to up-scale tree-level water fluxes to canopy and landscape scales. The purpose of this study is to present a statistical framework for estimating the wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing simutaneously from in-situ heat response curves collected by the implanted probes of a heat ratio apparatus. Conditioned on the time traces of wood temperature following a heat pulse, the parameters are inferred using a Bayesian inversion technique, based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The primary advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not require known probe spacing or any further intrusive sampling of sapwood. The Bayesian framework also enables direct quantification of uncertainty in estimated sap flow velocity. Experiments using synthetic data show that repeated tests using the same apparatus are essential to obtain reliable and accurate solutions. When applied to field conditions, these tests are conducted during different seasons and automated using the existing data logging system. The seasonality of wood thermal diffusivity is obtained as a by-product of the parameter estimation process, and it is shown to be affected by both moisture content and temperature. Empirical factors are often introduced to account for the influence of non-ideal probe geometry on the estimation of heat pulse velocity, and they are estimated in this study as well. The proposed methodology can be applied for the calibration of existing heat ratio sap flow systems at other sites. It is especially useful when an alternative transpiration calibration device, such as a lysimeter, is not available.

  18. Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Generalized Divided Flow Heat Exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, K. P.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of a "Divided-flow" heat exchanger is generalized by locating the shell inlet (or outlet) nozzle off-center such that the two shell sub-streams are unequal and traverse unequal flow paths. The governing equations for heat transfer...

  19. A Simple Heat-Flow Quality Function And Appraisal Of Heat-Flow...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Uk Geothermal Catalogue Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Simple Heat-Flow Quality Function And Appraisal Of Heat-Flow...

  20. MODERN DEVELOPMENTS IN MULTIPHASE FLOW & HEAT TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lahey, Richard T.

    MODERN DEVELOPMENTS IN MULTIPHASE FLOW & HEAT TRANSFER "ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS OF FRACTAL AND CHAOS THEORY" RICHARD T. LAHEY, JR. Center for Multiphase Research Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy and multiphase flow & heat transfer will be stressed. This paper will begin by reviewing some important concepts

  1. Measurements of wall heat (mass) transfer for flow through blockages with round and square holes in a wide rectangular channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervantes, Joel

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) transfer on the channel wall by 4.7 to 6.3 times, and increased the pressure drop along the test channel by up to almost 490 times that for fully developed turbulent flow through a smooth channel at the same mass flow rates. The blockages with round holes...

  2. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  3. Heat Flow Database Expansion for NGDS Data Development, Collection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Flow Database Expansion for NGDS Data Development, Collection and Maintenance (SMU) Heat Flow Database Expansion for NGDS Data Development, Collection and Maintenance (SMU)...

  4. PIV flow measurements for heat transfer characterization in two-pass square channels with smooth and 90 ribbed walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kihm, IconKenneth David

    -pass square channel with a smooth wall and a 90° rib-roughened wall. Detailed averaged velocity distributions enhancements for both smooth and ribbed wall two-pass square channels. The rib-induced flow turbulence distribution in two-pass square channels with smooth and 90° ribbed walls. Han and Zhang [3] studied the effect

  5. Measurements of wall heat (mass) transfer for flow through blockages with round and square holes in a wide rectangular channel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervantes, Joel

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . n1 DEDICATION. ACKNOWLEGDEMENTS . . . V1 TABLE OF CONTENTS . vn LIST OF FIGURES. NOMENCLATURE . . INTRODUCTION. LITERATURE SURVEY. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS . Xt EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE DATA REDUCTION. PRESENTATION & DISCUSSION OF RESULTS..., kg/(m s) Nun~ local Nusselt number //u pa average Nusselt number Nus reference Nusselt number for fully developed turbulent flow in smooth channel POIIII Pv, w atmospheric pressure, N/m 2 vapor pressure on naphthalene surface, N/m 2 P...

  6. Heat flow and geothermal studies in the state of Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackwell, D.D.; Steele, J.L.; Kelley, S.A.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing geothermal gradient and heat flow data for the state of Washington are summarized. In addition, information on mean-annual ground surface temperatures is included. The data consist of accurate, detailed temperature-depth measurements in selected available holes throughout the state of Washington made between 1979 and 1982. Measurements of thermal conductivity on selected rock samples from these drill holes and ancillary information required to assess the significance of the data and calculate heat flow values were obtained as well. Information is presented on the mean-annual ground-surface temperatures throughout the state of Washington. 32 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated by Joule effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated has been developed based on periodic excitation by Joule effect and infrared thermography measurement. It has been applied to measure heat transfer coefficients of water flowing in a round tube

  8. Hydrodynamics, heat transfer and flow boiling instabilities in microchannels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barber, Jacqueline Claire

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Boiling in microchannels is a very efficient mode of heat transfer with high heat and mass transfer coefficients achieved. Less pumping power is required for two-phase flows than for single-phase liquid flows to achieve ...

  9. Radio frequency (RF) heated supersonic flow laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wantuck, P.; Watanabe, H.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique supersonic flow apparatus which employs an inductively-coupled, radio frequency (RF) torch to supply high enthalpy source gas to the nozzle inlet is described. The main features of this system are the plasma tube, a cooled nozzle assembly, and a combustion/expansion chamber with a heat exchanger. A description of these components with current test data is presented. In addition, a discussion of anticipated experiments utilizing this system is included.

  10. Determining heat fluxes from temperature measurements made in massive walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique is described for determining heat fluxes at the surfaces of masonry walls or floors using temperature data measured at two points within the wall, usually near the surfaces. The process consists of solving the heat diffusion equation in one dimension using finite difference techniques given two measured temperatures as input. The method is fast and accurate and also allows for an in-situ measurement of wall thermal diffusivity if a third temperature is measured. The method is documented in sufficient detail so that it can be readily used by the reader. Examples are given for heat flow through walls. Annual results for two cases are presented. The method has also been used to determine heat flow into floors.

  11. FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER OF ELECTRON FLOW IN SEMICONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Mihir

    = heat, f = LO-mode, g = LO, h = LA-mode, i = negligible, j = remote heat sink 7/ 70 #12;Heat conductionFLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER OF ELECTRON FLOW IN SEMICONDUCTORS Mihir Sen Department · Shallow water analogy · Vorticity dynamics · Linear stability analysis · Numerical simulations of heat

  12. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer during flow boiling instabilities in a single microchannel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aussillous, Pascale

    Hydrodynamics and heat transfer during flow boiling instabilities in a single microchannel July 2008 Keywords: Boiling Microchannels Visualisation Flow boiling instabilities Heat transfer a b intensification heat removal. Flow boiling heat transfer in microchannel geometry and the associated flow

  13. A Cross-Flow Ceramic Heat Recuperator for Industrial Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, J. M.; Cleveland, J. J.; Kohnken, K. H.; Rebello, W. J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    performance criteria and demonstrate a cross-flow ceramic heat recuperator for high temperature industrial heat recovery applications. The immediate goals of the ceramic recuperator project were to demonstrate a heat exchanger capable of handling high...

  14. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were {approx} 55% higher than the previous measurement of specific heat capacity on a reference Saltstone mix in 1997. Values of mixes prepared using Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA), Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) simulants and premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio were {approx} 1.95 J/g/{sup o}C and were equivalent within experimental error. The simple law of mixtures was used to predict the heat capacities of the Saltstone and the results were in excellent agreement with experimental data. This simple law of mixtures can therefore be used to predict the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes in those cases where measurements have not been made. The time dependence of the heat capacity is important as an input to the modeling of temperature increase in Saltstone vaults. The heat capacity of a mix of MCU and premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio was measured immediately after initial mixing and then periodically up to times greater than 100 days. Within experimental error, the heat capacity did not change with time. Therefore, the modeling is not complicated by requiring a time dependent function for specific heat capacity. The water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio plays a key role in determining the value of the heat capacity. Both experimental and predictive values for SWPF mixes as function of the w/cm ratio were obtained and presented in this report. Predictions of the maximum temperatures of the Saltstone mixes were made using the heat of hydration data from previous isothermal measurements and the newly measured heat capacities for DDA, MCU and SWPF mixes. The maximum temperature increase ranged from 37 to 48 C for these mixes. The presence of aluminate at 0.33 M produced a temperature increase of 68 C which is close to the adiabatic temperature rise of 74 C observed by Steimke and Fowler in 1997 for a mix containing 0.35 M aluminate. Aluminum dissolution of the sludge will increase the aluminate in the DSS which in turn will result in a larger temperature increase in the Saltstone vaults during the curing p

  15. Hamiltonian Thermostats Fail to Promote Heat Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wm. G. Hoover; Carol G. Hoover

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hamiltonian mechanics can be used to constrain temperature simultaneously with energy. We illustrate the interesting situations that develop when two different temperatures are imposed within a composite Hamiltonian system. The model systems we treat are "phi-4" chains, with quartic tethers and quadratic nearest-neighbor Hooke's-law interactions. This model is known to satisfy Fourier's law. Our prototypical problem sandwiches a Newtonian subsystem between hot and cold Hamiltonian reservoir regions. We have characterized four different Hamiltonian reservoir types. There is no tendency for any of these two-temperature Hamiltonian simulations to transfer heat from the hot to the cold degrees of freedom. Evidently steady heat flow simulations require energy sources and sinks, and are therefore incompatible with Hamiltonian mechanics.

  16. Heat flow during the autogenous GTA welding of pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kou, S.; Le, Y.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical and experimental study of heat flow during the welding of pipes was carried out. The theoretical part of the study involves the development of two finite difference computer models: one for describing steady state, 3-dimensional heat flow during seam welding, the other for describing unsteady state, 3-dimensional heat flow during girth welding. The experimental part of the study, on the other hand, includes: measurement of the thermal response of the pipe with a high speed data acquisition system, determination of the arc efficiency with a calorimeter, and examination of the fusion boundary of the resultant weld. The experimental results were compared with the calculated ones, and the agreement was excellent in the case of seam welding and reasonably good in the case of girth welding. Both the computer models and experiments confirmed that, under a constant heat input and welding speed, the size of the fusion zone remains unchanged in seam welding but continues to increase in girth welding of pipes of small diameters. It is expected that the unsteady state model developed can be used to provide optimum conditions for girth welding, so that uniform weld beads can be obtained and weld defects such as lack of fusion and sagging can be avoided.

  17. Heat transfer and pressure drop in tape generated swirl flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopina, Robert F.

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of water in tape generated swirl flow were investigated. The test sections were electrically heated small diameter nickel tubes with tight fitting full length Inconel ...

  18. DEVELOPING FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN STRONGLY CURVED DUCTS OF RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee, G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEVELOpiNG FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN STRONGLY CURVED DUCTS9092 Developing Flow and Heat Transfer in Strongly CurvedForced Convection Heat Transfer in Curved Rectangular

  19. Heat-flow reconnaissance of the Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.L.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the 46 new values of heat flow determined for the Gulf Coastal Plain are in the low to normal range, but heat-flow values averaging 1.8 heat-flow unit (HFU) were obtained in Claiborne, Ouachita, and Union parishes, Louisiana. Moreover, a zone of relatively high heat-flow values and steep thermal gradients (35 to 46/sup 0/C/km) extends from northern Louisiana into southwestern Mississippi. Also near Pensacola, Florida, temperatures of 50/sup 0/C at 1-km depth have been extrapolated from thermal gradients. Future development of low-grade geothermal resources may be warranted in these areas.

  20. Heat flow and microearthquake studies, Coso Geothermal Area,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Final report Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Heat flow and microearthquake studies, Coso Geothermal Area, China Lake, California....

  1. Heat Transfer Measurements for a Horizontal Micro-Tube Using Liquid Crystal Thermography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    62 TC02-007 Heat Transfer Measurements for a Horizontal Micro-Tube Using Liquid Crystal thermography (LCT) method was developed for surface temperature measurements on a horizontal 2000m macro-tube and 1000m micro-tube. In the single-phase heat transfer experiments, the fully-developed flow heat transfer

  2. Applications of the Strong Heat Transformation by Pulse Flow in the Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.; Zhao, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article deals with the heat exchange coefficient varied with pulse frequency in the pulsation tube with different flow forms. The findings show that heat can be exchanged coefficient with the pulse frequency, and it has an optimal frequency...

  3. Applications of the Strong Heat Transformation by Pulse Flow in the Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.; Zhao, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article deals with the heat exchange coefficient varied with pulse frequency in the pulsation tube with different flow forms. The findings show that heat can be exchanged coefficient with the pulse frequency, and it has an optimal frequency...

  4. Heat transfer to impacting drops and post critical heat flux dispersed flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kendall, Gail E.

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer to drops impacting on a hot surface is examined in context of dispersions of flowing, boiling fluids. The liquid contribution to heat transfer from a hot tube to a two-phase dispersion is formulated in terms ...

  5. Infrared thermography of a pulsating heat pipe: Flow regimes and multiple steady states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    Infrared thermography of a pulsating heat pipe: Flow regimes and multiple steady states V 400085, India h i g h l i g h t s PHP tested with varying heat powers under vertical orientation. Tube wall and inside fluid temperatures measured in the evaporator. Infrared temperature visualization

  6. Large deviations in stochastic heat-conduction processes provide a gradient-flow structure for heat conduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peletier, Mark A., E-mail: m.a.peletier@tue.nl [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Redig, Frank, E-mail: f.h.j.redig@tudelft.nl [Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Technische Universiteit Delft, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Vafayi, Kiamars, E-mail: k.vafayi@tue.nl [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form -log ?; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ?² for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ? for the nonlinear heat equation.

  7. Numerical Study of Flow and Heat Transfer in Rotating Microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Pratanu

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation of fluid flow and heat transfer in rotating microchannels is important for centrifugal microfluidics, which has emerged as an advanced technique in biomedical applications and chemical separations. The centrifugal force...

  8. 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    445 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator Onrawee Laguerre UMR Génie Industriel...............................................447 16.2.1 Studies in Domestic Refrigerators...................................................................................... 451 16.3 Cold Production System in Domestic Refrigerators

  9. Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  10. Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.

  11. ARM - Measurement - Sensible heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwellingpolarization ARM DatagovMeasurementsSensible

  12. Heat Loss Measurement Using Infrared Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seeber, S. A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    levels for objects seen in the CRT. (Radiance levels refer to the amount of infrared energy produced by an object.) The conversion of these radiance compari sons to temperatures and heat flows will be discussed below. Infrared images may be recorded... radiance level comparisons since colors may be associated with particular temperature ranges. Black and white images may be colorized during the inspection process. Alternatively, the black and white images may be stored on magnetic tape and color...

  13. Heating Cooling Flows with Weak Shock Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. G. Mathews; A. Faltenbacher; F. Brighenti

    2005-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of extended, approximately spherical weak shock waves in the hot intercluster gas in Perseus and Virgo has precipitated the notion that these waves may be the primary heating process that explains why so little gas cools to low temperatures. This type of heating has received additional support from recent gasdynamical models. We show here that outward propagating, dissipating waves deposit most of their energy near the center of the cluster atmosphere. Consequently, if the gas is heated by (intermittent) weak shocks for several Gyrs, the gas within 30-50 kpc is heated to temperatures that far exceed observed values. This heating can be avoided if dissipating shocks are sufficiently infrequent or weak so as not to be the primary source of global heating. Local PV and viscous heating associated with newly formed X-ray cavities are likely to be small, which is consistent with the low gas temperatures generally observed near the centers of groups and clusters where the cavities are located.

  14. ARM - Measurement - Latent heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow,ice particleSizegovMeasurementsIsotope

  15. Polymer Effects on Heat Transport in Laminar Boundary Layer Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Benzi; Emily S. C. Ching; Vivien W. S. Chu

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a laminar Blasius boundary-layer flow above a slightly heated horizontal plate and study the effect of polymer additives on the heat transport. We show that the action of the polymers can be understood as a space-dependent effective viscosity that first increases from the zero-shear value then decreases exponentially back to the zero-shear value as one moves away from the boundary. We find that with such an effective viscosity, both the horizontal and vertical velocities near the plate are decreased thus leading to an increase in the friction drag and a decrease in the heat transport in the flow.

  16. Heat flow and thermotectonic problems of the central Ventura Basin, southern California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Rito, R.F.; Lachenbruch, A.H.; Moses, T.H. Jr.; Munroe, R.J. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1989-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ventura Basin, southern Califronia, is located near the Big Bend area of the San Andreas fault system, within the Transverse Ranges physiographic province. Continuous equilibrium temperature logs were measured in 12 idle oil wells located within the onshore Ventura Avenue, San Miguelito, Filmore, Oxnard, and West Montalvo fields to an average depth of about 3100 m (10,200 feet). Thermal conductivities were measured on all available samples. Heat flows were calculated with the aid of a thermostratigraphic scheme based on correlative gradient intervals and average thermal conductivity for the appropriate units. Negative curvature of the Ventura Avenue temperature profiles may be explained by an increase in thermal conductivity associated with tectonic compaction of the underlying Pliocene clastic sequence. Temperature profiles at Fillmore are enigmatic but suggest highly unusual geotectonic conditions. Basinwide, heat flow averages about 48 mW/m{sup 2}, a value which is low relative to most of southern California. As heat flow does not vary systematically to the maximum measured depth of about 4 km, this anomaly is not easily explained in terms of hydrologic effect or recent uplift and erosion. However, a diminution of heat flow is an expectable consequence of the accumulation of cold sediments (up to 12 km) since Eocene time. If 70 mW/m{sub 2} is accepted as the background heat flow, then the sedimentation effect is probably sufficient to explain the anomaly.

  17. Supersonic combustion of a transverse injected H sub 2 jet in a radio frequency heated flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wantuck, P.J.; Tennant, R.A.; Watanabe, H.H.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion of a single hydrogen jet, normally injected into a radio frequency (RF) heated, oxidant-containing, supersonic flow, has been established to characterize the chemical and fluid dynamic phenomena associated with the reaction process and ultimately validate the predictive capability of computational computer dynamic (CFD) codes. The experimental system employed for this study is unique in that it uses an electrodeless, inductively coupled plasma tube to generate the high temperature oxidant-containing gas for subsequent nozzle expansion. Advantages of an RF heated flow system include reduced free-stream chemical contamination, continuous operation, and relative ease of integration into a typical flow laboratory environment. A description of the system utilized for this study is presented including preliminary results of the reactive flow characterization. In addition, the use of the laser-based diagnostic techniques, such as planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), for measuring flow properties is also discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Bubbles as tracers of heat input to cooling flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Binney; F. Alouani Bibi; H. Omma

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the distribution of injected energy in three-dimensional, adaptive-grid simulations of the heating of cooling flows. We show that less than 10 percent of the injected energy goes into bubbles. Consequently, the energy input from the nucleus is underestimated by a factor of order 6 when it is taken to be given by PVgamma/(gamma-1), where P and V are the pressure and volume of the bubble, and gamma the ratio of principal specific heats.

  19. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  20. Flow instability and critical heat flux in a ribbed annulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, B.W.; Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Kokolis, S.; Reddy, G.D. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); McAssey, E.V. Jr. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States); Coutts, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental program has been conducted to determine the onset of flow instability point in a heated annulus which is divided into four sub channels by non-conducting ribs. The onset of flow instability is identified by the minimum point in the pressure drop-velocity curve. Comparison with a ribless annulus show that the presence of ribs increases the minimum point velocity. In addition, data are presented which show that under certain conditions premature CHF can be induced by the ribs.

  1. Heat flow and subsurface temperature distributions in central and western New York. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, D.S.; Fromm, K.A.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing data in western and central New York indicates the possibility of a low-temperature, direct-use geothermal resource. This report evaluates the heat flow and provides a representation of temperatures at depth in this area. This has been done by: (1) analyzing known temperature distributions, (2) measuring the thermal conductivity of sedimentary rock units. Based on this information, areas of higher-than-normal heat flow and temperatures in possible geothermal source reservoirs are described to aid in targeting areas for the exploitation of geothermal energy in New York.

  2. Heat transfer and pressure drop of supercritical carbon dioxide flowing in several printed circuit heat exchanger channel patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 839 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kruizenga, A. [Sandia National Laboratory (United States); Anderson, M.; Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 839 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closed-loop Brayton cycles using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO{sub 2}) show potential for use in high-temperature power generation applications including High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) and Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR). Compared to Rankine cycles SCO{sub 2} Brayton cycles offer similar or improved efficiency and the potential for decreased capital costs due to a reduction in equipment size and complexity. Compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are being considered as part of several SCO{sub 2} Brayton designs to further reduce equipment size with increased energy density. Several designs plan to use a gas cooler operating near the pseudo-critical point of carbon dioxide to benefit from large variations in thermophysical properties, but further work is needed to validate correlations for heat transfer and pressure-drop characteristics of SCO{sub 2} flows in candidate PCHE channel designs for a variety of operating conditions. This paper presents work on experimental measurements of the heat transfer and pressure drop behavior of miniature channels using carbon dioxide at supercritical pressure. Results from several plate geometries tested in horizontal cooling-mode flow are presented, including a straight semi-circular channel, zigzag channel with a bend angle of 80 degrees, and a channel with a staggered array of extruded airfoil pillars modeled after a NACA 0020 airfoil with an 8.1 mm chord length facing into the flow. Heat transfer coefficients and bulk temperatures are calculated from measured local wall temperatures and local heat fluxes. The experimental results are compared to several methods for estimating the friction factor and Nusselt number of cooling-mode flows at supercritical pressures in millimeter-scale channels. (authors)

  3. Self-heating in kinematically complex magnetohydrodynamic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osmanov, Zaza; Poedts, Stefaan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The non-modal self-heating mechanism driven by the velocity shear in kinematically complex magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma flows is considered. The study is based on the full set of MHD equations including dissipative terms. The equations are linearized and unstable modes in the flow are looked for. Two different cases are specified and studied: (a) the instability related to an exponential evolution of the wave vector; and (b) the parametric instability, which takes place when the components of the wave vector evolve in time periodically. By examining the dissipative terms, it is shown that the self-heating rate provided by viscous damping is of the same order of magnitude as that due to the magnetic resistivity. It is found that the heating efficiency of the exponential instability is higher than that of the parametric instability.

  4. Measurement and analysis of gas turbine blade endwall heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joon Ho

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the aerodynamic flow and external heat transfer distribution around the airfoils and end-wall surfaces. A stationary 5 vane linear cascade is designed and developed to investigate gas turbine blade endwall heat transfer and flow. The test cascade is instrumented...

  5. The heating of the cooling flow (The feedback effervescent heating model)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasser Mohamed Ahmed

    2007-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard cooling flow model has predicted a large amount of cool gas in the clusters of galaxies. The failure of the Chandra and XXM-Newton telescopes to detect cooling gas (below 1-2 keV) in clusters of galaxies has suggested that some heating process must work to suppress the cooling. The most likely heating source is the heating by AGNs. There are many heating mechanisms, but we will adopt the effervescent heating model which is a result of the interaction of the bubbles inflated by AGN with the intra-cluster medium(ICM). Using the FLASH code, we have carried out time dependent simulations to investigate the effect of the heating on the suppression of the cooling in cooling flow clusters. We have found that the effervescent heating model can not balance the radiative cooling and it is an artificial model. Furthermore, the effervescent heating is a function of the ICM pressure gradient but the cooling is proportional to the gas density square and square root of the gas temperature.

  6. A Small Artery Heat Transfer Model for Self-Heated Thermistor Measurements of Perfusion in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Small Artery Heat Transfer Model for Self-Heated Thermistor Measurements of Perfusion model (SAM) for self-heated thermistor measurements of perfusion in the canine kidney is developed based clinical method to quantify perfusion for a majority of applications. Self-heated thermistor techniques

  7. Precision electron flow measurements in a disk transmission line.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Waylon T.; Pelock, Michael D.; Martin, Jeremy Paul; Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Savage, Mark Edward; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.; Pointon, Timothy David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytic model for electron flow in a system driving a fixed inductive load is described and evaluated with particle in cell simulations. The simple model allows determining the impedance profile for a magnetically insulated transmission line given the minimum gap desired, and the lumped inductance inside the transition to the minimum gap. The model allows specifying the relative electron flow along the power flow direction, including cases where the fractional electron flow decreases in the power flow direction. The electrons are able to return to the cathode because they gain energy from the temporally rising magnetic field. The simulations were done with small cell size to reduce numerical heating. An experiment to compare electron flow to the simulations was done. The measured electron flow is {approx}33% of the value from the simulations. The discrepancy is assumed to be due to a reversed electric field at the cathode because of the inductive load and falling electron drift velocity in the power flow direction. The simulations constrain the cathode electric field to zero, which gives the highest possible electron flow.

  8. Flow Rate Measurements Using Flow-Induced Pipe Vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. P. Evans; Jonathan D. Blotter; Alan G. Stephens

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on the possibility of a non-intrusive, low cost, flow rate measurement technique. The technique is based on signal noise from an accelerometer attached to the surface of the pipe. The signal noise is defined as the standard deviation of the frequency averaged time series signal. Experimental results are presented that indicate a nearly quadratic relationship between the signal noise and mass flow rate in the pipe. It is also shown that the signal noise - flow rate relationship is dependant on the pipe material and diameter.

  9. Heat pipe transient measurements incorporating visual methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeHart, Mark David

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liftoff on January 28, 1 9B6. These five men and two women gave their lives while att mpting to lead mankind into space and open the door for the future of our race. Their noble sacr ifice should r. ever be . orgotten. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish...!!CE December 1986 Major Subject: 1'uclear Eng nearing HEAT PIPE TRANSIENT MEASUREMENTS INCORPORATING VISUAL METHODS A Thesis by MARK DAVID DeHART Approved as to style and content by: Frederick R. Best (Chairman of Committee) Carl A. Erdman (Member...

  10. Full-field velocity measurements of single and two phase flows using digital pulsed laser velocimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canaan, Robert Ernst

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    particles. The use of a cylindrical constant heat flux emitting conductor enabled full-field velocity measurement of unsteady natural convective flows over a wide range of single phase flow regimes. The method was additionally extended to the measurement... and will utilize a constant heat flux emitting electrical conductor in order to represent a simple model of a nuclear reactor fuel element vertically positioned within a rectangular coolant channel. Natural convective cooling is of particularly recent concern...

  11. A visualization comparison of convective flow boiling heat transfer augmentation devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundy, Brian Franklin

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The qualitative effects of inset-table heat transfer phics. augmentation devices on vertical in-tube convective flow boiling flow regimes, transition mechanisms, and heat transfer are presented in this study. Three twisted tapes with twist ratios...

  12. Microcomputer analysis of regenerative heat exchangers for oscillating flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutchinson, R.A.; Lyke, S.E.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regenerative heat exchangers for use in oscillating flows such as those occurring in Stirling engines present considerable analytical problems to the thermal engineer. A simplified finite element analysis has been implemented in a spreadsheet, providing improved access to analytical assumptions and allowing parametric analysis of current heat transfer data. In addition, an irreversibility analysis has been implemented using the thermal and friction results in the spreadsheet. It is suited for evaluation and insights into loss tradeoffs inside operating regenerators, to suggest new regenerator design concepts, and to focus experimental work. 22 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Device for measuring the flow of a gas containing particulates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.G.; Hofer, P.H.

    1991-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an apparatus for continuously measuring the flow of a gas containing entrained particulates. It comprises: a flow channel, through which the gas flows; an orifice disposed within the flow channel, including at least a first surface and a second surface; means for causing the first surface and second surface independently to move in directions perpendicular to lines normal to the surfaces; scraping means, for intimately contacting at least a portion of the first surface and of the second surface, at all times while the surfaces are moving, whereby particulates which adhere to the first and second surfaces are removed by the movement of the surfaces past the scraping means; pressure taps, positioned so as to communicate with the flow channel upstream and downstream from the orifice, the pressure taps additionally in communication with pressure-measuring means, for measuring the pressure differential in the flow channel resulting from the passage of the gas through the orifice; and thermophoretic heaters, positioned so as to heat the gas within the pressure taps, and thereby excluding particulates therefrom.

  14. Enhanced Heat Flow in the Hydrodynamic Collisionless Regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meppelink, R.; Rooij, R. van; Vogels, J. M.; Straten, P. van der [Atom Optics and Ultrafast Dynamics, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the heat conduction of a cold, thermal cloud in a highly asymmetric trap. The cloud is axially hydrodynamic, but due to the asymmetric trap radially collisionless. By locally heating the cloud we excite a thermal dipole mode and measure its oscillation frequency and damping rate. We find an unexpectedly large heat conduction compared to the homogeneous case. The enhanced heat conduction in this regime is partially caused by atoms with a high angular momentum spiraling in trajectories around the core of the cloud. Since atoms in these trajectories are almost collisionless they strongly contribute to the heat transfer. We observe a second, oscillating hydrodynamic mode, which we identify as a standing wave sound mode.

  15. Numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in rotor-stator cavities with throughflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in rotor-stator cavities with throughflow S modeling of the turbulent flow in a rotor-stator cavity subjected to a superimposed throughflow with heat the dynamical effects from the heat transfer process. The fluid flow in an enclosed disk system with axial

  16. FLIHY EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES FOR STUDYING OPEN CHANNEL TURBULENT FLOWS AND HEAT TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    1 FLIHY EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES FOR STUDYING OPEN CHANNEL TURBULENT FLOWS AND HEAT TRANSFER B was constructed at UCLA to study open channel turbulent flow and heat transfer of low-thermal and low supercritical flow regimes (Fr>1), in which the surface waves are amplified and heat transfer is enhanced due

  17. Numeric Simulation of Heat Transfer and Electrokinetic Flow in an Electroosmosis-Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Numeric Simulation of Heat Transfer and Electrokinetic Flow in an Electroosmosis-Based Continuous is dedicated to under- standing the fluid flow and heat transfer mechanisms occurring in continuous flow PCR are discussed in detail. The importance of each heat transfer mechanism for different situations is also

  18. FliHy experimental facilities for studying open channel turbulent flows and heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    FliHy experimental facilities for studying open channel turbulent flows and heat transfer B. Freeze) facility was constructed at UCLA to study open channel turbulent flow and heat transfer of low supercritical flow regimes (Fr /1), in which the surface waves are amplified and heat transfer is enhanced due

  19. Flow and heat transfer of a third grade fluid past an exponentially stretching sheet with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Flow and heat transfer of a third grade fluid past an exponentially stretching sheet with partial-Newtonian boundary layer flow and heat transfer over an exponentially stretch- ing sheet with partial slip boundary. The heat transfer analysis has been carried out for two heating processes, namely (i) with prescribed sur

  20. Heat transport by laminar boundary layer flow with polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Benzi; Emily S. C. Ching.; Vivien W. S. Chu

    2011-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by recent experimental observations, we consider a steady-state Prandtl-Blasius boundary layer flow with polymers above a slightly heated horizontal plate and study how the heat transport might be affected by the polymers. We discuss how a set of equations can be derived for the problem and how these equations can be solved numerically by an iterative scheme. By carrying out such a scheme, we find that the effect of the polymers is equivalent to producing a space-dependent effective viscosity that first increases from the zero-shear value at the plate then decreases rapidly back to the zero-shear value far from the plate. We further show that such an effective viscosity leads to an enhancement in the drag, which in turn leads to a reduction in heat transport.

  1. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  2. Geothermal Well and Heat Flow Data for the United States (Southern Methodist University (SMU) Geothermal Laboratory)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Blackwell, D.D. and others

    Southern Methodist University makes two databases and several detailed maps available. The Regional Heat Flow Database for the United States contains information on primarily regional or background wells that determine the heat flow for the United States; temperature gradients and conductivity are used to generate heat flow measurements. Information on geology of the location, porosity, thermal conductivity, water table depth, etc. are also included when known. There are usually three data files for each state or region. The first files were generated in 1989 for the data base creating the Decade of North America Geology (DNAG) Geothermal Map. The second set is from 1996 when the data base was officially updated for the Department of Energy. The third set is from 1999 when the Western U.S. High Temperature Geothermal data base was completed. As new data is received, the files continue to be updated. The second major resource is the Western Geothermal Areas Database, a database of over 5000 wells in primarily high temperature geothermal areas from the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean. The majority of the data are from company documents, well logs, and publications with drilling dates ranging from 1960 to 2000. Many of the wells were not previously accessible to the public. Users will need to register, but will then have free, open access to the databases. The contents of each database can be viewed and downloaded as Excel spreadsheets. See also the heat flow maps at http://www.smu.edu/geothermal/heatflow/heatflow.htm

  3. Conductive and convective heat transfer in fluid flows between differentially heated and rotating cylinders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Jose M; Avila, Marc

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The flow of fluid confined between a heated rotating cylinder and a cooled stationary cylinder is a canonical experiment for the study of heat transfer in engineering. The theoretical treatment of this system is greatly simplified if the cylinders are assumed to be of infinite length or periodic in the axial direction, in which cases heat transfer occurs only through conduction as in a solid. We here investigate numerically heat transfer and the onset of turbulence in such flows by using both periodic and no-slip boundary conditions in the axial direction. We obtain a simple linear criterion that determines whether the infinite-cylinder assumption can be employed. The curvature of the cylinders enters this linear relationship through the slope and additive constant. For a given length-to-gap aspect ratio there is a critical Rayleigh number beyond which the laminar flow in the finite system is convective and so the behaviour is entirely different from the periodic case. The criterion does not depend on the Pra...

  4. A preliminary assessment of the effects of groundwater flow on closed-loop ground source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiasson, A.D.; Rees, S.J.; Spitler, J.D.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary study has been made of the effects of groundwater flow on the heat transfer characteristics of vertical closed-loop heat exchangers and the ability of current design and in-situ thermal conductivity measurement techniques to deal with these effects. It is shown that an initial assessment of the significance of groundwater flow can be made by examining the Peclet number of the flow. A finite-element numerical groundwater flow and heat transfer model has been used to simulate the effects of groundwater flow on a single closed-loop heat exchanger in various geologic materials. These simulations show that advection of heat by groundwater flow significantly enhances heat transfer in geologic materials with high hydraulic conductivity, such as sands, gravels, and rocks exhibiting fractures and solution channels. Simulation data were also used to derive effective thermal conductivities with an in-situ thermal conductivity estimation procedure. These data were used to design borehole fields of different depths for a small commercial building. The performance of these borehole field designs was investigated by simulating each borehole field using the pre-calculated building loads over a ten-year period. Results of these simulations, in terms of the minimum and peak loop temperatures, were used to examine the ability of current design methods to produce workable and efficient designs under a range of groundwater flow conditions.

  5. Heat Exchanger Fouling- Prediction, Measurement and Mitigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, G. R.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Programs (OIP) sponsors the development of innovative heat exchange systems. Fouling is a major and persistent cost associated with most industrial heat exchangers and nationally wastes...

