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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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1

U.S. Coal Reserves: An Update by Heat and Sulfur Content  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2) 2) Distribution Category UC-98 U.S. Coal Reserves: An Update by Heat and Sulfur Content February 1993 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Energy Information Administration/ U.S. Coal Reserves: An Update by Heat and Sulfur Content ii This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ U.S. Coal Reserves: An Update by Heat and Sulfur Content iii Contacts This report was prepared by the staff of the Energy

2

Coking of coal batch with different content of oxidized coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of oxidized coal in coking batch increases the analytical moisture content and ... increases the oxygen content; reduces the gross coke yield and the yield of tar, benzene ... of carbon dioxide, pyrogenet...

D. V. Miroshnichenko; I. D. Drozdnik; Yu. S. Kaftan; N. B. Bidolenko…

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

4

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

5

Coal ban could heat up electricity prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal ban could heat up electricity prices ... The U.S. EPA’s new report on the economic impact of the bill suggests it would cost households $100?140 per year by 2030. ...

Janet Pelley

2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

6

Lead contents of coal, coal ash and fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flameless atomic absorption spectrometry is applied for the determination of Pb in coal, coal ash and fly ash. Lead concentrations in coal and coal ash ranging from respectively 7 to 110 µg...?1 and 120 to 450 µg...

C. Block; R. Dams

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Advanced coal technologies in Czech heat and power systems  

SciTech Connect

Coal is the only domestic source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic. The coal reserves are substantial and their share in total energy use is about 60%. Presently necessary steps in making coal utilisation more friendly towards the environment have been taken and fairly well established, and an interest to develop and build advanced coal units has been observed. One IGCC system has been put into operation, and circa 10 AFBC units are in operation or under construction. Preparatory steps have been taken in building an advanced combustion unit fuelled by pulverised coal and retrofit action is taking place in many heating plants. An actual experience has shown two basic problems: (1) Different characteristic of domestic lignite, especially high content of ash, cause problems applying well-tried foreign technologies and apparently a more focused attention shall have to be paid to the quality of coal combusted. (2) Low prices of lignite (regarding energy, lignite is four times cheaper then coal) do not oblige to increase efficiency of the standing equipment applying advanced technologies. It will be of high interest to observe the effect of the effort of the European Union to establish a kind of carbon tax. It could dramatically change the existing scene in clean coal power generation by the logical pressure to increase the efficiency of energy transformation. In like manner the gradual liberalisation of energy prices might have similar consequences and it is a warranted expectation that, up to now not the best, energy balance will improve in near future.

Noskievic, P.; Ochodek, T. [VSB-Technical Univ., Ostrava (Czechoslovakia)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Carbonization of Coal Effects of Variation of Rate of Heating during the Carbonization of a Typical Coking Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbonization of Coal Effects of Variation of Rate of Heating during the Carbonization of a Typical Coking Coal ...

William B. Warren

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Carbonization of Coal Evaluation of Effects of Rate of Heating and of Maximum Temperature on Pyrolysis of a Coking Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbonization of Coal Evaluation of Effects of Rate of Heating and of Maximum Temperature on Pyrolysis of a Coking Coal ...

William B. Warren

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Trace element content of magnetohydrodynamic coal combustion effluents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Trace element contents from effluents of a simulated coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) combustion process have been determined using thermal neutron activation analysis techniques. The quality control consi...

M. S. Akanni; V. O. Ogugbuaja; W. D. James

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia  

SciTech Connect

The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

A New Type Heat Exchanger for Coal Burning Boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To make the best of heat energy in the flue gas exhausted from a coal burning boiler, the design proposal for a new type of heat exchanger was put forward in the paper. Via the new type of heat exchanger, temperature of the flue gas can be decreased ... Keywords: waste heat utilization, energy conservation, special heat exchanger, economizer

Bingwen Zhang; Yingjin Zhang

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Assessment of the effect of high ash content in pulverized coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

The existing literature on CFD-based coal combustion modelling is applicable mainly for coals of low ash content and the calculations are done on an ash-free basis. In Indian coals, the ash content may be significantly higher, up to 40% or more. Studies reported in the literature show that the mineral matter in the coal may have a number of effects on the combustion characteristics. In the present study, a sensitivity analysis is performed, using the CFD code CFX of AEA Technology, on the likely effect of ash content on the char reactivity, oxygen diffusion rate for char combustion and on the radiative heat transfer parameters. The results show that the effect of enhanced char reactivity is negligible whereas reduced oxygen diffusion rates due to a thicker ash layer may result in a significant reduction in char oxidation rates with a resultant decrease in the peak temperature in the furnace. The global parameters such as the peak temperature and the flue gas temperature remain relatively insensitive to the presence of high ash content. These results are consistent with the experimental observations of Kurose et al. . Kurose, M. Ikeda, H. Makino, Combustion characteristics of high ash coal in pulverized coal combustion, J. Fuel 80 (2001) 1447-1455).

Jayanti, S.; Maheswaran, K.; Saravanan, V. [Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Calculating the higher heat of coal combustion in the wet ash-free state  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analysis of the coal concentrates used in the Ukrainian coke industry yields a mathematical formula for predicting the higher heat of coal combustion in the wet ash-free state on the basis of the coal’s charac...

D. V. Miroshnichenko; Ya. S. Balaeva

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

,"Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed",1,"Monthly","112014","1152013" ,"Release...

17

Sulfidation of coal gasifier heat exchanger alloys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three steels, viz., INCOLOY* 800H, Fecralloy,† and AlSI 310, were exposed to a simulated low Btu coal gasifier product gas at 450 °C. Sulfidation...

S. R. J. Saunders; S. Schlierer

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Heat Content Changes in the Pacific Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat Content Changes in the Pacific Ocean The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Cli- mate (ATOC assimilating ocean observations and changes expected from surface heat fluxes as measured by the daily National are a result of advection of heat by ocean currents. We calculate that the most likely cause of the discrepancy

Frandsen, Jannette B.

19

The effect of coal particle size on the heat of combustion  

SciTech Connect

The relations between integral heat and differential heat of combustion for pulverized coal, respectively, and the size of coal particle were derived in this paper. The results show that coal particle size has some effect on its heats of combustion; the smaller coal particle size, the greater the specific surface area and the specific surface energy, and the greater the heat value, also; and that the differential heat of combustion for pulverized coal differs from the integral one.

Xue Yongqiang; Yan Ruiping; Gao Yang [Dept. of Coal Processing and Utilization, Shanxi (China)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Production of high-energy fuel with low volatile content from 3B and D coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments on the carbonization of coal show that high-energy fuel with satisfactory piece strength (?8 MPa in compression) may be produced in the nonoxidative heating of 3B and D coal, with gradual increase ...

M. V. Kulesh; S. R. Islamov

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Ray Penetration Window Technology of Mining Explosion-Proof Instrument for Measuring Ash Content of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to improve the extraction rate and reduce the gangue content in coal ... control the top-coal caving. The ray penetration window technology breaks through the rules of ... and effectively solves the prob...

Wen-qing Wang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Heat exchanger for coal gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

Blasiole, George A. (Greensburg, PA)

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

23

Extracting Coal Ash Content from Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Spectra by Multivariate Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) combined with partial least squares (PLS) analysis has been applied for the quantitative analysis of the ash content of coal in this...

Yao, Shunchun; Lu, Jidong; Dong, Meirong; Chen, Kai; Li, Junyan; Li, Jun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Determining inert content in coal dust/rock dust mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for determining the inert content of a coal dust and rock dust mixture uses a transparent window pressed against the mixture. An infrared light beam is directed through the window such that a portion of the infrared light beam is reflected from the mixture. The concentration of the reflected light is detected and a signal indicative of the reflected light is generated. A normalized value for the generated signal is determined according to the relationship .phi.=(log i.sub.c `log i.sub.co) / (log i.sub.c100 -log i.sub.co) where i.sub.co =measured signal at 0% rock dust i.sub.c100 =measured signal at 100% rock dust i.sub.c =measured signal of the mixture. This normalized value is then correlated to a predetermined relationship of .phi. to rock dust percentage to determine the rock dust content of the mixture. The rock dust content is displayed where the percentage is between 30 and 100%, and an indication of out-of-range is displayed where the rock dust percent is less than 30%. Preferably, the rock dust percentage (RD%) is calculated from the predetermined relationship RD%=100+30 log .phi.. where the dust mixture initially includes moisture, the dust mixture is dried before measuring by use of 8 to 12 mesh molecular-sieves which are shaken with the dust mixture and subsequently screened from the dust mixture.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Ward, Jr., Jack A. (Oakmont, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the Czech setting, where coal is still com- monly used inwe found exposure to coal home heating and ETS increasewell studied, residential coal combustion in economically

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Observing ocean heat content using satellite gravity and altimetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: ocean heat content, altimetry, satellite gravity, steric height, remote sensing Citation: Jayne, S. RObserving ocean heat content using satellite gravity and altimetry Steven R. Jayne1,2 and John M with satellite measurements of the Earth's time-varying gravity to give improved estimates of the ocean's heat

Jayne, Steven

27

The development of Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carried-Heat Partial Gasification Combined cycle is a novel combined cycle which was proposed by Thermal Engineering Department ... technology, Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle, as the imp...

Li Zhao; Xiangdong Xu

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Dewatering of fine coal slurries by selective heating with microwaves.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Since water is used extensively in coal preparation and cleaning, dewatering of coals is required prior to shipment to power plants. However, finer fractions of… (more)

Kalra, Aashish.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

,"New York Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed",1,"Monthly","102014","1152013" ,"Release...

30

Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Primary Coal Tars  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

/ PC92544-18 / PC92544-18 VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS FINAL REPORT Grant Dates: August, 1992 - November, 1996 Principal Authors: Eric M. Suuberg (PI) and Vahur Oja Report Submitted: April, 1997 Revised: July, 1997 Grant Number: DE-FG22-92PC92544 Report Submitted by: ERIC M. SUUBERG DIVISION OF ENGINEERING BROWN UNIVERSITY PROVIDENCE, RI 02912 TEL. (401) 863-1420 Prepared For: U. S. DEPT. OF ENERGY FEDERAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER P.O. BOX 10940 PITTSBURGH, PA 15236 DR. KAMALENDU DAS, FETC, MORGANTOWN , WV TECHNICAL PROJECT OFFICER "US/DOE Patent Clearance is not required prior to the publication of this document" ii United States Government Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any

31

Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas -BACKGROUND: In December 2009, the Combined Heat and Power Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- BACKGROUND: In December 2009, the Combined Heat and Power Plant at Cornell Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas the power plant #12;

Keinan, Alon

32

Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence  

SciTech Connect

Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

Ash content prediction of coarse coal by image analysis and GA-SVM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ash content is one of the most important indexes of coal quality, and fast prediction of ash content is urgent and important for coal processing industry. The aim of this paper is to propose a method of ash content prediction of coarse coal by the use of image analysis and GA-SVM. Coal particles on the surface were randomly selected to measure the ash content, and a semi-automatic local-segmentation algorithm was proposed to identify the corresponding coal particle regions. Thirty-eight features were extracted, and selected by GA. Ash content prediction model was established by SVM, and K-CV method is used to determine the hyper-parameters (c, g) of SVM. RMSE and R-square were used to measure the prediction effects of ash content. Results indicated that the prediction effects of narrow size fractions are better than wide size fraction, and larger size fraction is more accurate than smaller size fraction in ash content prediction.

Zelin Zhang; Jianguo Yang; Yuling Wang; Dongyang Dou; Wencheng Xia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S[sub 4]), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0[sub 2], H[sub 2]0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S{sub 4}), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0{sub 2}, H{sub 2}0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the thermodynamic and morphological properties of coal associated with rapid heating decomposition pathways is essential to progress in coal utilization technology. Specifically, knowledge of the heat of devolatilization, surface area and density of coal as a function of rank characteristics, temperature and extent of devolatilization in the context of rapid heating conditions is essential to the fundamental determination of kinetic parameters of coal devolatilization. These same properties are also needed to refine existing devolatilization sub-models utilized in large-scale modeling of coal combustion systems. The objective of this research is to obtain data on the thermodynamic properties and morphology of coal under conditions of rapid heating. Specifically, the total heat of devolatilization, external surface area, BET surface area and true density will be measured for representative coal samples. The coal ranks to be investigated will include a high volatile A bituminous (PSOC 1451 D) and a low volatile bituminous (PSOC 1516D). An anthracite (PSOC 1468) will be used as a non-volatile coal reference. In addition, for one coal, the contribution of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization will be measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars.

Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR  

SciTech Connect

This eighth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and preparations for Year-3 system deployment. Classification maps for coal have been generated and shown to two coal-mining executives. An application for licensing high-speed hyperspectral data analysis software from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been made. Both Western Energy and Stillwater Mining Company have offered platforms for Year-3 deployment. Barretts Minerals has expressed renewed interest in using Resonon's machine vision system for identifying dolomite in their talc ore and have agreed to provide samples to the Montana Tech team.

Dr. Rand Swanson

2003-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

38

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Analysis of a coal fired combined cycle with carried-heat gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the research of a more efficient, less costly, more environmentally responsible and less technically difficult method for generating electrical power from coal, the Carried-heat Gasification Combined Cycle (CG...

Xiangdong Xu; Weimin Zhu; Li Zhao; F. N. Fett

40

Heat of combustion of coal: Basic principles and new calculation methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stepwise changes in the heat of combustion of Donetsk Basin coal and vitrinites during metamorphism are implied by correlation analysis of a sample including data regarding the composition and properties of be...

M. L. Ulanovskii

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The natural radioactivity contents in feed coals from the lignite-fired power plants in Western Anatolia, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......mineral matter contents than other Tertiary coals. Therefore, they have been consumed...total capacity of 1680 MW. The Soma coal basin is one of the largest economic lignite basins of western Turkey. Coal mining has been practised in this region......

N. Füsun Çam; Günseli Yaprak; Elif Eren

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

A diffusion-kinetic model for pulverized-coal combustion and heat-and-mass transfer in a gas stream  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A diffusion-kinetic model for pulverized-coal combustion and heat-and-mass transfer in a gas stream is proposed, and the results of numerical simulation of the burnout dynamics of Kansk-Achinsk coals in the pu...

E. A. Boiko; S. V. Pachkovskii

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

,"U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed",4,"Annual",2013,"6302003" ,"Release Date:","1128...

44

Estimates of central Appalachian coal reserves by cost of production and sulfur content  

SciTech Connect

This study provides information on the quantity, quality, and production costs for all minable coal reserves in the major coal-producing counties of central Appalachia, a region that contains the large majority of low-sulfur and compliance coal reserves in the eastern US. Presently, the best source of detailed reserve information in the Appalachian region is the estimates produced by the mining and land holding companies that control the reserves. The authors have been able to obtain overall reserve estimates based on the detailed geological and engineering studies conducted by these companies. In areas where this information does not exist, the authors have relied on published estimates of reserves and modified these estimates based on known conditions on surrounding properties. This reserve information has been combined with data on coal quality and mining costs to produce cost curves for all minable coal reserves by sulfur content. Results to date indicate that most of the major coal-producing counties in central Appalachia will be able to increase production levels significantly on a sustainable basis for at least the next 20 years, without major real increases in coal prices.

Watkins, J.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

NETL: News Release - Novel Coal-Fired Heating System Proves Successful at  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

December 20, 2005 December 20, 2005 Novel Coal-Fired Heating System Proves Successful at Ohio Greenhouse Cost Savings and State EPA Standards Achieved in First Commercial Demonstration WASHINGTON, DC - Using a Department of Energy - funded coal-fired technology, a greenhouse in northeast Ohio is saving more than $1,000 a day in heating costs. The efficient fluidized-bed combustion unit provides an alternative to natural gas systems and, using locally available coal and limestone, surpasses state EPA standards for sulfur capture and stack emissions. "The promise of the unit lies in its novel design," said Donald Bonk, a senior technical advisor for the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which manages the project for the Energy Department. "The fluidized-bed combustion system features flue-gas recirculation, replacing conventional, more expensive boiler tubes. By recycling the flue gas, the system better controls internal temperatures to burn fuel, reducing the formation of pollutants."