  6. Fluid flow and heat transfer modeling for castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domanus, H.M.; Liu, Y.Y.; Sha, W.T.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Casting is fundamental to manufacturing of many types of equipment and products. Although casting is a very old technology that has been in existence for hundreds of years, it remains a highly empirical technology, and production of new castings requires an expensive and time-consuming trial-and-error approach. In recent years, mathematical modeling of casting has received increasing attention; however, a majority of the modeling work has been in the area of heat transfer and solidification. Very little work has been done in modeling fluid flow of the liquid melt. This paper presents a model of fluid flow coupled with heat transfer of a liquid melt for casting processes. The model to be described in this paper is an extension of the COMMIX code and is capable of handling castings with any shape, size, and material. A feature of this model is the ability to track the liquid/gas interface and liquid/solid interface. The flow of liquid melt through the sprue and runners and into the mold cavity is calculated as well as three-dimensional temperature and velocity distributions of the liquid melt throughout the casting process. 14 refs., 13 figs.

  7. NIST Measurement Services: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NIST Measurement Services: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration NIST Special Publication 250-65 Benjamin K Special Publication 250-65 NIST MEASUREMENT SERVICES: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration Benjamin K. Tsai GAITHERSBURG, MD: 2004 #12;iii PREFACE The calibration and related measurement services of the National

  8. Couette flow regimes with heat transfer in rarefied gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramov, A. A., E-mail: alabr54@mail.ru; Butkovskii, A. V., E-mail: albutkov@mail.ru [Zhukovski Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation by direct statistic simulation, the Couette flow with heat transfer is studied in a broad range of ratios of plate temperatures and Mach numbers of a moving plate. Flow regime classification by the form of the dependences of the energy flux and friction stress on the Knudsen number Kn is proposed. These dependences can be simultaneously monotonic and nonmonotonic and have maxima. Situations are possible in which the dependence of the energy flux transferred to a plate on Kn has a minimum, while the dependence of the friction stress is monotonic or even has a maximum. Also, regimes exist in which the dependence of the energy flux on Kn has a maximum, while the dependence of the friction stress is monotonic, and vice versa.

  9. Probabilistic multiscale models and measurements of self-heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Probabilistic multiscale models and measurements of self-heating under multiaxial high cycle cyclic loadings, usually referred to as "self-heating tests." This paper focuses on two models whose parameters are tuned by resorting to self-heating tests and then used to predict high cycle fatigue

  10. Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient In Minichannels Correlation and Trends Satish G. Kandlikar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient In Minichannels ­ Correlation and Trends Satish G. Kandlikar York 14623, USA The flow boiling heat transfer in small diameter passages is being applied in many boiling heat transfer coefficient with the correlations developed for conventional channels. It is found

  11. Global weak solutions to magnetic fluid flows with nonlinear Maxwell-Cattaneo heat transfer law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Global weak solutions to magnetic fluid flows with nonlinear Maxwell-Cattaneo heat transfer law F transfer in a magnetic fluid flow under the action of an applied magnetic field. Instead of the usual heat-Cattaneo law, heat transfer, magnetic field, magnetization AMS subject classifications: 76N10, 35Q35. 1

  12. Numerical method for fluid flow and heat transfer in magnetohydrodynamic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, C.N.; Abdou, M.A.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new numerical algorithm was developed to provide a fully detailed flow field in liquid metal MHD flow with a relatively large Hartmann number and interaction parameter. The algorithm includes the effects of advection and diffusion, and is capable of predicting momentum and heat transfer in MHD flows. Using this algorithm, an incompressible, viscous, three-dimensional MHD flow in a square duct is investigated at a low magnetic Reynolds number by means of the finite volume method. The velocity and temperature profiles are obtained in the developing region for constant wall temperature. The result shows that large velocities are obtained near the insulating walls parallel to the magnetic field. Also, near the perfectly conducting walls perpendicular to the field, a velocity profile like a Hartmann layer is obtained. In association with the velocity profiles, Nusselt number at the insulating walls (with side layer) is seen to be larger than that at the perfectly conducting walls (with Hartmann layer).

  13. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF VAPOR BUBBLE GROWTH AND WALL HEAT TRANSFER DURING FLOW BOILING OF WATER IN A MICROCHANNEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    . (2004) developed three- zone flow boiling heat transfer model to describe evaporation of elongated

  14. Measuring and interpreting charge dependent anisotropic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei A. Voloshin; Ronald Belmont

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chiral Magnetic Wave (CMW) [1] predicts a dependence of the positive and negative particle elliptic flow on the event charge asymmetry. Such a dependence has been observed by the STAR Collaboration [2]. However, it is rather difficult to interpret the results of this measurement, as well as to perform cross-experiment comparisons, due to the dependence of the observable on experimental inefficiencies and the kinematic acceptance used to determine the net asymmetry. We propose another observable that is free from these deficiencies. It also provides possibilities for differential measurements clarifying the interpretation of the results. We use this new observable to study the effect of the local charge conservation that can mimic the effect of the CMW in charge dependent flow measurements.

  15. Experimental validation of large eddy simulations of flow and heat transfer in a stationary ribbed duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thole, Karen A.

    Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Duct flow; Ribbed channels; LES 1. Introduction In an effortExperimental validation of large eddy simulations of flow and heat transfer in a stationary ribbed Abstract Accurate prediction of ribbed duct flow and heat transfer is of importance to the gas turbine

  16. Advanced Turbulence Measurements and Signal Processing for Hydropower Flow Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Turbulence Measurements and Signal Processing for Hydropower Flow Characterization and flow characterization within full scale conventional hydropower systems, at marine and hydrokinetic

  17. Measuring the Costs & Benefits of Nationwide Geothermal Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measuring the Costs & Benefits of Nationwide Geothermal Heat Pump (GHP) Deployment ­ A Progress to measure the costs and benefits of nationwide geothermal heat pump (GHP) deployment. · First market study to quantify the entire GHP chain ­ Manufacturing ­ Design ­ Installation · GHPsRUS is short for "geothermal

  18. FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES WITH APPLICATION TO OPTOTHERMAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES WITH APPLICATION TO OPTOTHERMAL ANALYTE transfer in microfluidic devices with applica- tion to optothermal analyte preconcentration and manipula the local fluid temperature in microfluidics. Thermal characteristics of the heating system have been

  19. Simulation of Strongly Heated Internal Gas Flows Using a Near-Wall Two-Equation Heat Flux Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Adam H.; Spall, Robert E. [Utah State University, 1400 Old Main Hill Logan, Utah 84322-1400 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-equation k-{omega} model is used to model a strongly heated, low-Mach number gas flowing upward in a vertical tube. Heating causes significant property variation and thickening of the viscous sublayer, consequently a fully developed flow does not evolve. Two-equation turbulence models generally perform poorly under such conditions. Consequently, in the present work, a near-wall two-equation heat transfer model is utilized in conjunction with the k-{omega} model to improve heat transfer predictions. (authors)

  20. Temperature and Heat Transfer Measurements Cengiz Camci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    mainly because of thermal reasons. Satel- lite thermal management systems, hot sections of propulsion systems, combustors, aerodynamic heating of supersonic/ hypersonicvehiclesurfaces is not meaningful, since there are no agitated particles in empty space. A body in which "thermal agitation

  1. Using a cold radiometer to measure heat loads and survey heat leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P. [Cryogenics and Fluids Branch, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  2. A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raustad, Richard A. [Florida Solar Energy Center

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

  3. A Site-Scale Model For Fluid And Heat Flow In The Unsaturated...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heat at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential repository site for high-level radioactive waste. The model takes into account the simultaneous flow dynamics of liquid water, vapor,...

  4. Time variability of AGN and heating of cooling flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Nipoti; James Binney

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    There is increasing evidence that AGN mechanical feedback is important in the energetics of cooling flows in galaxies and galaxy clusters. We investigate the implications of the variability of AGN mechanical luminosity L_m on observations of cooling flows and radio galaxies in general. It is natural to assume that l=ln(L_m/L_x) is a Gaussian process. Then L_m will be log-normally distributed at fixed cooling luminosity L_x, and the variance in a measure of L_m will increase with the time-resolution of the measure. We test the consistency of these predictions with existing data. These tests hinge on the power spectrum of l(t). Monitoring of Seyfert galaxies combined with estimates of the duty cycle of quasars imply flicker noise spectra, similar to those of microquasars. We combine a sample of sources in cooling flows that have cavities with the assumption that the average mechanical luminosity of the AGN equals L_x. Given that the mechanical luminosities are characterized by flicker noise, we find that their spectral amplitudes lie between the estimated amplitudes of quasars and the measured values for the radio luminosities of microquasars. The model together with the observation that powerful radio galaxies lie within a narrow range in optical luminosity, predicts the luminosity function of radio galaxies, in agreement with observations. Forthcoming radio surveys will test the prediction that the luminosity function turns over at about the smallest luminosities so far probed. [Abridged

  5. Photometric studies of heat flow at the photosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foukal, P.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuum photometry is carried out and the results of comparing these observations with models of photospheric heat flow are described. The main results are: (1) a possible detection of weak bright rings around some spot penumbrae (2) no evidence is found for large scale photospheric brightness inhomogeneities exceeding 2-3 K which places tighter constraints on models of global scale convection (3) supergranular scale continuum structures observed across the photosphere appear mainly due to random clumping of granules (4) the one case observed of a sunspot emergence shows no thermal shadow exceeding 1.5 K rms one day prior to umbra appearance (5) network and faculae are found to show a small excess brightness even at mu 1, so detection of faculae at mu 1 by differential photometry indicates a gentler temperature gradient near tau 1 in the facular (relative to cell) atmosphere (6) the limb darkening study shows no significant global variations to within 0.1% rms.

  6. 1.12.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/24 8. Heat pumps, heat pipes,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    of low-temperature (waste) heat, replacing sources of (unnecessarily) high temperature heat (and, 3) outside water heat and 4) heat from another indoor space, or 5) waste heat from a process1.12.2014Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/24 8. Heat

  7. Technical Subtopic 2.1: Modeling Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Equipment in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raustad, Richard; Nigusse, Bereket; Domitrovic, Ron

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Central Florida/Florida Solar Energy Center, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute and several variable-refrigerant-flow heat pump (VRF HP) manufacturers, provided a detailed computer model for a VRF HP system in the United States Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE) EnergyPlus? building energy simulation tool. Detailed laboratory testing and field demonstrations were performed to measure equipment performance and compare this performance to both the manufacturer's data and that predicted by the use of this new model through computer simulation. The project goal was to investigate the complex interactions of VRF HP systems from an HVAC system perspective, and explore the operational characteristics of this HVAC system type within a laboratory and real world building environment. Detailed laboratory testing of this advanced HVAC system provided invaluable performance information which does not currently exist in the form required for proper analysis and modeling. This information will also be useful for developing and/or supporting test standards for VRF HP systems. Field testing VRF HP systems also provided performance and operational information pertaining to installation, system configuration, and operational controls. Information collected from both laboratory and field tests were then used to create and validate the VRF HP system computer model which, in turn, provides architects, engineers, and building owners the confidence necessary to accurately and reliably perform building energy simulations. This new VRF HP model is available in the current public release version of DOE?s EnergyPlus software and can be used to investigate building energy use in both new and existing building stock. The general laboratory testing did not use the AHRI Standard 1230 test procedure and instead used an approach designed to measure the field installed full-load operating performance. This projects test methodology used the air enthalpy method where relevant air-side parameters were controlled while collecting output performance data at discreet points of steady-state operation. The primary metrics include system power consumption and zonal heating and cooling capacity. Using this test method, the measured total cooling capacity was somewhat lower than reported by the manufacturer. The measured power was found to be equal to or greater than the manufacturers indicated power. Heating capacity measurements produced similar results. The air-side performance metric was total cooling and heating energy since the computer model uses those same metrics as input to the model. Although the sensible and latent components of total cooling were measured, they are not described in this report. The test methodology set the thermostat set point temperature very low for cooling and very high for heating to measure full-load performance and was originally thought to provide the maximum available capacity. Manufacturers stated that this test method would not accurately measure performance of VRF systems which is now believed to be a true statement. Near the end of the project, an alternate test method was developed to better represent VRF system performance as if field installed. This method of test is preliminarily called the Load Based Method of Test where the load is fixed and the indoor conditions and unit operation are allowed to fluctuate. This test method was only briefly attempted in a laboratory setting but does show promise for future lab testing. Since variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps include an on-board control algorithm to modulate capacity, these systems are difficult to test. Manufacturers do have the ability to override internal components to accommodate certification procedures, however, it is unknown if the resulting operation is replicated in the field, or if so, how often. Other studies have shown that variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps do out perform their single-speed counterparts though these field studies leave as many questions as they do provide answers. The measure

  8. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Transfer Rate Using a Thin-Skin Calorimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the design and use of a thin metallic calorimeter for measuring heat transfer rate (also called heat flux). Thermocouples are attached to the unexposed surface of the calorimeter. A one-dimensional heat flow analysis is used for calculating the heat transfer rate from the temperature measurements. Applications include aerodynamic heating, laser and radiation power measurements, and fire safety testing. 1.2 Advantages 1.2.1 Simplicity of ConstructionThe calorimeter may be constructed from a number of materials. The size and shape can often be made to match the actual application. Thermocouples may be attached to the metal by spot, electron beam, or laser welding. 1.2.2 Heat transfer rate distributions may be obtained if metals with low thermal conductivity, such as some stainless steels, are used. 1.2.3 The calorimeters can be fabricated with smooth surfaces, without insulators or plugs and the attendant temperature discontinuities, to provide more realistic flow conditions for ...

  9. Heat Exchanger Fouling- Prediction, Measurement and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, G. R.

    wall. The fouling probe has been successfully tested in the laboratory at flue gas temperatures up to 2200°F and a local heat flux up to 41,000 BTU/hr-ft2. The probe has been field tested at a coal-fired boiler plant. Future tests at a municipal waste...

  10. 2.13 HEAT TRANSFER & FLUID FLOW IN MICROCHANNELS 2.13.7-1 Molecular dynamics methods in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    2.13 HEAT TRANSFER & FLUID FLOW IN MICROCHANNELS 2.13.7-1 2.13.7 Molecular dynamics methods in microscale heat transfer Shigeo Maruyama A. Introduction In normal heat transfer and fluid flow calculations of molecules. This situation is approached in microscale heat transfer and fluid flow. Molecular level

  11. Measuring Joule heating and strain induced by electrical current with Moire interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Bicheng; Basaran, Cemal [Electronic Packaging Laboratory, State University of New York at Buffalo, 102 Ketter Hall, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study proposes a new method to locate and measure the temperature of the hot spots caused by Joule Heating by measuring the free thermal expansion in-plane strain. It is demonstrated that the hotspot caused by the Joule heating in a thin metal film/plate structure can be measured by Phase shifting Moire interferometry with continuous wavelet transform (PSMI/CWT) at the microscopic scale. A demonstration on a copper film is conducted to verify the theory under different current densities. A correlation between the current density and strain in two orthogonal directions (one in the direction of the current flow) is proposed. The method can also be used for the measurement of the Joule heating in the microscopic solid structures in the electronic packaging devices. It is shown that a linear relationship exists between current density squared and normal strains.

  12. Method and apparatus for measuring flow velocity using matched filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring the flow velocities of individual phase flow components of a multiphase flow utilizes matched filters. Signals arising from flow noise disturbance are extracted from the flow, at upstream and downstream locations. The signals are processed through pairs of matched filters which are matched to the flow disturbance frequency characteristics of the phase flow component to be measured. The processed signals are then cross-correlated to determine the transit delay time of the phase flow component between sensing positions.

  13. Method and apparatus for measuring flow velocity using matched filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raptis, A.C.

    1983-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring the flow velocities of individual phase flow components of a multiphase flow utilizes matched filters. Signals arising from flow noise disturbance are extracted from the flow, at upstream and downstream locations. The signals are processed through pairs of matched filters which are matched to the flow disturbance frequency characteristics of the phase flow component to be measured. The processed signals are then cross-correlated to determine the transit delay time of the phase flow component between sensing positions. 8 figs.

  14. Impingement cooling and heat transfer measurement using transient liquid crystal technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yizhe

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer study on jet impingement cooling is presented. The study focuses on the effect of impingement jet flow rate, jet angle, and flow exit direction on various target surface heat transfer distributions. A two-channel test section...

  15. TOPAZ: a computer code for modeling heat transfer and fluid flow in arbitrary networks of pipes, flow branches, and vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, W.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of the computer code TOPAZ (Transient-One-Dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer) is presented. TOPAZ models the flow of compressible and incompressible fluids through complex and arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, flow branches and vessels. Heat transfer to and from the fluid containment structures (i.e. vessel and pipe walls) can also be modeled. This document includes discussions of the fluid flow equations and containment heat conduction equations. The modeling philosophy, numerical integration technique, code architecture, and methods for generating the computational mesh are also discussed.

  16. Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow MILIVOJE M of nanofluids in tube flow has been developed, instrumented and computerized. It has been calibrated using) nanofluids show peculiar results with substantial friction drag reduction and heat transfer enhancement

  17. Flow-Induced Deformation of a Flexible Thin Structure as Manifestation of Heat Transfer Enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soti, Atul Kumar; Sheridan, John

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow-induced deformation of thin structures coupled with convective heat transfer has potential applications in energy harvesting and is important for understanding functioning of several biological systems. We numerically demonstrate large-scale flow-induced deformation as an effective passive heat transfer enhancement technique. An in-house, strongly-coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver is employed in which flow and structure solvers are based on sharp-interface immersed boundary and finite element method, respectively. In the present work, we validate convective heat transfer module of the in-house FSI solver against several benchmark examples of conduction and convective heat transfer including moving structure boundaries. The thermal augmentation is investigated as well as quantified for the flow-induced deformation of an elastic thin plate attached to lee side of a rigid cylinder in a heated channel laminar flow. We show that the wake vortices past the plate sweep higher sources of vorticity...

  18. Impingement cooling and heat transfer measurement using transient liquid crystal technique 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yizhe

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is used in this study to obtain the detailed heat transfer coefficient. Results show that a higher Reynolds number increases heat transfer over the entire impingement target surface. The flow exit orientation with crossflow affects the heat transfer...

  19. Community-Scale Environmental Measures and Urban Heat Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , are not well quantified. Community-scale environmental measures include solar collection technologiesCommunity-Scale Environmental Measures and Urban Heat Island Impacts Buildings End-Use Energy 2011 The Issue Community-scale environmental measures offer the potential to reduce energy use

  20. Vector Field Smoothing Via Heat Flow Antonio Robles-Kelly and Edwin R. Hancock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robles-Kelly, Antonio

    Vector Field Smoothing Via Heat Flow Antonio Robles-Kelly and Edwin R. Hancock Department into that of solving the steady state heat equation for a scalar potential. According to this picture, the smoothed field of surface nor- mals is found by taking the gradient of the scalar field. The heat equation

  1. Numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in rotor-stator cavities with throughflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in rotor-stator cavities with throughflow S in a rotor-stator cavity subjected to a superimposed throughflow with heat transfer. Nu- merical predictions field from the heat transfer process. The turbulent flux is approximated by a gradient hypothesis

  2. Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a, , Chia September 2011 Keywords: Microtube Heat transfer Liquid Crystal Thermography a b s t r a c t Several researches dealing with the single-phase forced convection heat transfer inside microchannels have been

  3. Investigation of flow maldistribution in a concentric-tube, counterflow, laminar heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratts, E.B. [Univ. of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis is made to quantify the effect of flow maldistribution on the performance of a laminar, counterflow, high-effectiveness heat exchanger. An investigation of the ability of thermally connected fins in one passage (screen mesh) to correct the uneven heat transfer distribution from the maldistributed mass flow in the other passage is made. A heat transfer model is developed for both passages. A parametric study presents the effect of adding thermal paths to correct the uneven heat transfer. A redefined fin efficiency is proposed to incorporate the fins` ability to correct uneven heat transfer. Data are compared to the model.

  4. CFD Simulations of a Flow Mixing and Heat Transfer Enhancement in an Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    In, Wang-Kee; Chun, Tae-Hyun; Shin, Chang-Hwan; Oh, Dong-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, Korea 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to investigate a flow-mixing and heat-transfer enhancement caused by a mixing-vane spacer in a LWR fuel assembly which is a rod bundle. This paper presents the CFD simulations of a flow mixing and heat transfer in a fully heated 5x5 array of a rod bundle with a split-vane and hybrid-vane spacer. The CFD prediction at a low Reynolds number of 42,000 showed a reasonably good agreement of the initial heat transfer enhancement with the measured one for a partially heated experiment using a similar spacer structure. The CFD simulation also predicted the decay rate of a normalized Nusselt number downstream of the split-vane spacer which agrees fairly well with those of the experiment and the correlation. The CFD calculations for the split vane and hybrid vane at the LWR operating conditions(Re = 500,000) predicted hot fuel spots in a streaky structure downstream of the spacer, which occurs due to the secondary flow occurring in an opposite direction near the fuel rod. However, the split-vane and hybrid-vane spacers are predicted to significantly enhance the overall heat transfer of a LWR nuclear fuel assembly. (authors)

  5. Heat transport and weakening of atmospheric stability induced by mesoscale flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pielke, Roger A.

    Heat transport and weakening of atmospheric stability induced by mesoscale flows G. A. Dalu boundary layer (CBL) is transported upward into the midtroposphere by mesoscale flows, and how the air, and diffusion, associated with the mesoscale flow, is more clearly shown when the forcing is periodic in time

  6. Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible. 3 figures.

  7. Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible.

  8. Air flow in a high aspect ratio heat sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allison, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing heat output of modern electronics requires concomitant advances in heat sinking technology: reductions in thermal resistance and required pumping power are necessary. This research covers the development of ...

  9. Original article Influence of heating conditions in continuous-flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , holding and cooling phases. When milk was heated in a continuous microwave heating system, at 90 °C and cooling times. vitamin B1 / vitamin B2 / milk / microwave heating Résumé -- Étude de l'effet des exchange systems on the vitamin B1 and B2 content of milk Isabel SIERRA, Concepción VIDAL

  10. OSCILLATORY FLOW FORCED CONVECTION IN MICRO HEAT SPREADERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beskok, Ali

    transfer devices, micro heat pipes, based on capillary pumping of a multiphase ¯uid in microchannels, have-phase forced convection heat transfer and ¯ow characteristics of water in microchannels, both in the laminar) concept for ef cient transport of large, concentrated heat loads is introduced. The MHS is a single

  11. Heat Loss Measurement Using Infrared Imaging 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seeber, S. A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for these types of information may be made in the field using a small hand-held computer that provides a permanent print out of the re~ sults. Large surface area measurements are made with the aid of a portable micro computer. A grid representaton... reduced surface tempera tures: a clogged check valve on a ste'm line, excessive moisture in paper drying operations, accumulations of combustion by products on exhaust gas stacks and pipes, wet insulation on cryogenic storage ve~? sels...

  12. INTERNAL FORCED iquid or gas flow through pipes or ducts is commonly used in heating and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    to flow by a fan or pump through a flow section that is sufficiently long to accomplish the desired heat. Then the logarithmic mean temperature difference and the rate of heat loss from the air become Tln 15.2°C Q · hAs Tln (13.5 W/m2 °C)(6.4 m2 )( 15.2°C) 1313 W Therefore, air will lose heat at a rate of 1313 W as it flows

  13. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meisner, Gregory P

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  14. System for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and system for measuring a multi-phase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multi-phase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The system for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes taking into account a pressure drop experienced by the gas phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase.

  15. C-III flow measurements with a coherence imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, T. R.; Allen, S. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Howard, J. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This work describes a coherence imaging spectrometer capable of making spatially resolved CIII flow measurements in the DIII-D lower divertor. The spectrometer exploits a periscope view of the plasma to produce line-of-sight averaged velocity measurements of CIII. From these chord averaged flow measurements, a 2D poloidal cross section of the CIII flow is tomographically reconstructed. Details of the diagnostic setup, acquired data, and data analysis will be presented, along with prospects for future applications.

  16. Study of Laminar Flow Forced Convection Heat Transfer Behavior of a Phase Change Material Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravi, Gurunarayana

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    with constant peripheral temperature and uniform axial and peripheral temperature, were considered in the case of circular tubes. An effective specific heat technique was used to model the phase change process assuming a hydrodynamically fully-developed flow...

  17. An experimental investigation of critical heat flux in subcooled internal flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shatto, Donald Patrick

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diameters, tube lengths, and mass flow rates. Methods of developing predictive correlations for subcooled critical heat flux based on dimensional analysis, and the sublayer dryout model, are described and applied to the data from these experiments. When...

  18. Visualization of flow boiling in an annular heat exchanger under reduced gravity conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westheimer, David Thomas

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work examines the effects of gravitational acceleration on the flow boiling process. A test facility focusing on an annular heat exchanger was designed, built out of borosilicate glass, and flown on NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity airplane...

  19. Heat Flow of Biharmonic Maps in Dimensions Four and Its Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    the heat flow of extrinsic biharmonic maps from M to N, which is smooth away from finitely ..... Now we need to have the uniform control of. ?. M. |ut|2. For this ...

  20. Heat Flow From Four New Research Drill Holes In The Western Cascades...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Research Drill Holes In The Western Cascades, Oregon, Usa Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Heat Flow From Four New Research...

  1. Film boiling of saturated liquid flowing upward through a heated tube : high vapor quality range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laverty, W. F.

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Film boiling of saturated liquid flowing upward through a uniformly heated tube has been studied for the case in which pure saturated liquid enters the tube and nearly saturated vapor is discharged. Since a previous study ...

  2. MODELING COUPLED PROCESSES OF MULTIPHASE FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN UNSATURATED FRACTURED ROCK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Wu; S. Mukhopadhyay; K. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is developed for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. The TH model, consisting of three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the unsaturated zone, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, and thermal loading scenario under estimated current and future climate conditions. More specifically, the TH model implements the current geological framework and hydrogeological conceptual models, and incorporates the most updated, best-estimated input parameters. This mountain-scale TH model simulates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale multiphase fluid flow, and evaluates the impact of radioactive waste heat on the hydrogeological system, including thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. For a better description of the ambient geothermal condition of the unsaturated zone system, the TH model is first calibrated against measured borehole temperature data. The ambient temperature calibration provides the necessary surface and water table boundary as well as initial conditions. Then, the TH model is used to obtain scientific understanding of TH processes in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone under the designed schedule of repository thermal load.

  3. Geothermal Resource-Reservoir Investigations Based On Heat Flow...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    numerical models are used to establish basic qualitative relationships between structure, heat input, and permeability distribution, and the resulting geothermal system. A series...

  4. Development of Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 4.4.3 Development of Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure, and Seismicity of EGS Reservoirs - 300 C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System for...

  5. Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, R J; Leibfried, D; Wesenberg, J H; Bollinger, J J; Amini, J M; Blakestad, R B; Britton, J; Home, J P; Itano, W M; Jost, J D; Knill, E; Langer, C; Ozeri, R; Shiga, N; Wineland, D J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured motional heating rates of trapped atomic ions, a factor that can influence multi-ion quantum logic gate fidelities. Two simplified techniques were developed for this purpose: one relies on Raman sideband detection implemented with a single laser source, while the second is even simpler and is based on time-resolved fluorescence detection during Doppler recooling. We applied these methods to determine heating rates in a microfrabricated surface-electrode trap made of gold on fused quartz, which traps ions 40 microns above its surface. Heating rates obtained from the two techniques were found to be in reasonable agreement. In addition, the trap gives rise to a heating rate of 300 plus or minus 30 per second for a motional frequency of 5.25 MHz, substantially below the trend observed in other traps.

  6. Measurements and Predictions of the Heat Transfer at the Tube-Fin Junction for Louvered Fin Heat Exchangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thole, Karen A.

    Measurements and Predictions of the Heat Transfer at the Tube-Fin Junction for Louvered Fin Heat Transfer at the Tube-Fin Junction for Louvered Fin Heat Exchangers Abstract The dominant thermal resistance used to increase heat transfer by initiating new boundary layer growth and increasing surface area

  7. NIST Measurement Services: Natural Gas Flow Calibration Service (NGFCS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NIST Measurement Services: Natural Gas Flow Calibration Service (NGFCS) NIST Special Publication of Standards and Technology #12;i Table of Contents for the Natural Gas Flowmeter Calibration Service (NGFCS;1 Abstract This document describes NIST's high pressure natural gas flow calibration service (NGFCS). Flow

  8. Measurement of thermodynamics using gradient flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masakiyo Kitazawa; Masayuki Asakawa; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Takumi Iritani; Etsuko Itou; Hiroshi Suzuki

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze bulk thermodynamics and correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in pure Yang-Mills gauge theory using the energy-momentum tensor defined by the gradient flow and small flow time expansion. Our results on thermodynamic observables are consistent with those obtained by the conventional integral method. The analysis of the correlation function of total energy supports the energy conservation. It is also addressed that these analyses with gradient flow require less statistics compared with the previous methods. All these results suggest that the energy-momentum tensor can be successfully defined and observed on the lattice with moderate numerical costs with the gradient flow.

  9. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  10. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  11. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics for a New Type of Air Heater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, H.; Fan, X.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is found that the integrated characteristics of heat transfer and flow friction increase with the hole's diameter at the same hole density (which is equal to the ratio of the hole's total area to the baffle's area), and the heat transfer rate increases...

  12. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics for a New Type of Air Heater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, H.; Fan, X.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is found that the integrated characteristics of heat transfer and flow friction increase with the hole's diameter at the same hole density (which is equal to the ratio of the hole's total area to the baffle's area), and the heat transfer rate increases...

  13. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein N. (Los Gatos, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

  14. On Heating of Cluster Cooling Flows by Sound Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yutaka Fujita; Takeru Ken Suzuki

    2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate heating of the cool core of a galaxy cluster through the dissipation of sound waves excited by the activities of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using a weak shock theory, we show that this heating mechanism alone cannot reproduce observed temperature and density profiles of a cluster, because the dissipation length of the waves is much smaller than the size of the core and thus the wave energy is not distributed to the whole core. However, we find that if it is combined with thermal conduction from the hot outer layer of the cluster, the wave heating can reproduce the observational results.

  15. An Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow Phenomena 1n Electroslag Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    and temperature distri- bution~ are given for several idealized models of the electroslag welding process) ) An Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow Phenomena 1n Electroslag Welding Two physical models created and fluid flow phenom- ena in metals processing operations have been applied to electroslag weld- ing

  16. ORIGINAL PAPER Flow Dynamics and Plasma Heating of Spheromaks in SSX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael R.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Flow Dynamics and Plasma Heating of Spheromaks in SSX M. R. Brown � C. D. Cothran � from single dipole- trapped spheromaks and spheromak merging studies at SSX. Single spheromaks) copper flux conserver. Local spheromak flow is studied with two Mach probes (r1 £ qi, r2 qi) calibrated

  17. FLOWS AND MOTIONS IN MOSS IN THE CORE OF A FLARING ACTIVE REGION: EVIDENCE FOR STEADY HEATING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P., E-mail: dhbrooks@ssd5.nrl.navy.mi [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2009-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new measurements of the time variability of intensity, Doppler, and nonthermal velocities in moss in an active region core observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode in 2007 June. The measurements are derived from spectral profiles of the Fe XII 195 A line. Using the 2'' slit, we repeatedly scanned 150'' by 150'' in a few minutes. This is the first time it has been possible to make such velocity measurements in the moss, and the data presented are the highest cadence spatially resolved maps of moss Doppler and nonthermal velocities ever obtained in the corona. The observed region produced numerous C- and M-class flares with several occurring in the core close to the moss. The magnetic field was therefore clearly changing in the active region core, so we ought to be able to detect dynamic signatures in the moss if they exist. Our measurements of moss intensities agree with previous studies in that a less than 15% variability is seen over a period of 16 hr. Our new measurements of Doppler and nonthermal velocities reveal no strong flows or motions in the moss, nor any significant variability in these quantities. The results confirm that moss at the bases of high temperature coronal loops is heated quasi-steadily. They also show that quasi-steady heating can contribute significantly even in the core of a flare productive active region. Such heating may be impulsive at high frequency, but if so it does not give rise to large flows or motions.

  18. EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION AND HEATING OF TWO ACTIVE REGION CORES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, Durgesh [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Klimchuk, James A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mason, Helen E., E-mail: durgesh@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM{proportional_to}T{sup 2.4} from log T = 5.5 up to a peak at log T = 6.55. We show that the observations compare very favorably with a simple model of nanoflare-heated loop strands. They also appear to be consistent with more sophisticated nanoflare models. However, in the absence of additional constraints, steady heating is also a viable explanation.

  19. Flow Measurement with Tangential Paddlewheel Flow Meters: Analysis of Experimental Results and in-situ Diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watt, J. B.; Haberl, J. S.

    the premature drop-out of magnetic-type tangential paddlewheel sensors, as well as several in-situ diagnostic measures for ascertaining whether or not a flow meter is experiencing turbulent conditions or if a flow sensor's output signal is suffering a degraded... per second for magnetic-type, and 0.5 to 2 feet per second for non-magnetic-type flow sensors deviated from the actual flow by 20% or more which makes the measurement of flow and thermal energy use in this regime highly suspect. Figure 4 also indicates...

  20. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Tairan, E-mail: trfu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  1. Heat flow and subsurface temperature distributions in central and western New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, D.S.; Fromm, K.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiation of a geothermal energy program in western and central New York requires knowledge of subsurface temperatures for targeting areas of potential resources. The temperature distribution in possible geothermal reservoirs, calculated from heat flow measurements and modeling techniques, shows that a large area of New York can be considered for exploitation of geothermal resources. Though the temperatures at currently accessible depths show the availability of only a low-temperature (less than 100/sup 0/C), direct-use resource, this can be considered as an alternative for the future energy needs of New York State. From analysis of bottom-hole-temperature data and direct heat flow measurements, estimates of temperatures in the Cambrian Sandstones provide the basis of the economic evaluation of the reservoir. This reservoir contains the extractable fluids needed for targeting a potential geothermal well site in the low-temperature geothermal target zone. In the northern section of the Appalachian basin, reservoir temperatures in the Cambrian are below 50/sup 0/C but may be over 80/sup 0/C in the deeper parts of the basin in southern New York State. Using a minimum of 50/sup 0/C as a useful reservoir temperature, temperatures in excess of this value are encountered in the Theresa Formation at depths in excess of 1300 meters. Considering a maximum depth for economical drilling to be 2500 meters with present technology, the 2500 meters to the Theresa (sea level datum) forms the lower limit of the geothermal resource. Temperatures in the range of 70/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C are predicted for the southern portion of New York State.

  2. A Detailed Analysis of Guard-Heated Wall Shear Stress Sensors for Turbulent Flows Seyed Ali Ale Etrati Khosroshahi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    A Detailed Analysis of Guard-Heated Wall Shear Stress Sensors for Turbulent Flows by Seyed Ali Ale A Detailed Analysis of Guard-Heated Wall Shear Stress Sensors for Turbulent Flows by Seyed Ali Ale Etrati-dimensional analysis of the performance of multi-element guard-heated hot-film wall shear stress microsensors

  3. Analytical modeling for the heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Claudio; L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar; Rudenko, Oleksii; Boonkkamp, J H M ten Thije; Toschi, Federico

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nano- particles in sheared laminar flows of nano-fluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles. The rotation of the nanoparticles has a twofold effect, it induces a fluid advection around the particle and it strongly influences the statistical distribution of particle orientations. These dynamical effects, which were not included in existing thermal models, are responsible for changing the thermal properties of flowing fluids as compared to quiescent fluids. The proposed model is strongly supported by extensive numerical simulations, demonstrating a potential increase of the heat flux far beyond the Maxwell-Garnet limit for the spherical nanoparticles. The road ahead which should lead towards robust predictive models of heat flux enhancement is discussed.

  4. Analytical modeling for the heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claudio Ferrari; Badr Kaoui; Victor S. L'vov; Itamar Procaccia; Oleksii Rudenko; J. H. M. ten Thije Boonkkamp; Federico Toschi

    2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nano- particles in sheared laminar flows of nano-fluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles. The rotation of the nanoparticles has a twofold effect, it induces a fluid advection around the particle and it strongly influences the statistical distribution of particle orientations. These dynamical effects, which were not included in existing thermal models, are responsible for changing the thermal properties of flowing fluids as compared to quiescent fluids. The proposed model is strongly supported by extensive numerical simulations, demonstrating a potential increase of the heat flux far beyond the Maxwell-Garnet limit for the spherical nanoparticles. The road ahead which should lead towards robust predictive models of heat flux enhancement is discussed.

  5. Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements for flowing particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deka, C.; Steinkamp, J.A.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements are disclosed for flowing particles. An apparatus and method for the measurement and analysis of fluorescence for individual cells and particles in flow are described, wherein the rapid measurement capabilities of flow cytometry and the robust measurement and analysis procedures of time-domain fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy are combined. A pulse-modulated CW laser is employed for excitation of the particles. The characteristics and the repetition rate of the excitation pulses can be readily adjusted to accommodate for fluorescence decays having a wide range of lifetimes. 12 figs.

  6. A Simple Heat-Flow Quality Function And Appraisal Of Heat-Flow Measurements

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergy InformationOfand Range Province |RoadmapAnd

  7. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  8. Work measurement in an optomechanical quantum heat engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ying Dong; Keye Zhang; Francesco Bariani; Pierre Meystre

    2015-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze theoretically the measurement of the mean output work and its fluctuations in a recently proposed optomechanical quantum heat engine [K. Zhang {\\it et al.} Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf112}, 150602 (2014)]. After showing that this work can be evaluated by a continuous measurements of the intracavity photon number we discuss both dispersive and absorptive measurement schemes and analyze their back-action effects on the efficiency of the engine. Both measurements are found to reduce the efficiency of the engine, but their back-action is both qualitatively and quantitatively different. For dispersive measurements the efficiency decreases as a result of the mixing of photonic and phononic excitations, while for absorptive measurements, its reduction results from photon losses due to the interaction with the quantum probe.

  9. Adiabatic Heat of Hydration Calorimetric Measurements for Reference Saltstone Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollinger, James

    2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of nuclear materials for weapons, medical, and space applications from the mid-1950's through the late-1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) generated approximately 35 million gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste, which is currently being processed into vitrified glass for long-term storage. Upstream of the vitrification process, the waste is separated into three components: high activity insoluble sludge, high activity insoluble salt, and very low activity soluble salts. The soluble salt represents 90% of the 35 million gallons of overall waste and is processed at the SRS Saltstone Facility, where it mixed with cement, blast furnace slag, and flyash, creating a grout-like mixture. The resulting grout is pumped into aboveground storage vaults, where it hydrates into concrete monoliths, called saltstone, thus immobilizing the low-level radioactive salt waste. As the saltstone hydrates, it generates heat that slowly diffuses out of the poured material. To ensure acceptable grout properties for disposal and immobilization of the salt waste, the grout temperature must not exceed 95 C during hydration. Adiabatic calorimetric measurements of the heat generated for a representative sample of saltstone were made to determine the time-dependent heat source term. These measurements subsequently were utilized as input to a numerical conjugate heat transfer model to determine the expected peak temperatures for the saltstone vaults.

  10. Modeling of ion heating from viscous damping of reconnection flows in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svidzinski, V. A.; Fiksel, G.; Mirnov, V. V.; Prager, S. C. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas and University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong self-heating of ions is observed in the reversed field pinch (RFP). During a sawtooth crash in the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP, the ion temperature can spontaneously double in {approx}100 {mu}s. It is also observed that high Z impurities are heated more strongly than bulk ions. The possibility of ion heating due to tearing instabilities at sawtooth crash is examined. Heating scenarios due to viscous damping of strongly localized perpendicular and parallel flows driven in the vicinity of resonant surface in tearing mode are considered. Flow amplitudes and spatial scales are estimated from linear and nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic modeling. The heating rates are found from kinetic models with different levels of approximation, up to solving kinetic equation with a Landau collision operator. Results show reasonable agreement of the modeled impurity heating rate with the experiment, while the estimated bulk ions heating is somewhat weaker than in the experiment. Further theoretical and experimental study are required for a more definite conclusion as to whether it is the main ion heating mechanism or if there is some other important ion heating scenario.

  11. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Grande, Nancy K. (San Leandro, CA); Durbin, Philip F. (Livermore, CA); Dolan, Kenneth W. (Livermore, CA); Perkins, Dwight E. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features.

  12. Spherical collapse with heat flow and without horizon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Banerjee; S. Chatterjee; N. Dadhich

    2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a class of solutions for a heat conducting fluid sphere, which radiates energy during collapse without the appearance of horizon at the boundary at any stage of the collapse. A simple model shows that there is no accumulation of energy due to collapse since it radiates out at the same rate as it is being generated.

  13. Flow boiling of water in a circular staggered micro-pin fin heat sink Santosh Krishnamurthy, Yoav Peles *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    across a bank of heated tube bundles, have shown that the local two-phase heat transfer coefficient across a tube bundle and determined the void fraction, the frictional pressure drop, and the local heatFlow boiling of water in a circular staggered micro-pin fin heat sink Santosh Krishnamurthy, Yoav

  14. Measurement and verification for solar water heating performance contracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.; Azerbegi, R.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar water heating is a hardware intensive and therefore capital intensive, energy conservation measure. Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) offers a solution to the financing barrier by using third-party funds to install a system, and then paying the financier back out of the energy cost savings over the term of the contract. Measurement and Verification (M and V) of system performance is key to this kind of contract, and for Federal government ESPC projects, measurement and verification of energy cost savings is required by statute. The design of an M and V program has very important implications for customers and project developers alike. This paper presents detailed discussion of solar water heating M and V options developed for the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), but with general application for all solar water heating performance contracting arrangements, public and private. The options described in the paper are: stipulation with inspection; metering; utility bill analysis; and renormalized computer models. In addition to contrasting the cost, benefits and appropriate application of each option, this paper discusses issues common to all options, such as the statistical design of M and V programs. The paper concludes with recommended options based on the size and type of project, the cost of the M and V program, and the allocation of risk between the contracting parties.

  15. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan ON SIDE REFRIGERANT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan ON SIDE REFRIGERANT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT PUMP SEASONAL PERFORMANCES C. T. Tran, PhD student, Centre for Energy and Processes, MINES, Research Engineer, ENERBAT, Electricity of France R&D, Moret/Loing, France Abstract Heat pump systems have

  16. An experimental study of endwall heat transfer enhancement for flow past staggered non-conducting pin fin arrays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achanta, Vamsee Satish

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we study the enhanced endwall heat transfer for flow past non conducting pin fin arrays. The aim is to resolve the controversy over the heat transfer that is taking place from the endwall and the pin ...

  17. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.

    1995-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation is disclosed. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features. 1 fig.

  18. Friedmann-like collapsing model of a radiating sphere with heat flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolassis, C.A.; Santos, N.O.; Tsoubelis, D.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper considers a spherical body consisting of a fluid with heat flow which radiates in its exterior a null fluid described by the outgoing Vaidya's metric. A Friedmann-like exact solution of the interior Einstein field equations is given. It is proved that this solution, matched with the outgoing Vaidya matric, represents a physically reasonble collapsing model which, when the heat flow is switched off, reduces to the well-known collapsing model with dust. The proposed model has the remarkable property that even if the heat flow is small, the horizon will never be formed because, before this happens, the collapsing body will be destroyed by opposite gradients of pressure. 6 references.

  19. Experimental study on corrugated cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Minsung; Baik, Young-Jin; Park, Seong-Ryong; Ra, Ho-Sang [Solar Thermal and Geothermal Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Lim, Hyug [Research and Development Center, LHE Co., Ltd., Gimhae 621-874 (Korea)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental study on cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers (PHEs) was performed. The two prototype PHEs were manufactured in a stack of single-wave plates and double-wave plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the PHEs in a crosswise direction against internal cooling water. The heat exchanger aims to substitute open-loop cooling towers with closed-loop water circulation, which guarantees cleanliness and compactness. In this study, the prototype PHEs were tested in a laboratory scale experiments. From the tests, double-wave PHE shows approximately 50% enhanced heat transfer performance compared to single-wave PHE. However, double-wave PHE costs 30% additional pressure drop. For commercialization, a wide channel design for air flow would be essential for reliable performance. (author)

  20. A laser Doppler method for noninvasive measurement of flow velocity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, G.L.

    1986-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser Doppler velocimetry is a powerful optical technique for noninvasively obtaining experimental flow-velocity data. This paper describes the principle of operation and various optical configurations of the laser Doppler velocimeter. As a sample application, we describe an experimental apparatus for measuring the velocity flow field around a cylinder, and give our experimental results.

  1. Counter flow cooling drier with integrated heat recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shivvers, Steve D. (Prole, IA)

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A drier apparatus for removing water or other liquids from various materials includes a mixer, drying chamber, separator and regenerator and a method for use of the apparatus. The material to be dried is mixed with a heated media to form a mixture which then passes through the chamber. While passing through the chamber, a comparatively cool fluid is passed counter current through the mixture so that the mixture becomes cooler and drier and the fluid becomes hotter and more saturated with moisture. The mixture is then separated into drier material and media. The media is transferred to the regenerator and heated therein by the hot fluid from the chamber and supplemental heat is supplied to bring the media to a preselected temperature for mixing with the incoming material to be dried. In a closed loop embodiment of the apparatus, the fluid is also recycled from the regenerator to the chamber and a chiller is utilized to reduce the temperature of the fluid to a preselected temperature and dew point temperature.

  2. Dealing with big circulation flow, small temperature difference based on verified dynamic model simulations of a hot water district heating system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, L.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEALING WITH “BIG CIRCULATION FLOW RATE, SMALL TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE” BASED ON VERIFIED DYNAMIC MODEL SIMULATIONS OF A HOT WATER DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM Li Lian Zhong, Senior Sales Consultant, Danfoss Automatic Controls Management (Shanghai...) Co.,Ltd, Anshan, China ABSTRACT Dynamic models of an indirect hot water district heating system were developed based on the first principle of thermodynamics. The ideal model was verified by using measured operational data. The ideal...

  3. Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brantley, V.R.; Miller, D.R.

    1982-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistane heaters. Temperature-sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive-heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct tempertures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional-frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electrons is required to operate the instrument.

  4. Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brantley, Vanston R. (Knoxville, TN); Miller, Donald R. (Kingston, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistance heaters. Temperature sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct temperatures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electronics is required to operate the instrument.

  5. RESEARCH ARTICLE An optical flow MTV based technique for measuring microfluidic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbe, Christoph S.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE An optical flow MTV based technique for measuring microfluidic flow for accurately measuring flow fields in microfluidic flows from molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV). Limited optical access is frequently encountered in microfluidic systems. Therefore, in this contribution we

  6. On-line continuous unit heat rate measurement using EPRI`s plant monitoring workstation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Sarunac, N. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Schnetzler, D. [Potomac Electric Power Company, Newburg, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Software for both the Output/Loss and Boiler-Turbine Cycle Efficiency (BTCE) methods for measuring unit heat rate of pulverized coal units is now available with the latest version of EPRI`s Plant Monitoring Workstation (PMW). Both methods are the latest version of EPRI`s Plant Monitoring Workstation (PMW). Both methods are running continuously and on-line at PEPCO`s Morgantown Unit 2. Comparisons have been made between the results generated by the two methods and with measured plant data for parameters such as coal feed rate and stack gas flow rate. This paper reviews the basis of the two measurement methods, explains how they were implemented at Morgantown Unit 2, and gives results showing how the calculated values compare with measurements for a range of unit operating conditions.

  7. Compare Energy Use in Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pumps Field Demonstration and Computer Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Chandan; Raustad, Richard

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are often regarded as energy efficient air-conditioning systems which offer electricity savings as well as reduction in peak electric demand while providing improved individual zone setpoint control. One of the key advantages of VRF systems is minimal duct losses which provide significant reduction in energy use and duct space. However, there is limited data available to show their actual performance in the field. Since VRF systems are increasingly gaining market share in the US, it is highly desirable to have more actual field performance data of these systems. An effort was made in this direction to monitor VRF system performance over an extended period of time in a US national lab test facility. Due to increasing demand by the energy modeling community, an empirical model to simulate VRF systems was implemented in the building simulation program EnergyPlus. This paper presents the comparison of energy consumption as measured in the national lab and as predicted by the program. For increased accuracy in the comparison, a customized weather file was created by using measured outdoor temperature and relative humidity at the test facility. Other inputs to the model included building construction, VRF system model based on lab measured performance, occupancy of the building, lighting/plug loads, and thermostat set-points etc. Infiltration model inputs were adjusted in the beginning to tune the computer model and then subsequent field measurements were compared to the simulation results. Differences between the computer model results and actual field measurements are discussed. The computer generated VRF performance closely resembled the field measurements.

  8. TOUGH Simulations of the Updegraff's Set of Fluid and Heat Flow Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.J.; Pruess (editor), K.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The TOUGH code [Pruess, 1987] for two-phase flow of water, air, and heat in penneable media has been exercised on a suite of test problems originally selected and simulated by C. D. Updegraff [1989]. These include five 'verification' problems for which analytical or numerical solutions are available, and three 'validation' problems that model laboratory fluid and heat flow experiments. All problems could be run without any code modifications (*). Good and efficient numerical performance, as well as accurate results were obtained throughout. Additional code verification and validation problems from the literature are briefly summarized, and suggestions are given for proper applications of TOUGH and related codes.

  9. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the thermal sciences. The handbook includes information on thermodynamics and the properties of fluids; the three modes of heat transfer -- conduction, convection, and radiation; and fluid flow, and the energy relationships in fluid systems. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility fluid systems.

  10. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the thermal sciences. The handbook includes information on thermodynamics and the properties of fluids; the three modes of heat transfer -- conduction, convection, and radiation; and fluid flow, and the energy relationships in fluid systems. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility fluid systems.

  11. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the thermal sciences. The handbook includes information on thermodynamics and the properties of fluids; the three modes of heat transfer -- conduction, convection, and radiation; and fluid flow, and the energy relationships in fluid systems. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility fluid systems.

  12. Measurement of steam quality in two-phase critical flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinclair, John William

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow orifice meter 4 Vapor-phase orifice meter 5 Steam quality adjustment valves 6 Critical flow test section 12 13 15 17 7 Two-phase mixture vent to atmosphere passage through test section 8 Fluke data logger 9 Condenser apparatus 18 21...-water 15 Steam quality as a function of vapor-phase Reynolds number for critical flow of steam-water . . . . . . . . , . . . . 48 16 Steam quality as a function of pressure measured upstream from critical flow orifice 17 Steam quality as a function...

  13. Stereoscopic PIV measurements of swirling flow entering a catalyst substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persoons, T. [Trinity College Dublin, Mechanical Engineering Department, Parsons Building, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Vanierschot, M.; Van den Bulck, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This experimental study investigates the stagnation region of a swirling flow entering an automotive catalyst substrate. A methodology is established using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) to determine three-component velocity distributions up to 0.2 mm from the catalyst entrance face. In adverse conditions of strong out-of-plane velocity, PIV operating parameters are adjusted for maximum spatial correlation strength. The measurement distance to the catalyst is sufficiently small to observe radial flow spreading. A scaling analysis of the stagnation flow region provides a model for the flow uniformization as a function of the catalyst pressure drop. (author)

  14. Flight test measurements and theoretical lift prediction for flow energizers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradhan, Amit Aravind

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering FLIGHT TEST MEASUREMENTS AND THEORETICAL LIFT PREDICTION FOR FLOW ENERGIZERS A Thesis by AHIT ARAVIND PRADHAN Approved as to style and content by: Donald T. Mard (Chairman of Committee...) Howard L. Chevalier (Member) Garng H. Huang (Member) gg~j(EC( C, Clogs' Malter E. Haisler (Head of Department) Hay 1986 ABSTRACT Flight Test Measurements and Theoretical Lift prediction for Flow Energizers. (May 1986) Amit Aravind Pradhan, B...

  15. Thermophysical property-related comparison criteria for nanofluid heat transfer enhancement in turbulent flow.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Timofeeva, E. V.; Singh, D.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems); ( NE)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer enhancement criteria for nanofluids over their base fluids are presented based on three separate considerations: Reynolds number, flow velocity, and pumping power. Analyses presented show that, among the three comparisons, the constant pumping power comparison is the most unambiguous; the constant flow velocity comparison can be quite reasonable under certain conditions but the constant Reynolds number comparison (the most commonly used in the engineering literature for nanofluids) distorts the physical situation, and therefore, should not be used

  16. HEAT TRANSFER IN STEADY-PERIODIC FLOWS OVER HEATED S. Yesilyurt, M. Ozcan, G. Goktug

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    ; these two eddies are the well-known Karman vortex streets and as Re increases further they are very much) and Laake and Eckelmann (1989); similarly a group of authors studied vortex formation in flow around

  17. Thermal Storage and Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids: measuring thermophysical properties, measuring fluid flow and heat transfer, and simulating flow of thermal energy and fluid.

  18. New flow boiling heat transfer model for hydrocarbons evaporating inside horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Zou, X. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, 35, Beijing, 100190 (China); Wang, S. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, 35, Beijing, 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, No. 19 YuQuan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbons have high thermodynamic performances, belong to the group of natural refrigerants, and they are the main components in mixture Joule-Thomson low temperature refrigerators (MJTR). New evaluations of nucleate boiling contribution and nucleate boiling suppression factor in flow boiling heat transfer have been proposed for hydrocarbons. A forced convection heat transfer enhancement factor correlation incorporating liquid velocity has also been proposed. In addition, the comparisons of the new model and other classic models were made to evaluate its accuracy in heat transfer prediction.

  19. Prediction of self-heating measurements under proportional and non-proportional multiaxial cyclic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prediction of self-heating measurements under proportional and non-proportional multiaxial cyclic`eres-l`es-Metz cedex, France Received *****; Presented by Abstract Self-heating measurements under cyclic loadings

  20. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs.

  1. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes X zones. An electrical heater includes Y heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A valve assembly includes Z sections that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. A control module adjusts flow through each of the Z sections during regeneration of the PM filter via control of the valve assembly. X, Y and Z are integers.

  2. An analysis of periodic heat flow through a plane slab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Daniel Morgan

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the slice are shown in Figure 2. The corresponding ener~ balance is: kA(t l ? t )6Q kA(t l - t )aR or t I + t (M ? 2) + where 0 h A(t - t )gg kA(tl t g'9 i~N 'i&GY DlA('HAlill 10d HA1F-is&IC'. " Figu o 3 The ener, ~ dia?ram for thc half... + nc~. g 2 + 't2 (LYJ 2)+t g2g, 6 ~ cl. , ')61, 1 ~9 L. , to + tz(V, ? 2) ? , - t 1. + ~61. 1 2. - . ". ' + . '2O. O = ~6. g 61. 1 + 20. 0 2. - 2 + 262. 2Nbtb + ti(M - 2Nb ' ) + 2t4 i 2 . 2 0 +262. " 2. -2 . 2 -2 +2 20. 0 ~26. 0 Net heat...

  3. Convective heat transfer on leeward building walls in an urban environment: Measurements in an outdoor scale model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Onomura, S.; Inagaki, A.; Kanda, M.; Kleissl, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vortex structure and heat transfer in turbulent flow over asurface, Proc. 5 th Int. Heat Transfer Conf. 3 (1974) 129-a vertical plate, J. Heat Transfer 109(1) [13] K. Patel,

  4. November 28, 2006 Seismologists get handle on heat flow deep in earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnero, Ed

    November 28, 2006 Seismologists get handle on heat flow deep in earth Earth's interior placid inner Earth as a dynamic environment filled with exotic materials and substances roiling under that has an impact on what happens on our planet's surface. The latest evidence of this dynamic inner Earth

  5. Disorder-induced mobility edges and heat flow control in anharmonic acoustic chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flach, Sergej

    in cutting-edge fields of research from across the whole of physics. Each compilation is led by its own CoOFFPRINT Disorder-induced mobility edges and heat flow control in anharmonic acoustic chains M acceptance decisions 1 Impact Factor ­ The 2009 Impact Factor increased by 31% to 2.893; your work

  6. Experimental shellside flow visualization in a shell and tube heat exchanger 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Matthew Winslow

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    information in the shellside flow. A scale-model shell and tube heat exchanger with an outer diameter of 30.5 cm and a length of 61 cm was designed and constructed out of acrylic. Water was utilized as the working fluid and flowrates ranging from 0.32 to 2...

  7. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  8. Convective Heat Transfer and Reference Free-stream Temperature Determination near the Casing of an Axial Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    of an Axial Flow Turbine B. Gumusel 2 and C. Camci 1 Turbomachinery Aero-Heat Transfer Laboratory Department on the casing of an axial flow turbine. The goal is to develop an accurate steady-state heat transfer method for the comparison of various casing surface and tip designs used for turbine performance improvements. The free

  9. Comparison of strongly heat-driven flow codes for unsaturated media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Updegraff, C.D.

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in unsaturated welded tuff. As part of this effort, SNL evaluated existing strongly heat-driven flow computer codes for simulating ground-water flow in unsaturated media. The three codes tested, NORIA, PETROS, and TOUGH, were compared against a suite of problems for which analytical and numerical solutions or experimental results exist. The problems were selected to test the abilities of the codes to simulate situations ranging from simple, uncoupled processes, such as two-phase flow or heat transfer, to fully coupled processes, such as vaporization caused by high temperatures. In general, all three codes were found to be difficult to use because of (1) built-in time stepping criteria, (2) the treatment of boundary conditions, and (3) handling of evaporation/condensation problems. A drawback of the study was that adequate problems related to expected repository conditions were not available in the literature. Nevertheless, the results of this study suggest the need for thorough investigations of the impact of heat on the flow field in the vicinity of an unsaturated HLW repository. Recommendations are to develop a new flow code combining the best features of these three codes and eliminating the worst ones. 19 refs., 49 figs.

  10. System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID); Kidd, Terrel G. (Blackfoot, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.

  11. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 7. Single tube tests, critical heat flux test program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report deals with critical heat flux (CHF) measurements in vertical down flow of water at low pressures in a round Inconel tube, 96 inches long and 0.62 inch inside diameter. A total of 28 CHF points were obtained. These data were found to correlate linearly with the single variable q, defined as the heat flux required to raise the enthalpy from the inlet value to the saturation value. These results were compared to the published results of Swedish investigators for vertical upflow of water at low pressures in round tubes of similar diameters and various lengths. The parameter q depends on the inlet enthalpy and is a nonlocal variable, thus this correlation is nonlocal unless the coefficients depend upon tube length in a particular prescribed manner. For the low pressure Swedish data, the coefficients are practically independent of length and hence the correlation is nonlocal. In the present investigation only one length was employed, so it is not possible to determine whether the correlation for these data is local or nonlocal, although there is reason to believe that it is local. The same correlation was applied to a large data base (thousands of CHF points) compiled from the published data of a number of groups and found to apply, with reasonable accuracy over a wide range of conditions, yielding sometimes local and sometimes nonlocal correlations. The basic philosophy of data analysis here was not to generate a single correlation which would reproduce all data, but to search for correlations which apply adequately over some range and which might have some mechanistic significance. The tentative conclusion is that at least two mechanisms appear operative, leading to two types of correlations, one local, the other nonlocal.

  12. Boiling heat transfer in a vertical microchannel: Local estimation during flow boiling with a non intrusive method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boiling heat transfer in a vertical microchannel: Local estimation during flow boiling with a non the results of experimental and numerical studies concerning boiling heat transfer inside vertical in minichannels for several gravity levels (µg, 1g, 2g). To fully understand the high heat transfer potential

  13. Fluid and heat flow in gas-rich geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Sullivan, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Blakeley, M.R.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical-simulation techniques are used to study the effects of noncondensible gases (CO/sub 2/) on geothermal reservoir behavior in the natural state and during exploitation. It is shown that the presence of CO/sub 2/ has large effects on the thermodynamic conditions of a reservoir in the natural state, especially on temperature distributions and phase compositions. The gas will expand two-phase zones and increase gas saturations to enable flow of CO/sub 2/ through the system. During exploitation, the early pressure drop is primarily due to degassing of the system. This process can cause a very rapid initial pressure drop, on the order of tens of bars, depending upon the initial partial pressure of CO/sub 2/. The following gas content from wells can provide information on in-place gas saturations and relative permeability curves that apply at a given geothermal resource. Site-specific studies are made for the gas-rich two-phase reservoir at the Ohaki geothermal field in New Zealand. A simple lumped-parameter model and a vertical column model are applied to the field data. The results obtained agree well with the natural thermodynamic state of the Ohaki field (pressure and temperature profiles) and a partial pressure of 15 to 25 bars is calculated in the primary reservoirs. The models also agree reasonably well with field data obtained during exploitation of the field. The treatment of thermophysical properties of H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ mixtures for different phase compositions is summarized.

  14. Nanosecond Range Heating and Temperature Measurement on Thin Layers Experiment and Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Werner

    Nanosecond Range Heating and Temperature Measurement on Thin Layers Experiment and Simulation W for sensitivity measurements, heating resistance and temperature sensor. Taking advantage of using the gate electrode for heating only the sensitive two layer system LaF3/Pt (thickness only 300 nm) has to be at high

  15. Simulation of FCC riser flow with multiphase heat transfer and cracking reactions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S. L.; Zhou, C. Q.; Energy Systems

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code ICRKFLO was developed for simulations of three-dimensional three-phase reacting flows in Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) riser reactors. It calculates the product yields based on local flow properties by solving the fundamental conservation principles of mass, momentum, and energy for the flow properties associated with the gas, liquid, and solid phases. Unique phenomenological models and numerical techniques were developed specifically for the FCC flow simulation. The models include a spray vaporization model, a particle-solid interaction model, and an interfacial heat transfer model. The numerical techniques include a time-integral approach to overcome numerical stiffness problems in chemical kinetics rate calculations and a hybrid hydrodynamic-kinetic treatment to facilitate detailed kinetics calculations of cracking reactions. ICRKFLO has been validated with extensive test data from two pilot and one commercial FCC units. It is proven to be useful for advanced development of FCC riser reactors.

  16. Color Key 1/25/2012 4.1.1 PTCS and Heat Pump Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Color Key 1/25/2012 4.1.1 PTCS and Heat Pump Measures Staff Summary of Ecotope Recommendation: Staff Response and Recommended Action: 4.1.3 Ductless Heat Pumps Staff Summary of Ecotope Recommendation

  17. Micro- and Nanoscale Measurement Methods for Phase Change Heat Transfer on Planar and Structured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buongiorno, Jacopo

    In this opinion piece, we discuss recent advances in experimental methods for characterizing phase change heat transfer. We begin with a survey of techniques for high-resolution measurements of temperature and heat flux ...

  18. Measuring the heat exchange of a quantum process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Goold; Ulrich Poschinger; Kavan Modi

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Very recently, interferometric methods have been proposed to measure the full statistics of work performed on a driven quantum system [Dorner et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 230601 (2013)] and [Mazzola et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 230602 (2013)]. The advantage of such schemes is that they replace the necessity to make projective measurements by performing phase estimation on an appropriately coupled ancilla qubit. These proposals are one possible route to the tangible experimental exploration of quantum thermodynamics, a subject which is the centre of much current attention due to the current control of mesoscopic quantum systems. In this Letter we demonstrate that a modification of the phase estimation protocols can be used in order to measure the heat distribution of a quantum process. In addition we demonstrate how our scheme may be implemented using ion trap technology. Our scheme should pave the way for the first experimental explorations of the Landauer principle and hence the intricate energy to information conversion in mesoscopic quantum systems.

  19. Heat flow patterns of the North American continent: A discussion of the DNAG Geothermal Map of North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackwell, David D.; Steele, John L.; Carter, Larry C.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The large and small-scale geothermal features of the North American continent and surrounding ocean areas illustrated on the new 1:5,000,000 DNAG Geothermal Map of North America are summarized. Sources for the data included on the map are given. The types of data included are heat flow sites coded by value, contours of heat flow with a color fill, areas of major groundwater effects on regional heat flow, the top-of-geopressure in the Gulf Coast region, temperature on the Dakota aquifer in the midcontinent, location of major hot springs and geothermal systems, and major center of Quaternary and Holocene volcanism. The large scale heat flow pattern that is well known for the conterminous United States and Canada of normal heat flow east of the Cordillera and generally high heat flow west of the front of the Cordillera dominates the continental portion of the map. However, details of the heat flow variations are also seen and are discussed briefly in this and the accompanying papers.

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport, and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrail, Bernard P. (Pasco, WA); Martin, Paul F. (Richland, WA); Lindenmeier, Clark W. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions. The method and apparatus of the present invention permit distinguishing individual precipitation events and their effect on dissolution behavior isolated to the specific event. The present invention is especially useful for dynamically measuring hydraulic parameters when a chemical reaction occurs between a particulate material and either liquid or gas (e.g. air) or both, causing precipitation that changes the pore structure of the test material.

  1. Sealable stagnation flow geometries for the uniform deposition of materials and heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarty, Kevin F. (Livermore, CA); Kee, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Lutz, Andrew E. (Alamo, CA); Meeks, Ellen (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention employs a constrained stagnation flow geometry apparatus to achieve the uniform deposition of materials or heat. The present invention maximizes uniform fluxes of reactant gases to flat surfaces while minimizing the use of reagents and finite dimension edge effects. This results, among other things, in large area continuous films that are uniform in thickness, composition and structure which is important in chemical vapor deposition processes such as would be used for the fabrication of semiconductors.

  2. Performance predictions and measurements for space-power-system heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prenger, F.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature liquid metal heat pipes designed for space power systems have been analyzed and tested. Three wick designs are discussed and a design rationale for the heat pipe is provided. Test results on a molybdenum, annular wick heat pipe are presented. Performance limitations due to boiling and capillary limits are presented. There is evidence that the vapor flow in the adiabatic section is turbulent and that the transition Reynolds number is 4000.

  3. Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathenson, M.; Urban, T.C.; Diment, W.H.; Nehring, N.L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Raft River area of Idaho contains a geothermal system of intermediate temperatures (approx. = 150/sup 0/C) at depths of about 1.5 km. Outside of the geothermal area, temperature measurements in three intermediate-depth drill holes (200 to 400 m) and one deep well (1500 m) indicate that the regional conductive heat flow is about 2.5 ..mu..cal/cm/sup 2/ sec or slightly higher and that temperature gradients range from 50/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/C/km in the sediments, tuffs, and volcanic debris that fill the valley. Within and close to the geothermal system, temperature gradients in intermediate-depth drill holes (100 to 350 m) range from 120/sup 0/ to more than 600/sup 0/C/km, the latter value found close to an artesian hot well that was once a hot spring. Temperatures measured in three deep wells (1 to 2 km) within the geothermal area indicate that two wells are in or near an active upflow zone, whereas one well shows a temperature reversal. Assuming that the upflow is fault controlled, the flow is estimated to be 6 liter/sec per kilometer of fault length. From shut-in pressure data and the estimated flow, the permeability times thickness of the fault is calculated to be 2.4 darcy m. Chemical analyses of water samples from old flowing wells, recently completed intermediate-depth drill holes, and deep wells show a confused pattern. Geothermometer temperatures of shallow samples suggest significant re-equilibration at temperatures below those found in the deep wells. Silica geothermometer temperatures of water samples from the deep wells are in reasonable agreement with measured temperatures, whereas Na-K-Ca temperatures are significantly higher than measured temperatures. The chemical characteristics of the water, as indicated by chloride concentration, are extremely variable in shallow and deep samples. Chloride concentrations of the deep samples range from 580 to 2200 mg/kg.

  4. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tainzhen; Liu, Xaiobing

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the current movement toward net zero energy buildings, many technologies are promoted with emphasis on their superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are probably the most competitive technologies among these. However, there are few studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP systems. In this article, a preliminary comparison of energy efficiency between the air-source VRF and GSHP systems is presented. The computer simulation results show that GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRF system for conditioning a small office building in two selected US climates. In general, GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRV system, especially when the building has significant heating loads. For buildings with less heating loads, the GSHP system could still perform better than the air-source VRF system in terms of energy efficiency, but the resulting energy savings may be marginal.

  5. High-heat-flux removal by phase-change fluid and particulate flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbis, Z.R.; Raffray, A.R.; Abdou, M.A. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new concept based on particulate flow in which either or both the particulates and the fluid could undergo phase changes is proposed. The presence of particulates provides not only a mechanism for additional heat removal through phase change but also the potential for increasing the rate of heat transfer by enhancing convection through surface region/bulk [open quotes]mixing[close quotes], by enhancing radiation, particularly for high-temperature cases; and for the case of multiphase fluid, by enhancing the boiling process. One particularly interesting coolant system based on this concept is [open quotes]subcooled boiling water-ice particulate[close quotes] flow. A preliminary analysis of this coolant system is presented, the results of which indicate that such a coolant system is better applied for cooling of relatively small surface areas with high local heat fluxes, where a conventional cooling system would come short of providing the required heat removal at acceptable coolant pressure levels. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Real-time planar flow velocity measurements using an optical flow algorithm implemented on GPU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gautier, N

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a high speed implementation of an optical flow algorithm which computes planar velocity fields in an experimental flow. Real-time computation of the flow velocity field allows the experimentalist to have instantaneous access to quantitative features of the flow. This can be very useful in many situations: fast evaluation of the performances and characteristics of a new setup, design optimization, easier and faster parametric studies, etc. It can also be a valuable measurement tool for closed-loop flow control experiments where fast estimation of the state of the flow is needed. The algorithm is implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The accuracy of the computation is shown. Computation speed and scalability are highlighted along with guidelines for further improvements. The system architecture is flexible, scalable and can be adapted on the fly in order to process higher resolutions or achieve higher precision. The set-up is applied on a Backward-Facing Step (BFS) flow in a hydro...

  7. Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into an actual SNS target.