46

Specific heat of apple at different moisture contents and temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work discusses results of experimental investigations of the specific heat, $C$, of apple in a wide interval of moisture contents ($W=0-0.9$) and temperatures ($T = 283-363$ K). The obtained data reveal the important role of the bound water in determination of $C(W,T)$ behaviour. The additive model for description of $C(W)$ dependence in the moisture range of $0.1apple was considered as a mixture of water and hydrated apple material (water plasticised apple) with specific heat $C_h$. The difference between $C_h$ and specific heat of dry apple, $\\Delta Cb=C_h-C_d$, was proposed as a measure of the excess contribution of bound water to the specific heat. The estimated amounts of bound water $W_b$ were comparable with the monolayer moisture content in apple. The analytical equation was proposed for approximation of $C(W,T)$ dependencies in the studied intervals of moisture content and temperature.

Viacheslav Mykhailyk; Nikolai Lebovka

2013-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

47

Study of the correlation between the coal calorific value and coal ash content using X-ray fluorescence analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we have studied the possibility of determining the chemical elements in coal samples using X-ray fluorescence analysis and have found a relationship between the coal calorific value and its ash cont...

D. Bolortuya; P. Zuzaan; M. V. Gustova…

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2000 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end-use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal export demands as a part of the world coal market. Coal supply is projected on a cost-minimizing basis, constrained by existing contracts. Twelve different coal types are differentiated with respect to thermal grade, sulfur content, and underground or surface mining. The domestic production and distribution of coal is forecast for 13 demand regions and 11 supply regions (Figures 19 and 20). coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end-use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal export demands as a part of the world coal market. Coal supply is projected on a cost-minimizing basis, constrained by existing contracts. Twelve different coal types are differentiated with respect to thermal grade, sulfur content, and underground or surface mining. The domestic production and distribution of coal is forecast for 13 demand regions and 11 supply regions (Figures 19 and 20). Figure 19. Coal Market Module Demand Regions Figure 20. Coal Market Module Supply Regions

49

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 1998 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

COAL MARKET MODULE COAL MARKET MODULE blueball.gif (205 bytes) Coal Production Submodule blueball.gif (205 bytes) Coal Distribution Submodule blueball.gif (205 bytes) Coal Export Component The coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end-use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. The CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal export demands as a part of the world coal market. Coal supply is projected on a cost-minimizing basis, constrained by existing contracts. Twelve different coal types are differentiated with respect to thermal grade, sulfur content, and underground or surface mining. The domestic production and distribution of coal is forecast for 13 demand regions and 11 supply

50

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Thermodynamic calculations. I: Using free-energy functions and heat-content functions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

I: Using free-energy functions and heat-content functions ... Extensive tabulations of free-energy and heat content functions are readily available, and these functions are easy to use. ...

John L. Margrave

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

U.S. Total Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per Cubic Foot) U.S. Total Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

53

A compact XRF unit for determining total sulphur content in coals  

SciTech Connect

A microcomputer based x-ray fluorescence (XRF) unit was developed for off-line determination of total sulphur content in coal samples. The unit consisted of the x-ray exciting/measuring set and the microcomputer with a plug-in interface card, An Fe-55 radioisotope was used as the exciting source while a krypton-filled proportional counter was used to measure x-rays from the samples. The x-ray spectrum was simultaneously displayed on the microcomputer screen. For quantitative determination of sulphur, the intensities of sulphur K x-rays as well as calcium K x-rays and scattered x-rays were taken into account. The unit was tested with finely-ground, dried and compressed lignite, subbituminous and bituminous samples. It was found that for low-calcium coals the results were in good agreement with those obtained from the standard chemical analysis method within {+-}0.2 %S and within {+-}0.5 %S for high-calcium coals.

Sumitra, T.; Chankow, N.; Punnachaiya, S.; Srisatit, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

Reducing the sulfur content of coke by increasing the content of thermally conditioned g coal in the batch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In periods of economic growth, Ukrainian coke plants face a shortage of Zh and K coal, because of the high demand. In periods of economic stagnation, conversely, there is an excess of Zh coal, on account of the d...

E. I. Malyi

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Direct Determination of Pyrite Content in Argonne Premium Coals by the Use of Sulfur X-ray Near Edge Absorption Spectroscopy (S-XANES)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Direct Determination of Pyrite Content in Argonne Premium Coals by the Use of Sulfur X-ray Near Edge Absorption Spectroscopy (S-XANES) ... Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 ... Argonne premium coal samples are used by researchers worldwide as standards in coal research. ...

Trudy B. Bolin

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Heat exchanger materials for fluidized bed coal combustors  

SciTech Connect

The 4500-h test in the FluiDyne AFBC tells us three things: (1) ferritic and austenitic superheater alloys perform well to approximately 590/sup 0/C (1100/sup 0/F), (2) high-temperature alloys can perform well at approximately 870/sup 0/C (1600/sup 0/F), and (3) they also may fail miserably at approximately 870/sup 0/C (1600/sup 0/F). Additional studies are clearly needed to develop a fundamental understanding of corrosion mechanisms in AFBC and to determine the envelope of safe operating conditions, which will depend upon alloy sensitivity, the oxygen and sulfur activities, and the many parameters that affect mixing and homogeneity within an operating AFBC. Ultimately long-term tests for periods to 20,000 h will be needed to assure the operability of in-bed heat exchanger and structural materials for the anticipated lifetime of a plant. Good design and well-controlled operations will yield good material performance in AFBC. The key to reliable material usage is operation within the safe envelope. Results from the present experiment suggest that this envelope is large for utility steam systems but smaller for high-temperature tubes and uncooled components in AFBC.

Godfrey, T G; Copper, R H; DeVan, J H; Drake, K R

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.

NONE

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Moist caustic leaching of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electricity, natural gas, or propane) were not associatedcoal, wood, natural gas, and propane for heating or cooking.fuel used for cooking Gas Propane Electricity Coal Wood

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Conventional coal preparation in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Processing of bituminous and anthracite coal is widely practiced in the United States and, as mentioned earlier, about 80 percent of the production of these coals is processed as clean coal in preparation plants. Subbituminous coal is not widely processed, primarily because these low rank raw coals are low in sulfur (0.5 to 1.0 percent) and relatively low in ash (8 to 15 percent). They are also relatively low in heat content due to their high inherent moisture. Lignite coals, to the best of the authors{close_quote} knowledge, are not presently being processed in Conventional Coal Preparation plants. This is due to their unstable nature and putting them in water in a coal preparation plant is likely to cause severe degradation in particle size and add to their already high inherent moisture content. The following are the benefits of clean coal processing: produces a uniform product which can be utilized more efficiently; produces a higher quality product which results in higher efficiency at the power station or the steel mill; reduces sulfur dioxide and other adverse stack emissions during coal firing which is a very important environmental consideration; reduces ash or slag handling costs by the user; reduces shipping costs; and reduces handling and storage costs. Processing any stable raw coal in a coal preparation plant will always produce a higher grade product which is a more efficient and a more environmentally acceptable fuel for use at power stations, steel mills, home heating or industrial boilers.

Beck, M.K.; Taylor, B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Optimizing heat integration in a flexible coal–natural gas power station with CO2 capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Computational optimization is used to simultaneously determine the design and planned operating profile of a flexible coal–natural gas power station with CO2 capture, under a CO2 emission performance standard. The facility consists of a coal-fired power station undergoing retrofit with CO2 capture. The CO2 capture energy demand is provided by a specially designed combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT). The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) component of the CCGT is modeled and optimized in detail, with explicit treatment of the discrete aspects of the HRSG configuration, including the number and sequential arrangement of HRSG internal components. Variable facility operations are represented by discrete operating modes selected based on the electricity price–duration curve. Two objectives, the minimization of capital requirement and the maximization of net present value, are considered in a bi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming formulation. Pareto frontiers, which define the optimal tradeoffs between these two objectives, are generated for six scenarios constructed from recent historical data from West Texas, the United Kingdom, and India. For a 440 MW coal plant in a scenario based on 2011 West Texas data, the minimum effective net present cost required for the retrofit (which meets the CO2 emission performance standard) varies from $278 to 383 million, and the minimum total capital investment requirement ranges from $346 to 517 million. The variations in these optimized values correspond to the range of the Pareto frontier within the bounds of the problem. The net present cost of the retrofit is less than the present value of the existing coal plant, $476 million, indicating that a retrofit is preferred over decommissioning. In the case of very low energy prices, however, decommissioning is shown to be the preferred option. The UK and India scenarios demonstrate that optimal designs can vary greatly depending upon location-specific economic conditions.

Charles A. Kang; Adam R. Brandt; Louis J. Durlofsky

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

EIA - The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003-Coal Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003 Coal Market Module Figure 19. Coal Market Module Demand Regions. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 20. Coal Market Module Supply Regions. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 21. Coal Market Module Structure. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Coal Market Module Table. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. The coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end–use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal

63

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications  

SciTech Connect

PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications'' is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec's Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

Not Available

1992-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

64

Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

65

Preparation and gasification of a Thailand coal-water fuel  

SciTech Connect

In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) in Thailand, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a four-task program to assess the responsiveness of Wiang Haeng coal to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying (HWD). The results indicate that HWD made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 37.4 wt% for the raw coal to about 20 wt% for the HWD coals. The energy density, determined at 500 cP, indicates an increase from 4450 to 6650 Btu/lb by hydrothermal treatment. Raw and HWD coal were then gasified at various mild gasification conditions of 700 C and 30 psig. The tests indicated that the coal is probably similar to other low-rank coals and will produce high levels of hydrogen and be fairly reactive.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Richter, J.J.; Dewall, R.A.; Young, B.C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Nakanart, A. [Ministry of Industry, Bangkok (Thailand)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Coal cleaning program for Kazakstan  

SciTech Connect

In 1992 the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) started sponsoring general projects in the Energy and Environmental Sector to improve health and well-being, to improve the efficiency of the existing fuel and energy base, and to assist in the establishment of a strong private sector. Coal Cleaning Program, covered in this report, is one of the recently completed projects by Burns and Roe, which is a prime USAID contractor in the field of energy and environment for the NIS. The basis for coal cleaning program is that large coal resources exist in northeast Kazakstan and coal represents the major fuel for heat and electricity generation at present and in the foreseeable future. The coal mined at Karaganda and Ekibastuz, the two main coal mining areas of Kazakstan, currently contains up to 55% ash, whereas most boilers in Kazakstan are designed to fire a coal with an ash content no greater than 36%. The objective of the task was to determine optimum, state-of-the-art coal cleaning and mining processes which are applicable to coals in Kazakstan considering ultimate coal quality of 36% ash, environmental quality, safety and favorable economics.

Popovic, N. [Burns and Roe Enterprises, Oradell. NJ (United States); Daley, D.P. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jacobsen, P.S. [Jacobsen (P. Stanley), Littleton, CO (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

67

Origin of Decadal-Scale, Eastward-Propagating Heat Content Anomalies in the North Pacific  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Upper ocean heat content (OHC) is at the heart of natural climate variability on interannual-to-decadal time scales, providing climate memory and the source of decadal prediction skill. In the midlatitude North Pacific Ocean, OHC signals are often ...

Bunmei Taguchi; Niklas Schneider

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Electric Power Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

69

U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Other Sectors...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Other Sectors Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Other Sectors Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

70

Development and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CO2 Removal from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Demonstration of and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CO 2 Removal from Coal-Fired Flue Gas Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions, & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-

71

Coal gasification apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Technical progress report, July--September 1987  

SciTech Connect

The systematic development of the residential combustion system is divided into three phases. Only Phase I is detailed here. Phase I constitutes the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of a pulse combustor sized for residential space heating. Phase II is an optional phase to develop an integrated system including a heat exchanger. Phase III is projected as a field test of the integrated coal-fired residential space heater. The Phase I effort was nearing completion during this reporting period and a final report is in preparation. The configuration testing was completed early in the period and based upon results of the configuration tests, an optimized configuration for the experimental development testing was chosen. The refractory-lined chambers were fabricated and tested from mid-September through early October. The tandem unit was operated on dry micromized coal without support gas or excitation air for periods lasting from one to three hours. Performance was stable and turndown ratios of 3:1 were achieved during the first three-hour test. A early commercial residential heating system configuration has been identified on the basis of the development testing conducted throughout the first phase of this effort. The development effort indicates that the residential unit goals are achievable with some additional product improvement effort to increase carbon burn-out efficiency, reduce CO emissions and develop a reliable and compact dry, ultrafine coal feed system (not included in the present effort).

NONE

1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

Ore components in coal  

SciTech Connect

The dependence of the mineral content in coal and concentrates on the degree of metamorphism is analyzed.

Kh.A. Ishhakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Selection of Optimal Heating Structures for Modernization of Coal-Fired Power Stations to Cogeneration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents the methodology of analyzing the technical and economic efficiency of conversion of conventional coal-fired electric power stations to: (a)...

Ryszard Bartnik; Zbigniew Buryn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Computational Modeling of Coal Water Slurry Combustion Processes in Industrial Heating Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal water slurry (CWS) is typically composed of 60–70% coal, 30–40% water, and 1% chemical additives. It has been developed over the last 20 years as an alternative to fuel oil mainly in industrial and utility b...

L. J. Zhu; B. Q. Gu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Dike intrusions into bituminous coal, Illinois Basin: H, C, N, O isotopic responses to rapid and brief heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Unlike long-term heating in subsiding sedimentary basins, the near-instantaneous thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter near magmatic intrusions is comparable to artificial thermal maturation in the laboratory in terms of short duration and limited extent. This study investigates chemical and H, C, N, O isotopic changes in high volatile bituminous coal near two Illinois dike contacts and compares observed patterns and trends with data from other published studies and from artificial maturation experiments. Our study pioneers in quantifying isotopically exchangeable hydrogen and measuring the D/H (i.e., 2H/1H) ratio of isotopically non-exchangeable organic hydrogen in kerogen near magmatic contacts. Thermal stress in coal caused a reduction of isotopically exchangeable hydrogen in kerogen from 5% to 6% in unaltered coal to 2–3% at contacts, mostly due to elimination of functional groups (e.g., OH, COOH, NH2). In contrast to all previously published data on D/H in thermally matured organic matter, the more mature kerogen near the two dike contacts is D-depleted, which is attributed to (i) thermal elimination of D-enriched functional groups, and (ii) thermal drying of hydrologically isolated coal prior to the onset of cracking reactions, thereby precluding D-transfer from relatively D-enriched water into kerogen. Maxima in organic nitrogen concentration and in the atomic N/C ratio of kerogen at a distance of ?2.5 to ?3.5 m from the thicker dike indicate that reactive N-compounds had been pyrolytically liberated at high temperature closer to the contact, migrated through the coal seam, and recombined with coal kerogen in a zone of lower temperature. The same principle extends to organic carbon, because a strong ?13Ckerogen vs. ?15Nkerogen correlation across 5.5 m of coal adjacent to the thicker dike indicates that coal was functioning as a flow-through reactor along a dynamic thermal gradient facilitating back-reactions between mobile pyrolysis products from the hot zone as they encounter less hot kerogen. Vein and cell filling carbonate is most abundant in highest rank coals where carbonate ?13CVPDB and ?18OVSMOW values are consistent with thermal generation of 13C-depleted and 18O-enriched CO2 from decarboxylation and pyrolysis of organic matter. Lower background concentrations of 13C-enriched carbonate in thermally unaffected coal may be linked to 13C-enrichment in residual CO2 in the process of CO2 reduction via microbial methanogenesis. Our compilation and comparison of available organic H, C, N isotopic findings on magmatic intrusions result in re-assessments of majors factors influencing isotopic shifts in kerogen during magmatic heating. (i) Thermally induced shifts in organic ?D values of kerogen are primarily driven by the availability of water or steam. Hydrologic isolation (e.g., near Illinois dikes) results in organic D-depletion in kerogen, whereas more common hydrologic connectivity results in organic D-enrichment. (ii) Shifts in kerogen (or coal) ?13C and ?15N values are typically small and may follow sinusoidal patterns over short distances from magmatic contacts. Laterally limited sampling strategies may thus result in misleading and non-representative data. (iii) Fluid transport of chemically active, mobile carbon and nitrogen species and recombination reactions with kerogen result in isotopic changes in kerogen that are unrelated to the original, autochthonous part of kerogen.

Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz; Ling Gao; Peter E. Sauer; Katarina Topalov

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report  

SciTech Connect

X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Design study of a coal-fired thermionic (THX) topped power plant. Volume IV. Thermionic heat exchanger design and costing  

SciTech Connect

This volume deals with the details of how thermionic conversion works, and how it is used in a coal-fired furnace to achieve power plant efficiencies of 45%, and overall costs of 36.3 mills/kWh. A review of the fundamental technical aspects of thermionic conversion is given. The overall Thermionic Heat Exchanger (THX) design, the heat pipe design, and the interaction of the heat pipes with the furnace are presented. Also, the operational characteristics of thermionic converters are described. Details on the computer program used to perform the parametric study are given. The overall program flow is reviewed along with the specifics of how the THX subroutine designed the converter to match the conditions imposed. Also, input costs and variables effecting the THX's performance are detailed. The efficiencies of the various power plants studied are given as a function of the air preheat temperature, size of the power plant, and thermionic level of performance.

Dick, R.S.; Britt, E.J.

1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Investigation of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plants for power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The methodology for determination of technical and economic efficiency of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plant (CCCP) with low-pressure ... steam-gas generator and continuous flow gasifier at combined pro...

V. E. Nakoryakov; G. V. Nozdrenko; A. G. Kuzmin

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Industrial coking of coal batch without bituminous coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For many years, Kuznetsk-coal batch has always included bituminous coal. Depending on the content of such coal, the batch may be characterized as lean ... classification was adopted by specialists of the Eastern

P. V. Shtark; Yu. V. Stepanov; N. K. Popova; D. A. Koshkarov…

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

In Situ Data Biases and Recent Ocean Heat Content Variability* JOSH K. WILLIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Situ Data Biases and Recent Ocean Heat Content Variability* JOSH K. WILLIS Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California JOHN M. LYMAN NOAA/Pacific Marine GREGORY C. JOHNSON NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, Washington JOHN GILSON Scripps

Johnson, Gregory C.

83

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

delivered heating (district heating) (6%), and chemicalscoal growth. As district heating expands with urbanizationzone, coal use for district heating will depend on the

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Heat treatment of medium-temperature Sasol–Lurgi gasifier coal-tar pitch for polymerizing to higher value products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two coal-derived pitch samples, one a medium temperature pitch from a Sasol–Lurgi gasifier and the other from a high temperature coking process, have been heat treated to induce polymerization, both separately and as a mixture of pitches (co-pyrolysis). The initial pitch samples and the heat-treated samples have been examined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), by UV-fluorescence spectroscopy (UV-F), by solid state 13C NMR; elemental analyses of the initial pitch samples have been carried out. The Sasol–Lurgi pitch showed larger apparent sizes, more alkyl and carbonyl functions, and smaller polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) groups than the high temperature pitch. Co-pyrolysis of the two pitches indicated that polymerized product from the Sasol–Lurgi pitch can be used as an extender for high-temperature binder pitch.

K. Mokoena; T.J. Van der Walt; T.J. Morgan; A.A. Herod; R. Kandiyoti

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Thermodynamic analysis of a low-pressure economizer based waste heat recovery system for a coal-fired power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An LPE (low-pressure economizer) based waste heat recovery system for a CFPP (coal-fired power plant) is investigated thermodynamically. With the installation of LPE in the flue before the FGD (flue gas desulfurizer), the heat contained in the exhaust flue gas can be recovered effectively and the water consumption can be reduced in the FGD resulted from the temperature dropped flue gas. The impacts on the related apparatuses after installing LPE in a CFPP are analyzed and the internal relationships among correlated parameters are presented. The efficiencies of LPE installed in a CFPP evaluated by the first law, the second law and the thermal equilibrium efficiencies are also compared and analyzed. A detailed case study based on a 350 MW CFPP unit is presented and the variations of the thermal performance after the installation of LPE are investigated. The results show that the second law and the thermal equilibrium efficiencies are increased which can be indicators to evaluate the performance of the LPE system while the first law efficiency is decreased after installing LPE. Results also show that the saving of SCE (standard coal equivalent) is 3.85 g/(kW·h) for this CFPP unit under full load after installing LPE.

Chaojun Wang; Boshu He; Linbo Yan; Xiaohui Pei; Shinan Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Coal preparation: The essential clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect

This chapter is a brief introduction to a broad topic which has many highly specialized areas. The aim is to summarize the essential elements of coal preparation and illustrate its important role in facilitating the clean use of coal. Conventional coal preparation is the essential first step in ensuring the economic and environmentally acceptable use of coal. The aim of coal preparation is to produce saleable products of consistent, specified quality which satisfy customer requirements while optimizing the utilization of the coal resource. Coal preparation covers all aspects of preparing coal for the market. It includes size reduction, blending and homogenization and, most importantly, the process of physical beneficiation or washing, which involves separation of undesirable mineral matter from the coal substance itself. Coal preparation can be performed at different levels of sophistication and cost. The degree of coal preparation required is decided by considering the quality of the raw coal, transport costs and, in particular, the coal quality specified by the consumer. However, the cost of coal beneficiation rises rapidly with the complexity of the process and some coal is lost with the waste matter because of process inefficiencies, therefore each situation requires individual study to determine the optimum coal preparation strategy. The necessary expertise is available within APEC countries such as Australia. Coals destined for iron making are almost always highly beneficiated. Physical beneficiation is mostly confined to the higher rank, hard coals, but all other aspects of coal preparation can be applied to subbituminous and lignitic coals to improve their utilization. Also, there are some interesting developments aimed specifically at reducing the water content of lower rank coals.

Cain, D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Techno-economic analysis of a coal-fired CHP based combined heating system with gas-fired boilers for peak load compensation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combined heat and power (CHP) plants dominate the heating market in China. With the ongoing energy structure reformation and increasing environmental concerns, we propose gas-fired boilers to be deployed in underperforming heating substations of heating networks for peak load compensation, in order to improve both energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. However, due to the relatively high price of gas, techno-economic analysis is required for evaluating different combined heating scenarios, characterized by basic heat load ratio (?). Therefore, we employ the dynamic economics and annual cost method to develop a techno-economic model for computing the net heating cost of the system, considering the current state of the art of cogeneration systems in China. The net heating cost is defined as the investment costs and operations costs of the system subtracted by revenues from power generation. We demonstrate the model in a real-life combined heating system of Daqing, China. The results show that the minimum net heating cost can be realized at ?=0.75 with a cost reduction of 16.8% compared to coal heating alone. Since fuel cost is the dominating factor, sensitivity analyses on coal and gas prices are discussed subsequently.

Hai-Chao Wang; Wen-Ling Jiao; Risto Lahdelma; Ping-Hua Zou

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Effect of different secondary quinoline insoluble content on the cellular structure of carbon foam derived from coal tar pitch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Carbon foam was produced using mesophase pitches obtained under different temperatures as precursors, via foaming and carbonization process. The physicochemical properties of mesophase pitch, as well as the microstructure and physical properties of carbon foam were investigated by optical microscope, infrared spectrometer, thermograviment analyzer (TGA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and universal testing machine, respectively. The results show that the amount of secondary quinoline insoluble in mesophase pitches increase with heat-treatment temperature increase, meanwhile, the cell size of carbon foams increased firstly and then reduced. Moreover, the compressive strength of carbon foams also exhibited the same variation trend. The cellular structure of carbon foam can be severely affected by the secondary quinoline insoluble content of mesophase pitch; thus it is critical to tailor the secondary quinoline insoluble content of mesophase pitch for obtaining carbon foam with high performance.

Heguang Liu; Tiehu Li; Yachun Shi; Xilin Wang; Jing Lv; Wenjuan Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report.

Edward Levy

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

U.S. low rank coals contain relatively large amounts of moisture, with the moisture content of subbituminous coals typically ranging from 15 to 30 percent and that for lignites from 25 and 40 percent. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit, for it can result in fuel handling problems and it affects heat rate, stack emissions and maintenance costs. Theoretical analyses and coal test burns performed at a lignite fired power plant show that by reducing the fuel moisture, it is possible to improve boiler performance and unit heat rate, reduce emissions and reduce water consumption by the evaporative cooling tower. The economic viability of the approach and the actual impact of the drying system on water consumption, unit heat rate and stack emissions will depend critically on the design and operating conditions of the drying system. The present project evaluated the low temperature drying of high moisture coals using power plant waste heat to provide the energy required for drying. Coal drying studies were performed in a laboratory scale fluidized bed dryer to gather data and develop models on drying kinetics. In addition, analyses were carried out to determine the relative costs and performance impacts (in terms of heat rate, cooling tower water consumption and emissions) of drying along with the development of optimized drying system designs and recommended operating conditions.

Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Hugo Caram

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Study on the effect of heat treatment and gasification on the carbon structure of coal chars and metallurgical cokes using fourier transform Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Differences in the development of carbon structures between coal chars and metallurgical cokes during high-temperature reactions have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. These are important to differentiate between different types of carbons in dust recovered from the top gas of the blast furnace. Coal chars have been prepared from a typical injectant coal under different heat-treatment conditions. These chars reflected the effect of peak temperature, residence time at peak temperature, heating rate and pressure on the evolution of their carbon structures. The independent effect of gasification on the development of the carbon structure of a representative coal char has also been studied. A similar investigation has also been carried out to study the effect of heat-treatment temperature (from 1300 to 2000{sup o}C) and gasification on the carbon structure of a typical metallurgical coke. Two Raman spectral parameters, the intensity ratio of the D band to the G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) and the intensity ratio of the valley between D and G bands to the G band (I{sub V}/I{sub G}), have been found useful in assessing changes in carbon structure. An increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} indicates the growth of basic graphene structural units across the temperature range studied. A decrease in I{sub V}/I{sub G} appears to suggest the elimination of amorphous carbonaceous materials and ordering of the overall carbon structure. The Raman spectral differences observed between coal chars and metallurgical cokes are considered to result from the difference in the time-temperature history between the raw injectant coal and the metallurgical coke and may lay the basis for differentiation between metallurgical coke fines and coal char residues present in the dust carried over the top of the blast furnace. 41 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

S. Dong; P. Alvarez; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec`s Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

Not Available

1992-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

97

Cycle simulation of coal-fueled engines utilizing low heat rejection concepts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

achieved using the coal water slurry both with and without a diesel pilot. Fuel consumption was also comparable to that of diesel fuel. Ignition delays as long as 6 ms were observed, which was acceptable for the engines speed range. In general, exhaust.... Hsu [15, 16] reports on the successful operation of a General Electric locomotive engine on CWS with and without a diesel pilot. When no pilot was used, inlet air temperature had to be raised by about 40'C. Specific fuel consumption was comparable...

Roth, John M.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

98

Mathematical Modeling of Coal Gasification Processes in a Well-Stirred Reactor: Effects of Devolatilization and Moisture Content  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mathematical Modeling of Coal Gasification Processes in a Well- Stirred Reactor: Effects in coal and biomass play an important role on the gasification performance of these fuels to simulate the gasification processes in a well-stirred reactor. This model is a first

Qiao, Li

99

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal ... Ash with a low melting point causes slagging and fouling problems in pulverized coal combustion boilers. ... The ash composition in coal and operational conditions in boilers such as heat load greatly affect the ash deposition behavior. ...

Katsuya Akiyama; Haeyang Pak; Toshiya Tada; Yasuaki Ueki; Ryo Yoshiie; Ichiro Naruse

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

100

Modernization of Ohio's coal reserves, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to determine state-level totals of the estimated economic resource, minable reserve base, and recoverable coal in Ohio, allocated to specified ranges of sulfur and heat content. In addition, resources and reserves were to be categorized by mining methods (surface and underground). Land use and environmental restrictions, needed to determine remaining minable reserves, were to be delineated and percentages of restricted coal calculated. In context of a Phase 1, one-year project, the objectives of this project were to update Ohio's coal reserves and resources for as many counties as time allowed, and to deplete production tonnages to January 1, 1991, on the remaining coal-producing counties. For the depleted counties, only estimated economic resources were required or possible with the data available. 24 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Carlton, R.W.

1991-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

ITP Mining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining Industry: Chapter 2: Coal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 2 Coal Coal is a mixture of organic mineral material produced by a natural process of growth and decay, or an accumulation of debris both vegetal and mineral with some sorting and stratification. The process is accomplished by chemical, biological, bacteriological and metamorphic action. 1 Forms of Coal Coal is a hydrocarbon that is classified according to the amount of heat it produces. Heat content depends upon the amount of fixed carbon it contains. Rank is the degree of progressive alteration in the transformation from lignite to anthracite. There are four primary ranks of coal: * Anthracite (semi-anthracite, anthracite, and meta-anthracite) * Bituminous (high-volatile, medium-volatile, and low-volatile) * Subbituminous * Lignite (brown coal and lignite)

102

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A "Bed" for Burning Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 4: A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with government and college officials on the campus of Georgetown University to celebrate the completion of one of the world's most advanced coal combustors. It was a small coal burner by today's standards, but large enough to provide heat and steam for much of the university campus. But the new boiler built beside the campus tennis courts was unlike most other boilers in the world. A Fluidized Bed Boiler A Fluidized Bed Boiler In a fluidized bed boiler, upward blowing jets of air suspend burning coal, allowing it to mix with limestone that absorbs sulfur pollutants.

103

A New Hydrogen Bond in Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During our study on hydrogen bond in coal by diffuse reflectance IR, we found that a weak peak at 2514 cm-1 always occurred for some coals. ... Infrared absorption spectra of coals and coal extracts ... The FTIR spectra during the heat-up of eight coals (seven Argonne premium coals and an Australian brown coal), an ion-exchange resin, and a lignin were measured every 20 °C from room temp. ...

Dongtao Li; Wen Li; Baoqing Li

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

104

The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

M. Horttanainen; N. Teirasvuo; V. Kapustina; M. Hupponen; M. Luoranen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

The First Coal Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Plants Coal Plants Nature Bulletin No. 329-A January 25, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE FIRST COAL PLANTS Coal has been called "the mainspring" of our civilization. You are probably familiar, in a general way, with the story of how it originated ages ago from beds of peat which were very slowly changed to coal; and how it became lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous, bituminous, or anthracite coal, depending on bacterial and chemical changes in the peat, how much it was compressed under terrific pressure, and the amount of heat involved in the process. You also know that peat is formed by decaying vegetation in shallow clear fresh-water swamps or bogs, but it is difficult to find a simple description of the kinds of plants that, living and dying during different periods of the earth's history, created beds of peat which eventually became coal.

106

Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal March 11, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative coal-drying technology that will extract more energy from high moisture coal at less cost and simultaneously reduce potentially harmful emissions is ready for commercial use after successful testing at a Minnesota electric utility. The DryFining(TM) technology was developed with funding from the first round of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Great River Energy of Maple Grove, Minn., has selected the WorleyParsons Group to exclusively distribute licenses for the technology, which essentially uses waste heat from a power plant to reduce moisture content

107

CONTENTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Operations Office RPD relative percent difference RSD relative standard deviation TIC tentatively identified compound DOERL-96-68, HASQARD Table of Contents, Rev. 3 Volume...

108

CONTENTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3.0 - CRITICAL, SPECIAL, & ENGINEERED LIFTS March 21, 2013 Rev 1 Page 1 CHAPTER 3.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.0 CRITICAL LIFTS ......

109

CONTENTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

assurancecontrol) 3. Responsible operations manager 4. Equipment custodian 5. Cognizant engineer. *Reviewapproval is mandatory. 18.3.3 Hostile Environment Plan Contents The plan...

110

The Influence of Moisture Content on the Evaluation of Latent Heat of Molten Salts used for Thermal Energy Storage Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Precise measurements of the thermo-physical properties are essential for the process design of thermal energy storage systems. This paper is concerned with the measurement of heat of fusion of molten salts, which plays a key role in determining the storage capacity of latent heat based thermal energy storage units. The focus of the work is on the effect of moisture content of molten salts on latent heat measurements using a differential scanning calorimetry. The results reveal that, the change in the mass of the samples investigated is due to moisture content, and hence, this leads to a reduction in the value of the heat of fusion of the phase change material. For instance, the heat of fusion for one of the wet samples (containing moisture) was determined to be 314.29J/g. However, the calculated heat of fusion for the same sample without moisture is found to be 350.029J/g. This is associated with the methodology of the DSC analysis, which does not consider the mass of the moisture in the sample. It is found that, the deviation in the heat of fusion due to the effect of the moisture content in the investigated samples is proportional to the amount of moisture in the original sample. Therefore, it is imperative to consider the effect of the moisture content on the evaluation of the latent heat of molten salts. In order to obtain reliable findings, either the samples should be dried and then weighed promptly, or weighed after the test and then re-evaluate the latent heat using the new weight.