  8. Thermophoretic transport of particles that act as volumetric heat sources in natural convection flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, J.C.; Krane, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural convection boundary layer with suspended heat generating aerosol particles adjacent to a cooled, isothermal, vertical wall was investigated for the following circumstances: laminar and turbulent flow, large temperature differences between the wall and the fluid, stable thermal stratification far from the wall, and fluid participation in thermal radiation heat transfer. The deposition of aerosol particles by thermophoresis was investigated. A scaling analysis showed the negligible effect inside the boundary layer of the particulate heat source strengths of practical interest. Only the temperature of the fluid far from the wall is affected appreciably by the heat sources. The scaled boundary layer differential equations are transformed to a nonsimilarity form for numerical solution using two different methods. An expression for the ratio of mass transfer to heat transfer coefficients was developed to simplify the computation of thermophoretic particle deposition at the wall for the case of constant temperature conditions far from the wall. Variable thermophysical property effect for the three gases of steam, air, and hydrogen were investigated. A dimensionless ratio of transfer coefficients for large temperature differences and turbulent flow was computed as a product of the laminar constant property results and a ratio of the known thermophysical properties at the wall and far from the wall. An approximation of the laminar constant property results for all three gases is developed in terms of the known wall and fluid temperatures, Prandtl number, and a thermophoretic constant. This allows particle deposition to be computed from a known heat transfer coefficient without explicitly solving the particle conservation equation. 120 refs., 29 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. Prediction of turbulent flow and heat transfer in a ribbed rectangular duct with and without rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, C.; Zerkle, R. [General Electric Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study deals with the numerical prediction of turbulent flow and heat transfer in a 2:1 aspect ratio rectangular duct with ribs don the two shorter sides. The ribs are of square cross section, staggered and aligned normal (90 deg) to the main flow direction. The ratio of rib height to duct hydraulic diameter equals 0.063, and the ratio of rib spacing to rib height equals 10. The duct may be stationary or rotating. The axis of rotation is normal to the axis of the duct and parallel to the ribbed walls (i.e., the ribbed walls form the leading and the trailing faces). The problem is three dimensional and fully elliptic; hence, for computational economy, the present analysis deals only with a periodically fully developed situation where the calculation domain is limited to the region between two adjacent ribs. Turbulence is modeled with the {kappa}-{epsilon} model in conjunction with wall functions. However, since the rib height is small, use of wall functions necessitates that the Reynolds number be kept high. (Attempts to use a two-layer model that permits integration to the wall did not yield satisfactory results and such modeling issues are discussed at length.) Computations are made here for Reynolds number in the range 30,000--100,000 and for Rotation number = 0 (stationary), 0.06, and 0.12. For the stationary case, the predicted heat transfer agrees well with the experimental correlations. Due to the Coriolis-induced secondary flow, rotation is found to enhance heat transfer from the trailing and the side walls, while decreasing heat transfer from the leading face. Relative to the corresponding stationary case, the effect of rotation is found to be less for a ribbed channel as compared to a smooth channel.

  10. A parametric study of shock jump chemistry, electron temperature, and radiative heat transfer models in hypersonic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greendyke, Robert Brian

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SHOCK JUMP CHEMISTRY, ELECTRON TEMPERATURE, AND RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS IN HYPERSONIC FLOWS A Thesis by ROBERT BRIAN GREENDYKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SHOCK JUMP CHEMISTRY, ELECTRON TEMPERATURE, AND RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS IN HYPERSONIC FLOWS A Thesis by ROBERT BRIAN...

  11. A comparison of analog methods in heat flow analysis with simplified mathematica methods as applied to flight structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, William

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1960 Maj or Subj ect: Mechanical Engineering A COMPARISON OF ANALOG METHODS IN HEAT FLOW ANALYSIS WITH SIMPLIFIED MATHEMATICAL METHODS AS APPLIED TO FLIGHT STRUCTURES... and require lengthy and sometimes difficult mathematical computations to arrive at a solution. It is obvious that there is a need for a simple, rapid, and reliable method of solving complex problems involving heat flow. It is the purpose...

  12. Flow cytometric measurement of total DNA and incorporated halodeoxyuridine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dolbeare, F.A.; Gray, J.W.

    1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the simultaneous flow cylometric measurement of total cellular DNA content and of the uptake of DNA precursors as a measure of DNA synthesis during various phases of the cell cycle in normal and malignant cells in vitro and in vivo is described. The method comprises reacting cells with labelled halodeoxyuridine (HdU), partially denaturing cellular DNA, adding to the reaction medium monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reactive with HdU, reacting the bound mabs with a second labelled antibody, incubating the mixture with a DNA stain, and measuring simultaneously the intensity of the DNA stain as a measure of the total cellular DNA and the HdU incorporated as a measure of DNA synthesis. (ACR)

  13. Transient PVT measurements and model predictions for vessel heat transfer. Part II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Winters, William S., Jr.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Part I of this report focused on the acquisition and presentation of transient PVT data sets that can be used to validate gas transfer models. Here in Part II we focus primarily on describing models and validating these models using the data sets. Our models are intended to describe the high speed transport of compressible gases in arbitrary arrangements of vessels, tubing, valving and flow branches. Our models fall into three categories: (1) network flow models in which flow paths are modeled as one-dimensional flow and vessels are modeled as single control volumes, (2) CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) models in which flow in and between vessels is modeled in three dimensions and (3) coupled network/CFD models in which vessels are modeled using CFD and flows between vessels are modeled using a network flow code. In our work we utilized NETFLOW as our network flow code and FUEGO for our CFD code. Since network flow models lack three-dimensional resolution, correlations for heat transfer and tube frictional pressure drop are required to resolve important physics not being captured by the model. Here we describe how vessel heat transfer correlations were improved using the data and present direct model-data comparisons for all tests documented in Part I. Our results show that our network flow models have been substantially improved. The CFD modeling presented here describes the complex nature of vessel heat transfer and for the first time demonstrates that flow and heat transfer in vessels can be modeled directly without the need for correlations.

  14. Electron Heating by the Ion Cyclotron Instability in Collisionless Accretion Flows. II. Electron Heating Efficiency as a Function of Flow Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the innermost regions of low-luminosity accretion flows, including Sgr A* at the center of our Galaxy, the frequency of Coulomb collisions is so low that the plasma is two-temperature, with the ions substantially hotter than the electrons. This paradigm assumes that Coulomb collisions are the only channel for transferring the ion energy to the electrons. In this work, the second of a series, we assess the efficiency of electron heating by ion velocity-space instabilities in collisionless accretion flows. The instabilities are seeded by the pressure anisotropy induced by magnetic field amplification, coupled to the adiabatic invariance of the particle magnetic moments. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we showed in Paper I that if the electron-to-ion temperature ratio is < 0.2, the ion cyclotron instability is the dominant mode for values of ion beta_i ~ 5-30 (here, beta_i is the ratio of ion thermal pressure to magnetic pressure), as appropriate for the midplane of low-lumin...

  15. A comparative study on a non-linear turbulent heat transfer model for separating and reattaching flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, S.; Chung, B.T.F. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a previously proposed non-linear turbulence model, a turbulent heat transfer model is formulated in the present study using the concept of Generalized Gradient Diffusion (GGD) hypothesis. Under this hypothesis, an anisotropic thermal diffusivity can be obtained through the proposed non-linear turbulent model which is applied to the turbulent flow and heat transfer in a sudden expansion pipe with a constant heat flux through the pipe wall. The numerical results are compared with the available experimental data for both turbulent and thermal quantities, with an emphasis on the non-linear heat transfer predictions. The improved results are obtained for the bulk temperature distribution showing that the present non-linear heat transfer model is capable of predicting the anisotropic turbulent heat transfer for the pipe expansion flow. Some limits of the proposed model are also identified and discussed.

  16. A Method for Measuring Elliptic Flow Fluctuations in PHOBOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Alver; for the PHOBOS Collaboration

    2007-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce an analysis method to measure elliptic flow (v_2) fluctuations using the PHOBOS detector for Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s) = 200 GeV. In this method, v_2 is determined event-by-event by a maximum likelihood fit. The non-statistical fluctuations are determined by unfolding the contribution of statistical fluctuations and detector effects using Monte Carlo simulations(MC). Application of this method to measure dynamical fluctuations embedded in special MC are presented. It is shown that the input fluctuations are reconstructed successfully for >= 0.03.

  17. Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik, Sokwon

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    flux datum per one droplet. No spatial or temporal heat flux information was given. Klassen et al. [12] and di Marzo et al. [13] were the first to use an infrared thermography technique to attempt to measure the spatially and temporally resolved... infrared thermography. Because of the aforementioned limitation of the IR thermography, measurements were only possible outside of the droplets. Michiyoshi and Makino [15] used a dual beam synchroscope to measure the variation of the heater supply...

  18. Three-dimensional instabilities in a discretely heated annular flow: Onset of spatio-temporal complexity via defect dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marques, Francisco

    . INTRODUCTION Interest in natural convection in enclosures has a long history,1 motivated by both relevanceThree-dimensional instabilities in a discretely heated annular flow: Onset of spatio- temporal of the flow in an annular rotor-stator cavity Phys. Fluids 21, 064106 (2009); 10.1063/1.3156859 Stability

  19. A Parallel Implementation of the TOUGH2 Software Package for Large Scale Multiphase Fluid and Heat Flow Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmroth, Erik

    A Parallel Implementation of the TOUGH2 Software Package for Large Scale Multiphase Fluid and Heat groundwater flow related problems such as nuclear waste isolation, environmental remediation, and geothermal with ¢¡¤£¦¥§ ¨¡© blocks in a Yucca Mountain nuclear waste site study. Keywords. Ground water flow, grid partitioning

  20. A Parallel Implementation of the TOUGH2 Software Package for Large Scale Multiphase Fluid and Heat Flow Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmroth, Erik

    A Parallel Implementation of the TOUGH2 Software Package for Large Scale Multiphase Fluid and Heat groundwater flow related problems such as nuclear waste isolation, environmental remediation, and geothermal 6 blocks in a Yucca Mountain nuclear waste site study. Keywords. Ground water flow, grid

  1. Thin film microcalorimeter for heat capacity measurements from 1.5 to 800 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellman, Frances

    Thin film microcalorimeter for heat capacity measurements from 1.5 to 800 K , D. W. Denlinger, E. N for publication 13 January 1994) A new microcalorimeter for measuring heat capacity of thin films in the range 1 silicon nitride membrane as the sample substrate, a Pt thin film resistor for temperatures greater than 40

  2. A review and development of correlations for base pressure and base heating in supersonic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, J.P. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Oberkampf, W.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive review of experimental base pressure and base heating data related to supersonic and hypersonic flight vehicles has been completed. Particular attention was paid to free-flight data as well as wind tunnel data for models without rear sting support. Using theoretically based correlation parameters, a series of internally consistent, empirical prediction equations has been developed for planar and axisymmetric geometries (wedges, cones, and cylinders). These equations encompass the speed range from low supersonic to hypersonic flow and laminar and turbulent forebody boundary layers. A wide range of cone and wedge angles and cone bluntness ratios was included in the data base used to develop the correlations. The present investigation also included preliminary studies of the effect of angle of attack and specific-heat ratio of the gas.

  3. Effect of nonuniform inlet air flow on air-cooled heat-exchanger performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soler, A.I.; Singh, K.P.; Ng, T.L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blowers used to propel air across tube bundles generate a non-uniform flow field due to their construction details. A formalism to evaluate heat transfer degradation due to non-uniform airflow has been developed. Certain symmetry relations for cross flowheat exchangers, heretofore unavailable in the open literature, have been derived. The solution presented here was developed to model a 4 tube pass air blast heat exchanger for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project. This case is utilized to show how this method can be used as a design tool to select the most suitable blower construction for a particular application. A numerical example is used to illustrate the salient points of the solution.

  4. Heat transfer and material flow during laser assisted multi-layer additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional, transient, heat transfer, and fluid flow model is developed for the laser assisted multilayer additive manufacturing process with coaxially fed austenitic stainless steel powder. Heat transfer between the laser beam and the powder particles is considered both during their flight between the nozzle and the growth surface and after they deposit on the surface. The geometry of the build layer obtained from independent experiments is compared with that obtained from the model. The spatial variation of melt geometry, cooling rate, and peak temperatures is examined in various layers. The computed cooling rates and solidification parameters are used to estimate the cell spacings and hardness in various layers of the structure. Good agreement is achieved between the computed geometry, cell spacings, and hardness with the corresponding independent experimental results.

  5. An experimental study of endwall heat transfer enhancement for flow past staggered non-conducting pin fin arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achanta, Vamsee Satish

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    of Technology, Madras, India Chair of Advisory Committee: Sai C. Lau In this work, we analyzed the enhanced heat transfer from the endwall for flow past pin fin arrays. The aim is to resolve the controversy over the heat transfer that is taking place from... AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ENDWALL HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT FOR FLOW PAST STAGGERED NON-CONDUCTING PIN FIN ARRAYS A Thesis by VAMSEE SATISH ACHANTA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  6. THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS ON ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS - COOLING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (and-eventually, spray ponds) that are proposed to be used as ultimate heat sinks in nuclear power plant emergency core cooling systems. The need is derived from the concern...

  7. Reduced heat flow in light water (H2O) due to heavy water (D2O)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William R. Gorman; James D. Brownridge

    2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The flow of heat, from top to bottom, in a column of light water can be decreased by over 1000% with the addition of heavy water. A column of light water cools from 25 C to 0 C in 11 hours, however, with the addition of heavy water it takes more than 100 hours. There is a concentration dependence where the cooling time increases as the concentration of added (D2O) increases, with a near maximum being reached with as little as 2% of (D2O) added. This phenomenon will not occur if the water is mixed after the heavy water is added.

  8. The flow and heat transfer in a viscous fluid over an unsteady stretching surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ene, Remus-Daniel; Marinca, Bogdan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we have studied the flow and heat transfer in a viscous fluid by a horizontal sheet. The stretching rate and temperature of the sheet vary with time. The governing equations for momentum and thermal energy are reduced to ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation. These equations are solved approximately by means of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) which provides us with a convenient way to control the convergence of approximation solutions and adjust convergence rigorous when necessary. Some examples are given and the results obtained reveal that the proposed method is effective and easy to use.

  9. Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Plummer

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

  10. Parallel heat flux and flow acceleration in open field line plasmas with magnetic trapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu; McDevitt, Chris [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetic field strength modulation in a tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) provides both flux expansion next to the divertor plates and magnetic trapping in a large portion of the SOL. Previously, we have focused on a flux expander with long mean-free-path, motivated by the high temperature and low density edge anticipated for an absorbing boundary enabled by liquid lithium surfaces. Here, the effects of magnetic trapping and a marginal collisionality on parallel heat flux and parallel flow acceleration are examined. The various transport mechanisms are captured by kinetic simulations in a simple but representative mirror-expander geometry. The observed parallel flow acceleration is interpreted and elucidated with a modified Chew-Goldberger-Low model that retains temperature anisotropy and finite collisionality.

  11. Continued development of a semianalytical solution for two-phase fluid and heat flow in a porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, C.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past few years the authors have developed a semianalytical solution for transient two-phase water, air, and heat flow in a porous medium surrounding a constant-strength linear heat source, using a similarity variable {eta} = r/{radical}t. Although the similarity transformation approach requires a simplified geometry, all the complex physical mechanisms involved in coupled two-phase fluid and heat flow can be taken into account in a rigorous way, so that the solution may be applied to a variety of problems of current interest. The work was motivated by adverse to predict the thermohydrological response to the proposed geologic repository for heat-generating high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in a partially saturated, highly fractured volcanic formation. The paper describes thermal and hydrologic conditions near the heat source; new features of the model; vapor pressure lowering; and the effective-continuum representation of a fractured/porous medium.

  12. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, Marcos G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Boucher, Timothy J. (Helena, MT)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit.

  13. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit. 2 figs.

  14. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  15. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Robert V. (Tijeras, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  16. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anne Trehu; Peter Kannberg

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m{sup 2}). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that {approx}50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a 'toe-thrust' ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow probably plays a role in bringing methane into the ridge formed by the toe-thrust. Because of the small anomaly due to this process and the uncertainty in thermal conductivity, we did not model this process explicitly. In the NE part of the K-G basin seismic grid, a number of local heat flow lows and highs are observed, which can be attributed to topographic refraction and to local fluid flow along faults, respectively. No regional anomaly can be resolved. Because of lack of continuity between the K-G basin sites within the seismic grid and those {approx}70 km to the NE in water depths of 1200 to 1500 m, we do not speculate on the reason for higher heat flow at these depths. The Mahanadi basin results, while limited in geographic extent, are similar to those for the K-G basin. The Andaman basin exhibits much lower apparent heat flow values, ranging from 0.015 to 0.025 W/m{sup 2}. Heat flow here also appears to increase with increasing water depth. The very low heat flow here is among the lowest heat flow observed anywhere and gives rise to a very thick hydrate stability zone in the sediments. Through 1D models of sedimentation (with extremely high sedimentation rates as a proxy for tectonic thickening), we concluded that the very low heat flow can probably be attributed to the combined effects of high sedimentation rate, low thermal conductivity, tectonic thickening of sediments and the cooling effect of a subducting plate in a subduction zone forearc. Like for the K-G basin, much of the local variability can be attributed to topography. The regional increase in heat flow with water depth remains unexplained because the seismic grid available to us did not extend far enough to define the local tectonic setting of the slope basin controlling this observational pattern. The results are compared to results from other margins, both active and passive. While an increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth is widely observed, it is likely a result of different processes in different places. The very low heat flow due to sedimentation and tectonics in the Andaman basi

  17. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trehu, Anne; Kannberg, Peter

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m2). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that ~50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a "toe-thrust" ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow probably plays a role in bringing methane into the ridge formed by the toe-thrust. Because of the small anomaly due to this process and the uncertainty in thermal conductivity, we did not model this process explicitly. In the NE part of the K-G basin seismic grid, a number of local heat flow lows and highs are observed, which can be attributed to topographic refraction and to local fluid flow along faults, respectively. No regional anomaly can be resolved. Because of lack of continuity between the K-G basin sites within the seismic grid and those ~70 km to the NE in water depths of 1200 to 1500 m, we do not speculate on the reason for higher heat flow at these depths. The Mahanadi basin results, while limited in geographic extent, are similar to those for the KG basin. The Andaman basin exhibits much lower apparent heat flow values, ranging from 0.015 to 0.025 W/m2. Heat flow here also appears to increase with increasing water depth. The very low heat flow here is among the lowest heat flow observed anywhere and gives rise to a very thick hydrate stability zone in the sediments. Through 1D models of sedimentation (with extremely high sedimentation rates as a proxy for tectonic thickening), we concluded that the very low heat flow can probably be attributed to the combined effects of high sedimentation rate, low thermal conductivity, tectonic thickening of sediments and the cooling effect of a subducting plate in a subduction zone forearc. Like for the K-G basin, much of the local variability can be attributed to topography. The regional increase in heat flow with water depth remains unexplained because the seismic grid available to us did not extend far enough to define the local tectonic setting of the slope basin controlling this observational pattern. The results are compared to results from other margins, both active and passive. While an increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth is widely observed, it is likely a result of different processes in different places. The very low heat flow due to sedimentation and tectonics in the Andaman basin is at the low end of glob

  18. Measurements of sideward flow around the balance energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INDRA collaboration; D. Cussol; T. Lefort; J. Péter

    2001-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Sideward flow values have been determined with the INDRA multidetector for Ar+Ni, Ni+Ni and Xe+Sn systems studied at GANIL in the 30 to 100 A.MeV incident energy range. The balance energies found for Ar+Ni and Ni+Ni systems are in agreement with previous experimental results and theoretical calculations. Negative sideward flow values have been measured. The possible origins of such negative values are discussed. They could result from a more important contribution of evaporated particles with respect to the contribution of promptly emitted particles at mid-rapidity. But effects induced by the methods used to reconstruct the reaction plane cannot be totally excluded. Complete tests of these methods are presented and the origins of the ``auto-correlation'' effect have been traced back. For heavy fragments, the observed negative flow values seem to be mainly due to the reaction plane reconstruction methods. For light charged particles, these negative values could result from the dynamics of the collisions and from the reaction plane reconstruction methods as well. These effects have to be taken into account when comparisons with theoretical calculations are done.

  19. Using and Measuring the Combined Heat and Power Advantage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared to other power generation systems. Fuel Charged to Power (FCP) is the fuel, net of credit for thermal output, required to produce a kilowatt-hour of electricity. This provides a metric that is used for comparison to the heat rate of other types...

  20. Heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture flow boiling inside a 7 mm straight smooth tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Haitao; Ding, Guoliang; Wei, Wenjian; Wang, Zhence [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Kaijian [Fujitsu General Institute of Air-Conditioning Technology Limited, Kawasaki 213-8502 (Japan)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-phase flow patterns and heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture flow boiling inside a straight smooth tube with the outside diameter of 7.0 mm were investigated experimentally. The experimental conditions include the evaporation temperature of 5 C, the mass flux from 200 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, the heat flux from 7.56 to 15.12 kW m{sup -2}, the inlet vapor quality from 0.2 to 0.7, nominal oil concentration from 0% to 5%. The test results show that the heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture increases with mass flux of refrigerant-oil mixture; the presence of oil enhances the heat transfer at the range of low and intermediate vapor qualities; there is a peak of local heat transfer coefficient at about 2-4% nominal oil concentration at higher vapor qualities, and the peak shifts to lower nominal oil concentration with the increasing of vapor qualities; higher nominal oil concentration gives more detrimental effect at high vapor qualities. The flow pattern map of R410A-oil mixture was developed based on refrigerant-oil mixture properties, and the observed flow patterns match well with the flow pattern map. New correlation to predict the local heat transfer of R410A-oil mixture flow boiling inside the straight smooth tube was developed based on flow patterns and local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture, and it agrees with 90% of the experiment data within the deviation of {+-}25%. (author)

  1. Heating of solid earthen material, measuring moisture and resistivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heath, W.O.; Richardson, R.L.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile contaminants. Six electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a substantially equilateral hexagonal arrangement. Six phases of voltages are applied to corresponding electrodes. The voltages are adjusted within a first range of voltages to create multiple current paths between pairs of the electrodes. The current paths are evenly distributed throughout the region defined by the electrodes and therefore uniformly heat the region. The region of earthen material is heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants by promoting microbial action. This temperature is less than a melting temperature of the earthen material. 13 figs.

  2. Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low, Gwf , test the Wiedemann-Franz (wf) law, and infer the electronic heat capacity, with a minimum value of a Coulomb-interacting electron-hole plasma may result in deviations from the Fermi-liquid values of the Mott

  3. A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS William P a heat pump water heater (HPWH). After developing the HPWH, a field-test plan was implemented whereby 20 evaluate this effect. #12;INTRODUCTION Domestic water heaters account for approximately 2.5 EJ (2.4 x 1015

  4. Co-flow anode/cathode supply heat exchanger for a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Kelly, Sean M.

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly, a co-flow heat exchanger is provided in the flow paths of the reformate gas and the cathode air ahead of the fuel cell stack, the reformate gas being on one side of the exchanger and the cathode air being on the other. The reformate gas is at a substantially higher temperature than is desired in the stack, and the cathode gas is substantially cooler than desired. In the co-flow heat exchanger, the temperatures of the reformate and cathode streams converge to nearly the same temperature at the outlet of the exchanger. Preferably, the heat exchanger is formed within an integrated component manifold (ICM) for a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly.

  5. AERIAL MEASUREMENTS OF CONVECTION CELL ELEMENTS IN HEATED LAKES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villa-Aleman, E; Saleem Salaymeh, S; Timothy Brown, T; Alfred Garrett, A; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Linda Nichols, L

    2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Power plant-heated lakes are characterized by a temperature gradient in the thermal plume originating at the discharge of the power plant and terminating at the water intake. The maximum water temperature discharged by the power plant into the lake depends on the power generated at the facility and environmental regulations on the temperature of the lake. Besides the observed thermal plume, cloud-like thermal cells (convection cell elements) are also observed on the water surface. The size, shape and temperature of the convection cell elements depends on several parameters such as the lake water temperature, wind speed, surfactants and the depth of the thermocline. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Clemson University are collaborating to determine the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and thermal convection intensity. Laboratory experiments at Clemson University have demonstrated a simple relationship between the surface heat flux and the standard deviation of temperature fluctuations. Similar results were observed in the aerial thermal imagery SRNL collected at different locations along the thermal plume and at different elevations. SRNL will present evidence that the results at Clemson University are applicable to cooling lakes.

  6. Local wall heat flux/temperature meter for convective flow and method of utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Ronald D.; Ekhlassi, Ali; Cofie, Penrose

    2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a method includes providing a conduit having a fluid flowing therethrough, disposing a plurality of temperature measurement devices inside a wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices proximate an inside surface of the wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices at different radial positions at the same circumferential location within the wall, measuring a plurality of temperatures of the wall with respective ones of the temperature measurement devices to obtain a three-dimensional temperature topology of the wall, determining the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of the conduit, and determining a multi-dimensional thermal characteristic of the inside surface of the wall of the conduit based on extrapolation of the three-dimensional temperature topology and the temperature dependent thermal conductivities.

  7. Fuel Ion Ratio Measurements in NBI Heated Deuterium Tritium Fusion Plasmas at JET using Neutron Emission Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Ion Ratio Measurements in NBI Heated Deuterium Tritium Fusion Plasmas at JET using Neutron Emission Spectrometry

  8. The effects of orientation angle, subcooling, heat flux, mass flux, and pressure on bubble growth and detachment in subcooled flow boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugrue, Rosemary M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of orientation angle, subcooling, heat flux, mass flux, and pressure on bubble growth and detachment in subcooled flow boiling were studied using a high-speed video camera in conjunction with a two-phase flow ...

  9. Optimal homotopy perturbation method for nonlinear differential equations governing MHD Jeffery-Hamel flow with heat transfer problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marinca, Vasile

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, Optimal Homotopy Perturbation Method (OHPM) is employed to determine an analytic approximate solutions for nonlinear MHD Jeffery-Hamel flow and heat transfer problem. The Navier-Stokes equations, taking into account Maxwell's electromagnetism and heat transfer lead to two nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The obtained results by means of OHPM show a very good agreement in comparison with the numerical results and with Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM).

  10. An Investigation of Alternative Methods for Measuring Static Pressure of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Grant Benson

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was created to address an important issue currently faced by test facilities measuring static pressure for air-conditioning and heat pumps. Specifically, ASHRAE Standard 37, the industry standard for test setup, requires an outlet duct...

  11. Acute Increase in Hepatic Arterial Flow During TIPS Identified by Intravascular Flow Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radeleff, Boris, E-mail: Boris_Radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Sommer, Christof-Matthias; Heye, Tobias; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Sauer, Peter [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine IV, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Infectious Diseases, and Intoxications (Germany); Schmidt, Jan [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, General, Visceral, and Accident Surgery (Germany); Kauczor, Haus-Ulrich; Richter, Goetz Martin [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate alterations of hepatic arterial flow during transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPS) applying intravascular Doppler sonography. This prospective monocenter study included 25 patients with liver cirrhosis (alcohol induced [n = 19], chronic hepatitis associated [n = 3], primary biliary cirrhosis associated [n = 1], and cryptogenic [n = 2]) successfully treated with TIPS. All patients underwent intravascular hepatic arterial flow measurements during TIPS using an endoluminal flow sensor. The average arterial peak velocity (APV) and the maximum arterial peak velocity (MPV) were registered. Twenty-two patients (88%) showed increased APV, one patient (4%) showed unaffected APV, and two patients (8%) showed decreased APV after TIPS. The average portosystemic pressure gradient decreased significantly, from 22.0 {+-} 5.1 mmHg before TIPS to 11.0 {+-} 4.1 mmHg after TIPS (-50.0%; p < 0.0001). The average APV increased significantly, from 41.9 {+-} 17.8 cm/s before TIPS to 60.7 {+-} 19.0 cm/s after TIPS (+44.9%; p < 0.0001). The average MPV increased significantly, from 90.8 {+-} 31.7 cm/s before TIPS to 112.6 {+-} 34.9 cm/s after TIPS (+24.0%; p = 0.0002). These changes in perfusion set in within seconds after TIPS tract formation in all the patients with increased APV. We conclude that TIPS-induced portosystemic decompression leads to a significant increase in hepatic arterial flow. The changes occurred within seconds, suggesting a reflex-like mechanism.

  12. Heat flow of the Earth and resonant capture of solar 57-Fe axions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. A. Danevich; A. V. Ivanov; V. V. Kobychev; V. I. Tretyak

    2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In a very conservative approach, supposing that total heat flow of the Earth is exclusively due to resonant capture inside the Earth of axions, emitted by 57-Fe nuclei on Sun, we obtain limit on mass of hadronic axion: m_aEarth, this estimation could be improved to the value: m_a<1.6 keV. Both the values are less restrictive than limits set in devoted experiments to search for 57-Fe axions (m_a<216-745 eV), but are much better than limits obtained in experiments with 83-Kr (m_a<5.5 keV) and 7-Li (m_a<13.9-32 keV).

  13. MINET: transient analysis of fluid-flow and heat-transfer networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Guppy, J.G.; Nepsee, T.C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MINET, a computer code developed for the steady-state and transient analysis of fluid-flow and heat-transfer networks, is described. The code is based on a momentum integral network method, which offers significant computational advantages in the analysis of large systems, such as the balance of plant in a power-generating facility. An application is discussed in which MINET is coupled to the Super System Code (SSC), an advanced generic code for the transient analysis of loop- or pool-type LMFBR systems. In this application, the ability of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant to operate in a natural circulation mode following an assumed loss of all electric power, was assessed. Results from the MINET portion of the calculations are compared against those generated independently by the Clinch River Project, using the DEMO code.

  14. Heating of solid earthen material, measuring moisture and resistivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heath, William O. (Richland, WA); Gauglitz, Phillip A. (Richland, WA); Pillay, Gautam (Richland, WA); Bergsman, Theresa M. (Richland, WA); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA); Goheen, Steven C. (Richland, WA); Richardson, Richard L. (West Richland, WA); Roberts, Janet S. (Pasco, WA); Schalla, Ronald (Kennewick, WA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile contaminants that utilizes electrical energy. A plurality of electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a selected geometric pattern. Varying phase and voltages configurations are applied to corresponding electrodes to achieve heating, physical phase changes, and the placement of substances within the treatment region. Additionally, treatment mediums can be added to either treat the contamination within the soil or to restrict their mobility.

  15. Heating of solid earthen material, measuring moisture and resistivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heath, W.O.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pillay, G.; Bergsman, T.M.; Eschbach, E.A.; Goheen, S.C.; Richardson, R.L.; Roberts, J.S.; Schalla, R.

    1996-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile contaminants that utilizes electrical energy. A plurality of electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a selected geometric pattern. Varying phase and voltages configurations are applied to corresponding electrodes to achieve heating, physical phase changes, and the placement of substances within the treatment region. Additionally, treatment mediums can be added to either treat the contamination within the soil or to restrict their mobility. 29 figs.

  16. Measurement Of The Fluid Flow Load On A Globe Valve Stem Under Various Cavitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Measurement Of The Fluid Flow Load On A Globe Valve Stem Under Various Cavitation Conditions)" #12;Measurement Of The Fluid Flow Load On A Globe Valve Stem Under Various Cavitation Conditions, cavitation, fluid flow load, CFD. Abstract: The evaluation of fluid forces on the stem is important for wear

  17. USING A DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURE AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS IN AN ACTIVE REGION CORE TO TEST A STEADY HEATING MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Schmelz, Joan T. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Saar, Steve H.; Kashyap, Vinay L., E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The frequency of heating events in the corona is an important constraint on the coronal heating mechanisms. Observations indicate that the intensities and velocities measured in active region cores are effectively steady, suggesting that heating events occur rapidly enough to keep high-temperature active region loops close to equilibrium. In this paper, we couple observations of active region (AR) 10955 made with the X-Ray Telescope and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode to test a simple steady heating model. First we calculate the differential emission measure (DEM) of the apex region of the loops in the active region core. We find the DEM to be broad and peaked around 3 MK. We then determine the densities in the corresponding footpoint regions. Using potential field extrapolations to approximate the loop lengths and the density-sensitive line ratios to infer the magnitude of the heating, we build a steady heating model for the active region core and find that we can match the general properties of the observed DEM for the temperature range of 6.3 < log T < 6.7. This model, for the first time, accounts for the base pressure, loop length, and distribution of apex temperatures of the core loops. We find that the density-sensitive spectral line intensities and the bulk of the hot emission in the active region core are consistent with steady heating. We also find, however, that the steady heating model cannot address the emission observed at lower temperatures. This emission may be due to foreground or background structures, or may indicate that the heating in the core is more complicated. Different heating scenarios must be tested to determine if they have the same level of agreement.

  18. A parametric study of shock jump chemistry, electron temperature, and radiative heat transfer models in hypersonic flows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greendyke, Robert Brian

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will examine the radiance model and various step models in order to determine their appropriateness to the flight regime of the AOTV. The final area to be investigated will be the effect of nonequilibrium corrections on the radiative heat transfer models... of T and e T will be valid as long as there is a reasonable amount vNs of nitrogen molecules in the flow. Radiative Heat Transfer Models For this study, four radiative heat transfer models were examined. One of these models is an optically thin radiance...

  19. Flow-induced tube vibration thresholds in heat exchangers from shellside water tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halle, H.; Chenoweth, J.M.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Typical industrial shell-and-tube heat exchanger configurations are investigated experimentally for the occurrence of potentially damaging tube vibration as a function of flowrate. The effort is part of a program to develop vibration avoidance criteria to be integrated and optimized with the advanced thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical design methods now available. The tests use a 0.6-m (2-ft)-diameter, 3.7-m (12-ft)-long shell containing a removable tube bundle whose components are readily rearranged or replaced. The 15 different full tube bundle configurations tested represent various combinations of parameters: triangular or square tube layout patterns with different orientations to the flow, number of crosspasses, sizes of nozzles, plain or finned tubes. All bundles have 19-mm (0.75-in.)-diameter tubes spaced with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.25. The heat exchanger is tested with waterflow on the shellside to determine a critical threshold, above which a small increase in the flowrate initiates a fluidelastic instability resulting in large amplitude vibration. The test conditions, the critical flowrates, the vibration frequencies, and the locations of the tubes most susceptible to vibration are presented. The given data are used for a comparison with a presently recognized method of vibration prediction and will permit updated evaluations as more advanced methods become available in the future.

  20. Convective heat transfer to CO{sub 2} at a supercritical pressure flowing vertically upward in tubes and an annular channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bae, Yoon-Yeong; Kim, Hwan-Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Super-Critical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) has been chosen by the Generation IV International Forum as one of the candidates for the next generation nuclear reactors. Heat transfer to water from a fuel assembly may deteriorate at certain supercritical pressure flow conditions and its estimation at degraded conditions as well as in normal conditions is very important to the design of a safe and reliable reactor core. Extensive experiments on a heat transfer to a vertically upward flowing CO{sub 2} at a supercritical pressure in tubes and an annular channel have been performed. The geometries of the test sections include tubes of an internal diameter (ID) of 4.4 and 9.0 mm and an annular channel (8 x 10 mm). The heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and Nusselt numbers were derived from the inner wall temperature converted by using the outer wall temperature measured by adhesive K-type thermocouples and a direct (tube) or indirect (annular channel) electric heating power. From the test results, a correlation, which covers both a deteriorated and a normal heat transfer regime, was developed. The developed correlation takes different forms in each interval divided by the value of parameter Bu. The parameter Bu (referred to as Bu hereafter), a function of the Grashof number, the Reynolds number and the Prandtl number, was introduced since it is known to be a controlling factor for the occurrence of a heat transfer deterioration due to a buoyancy effect. The developed correlation predicted the HTCs for water and HCFC-22 fairly well. (author)

  1. UNSAT-H Version 2. 0: Unsaturated soil water and heat flow model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, M.J.; Jones, T.L.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents UNSAT-H Version 2.0, a model for calculating water and heat flow in unsaturated media. The documentation includes the bases for the conceptual model and its numerical implementation, benchmark test cases, example simulations involving layered soils and plant transpiration, and the code listing. Waste management practices at the Hanford Site have included disposal of low-level wastes by near-surface burial. Predicting the future long-term performance of any such burial site in terms of migration of contaminants requires a model capable of simulating water flow in the unsaturated soils above the buried waste. The model currently used to meet this need is UNSAT-H. This model was developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assess water dynamics of near-surface, waste-disposal sites at the Hanford Site. The code is primarily used to predict deep drainage as a function of such environmental conditions as climate, soil type, and vegetation. UNSAT-H is also used to simulate the effects of various practices to enhance isolation of wastes. 66 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Finite element analysis of conjugate heat transfer in axisymmetric pipe flows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fithen, Robert Miller

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with no axial fluid conduction, such as liquid water at a moderate to high Reynolds number. Detailed fluid ? solid interface heat flux, Nusselt number, wall, and bulk temperatures for each case are presented. The results indicate axial wall conduction is very... model for a circular tube Comparison for constant heat flux case Comparison for constant temperature case Heat flux for Pe=5, constant heat flux case Heat flux for Pe=50, constant heat flux case Heat flux for Pe=200, constant heat flux case Heat...

  3. Enhanced Algorithm for Traceability Measurements in UF6 Flow Pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copinger, Thomas E [ORNL; March-Leuba, Jose A [ORNL; Upadhyaya, Belle R [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) is used to continually assess the mixing and downblending of highly enriched uranium (HEU) with low-enriched uranium (LEU). This is accomplished by measuring the enrichment and the fissile mass flow rate of the UF{sub 6} gas located in each process pipe of the system by inducing the fission of the {sup 235}U contained in the gas. Measurements are taken along this process route to trace the HEU content all the way to the product stream, ensuring that HEU was down blended. A problem associated with the current traceability measuring algorithm is that it does not account for the time-varying background that is introduced to the system by the movement of the shutter located at the HEU leg of the process. The current way of dealing with that problem is to discard the data for periods when the HEU shutter is open (50% of overall data) because it correlates with the same timeframe in which the direct contribution to background from the HEU shutter was seen. The advanced algorithm presented in this paper allows for continuous measurement of traceability (100%) by accurately accounting for the varying background during the shutter-movement cycle. This algorithm utilizes advanced processing techniques that identify and discriminate the different sources of background radiation, instead of grouping them into one background group for the whole measurement cycle. By using this additional information, the traceability measurement statistics can achieve a greater number of values, thus improving the overall usefulness of these measurements in the BDMS. The effectiveness of the new algorithm was determined by modeling it in a simulation and ensuring that it retained its integrity through a large number of runs, including various shutter-failure conditions. Each run was performed with varying amounts of background radiation from each individual source and with varying traceability counts. The simulations documented in this paper prove that the algorithm can stand up to various transients introduced into the system, such as failure of shutter movement.

  4. Virtual Measurement in Pipes, Part 1: Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Under Multi-Phase Flow and Inclined Wellbore Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    SPE 30975 Virtual Measurement in Pipes, Part 1: Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Under Multi-Phase Flow, 163245 SPEUT. Abstract Pressure drop prediction in pipes is an old petroleum engineering problem. There is a long history of attempts to develop empirical correlations to predict the pressure drop in pipes. Some

  5. Investigation of Groundwater Flow in Foothill and Mountain regions using Heat Flow measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fogg, Graham E.; Trask, James C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or shortly after drilling for each well. We performed one orft amsl. However, drilling of the peak well may have short-Gondola well dropped substantially as drilling progressed to

  6. HEAT OF HYDRATION OF SALTSTONE MIXES-MEASUREMENT BY ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Tommy Edwards, T

    2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides initial results on the measurement of heat of hydration of Saltstone mixes using isothermal calorimetry. The results were obtained using a recently purchased TAM Air Model 3116 Isothermal Conduction Calorimeter. Heat of hydration is an important property of Saltstone mixes. Greater amounts of heat will increase the temperature of the curing mix in the vaults and limit the processing rate. The heat of hydration also reflects the extent of the hydraulic reactions that turn the fluid mixture into a ''stone like'' solid and consequently impacts performance properties such as permeability. Determining which factors control these reactions, as monitored by the heat of hydration, is an important goal of the variability study. Experiments with mixes of portland cement in water demonstrated that the heats measured by this technique over a seven day period match very well with the literature values of (1) seven day heats of hydration using the standard test method for heat of hydration of hydraulic cement, ASTM C 186-05 and (2) heats of hydration measured using isothermal calorimetry. The heats of hydration of portland cement or blast furnace slag in a Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) simulant revealed that if the cure temperature is maintained at 25 C, the amount of heat released over a seven day period is roughly 62% less than the heat released by portland cement in water. Furthermore, both the blast furnace slag and the portland cement were found to be equivalent in heat production over the seven day period in MCU. This equivalency is due to the activation of the slag by the greater than 1 Molar free hydroxide ion concentration in the simulant. Results using premix (a blend of 10% cement, 45% blast furnace slag, and 45% fly ash) in MCU, Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) simulants reveal that the fly ash had not significantly reacted (undergone hydration reactions) after seven days (most likely less than 5%). There were clear differences in the amount of heat released and the peak times of heat release for the three different simulants. It turns out that SWPF simulant mixes give off greater heat than does MCU and DDA simulant mixes. The temperature dependence of the heat of hydration was measured by carrying out these measurements at 25, 40 and 55 C. In general, the peak times shifted to shorter times as the isothermal temperature increased and the amount of heat released was independent of temperature for DDA and MCU but slightly higher at higher temperatures for SWPF. The goal of this study is to apply this technique to the measurement of the heat of hydration of mixes that will be made as part of the variability study. It is important to understand which variables will impact (and to what extent) the amount of heat generated and the peak times for the heat release. Those variables that can be controlled can then be tuned to adjust the heat of hydration as long as the other properties are still acceptable. The first application of heat of hydration measurements to the variability study was completed and the results presented in this report. These measurements were made using Phase VI mixes (SWPF simulants) following a statistical design that included variation in the compositional and operational variables. Variation in both the amount of heat released and the peak times for the heat release were observed. The measured ranges were 23 Joules per gram of premix for the heat release and 23 hours for the peak time of heat release at 25 C. Linear models with high R{sup 2} values and no statistical evidence for lack of fit were developed that relate the amount of heat release and the peak time for heat release for the Phase VI mixes to certain variables. The amount of heat released was a function of the aluminate and portland cement concentrations as well as the temperature of mixing. The peak time for heat release was a function of aluminate, portland cement and total nitrate plus nitrite concentrations. A comparison was made of the mea

  7. Flow visualization and leakage measurements of labyrinth seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, James Wayne

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large scale test rig is used to conduct an experimental investigation into the leakage resistance properties and flow characteristics of labyrinth seals. A novel test facility with multiple cavities that provides 2D, planar flow at a scale...

  8. Flow visualization and leakage measurements of worn labyrinth seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Brian Frank

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale flow visualization test facility is used to conduct an experimental investigation into the leakage resistance and flow characteristics of worn labyrinth seals. Wear in labyrinth seals is a consequence of contact between the rotating...

  9. MEASUREMENTS AND COMPUTATIONS OF FUEL DROPLET TRANSPORT IN TURBULENT FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Katz and Omar Knio

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions relevant to the experiments, and (3) to explore whether the corresponding predictions can explain the experimentally-observed behavior of the rise and dispersion of oil droplets in isotropic turbulence. A brief summary of results is presented in Section 4.

  10. Measurement of non-flow correlations and elliptic flow fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alver, Burak Han

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of collective flow and two-particle correlations have proven to be effective tools for understanding the properties of the system produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Relativistic ...

  11. P~!ETRIC STUDY OF HEAT FLOW DURING RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING Euiwhan Kim and Thomas W. Eagar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    i ...) P~!ETRIC STUDY OF HEAT FLOW DURING RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING Euiwhan Kim and Thomas W. Eagar case of resistance welding to see the effects of each parameter on the lobe shape. The parameters include material proper- ties, geometry of electrodes and work piece, weld time and current

  12. 5th International Symposium on Multiphase Flow, Heat Mass Transfer and Energy Conversion Xian, China, 36 July 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    5th International Symposium on Multiphase Flow, Heat Mass Transfer and Energy Conversion Xian, such as hemangiomas and port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks, are congenital and pro- gressive vascular malformations of the dermis. To remove them, laser energy is irradiated at appropriate wavelengths inducing permanent thermal

  13. Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

    2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

  14. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tool for geothermal water loop heat pump systems, 9thInternational IEA Heat Pump Conference, Zürich, Switzerland,Performance of ground source heat pump system in a near-zero

  15. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    multiple water-to-air heat pump units, which are connectedeach of the water-to-air heat pump units can run in eitheras other types of air source heat pumps, VRF systems need

  16. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux in water-based nanofluids at low pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Joong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanofluid is a colloidal suspension of nano-scale particles in water, or other base fluids. Previous pool boiling studies have shown that nanofluids can improve the critical heat flux (CHF) by as much as 200%. In this ...

  17. Direct nuclear heating measurements and analyses for plasma-facing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Youssef, M.Z. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental measurement of nuclear heating rates was carried out in a simulated D-T fusion neutron environment from 1989 through 1992 under the U.S. DOE/JAERI collaborative program at the Fusion Neutronics Source Facility. Small probes of materials were irradiated in close vicinity of a rotating target. A sophisticated microcalorimetric technique was developed for on-line measurements of local nuclear heating in a mixed neutron plus photon field. Measurements with probes of graphite, titanium, copper, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and lead are presented. These measurements have been analyzed using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP and various heating number/kerma factor libraries. The ratio of calculated to experimental (C/E) heating rates shows a large deviation from 1 for all the materials except tungsten. For example, C/E`s for graphite range from 1.14 ({delta} = 10%) to 1.36 (10%) for various kerma factor libraries. Uncertainty estimates on total nuclear heating using a sensitivity approach are presented. Interestingly, C/E data for all libraries and materials can be consolidated to obtain a probability density distribution of C/E`s that very much resembles a Gaussian distribution centered at 1.04. The concept of `quality factor` is defined and elaborated so as to take cognizance of observed uncertainties on prediction of nuclear heating for all the nine materials. 45 refs., 69 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Direct nuclear heating measurements and analyses for structural materials induced by deuterium-tritium neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Maekawa, F.; Maekawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Kumar, A.; Youssef, M.Z.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear heat deposition rates in the structural components of a fusion reactor have been measured directly with a microcalorimeter incorporated with an intense deuterium-tritium (D- T) neutron source, the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), under the framework of the JAERI/U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) collaborative program on fusion neutronics. Heat deposition rates at positions up to 200 mm of depth in a Type 304 stainless steel assembly bombarded with D-T neutrons were measured along with single probe experiments. The measured heating rates were compared with comprehensive calculations in order to verify the adequacy of the currently available database relevant to the nuclear heating. In general, calculations with data of JENDL-3 and ENDL-85 libraries gave good agreement with experiments for all single probe materials, whereas RMCCS, based on ENDF/B-V, suffered from unreasonable overestimation in the heating number. It was demonstrated that the nuclear/thermal coupled calculation is a powerful tool to analyze the time-dependent temperature change due to the heat transfer in the probe materials. The analysis for the Type 304 stainless steel assembly, based on JENDL-3, demonstrated that the calculation, in general, was in good agreement with the measurement up to 200 mm of depth along the central axis of the assembly. 31 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  20. Dynamic measurement of heat loss coefficients through Trombe wall glazing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Trombe wall presents a unique opportunity to measure the heat-loss coefficient through the glazing system because the wall itself can be used as a heat meter. Since the instantaneous heat flux through the outer wall surface can be determined, the heat loss coefficient at night can be calculated by dividing by the wall surface-to-ambient temperature difference. This technique has been used to determine heat-loss coefficients for Los Alamos test rooms during the winter of 1980-1981. Glazing systems studied include single and double glazing both with and without night insulation used in conjunction with a flat black paint, and both single and double glazing used in conjunction with a selective surface.

  1. Oscillatory motion based measurement method and sensor for measuring wall shear stress due to fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, William D. (Laramie, WY); Naughton, Jonathan (Laramie, WY); Lindberg, William R. (Laramie, WY)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A shear stress sensor for measuring fluid wall shear stress on a test surface is provided. The wall shear stress sensor is comprised of an active sensing surface and a sensor body. An elastic mechanism mounted between the active sensing surface and the sensor body allows movement between the active sensing surface and the sensor body. A driving mechanism forces the shear stress sensor to oscillate. A measuring mechanism measures displacement of the active sensing surface relative to the sensor body. The sensor may be operated under periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor measurably changes the amplitude or phase of the motion of the active sensing surface, or changes the force and power required from a control system in order to maintain constant motion. The device may be operated under non-periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor change the transient motion of the active sensor surface or change the force and power required from a control system to maintain a specified transient motion of the active sensor surface.

  2. Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Corradini, Michael

    2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850��������C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys���¢�������� weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation on Cr-carbide on the graphite surface. Ni-electroplating dramatically reduced corrosion of alloys, although some diffusion of Fe and Cr were observed occur through the Ni plating. A pyrolytic carbon and SiC (PyC/SiC) CVD coating was also investigated and found to be effective in mitigating corrosion. The KCl-MgCl2 molten salt was less corrosive than FLiNaK fluoride salts for corrosion tests performed at 850oC. Cr dissolution in the molten chloride salt was still observed and consequently Ni-201 and Hastelloy N exhibited the least depth of attack. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (as measured by weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. Because Cr dissolution is an important mechanism of corrosion, molten salt electrochemistry experiments were initiated. These experiments were performed using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Using this technique, the reduction potential of Cr was determined against a Pt quasi-reference electrode as well as against a Ni(II)-Ni reference electrode in molten FLiNaK at 650 oC. The integrated current increased linearly with Cr-content in the salt, providing for a direct assessment of the Cr concentration in a given salt of unknown Cr concentration. To study heat transfer mechanisms in these molten salts over the forced and mixed convection regimes, a forced convective loop was constructed to measure heat transfer coefficients, friction factors and corrosion rates in different diameter tubes in a vertical up flow configuration in the laminar flow regime. Equipment and instrumentation for the forced convective loop was designed, constructed, and tested. These include a high temperature centrifugal pump, mass flow meter, and differential pressure sensing capabilities to an uncertainty of < 2 Pa. The heat transfer coefficient for the KCl-MgCl2 salt was measured in t

  3. Heat transfer in ice hockey halls: measurements, energy analysis and analytical ice pad temperature profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Ferrantelli; Klaus Viljanen

    2015-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider heat transfer processes in an ice hockey hall, during operating conditions, with a bottom-up approach based upon on-site measurements. Detailed temperature data of both the ice pad and the air above the ice rink are used for a heat balance calculation in the steady-state regime, which quantifies the impact of each single heat source. We solve the heat equation in the ice slab in transient regime, and obtain a general analytical formula for the temperature profile. This solution is then applied to the resurfacing process by using our measurements as (time-dependent) boundary conditions (b.c.), and compared to an analogous numerical computation with good agreement. Our analytical formula is given with implicit initial condition and b.c., therefore it can be used not only in ice halls, but in a large variety of engineering applications.

  4. Heat transfer in ice hockey halls: measurements, energy analysis and analytical ice pad temperature profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrantelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider heat transfer processes in an ice hockey hall, during operating conditions, with a bottom-up approach based upon on-site measurements. Detailed temperature data of both the ice pad and the air above the ice rink are used for a heat balance calculation in the steady-state regime, which quantifies the impact of each single heat source. We solve the heat equation in the ice slab in transient regime, and obtain a general analytical formula for the temperature profile. This solution is then applied to the resurfacing process by using our measurements as (time-dependent) boundary conditions (b.c.), and compared to an analogous numerical computation with good agreement. Our analytical formula is given with implicit initial condition and b.c., therefore it can be used not only in ice halls, but in a large variety of engineering applications.

  5. Measurements of SCRF cavity dynamic heat load in horizontal test system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGraff, B.D.; Bossert, R.J.; Pei, L.; Soyars, W.M.; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Horizontal Test System (HTS) at Fermilab is currently testing fully assembled, dressed superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities. These cavities are cooled in a bath of superfluid helium at 1.8K. Dissipated RF power from the cavities is a dynamic heat load on the cryogenic system. The magnitude of heat flux from these cavities into the helium is also an important variable for understanding cavity performance. Methods and hardware used to measure this dynamic heat load are presented. Results are presented from several cavity tests and testing accuracy is discussed.

  6. Measurements of SCRF cavity dynamic heat load in horizontal test system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeGraff, B D; Pei, L; Soyars, W M; 10.1063/1.3422409

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Horizontal Test System (HTS) at Fermilab is currently testing fully assembled, dressed superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities. These cavities are cooled in a bath of superfluid helium at 1.8K. Dissipated RF power from the cavities is a dynamic heat load on the cryogenic system. The magnitude of heat flux from these cavities into the helium is also an important variable for understanding cavity performance. Methods and hardware used to measure this dynamic heat load are presented. Results are presented from several cavity tests and testing accuracy is discussed.

  7. Numerical Study of Convective Heat Transfer in Flat Tube Heat Exchangers Operating in Self-Sustained Oscillatory Flow Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fullerton, Tracy

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    characterized by cyclic variations of flow parameters such as stream-wise or cross-stream velocity. A computer code was developed to perform the numerical simulations. Spatial discretization was based upon a Control Volume Finite Element Method (CVFEM...

  8. Method and system for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and system for measuring a multiphase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multiphase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The method for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes certain steps. The first step is calculating a gas density for the gas flow. The next two steps are finding a normalized gas mass flow rate through the venturi and computing a gas mass flow rate. The following step is estimating the gas velocity in the venturi tube throat. The next step is calculating the pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase between the upstream pressure measuring point and the pressure measuring point in the venturi throat. Another step is estimating the liquid velocity in the venturi throat using the calculated pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase. Then the friction is computed between the liquid phase and a wall in the venturi tube. Finally, the total mass flow rate based on measured pressure in the venturi throat is calculated, and the mass flow rate of the liquid phase is calculated from the difference of the total mass flow rate and the gas mass flow rate.

  9. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

  10. DIAGNOSING THE TIME DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE REGION CORE HEATING FROM THE EMISSION MEASURE. II. NANOFLARE TRAINS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reep, J. W.; Bradshaw, S. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Klimchuk, J. A., E-mail: jeffrey.reep@rice.edu, E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu, E-mail: james.a.klimchuk@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Lab., Code 671, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The time dependence of heating in solar active regions can be studied by analyzing the slope of the emission measure distribution coolward of the peak. In a previous study we showed that low-frequency heating can account for 0% to 77% of active region core emission measures. We now turn our attention to heating by a finite succession of impulsive events for which the timescale between events on a single magnetic strand is shorter than the cooling timescale. We refer to this scenario as a 'nanoflare train' and explore a parameter space of heating and coronal loop properties with a hydrodynamic model. Our conclusions are (1) nanoflare trains are consistent with 86% to 100% of observed active region cores when uncertainties in the atomic data are properly accounted for; (2) steeper slopes are found for larger values of the ratio of the train duration {Delta} {sub H} to the post-train cooling and draining timescale {Delta} {sub C}, where {Delta} {sub H} depends on the number of heating events, the event duration and the time interval between successive events ({tau} {sub C}); (3) {tau} {sub C} may be diagnosed from the width of the hot component of the emission measure provided that the temperature bins are much smaller than 0.1 dex; (4) the slope of the emission measure alone is not sufficient to provide information about any timescale associated with heating-the length and density of the heated structure must be measured for {Delta} {sub H} to be uniquely extracted from the ratio {Delta} {sub H}/{Delta} {sub C}.

  11. Bernoulli Applications A Venturi meter is used to measure the flow rate through a tube.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weijgaert, Rien van de

    04/03/2014 1 Bernoulli Applications A Venturi meter is used to measure the flow rate through a tube: as the flow is horizontal, we do not have to take into account the gravity term. 2) Continuity equation-1822), an Italian physicist. Look at the construction in figure: - we assume the flow is smooth and effectively

  12. ATTEMPT OF ALPINE GLACIER FLOW MODELING BASED ON CORRELATION MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH RESOLUTION SAR IMAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ATTEMPT OF ALPINE GLACIER FLOW MODELING BASED ON CORRELATION MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH RESOLUTION SAR In this paper, an attempt of Alpine glacier flow modeling is performed based on a series of high resolution TerraSAR-X SAR images and a Digital Elevation Model. First, a glacier flow model is established

  13. Sandia Energy - Measuring Inflow and Wake Flow Turbulence Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that characterizes inflow and wake flow velocity and turbulence around a vertical axis turbine deployed at the Roza Canal, Yakima, Washington. The ADV was mounted on a...

  14. Analysis of reactor material experiments investigating oxide fuel crust stability and heat transfer in jet impingement flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis is presented of the crust stability and heat transfer behavior in the CSTI-1, CSTI-3, and CWTI-11 reactor material experiments in which a jet of molten oxide fuel at approx. 160/sup 0/K above its freezing temperature was impinged normally upon stainless steel plates initially at 300 and 385 K. The major issue is the existence of nonexistence of a stable solidified layer of fuel, or crust, interstitial to the flowing hot fuel and the steel substrate, tending to insulate the steel from the hot molten fuel. A computer model was developed to predict the heatup of thermocouples imbedded immediately beneath the surface of the plate for both of the cases in which a stable crust is assumed to be either present or absent during the impingement phase. Comparison of the model calculations with the measured thermocouple temperatures indicates that a protective crust was present over nearly all of the plate surface area throughout the impingement process precluding major melting of the plate steel. However, the experiments also show evidence for very localized and isolated steel melting as revealed by localized and isolated pitting of the steel surface and the response of thermocouples located within the pitted region.

  15. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, Lance D. (Shelly, ID)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  16. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  17. Interlaboratory comparison of four heat flow meter apparatuses on planed polyisocyanurate boards foamed with CFC-11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.S.; McElroy, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Miller, R.G. (Walter (Jim) Research Corp., St. Petersburg, FL (USA)); Yarbrough, D.W. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (USA)); Zarr, R.R. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an interlaboratory comparison of apparent thermal conductivity (k) results on planed polyisocyanurate (PIR) boards foamed with chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11). Sequential tests were conducted at 75{degrees}F (24{degrees}C) at four facilities on two rigid (PIR) boards, individually and as a pair, using four comparative heat flow meter apparatuses. The specimens were shipped from lab to lab, and testing yielded 15 k-values that have two standard deviation (2 {alpha}) value of 2.2% when described by: k(Btu{center dot}in./h{center dot}ft{sup 2}{center dot}F) = 0/1365 + 1.15 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} t k(W/m{center dot}K) = 0.0197 + 1.66 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} t, where t is the elapsed time in days after planing of the boards. An increased 2 {sigma} value for board 2 may be associated with a larger variation in thickness. The 15 thermal conductance (C) values have a 2 {sigma} value of 3.2% when described by: C(Btu/H{center dot}h{center dot}{sup 2}{center dot}{degrees}F) = 0.1069 + 1.20 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} t. Thus, the 2 {sigma} (k-values) of the interlaboratory comparison is not reduced by comparing C values. 5 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  18. The 1983 Temperature Gradient and Heat Flow Drilling Project for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the Summer of 1983, the Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources carried out a three-hole drilling program to collect temperature gradient and heat flow information near potential geothermal resource target areas. The project was part of the state-coupled US Department of Energy Geothermal Program. Richardson Well Drilling of Tacoma, Washington was subcontracted through the State to perform the work. The general locations of the project areas are shown in figure 1. The first hole, DNR 83-1, was located within the Green River valley northwest of Mount St. Helens. This site is near the Green River Soda Springs and along the projection of the Mount St. Helens--Elk Lake seismic zone. The other two holes were drilled near Mount Baker. Hole DNR 83-3 was sited about 1/4 km west of the Baker Hot Springs, 10.5 km east of Mount Baker, while hole DNR 83-5 was located along Rocky Creek in the Sulphur Creek Valley. The Rocky Creek hole is about 10 km south-southwest of the peak. Two other holes, DNR 83-2 and DNR 83-4, were located on the north side of the Sulphur Creek Valley. Both holes were abandoned at early stages of drilling because of deep overburden and severe caving problems. The sites were apparently located atop old landslide deposits.

  19. A Comprehensive Statistically-Based Method to Interpret Real-Time Flowing Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinan Dawkrajai; Keita Yoshioka; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A.D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is motivated by the increasing use of distributed temperature sensors for real-time monitoring of complex wells (horizontal, multilateral and multi-branching wells) to infer the profiles of oil, gas, and water entry. Measured information can be used to interpret flow profiles along the wellbore including junction and build section. In this second project year, we have completed a forward model to predict temperature and pressure profiles in complex wells. As a comprehensive temperature model, we have developed an analytical reservoir flow model which takes into account Joule-Thomson effects in the near well vicinity and multiphase non-isothermal producing wellbore model, and couples those models accounting mass and heat transfer between them. For further inferences such as water coning or gas evaporation, we will need a numerical non-isothermal reservoir simulator, and unlike existing (thermal recovery, geothermal) simulators, it should capture subtle temperature change occurring in a normal production. We will show the results from the analytical coupled model (analytical reservoir solution coupled with numerical multi-segment well model) to infer the anomalous temperature or pressure profiles under various conditions, and the preliminary results from the numerical coupled reservoir model which solves full matrix including wellbore grids. We applied Ramey's model to the build section and used an enthalpy balance to infer the temperature profile at the junction. The multilateral wellbore temperature model was applied to a wide range of cases varying fluid thermal properties, absolute values of temperature and pressure, geothermal gradients, flow rates from each lateral, and the trajectories of each build section.

  20. On the role of the Knudsen number with respect to heat transfer in micro-scale flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, J.; Calvert, M.E.; Power, D.J.; Chen, E.T. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States). Dept. of Materials and Mechanical Engineering; Ramalingam, M.L. [Universal Energy Systems, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States); Lamp, T.R. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in microelectronics and in microelectromechanical systems have resulted in devices with characteristic lengths approaching that of the molecular mean free path of gases. In certain applications, it has been proposed that gaseous flows be used to cool such devices. Prior research has revealed a fundamental lack of knowledge regarding the behavior of such micro-flows. The primary dimensionless parameter associated with gaseous micro-scale transport is the Knudsen number. A critical examination of the effects of an increasing Knudsen number on heat and momentum transfer characteristics of gaseous micro-flows is presented. The importance of thermal radiation, accurate thermophysical property models, and the introduction of higher order constitutive relations, i.e., the Burnett relations, are also discussed in relation to micro-flows. Conclusions are drawn regarding the relative importance of each of the above topics.

  1. The interaction of flow, heat transfer, and free interfaces in an electron-beam vaporization system for metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerberg, K.W. [Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McClelland, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Finlayson, B.A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical analysis is made of the liquid flow and energy transport in a system to vaporize metals. The energy from an electron beam heats metal confined in a water-cooled crucible. Metal vaporizes from a hot pool of circulating liquid which is surrounded by a shell of its own solid. Flow in the pool is strongly driven by temperature-induced buoyancy and capillary forces and is located in the transition region between laminar and turbulent flow. At high vaporization rates, the thrust of the departing vapor forms a trench at the beam impact site. A modified finite element method is used to calculate the flow and temperature fields coupled with the interface locations. The mesh is structured with spines that stretch and pivot as the interfaces move. The discretized equations are arranged in an {open_quotes}arrow{close_quotes} matrix and solved using the Newton-Raphson method. The electron-beam power and width are varied for cases involving the high-rate vaporization of aluminum. Attention is focused on the interaction of vaporization, liquid flow, and heat transport in the trench area.

  2. Analytical and Numerical Study of Joule Heating Effects on Electrokinetically Pumped Continuous Flow PCR Chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Analytical and Numerical Study of Joule Heating Effects on Electrokinetically Pumped Continuous, and the potential for integration.1-3 Joule heating is inevitable when electrokinetic pumping is used Form: December 8, 2007 Joule heating is an inevitable phenomenon for microfluidic chips involving

  3. Gravitational collapse of a spherical star with heat flow as a possible energy mechanism of gamma-ray bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhe Chang; Cheng-Bo Guan; Chao-Guang Huang; Xin Li

    2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric, inhomogeneous star, which is described by a perfect fluid with heat flow and satisfies the equation of state $p=\\rho/3$ at its center. In the process of the gravitational collapsing, the energy of the whole star is emitted into space. And the remaining spacetime is a Minkowski one without a remnant at the end of the process. For a star with a solar mass and solar radius, the total energy emitted is at the order of $10^{54}$ {\\rm erg}, and the time-scale of the process is about $8s$. These are in the typical values for a gamma-ray burst. Thus, we suggest the gravitational collapse of a spherical star with heat flow as a possible energy mechanism of gamma-ray bursts.

  4. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 2. Single tube uniformly heated tests -- Part 2: Uncertainty analysis and data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 1988, Savannah River Laboratory requested that the Heat Transfer Research Facility modify the flow excursion program, which had been in progress since November 1987, to include testing of single tubes in vertical down-flow over a range of length to diameter (L/D) ratios of 100 to 500. The impetus for the request was the desire to obtain experimental data as quickly as possible for code development work. In July 1988, HTRF submitted a proposal to SRL indicating that by modifying a facility already under construction the data could be obtained within three to four months. In January 1990, HTFR issued report CU-HTRF-T4, part 1. This report contained the technical discussion of the results from the single tube uniformly heated tests. The present report is part 2 of CU-HTRF-T4 which contains further discussion of the uncertainty analysis and the complete set of data.

  5. Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200?s. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable.

  6. Self-heating in a GaN based heterostructure field effect transistor: Ultraviolet and visible Raman measurements and simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Mark

    Self-heating in a GaN based heterostructure field effect transistor: Ultraviolet and visible Raman online 8 December 2006 We report direct self-heating measurements for AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field density can be commensurately high, collisional energy loss from electrons to the crystal leads to self-heating

  7. Calorimetric measurements of nuclear heating in small probes of plasma-facing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Youssef, M.Z. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct measurements of nuclear heating in small probes of materials subjected to D-T neutrons from an accelerator based source were initiated during 1989 under USDOE/JAERI collaborative program. A calorimetric technique was utilized to make these measurements. The probes of plasma facing materials, among others, were kept very close, {approximately}3 to {approximately}7 cm, to the neutron source inside an evacuated vacuum chamber. A typical probe measured 20 mm in diameter by 20 mm in length. Typical source intensity was {approximately}2 x 10{sup 12} n/s. The temperature changes in the probe medium were detected by thermal sensors spatially distributed in the probe. The thermal sensors included bead-thermistors, and platinum RTD`s. The change in resistance of a thermal sensor due to onset of nuclear heating was picked up by an automated data acquisition and control system that included a highly sensitive digital voltmeter that had a resolution of 100 nV in voltage range of 300 mV or less. Usually, an individual probe was subjected to spaced neutron pulses of time duration 3 m to 10 m. Two consecutive source neutron pulses were separated by a cooling interval of almost the same duration as that of a source pulse. This approach made it possible to clearly distinguish between the heating and drift phases of the probe medium, on one hand, and to ascertain and verify the reproducibility of measured heating rates from one neutron pulse to another, on the other hand.

  8. CALMOS: Innovative device for the measurement of nuclear heating in material testing reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carcreff, H. [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission CEA, Saclay Center, DEN/DANS/DRSN/SIREN, Gif Sur Yvette, 91191 (France)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An R and D program has been carried out since 2002 in order to improve gamma heating measurements in the 70 MWth OSIRIS Material Testing Reactor operated by CEA's Nuclear Energy Div. at the Saclay research center. Throughout this program an innovative calorimetric probe associated to a specific handling system has been designed in order to make measurements both along the fissile height and on the upper part of the core, where nuclear heating rates still remain high. Two mock-ups of the probe were manufactured and tested in 2005 and 2009 in ex-core area of OSIRIS reactor for the process validation, while a displacement system has been especially designed to move the probe axially. A final probe has been designed thanks to modeling results and to preliminary measurements obtained with mock-ups irradiated to a heating level of 2W/g, This paper gives an overview of the development, describes the calorimetric probe, and expected advantages such as the possibility to use complementary methods to get the nuclear heating measurement. Results obtained with mock-ups irradiated in ex-core area of the reactor are presented and discussed. (authors)

  9. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants and mass flow measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for improving the Baroball valve and a method for retrofitting an existing Baroball valve. This invention improves upon the Baroball valve by reshaping the interior chamber of the valve to form a flow meter measuring chamber. The Baroball valve sealing mechanism acts as a rotameter bob for determining mass flow rate through the Baroball valve. A method for retrofitting a Baroball valve includes providing static pressure ports and connecting a measuring device, to these ports, for measuring the pressure differential between the Baroball chamber and the well. A standard curve of nominal device measurements allows the mass flow rate to be determined through the retrofitted Baroball valve.

  10. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants and volume flow measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for improving the Baroball valve and a method for retrofitting an existing Baroball valve. This invention improves upon the Baroball valve by reshaping the interior chamber of the valve to form a flow meter measuring chamber. The Baroball valve sealing mechanism acts as a rotameter bob for determining volume flow rate through the Baroball valve. A method for retrofitting a Baroball valve includes providing static pressure ports and connecting a measuring device, to these ports, for measuring the pressure differential between the Baroball chamber and the well. A standard curve of nominal device measurements allows the volume flow rate to be determined through the retrofitted Baroball valve.

  11. Measurement of heat transfer and pressure drop in rectangular channels with turbulence promoters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J. C.; Park, J. S.; Ibrahim, M. Y.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Periodic rib turbulators were used in advanced turbine cooling designs to enhance the internal heat transfer. The objective of the present project was to investigate the combined effects of the rib angle of attack and the channel aspect ratio on the local heat transfer and pressure drop in rectangular channels with two opposite ribbed walls for Reynolds number varied from 10,000 to 60,000. The channel aspect ratio (W/H) was varied from 1 to 2 to 4. The rib angle of attack (alpha) was varied from 90 to 60 to 45 to 30 degree. The highly detailed heat transfer coefficient distribution on both the smooth side and the ribbed side walls from the channel sharp entrance to the downstream region were measured. The results showed that, in the square channel, the heat transfer for the slant ribs (alpha = 30 -45 deg) was about 30% higher that of the transverse ribs (alpha = 90 deg) for a constant pumping power. However, in the rectangular channels (W/H = 2 and 4, ribs on W side), the heat transfer at alpha = 30 -45 deg was only about 5% higher than 90 deg. The average heat transfer and friction correlations were developed to account for rib spacing, rib angle, and channel aspect ratio over the range of roughness Reynolds number.