Salama Omran; Peter Heggs; Yulong Ding

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings  

SciTech Connect

Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

CONTENTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CONTENTS CONTENTS Introduction ........................................................................................................3 ON THE HORIZON: Promising Research Efforts Currently Underway A Smarter Charge .........................................................................................4 Unlocking Fire Ice .........................................................................................5 CRISP Crunches Cyber Threats ....................................................................6 Gel Zeroes in on Cancer ...............................................................................7 Liquid Solvent: A Solid Solution for CO 2 .....................................................8 Real-time Grid Stability ................................................................................9

114

Adsorption Behavior of CO2 in Coal and Coal Char  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coals of diverse characteristics have been chosen to provide a better understanding on the influence of various coal properties, such as maceral, volatile matter, and ash contents. ... In addition, char samples from two of these coals (a non-coking coal A and a coking coal B) were prepared by pyrolysis at 800 and 1000 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere and were tested for CO2 adsorption capacity. ... As stated earlier, virgin coal samples considered for the adsorption measurements include coals A, C, and D, which are of low-, high-, and medium-volatile sub-bituminous rank, respectively. ...

Shanmuganathan Ramasamy; Pavan Pramod Sripada; Md Moniruzzaman Khan; Su Tian; Japan Trivedi; Rajender Gupta

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Structure and thermoplasticity of coal  

SciTech Connect

Chapters cover: molecular structure and thermoplastic properties of coal; {sup 1}H-nmr study of relaxation mechanisms of coal aggregate; structural changes of coal macromolecules during softening; quantitative estimation of metaplsat in heat-treated coal by solvent extraction; effects of surface oxidation on thermoplastic properties of coal; analysis of dilatation and contraction of coal during carbonization; formation mechanisms of coke texture during resolidification; modified CPD model for coal devolatilization; mathematical modelling of coke mechanical structure; and simulating particulate dynamics in the carbonization process based on discrete element treatment.

Komaki, I.; Itagaki, S.; Miura, T. (eds.)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Clean coal technologies market potential  

SciTech Connect

Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

117

Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the heat flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this task is to produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers. Validation data came from the Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) for tangentially fired, oxy-coal operation. This task brings together experimental data collected under Alstom’s DOE project for measuring oxy-firing performance parameters in the BSF with this University of Utah project for large eddy simulation (LES) and validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ). The Utah work includes V/UQ with measurements in the single-burner facility where advanced strategies for O2 injection can be more easily controlled and data more easily obtained. Highlights of the work include: • Simulations of Alstom’s 15 megawatt (MW) BSF, exploring the uncertainty in thermal boundary conditions. A V/UQ analysis showed consistency between experimental results and simulation results, identifying uncertainty bounds on the quantities of interest for this system (Subtask 9.1) • A simulation study of the University of Utah’s oxy-fuel combustor (OFC) focused on heat flux (Subtask 9.2). A V/UQ analysis was used to show consistency between experimental and simulation results. • Measurement of heat flux and temperature with new optical diagnostic techniques and comparison with conventional measurements (Subtask 9.3). Various optical diagnostics systems were created to provide experimental data to the simulation team. The final configuration utilized a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) camera to measure heat flux and temperature, which was synchronized with a high-speed, visible camera to utilize two-color pyrometry to measure temperature and soot concentration. • Collection of heat flux and temperature measurements in the University of Utah’s OFC for use is subtasks 9.2 and 9.3 (Subtask 9.4). Several replicates were carried to better assess the experimental error. Experiments were specifically designed for the generation of high-fidelity data from a turbulent oxy-coal flame for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models. Experiments were also conducted on the OFC to determine heat flux profiles using advanced strategies for O2 injection. This is important when considering retrofit of advanced O2 injection in retrofit configurations.

Smith, P.J.; Eddings, E.G.; Ring, T.; Thornock, J.; Draper, T.; Isaac, B.; Rezeai, D.; Toth, P.; Wu, Y.; Kelly, K.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Wiang Haeng coal-water fuel preparation and gasification, Thailand - task 39  

SciTech Connect

In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a four-task program to assess the responsiveness of Wiang Haeng coal to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying (HWD). The results indicate that HWD made several improvements in the coal, notably increases (HWD). The results indicate that HWD made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 37.4 wt% for the raw coal to about 20 wt% for the HWD coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel indicates an increase from 4450 to 6650 Btu/lb by hydrothermal treatment. Raw and HWD coal were then gasified at various mild gasification conditions of 700{degrees}C and 30 psig. The tests indicated that the coal is probably similar to other low-rank coals, will produce high levels of hydrogen, and be fairly reactive.

Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Young, B.C. [and others

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Apparatus for reducing the moisture content in combustible material by utilizing the heat from combustion of such material  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes apparatus for preparing moisture containing fuel material for combustion to produce heat energy and for applying the heat energy from the combustion for lowering the moisture content in the fuel material prior to combustion, the improvement comprising: boiler means for the combustion of the fuel material to produce heat energy, grinding apparatus for preparing the fuel material to produce heat energy; means for collecting prepared fuel material and for feeding the collected fuel material to the boiler means; a main gaseous fluid and fuel material conduit system; a second conduit system connecting the boiler means and the grinding apparatus to conduct heat energy to the grinding apparatus; connecting means between the returning side of the main conduit system and the boiler means for maintaining the main conduit system at a negative pressure to promote the flow of hot gaseous medium from the boiler means to the gringing apparatus.

Williams, R.M.

1992-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

120

Chemical comminution of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present research is to study the chemical reactivity of a mixture of methyl alcohol and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in the temperature range 298 to 363 K, and a caustic concentration of 0 to 10 wt. %, on an Iowa bituminous coal. The sample studied was collected from coal zone 4, equivalent to most historical references to Laddsdale coal. The coals in this zone are typical high-sulfur, high-ash middle Pennsylvania Cherokee group coals. The apparent rank is high-volatile C bituminous coal. The relatively high content of sulfur and 23 other elements in these coals is related to near neutral (6-8) pH conditions in the depositional and early diagenetic environments, and to postdepositional sphalerite/calcite/pyrite/kaolinite/barite mineralization.

Mamaghani, A.H.; Beddow, J.K.; Vetter, A.F.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Coal Cleaning Using Resonance Disintegration for Mercury and Sulfur Reduction Prior to Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Coal-cleaning processes have been utilized to increase the heating value of coal by extracting ash-forming minerals in the coal. These processes involve the crushing or grinding of raw coal followed by physical separation processes, taking advantage of the density difference between carbonaceous particles and mineral particles. In addition to the desired increase in the heating value of coal, a significant reduction of the sulfur content of the coal fed to a combustion unit is effected by the removal of pyrite and other sulfides found in the mineral matter. WRI is assisting PulseWave to develop an alternate, more efficient method of liberating and separating the undesirable mineral matter from the carbonaceous matter in coal. The approach is based on PulseWave's patented resonance disintegration technology that reduces that particle size of materials by application of destructive resonance, shock waves, and vortex generating forces. Illinois No.5 coal, a Wyodak coal, and a Pittsburgh No.8 coal were processed using the resonance disintegration apparatus then subjected to conventional density separations. Initial microscopic results indicate that up to 90% of the pyrite could be liberated from the coal in the machine, but limitations in the density separations reduced overall effectiveness of contaminant removal. Approximately 30-80% of the pyritic sulfur and 30-50% of the mercury was removed from the coal. The three coals (both with and without the pyritic phase separated out) were tested in WRI's 250,000 Btu/hr Combustion Test Facility, designed to replicate a coal-fired utility boiler. The flue gases were characterized for elemental, particle bound, and total mercury in addition to sulfur. The results indicated that pre-combustion cleaning could reduce a large fraction of the mercury emissions.

Andrew Lucero

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Illinois coal reserve assessment and database development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal of Illinois is 105 billion short tons. This estimate is an increase from the 78 billion tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal, as of January 1, 1994. The new estimate arises from revised resource calculations based on recent mapping in a number of countries, as well as significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining. The new estimate for identified resources is 199 billion tons, a revision of the previous estimate of 181 billion tons. The new estimates incorporate the available analyses of sulfur, heat content, and rank group appropriate for characterizing the remaining coal resources in Illinois. Coal-quality data were examined in conjunction with coal resource mapping. Analyses of samples from exploration drill holes, channel samples from mines and outcrops, and geologic trends were compiled and mapped to allocate coal resource quantities to ranges of sulfur, heat content, and rank group. The new allocations place almost 1% of the demonstrated reserve base of Illinois in the two lowest sulfur categories, in contrast to none in the previous allocation used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The new allocations also place 89% of the demonstrated reserve base in the highest sulfur category, in contrast to the previous allocation of 69% in the highest category.

Treworgy, C.G.; Prussen, E.I.; Justice, M.A.; Chenoweth, C.A. [and others

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Coal Gasification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE's Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically via the process of coal gasification with sequestration. DOE anticipates that coal...

124

Coal science for the clean use of coal  

SciTech Connect

Coal will need to be retained as a major source of energy in the next century. It will need to be used more effectively and more cleanly. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to introduce new technology supported by a local community of science and technology. Only in this way can the full benefits of international advances in coal utilization be fully achieved. It is important that full advantage be taken of the advances that have been achieved in laboratory techniques and in the better understanding of fundamental coal science. This paper reviews available technologies in power generation, industrial process heat, coal combustion, coal gasification, and coal analytical procedures.

Harrison, J.S. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

Bio-coal briquette  

SciTech Connect

Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

Honda, Hiroshi

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

KINETIC STUDY OF COAL AND BIOMASS CO-PYROLYSIS USING THERMOGRAVIMETRY  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to investigate thermal behavior of coal and biomass blends in inert gas environment at low heating rates and to develop a simplified kinetic model using model fitting techniques based on TGA experimental data. Differences in thermal behavior and reactivity in co-pyrolysis of Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal and pelletized southern yellow pine wood sawdust blends at low heating rates are observed. Coal/wood blends have higher reactivity compared to coal alone in the lower temperature due to the high volatile matter content of wood. As heating rates increase, weight loss rates increase. The experiment data obtained from TGA has a better fit with proposed two step first order reactions model compared single first order reaction model.

Wang, Ping; Hedges, Sheila; Chaudharib, Kiran; Turtonb, Richard

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

127

coking coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

coking coal [A caking coal suitable for the production of coke for metallurgical use] ? Kokskohle f, verkokbare Kohle

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Clean coal technology applications  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Coal is a stratified rock formed of the more or less altered remains of plants (together with associated mineral matter) which flourished in past ages{hor_ellipsis} The problem of the origin and maturing of coal is complicated by the fact that every coal contains, in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, variable proportions of nitrogen and sulfur which are combined in unknown ways in the organic molecules...{close_quotes}. The challenge with coal has always been the management of its mineral matter, sulfur and nitrogen contents during use. The carbon content of fuels, including coal, is a more recent concern. With clean coal technologies, there are opportunities for ensuring the sustained use of coal for a very long time. The clean coal technologies of today are already capable of reducing, if not eliminating, harmful emissions. The technologies of the future will allow coal to be burned with greatly reduced emissions, thus eliminating the necessity to treat them after they occur.

Bharucha, N.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

Coal Storage and Transportation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal preparation, storage, and transportation are essential to coal use. Preparation plants, located near to the mine, remove some inorganic minerals associated with raw coal. Coal is transported from the mines to the point of consumption, often an electric generating plant, by rail, barge and trucks. Railroads are the predominant form of coal transportation within a country. Global coal trade, movement by large ocean-going vessels, continues to increase. At the end use site, the coal is crushed, ground, and the moisture content reduced to the proper specifications for end use. Coal is stored at various points in the supply chain. Processed coal will weather and oxidize, changing its properties; it can self-ignite, unless precautions are taken. Technology in use today is similar to that used in previous decades. Performance improvements have come from improved software and instruments that deliver real-time data. These improve management of sub-processes in the coal supply chain and reduce costs along the supply chain.

J.M. Ekmann; P.H. Le

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Use of a Heat Flow Meter to Determine Active PCM Content in an Insulation  

SciTech Connect

Residential and commercial roofs and walls are currently designed and tested using steady-state criteria. The resulting R-values, based on the apparent thermal conductivity, are used by building standards as an important measure of energy performance. Building envelope components, however, are subject to dynamic environmental conditions. This mismatch between the steady-state principles used in design and code requirements and their dynamic operation results in relatively low thermal efficiencies. Although several research centers have developed experimental methods for transient analysis of building envelopes, there are no standardized testing procedures available for screening materials and systems for which performance depends on dynamic response. For example, a full-scale dynamic evaluation of phase change materials (PCMs) is needed to assess their energy saving benefits. A nationally accepted small-scale (one to two foot size specimens) testing procedure is not available for the analysis of dynamic thermal characteristics of conventional thermal mass systems or PCM-enhanced materials. At the same time, data on these characteristics are necessary for whole-building simulations, energy analysis, and energy code work. The transient characteristics of PCM-enhanced products depend on the PCM content and quality. The only readily available method of thermal evaluation uses the differential scanning calorimeter. Unfortunately, this method requires small, relatively uniform test specimens. This requirement is unrealistic in the case of PCM-enhanced building envelope products such as PCM-cellulose, PCM-glass fiber, or PCM-gypsum blends. Small specimens are not representative of PCM-based blends, since these materials are not homogeneous. Jan Kosny and David Yarbrough, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6070, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6070. Elizabeth Kossecka, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Pawinskiego 5 B, 02-106, Warsaw, Poland. A procedure for making dynamic heat-flow measurements using existing instrumentation has been developed to analyze the benefits of thermal storage. This small-scale testing method is useful for thermal analysis and as a potential quality control method for producers of PCM-enhanced building materials. The research may provide the basis for consensus standard development. This paper uses as an example a dynamic testing process for PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation.

Kosny, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL; Kossecka, Elizabeth [Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences] [Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences; Yarbrough, David W [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at 900°C. raw Illinois coal, the ash content was quite low.30% from the feed coal on a moisture and ash free basis. In~ Solids (ash, FeSx. , unreacted coal) L . - - - - - - I

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Process for forming coal compacts and product thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for forming durable, mechanically strong compacts from coal particulates without use of a binder is disclosed. The process involves applying a compressive stress to a particulate feed comprising substantially water-saturated coal particles while the feed is heated to a final compaction temperature in excess of about 100.degree. C. The water present in the feed remains substantially in the liquid phase throughout the compact forming process. This is achieved by heating and compressing the particulate feed and cooling the formed compact at a pressure sufficient to prevent water present in the feed from boiling. The compacts produced by the process have a moisture content near their water saturation point. As a result, these compacts absorb little water and retain exceptional mechanical strength when immersed in high pressure water. The process can be used to form large, cylindrically-shaped compacts from coal particles (i.e., "coal logs") so that the coal can be transported in a hydraulic coal log pipeline.

Gunnink, Brett (Columbia, MO); Kanunar, Jayanth (Arlington, MA); Liang, Zhuoxiong (San Francisco, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

134

Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand  

SciTech Connect

In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

Quigley, David R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Coal-Fuelled Combined Cycle Power Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combined cycle power plant, when used as a generic ... which converts heat into mechanical energy in a combined gas and steam turbine process. Combined cycle processes with coal gasification or coal combustion .....

Dr. Hartmut Spliethoff

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR-ASSISTED SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

SciTech Connect

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 66.1% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

System Analysis of Nuclear-Assisted Syngas Production from Coal  

SciTech Connect

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via hightemperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 64.4% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Ruthenium Ion Catalyzed Oxidation Reaction Analysis for Further Development of Aromatic Ring Size through the Heat Treatment of Coking Coals at >500 °C  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The strategy for coal blending is based on many empirical viewpoints, while scientific findings are believed to develop new criteria for obtaining high-quality coke from not only coking coals but also coking coals coupled with noncoking coals. ... by TEM and by comparing the microtextures of their cokes. ...