  12. An examination of interference in waste solidification through measurement of heat signature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, C.; Stegemann, J.; Caldwell, R. [Water Technology International Corp., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)] [Water Technology International Corp., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydration of cementing materials is accompanied by heat evolution which is closely related to their structure development. The presence of wastes usually interferes with the hydration of cementing materials. This study examined their interference in waste stabilization/solidification processes through the measurement of adiabatic heat evolution using a computerized Quadrel{trademark} system. Two cementitious materials, an alkali-activated blast furnace slag binder and an ASTM Type 1 Portland cement were used to solidify an electric arc furnace (EAF) dust, which has high concentrations of B, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni and Zn. The EAF dust contents were 0, 30 and 60% by mass. Different mixing conditions were also examined. The interference of EAF dust with the hydration of cementing materials was described using several parameters derived from the heat evolution curves: equivalent initial time of setting (equivalent time at 20 C); total heat evolution at initial time of setting; equivalent final time of setting, total heat evolution at final time of setting and total heat evolution at equivalent time of 28 and 90 days. Experimental results indicated that the Quadrel{trademark} system was a useful tool to examine the interference in waste stabilization/solidification and to assist with the selection of cementing materials.

  13. An evaluation of pressure and flow measurement in the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald J.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt at plant-like conditions for pressure, flow, and temperature. An important need in thermal storage systems that utilize molten salts is for accurate flow and pressure measurement at temperatures above 535%C2%B0C. Currently available flow and pressure instrumentation for molten salt is limited to 535%C2%B0C and even at this temperature the pressure measurement appears to have significant variability. It is the design practice in current Concentrating Solar Power plants to measure flow and pressure on the cold side of the process or in dead-legs where the salt can cool, but this practice won't be possible for high temperature salt systems. For this effort, a set of tests was conducted to evaluate the use of the pressure sensors for flow measurement across a device of known flow coefficient Cv. To perform this task, the pressure sensors performance was evaluated and was found to be lacking. The pressure indicators are severely affected by ambient conditions and were indicating pressure changes of nearly 200psi when there was no flow or pressure in the system. Several iterations of performance improvement were undertaken and the pressure changes were reduced to less than 15psi. The results of these pressure improvements were then tested for use as flow measurement. It was found that even with improved pressure sensors, this is not a reliable method of flow measurement. The need for improved flow and pressure measurement at high temperatures remains and will need to be solved before it will be possible to move to high temperature thermal storage systems with molten salts.

  14. Innovative Coal Solids-Flow Monitoring and Measurement Using Phase-Doppler and Mie Scattering Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Seong Lee

    2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel flow to individual burners is complicated and difficult to determine on coal fired boilers, since coal solids were transported in a gas suspension that is governed by the complex physics of two-phase flow. The objectives of the project were the measurements of suspended coal solids-flows in the simulated test conditions. Various extractive methods were performed manually and can give only a snapshot result of fuel distribution. In order to measure particle diameter & velocity, laser based phase-Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were carefully applied. Statistical methods were used to analyze particle characteristics to see which factors have significant effect. The transparent duct model was carefully designed and fabricated for the laser-based-instrumentation of solids-flow monitoring (LISM). The experiments were conducted with two different kinds of particles with four different particle diameters. The particle types were organic particles and saw dust particles with the diameter range of 75-150 micron, 150-250 micron, 250-355 micron and 355-425 micron. The densities of the particles were measured to see how the densities affected the test results. Also the experiment was conducted with humid particles and fog particles. To generate humid particles, the humidifier was used. A pipe was connected to the humidifier to lead the particle flow to the intersection of the laser beam. The test results of the particle diameter indicated that, the mean diameter of humid particles was between 6.1703 microns and 6.6947 microns when the humid particle flow was low. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean diameter was between 6.6728 microns and 7.1872 microns. The test results of the particle mean velocity indicated that the mean velocity was between 1.3394 m/sec and 1.4556 m/sec at low humid particle flow. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean velocity was between 1.5694 m/sec and 1.7856 m/sec. The Air Flow Module, TQ AF 17 and shell ondina oil were used to generate fog particles. After the oil was heated inside the fog generator, the blower was used to generate the fog. The fog flew along the pipe to the intersection of the laser beam. The mean diameter of the fog particles was 5.765 microns. Compared with the humid particle diameter, we observed that the mean diameter of the fog particles was smaller than the humid particles. The test results of particle mean velocity was about 3.76 m/sec. Compared with the mean velocity of the humid particles, we can observed the mean velocity of fog particles were greater than humid particles. The experiments were conducted with four different kinds of particles with five different particle diameters. The particle types were organic particles, coal particles, potato particles and wheat particles with the diameter range of 63-75 micron, less than 150 micron, 150-250 micron, 250-355 micron and 355-425 micron. To control the flow rate, the control gate of the particle dispensing hopper was adjusted to 1/16 open rate, 1/8 open rate and 1/4 open rate. The captured image range was 0 cm to 5 cm from the control gate, 5 cm to 10 cm from the control gate and 10 cm to 15 cm from the control gate. Some of these experiments were conducted under both open environment conditions and closed environment conditions. Thus these experiments had a total of five parameters which were type of particles, diameter of particles, flow rate, observation range, and environment conditions. The coal particles (diameter between 63 and 75 microns) tested under the closed environment condition had three factors that were considered as the affecting factors. They were open rate, observation range, and environment conditions. In this experiment, the interaction of open rate and observation range had a significant effect on the lower limit. On the upper limit, the open rate and environment conditions had a significant effect. In addition, the interaction of open rate and environment conditions had a significant effect. The coal particles tested (diameter between 63 and 75

  15. Development Of An Experiment For Measuring Flow Phenomena Occurring In A Lower Plenum For VHTR CFD Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. McEligot; K.G. Condie; G. E. Mc Creery; H. M. Mc Ilroy

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the present report is to document the design of our first experiment to measure generic flow phenomena expected to occur in the lower plenum of a typical prismatic VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) concept. In the process, fabrication sketches are provided for the use of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) analysts wishing to employ the data for assessment of their proposed codes. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. One aspect of the complex flow in a prismatic VHTR is being addressed: flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue). Current prismatic VHTR concepts were examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses were applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentum-dominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other.

  16. Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    temperature and decreased combustion gas mass flow rate. The method for calculating savings from preheating flow include minimizing combustion air, preheating combustion air, minimizing ventilation air from minimizing combustion air accounts for improvement in efficiency from increased combustion

  17. Why Insertion Turbine Meters are Replacing Orifice Plates for Steam Flow Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusnak, J. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WHY INSERTION TURBINE MBTBRS A E REPLACING ORIFICE PLATES FOR STEAM FLOW MEASURE ENT J. J. Rusnak Engineering Measurements Company Longmont, Colorado ABSTRACT Flow measurement is a complex and application related discipline. It borders... to be instrumented quickly, economically and without dis rupting production; and further, these meters had to be accurate in order to be useful in making energy saving decisions. Thus, the entry of the insertion turbine meter for steam in 1975. Since then it has...

  18. Indriect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Mult-Component Natural Gas By Heating The Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Torrance, CA)

    2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a natural gas by heating the gas. In two embodiments, the heating energy is correlated to the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into the model equation. If the diluent concentrations other than nitrogen (typically carbon dioxide) are known, the model equation can be solved for the nitrogen concentration.

  19. Development, calibration and experimental results obtained with an innovative calorimeter (CALMOS) for nuclear heating measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carcreff, H.; Cloute-Cazalaa, V.; Salmon, L. [CEA/DEN/DRSN/SIREN/LASPI (Saclay), F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear heating inside an MTR reactor has to be known in order to be able to control samples temperature during irradiation experiments. An R and D program has been carried out at CEA to design a new type of in-core calorimetric system. This new development, started in 2002, has for main objective to manufacture a calorimeter suitable to monitoring nuclear heating inside the 70 MWth OSIRIS material testing reactor operated by CEA's Nuclear Energy Div. at the Saclay research center. An innovative calorimetric probe, associated to a specific handling system, has been designed to provide access to measurements both along the fissile height and on the upper part of the core, where nuclear heating still remains high. Two mock-ups of the probe were manufactured and tested in 2005 and 2009 in ex-core area of OSIRIS reactor for process validation, while a displacement system has been especially studied to move the probe along a given axial measurement range. This paper deals with the development, tests on preliminary mock-ups and the finalization of the probe. Main modeling and experimental results are presented. Moreover, alternative methods to calibration for nuclear heating rate measurements which are now possible with this new calorimeter are presented and discussed. (authors)

  20. Development, calibration, and experimental results obtained with an innovative calorimeter (CALMOS) for nuclear heating measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carcreff, Hubert; Cloute-Cazalaa, Veronique; Salmon, Laurent [CEA, DEN, DRSN, SIREN, LASPI Saclay, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear heating inside an MTR reactor has to be known in order to be able to control samples temperature during irradiation experiments. An R and D program has been carried out at CEA to design a new type of in-core calorimetric system. This new development, started in 2002, has for main objective to manufacture a calorimeter suitable to monitoring nuclear heating inside the 70 MWth OSIRIS material testing reactor operated by CEA's Nuclear Energy Division at the Saclay research center. An innovative calorimetric probe, associated to a specific handling system, has been designed to provide access to measurements both along the fissile height and on the upper part of the core, where nuclear heating still remains high. Two mock-ups of the probe were manufactured and tested in 2005 and 2009 in ex-core area of OSIRIS reactor for process validation, while a displacement system has been especially studied to move the probe along a given axial measurement range. This paper deals with the development, tests on preliminary mock-ups and the finalization of the probe. Main modeling and experimental results are presented. Moreover, alternative methods to calibration for nuclear heating rate measurements which are now possible with this new calorimeter are presented and discussed. (authors)

  1. Heat Transfer Engineering, 28(6):525540, 2007 Copyright C Taylor and Francis Group, LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    Heat Transfer Engineering, 28(6):525­540, 2007 Copyright C Taylor and Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 0145-7632 print / 1521-0537 online DOI: 10.1080/01457630701193906 Heat Transfer Measurements, Flow Pattern Maps, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA Local heat transfer coefficients and flow parameters were measured for air

  2. CASCADE CONTROL EXPERIMENTS OF RISER SLUG FLOW USING TOPSIDE MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1. INTRODUCTION Riser slugging is a flow regime that can develop in multiphase production systems production facilities (Havre et al., 2000) and (Godhavn et al., 2005a). #12;The above applications use subsea of the system. Both the pipeline and the riser was made of a 20mm diameter transpar- ent rubber hose, which

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Optical plume velocimetry: a new flow measurement technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    hydrothermal systems Timothy J. Crone Ã? Russell E. McDuff Ã? William S. D. Wilcock Received: 5 November 2007 that fluid flow rates in mid- ocean ridge hydrothermal systems may be strongly influ- enced by mechanical that are transitioning between jet-like and plume-like behavior. List of symbols A area of jet nozzle, m2 B initial

  4. FRACSTIM/I: A Fully Coupled Fluid Flow/Heat Transport and Geomechanica...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Using Solid Particles as Heat Transfer Fluid for use in Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Plants Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model And Experiments For...

  5. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dual compressor available on the market Compared with the selected building, a more energy efficient building will have lower space cooling and heating

  6. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat pump, and the energy consumption of the whole GSHP system given the accurate information of the building, GSHP system, weather data,

  7. Heat transfer and flow characteristics of cooling channels in turbine blades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Amit

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /mass transfer distributions were determined for straight flow' through a pin fin channel (H/D = 1, S/D = X/D = 2. 5) and a flow through the pin fin channel with trailing edge flow ejection. The overall friction factor and local pressure drop results were... obtained for various configurations and lengths (L/d = 2 and 20) of the trailing edge ejection holes, From the pressure drop data, the radial mass flow rate and the mass flow rates through trailing edge ejection holes were calculated. The results show...

  8. Measurement of laser heating in spin exchange optical pumping by NMR diffusion sensitization gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parnell, Steven R.; Deppe, Martin H.; Ajraoui, Salma; Parra-Robles, Juan; Wild, Jim M. [Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Glossop Road, Sheffield, S10 2JF (United Kingdom); Boag, Stephen [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper details pulsed gradient NMR measurements of the {sup 3}He diffusion coefficient in sealed cells during spin exchange optical pumping. The potential of ultra low field magnetic resonance imgaing (MRI) and NMR for noninvasive measurement of cell pressure is demonstrated. Diffusion sensitization gradients allow measurement of the {sup 3}He diffusion coefficient from which the pressure and/or temperature of the gas can be determined during optical pumping. The pressure measurements were compared with neutron time of flight transmission measurements. Good agreement was observed between the temperature/pressure measurements and predictions based on Chapman-Enskog theory. The technique had sufficient sensitivity to observe the diffusion coefficient increasing with temperature in a sealed cell. With this method, evidence for laser heating of the {sup 3}He during optical pumping was found. The results show that NMR diffusion measurements allow noninvasive measurement of the cell temperature and/or pressure in an optical pumping setup. The method can be expanded using MRI to probe the spatial distribution of the diffusion coefficient. These techniques can be applied to the further investigation of polarization limiting effects such as laser heating.

  9. Establishment of a research facility for investigating the effects of unsteady inlet flow, pressure gradient and curvature on boundary layer development, wake development and heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pardivala, Darayus Noshir

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESTABLISHMENT OF A RESEARCH FACILITY FOR INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF UNSTEADY INLET FLOW) PRESSURE GRADIENT AND CURVATURE ON BOUNDARY LAYER DEVELOPMENT) %'AKE DEVELOPMENT AND HEAT TRANSFER A Thesis by DARAYUS NOSHIR PARDIVALA Submitted... THE EFFECTS OF UNSTEADY INLET FLOW, PRESSURE GRADIENT AND CURVATURE ON BOUNDARY LAYER DEVELOPMENT, WAKE DEVELOPMENT AND HEAT TRANSFER A Thesis by DARAYUS NOSHIR PARDIVALA Approved as to style and content by: Taher Schobeiri (Chair of Committee) Gerald...

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring the mass flow rate of a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Robert P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilkins, S. Curtis (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Blotter, Jonathan D. (Pocatello, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non invasive method and apparatus is provided to measure the mass flow rate of a multi-phase fluid. An accelerometer is attached to a pipe carrying a multi-phase fluid. Flow related measurements in pipes are sensitive to random velocity fluctuations whose magnitude is proportional to the mean mass flow rate. An analysis of the signal produced by the accelerometer shows a relationship between the mass flow of a fluid and the noise component of the signal of an accelerometer. The noise signal, as defined by the standard deviation of the accelerometer signal allows the method and apparatus of the present invention to non-intrusively measure the mass flow rate of a multi-phase fluid.

  11. Heat transfer 1990. Proceedings of the ninth international heat transfer conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hetsroni, G.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Heat Transfer Conference. Included in Volume 6 are the following chapters: Local void fraction measurements in finned tube bundles, Unsteady heat and mass transfer in low two-phase flows and The effect of physical properties on drop size in annular flow.

  12. USING TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC MEASUREMENTS TO IMPROVE FLOW MODELING OF CO2 INJECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marly. The EOR process in the RCP section of the Weyburn Field uses CO2 and water injection to displaceUSING TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC MEASUREMENTS TO IMPROVE FLOW MODELING OF CO2 INJECTION IN THE WEYBURN, particularly CO2. Time lapse seismic monitoring has motivated changes to the reservoir description in a flow

  13. Identifiability of Flow Distributions from Link Measurements with Applications to Computer Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michailidis, George

    Identifiability of Flow Distributions from Link Measurements with Applications to Computer Networks Abstract We study the problem of identifiability of distributions of flows on a graph from aggregate by recent developments in computer networks. In this paper (i) we introduce a number of models for multi

  14. Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a rib grit roughened surface solar air heater using CFD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karmare, S.V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government College Engineering, Karad 415 124, Maharashtra (India); Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra (India); Tikekar, A.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli (India); Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the study of fluid flow and heat transfer in a solar air heater by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) which reduces time and cost. Lower side of collector plate is made rough with metal ribs of circular, square and triangular cross-section, having 60 inclinations to the air flow. The grit rib elements are fixed on the surface in staggered manner to form defined grid. The system and operating parameters studied are: e/D{sub h} = 0.044, p/e = 17.5 and l/s = 1.72, for the Reynolds number range 3600-17,000. To validate CFD results, experimental investigations were carried out in the laboratory. It is found that experimental and CFD analysis results give the good agreement. The optimization of rib geometry and its angle of attack is also done. The square cross-section ribs with 58 angle of attack give maximum heat transfer. The percentage enhancement in the heat transfer for square plate over smooth surface is 30%. (author)

  15. Quantitative blood flow measurements in the small animal cardiopulmonary system using digital subtraction angiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin Mingde; Marshall, Craig T.; Qi, Yi; Johnston, Samuel M.; Badea, Cristian T.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Johnson, G. Allan [Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3823, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3823, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The use of preclinical rodent models of disease continues to grow because these models help elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and provide robust test beds for drug development. Among the major anatomic and physiologic indicators of disease progression and genetic or drug modification of responses are measurements of blood vessel caliber and flow. Moreover, cardiopulmonary blood flow is a critical indicator of gas exchange. Current methods of measuring cardiopulmonary blood flow suffer from some or all of the following limitations--they produce relative values, are limited to global measurements, do not provide vasculature visualization, are not able to measure acute changes, are invasive, or require euthanasia. Methods: In this study, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to obtain vasculature visualization, quantitative blood flow in absolute metrics (ml/min instead of arbitrary units or velocity), and relative blood volume dynamics from discrete regions of interest on a pixel-by-pixel basis (100x100 {mu}m{sup 2}). Results: A series of calibrations linked the DSA flow measurements to standard physiological measurement using thermodilution and Fick's method for cardiac output (CO), which in eight anesthetized Fischer-344 rats was found to be 37.0{+-}5.1 ml/min. Phantom experiments were conducted to calibrate the radiographic density to vessel thickness, allowing a link of DSA cardiac output measurements to cardiopulmonary blood flow measurements in discrete regions of interest. The scaling factor linking relative DSA cardiac output measurements to the Fick's absolute measurements was found to be 18.90xCO{sub DSA}=CO{sub Fick}. Conclusions: This calibrated DSA approach allows repeated simultaneous visualization of vasculature and measurement of blood flow dynamics on a regional level in the living rat.

  16. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (12) Evaluations of Spatial Distributions of Flow and Heat Transfer in Steam Injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yutaka Abe; Yujiro Kawamoto [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Chikako Iwaki [Toshiba Corporation (Japan); Tadashi Narabayashi [Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo (Japan); Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Next-generation nuclear reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. One of the innovative technologies is the supersonic steam injector, which has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation nuclear reactor. The steam injector has functions of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery and a high efficiency heat exchanger. The performances of the supersonic steam injector as a pump and a heat exchanger are dependent on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. In previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about the operating characteristics of steam injector and about the direct contact condensation between static water pool and steam in atmosphere. However, there is a little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under the great shear stress. In order to examine the heat transfer and flow behavior in supersonic steam injector, it is necessary to measure the spatial temperature distribution and velocity in detail. The present study, visible transparent supersonic steam injector is used to obtain the axial pressure distributions in the supersonic steam injector, as well as high speed visual observation of water jet and steam interface. The experiments are conducted with and without non-condensable gas. The experimental results of the interfacial flow behavior between steam and water jet are obtained. It is experimentally clarified that an entrainment exists on the water jet surface. It is also clarified that discharge pressure is depended on the steam supply pressure, the inlet water flow rate, the throat diameter and non-condensable flow rate. Finally a heat flux is estimated about 19 MW/m{sup 2} without non-condensable gas condition in steam. (authors)

  17. Undersampling to accelerate time-resolved MRI velocity measurement of carotid blood flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Yuehui

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-resolved velocity information of carotid blood flow can be used to estimate haemodynamic conditions associated with carotid artery disease leading to stroke. MRI provides high-resolution measurement of such information ...

  18. Heating dynamics of CO{sub 2}-laser irradiated silica particles with evaporative shrinking: Measurements and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elhadj, S.; Qiu, S. R.; Stolz, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Monterrosa, A. M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94704 (United States)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heating dynamics of CO{sub 2}-laser heated micron-sized particles were determined for temperatures <3500 K measured using infrared imaging. A coupled mass and energy conservation model is derived to predict single particle temperatures and sizes, which were compared with data from particles deposited on non-absorbing substrates to assess the relevant heat transfer processes. Analysis reveals substrate conduction dominates all other heat losses, while laser absorption determined from Mie theory is strongly modulated by particle evaporative shrinking. This study provides insights into the light coupling and heating of particle arrays where the material optical properties are temperature-dependent and particle size changes are significant.

  19. Effervescent heating: constraints from nearby cooling flow clusters observed with XMM-Newton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocco Piffaretti; Jelle Kaastra

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used deprojected radial density and temperature profiles of a sample of 16 nearby CF clusters observed with XMM-Newton to test whether the effervescent heating model can satisfactorily explain the dynamics of CF clusters. For each cluster we derived the required extra heating as a function of cluster-centric distance for various values of the unknown parameters $\\dot M$ (mass deposition rate) and $f_c$ (conduction efficiency). We fitted the extra heating curve using the AGN effervescent heating function and derived the AGN parameters $L$ (the time-averaged luminosity) and $r_0$ (the scale radius where the bubbles start rising in the ICM). While we do not find any solution with the effervescent heating model for only one object, we do show that AGN and conduction heating are not cooperating effectively for half of the objects in our sample. For most of the clusters we find that, when a comparison is possible, the derived AGN scale radius $r_0$ and the observed AGN jet extension have the same order of magnitude. The AGN luminosities required to balance radiative losses are substantially lowered if the fact that the AGN deposits energy within a finite volume is taken into account. For the Virgo cluster, we find that the AGN power derived from the effervescent heating model is in good agreement with the observed jet power.

  20. Large scale test rig for flow visualization and leakage measurement of labyrinth seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broussard, Daniel Harold

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LARGE SCALE TEST RIG FOR FLOW VISUALIZATION AND LEAKAGE MEASUREMENT OF LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis by DANIEL HAROLD BROUSSARD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of requirements for degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering LARGE SCALE TEST RIG FOR FLOW VISUALIZATION AND LEAKAGE MEASUREMENT OF LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis by DANIEL HAROLD BROUSSARD Approved as to style and content by: David L. Rhode...

  1. Influence of surface heating on the boundary layer stability of flows with favorable pressure gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landrum, David Brian

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    $ of its chord heated to about 1. 5 times the adiabatic temperature. Compared to the adiabatic case, the nose heating slightly delayed the initial amplification of disturbances and significantly incr eased the transition length. A vertical traverse... . . . . 10 Fig. 3 Neutral stability cur ve f' or a typical boundar y layer velocity profile 13 Fig. 4a Falkner-Skan velocity profiles with wall heating, 8 0. 0 18 Fig. 4b Falkner-Skan temperature profiles, B=O. O 19 Fig. 5a Falkner-Skan velocity prof...

  2. Thorough approach to measurement uncertainty analysis applied to immersed heat exchanger testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, R.B.; Wells, C.V.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the value of an uncertainty analysis, discusses how to determine measurement uncertainty, and then details the sources of error in instrument calibration, data acquisition, and data reduction for a particular experiment. Methods are discussed to determine both the systematic (or bias) error in an experiment as well as to determine the random (or precision) error in the experiment. The detailed analysis is applied to two sets of conditions in measuring the effectiveness of an immersed coil heat exchanger. It shows the value of such analysis as well as an approach to reduce overall measurement uncertainty and to improve the experiment. This paper outlines how to perform an uncertainty analysis and then provides a detailed example of how to apply the methods discussed in the paper. The authors hope this paper will encourage researchers and others to become more concerned with their measurement processes and to report measurement uncertainty with all of their test results.

  3. Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber Measurements of IN Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution And Bylaws |ContactFlow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC)

  4. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH products) installed in existing homes in the northeast region of the United States.

  5. Finite element analysis of conjugate heat transfer in axisymmetric pipe flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fithen, Robert Miller

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature Page 43 se NOMENCLATURE specific heat of fluid at constant pressure variational operator test function dimensionless pipe thickness (t/R) non ? dimensional axial coordinate surface traction matrix Ky M?. nr Pe Sue!i wall...

  6. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (1): Flow Resistance and Energy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Huang, L.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Given the schematic diagram of TDHT system, introducing the definition of equivalent fouling roughness height, and using the Niklaus...

  7. TURBULENT HEATING OF THE DISTANT SOLAR WIND BY INTERSTELLAR PICKUP PROTONS IN A DECELERATING FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Philip A.

    Previous models of solar wind heating by interstellar pickup proton-driven turbulence have assumed that the wind speed is a constant in heliocentric radial position. However, the same pickup process, which is taken to ...

  8. The flow structure under mixed convection in a uniformly heated vertical pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jeongik

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For decay heat removal systems in the conceptual Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) currently under development, passive emergency cooling using natural circulation of a gas at an elevated pressure is being considered. Since ...

  9. Alumina Nanoparticle Pre-coated Tubing Ehancing Subcooled Flow Boiling Cricital Heat Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Bao H.

    Nanofluids are engineered colloidal dispersions of nano-sized particle in common base fluids. Previous pool boiling studies have shown that nanofluids can improve critical heat flux (CHF) up to 200% for pool boiling and ...

  10. The Difficulty of the Heating of Cluster Cooling Flows by Sound Waves and Weak Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yutaka Fujita; Takeru Ken Suzuki

    2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate heating of the cool core of a galaxy cluster through the dissipation of sound waves and weak shocks excited by the activities of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using a weak shock theory, we show that this heating mechanism alone cannot reproduce observed temperature and density profiles of a cluster, because the dissipation length of the waves is much smaller than the size of the core and thus the wave energy is not distributed to the whole core.

  11. New tube bundle heat transfer correlations and flow regime maps for a Once Through Steam Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanchat, Thomas Kevin

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    completed which allow the user to input the pitch and tube o. d. for the system. Predicted RELAP5/MOD2 heat transfer coefficients from correlations have been reviewed for single phase liquid convection, subcooled, and saturated nu- cleate boiling... of the OTSG model to determine the "model efFects" prior to changing any thermal ? hydraulic correlations. These studies inves- tigated the effects of hydraulic diameter, tube bundle surface heat transfer area, snd inlet feedwater subcooling, in addition...

  12. Comparative Analysis of Natural Convection Flows Simulated by both the Conservation and Incompressible Forms of the Navier-Stokes Equations in a Differentially-Heated Square Cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry; Aurélia Esteve; Kurt D. Hamman; Dana A. Knoll; Ryosuke Park; William Taitano

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report illustrates a comparative study to analyze the physical differences between numerical simulations obtained with both the conservation and incompressible forms of the Navier-Stokes equations for natural convection flows in simple geometries. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the incompressible flow assumption (which is based upon constant density advection, divergence-free flow, and the Boussinesq gravitational body force approximation) differs from the conservation form (which only assumes that the fluid is a continuum) when solving flows driven by gravity acting upon density variations resulting from local temperature gradients. Driving this study is the common use of the incompressible flow assumption in fluid flow simulations for nuclear power applications in natural convection flows subjected to a high heat flux (large temperature differences). A series of simulations were conducted on two-dimensional, differentially-heated rectangular geometries and modeled with both hydrodynamic formulations. From these simulations, the selected characterization parameters of maximum Nusselt number, average Nusselt number, and normalized pressure reduction were calculated. Comparisons of these parameters were made with available benchmark solutions for air with the ideal gas assumption at both low and high heat fluxes. Additionally, we generated body force, velocity, and divergence of velocity distributions to provide a basis for further analysis. The simulations and analysis were then extended to include helium at the Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) normal operating conditions. Our results show that the consequences of incorporating the incompressible flow assumption in high heat flux situations may lead to unrepresentative results. The results question the use of the incompressible flow assumption for simulating fluid flow in an operating nuclear reactor, where large temperature variations are present. The results show that the use of the incompressible flow assumption with the Boussinesq gravitational body force approximation should be restricted to flows where the density change of a fluid particle along a pathline is negligible.

  13. Acoustic measurement of the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well flow rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camilli, Richard

    On May 31, 2010, a direct acoustic measurement method was used to quantify fluid leakage rate from the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well prior to removal of its broken riser. This method utilized an acoustic imaging sonar and ...

  14. Electron temperature measurements during electron cyclotron heating on PDX using a ten channel grating polychromator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavallo, A.; Hsuan, H.; Boyd, D.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; Kritz, A.; Mikkelsen, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Takahashi, H.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During first harmonic electron cyclotron heating (ECH) on the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX) (R/sub 0/ = 137 cm, a = 40 cm), electron temperature was monitored using a grating polychromator which measured second harmonic electron cyclotron emission from the low field side of the tokamak. Interference from the high power heating pulse on the broadband detectors in the grating instrument was eliminated by using a waveguide filter in the transmission line which brought the emission signal to the grating instrument. Off-axis (approx. 4 cm) location of the resonance zone resulted in heating without sawtooth or m = 1 activity. However, heating with the resonance zone at the plasma center caused very large amplitude sawteeth accompanied by strong m = 1 activity: ..delta..T/T/sub MAX/ approx. = 0.41, sawtooth period approx. = 4 msec, m = 1 period approx. = 90 ..mu.. sec, (11 kHz). This is the first time such intense MHD activity driven by ECH has been observed. (For both cases there was no sawtooth activity in the ohmic phase of the discharge before ECH.) At very low densities there is a clear indication that a superthermal electron population is created during ECH.

  15. Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  16. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  17. Experimental Measurement of the Interface Heat Conductance Between Nonconforming Beryllium and Type 316 Stainless Steel Surfaces Subjected to Nonuniform Thermal Deformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelson, Robert Dean; Abdou, Mohamed A. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2001-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In fusion blanket designs that employ beryllium as a neutron multiplier, the interface conductance h plays a key role in evaluating the blanket's thermal profile. Therefore, an extensive experimental program was conducted to measure the magnitude of h between nonconforming beryllium and Type 316 stainless steel surfaces subjected to nonuniform thermal deformations. The magnitude of h was measured as a function of relevant environmental, surface, and geometric parameters, including surface roughness, contact pressure, gas pressure, gas type, and magnitude and direction of heat flow. The results indicate the following: (a) Decreasing the interfacial surface roughness from 6.28 to 0.28 {mu}m, in 760 Torr of helium, increased the magnitude of h by up to 100%; however, increasing the surface roughness reduced the dependence of h on the magnitude of the contact pressure. (b) The interface conductance was significantly higher for measurements made in helium gas as opposed to air. Additionally, the sensitivity of h to the gas pressure was significantly greater for runs conducted in helium and/or with smoother surfaces. This sensitivity was reduced in air and/or with roughened surfaces, and it was essentially nonexistent for the 6.25-{mu}m specimen for air pressures exceeding 76 Torr. (c) For runs conducted in vacuum, the interface conductance was more sensitive to heat flux than when runs were conducted in 760 Torr of helium. (d) The interface conductance was found to be dependent on the direction of heat flux. When the specimens were arranged so that heat flowed from the steel to the beryllium disk, the magnitude of h was generally greater than in the opposite direction.

  18. Solids flow control and measurement in the PEATGAS pilot-plant program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohadlo, S.J.; Biljetina, R.; Laurens, R.M.; Bachta, R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a pilot plant gasification program, the measurement and control of major process variables such as flow, temperature, pressure, density and level are essential to develop accurate material balance and reliable scale-up data. Of these, solids mass flow metering and control usually present the most difficult application. Problems are encountered because of (a) solids characteristics, which can cause erosion and plugging; (b) measurement requirements, which are often at elevated pressures and temperatures; and (c) changes in stream characteristics, such as density, viscosity and solids concentration. This paper reviews the approaches used to measure and control solid-liquid and solid-gas mixtures and elaborates on the design, installation and operating experiences of a lockhopper dry feed system commissioned to control solids feed to the gasifier. Accurate and reliable solids flow measurement and control was achieved during the operation of the PEATGAS pilot plant. Standard instrumentation, modified to meet process requirements, was used to measure multi-component flows of solid-gas and solid-liquid mixtures. In addition, a lockhopper feed system using an innovative solids rate control and measurement technique was installed, commissioned and operated. IGT as a process developer will continue to look for new or improved instrumentation that might be better suited to measure important process variables such as the solids mass flow applications discussed herein.

  19. A primary high-pressure air flow measurement standard in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiunn-Haur Shaw; Fong-Ruey Yang; Yao-Fu Chen [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-pressure air-flow national measurement standard is constructed in Taiwan with a capacity of 8400 Nm{sup 3}/h and a projected measurement uncertainty of {plus_minus}0.2% in the pressure range of 1 {approximately} 84 bars. it is a blow-down type facility, and its main purpose is to serve as the primary standard of a larger-flowrate natural gas flow measurement facility to be built in the future by Chinese Petroleum Company (CPC). The system has a gyroscopic weighing platform suitable for high precision gravimetric measurements and several sonic nozzles with different throat diameters situated in a chamber to be the reference flow meters. A set of two turbine meters, 50mm and 100mm, are sued as the transfer standard. The facility has two test sections separated by the nozzle chamber and four different calibration modes could be arranged. To make calibration, the storage tank, the temperature control loop, and two sets of pressure regulating valve establish a pressurized air flow with stable temperature and pressure in the test section. The control of the air-flow diversion, connect-disconnect mechanism, sonic nozzle array is made through a hydraulic power unit operating at 200 bars. Real time measurements of temperature, pressure, flow signal, and time are collected through a Honeywell 9000-series PLC and a FIX DMAC data acquisition/control software. This paper describes the key components of the test facility and presents the preliminary results of performance assessment.

  20. Higher harmonic anisotropic flow measurements of charged particles at 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You Zhou; for the ALICE Collaboration

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the measurements of elliptic flow $v_{2}$, as well as higher harmonics triangular flow $v_{3}$ and quadrangular flow $v_{4}$, in $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} =$ 2.76 TeV Pb--Pb collisions, measured with the ALICE detector. We show that the measured elliptic and triangular flow can be understood from the initial spatial anisotropy and its event--by--event fluctuations. The resulting fluctuations of $v_{2}$ and $v_{3}$ are also discussed.

  1. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xian-Xiang

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification ...

  2. Review of fluid flow and convective heat transfer within rotating disk cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -00975626,version1-8Apr2014 Author manuscript, published in "International Journal of Thermal Sciences 67 based on and r. Rej Jet Reynolds number based on W and D. ReU Cross-flow Reynolds number Ro Rossby

  3. HEAT OF DISSOLUTION MEASUREMENTS FOR CO2 IN MIXED ALKANOLAMINE SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80 C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  4. HEAT OF DISSOLUTION MEASUREMENTS FOR CO2 IN MIXED ALKANOLAMINE SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80 C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  5. Heat of Dissolution Measurements for CO2 in Mixed Alkanolamine Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2006-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  6. HEAT OF DISSOLUTION MEASUREMENTS FOR CO2 IN MIXED ALKANOLAMINE SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2005-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  7. A computational model for viscous fluid flow, heat transfer, and melting in in situ vitrification melt pools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, P.R.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MAGMA is a FORTRAN computer code designed to viscous flow in in situ vitrification melt pools. It models three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flow and heat transfer. The momentum equation is coupled to the temperature field through the buoyancy force terms arising from the Boussinesq approximation. All fluid properties, except density, are assumed variable. Density is assumed constant except in the buoyancy force terms in the momentum equation. A simple melting model based on the enthalpy method allows the study of the melt front progression and latent heat effects. An indirect addressing scheme used in the numerical solution of the momentum equation voids unnecessary calculations in cells devoid of liquid. Two-dimensional calculations can be performed using either rectangular or cylindrical coordinates, while three-dimensional calculations use rectangular coordinates. All derivatives are approximated by finite differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a new fully implicit iterative technique, while the energy equation is differenced explicitly in time. Spatial derivatives are written in conservative form using a uniform, rectangular, staggered mesh based on the marker and cell placement of variables. Convective terms are differenced using a weighted average of centered and donor cell differencing to ensure numerical stability. Complete descriptions of MAGMA governing equations, numerics, code structure, and code verification are provided. 14 refs.

  8. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.

  9. Measuring solar reflectance - Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective ''cool colored'' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland US latitudes, this metric R{sub E891BN} can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {<=} 5:12 [23 ]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear sky air mass one global horizontal (''AM1GH'') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. (author)

  10. Randomized flow model and centrality measure for electrical power transmission network analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the vulnerability of electric power infrastructure systems [2, 3]. The focus of these types of studies is typically1 Randomized flow model and centrality measure for electrical power transmission network analysis. Centrality measures can then be coherently defined. An example of application to an electrical power

  11. Measurement and simulation of a droplet population in a turbulent flow field Rbert Bords a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Volker

    online 30 May 2012 Keywords: Two-phase turbulent flow Disperse droplet population Non-intrusive are determined by non-intrusive measurements. A direct discretization of the 4D equation for the droplet size deter- mined by means of non-intrusive measurement techniques. In this way, suitable time

  12. Heat transfer measurements in a two-pass square duct via a transient liquid crystal image method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luna, Jesus Arturo

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to obtain heat transfer coefficients. Heat transfer measurement distributions at 3 Reynolds numbers (10,000, 25,000, and 50,000) were studied. There were two geometric surface rib patterns attached to the channel. First was a 90° continuous rib...

  13. Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb and heat sink grease respectively). The dynamics of thermal effects is also presented. PACS 42.55.Xi (Diode-pumped in a diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG crystal, using a calibrated infrared camera, with a 60-µm spatial resolution

  14. Numerical study of flow and heat transfer in 3D serpentine channels using colocated grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chintada, Sailesh Raju

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the walls is held constant at a value of 40. 0 W/ms. The specification of this value is arbitrary and it does not change the Nusselt number (Nu), though the temperature field is dependent on it. However, in case of PDF heat transfer, the solution...

  15. Transient response of an industrial fin tube heat exchanger to flow variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rana, Gopalji Motiram

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Tho most impor ant assumptions made were that the proper- tiess Gl. t t e s Leais ar!d w, !ter and heat transfer coe f f ic ients for the stean! and water side did not vary with posi ion. l, spies: transform techniques were utilized to obtain the...

  16. Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

  17. Measurements of ship-induced flow and its effect on bank erosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hongbin

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Discussion C. Existing Models Review D. Modification of Model and Computation E. Boundary Layer Consideration . F. Comparisons with Field Measurements 12 12 15 19 25 30 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) CHAPTER Page IV SHIP WAVES A. Description B... only considers flow parallel to the channel. The mea; surements indicate that passing barges may generate substantial flow perpendicular to the bank depending on the near-shore topography. Also, the model assumes a 25 uniform distribution...

  18. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...

  19. Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Measurement for Square Channels with V-shape Ribs at High Reynolds Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkhamis, Nawaf Yahya

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP MEASUREMENT FOR SQUARE CHANNELS WITH V-SHAPE RIBS AT HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBERS A Thesis by NAWAF YAHYA ALKHAMIS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2009 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP MEASUREMENT FOR SQUARE CHANNELS WITH V-SHAPE RIBS AT HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBERS A Thesis...

  20. Flow Measurement with Tangential Paddlewheel Flow Meters: Analysis of Experimental Results and in-situ Diagnostics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watt, J. B.; Haberl, J. S.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acquisition system. In this paper new results from calibration efforts in the LoanSTAR program are presented, including the premature drop-out of magnetic-type tangential paddlewheel sensors, as well as several in-situ diagnostic measures for ascertaining...

  1. Columbia University Flow Instability Experimental Program, Volume 10: Critical Heat Flux Test Program data tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of reports which document the flow instability testing conducted by Columbia University during 1989 through 1992. This report volume provides a hardcopy version of the twenty-six electronic media data files: CO515(A-D).DAT, CO525(A-G). DAT, CO530(A-K).DAT, CO718(A-E).DAT.

  2. Transient fluid and heat flow modeling in coupled wellbore/reservoir systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izgec, Bulent

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ....................................................... 66 5.3.1 Modeling Field Data ..................................................................... 68 5.3.2 Optimal Location of Permanent Downhole Gauge....................... 71 5.4 Effect of Gauge Location on Pressure-Transient Analysis... at the midpoint of the flow string................................. 70 Figure 5.26 Downhole gauge placement configurations .............................................. 71 Figure 5.27 Temperature and density profiles in the wellbore...

  3. Momentum and heat fluxes in a turbulent air flow over a wet, smooth boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice, Warren

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idealized sketch, of boundary layer flow regions................ .............45 Figure 2 Schematic diagram of wind tunnel. . . . 46 Figure 3 Photograph of wind tunnel............ .. 47 Figure 4 Photograph of wind tunnel............ .. 47 Figure 5... mechanism and probe.................. .. 49 Figure 9 Distances of interest in the momentum and thermal boundary layers ............ 50 Figure 10 A typical velocity and temperature profile comparison .................. .. 51 Figure 1 1 Variation...

  4. Spring temperatures in the Sagehen Basin, Sierra Nevada, CA: implications for heat flow and groundwater circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manga, Michael

    on groundwater flow depths within the basin. An analytical model based on these constraints indicates@berkeley.edu. Tel: +1 510 642 2288. Fax: +1 510 643 9980. Geofluids (2009) 9, 195­207 INTRODUCTION Groundwater and groundwater circulation MARIA BRUMM, CHI-YUEN WANG AND MICHAEL MANGA Earth and Planetary Science, University

  5. Experimental Measurement of the Flow Field of Heavy Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Browand; Charles Radovich

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Flat flaps that enclose the trailer base on the sides and top are known to reduce truck drag and reduce fuel consumption. Such flapped-truck geometries have been studied in laboratory wind tunnels and in field tests. A recent review of wind tunnel data for a variety of truck geometries and flow Reynolds numbers show roughly similar values of peak drag reduction, but differ in the determination of the optimum flap angle. Optimum angles lie in the range 12 degrees-20 degrees, and may be sensitive to Reynolds number and truck geometry. The present field test is undertaken to provide additional estimates of the magnitude of the savings to be expected on a typical truck for five flap angles 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees. The flaps are constructed from a fiberglass-epoxy-matrix material and are one-quarter of the base width in length (about 61 cm, or 2 feet). They are attached along the rear door hinge lines on either side of the trailer, so that no gap appears at the joint between the flap and the side of the trailer The flap angle is adjusted by means of two aluminum supports. The present test is performed on the NASA Crows Landing Flight Facility at the northern end of the San Joaquin valley in California. The main runway is approximately 2400 meters in length, and is aligned approximately in a north-south direction The test procedure is to make a series of runs starting at either end of the runway. All runs are initiated under computer control to accelerate the truck to a target speed of 60 mph (96 6 km/hr), to proceed at the target speed for a fixed distance, and to decelerate at the far end of the runway. During a run, the broadcast fuel rate, the engine rpm, forward speed, elapsed time--as well as several other parameters (10 in all)--are digitized at a rate of 100 digitizations per second. Various flapped-conditions are interspersed with the ''no flaps'' control, and are sequenced in a different order on different days. Approximately 310 runs are accumulated over the 5-day test period, May 17-21, 2004. The runway slopes rather uniformly upward from north-to-south. Over the distance of 2424 meters between our two ''start'' markers at either end of the runway, the net change in elevation is a little over ten meters. Test results clearly show the greater fuel consumption required to lift the truck against gravity in the southbound direction For this reason, it is important that the tests be averaged over a round trip circuit--that is, a run in both directions over the identical portion of the roadway. Northbound-southbound averages require an overlap segment of the runway (near the middle of the runway) where the truck--starting from either end--has achieved its target speed. For the target truck speed of 60 mph, this overlap region is approximately 700 meters in length. Typically a run and the return run are accomplished within a time interval of 6 minutes. Analysis of the data show fuel consumption savings at all flap angle settings tested, when compared to the ''no flaps'' condition. The most beneficial flap angle appears to be 13 degrees, for which the fuel consumption is 0.3778 {+-} 0.0025 liters/km compared to the ''no flaps'' control of 0.3941 {+-} 0.0034 liters/km. The error bounds expressed above mark the 99% confidence interval in the mean values given. That is, additional estimates of the mean fuel consumption would be expected to lie within the bounds given, approximately 99% of the time. The fuel consumption saving is--to reasonable accuracy--about 1.63 liters/100 kilometers. These savings represent the increment associated only with the change in drag due to the presence or absence of flaps. The result will hold for any truck of similar size and shape and engine performance regardless of the loading of the truck or the rolling resistance. The economy achieved by use of base flaps can be compared to the economy resulting from driving two trucks in a tandem configuration. In December 2003, such fuel consumption tests were performed at the same Crows Landing testsite. In the tests, two identical trucks are ope

  6. DIAGNOSING THE TIME-DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE REGION CORE HEATING FROM THE EMISSION MEASURE. I. LOW-FREQUENCY NANOFLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, S. J.; Reep, J. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Klimchuk, J. A., E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu, E-mail: jeffrey.reep@rice.edu, E-mail: james.a.klimchuk@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Lab., Code 671, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Observational measurements of active region emission measures contain clues to the time dependence of the underlying heating mechanism. A strongly nonlinear scaling of the emission measure with temperature indicates a large amount of hot plasma relative to warm plasma. A weakly nonlinear (or linear) scaling of the emission measure indicates a relatively large amount of warm plasma, suggesting that the hot active region plasma is allowed to cool and so the heating is impulsive with a long repeat time. This case is called low-frequency nanoflare heating, and we investigate its feasibility as an active region heating scenario here. We explore a parameter space of heating and coronal loop properties with a hydrodynamic model. For each model run, we calculate the slope {alpha} of the emission measure distribution EM(T){proportional_to}T {sup {alpha}}. Our conclusions are: (1) low-frequency nanoflare heating is consistent with about 36% of observed active region cores when uncertainties in the atomic data are not accounted for; (2) proper consideration of uncertainties yields a range in which as many as 77% of observed active regions are consistent with low-frequency nanoflare heating and as few as zero; (3) low-frequency nanoflare heating cannot explain observed slopes greater than 3; (4) the upper limit to the volumetric energy release is in the region of 50 erg cm{sup -3} to avoid unphysical magnetic field strengths; (5) the heating timescale may be short for loops of total length less than 40 Mm to be consistent with the observed range of slopes; (6) predicted slopes are consistently steeper for longer loops.

  7. Measurements of continuous mix evolution in a high energy density shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, E., E-mail: loomis@lanl.gov; Doss, F.; Flippo, K.; Fincke, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the novel integration of streaked radiography into a counter-flowing High Energy Density (HED) shear environment that continually measures a growing mix layer of Al separating two low-density CH foams. Measurements of the mix width allow us to validate compressible turbulence models and with streaked imaging, make this possible with a minimal number of experiments on large laser facilities. In this paper, we describe how the HED counter-flowing shear layer is created and diagnosed with streaked radiography. We then compare the streaked data to previous two-dimensional, single frame radiography and radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment with inline compressible turbulent mix models.

  8. A system for the real time, direct measurement of natural gas flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowell, T. [PMI, Badger Meter, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    PMI/Badger Meter, Inc. with partial sponsorship from the Gas Research Institute, has designed and developed direct measurement total energy flow metering instrumentation. As industry demands for improved accuracy and speed of measurement have increased so has the complexity of the overall hardware and software systems. Considering traditional system approaches, few companies have the in house capability of maintaining a complete system. This paper addresses efforts to implement a direct, total gas energy flow metering system which is simple to use and cost effective.

  9. Heat capacity measurements of atoms and molecules adsorbed on evaporated metal films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenny, T.W.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations of the properties of absorbed monolayers have received great experimental and theoretical attention recently, both because of the importance of surface processes in practical applications such as catalysis, and the importance of such systems to the understanding of the fundamentals of thermodynamics in two dimensions. We have adapted the composite bolometer technology to the construction of microcalorimeters. For these calorimeters, the adsorption substrate is an evaporated film deposited on one surface of an optically polished sapphire wafer. This approach has allowed us to make the first measurements of the heat capacity of submonolayer films of /sup 4/He adsorbed on metallic films. In contrast to measurements of /sup 4/He adsorbed on all other insulating substrates, we have shown that /sup 4/He on silver films occupies a two-dimensional gas phase over a broad range of coverages and temperatures. Our apparatus has been used to study the heat capacity of Indium flakes. CO multilayers, /sup 4/He adsorbed on sapphire and on Ag films and H/sub 2/ adsorbed on Ag films. The results are compared with appropriate theories. 68 refs., 19 figs.

  10. Macro-to-microchannel transition in two-phase flow: Part 1 - Two-phase flow patterns and film thickness measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, C.L.; Thome, J.R. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, EPFL-STI-IGM-LTCM, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The classification of macroscale, mesoscale and microscale channels with respect to two-phase processes is still an open question. The main objective of this study focuses on investigating the macro-to-microscale transition during flow boiling in small scale channels of three different sizes with three different refrigerants over a range of saturation conditions to investigate the effects of channel confinement on two-phase flow patterns and liquid film stratification in a single circular horizontal channel (Part 2 covers the flow boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux). This paper presents the experimental two-phase flow pattern transition data together with a top/bottom liquid film thickness comparison for refrigerants R134a, R236fa and R245fa during flow boiling in small channels of 1.03, 2.20 and 3.04 mm diameter. Based on this work, an improved flow pattern map has been proposed by determining the flow patterns transitions existing under different conditions including the transition to macroscale slug/plug flow at a confinement number of Co {approx} 0.3-0.4. From the top/bottom liquid film thickness comparison results, it was observed that the gravity forces are fully suppressed and overcome by the surface tension and shear forces when the confinement number approaches 1, Co {approx} 1. Thus, as a new approximate rule, the lower threshold of macroscale flow is Co = 0.3-0.4 while the upper threshold of symmetric microscale flow is Co {approx} 1 with a transition (or mesoscale) region in-between. (author)

  11. Rotor bore and turbine rotor wheel/spacer heat exchange flow circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caruso, Philip M. (Selkirk, NY); Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin (Saratoga Springs, NY); Ladhani, Azad A. (Niskayuna, NY); DeMania, Alan Richard (Niskayuna, NY); Palmer, Gene David (Clifton Park, NY); Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY); Rathbun, Lisa Shirley (Scotia, NY); Akin, Robert Craig (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a turbine having closed-circuit steam-cooling passages about the rim of the rotor during steady-state operation, compressor discharge air is supplied to the rotor bore for passage radially outwardly into the wheel space cavities between the wheels and spacers. Communicating slots and channels in the spacers and wheels at circumferentially spaced positions enable egress of the compressor discharge air into the hot gas flow path. At turbine startup, cooling air flows through the closed-circuit steam passages to cool the outer rim of the rotor while compressor discharge air pre-warms the wheels and spacers. At steady-state, cooling steam is supplied in the closed-circuit steam-cooling passages and compressor discharge air is supplied through the bore and into the wheel space cavities to cool the rotor.

  12. A new measurement of the bulk flow of X-ray luminous clusters of galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kashlinsky; F. Atrio-Barandela; H. Ebeling; A. Edge; D. Kocevski

    2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new measurements of the large-scale bulk flows of galaxy clusters based on 5-year WMAP data and a significantly expanded X-ray cluster catalogue. Our method probes the flow via measurements of the kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect produced by the hot gas in moving clusters. It computes the dipole in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data at cluster pixels, which preserves the SZ component while integrating down other contributions. Our improved catalog of over 1,000 clusters enables us to further investigate possible systematic effects and, thanks to a higher median cluster redshift, allows us to measure the bulk flow to larger scales. We present a corrected error treatment and demonstrate that the more X-ray luminous clusters, while fewer in number, have much larger optical depth, resulting in a higher dipole and thus a more accurate flow measurement. This results in the observed correlation of the dipole derived at the aperture of zero monopole with the monopole measured over the cluster central regions. This correlation is expected if the dipole is produced by the SZ effect and cannot be caused by unidentified systematics (or primary cosmic microwave background anisotropies). We measure that the flow is consistent with approximately constant velocity out to at least 800 Mpc. The significance of the measured signal peaks around 500 Mpc, most likely because the contribution from more distant clusters becomes progressively more diluted by the WMAP beam. We can, however, at present not rule out that these more distant clusters simply contribute less to the overall motion.

  13. New flow boiling heat transfer correlation for CFC-114 and C{sub 4}F{sub 10}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szady, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Technology Div.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The flow boiling tests being conducted at Cudo Technologies, Ltd. in Lexington, Kentucky are a part of The GDP Coolant Replacement Project. The tests are to be done with two alternates, C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, as well as CFC-114. So far, tests were conducted with CFC-114 and C{sub 4}F{sub 10}. The CFC-114 data by Cudo shows better heat transfer performance than that predicted by the codes used in the numerical model which were based on a superposition model. The data was applied to an asymptotic model developed by Steiner and Taborek. The new correlation developed seems to fit better with the Cudo data as well as the Paducah cell test data. The model will be further investigated when C{sub 4}F{sub 8} data is available.

  14. New tube bundle heat transfer correlations and flow regime maps for a Once Through Steam Generator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanchat, Thomas Kevin

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Support Group for their many helpful discussions and comments throughout this project. I would like to thank Mr. Richard Wagner at EGgrG, Idaho, for his patient explanations of the mechanics of the RELAP5/MOD2 code which enabled me to perform the code... completed which allow the user to input the pitch and tube o. d. for the system. Predicted RELAP5/MOD2 heat transfer coefficients from correlations have been reviewed for single phase liquid convection, subcooled, and saturated nu- cleate boiling...

  15. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  16. Roll Wave Effects on Annular Condensing Heat Transfer in Horizontal PCCS Condenser Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masaya Kondo; Hideo Nakamura; Yoshinari Anoda [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura 319-1195 (Japan); Sadanori Saishu; Hiroyuki Obata; Rumi Shimada [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan); Shinichi Kawamura [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Incorporated, 1-3, Uchisaiwai-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 1008560 (Japan)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A horizontal in-tube condensation heat exchanger is under investigation to be used for a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of a next generation-type BWR. The flow conditions in the horizontal condenser tube were observed both visually and by local void fraction fluctuation. The observed flow regimes at a rated condition were annular flow at the tube inlet, and turned gradually into wavy flow and smooth stratified flow along the length of the tube. It was found further that frequency of the roll waves that appear on the liquid film in the annular flow is closely related to the measured local condensation heat transfer coefficient. Based on the flow observation, the roll wave frequency and measured condensation heat transfer coefficient, a model is proposed which predicts the condensation heat transfer coefficient particularly for annular flows around the tube inlet region. The proposed heat transfer model predicts well the influences of pressure, local gas-phase velocity and film thickness. (authors)

  17. Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography and gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi [Department of Offshore Process and Energy Systems Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil and gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil and gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 and 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 and 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.

  18. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Sulfur and Sulfur Diluted with Hydrogen Sulfide Flowing Through Circular Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Porter Walwyn

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, using water as a basis of comparison. For identical tube sizes and the same fluid velocity, both pure and dilute sulfur were found to have a film conductance ~- I less than ten percent that of water over most... the v x d curves for each concentration of diluent. Sulfur is diluted with H2S, added as persulfide Sulfur is diluted with H S, added as liquid 34 35 10. A Ratio of film conductance of pure sulfur to that of water versus temperature. The flow...

  19. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid in a circular pipe under laminar flow with wire coil inserts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekar, M.; Suresh, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Chandra Bose, A. [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, fully developed laminar flow convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated horizontal tube with and without wire coil inserts is presented. For this purpose, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of 43 nm size were synthesized, characterized and dispersed in distilled water to form stable suspension containing 0.1% volume concentration of nanoparticles. The Nusselt number in the fully developed region were measured and found to increase by 12.24% at Re = 2275 for plain tube with nanofluid compared to distilled water. Two wire coil inserts made of stainless steel with pitch ratios 2 and 3 were used which increased the Nusselt numbers by 15.91% and 21.53% respectively at Re = 2275 with nanofluid compared to distilled water. The better heat transfer performance of nanofluid with wire coil insert is attributed to the effects of dispersion or back-mixing which flattens the temperature distribution and make the temperature gradient between the fluid and wall steeper. The measured pressure loss with the use of nanofluids is almost equal to that of the distilled water. The empirical correlations developed for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of Reynolds/Peclet number, pitch ratio and volume concentration fits with the experimental data within {+-}15%. (author)

  20. Aerodynamic pressure and flow-visualization measurement from a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, C.P.

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements have been made on a 10-m, three-bladed, downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). A video camera mounted on the rotor was used to record nighttime and daytime video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of a constant-chord, zero-twist blade. Load measurements were made using strain gages mounted at every 10% of the blade's span. Pressure measurements were made at 80% of the blade's span. Pressure taps were located at 32 chordwise positions, revealing pressure distributions comparable with wind tunnel data. Inflow was measured using a vertical-plane array of eight propvane and five triaxial (U-V-W) prop-type anemometers located 10 m upwind in the predominant wind direction. One objective of this comprehensive research program was to study the effects of blade rotation on aerodynamic behavior below, near, and beyond stall. To this end, flow patterns are presented here that reveal the dynamic and steady behavior of flow conditions on the blade. Pressure distributions are compared to flow patterns and two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Separation boundary locations are shown that change as a function of spanwise location, pitch angle, and wind speed. 6 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The Measurement, interpretation and use of unsteady momentum fluxes in two-phase flow.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yih, Tien Sieh

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steady and unsteady components of the momentum flux in a two-phase flow have been measured at the exit of a vertical pipe by means of an impulse technique using a turning tee and beam. Different electrical filters have ...

  2. Mitigation Measures Following a Loss-of-Residual-Heat-Removal Event During Shutdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The transient following a loss-of-residual-heat-removal event during shutdown was analyzed to determine the containment closure time (CCT) to prevent uncontrolled release of fission products and the gravity-injection path and rate (GIPR) for effective core cooling using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. The plant conditions of Yonggwang Units 3 and 4, a pressurized water reactor (PWR) of 2815-MW(thermal) power in Korea, were reviewed, and possible event sequences were identified. From the CCT analysis for the five cases of typical plant configurations, it was estimated for the earliest CCT to be 40 min after the event in a case with a large cold-leg opening and emptied steam generators (SGs). However, the case with water-filled SGs significantly delayed the CCT through the heat removal to the secondary side. From the GIPR analysis for the six possible gravity-injection paths from the refueling water storage tank (RWST), the case with the injection point and opening on the other leg side was estimated to be the most suitable path to avoid core boiling. In addition, from the sensitivity study, it was evaluated for the plant to be capable of providing the core cooling for the long-term transient if nominal RWST water is available. As a result, these analysis methods and results will provide useful information in understanding the plant behavior and preparing the mitigation measures after the event, especially for Combustion Engineering-type PWR plants. However, to directly apply the analysis results to the emergency procedure for such an event, additional case studies are needed for a wide range of operating conditions such as reactor coolant inventory, RWST water temperature, and core decay heat rate.

  3. An analysis of the flow of heat from tubes buried in a concrete slab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holdredge, Ernest C

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    T &vhoro dg i. tho amount oi' heat Ilovving in tho ti?e d&v& t!&rou, ", h on area A; n! . &;iotance vlL& owin!. to a to!r&&or?t&no dii'Torence d ~ t. !o . &star:. . I:. a~ing a thor&x~1 conductivity K. . & ncc i'cr con &?ct&& n in tho steady state, t... 12 2 ~ 000 10 1, 5 6, 0 4600 1. 19 4400 1o19 32 3 ~ OPO 1Q 1, 5 4 ~ 0 4200 lo307 3950 lo326 12 4 500 10 lo5 2 67 3300 lo442 3500 1 490 2I 0 TEST III 9 1. 0 36. 0 6450 O. 700 6900 0. 702 0, 312 9 1. 0 20. 0 6250 0, 723 6750 0, 710 o. 437 9 1. 0...

  4. Specific-heat measurements on high-T/sub c/ A-15's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, G.R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specific heat measurements for the seven high T/sub c/ A-15's are reviewed. Derivation of values for ..gamma.., proportional to N(0) (1 + lambda), is discussed, with strict attention given to limits of error. Particular note is taken of recent controversies concerning the correct values of ..gamma.. for A-15 V/sub 3/Si and Nb/sub 3/Sn. Using tunneling and infrared spectroscopy results for lambda where available, and an approximate phenomenological formula otherwise, values for the electronic density-of-states at the Fermi energy, N(0), are derived and compared with theory. These specific heat derived N(0) values, ranging from 0.95 +- 0.3 states/eV-atom for A-15 Nb/sub 3/Si to 2.4 +- 0.3 states/eV-atom for A-15 V/sub 3/Si, are taken as conclusive evidence that high T/sub c/ does not imply a high N(0).

  5. USER’S GUIDE of TOUGH2-EGS: A Coupled Geomechanical and Reactive Geochemical Simulator for Fluid and Heat Flow in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fakcharoenphol, Perapon [Colorado School of Mines; Xiong, Yi [Colorado School of Mines; Hu, Litang; Winterfeld, Philip H. [Colorado School of Mines; Xu, Tianfu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Wu, Yu-Shu [Colorado School of Mines

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TOUGH2-EGS is a numerical simulation program coupling geomechanics and chemical reactions for fluid and heat flows in porous media and fractured reservoirs of enhanced geothermal systems. The simulator includes the fully-coupled geomechanical (THM) module, the fully-coupled geochemical (THC) module, and the sequentially coupled reactive geochemistry (THMC) module. The fully-coupled flow-geomechanics model is developed from the linear elastic theory for the thermo-poro-elastic system and is formulated with the mean normal stress as well as pore pressure and temperature. The chemical reaction is sequentially coupled after solution of flow equations, which provides the flow velocity and phase saturation for the solute transport calculation at each time step. In addition, reservoir rock properties, such as porosity and permeability, are subjected to change due to rock deformation and chemical reactions. The relationships between rock properties and geomechanical and chemical effects from poro-elasticity theories and empirical correlations are incorporated into the simulator. This report provides the user with detailed information on both mathematical models and instructions for using TOUGH2-EGS for THM, THC or THMC simulations. The mathematical models include the fluid and heat flow equations, geomechanical equation, reactive geochemistry equations, and discretization methods. Although TOUGH2-EGS has the capability for simulating fluid and heat flows coupled with both geomechanical and chemical effects, it is up to the users to select the specific coupling process, such as THM, THC, or THMC in a simulation. There are several example problems illustrating the applications of this program. These example problems are described in details and their input data are presented. The results demonstrate that this program can be used for field-scale geothermal reservoir simulation with fluid and heat flow, geomechanical effect, and chemical reaction in porous and fractured media.

  6. The effect of velocity boundary conditions on the heat transfer and flow topology in two-dimensional Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Poel, Erwin P; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of various velocity boundary condition is studied in two-dimensional Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection. Combinations of no-slip, stress-free and periodic boundary conditions are used on both the sidewalls and the horizontal plates. For the studied Rayleigh numbers Ra between $10^8$ and $10^{11}$ the heat transport is lower for $\\Gamma = 0.33$ than for $\\Gamma = 1$ in case of no-slip sidewalls. This is surprisingly opposite for stress-free sidewalls, where the heat transport increases for lower aspect-ratio. In wider cells the aspect-ratio dependence is observed to disappear for $\\text{Ra} \\ge 10^{10}$. Two distinct flow types with very different dynamics can be seen, mostly dependent on the plate velocity boundary condition, namely roll-like flow and horizontal zonal flow, which have a substantial effect on the dynamics and heat transport in the system. The predominantly horizontal zonal flow suppresses heat flux and is observed for stress-free and asymmetric plates. Low aspect-ratio periodic sidewall s...

  7. TOUGH2: A general-purpose numerical simulator for multiphase fluid and heat flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation program for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, and unsaturated zone hydrology. A successor to the TOUGH program, TOUGH2 offers added capabilities and user features, including the flexibility to handle different fluid mixtures, facilities for processing of geometric data (computational grids), and an internal version control system to ensure referenceability of code applications. This report includes a detailed description of governing equations, program architecture, and user features. Enhancements in data inputs relative to TOUGH are described, and a number of sample problems are given to illustrate code applications. 46 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Large eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow in urban terrain : implications for transport of pollution and heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Long

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When the convection heat transfer model is well validated,models, convection heat transfer model is often over-and a convection heat transfer model with local accuracy is

  9. Infrared Spectroscope for Electron Bunch-length Measurement: Heat Sensor Parameters Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domgmo-Momo, Gilles; /Towson U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is used for many experiments. Taking advantage of the free electron laser (FEL) process, scientists of various fields perform experiments of all kind. Some for example study protein folding; other experiments are more interested in the way electrons interact with the molecules before they are destroyed. These experiments among many others have very little information about the electrons x-ray produced by the FEL, except that the FEL is using bunches less than 10 femtoseconds long. To be able to interpret the data collected from those experiments, more accurate information is needed about the electron's bunch-length. Existing bunch length measurement techniques are not suitable for the measurement of such small time scales. Hence the need to design a device that will provide more precise information about the electron bunch length. This paper investigates the use of a pyreoelectric heat sensor that has a sensitivity of about 1.34 micro amps per watt for the single cell detector. Such sensitivity, added to the fact that the detector is an array sensor, makes the detector studied the primary candidate to be integrated to an infrared spectrometer designed to better measure the LCLS electron bunch length.

  10. Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a Lower Plenum Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Doanld M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mean-velocity-field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. The data were obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate geometry scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages in and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3-D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean bulk velocity) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. Uncertainty analyses and a discussion of the standard problem are included. The measurements reveal developing, non-uniform, turbulent flow in the inlet jets and complicated flow patterns in the model lower plenum. Data include three-dimensional vector plots, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and presentations that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model. Information on inlet conditions is also presented.

  11. ECI International Conference on Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Microscale Whistler, 21-26 September 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    circulation is dominant at high PeT number. A heat transfer model is proposed to analyze and predict the heat

  12. Analysis of reactor material experiments investigating corium crust stability and heat transfer in jet impingement flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented is an analysis of the results of the CSTI-1, CSTI-3, and CWTI-11 reactor material experiments in which a jet of molten corium initially at 3080/sup 0/K was directed downward upon a stainless steel plate. The experiments are a continuation of a program of reactor material tests investigating LWR severe accident phenomena. Objective of the present analysis is to determine the existence or nonexistence of a corium crust during impingement from comparison of the measured heatup of the plate (as measured by thermocouples imbedded immediately beneath the steel surface) with model calculations assuming alternately the presence and absence of a stable crust during impingement.

  13. Two-dimensional model of the air flow and temperature distribution in a cavity-type heat receiver of a solar stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical study on the air flow and temperature in the heat receiver, affected by free convection, of a Stirling Engine for a Dish/Stirling Engine Power System is presented. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model for the fluid flow has been used and the boundary conditions employed were obtained using a second level mathematical model of the Stirling Engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation from the Concentrator on the bottom and side walls of the cavity-type heat receiver have been taken into account. The numerical results show that most of the heat losses in the receiver are due to re-radiation from the cavity and conduction through the walls of the cavity. It is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is a sensible reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the free convection of the air. Further, the numerical results show that convective heat losses increase with decreasing tilt angle.

  14. Predictions of flow and heat transfer in sharp 180-deg turns of gas turbine coolant channels with and without turning vanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonhoff, B.; Leusch, J.; Johnson, B.V.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical study was conducted to determine the effects of turning vanes on the flow characteristics, the pressure drop and the heat transfer distribution in the turn region of two-legged, coolant passages for application to cooling gas turbine blades. The channels consisted of two straight, square-sectioned legs connected by a 180-deg. turn, with an inner radius of 0.15 hydraulic diameters. The ribs were square-sectioned with a height of 0.1 D{sub h}, staggered between leading and trailing side and at an angle of 45-deg. to the flow. Three different configurations of the coolant channel were investigated: with smooth walls, with ribs on two walls and no vane and with ribs on two walls and a 180-deg guide vane in the turn. For all calculations, the Reynolds number at the inlet was Re{sub D} = 100,000, the fluid was water and buoyancy effects were neglected. The simulations were made for rotation numbers, Ro = 0.0 and 0.15. The flow and heat transfer simulations were made with the FLUENT structured code. Based on the results of several previous studies, the differential-Reynolds-Stress turbulence model with wall functions was used. The highest heat transfer in the turn was obtained for both the rotating and non-rotating cases with the ribbed channel without the guide vane. The pressure loss was also higher without the vane. Due to the staggering of the ribs, secondary flow and heat transfer in the turn was higher on the side of the channel where the last rib at the entrance reaches further into the turn. With increasing rotation number, the secondary flow and heat transfer increased on the leading side of the turn. For the configuration with a 180-deg. vane, the mass flux at the outer side of the vane increased with increasing rotation number.

  15. Measurements of Heat Transfer Coefficients to Cylinders in Shallow Bubble Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tow, Emily W.

    High heat transfer coefficients and large interfacial areas make bubble columns ideal for dehumidification. However, the effect of geometry on the heat transfer coefficients outside cooling coils in shallow bubble columns, ...

  16. Measurement and Model Validation of Nanofluid Specific Heat Capacity with Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hanley, Harrison F.

    Nanofluids are being considered for heat transfer applications; therefore it is important to know their thermophysical properties accurately. In this paper we focused on nanofluid specific heat capacity. Currently, there ...