Koh Kidena; Koji Matsumoto; Satoru Murata; Masakatsu Nomura

2004-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

142

Table 6. Electric Power Delivered Fuel Prices and Quality for Coal, Petroleum, N  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 PM)" 8 PM)" "Alaska" "Fuel, Quality",1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Coal (cents per million Btu)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",203,141,148 " Average heat value (Btu per pound)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",8698,8520,8278 " Average sulfur Content (percent)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",0.33,0.5,0.71

143

Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams  

SciTech Connect

In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources & Geoscience

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Notes Radioactivity of coals and ashes from catalagzi coal-fired...radioactivity contents in feed coals from lignite-fired power plants...Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report. 14 Aytekin...influence of an underground coal mine in Zonguldak basin, Turkey......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

The Behaviour of Electrolytes in Mixed Solvents. Part I. The Free Energies and Heat Contents of Hydrogen Chloride in Water-Ethyl Alcohol Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 November 1929 research-article The Behaviour of Electrolytes in Mixed Solvents. Part I. The Free Energies and Heat Contents of Hydrogen Chloride in Water-Ethyl Alcohol Solutions J. A. V. Butler C. M. Robertson The Royal Society...

1929-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

NETL: Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

use of our domestic energy resources and infrastructure. Gasification Systems | Advanced Combustion | Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids | Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Turbines CO2...

147

Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Proximate analysis of coal  

SciTech Connect

This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Formation and retention of methane in coal  

SciTech Connect

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal.gif (4423 bytes) coal.gif (4423 bytes) The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Model Documentation: Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System, DOE/EIA-MO60. Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions, and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves addresses the relationship between the minemouth price of coal and corresponding levels of coal production, labor productivity, and the cost of factor inputs (mining equipment, mine labor, and fuel requirements).

151

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic...

152

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of...

153

Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal: Properties and chemical additives  

SciTech Connect

Coal-water slurries have the potential of a near term replacement for fuel oil. In order to gain the fundamental understanding of the preparation and handling of coal-water slurries, experiments were performed to identify the relationship between the coal content of a given coal-water slurry and its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this program were: Investigate the relationship between the chemical and physical properties of coal and the rheology of coal-water slurry Define procedures for evaluating and preparing coal water slurries for a particular coal candidate, based on the characteristic coal properties Develop improved methods of screening surfactants used in coal-water slurry preparation Perform experiments designed to investigate the effect of characteristic coal properties on slurry quality, by examining the effect of the individual coal properties on slurry quality Develop a statistical formulation to predict the coal content of a given coal water slurry content based on the coal characteristic properties.

Ohene, F.

1992-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

154

Definition: Coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal Coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Coal A combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons. It is formed from plant remains that have been compacted, hardened, chemically altered, and metamorphosed by heat and pressure over geologic time (typically millions of years). It is the most abundant fossil fuel produced in the United States.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later

155

EFFECTS OF COFIRING LIGNIN AND BIOSOLIDS WITH COAL ON FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE AND COMBUSTION PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Lignin, derived from municipal solid waste and biosolid feedstocks using Masada Resource Group's patented CES OxyNol{trademark} process, and acidified biosolids were evaluated as supplemental fuels with coal for producing steam and electricity. Tests were conducted in a pilot-scale (550,000-Btu/hr [580-MJ/hr]) combustion system to evaluate the effects of coal characteristics, blend mixture (on a dry wt% basis) and furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) on boiler heat-exchange surface slagging and fouling, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} production, fly ash characteristics, and combustion efficiency. The effects of blending lignin and acidified biosolids with coal on fuel handling and pulverization characteristics were also addressed. An 80 wt% Colorado--20 wt% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal blend from the Tennessee Valley Authority Colbert Steam Plant, hereafter referred to as the Colbert coal, and a bituminous Pittsburgh No. 8 coal were tested. The lignin and acidified biosolids were characterized by possessing higher moisture content and lower carbon, hydrogen, and heating values relative to the coals. Ash contents of the fuels were similar. The lignin also possessed higher concentrations of TiO{sub 2}, CaO, and SO{sub 3} and lower concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O, and N relative to the coals. The sulfur content of lignin could be reduced through a more thorough washing and drying of the lignin in an efficient commercial-scale dewatering device. Acidified biosolids were distinguished by higher concentrations of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MgO and lower SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to the other fuels. Trace element concentrations, especially for Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni, were generally greater in the lignin and acidified biosolid fuels relative to the Colbert coal. Maximum trace element emission factors were calculated for 95:5 Colbert coal--lignin and 90:5:5 Colbert coal--lignin--acidified biosolid blends and compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency emission factors for pulverized coal-fired units that are unequipped with pollution control devices. Calculated maximum trace element emission factors for the fuel blends were generally less than or within the range of those for the uncontrolled coal-fired units, except for Cr and Pb which were greater.

Kevin C. Galbreath

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

A new conceptual cold-end design of boilers for coal-fired power plants with waste heat recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract After conducting an in-depth analysis of the conventional boiler cold-end design for waste heat recovery, this work proposed a new conceptual boiler cold-end design integrated with the steam cycle in a 1000 MW CFPP, in which the preheating of air was divided into high-temperature air preheater (HTAP), main air preheater (MAP) and low-temperature air preheater (LTAP). The HTAP and an economizer were installed in separate flue ducts, and the low temperature economizer (LTE) was situated between the MAP and the LTAP in the main flue duct to heat the condensed water. In the proposed boiler cold-end design, the flue gas waste heat was not only used to heat condensed water, but also to further preheat the combustion air. The air temperature at the air-preheater outlet increases and part of the steam bleeds with high exergy can be saved, resulting in greater energy-savings and better economics. Results showed that, for a typical 1000 MW CFPP in China, using the proposed boiler cold-end design for waste heat recovery could produce 13.3 MWe additional net power output with a heat rate reduction of approximately 112.0 kJ/kW h and could yield a net benefit of up to $85.8 M per year, which is much greater than those of the conventional cases. Exergy destruction is also reduced from 49.9 MWth in the conventional boiler cold-end design to 39.6 MWth in the proposed design.

Yongping Yang; Cheng Xu; Gang Xu; Yu Han; Yaxiong Fang; Dongke Zhang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Development of Real-Time Coal Monitoring Instrument  

SciTech Connect

Relying on coal for energy requires optimizing the extraction of heat content from various blends of coal fuel and reducing harmful constituents and byproducts. Having a real-time measurement instrument provides relevant information about toxic constituents released in the atmosphere from burning coal and optimizes the performance of a power plant. A few commercial instruments exist and have been in operation for more than a decade. However, most of these instruments are based on radioactive sources and are bulky, expensive and time-consuming. The proposed instrument is based on the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The advantage of LIBS is that it is a standoff instrument, does not require sample preparation and provides precise information about sample constituents.

Rajan Gurjar, Ph.D.

2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

158

Coal-Based Chemical Complexes [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

20 March 1981 research-article Coal-Based Chemical Complexes [and Discussion...In addition to heat or kinetic energy, coal can be used to produce carbon (in various...and chemicals containing these elements. Coal conversion developments have recently tended...

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Clean Fuels from Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...superheating and water-heating sections of the boiler...percent on a higher heating value basis. Conclusions...made historically by heating bitumi-nous coal in...heart of the anthracite district only about 5 years ago...energy, wind, and geothermal steam and brines, will...

Arthur M. Squires

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

160

Process for low mercury coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Grimes, R. William (Laramie, WY); Tweed, Robert E. (Laramie, WY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Process for low mercury coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

162

Interactions of Supercritical CO2 with Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) mainly emitted from fossil fuel combustion causes global warming. ... (23) CO2 and methane might penetrate the coal matrix and cause coals to expand to some extent. ... Four coals ranging in carbon content from 77 to 84% C were warmed in the weak swelling solvent chlorobenzene at 132°C for 2 wk, and samples were withdrawn at intervals. ...

Dengfeng Zhang; Lili Gu; Songgeng Li; Peichao Lian; Jun Tao

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast For  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast For West Virginia: 2011 Update Prepared for the West December 2011 © Copyright 2011 WVU Research Corporation #12;#12;W.Va. Consensus Coal Forecast Update 2011 i Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 Recent Developments 3 Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast

Mohaghegh, Shahab

164

Heat Exchanger Network Design and Economic Analysis for Coal-fired Power Plant retrofitted with CO2 Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Addition of CO2 capture unit to an existing power plant to satisfy environmental regulations has adverse effects on the energy efficiency of the power plant. Heat integration through proper design of heat exchanger network (HEN) remains the most effective way to reduce this energy penalty as well as reducing CO2 emission. Pinch technology remains the most widely used techniques due to its physical insight. This paper aims to present HEN design and economic analysis for power plant retrofitted with post-combustion CO2 capture. The benchmark presented is based on the recent work of Khalilpour and Abbas (2011) (i.e. Ref. [1]). Improvements to Khalilpour and Abbas (2011) include: (1) the use of cost and economic data to evaluate achievable trade-offs between energy, capital and utility cost. This is to determine the optimal minimum temperature difference; (2) redesigning of HEN with the newly determined minimum temperature difference and (3) its comparison with the HEN design presented in Ref. [1]. The results show that the energy penalty imposed on the power plant with CO2 capture plant can be reduced through heat integration of HEN, thus utility cost savings was maximized and the cost of addition of HEN was recovered within a short payback period of about 2.8 years.

Salihu Adamu Girei; Meihong Wang; Aminu Alhaji Hamisu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

An Overview of Coal based  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Overview of Coal based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology September 2005. LFEE 2005-002 WP #12;#12;Table of Contents 1 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC

166

Investigation on thermal and trace element characteristics during co-combustion biomass with coal gangue  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The thermochemical behaviors during co-combustion of coal gangue (CG), soybean stalk (SS), sawdust (SD) and their blends prepared at different ratios have been determined via thermogravimetric analysis. The simulate experiments in a fixed bed reactor were performed to investigate the partition behaviors of trace elements during co-combustion. The combustion profiles of biomass was more complicated than that of coal gangue. Ignition property and thermal reactivity of coal gangue could be enhanced by the addition of biomass. No interactions were observed between coal gangue and biomass during co-combustion. The volatilization ratios of trace elements decrease with the increasing proportions of biomass in the blends during co-combustion. Based on the results of heating value, activation energy, base/acid ratio and gaseous pollutant emissions, the blending ratio of 20–30% biomass content is regarded as optimum composition for blending and could be applied directly at current combustion application with few modifications.

Chuncai Zhou; Guijian Liu; Ting Fang; Paul Kwan Sing Lam

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Coal pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Chapter 5 - Coal Composition and Reservoir Characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal consists of organic and mineral matter. Fixed carbon from organic matter measures the energy output of coal during combustion. Mineral matter determines how coal responds to combustion and affects reservoir porosity and permeability. Minerals infill pores, cleats, or fractures and replace the organic composition of coal. Organic composition is grouped into maceral association as microlithotypes and macrolithotypes, the latter for megascopic field descriptions (e.g. coal cores and mine face). Coal composition controls reservoir properties such as gas adsorption capacity, gas content, porosity, and permeability. Permeability is important to gas transport from coal matrix pores to the production well. Coal permeability is a function of the width, length, and height of cleats or fractures as well as the aperture, spacing, frequency or density, and connectivity of cleats or fractures. Coal cleats or fractures formed during burial, compaction, and coalification (endogenetic) and after coalification during deformation, uplift, and erosion of the basin of deposition.

Romeo M. Flores

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies  

SciTech Connect

This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Fluidized bed combustor and coal gun-tube assembly therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal supply gun assembly for a fluidized bed combustor which includes heat exchange elements extending above the bed's distributor plate assembly and in which the gun's nozzles are disposed relative to the heat exchange elements to only discharge granular coal material between adjacent heat exchange elements and in a path which is substantially equidistant from adjacent heat exchange elements.

Hosek, William S. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Garruto, Edward J. (Wayne, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2001 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2001, DOE/EIA-M060(2001) January 2001. Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions, and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves

173

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2002 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2002, DOE/EIA-M060(2002) (Washington, DC, January 2002). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves

174

Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal: Properties and chemical additives. Final technical report, September 1988--November 1991  

SciTech Connect

Coal-water slurries have the potential of a near term replacement for fuel oil. In order to gain the fundamental understanding of the preparation and handling of coal-water slurries, experiments were performed to identify the relationship between the coal content of a given coal-water slurry and its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this program were: Investigate the relationship between the chemical and physical properties of coal and the rheology of coal-water slurry Define procedures for evaluating and preparing coal water slurries for a particular coal candidate, based on the characteristic coal properties Develop improved methods of screening surfactants used in coal-water slurry preparation Perform experiments designed to investigate the effect of characteristic coal properties on slurry quality, by examining the effect of the individual coal properties on slurry quality Develop a statistical formulation to predict the coal content of a given coal water slurry content based on the coal characteristic properties.

Ohene, F.

1992-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

175

THE USE OF FERRIC SULFATE - ACID MEDIA FOR THE DESULFURIZATION OF MODEL COMPOUNDS OF COAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 (W.Va. ) Sulfate Organic Ash (%) Coal (ref. 32) Total Sin slag or bottom ash, coal gasification or liquefaction asthe Sulfur and Ash Content of High-Sulfur Coals by Peroxide-

Clary, Lloyd R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

New developments in coal briquetting technology  

SciTech Connect

Briquetting of coal has been with us for well over a century. In the earliest applications of coal briquetting, less valuable fine coal was agglomerated into briquettes using a wide variety of binders, including coal tar, pitch and asphalt. Eventually, roll briquetters came into more widespread use, permitting the process to become a continuous one. Coal briquetting went out of favor during the 1950s in most of the industrialized world. The major reason for this decline in use was the discovery that the coal gas distillates used for binders were harmful to human health. Also, the abundance of cheap petroleum made coal briquettes a less attractive alternative as an industrial or domestic fuel. The re-emergence of coal as a primary industrial fuel and also its increased prominence as a fuel for thermal electric power stations led to a large increase in the annual volume of coal being mined worldwide. Coal preparation technology steadily improved over the years with the general exception of fine coal preparation. The processes available for treating this size range were considerably more expensive per unit mass of coal treated than coarse coal processes. Also, costly dewatering equipment was required after cleaning to remove surface moisture. Even with dewatering, the high surface area per unit mass of fine coal versus coarse coal resulted in high moisture contents. Therefore, little incentive existed to improve the performance of fine coal processes since this would only increase the amount of wet coal fines which would have to be dealt with. With such an ever-increasing volume of coal fines being created each year, there emerged an interest in recovering this valuable product. Several schemes were developed to recover coal fines discarded in abandoned tailings impoundments by previous operations.

Tucker, P.V. [Kilborn Inc., Ontario (Canada); Bosworth, G.B. [Kilborn Engineering Pacific Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kalb, G.W. [KKS Systems Inc., Wheeling, WV (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

System analysis of nuclear-assisted syngas production from coal - article no. 042901  

SciTech Connect

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. The results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 64.4% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

Harvego, E.A.; McKellar, M.G.; O'Brien, J.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Definition: Bituminous coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bituminous coal Bituminous coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Bituminous coal A dense coal, usually black, sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke; contains 45-86% carbon.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown; often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull

179

Comparative Study of Gasification Performance between Bituminous Coal and Petroleum Coke in the Industrial Opposed Multiburner Entrained Flow Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SUMMARY : Co-gasification performance of coal and petroleum coke (petcoke) blends in a pilot-scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier was studied exptl. ... Two different coals, including a subbituminous coal (Coal A) and a bituminous coal (Coal B), individually blended with a petcoke in the gasifier were considered. ... results suggested that, when the petcoke was mixed with Coal A over 70%, the slagging problem, which could shorten the operational period due to high ash content in the coal, was improved. ...

Zhonghua Sun; Zhenghua Dai; Zhijie Zhou; Jianliang Xu; Guangsuo Yu

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

180

Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Improving the preparation of coal batch for coking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various methods of preparing coal for coking are analyzed. Laboratory experiments are conducted with a view to obtaining higher-quality coke from batch with a high content of poorly clinkering coal.