  17. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  18. Numerical simulation of flow and heat transfer of internal cooling passage in gas turbine blade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Guoguang

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    for Rectangular Duct (Ar = 4:1) with In-Line V-Shaped Ribs on Leading and Trailing Surfaces ..............................................................................................17 Fig. 3.2 (a) Numerical Grid, (b) Grid Refinement....10 Nusselt Number Ratio Contours on (a) Leading and (b) Trailing Surface for Lower Reynolds Number (Re = 10,000) Cases............................34 Fig. 3.11 Comparison between Calculated and Measured Nusselt Number Ratios...

  19. An Ion Doppler Spectrometer Instrument for Ion Temperature and Flow Measurements on SSPX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J D; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Romero-Talamas, C A; Moller, J M; Morse, E C

    2008-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-resolution ion Doppler spectrometer has been installed on the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment to measure ion temperatures and plasma flow. The system is composed of a 1 meter focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer with diffraction grating line density of 2400 lines/mm, which allows for first order spectra between 300 and 600 nm. A 16-channel photomultiplier tube detection assembly combined with output coupling optics provides a spectral resolution of 0.0126 nm per channel. We calculate in some detail the mapping of curved slit images onto the linear detector array elements. This is important in determining wavelength resolution and setting the optimum vertical extent of the slit. Also, because of the small wavelength window of the IDS, a miniature fiber optic survey spectrometer sensitive to a wavelength range 200 to 1100 nm and having resolution 0.2 nm, is used to obtain a time-integrated spectrum for each shot to verify specific impurity line radiation. Several measurements validate the systems operation. Doppler broadening of C III 464.72 nm line in the plasma shows time-resolved ion temperatures up to 250 eV for hydrogen discharges, which is consistent with neutral particle energy analyzer measurements. Flow measurements show a sub-Alfvenic plasma flow ranging from 5 to 45 km/s for helium discharges.

  20. Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

  1. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  2. Results of temperature gradient and heat flow in Santiam Pass Area, Oregon, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, B.L.; Gardner, M.C.; Koenig, J.B.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conclusions of this report are: (1) There is a weakly defined thermal anomaly within the area examined by temperature-gradient holes in the Santiam Pass area. This is a relict anomaly showing differences in permeability between the High Cascades and Western Cascades areas, more than a fundamental difference in shallow crustal temperatures. (2) The anomaly as defined by the 60 F isotherms at 400 feet follows a north-south trend immediately westward of the Cascade axis in the boundary region. It is clear that all holes spudded into High Cascades rocks result in isothermal and reversal gradients. Holes spudded in Western Cascades rocks result in positive gradients. (3) Cold groundwater flow influences and masks temperature gradients in the High Cascades to a depth of at least 700 feet, especially eastward from the major north-south trending faults. Pleistocene and Holocene rocks are very permeable aquifers. (4) Shallow gradient drilling in the lowlands westward of the faults provides more interpretable information than shallow drilling in the cold-water recharge zones. Topographic and climatological effects can be filtered out of the temperature gradient results. (5) The thermal anomaly seems to have 2 centers: one in the Belknap-Foley area, and one northward in the Sand Mountain area. The anomalies may or may not be connected along a north-south trend. (6) A geothermal effect is seen in holes downslope of the Western-High Cascade boundary. Mixing with cold waters is a powerful influence on temperature gradient data. (7) The temperature-gradient program has not yet examined and defined the geothermal resources potential of the area eastward of the Western Cascades-High Cascades boundary. Holes to 1500-2000 feet in depth are required to penetrate the high permeability-cold groundwater regime. (8) Drilling conditions are unfavorable. There are very few accessible level drill sites. Seasonal access problems and environmental restrictions together with frequent lost circulation results in very high costs per foot drilled.

  3. Visual Simulation of Heat Shimmering and Mirage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Klaus

    and the surrounding air. We introduce a heat transfer model between the heat source objects and the ambient flow the heat sources to the ambient flow. Although heat transfer modeling has been used before in computer

  4. A new correlation of the convective heat transfer coefficient between an air flow and a phase change material plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of phase change material (PCM). This correlation was built for the simulation of heat storage units: Convective heat transfer coefficient, correlation, phase change material, heat storage system, transient is the use of phase change materials (PCM). The latent heat which is needed for the material melting

  5. OPTIMIZATION AND DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR HIGH FLUX MICRO-CHANNEL HEAT SINKS FOR LIQUID AND GASEOUS SINGLE-PHASE FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Norbert

    forced convection micro-channel heat sinks for minimum pump power at high heat fluxes. Results gained orders of magnitude, especially for high heat flux devices. Using water and air as coolants, designs for heat fluxes of >10 kW/cm2 and >100 W/cm2 respectively with pump/fan power expenses less than 1

  6. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  7. Measurement of residual radioactive surface contamination by 2-D laser heated TLD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S.C.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of applying and adapting a two-dimensional laser heated thermoluminescence dosimetry system to the problem of surveying for radioactive surface contamination was studied. The system consists of a CO{sub 2} laser-based reader and monolithic arrays of thin dosimeter elements. The arrays consist of 10,201 thermoluminescent phosphor elements of 40 micron thickness, covering a 900 cm{sup 2} area. Array substrates are 125 micron thick polyimide sheets, enabling them to easily conform to regular surface shapes, especially for survey of surfaces that are inaccessible for standard survey instruments. The passive, integrating radiation detectors are sensitive to alpha and beta radiation at contamination levels below release guideline limits. Required contact times with potentially contaminated surfaces are under one hour to achieve detection of transuranic alpha emission at 100 dpm/100 cm{sup 2}. Positional information obtained from array evaluation is useful for locating contamination zones. Unique capabilities of this system for survey of sites, facilities and material include measurement inside pipes and other geometrical configurations that prevent standard surveys, and below-surface measurement of alpha and beta emitters in contaminated soils. These applications imply a reduction of material that must be classified as radioactive waste by virtue of its possibility of contamination, and cost savings in soil sampling at contaminated sites.

  8. Scattering effects at near-wall flow measurements using Doppler global velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Andreas; Haufe, Daniel; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen

    2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) is considered to be a useful optical measurement tool for acquiring flow velocity fields. Often near-wall measurements are required, which is still challenging due to errors resulting from background scattering and multiple-particle scattering. Since the magnitudes of both errors are unknown so far, they are investigated by scattering simulations and experiments. Multiple-particle scattering mainly causes a stochastic error, which can be reduced by averaging. Contrary to this, background scattering results in a relative systematic error, which is directly proportional to the ratio of the background scattered light power to the total scattered light power. After applying a correction method and optimizing the measurement arrangement, a subsonic flat plate boundary layer was successfully measured achieving a minimum wall distance of 100 {mu}m with a maximum relative error of 6%. The investigations reveal the current capabilities and perspectives of DGV for near-wall measurements.

  9. Convective flow measurements in a heated cavity using pulsed laser velocimetry with digital image processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chavez, Hector Luis

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to overlook the sigma values of each track located. A list of possible 40 "true" vectors are recorded into a file to be later accessed and plotted. if the sigma of Vl is less than the sigma of V2 then Vl 0 is the "true" track T' e V2 Fig. 23. Two... of this normalized cross correlation can be found from Schwarz's inequality. lu v I&= lu I (15) Recognizing that the components of u are u? uz, . . . , ux and the components of v are v~, , v?, Schwarz' s discrete inequality can now be derived. Eu?vk &= sqrt (E...

  10. New heat flow measurements in Oman and the thermal state of the Arabian Shield and Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaudoin, Georges

    , Canada d Applied Geophysics and Geothermal Energy, E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen, Germany e

  11. Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE), Submitted to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board Energy Research Application Program Project #227

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESL-TR-93/09-01 Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE) Submitted to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board Energy Research Application Program Project #227 i Dr. Mingsheng Liu Dr. David E. Claridge... Method 3 Co-heating Method 4 STAM Method 8 Conclusions 10 Reference 12 Appendix A 14 Appendix B 15 Appendix C 21 Guidelines for Measuring IHEE, P. 1 Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE) Introduction The rate of air...

  12. Formulation and sequential numerical algorithms of coupled fluid/heat flow and geomechanics for multiple porosity materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Settari A. Modeling of geomechanics in naturally fracturedway coupled fluid flow and geomechanics in hydrate deposits.for coupled flow and geomechanics: Drained and undrained

  13. LDV measurements of the velocity field within a ribbed internal duct flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huckle, E.; Pantelic, D.; Hu, K.; Jones, S.; Travkin, V.; Catton, I.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) has been used to measure the velocity field in an internal duct flow of air with regular rib roughness. The experiments were conducted to study the effect regular wall obstacles have on the flow velocity field. The instantaneous u and v velocities were measured in both a smooth and rough rectangular duct. For the smooth channel the wind tunnel Reynolds number capability was first investigated and was shown to be linear with blower shaft frequency, having a range of 13,000--42,000. Next, the turbulent velocity profiles were measured in the smooth channel for 6 different blower speeds (Reynolds numbers), and the results greatly resembled those found in previous literature. Twenty sets of rectangular, 6.35 mm x 6.35 mm ribs were then mounted to the top and bottom of the channel with a spacing of 75 mm (P/H = 11.8). A grid of nodes were selected and the turbulent velocities were measured for a given Reynolds number, and are presented and discussed. Valuable insight was gained which will aid in future studies intended to measure the Reynolds stress and other closure terms.

  14. Heating-compensated constant-temperature tunneling measurements on stacks of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x intrinsic junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hu-Jong

    measurements on a stack of intrinsic junctions IJs in a high-bias range are often susceptible to self-heating one to get rid of spurious tunneling effects arising from the self-heating. © 2005 American Institute. The poor thermal conductivity of the Bi-2212 IJs, how- ever, is known to cause serious local self-heating

  15. 1558 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS,VOL. 29, NO. 2, MARCH 1993 Control of an Induction Heat Treatment by the Measure of Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    heated. The heating stage is controlled by regulatingboth the power supplied to the coil and the linear The method suggested to control the process is to measure the power supplied to the coil. Before1558 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS,VOL. 29, NO. 2, MARCH 1993 Control of an Induction Heat

  16. Heat engine regenerators: Research status and needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapidly oscillating, variable density flows of regenerative heat engines provide a class of poorly understood unsteady flow and heat transfer problems. These problems are not currently amenable to direct experimental resolution. Experiences in engine development and test programs and efforts to develop analysis tools point to the regenerator as a key area of insufficient understanding. Focusing on flow and heat transfer in regenerators, this report discusses similarity parameters for the flows and reviews the experimental data currently available for Stirling analysis. Then a number of experimental results are presented from recent fundamental fluid mechanical and thermal investigations that shed additional light on the functioning of heat engine regenerators. Suggestions are made for approaches for further measurement and analysis efforts.

  17. Lift, drag and flow-field measurements around a small ornithopter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakumar, B J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chavez - Alarcon, Ramiro [NMSU; Shu, Fangjun [NMSU

    2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The aerodynamics of a flight-worthy, radio controlled ornithopter is investigated using a combination of Particle-Image Velocimetry (PIV), load cell measurements, and high-speed photography of smoke visualizations. The lift and thrust forces of the ornithopter are measured at various flow speeds, flapping frequencies and angles of attack to characterize the flight performance. These direct force measurements are then compared with forces estimated using control volume analysis on PIV data. High-speed photography of smoke streaks is used to visualize the evolution of leading edge vortices, and to qualitatively infer the effect of wing deformation on the net downwash. Vortical structures in the wake are compared to previous studies on root flapping, and direct measurements of flapping efficiency are used to argue that the current ornithopter operates sub-optimally in converting the input energy into propulsive work.

  18. EIS-0163-S: Supplemental EIS/1993 Interim Columbia and Snake Rivers Flow Improvement Measures for Salmon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers – Walla Walla District has prepared this statement to assess alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bonneville Power Administration served as a cooperating agency in developing this supplement due to its key role in direct operation of the integrated and coordinated Columbia-Snake River System, and adopted this statement in March of 1993. This statement supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis Environmental Impact Statement, which evaluated ways to alter water management operations in 1992 on the lower Columbia and Snake rivers to enhance the survival of wild Snake River salmon.

  19. CT measurements of two-phase flow in fractured porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, R.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Castanier, L.M.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The simulation of flow in naturally fractured reservoirs commonly divides the reservoir into two continua - the matrix system and the fracture system. Flow equations are written presuming that the primary flow between grid blocks occurs through the fracture system and that the primary fluid storage is in the matrix system. The dual porosity formulation of the equations assumes that there is no flow between matrix blocks while the dual permeability formulation allows fluid movement between matrix blocks. Since most of the fluid storage is contained in the matrix, recovery is dominated by the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the high conductivity fractures. The physical mechanisms influencing this transfer have been evaluated primarily through numerical studies. Relatively few experimental studies have investigated the transfer mechanisms. Early studies focused on the prediction of reservoir recoveries from the results of scaled experiments on single reservoir blocks. Recent experiments have investigated some of the mechanisms that are dominant in gravity drainage situations and in small block imbibition displacements. The mechanisms active in multiphase flow in fractured media need to be further illuminated, since some of the experimental results appear to be contradictory. This report describes the design, construction, and preliminary results of an experiment that studies imbibition displacement in two fracture blocks. Multiphase (oil/water) displacements will be conducted at the same rate on three core configurations. The configurations are a compact core, a two-block system with a 1 mm spacer between the blocks, and a two-block system with no spacer. The blocks are sealed in epoxy so that saturation measurements can be made throughout the displacement experiments using a Computed Tomography (CT) scanner.

  20. O Isotopic Composition of CaCO3 Measured by Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Statistical Evaluation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    d13 C and d18 O Isotopic Composition of CaCO3 Measured by Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass method streamlines the classical phosphoric acid ­ calcium carbonate (H3 PO4 ­ CaCO3 ) reaction method XL continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Conditions for which the H3 PO4 ­ CaCO3 reaction

  1. Parametric analysis of radiative-convective heat transfer around a circular cylinder in a cross flow using the finite volume radiation solution method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.H.; Lee, J.S.; Choi, M. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In the outside vapor deposition (OVD) process, silica particles are deposited by thermophoretic force on the surface of a cylinder. This process is associated with complex physical phenomena such as heat transfer between a torch and a cylinder, chemical reaction for silica particle formation, and particle deposition. Since the OVD process is carried out in a very high temperature environment, radiative heat transfer should be taken into consideration. Here, the radiative-convective heat transfer around a circular cylinder in a cross flow of a radiating gas has been numerically analyzed using the finite volume radiation solution method in a nonorthogonal coordinate system. The cross-flow Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter is 40, and the fluid Prandtl number is assumed to be 0.7. The radiative heat transfer coupled with convection is reasonably predicted by the finite volume radiation solution method. Distributions of the local Nusselt number are investigated according to the variation of radiation parameters such as conduction-to-radiation parameter, optical thickness, scattering albedo, and cylinder wall emissivity.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-LOOP FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER FACILITY FOR ADVANCED NUCLEAR REACTOR THERMAL HYDRAULIC AND HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEM STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; SuJong Yoon

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new high-temperature multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility for advanced nuclear applications is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory. The facility will include three flow loops: high-temperature helium, molten salt, and steam/water. Molten salts have been identified as excellent candidate heat transport fluids for primary or secondary coolant loops, supporting advanced high temperature and small modular reactors (SMRs). Details of some of the design aspects and challenges of this facility, which is currently in the conceptual design phase, are discussed. A preliminary design configuration will be presented, with the required characteristics of the various components. The loop will utilize advanced high-temperature compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) operating at prototypic intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) conditions. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750°C), high-pressure (7 MPa) helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF4) flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa) at a temperature of ~450°C. Experiment design challenges include identification of suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. Corrosion and high temperature creep behavior are major considerations. The facility will include a thermal energy storage capability designed to support scaled process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will also provide important data for code ve

  3. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal heat pumps, sometimes called ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs), have been proven capable of significantly reducing energy use and peak demand in buildings. Conventional equipment for controlling the temperature and humidity of a building, or supplying hot water and fresh outdoor air, must exchange energy (or heat) with the building's outdoor environment. Equipment using the ground as a heat source and heat sink consumes less non-renewable energy (electricity and fossil fuels) because the earth is cooler than outdoor air in summer and warmer in winter. The most important barrier to rapid growth of the GSHP industry is high first cost of GSHP systems to consumers. The most common GSHP system utilizes a closed-loop ground heat exchanger. This type of GSHP system can be used almost anywhere. There is reason to believe that reducing the cost of closed-loop systems is the strategy that would achieve the greatest energy savings with GSHP technology. The cost premium of closed-loop GSHP systems over conventional space conditioning and water heating systems is primarily associated with drilling boreholes or excavating trenches, installing vertical or horizontal ground heat exchangers, and backfilling the excavations. This project investigates reducing the cost of horizontal closed-loop ground heat exchangers by installing them in the construction excavations, augmented when necessary with additional trenches. This approach applies only to new construction of residential and light commercial buildings or additions to such buildings. In the business-as-usual scenario, construction excavations are not used for the horizontal ground heat exchanger (HGHX); instead the HGHX is installed entirely in trenches dug specifically for that purpose. The potential cost savings comes from using the construction excavations for the installation of ground heat exchangers, thereby minimizing the need and expense of digging additional trenches. The term foundation heat exchanger (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of excavation, 50% of which was construction excavation. There are six pipes in all excavations (three par

  4. Regional measurements of /sup 14/Cmisonidazole distribution and blood flow in subcutaneous RT-9 experimental tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasberg, R.; Horowitz, M.; Strong, J.; Molnar, P.; Patlak, C.; Owens, E.; Fenstermacher, J.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional (/sup 14/C)misonidazole-derived radioactivity (MISO*) was measured by quantitative autoradiography in s.c. RT-9 experimental tumors 0.5, 2, and 4 h after an i.v. bolus (25 mg) and constant infusion (10 mg/h) in rats. Misonidazole (MISO) concentration in plasma, tumor, and other tissues was also measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The distribution of MISO* in the tumors always resulted in a characteristic pattern with high peripheral and low central values. The high-activity regions in the tumor rim achieved tissue: plasma MISO* activity ratios of 0.97 and 2.2 by 0.5 and 4 h, respectively; for central tumor regions, this ratio was 0.20 and 0.32 for the same periods, respectively. The limited distribution of MISO* to central tumor regions could be correlated to low values of blood flow (measured with (/sup 131/I)iodoantipyrine) and to diffusion from peripheral tumor regions. Low blood flow in the central regions of these tumors will significantly limit the distribution of MISO and other drugs to viable-appearing cells in these areas and could account in part for the failures of chemotherapy in certain solid tumors. Pharmacokinetic modeling indicates that 1 to 9 h may be necessary for MISO concentrations in some tumor regions to reach 50% of that in plasma.

  5. Inferring surface heat flux distributions guided by a global seismic model: particular application to Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Nikolai

    -flow measurements are rare or entirely absent. This will result in a smooth global heat-flow map that may proveInferring surface heat flux distributions guided by a global seismic model: particular application to Antarctica Nikolai M. Shapiro*, Michael H. Ritzwoller Department of Physics, Center for Imaging the Earth

  6. F/sub 2/ boundary layer measurement in a chemical laser slit nozzle flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spenser, D.J.; Durran, D.A.; Bixler, H.A.; Varwig, R.L.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensitive F2 absorption diagnostic suitable for slit nozzle scanning was developed and applied to the measurement of an F2 boundary layer in an HF chemical laser flow. The F2 boundary layer profile was determined to be of exponential decay form with peak at the nozzle wall and of width approx. 1/3 the viscous boundary layer. The F2 concentration profile was displaced inwardly and slightly compressed by the H2 slit injection at the nozzle exit plane. The F2 profile apparently remains fairly intact in passing through the lasing zone.

  7. Rapid e-beam heating for measuring thermodynamics of metastable materials. [Al-Re

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A line-source electron-beam system has been used to heat thin surface layers of metastable phases at a rate which precludes solid-state transformation to stable phases, thus permitting the observation of melting transitions normally missed with slow heating. A detailed examples of a new approach to this method is shown for metastable icosahedral Al-Re and crystalline Al/sub 6/Re. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  9. Heat transfer and flow on the first-stage blade tip of a power generation gas turbine: Part 2 -- Simulation results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ameri, A.A.; Bunker, R.S.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined experimental and computational study has been performed to investigate the detailed distribution of convective heat transfer coefficients on the first-stage blade tip surface for a geometry typical of large power generation turbines (> 100 MW). This paper is concerned with the numerical prediction of the tip surface heat transfer. Good comparison with the experimental measured distribution was achieved through accurate modeling of the most important features of the blade passage and heating arrangement as well as the details of experimental rig likely to affect the tip heat transfer. A sharp edge and a radiused edge tip was considered. The results using the radiused edge tip agreed better with the experimental data. This improved agreement was attributed to the absence of edge separation on the tip of the radiused edge blade.

  10. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  11. Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy`s law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

  12. Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

  13. Measurement of limiter heating due to fusion product losses during high fusion power deuterium-tritium operation of TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janos, A.; Owens, D.K.; Darrow, D.; Redi, M.; Zarnstorff, M.; Zweben, S.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary analysis has been completed on measurements of limiter heating during high fusion power deuterium-tritium (D-T) operation of TFTR, in an attempt to identify heating from alpha particle losses. Recent operation of TFTR with a 50-50 mix of D-T has resulted in fusion power output ({approx} 6.2 MW) orders of magnitude above what was previously achieved on TFTR. A significantly larger absolute number of particles and energy from fusion products compared to D-D operation is expected to be lost to the limiters. Measurements were made in the vicinity of the midplane ({plus_minus} 30{degree}) with thermocouples mounted on the tiles of an outboard limiter. Comparisons were made -between discharges which were similar except for the mix of deuterium and tritium beam sources. Power and energy estimates of predicted alpha losses were as high as 0.13 MW and 64 kJ. Depending on what portion of the limiters absorbed this energy, temperature rises of up to 42 {degrees}C could be expected, corresponding to a heat load of 0.69 MJ/m{sup 2} over a 0.5 sec period, or a power load of 1.4 MW/m{sup 2}. There was a measurable increase in the limiter tile temperature as the fusion power yield increased with a more reactive mixture of D and T at constant beam power during high power D-T operation. Analysis of the data is being conducted to see if the alpha heating component can be extracted. Measured temperature increases were no greater than 1 {degree}C, indicating that there was probably neither an unexpectedly large fraction of lost particles nor unexpected localization of the losses. Limits on the stochastic ripple loss contribution from alphas can be deduced.

  14. Interpretation of Array Production Logging Measurements in Horizontal Wells for Flow Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Lulu

    2013-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    and possible back flow of denser phases result in misinterpretation of the inflow distribution. To assess the downhole flow conditions more accurately, logging tools have been developed to overcome the flow regime related issues. Multiple-sensor array tools...

  15. Int. Symp. on Heat Transfer in Gas Turbine Systems 9 14 August, 2009, Antalya, Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    for turbine aero heat transfer work performed under rotational conditions. A flow coefficient and a loading candidates to generate very realistic gas turbine heat transfer data, the initial investment made generate an accurately measurable amount of heat transfer from the gas side to turbine blades in a linear

  16. Statistical properties of the energy exchanged between two heat baths coupled by thermal fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    particles kept at different temperatures and coupled by an elastic force. We measure the heat flowingStatistical properties of the energy exchanged between two heat baths coupled by thermal systems in contact with a single heat bath and driven out of equilibrium by external forces [1, 2, 3, 4, 5

  17. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  18. Higher harmonic anisotropic flow measurements of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALICE Collaboration

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the first measurement of the triangular v3, quadrangular v4, and pentagonal v5 charged particle flow in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV measured with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We show that the triangular flow can be described in terms of the initial spatial anisotropy and its fluctuations, which provides strong constraints on its origin. In the most central events, where the elliptic flow v2 and v3 have similar magnitude, a double peaked structure in the two-particle azimuthal correlations is observed, which is often interpreted as a Mach cone response to fast partons. We show that this structure can be naturally explained from the measured anisotropic flow Fourier coefficients.

  19. Film Cooling, Heat Transfer and Aerodynamic Measurements in a Three Stage Research Gas Turbine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suryanarayanan, Arun

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The existing 3-stage turbine research facility at the Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL), Texas A and M University, is re-designed and newly installed to enable coolant gas injection on the first ...

  20. Film Cooling, Heat Transfer and Aerodynamic Measurements in a Three Stage Research Gas Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suryanarayanan, Arun

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The existing 3-stage turbine research facility at the Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL), Texas A and M University, is re-designed and newly installed to enable coolant gas injection on the first stage rotor platform...

  1. Measurement of the flow properties within a copper tube containing a deflagrating explosive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the propagation of deflagration waves in the high explosive (HE) PBX 9501 (95 wt % HMX, 5 wt% binder). Our test configuration, which we call the def1agration cylinder test (DFCT), is fashioned after the detonation cylinder test (DTCT) that is used to calibrate the JWL detonation product equation of state (EOS). In the DFCT, the HE is heated to a uniform slightly subcritical temperature, and is ignited at one end by a hot wire. For some configurations and initial conditions, we observe a quasi-steady wave that flares the tube into a funnel shape, stretching it to the point of rupture. This behavior is qualitatively like the DTCT, such that, by invoking certain additional approximations that we discuss, its behavior can be analyzed by the same methods. We employ an analysis proposed by G.I. Taylor to infer the pressure-volume curve for the burning, expanding flow. By comparing this result to the EOS of HMX product gas alone. we infer that only {approx}20 wt% of the HMX has burned at tube rupture. This result confirms pre-existing observations about the role of convective burning in HMX cookoff explosions.

  2. Heat Transfer in Smooth and Ribbed Rectangular Two-Pass Channels with a Developing Flow Entrance at High Rotation Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huh, Michael

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    on the first pass trailing surface of both aspect ratio channels. The leading surface in ribbed channels has shown a dramatic decrease in heat transfer with rotation in the first pass. Reductions in heat transfer by as much as 50% were observed. In the second...

  3. Multiphase Science and Technology, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 207-232, 2001 CRITICAL HEAT FLUX IN SUBCOOLED FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Multiphase Science and Technology, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 207-232, 2001 CRITICAL HEAT FLUX. Kandlikar Mechanical Engineering Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA Abstract. Critical Heat Flux, or CHF, is an important condition that defines the upper limit of safe

  4. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  5. Heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishman, P.J.

    1983-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system utilizing solar panels and buried ground conduits to collect and store heat which is delivered to a heatpump heat exchanger. A heat-distribution fluid continuously circulates through a ground circuit to transfer heat from the ground to the heat exchanger. The ground circuit includes a length of buried ground conduit, a pump, a check valve and the heat exchanger. A solar circuit, including a solar panel and a second pump, is connected in parallel with the check valve so that the distribution fluid transfers solar heat to the heat exchanger for utilization and to the ground conduit for storage when the second pump is energized. A thermostatically instrumented control system energizes the second pump only when the temperature differential between the solar panel inlet and outlet temperatures exceeds a predetermined value and the ground temperature is less than a predetermined value. Consequently, the distribution fluid flows through the solar panel only when the panel is capable of supplying significant heat to the remainder of the system without causing excessive drying of the ground.

  6. Energy Saving Measures of Heating Network - Computerized Real-time Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a new system control theory, that is computerize the real-time frequency conversion control or area,time, mode of heat transformation and temperature grads. The aim of the new theory is promoting the efficiency of energy conversion and minimizing...

  7. Eddy-Induced Heat Transport in the Subtropical North Pacific from Argo, TMI, and Altimetry Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    Eddy-Induced Heat Transport in the Subtropical North Pacific from Argo, TMI, and Altimetry transport induced by mesoscale oceanic eddies is estimated by combining satellite- derived sea surface temperature­salinity data. In the North Pacific Ocean subtropical gyre, warm (cold) temperature anomalies

  8. Low differential pressure and multiphase flow measurements by means of differential pressure devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Justo, Hernandez Ruiz,

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    performance in the gas mass flow rate estimation was exhibited by the slotted and standard plates for the air-water flow, while poor results were obtained for the air-oil and air-water oil flows. The performance of all the flow meter tested in the analysis...

  9. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  10. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

    1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  11. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of heat transfer in an annular fuel channel with periodic spacer ribs under a fully developed turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takase, Kazuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a spacer-ribbed annular fuel channel for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors were analyzed numerically by three-dimensional computations under a fully developed turbulent flow. The two-equation {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model was applied in the present turbulent analysis, and the turbulence model constants for eddy viscosity and the turbulent Prandtl number were improved from the previous standard values to increase the accuracy of numerical simulations. Consequently, heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in the spacer-ribbed fuel channel were predicted with sufficient accuracy in the range of Reynolds number >3,000. It was clarified quantitatively that the main mechanism for heat transfer augmentation in the spacer-ribbed fuel channel was a combined effect of the turbulence promoter effect by the spacer rib and the velocity acceleration effect by a reduction in the channel cross section.

  12. Compressive Sensing Based Machine Learning Strategy For Characterizing The Flow Around A Cylinder With Limited Pressure Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bright, Ido; Lin, Guang; Kutz, Nathan

    2013-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Compressive sensing is used to determine the flow characteristics around a cylinder (Reynolds number and pressure/flow field) from a sparse number of pressure measurements on the cylinder. Using a supervised machine learning strategy, library elements encoding the dimensionally reduced dynamics are computed for various Reynolds numbers. Convex L1 optimization is then used with a limited number of pressure measurements on the cylinder to reconstruct, or decode, the full pressure field and the resulting flow field around the cylinder. Aside from the highly turbulent regime (large Reynolds number) where only the Reynolds number can be identified, accurate reconstruction of the pressure field and Reynolds number is achieved. The proposed data-driven strategy thus achieves encoding of the fluid dynamics using the L2 norm, and robust decoding (flow field reconstruction) using the sparsity promoting L1 norm.

  13. F/sup 2/ boundary layer measurement in a chemical laser slit nozzle flow. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, D.J.; Durran, D.A.; Bixler, H.A.; Varwig, R.L.

    1983-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensitive F/sup 2/ absorption diagnostic suitable for slit nozzle scanning was developed and applied to the measurement of an F/sup 2/ boundary layer in an HF chemical laser flow. The F/sup 2/ boundary layer profile was determined to be of exponential decay form with peak at the nozzle wall and of width approx. 1/3 the viscous boundary layer. The F/sup 2/ concentration profile was displaced inwardly and slightly compressed by the H2 slit injection at the nozzle exit plane, which penetration profile followed the relation delta = 0.1(sq. root of x). The F/sup 2/ profile apparently remains fairly intact in passing through the lasing zone.

  14. X-ray radiographic expansion measurements of isochorically heated thin wire targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochhaus, D. C. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany) [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Aurand, B. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany) [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Basko, M. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany) [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ecker, B. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany) [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kühl, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany) [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Ma, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rosmej, F. [UPMC, UMR7605, LULI, case 128, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France) [UPMC, UMR7605, LULI, case 128, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ecole Polytechnique, LULI, PAPD, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Zielbauer, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany) [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Neumayer, P. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany) [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid density matter at temperatures ranging from 150 eV to <5 eV has been created by irradiating thin wire targets with high-energy laser pulses at intensities ?10{sup 18}W/cm{sup 2}. Energy deposition and transport of the laser-produced fast electrons are inferred from spatially resolved K{sub ?}-spectroscopy. Time resolved x-ray radiography is employed to image the target mass density up to solid density and proves isochoric heating. The subsequent hydrodynamic evolution of the target is observed for up to 3 ns and is compared to radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. At distances of several hundred micrometers from the laser interaction region, where temperatures of 5–20 eV and small temperature gradients are found, the hydrodynamic evolution of the wire is a near axially symmetric isentropic expansion, and good agreement between simulations and radiography data confirms heating of the wire over hundreds of micrometers.

  15. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  16. A three-dimensional analysis of the flow and heat transfer for the modified chemical vapor deposition process including buoyancy, variable properties, and tube rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Y.T.; Choi, M.; Greif, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been made of the heat transfer, flow, and particle deposition relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. The effects of variable properties, buoyancy, and tube rotation have been included in the study. The resulting three-dimensional temperature and velocity fields have been obtained for a range of conditions. The effects of buoyancy result in asymmetric temperature and axial velocity profiles with respect to the tube axis. Variable properties cause significant variations in the axial velocity along the tube and in the secondary flow in the region near the torch. Particle trajectories are shown to be strongly dependent on the tube rotation and are helices for large rotational speeds. The component of secondary flow in the radial direction is compared to the thermophoretic velocity, which is the primary cause of particle deposition in the MCVD process. Over the central portion of the tube the radial component of the secondary flow is most important in determining the motion of the particles.

  17. Numerical simulation of the fluid flow and heat transfer processes during scavenging in a two-stroke engine under steady-state conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro Gouveia, M. de; Reis Parise, J.A. dos; Nieckele, A.O. (Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical simulation of the scavenging process in a two-stroke flat-piston model engine has been developed. Air enters the cylinder circumferentially, inducting a three-dimensional turbulent swirling flow. The problem was modeled as a steady-state axisymmetric flow through a cylinder with uniform wall temperature. The steady-state regime was simulated by assuming the piston head fixed at the bottom dead center. The calculation was performed employing the {kappa}-{epsilon} model of turbulence. A comparison of the results obtained for the flow field with available experimental data showed very good agreement, and a comparison with an available numerical solution revealed superior results. The effects of the Reynolds number, inlet port angles, and engine geometry on the flow and in-cylinder heat transfer characteristics were investigated. The Nusselt number substantially increases with larger Reynolds numbers and a smaller bore-to-stroke ratio. It is shown that the positioning of the exhaust value(s) is the main parameter to control the scavenging process.

  18. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, James F. (Bonneville County, ID); Koenig, John F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  19. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  20. Heat Transfer Enhancement for Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers with Vortex Generators: Experimental and Numerical Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, James Edward; Sohal, Manohar Singh; Huff, George Albert

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined experimental and numerical investigation is under way to investigate heat transfer enhancement techniques that may be applicable to large-scale air-cooled condensers such as those used in geothermal power applications. The research is focused on whether air-side heat transfer can be improved through the use of finsurface vortex generators (winglets,) while maintaining low heat exchanger pressure drop. A transient heat transfer visualization and measurement technique has been employed in order to obtain detailed distributions of local heat transfer coefficients on model fin surfaces. Pressure drop measurements have also been acquired in a separate multiple-tube row apparatus. In addition, numerical modeling techniques have been developed to allow prediction of local and average heat transfer for these low-Reynolds-number flows with and without winglets. Representative experimental and numerical results presented in this paper reveal quantitative details of local fin-surface heat transfer in the vicinity of a circular tube with a single delta winglet pair downstream of the cylinder. The winglets were triangular (delta) with a 1:2 height/length aspect ratio and a height equal to 90% of the channel height. Overall mean fin-surface Nusselt-number results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement (average enhancement ratio 35%) associated with the deployment of the winglets with oval tubes. Pressure drop measurements have also been obtained for a variety of tube and winglet configurations using a single-channel flow apparatus that includes four tube rows in a staggered array. Comparisons of heat transfer and pressure drop results for the elliptical tube versus a circular tube with and without winglets are provided. Heat transfer and pressure-drop results have been obtained for flow Reynolds numbers based on channel height and mean flow velocity ranging from 700 to 6500.