M. S. Chemerinskii; A. G. Starovoit; E. I. Malyi

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Application of a Heat Integrated Post-combustion CO2 Capture System with Hitachi Advanced Solvent into Existing Coal-Fired Power Plant Award Number: DE-FE0007395 DOE Project Manager: José D. Figueroa  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a Heat Integrated Post- a Heat Integrated Post- combustion CO 2 Capture System with Hitachi Advanced Solvent into Existing Coal-Fired Power Plant University of Kentucky Research Foundation Partnered with U.S. Department of Energy NETL Louisville Gas & Electric and Kentucky Utilities Electric Power Research Institute (with WorleyParsons) Hitachi Power Systems America Smith Management Group July 9, 2013 Goals and Objectives * Objectives 1) To demonstrate a heat-integrated post-combustion CO 2 capture system with an advanced solvent; 2) To collect information/data on material corrosion and identify appropriate materials of construction for a 550 MWe commercial-scale carbon capture plant.  To gather data on solvent degradation kinetics, water management, system dynamic control as well as other information during the long-term

183

COAL & POWER SYSTEMS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COAL & POWER SYSTEMS COAL & POWER SYSTEMS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY GREENER, SOONER... THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION .......... i-1 STRATEGIC PLAN ........ 1-1 PROGRAM PLANS Vision 21 .......................... 2-1 Central Power Systems ...... 3-1 Distributed Generation ..... 4-1 Fuels ................................ 5-1 Carbon Sequestration ....... 6-1 Advanced Research ........... 7-1 TABLE OF CONTENTS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS STRENGTH THROUGH SCIENCE... A "GREENER, SOONER" PHILOSOPHY Coal, natural gas, and oil fuel about 70 percent of the electricity generated in the United States. As promising as renewable and other alternative fuels are, it will be several decades before they can make significant energy contributions to the Nation's

184

Characterization of a Heat-Shock Process for Reduction of the Nucleic Acid Content of Candida utilis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...molecular weight distribution of the degradation...without appreciable loss of ribonuclease...length of time of heat- shock (step...Immediately after heat-shock- ing, the distribution of nucleic acids...observed in the non-heat-shocked cells...

S. Ohta; S. Maul; A. J. Sinskey; S. R. Tannenbaum

1971-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2000, DOE/EIA-M060(2000) January 2000. The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2000, DOE/EIA-M060(2000) January 2000. Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions, and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves addresses the relationship between the minemouth price of coal and corresponding levels of coal production, labor productivity, and the cost of factor inputs (mining equipment, mine labor, and fuel requirements).

186

Table 6. Electric Power Delivered Fuel Prices and Quality for Coal, Petroleum, N  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 PM)" 1 PM)" "Maine" "Fuel, Quality",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Coal (cents per million Btu)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",241,237,262,266,327,319,367,506,619 " Average heat value (Btu per pound)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",13138,13124,12854,12823,12784,13171,12979,12779,13011 " Average sulfur Content (percent)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",0.71,0.69,0.77,0.78,0.7,0.65,0.72,0.82,0.72

187

Dependence of thermal diffusivity on organic content for Green River oil shales—Extension of the modified Cheng?Vachon model to the parallel heat?flow case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In an earlier paper [J. Appl. Phys. 50 2776 (1979)] the modified Cheng?Vachon model was found to give good agreement with experimental data on the variation of thermal diffusivity with organic content for Green River oil shales. Calculations using the model were carried out for the case where heat flows in directions perpendicular to the shale stratigraphic planes. In the present paper the above model is modified to account for experimental trends in the parallel heat?flow case. The modified model provides a self?consistent explanation for the lower degree of anisotropy (relative to theory) that has been experimentally observed for the thermal diffusivity of Green River oil shales.

Y. Wang; K. Rajeshwar; J. DuBow

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Evaluation of the Performance of Air Dense Medium Fluidized Bed (ADMFB) for Low-Ash Coal Beneficiation. Part 2: Characteristics of the Beneficiated Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaluation of the Performance of Air Dense Medium Fluidized Bed (ADMFB) for Low-Ash Coal Beneficiation. ... The slagging and fouling decrease the efficiency of heat-exchange surfaces in conventional coal-firing furnaces, while in slagging gasifiers, where ash is intentionally converted into liquid slag (better operation, control particulate matter emission, and trap trace elements and heavy metals in a unleachable glass phase), to achieve free flux toward the bottom of the gasifier (tapping system), the higher slagging propensity and lower viscosity at the operating temperature are required. ... These samples include two clean coal products, which exhibited minimum ash content (B and C), two tests that offered maximum organic material recovery (D and E) from the middle particle size fraction, and two tests with fine and coarse particle sizes (A and F, respectively). ...

Ebrahim Azimi; Shayan Karimipour; Moshfiqur Rahman; Jozef Szymanski; Rajender Gupta

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

190

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

191

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This is the ninth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, comparative analyses were performed for lignite and PRB coals to determine how unit performance varies with coal product moisture. Results are given showing how the coal product moisture level and coal rank affect parameters such as boiler efficiency, station service power needed for fans and pulverizers and net unit heat rate. Results are also given for the effects of coal drying on cooling tower makeup water and comparisons are made between makeup water savings for various times of the year.

Edward Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Wei Zhang

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Compliance testing of Grissom Air Force Base Central Heating Plant coal-fired boilers 3, 4, and 5, Grissom Air Force Base, Indiana. Final technical report, 3-21 Feb 92  

SciTech Connect

A source emission testing for particulate matter and visible emissions was conducted on coal-fired boilers at the Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant during 3-21 February 1992 by the Air Quality Function of Armstrong Laboratory. The survey was conducted to determine compliance with regard to Indiana Administration Code, Title 325 Pollution Control Board, Article 5, Opacity Regulations, and Article 6, Particulate Regulations. All boilers were tested through the bypass stack. Results indicated that boilers 3 and 4 met applicable, visible, and particulate matter emissions standards. Boiler 5 exceeded the particulate standard.

Cintron-Ocasio, R.A.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Examination of the effect of system pressure ratio and heat recuperation on the efficiency of a coal based gas turbine fuel cell hybrid power generation system with CO2 capture  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines two coal-based hybrid configurations that employ separated anode and cathode streams for the capture and compression of CO2. One configuration uses a standard Brayton cycle, and the other adds heat recuperation ahead of the fuel cell. Results show that peak efficiencies near 55% are possible, regardless of cycle configuration, including the cost in terms of energy production of CO2 capture and compression. The power that is required to capture and compress the CO2 is shown to be approximately 15% of the total plant power.

VanOsdol, J.G.; Gemmen, R.S.; Liese, E.A

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Thermochemical Analysis of U.S. Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Time-Resolved Pyrolysis-Field ionization Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analytical pyrolysis techniques are widely used for the thermochemical analysis of coals and coal-derived products. During heating, complex mixtures of chemical substances are released from coal by distillatio...

Norbert Simmleit; Hans-Rolf Schulten; Yongseung Yun…

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201  

SciTech Connect

Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

Bhattacharya, C. [National Power Training Institute, Durgapur (India)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

NETL Publications: 2012 University Coal Research/ Historically Black  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2012 University Coal Research/ Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Other Minority Institutions Contractors Review Conference 2012 University Coal Research/ Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Other Minority Institutions Contractors Review Conference May 30-31, 2012 Table of Contents Disclaimer Sensors & Controls Advanced Materials (Day 1) Advanced Materials (Day 2) Computational Energy Sciences PRESENTATIONS Introduction and Opening Remarks Robert Romanosky, Technology Manager, Crosscutting Research Robie Lewis, UCR Program Coordinator, Federal Project Manager, Fuels Division Steven Markovich, HBCU Program Coordinator, Federal Project Manager, Fuels Division Presentation [PDF-783KB] Sensor & Controls Moderator: Rick Dunst, Federal Project Manager, Gasification Division U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Heat Activated Plasmonics Based Harsh Environment Chemical Sensors

197

Method for producing catalysts from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

198

Method for producing catalysis from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

1120ballstatepresentation.pdf More Documents & Publications Indiana Recovery Act State Memo Coal Study Guide - Middle School BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I)...

200

Four Corners methane hotspot points to coal-related sources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methane hotspot points to coal-related sources Methane is very efficient at trapping heat in the atmosphere and, like carbon dioxide, it contributes to global warming. October...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Cofiring waste biofuels and coal for emissions reduction  

SciTech Connect

Combustion tests have been performed in two pilot-scale combustion facilities to evaluate the emissions reduction possible while firing coal blended with several different biofuels. Two different boiler simulations, pulverized coal fired boilers and stoker coal fired boilers, were simulated. The pc-fired studies investigated the use of waste hardwood and softwood with pulverized coal, or using the biofuels as potential reburning fuels. The use of these wood waste is attractive because: wood contains little nitrogen and virtually no sulfur; wood is a regenerable biofuel; and wood utilization results in a net reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. The wood reburning results indicate a reduction of 50-60% NO with approximately 10% wood heat input. Reburn stoichiometry was the most important variable. The NO reduction was strongly dependent upon initial NO and only slightly dependent upon temperature and wood moisture content. Cofiring of wood with pulverized coal; however, did not lead to significant NO reductions with the current NO{sub x} burner configuration. The stoker program investigated barriers for the successful blending of coal with waste railroad ties. Parameters evaluated included blending firing rate, chip size, optimum feed location, overfire/underfire air ratio, and natural gas addition. The results of this study demonstrate that NO emissions can be reduced by more than 50% without any significant increase in CO or THC emissions by the proper use of zoned reburning. Both programs demonstrated several benefits of biofuel cofiring, including: (1) lower operating costs due to reduced fuel prices; (2) reduced waste disposal; (3) reduced maintenance costs; (4) reduced environmental costs; and (5) extension of the useful life of existing equipment.

Brouwer, J.; Owens, W.D.; Harding, N.S. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments† ... Ichikawa et al.(7) measured deposition behavior for ash particles from ashing tests for a series of five coals, using a nominally 1 m tall × 60 mm diameter ash-heating tube that was fitted with a cooled, temperature-controlled particle impact probe oriented at a 30° angle to the atmospheric pressure air flow. ...

Weiguo Ai; John M. Kuhlman

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

203

Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Coal quality and estimated coal resources in the proposed Colville Mining District, central North Slope, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Colville Mining District (CMD) encompasses 27,340 mi{sup 2} (70,800 km{sup 2}) in the central part of the North Slope. Known coal deposits within the proposed district range from Mississippian to Tertiary in age. Available information indicates that neither Mississippian and Tertiary coals in the CMD constitute a significant resource because they are excessively deep, thin, or high in ash content; however, considerable amount of low-sulfur Cretaceous coal is present. The paper briefly describes the geology and quality of these coal reserves. Difficult conditions will restrict mining of these coals in the near future.

Stricker, G.D. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Clough, J.G. [Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

205

Rank enhancement of Permian Barakar and Raniganj coal measures in the western part of the Sohagpur coalfield, Madhya Pradesh, India  

SciTech Connect

The Geological Survey of India (GSI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are engaged in a study of the coking coal deposits in the Sohagpur coalfield, near Shahdol, Madhya Pradesh. The major occurrences of coking coal in the Sohagpur coalfield are on the northern, down-thrown side of the regional Bamhani-Chilpa fault, where depths to the coking coal range generally from 100 to 500 m. These coal deposits are within the Permian Barakar Formation, which comprises the lower coal measures of the Gondwana Supergroup. Equivalent coal beds on the south side of the fault are generally non-coking, and are currently being mined in open-cast and underground mines, for use as fuel for electric power generation. In this paper, new data are presented which expands on data and ideas originally presented in Mukhopadyay and others. The purpose of this paper is to integrate thermal signatures (vitrinite reflectance and volatile matter) of the principal coal beds of the Sohagpur coalfield with stratigraphic and structural data. In order to characterize the coking coal deposits, the authors have collected more than 100 coal samples from both the Barakar and Raniganj Formations for analyses. The occurrence of coking coal in the Sohagpur coalfield is related primarily to the thermal alteration of the coal beds in the different geologic settings within the coalfield. In addition, differences in the maceral content of the various coal beds and in the chemical and physical composition within each bed depending upon location, play an important role in determining the existence of coking properties for a particular coal deposit. Potential heat sources for thermal alteration include the abundant dolerite intrusives in the region, and greater depth of burial of the coking coal beds on the down-thrown side of the Bamhani-Chilpa fault. Offset along the Bamhani-Chilpa system has been suggested to greater than 400 m. Hot water, similar to that found in other Permian coalfields in India, may have been the agent that metamorphosed the coal in some places but not in others.

Warwick, P.D.; Milici, R.C.; Mukhopadyay, A.; Adhikari, S.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Optimum Design of Coal Gasification Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with the optimum design of heat recovery systems using the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). TCGP uses an entrained type gasifier and produces hot gases at approximately 2500oF with high heat flux. This heat is removed...

Pohani, B. P.; Ray, H. P.; Wen, H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Kinetics of coal pyrolysis and devolatilization  

SciTech Connect

An experimentally based, conceptual model of the devolatilization of a HV bituminous coal is outlined in this report. This model contends that the relative dominance of a process type-chemical kinetic, heat transport, mass transport -- varies with the extent of reaction for a given set of heating conditions and coal type and with experimental conditions for a given coal type and extent of reaction. The rate of devolatilization mass loss process is dominated initially by heat transfer processes, then coupled mass transfer and chemical kinetics, and finally by chemical processes alone. However, the chemical composition of the initial tars are determined primarily by the chemical characteristics of the parent coal. Chemically controlled gas phase reactions of the initial tars and coupled mass transfer and chemically controlled reactions of heavy tars determine the bulk of the light gas yields. For a HV bituminous coal this conceptual model serves to quantify the Two-Component Hypothesis'' of volatiles evolution. The model postulates that the overall rates of coal devolatilization should vary with coal type insofar as the characteristics of the parent coal determine the potential tar yield and the chemical characteristics of the initial tars. Experimental evidence indicates chemical characteristics and yields of primary'' tars vary significantly with coal type. Consequently, the conceptual model would indicate a shift from transport to chemical dominance of rate processes with variation in coal type. Using the conceptual model, United Technologies Research Center has been able to correlate initial mass loss with a heat transfer index for a wide range of conditions for high tar yielding coals. 33 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Advanced coal technology by-products: Long-term results from landfill test cells and their implications for reuse or disposal applications  

SciTech Connect

New air pollution regulations under the 1991 Clean Air Act and other legislation are motivating continued development and implementation, of cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electrical power. These clean coal processes produce solid by-products which differ in important respects from conventional pulverized coal combustion ash. Clean coal by-products` contain both residual sorbent and captured SO{sub 2} control products, as well as the mineral component of the coal. The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center has contracted Radian Corporation to construct and monitor landfill test cells with a several different advanced coal combustion by-products at three locations around the US; data from these sites provide a unique picture of the long-term field behavior of clean coal combustion by-products. The field testing sites were located in western Colorado, northern Ohio, and central Illinois. Fluidized bed combustion and lime injection residues are characterized by high lime and calcium sulfate contents` contributed by reacted and unreacted sorbent materials, and produce an leachate, when wetted. Compared with conventional coal fly ash, the clean coal technology ashes have been noted for potential difficulties when wetted, including corrosivity, heat generation, cementation, and swelling on hydration. On the other hand, the high lime content and chemical reactivity of clean coal residues offer potential benefits in reuse as a cementitious material.The results of three years of data collection suggest a fairly consistent pattern of behavior for the calcium-based dry sorbent systems involved in the project, despite differences in the initial of the by-products, differences in the methods of placement, and differences in climate at the test sites.

Weinberg, A. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); Harness, J.L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Characteristics of airborne coal mine dust and its implication to coal workers' pneumoconiosis  

SciTech Connect

Size selective airborne dust samples were collected using 4-stage cassette impactors at nine different locations in continuous mining sections in each of five coal seams located in the Appalachian bituminous coal field. These coal seams were the Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Kittanning, Coalburg, and Pocahontas. Mineralogical analyses were performed by an x-ray powder diffraction photographic technique. The distributions of total and respirable dust concentrations were fit best by a log-normal distribution. The effects of the coal seam and the sampling location on dust levels were significant. The results of the particle size distribution analyses suggest that coal mine dust has a multi-modal distribution. The effects of the coal seam and the sampling locations were significant. The distributions obtained were often affected by such mine-related variables as ventilation rate, relative humidity, and the section dimensions. Nine minerals commonly found in the coal mine dust samples collected from the coal seams studied were illite, calcite, kaolinite, quartz, dolomite, siderite, gypsum, anhydrite, and pyrite in descending order of magnitude. Relative abundance of all mineral species except siderite and gypsum was coal seam specific and suggests that existence of coal seam variability of mineral content. Although mineral content was affected by sampling locations and the sections within a mine, the magnitude was small when compared with that of cal seams. Mineral content also appears to be affected by particle size, although no particular pattern was observed.

Kim, H.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

On the energy content of the atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vertical profiles of the content of sensible heat, potential energy, and latent heat in the atmosphere between...

Stefan L. Hastenrath

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

1992-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

214

Underground Coal Thermal Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

215

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

216

Chapter 5 - Technologies for Coal Utilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter deals with the technologies for coal utilization. Coal use in the United States had been primarily for iron and steel production, locomotives for transportation, and household heat. In addition, many chemicals, including medicines, dyes, flavorings, ammonia, and explosives were produced from coal. Coal is used in the industrial sector for producing steam and to a lesser extent electricity, and some chemicals are produced from coal. The chapter explores the technologies used for generating power, heat, coke, and chemicals and includes combustion, carbonization, gasification, and liquefaction, which have been referred to as the four “grand processes” of coal utilization. Advances in materials of construction, system designs, and fuel firing have led to increasing capacity and higher steam operating temperatures and pressures. In the United States, utilities typically choose between two basic pulverized coal-fired watertube steam generators: subcritical drum-type boilers with nominal operating pressures of either 1900 or 2600 psig or once-through supercritical units operating at 3800 psig advances. The chapter concludes by emphasizing on coal combustion, as this technology is the single largest user of coal.

Bruce G. Miller

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

A study of the interfacial chemistry of pyrite and coal in fine coal cleaning using flotation  

SciTech Connect

Surface oxidation, surface charge, and flotation properties have been systematically studied for coal, coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. Electrochemical studies show that coal-pyrite exhibits much higher and more complex surface oxidation than ore-pyrite and its oxidation rate depends strongly on the carbon/coal content. Flotation studies indicate that pyrites have no self-induced floatability. Fuel oil significantly improves the floatability of coal and induces considerable flotation for coal-pyrite due to the hydrophobic interaction of fuel oil with the carbon/coal inclusions on the pyrite surface. Xanthate is a good collector for ore-pyrite but a poor collector for coal and coal-pyrite. The results from thermodynamic calculations, flotation and zeta potential measurements show that iron ions greatly affect the flotation of pyrite with xanthate and fuel oil. Various organic and inorganic chemicals have been examined for depressing coal-pyrite. It was found, for the first time, that sodium pyrophosphate is an effective depressant for coal-pyrite. Solution chemistry shows that pyrophosphate reacts with iron ions to form stable iron pyrophosphate complexes. Using pyrophosphate, the complete separation of pyrite from coal can be realized over a wide pH range at relatively low dosage.

Jiang, C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal" November 20, 2012 jlowe@bsu.edu 765.285.2805 Ball State University Ball State University Administration Building 1899 Ball State 1920s Ball State University Ball State University (4) Coal Fired Boilers Installed 1941/1955 (3) Natural Gas Fired Boilers Installed in the 1970s Heat and Chilled Water Plant Operations Heat Plant: 4 Coal Fired Boilers 3 Natural Gas Fired Boilers 320,000 Lbs/Hr nameplate 240,000 Lbs/Hr current 700,000,000 Lbs/Year Chilled Water Plant: 5 Electrical Centrifugal Chillers 9,300 ton capacity 25,000,000 Ton Hours/Year Pollutants Produced from Burning 36,000 tons of Coal * Carbon Dioxide 85,000 tons (Global Warming)

219

Fluidised bed co-gasification of coal and olive oil industry wastes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-gasification of bagasse wastes mixed with coal is technically feasible, without major installation changes. The effect of experimental conditions on co-gasification process was analysed, to enhance gas production and improve its composition and energetic content. The rise of bagasse content increased tars and gaseous hydrocarbons contents, which can be reduced by increasing gasification temperature and/or air flow rate. The rise of temperature till 890 °C favoured hydrocarbons further reactions and allowed an increase of 45% in hydrogen release and a decrease in gaseous hydrocarbons of 55%. A reduction of around 30% in gaseous hydrocarbons was also achieved by rising O2/fuel ratio till 0.6 g/g daf, which decreased gas heating value, due to nitrogen diluting effect. Though no significant changes in gaseous hydrocarbons composition were obtained, the presence of dolomite in the fluidised bed had the benefit of decreasing tars content and rising gas yield, being the gas richer in hydrogen content.

Rui Neto André; Filomena Pinto; Carlos Franco; M. Dias; I. Gulyurtlu; M.A.A. Matos; I. Cabrita

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Multisolvent successive extractive refining of coal  

SciTech Connect

A selected group of commercial solvents, namely, anthracene oil (AO), ethylenediamine (EDA), and liquid paraffin (LP), were used for successive extraction of Assam coal. Hot AO provided a wide range of mixed solvents that dissociate chemically and interact favorably with dissociated and undissociated coal macromolecules (like dissolves like). This resulted in the enhancement of the EDA extractability of the AO-pretreated residual coal. EDA is a good swelling solvent and results in physical dissociation of coal molecules. The residual coal obtained after EDA extraction was subjected to extraction with LP, an H-donor, high-boiling (330--360 C) solvent. LP thermally dissociates coal macromolecules and interacts with the coal at its plastic stage at the free radical pockets. The mechanism and molecular dynamics of the multisolvent successive extraction of Assam coal using AO-EDA-LP solvents are discussed. In early attempts, successive extractions did not modify the extraction yield in the single solvent showing the maximum extraction. However, the AO-EDA-LP extraction resulted in the extraction of 70% coal, more than for any of the individual solvents used. Therefore, AO-EDA-LP extraction of coal affords a process yielding a superclean, high-heating value fuel from coal under milder conditions. Several uses of superclean coal have been recommended. Present studies have revealed a new concept concerning the structure of coal having 30% polyaromatic condensed entangled rings and 70% triaromatic-heterocyclic-naphthenic-aliphatic structure. The insolubility of coal is due to the polyfunctional-heterocyclic-condensed structure having a polyaromatic core with intermacromolecular entanglements.

Sharma, D.K.; Singh, S.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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221

Structural group composition and thermodynamic properties of petroleum and coal tar fractions  

SciTech Connect

The improved G-L method was developed for determining the structural group composition of petroleum and coal tar fractions by using experimental values of refraction index, density, molecular weight, and S, N, O, and olefinic group content. The method is useful for fractions boiling in the range 30--500 C containing S, N, O and in total up to 10%, not limiting the distribution of the carbon atoms between aromatic, naphthenic, and paraffinic structures. Several correlations are proposed for prediction of the thermodynamic properties of petroleum and coal tar fractions, i.e., molar volume; surface tension; heat capacity in gas, liquid, and solid phases as a function of temperature; and also critical properties standard heat and entropy of formation, and temperature and entropy of melting. The method and these correlations have been tested on hydrocarbons and other organic compounds with satisfactory accuracy.

Guilyazetdinov, L.P. [Gubkin State Academy of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Technology of Petroleum and Gas Processing

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

NONE

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

223

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Microwave-assisted sample preparation of coal and coal fly ash for subsequent metal determination  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to review microwave-assisted digestion of coal and coal fly ash. A brief description of microwave heating principles is presented. Microwave-assisted digestion appears currently to be the most popular preparation technique, possibly due to the comparatively rapid sample preparation and the reduction of contamination, compared to the conventional hot-plate digestion methods.

Srogi, K. [Inst. of Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze (Poland)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Photothermal method of determining calorific properties of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Predetermined amounts of heat are generated within a coal sample (11) by directing pump light pulses (14) of predetermined energy content into a small surface region (16) of the sample (11). A beam (18) of probe light is directed along the sample surface (19) and deflection of the probe beam (18) from thermally induced changes of index of refraction in the fluid medium adjacent the heated region (16) are detected. Deflection amplitude and the phase lag of the deflection, relative to the initiating pump light pulse (14), are indicative of the calorific value and the porosity of the sample (11). The method provides rapid, accurate and non-destructive analysis of the heat producing capabilities of coal samples (11). In the preferred form, sequences of pump light pulses (14) of increasing durations are directed into the sample (11) at each of a series of minute regions (16) situated along a raster scan path (21) enabling detailed analysis of variations of thermal properties at different areas of the sample (11) and at different depths.

Amer, Nabil M. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Mineralogical and chemical characterization of Joule heated soil contaminated by ceramics industry sludge with high Pb contents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This research deals with the first attempt to vitrify by a Joule heating process soils contaminated by Pb (2.85 wt.%) from ceramic industry sludges. Physical, mineralogical, and chemical characterization of the glasses were obtained by using several imaging and analytical techniques, namely Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with coupled Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and by a specifically built-in sensor for “in-situ” temperature measurements of the melt. The chemical stability of the glass produced by the process was determined by leaching tests. The progressive heating and successive melting of the soil led to decomposition of organic compounds and removal of volatile metals. The cooling of the melt formed a monolithic glass with the aim of immobilizing the heavy metals and inorganic contaminants. All the glasses were found, on a macroscopic scale, mineralogically, chemically and morphologically homogeneous independent of the starting composition. However, on a microscopic scale an inhomogeneous glass matrix was observed. SEM-EDS and XRD revealed the presence of micro-sized Pb particles and Zr2SiO4 (zircon) crystals. In agreement with the microscopical observations, leaching tests indicated high leaching behaviour for Pb. These results should be considered as a general study of the technological effectiveness of vitrification by Joule heating technology with a view to scaling up the process on a field scale and to the treatment of large amount of inorganic industrial wastes containing high amounts of Pb.

Francesco Dellisanti; Piermaria L. Rossi; Giovanni Valdrè

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Development of a statewid, GIS-based inventory of coal resources for Illinois  

SciTech Connect

A statewide, GIS-based (geographic information system) inventory of coal resources in Illinois has been developed to provide information on the quality, availability, and recoverability of the state`s resources. The new database was assembled over a 9-month period from pre-existing digital data, newly digitized maps, and computer-contoured point-source data. The database contains resource information for 26 coal seams in 75 counties. The data include thickness, depth, mining status (minable, mined-out, inaccessible), sulfur content, heating value, and rank of the coal. Processing efficiency was enhanced by having individual staff members focus on specialized tasks (e.g. processing mine maps versus coal thickness maps). Detailed, on-line documentation was maintained to track and record the status of each component of information. Development of the GIS database revealed irregularities inherent in many paper-based resource inventories: some older base maps differed from newer ones digitized from more recent 7.5- minute quadrangles; depth and thickness contours on maps of adjoining areas commonly did not match and, in some cases, older boundaries of mined areas extended beyond more recent boundaries. Conversion of all the data to the new GIS resulted in some changes in volumetric values for coal seams in areas that had been neither re-mapped nor mined since the previous.

Treworgy, C.G.; Chenoweth, C.A. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

An initial study on feasible treatment of Serbian lignite through utilization of low-rank coal upgrading technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Despite benefiting from vast fuel reserves, combustion of low-rank coals is commonly characterized by low thermal efficiency and high pollutant emissions, partly due to high moisture content of the coals in question. Thus, removal of moisture from low-rank coals is deemed an important quality upgrading method. The paper provides an overview of the current status of low-rank coal upgrading technologies, particularly with respect to utilization of drying and dewatering procedures. In order to examine the influence of relevant parameters on the moisture removal process, a model of convective coal drying in a packed, as well as in a fluid bed combustion arrangement, is developed and presented. Product-specific data (intraparticle mass transfer, gas–solid moisture equilibrium) related to the coal variety addressed herein (lignite) are obtained through preliminary investigations. Effective thermal conductivity of the packed bed as defined by Zehner/Bauer/Schlünder is used to define heat transfer mechanisms occurring in the packed bed. Similar two-phase fluidization model has been validated for different types of biomaterials.

Milan Staki?; Dejan Cvetinovi?; Predrag Škobalj; Vuk Spasojevi?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Ash limitation of physical coal beneficiation for medium–high ash coal—A geochemistry perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nowadays the industrial coal beneficiation in China could only reduce the ash yield to about 10%, which could not meet the requirement or standard of environment protection. In this work, the possibility of reducing the ash yield was studied from the aspect of geochemistry. The channel samples were collected from two coal seams in Guizhou and Shanxi province, China and then conducted analysis by combining data from coals worldwide. The result reveals that the same coal seam or the coals deposited in the same peat swamp show a significantly positive correlation between ash yield and Al2O3 + SiO2 content, and the intercept of regression equation on the ash axis is always less than 5% (generally 2–5%). Overall, the coal from China is featured with a higher intercept compared with that in the other countries. The intercept of 2–5% on the ash axis indicates an original inorganic component in coal-forming peat. The research result also presents a theoretical limitation of coal ash by coal cleaning, because 2–5% of inorganic components in medium–high quality ash coal could hardly be separated by traditional physical coal beneficiation.

Wenfeng Wang; Weiduo Hao; Simon Xu; Fuchang Qian; Shuxun Sang; Yong Qin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2004, DOE/EIA-M060(2004) (Washington, DC, 2004). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves addresses the relationship between the minemouth price of coal and corresponding levels of capacity utilization of mines, mining capacity, labor productivity, and the cost of factor inputs (mining equipment, mine labor, and fuel requirements).

231

Catalytic steam gasification reactivity of HyperCoals produced from different rank of coals at 600-775{degree}C  

SciTech Connect

HyperCoal is a clean coal with ash content <0.05 wt %. HyperCoals were prepared from a brown coal, a sub-bituminous coal, and a bituminous raw coal by solvent extraction method. Catalytic steam gasification of these HyperCoals was carried out with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 775, 700, 650, and 600 {degree}C, and their rates were compared. HyperCoals produced from low-rank coals were more reactive than those produced from the high-rank coals. XRD measurements were carried out to understand the difference in gasification reactivity of HyperCoals. Arrhenius plot of ln (k) vs 1/T in the temperature range 600-825{degree}C was a curve rather than a straight line. The point of change was observed at 700{degree}C for HyperCoals from low-rank coals and at 775{degree}C for HyperCoals from high-rank coals. Using HyperCoal produced from low-rank coals as feedstock, steam gasification of coal may be possible at temperatures less than 650{degree}C. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group, Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Coal fly ash–carbide lime bricks: An environment friendly building product  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal fly ash and carbide lime are industrial by-products of coal combustion in thermal power plants and of manufacture of acetylene gas, respectively, available in profusion in southern Brazil. Research has been carried out to search for possible use of such materials to produce environmental friendly bricks that have high compressive strength. This study aims to evaluate strength controlling parameters of coal fly ash–carbide lime mixtures, as well as to show that porosity/carbide lime (?/Lv) ratio (corresponding to porosity divided by the volumetric carbide lime content) can be used to predict compressive strength (qu). The controlling parameters evaluated here are carbide lime content, porosity, curing temperature, curing time and porosity/carbide lime ratio. A number of unconfined compression tests were carried out. The results show that a power function adapts better the relation qu versus ?/Lv, in which Lv is adjusted by an exponent (in this case 0.11) for all coal fly ash–carbide lime mixtures studied. Equations that control the compressive strength for each curing period and curing temperature examined can be formulated using this unique ratio. Preferred strategies for varying ranges of qu are also proposed based on the energy required for heating, considering distinct curing periods and temperatures.

Nilo Cesar Consoli; Cecília Gravina da Rocha; Rodrigo Beck Saldanha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products  

SciTech Connect

Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Coal Ash and Clean Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IT is the normal view that the incombustible part of coal is not only a useless but even objectionable diluent. At times in the past, ... , familiar with the theory of contact catalysis of gas reactions, have speculated that the ash constituents might well play an active role in the processes of carbonisation and combustion. ...

H. J. HODSMAN

1926-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

235

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

237

Comparative analysis of methods for determination of arsenic in coal and coal ash  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the comparative analysis of different methods for the preparation and analysis of arsenic content in coal and coal ash have been presented. The suggested method is coal digestion method, i.e., coal ash digestion using the mixture of acids: nitric and sulphuric in presence of vanadium-pentoxide as catalyzer. The comparative analysis of different recording techniques (AAS-GH, AAS-GF and ICP-AES) has also been presented. For arsenic recording the suggested technique is AAS-GF technique. The obtained results show that the method of high precision, high sensitivity and high reproductivity has been obtained.

Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.L.; Blagojevic, N.Z.; Rajakovic, L.V. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Thermodynamic properties of materials derived from coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Few measurements of the thermodynamic properties of materials obtained from the liquefaction of coal have been reported. Because several sets of well-defined fractions of coal-derived materials existed that had been separated and characterized by the Characterization Branch of the Division of Processing and Thermodynamics of this Center, the expertise of the Thermodynamics Research Branch was utilized to measure enthalpies of combustion and heat capacities of these materials. The sets of fractions came from five sources: a synthetic crude oil derived from western Kentucky coal by the char-oil-energy development (COED) process, a synthetic crude oil derived from Utah A-seam coal by the COED process, material derived from West Virginia Pittsburgh seam coal by the Synthoil process, material derived from Illinois No. 6 coal by the H-Coal process and materials derived from subbituminous coal by the Conoco Colstrip zinc chloride hydrocracking process.

Smith, N.K.; Lee-Bechtold, S.H.; Good, W.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Calculation of calorific values of coals from ultimate analyses: theoretical basis and geochemical implications. Final report. Part 8  

SciTech Connect

The various formulae for calculating calorific values for coals from ultimate analyses depend essentially on a propositon due to Dulong, that the heat of combustion of an organic compound is nearly equal to the heats of combustion of the elements in it, multiplied by their percentage content in the compound in question. This proposition assumes that the enthalpy of decomposition is negligible compared with the heat of combustion. The various published formulae, such as that due to Mott and Spooner, include empirical adjustments to allow for the fact that the enthalpy of formation or decomposition of no organic compound is zero (except rarely by chance). A new equation is proposed, which excludes empirical correction terms but includes a term explicitly related to the enthalpy of decomposition. As expected from the behavior of known compounds, this enthalpy varies with rank, but it also varies at the same level of rank with the geological history of the sample: rank is not the only source of variance in coal properties. The new equation is at least as effective in predicting calorific values for a set of 992 coals as equivalent equations derived for 6 subsets of the coals. On the whole, the distributions of differences between observed and calculated calorific values are skewed to only a small extent. About 86% of the differences lie between -300 and +300 Btu/lb (+- 700 kJ/kg). 10 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

Given, P.H.; Weldon, D.; Zoeller, J.H.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

High-Sulfur Coal for Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...made historically by heating bitumi-nous coal in...heart of the anthracite district only about 5 years ago...energy, wind, and geothermal steam and brines, will...15.7 Nuclear 3.1 Geothermal Negligible 1973, use...home and commercial heating, transporta-tion...

James T. Dunham; Carl Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This is the twelfth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report and results are shown for a drying system utilizing a combination of waste heat from the condenser and thermal energy extracted from boiler flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Ursla Levy; John Sale; Nenad Sarunac

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Understanding Brown Coal-Water Interactions to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Victorian brown coal has a strong affinity for water. It exhibits high monolayer water capacities (MWC) and non-freezing water contents (NFW). In electricity generation, a large amount of brown coal is burnt (...

Leigh M. Clemow; W. Roy Jackson…

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Coal industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

245

Appalachian coal awareness conference: promoting Eastern coal  

SciTech Connect

Promoting the development and use of coal, especially coal from the Appalachian region, was the focus of introductory and keynote speeches and a discussion by representatives of the Virginia Coal Council, mining engineers, industry, and the Edison Electric Institute. Governor Dalton's keynote address noted that both producers and consumers attending the conference should work together to promote coal as a solution to the US energy future, and reported the impact that a commitment to coal has had on Virginia's economic growth. Participants in the coal consumers panel discussion raised various economic and regulatory issues.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder  

SciTech Connect

Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

NONE

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential  

SciTech Connect

Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces, Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines. Alaskan coals have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States and are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. Another untapped potential resource is coalbed methane estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters).

Romeo M. Flores; Gary D. Stricker; Scott A. Kinney

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA); Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Coal Power Plant Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Power Plant Database Power Plant Database Jump to: navigation, search Name Coal Power Plant Database Data Format Excel Spreadsheet, Excel Pivot Table, Access Database Geographic Scope United States TODO: Import actual dataset contents into OpenEI The Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) is a dataset which "consolidates large quantities of information on coal-fired power plants in a single location."[1] It is produced by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). External links 2007 Edition Excel Spreadsheet Excel Pivot Table Access Database User's Manual (PDF) References ↑ "User's Manual: Coal Power Plant Database" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Coal_Power_Plant_Database&oldid=273301" Categories: Datasets Articles with outstanding TODO tasks

252

Coal gasification 2006: roadmap to commercialization  

SciTech Connect

Surging oil and gas prices, combined with supply security and environmental concerns, are prompting power generators and industrial firms to further develop coal gasification technologies. Coal gasification, the process of breaking down coal into its constituent chemical components prior to combustion, will permit the US to more effectively utilize its enormous, low cost coal reserves. The process facilitates lower environmental impact power generation and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional generation techniques. The study is designed to inform the reader as to this rapidly evolving technology, its market penetration prospects and likely development. Contents include: Clear explanations of different coal gasification technologies; Emissions and efficiency comparisons with other fuels and technologies; Examples of US and global gasification projects - successes and failures; Commercial development and forecast data; Gasification projects by syngas output; Recommendations for greater market penetration and commercialization; Current and projected gasification technology market shares; and Recent developments including proposals for underground gasification process. 1 app.

NONE

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

254

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

"Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants.

255

Coal Mining (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

256

Ultrasound-promoted chemical desulfurization of Illinois coals  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of the program were to investigate the use of ultrasound to promote coal desulfurization reactions and to evaluate chemical coal desulfurization schemes under mild conditions through a fundamental understanding of their reaction mechanisms and kinetics. The ultimate goal was to develop an economically feasible mild chemical process to reduce the total sulfur content of Illinois Basin Coals, while retaining their original physical characteristics, such as calorific value and volatile matter content. During the program, potential chemical reactions with coal were surveyed under various ultrasonic irradiation conditions for desulfurization, to formulate preliminary reaction pathways, and to select a few of the more promising chemical processes for more extensive study.

Chao, S.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Coal Gasification in a Transport Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These simulations were used to compare the response of coals gasified to those combusted substoichiometrically, to evaluate the optimum operating conditions and to predict the performance in larger-scale units with less heat loss. ... Entrained-flow gasifiers use high temperatures (1350?1550 °C) and gasify coals in 2?3 s. ... Kinetic studies were carried out to elucidate the mechanisms of steam and CO2 gasification of char and the interactions of these gasifying agents. ...

Lawrence J. Shadle; Esmail R. Monazam; Michael L. Swanson

2001-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

258

American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

American Coal Council American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum Dallas, Texas May 17-19, 2004 Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Presentation Outline * Background * Power plant-water issues * DOE/NETL R&D program * Conclusion/future plans ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Global Water Availability Ocean 97% Fresh Water 2.5% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ice Groundwater Lakes and Rivers ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Three Things Power Plants Require 1) Access to transmission lines 2) Available fuel, e.g., coal or natural gas 3) Water ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Freshwater Withdrawals and Consumption Mgal / Day Irrigation 81,300 Irrigation 81,300 Thermoelectric 3,310 Consumption Sources: "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995," USGS Circular 1200, 1998

259

Coal Characterization in Relation to Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most coals are used worldwide for combustion today. Generally all kinds of coals are applicable for combustion. The major methods of burning are fixed bed firing, fluidized bed firing and suspension firing. Th...

Harald Jüntgen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal 101 Lesson 2: The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada decided that something had to be done about the "acid rain" that was believed to be damaging rivers, lakes, forests, and buildings in both countries. Since many of the pollutants that formed "acid rain" were coming from big coal-burning power plants in the United States, the U.S. Government took the lead in finding a solution. One of the steps taken by the U.S. Department of Energy was to create a partnership program between the Government, several States, and private companies to test new methods developed by scientists to make coal burning much cleaner. This became the "Clean Coal Technology Program."

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

262

Compliance testing of Grissom AFB, Central Heating Plant coal-fired boilers 3, 4 and 5, Grissom AFB, Indiana. Final report, 3-13 Dec 90  

SciTech Connect

Source compliance testing (particulates and visible emissions) of boiler 3, 4 and 5 in the Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant was accomplished 3-13 Dec 90. The boilers were all tested through the bypass stack. Visible emissions from the three boilers met applicable opacity regulations. However, particulate emissions from the three boilers were above their applicable emission standards.

Vaughn, R.W.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Combustion characteristics of coal fuels in adiabatic diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of coal fuels in adiabatic diesel engines. For this purpose engine testing was carried out by the fumigation of fine coal powder to the intake of an insulated and uncooled single cylinder diesel engine. The engine tests conducted include three types of fuels - Diesel fuel No. 2 (DF-2), Dual fuel (DF-2 + Coal), and Coal fuel. Excellent combustion characteristics of coal fuels were obtained in the present work in an adiabatic engine operating at high temperatures. The ''thermal ignition'' concept uncovered in this investigation led to a hot ''ignition chamber'' which provided ignition of the coal fuel. The high temperature engine with the ''ignition chamber'' permitted engine operation on 100% coal fuel without any external ignition aids or compression ignition. With the addition of a glow plug, the coal fueled engine was successfully cold started. For the coal fueled engine tests, analysis of cylinder pressure data showed rapid heat release rates, shorter combustion duration and very fast burning of coal powder fuel. Preliminary results of the apparent indicated cycle efficiency calculated from the heat release data, indicate that 100% coal powder fueled engine has higher cycle efficiency than DF-2 fueled engine in an adiabatic configuration. The problems encountered during the engine tests include: variation in the engine speed and load due to non-uniform coal flow rate by the coal feed system, contamination of the lubricating oil with fine coal powder, and wear of conventional piston rings. However, these problems can be solved with an improved coal feed system and wear resistant ceramic materials for the piston rings. 33 refs.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Woods, M.E.; Valdmanis, E.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Elk Valley coal implements smartcell flotation technology  

SciTech Connect

In anticipation of future raw coal containing higher fines content, Elk Valley Coal Corp.'s Greenhills Operations upgraded their fines circuit to include Wemco SmartCells in March 2007. Positive results were immediately achieved increasing the average flotation tailings ash by 16%. With this increase in yield the SmartCells project paid for itself in less than eight months. 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

Stirling, J.C. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Elkford, BC (Canada)

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

Advances in induction heating  

SciTech Connect

Electric induction heating, in situ, can distill (underground) high-heat-value (HHV) gas, coal tar, bitumen, and shale oil. This technique permits potentially lower cost exploitation of the solid fossil fuels: coal, oil shale, tar sand, and heavy oil. The products, when brought to the surface in gaseous form and processed, yield chemical feedstocks, natural gas, and petroleum. Residual coke can be converted, in situ, to low-heat-value (LHV) gas by a conventional water-gas process. LHV can be burned at the surface to generate electricity at low cost. The major cost of the installation will have been paid for by the HHV gas and tar distilled from the coal. There are 2 mechanisms of heating by electric induction. One uses displacement currents induced from an electric field. The other uses eddy currents induced by a magnetic field.

Not Available

1980-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

267

Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals  

SciTech Connect

HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants  

SciTech Connect

Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. for Mining Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

A combustion/deposition entrained reactor for high?temperature/pressure studies of coal and coal minerals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion of coal and coal?derived fuels in heat engines poses significant technical challenges in terms of establishing high combustion rates and efficiencies controlling emissions and minimizing the impact of fuel contaminants on engine components. An entrained reactor has been designed and constructed to study coal particle combustion the tendency of coal ash to form deposits on heat engine components and the effects of fuel additives on residual ash composition. The reactor is designed for high temperature/pressure conditions similar to those of a coal?fired gas turbine. Optical access ports and advanced instrumentation allow the i n s i t u measurement of gas and particle temperatures and vapor phase alkali concentrations. The reactor has been used to study the deposition potential of several coals as a function of process conditions and to determine the effects of selected additives on the deposition rate.

Rodney J. Anderson; Ronald G. Logan; Charles T. Meyer; Richard A. Dennis

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors by the addition of pulverized coal  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors which can be accomplished by the addition of pulverized coal to increase the heat content and generate the proper reducing conditions. Samples from a 78%-yield sodium bisulfite pulping process employing a hardwood furnish were mixed with 10-50% pulveriized coal and burned at 950[degrees]C under reducing conditions in a box furnace. Even in these uncontrolled combustion conditions 76. 5% of the sulfur found in the soluble portion of the smelt was converted from lignousulfonates to useful sulfide ion. For the remainder of the sulfur, analyses determined it to be 19. 5% as sulfite ion, 3. 1% as thiosulfate ion, and 0.9% as sulfate ion.

Sell, N.J.; Norman, J.C. (Natural and Applied Sciences, Univ. of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, WI (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Table 6. Electric Power Delivered Fuel Prices and Quality for Coal, Petroleum, N  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 PM)" 1 PM)" "Hawaii" "Fuel, Quality",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Coal (cents per million Btu)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",303,296,188,175,281,309,358,297,279 " Average heat value (Btu per pound)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",11536,11422,11097,10975,10943,10871,10669,10640,10562 " Average sulfur Content (percent)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",0.32,0.44,0.49,0.55,0.51,0.47,0.66,0.65,0.62

272

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transportation component of coal price should also increase;investment. Coal costs and prices are functions of a numberto forecast coal demand, supply, and prices from now to

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Heat Loss Measurement Using Infrared Imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in various applications. Examples of two applications are presented. The first describes the development of heat balance data for a solvent refined coal processing unit. The second describes the measurement of heat loss and thermal resistance in a double...

Seeber, S. A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Coal Market Module This  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

51 51 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2012, DOE/EIA-M060(2012) (Washington, DC, 2012). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

275

Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 153 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2011, DOE/EIA-M060(2011) (Washington, DC, 2011). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

276

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

277

The effect of wood biomass blending with pulverized coal on combustion characteristics under oxy-fuel condition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, combustion from the co-firing of coal and wood biomass, and thermal characteristics such as ignition temperature, burn-out temperature, and activation energy were discussed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). We investigated the effects of biomass blending with two kinds of pulverized coal (bituminous Shenhua, and sub-bituminous Adaro) under air and oxy-fuel conditions. The coal fraction in the blended samples was set to 1, 0.8, and 0.5. The oxygen fraction in the oxidant was set to 0.21, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8. The ignition temperature was governed by the fuel composition, particularly in the blended biomass which has a much higher content of volatile matter comparing to coal. However, the burnout temperature, which shows a strong relationship with char combustion, depended on the oxidant ingredients rather than on the fuel components. Thermal characteristics such as ignition, burnout temperature, reaction region, and heat flow were very similar between air and a 0.3 oxygen concentration under oxy-fuel conditions with Shenhua coal.

Seongyool Ahn; Gyungmin Choi; Duckjool Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Conditions of utilization of coal mining and processing sludges as slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

The results of this study have shown that coal sludge can be used as slurry fuel (like coal-water fuel (CWF)) providing that its ash content does not exceed 30% and the amount in the fuel is at least 55%. The conventional CWF preparation technologies are inapplicable to the fabrication of water-sludge fuel; therefore, special technologies with allowance for the ash content, the particle size, and the water content of coal sludge are demanded.

E.G. Gorlov; A.I. Seregin; G.S. Khodakov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Compliance testing of Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant coal-fired boilers 3, 4, and 5, Grissom AFB, Indiana. Final report, 29 January-15 February 1989  

SciTech Connect

At the request of HQ, SAC/SGPB source compliance testing (particulate and visible emissions) of boilers 3, 4, and 5 in the Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant was accomplished 29 Jan-15 Feb 89. The survey was conducted to determine compliance with regards to Indiana Administrative Code, Title 325 - Air Pollution Control Board, Article 5, Opacity Regulations, and Article 6, Particulate Regulations. Boiler 3 was tested through scrubber B, Boiler 4 through scrubber A, and Boiler 5 through scrubber B and the bypass stack. Results indicate that each boiler met applicable visible and particulate emission standards.

Garrison, J.A.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The use of NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute has conducted a study of different methods of coal drying as pretreatment steps before liquefaction. The objectives of this study were to develop a combined chemical dehydration/nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for measuring the moisture content of coal, to measure the changes in coal structure that occur during drying, and to determine the effects of different drying methods on liquefaction reactivity of coals. Different methods of drying were investigated to determine whether coal drying can be accomplished without reducing the reactivity of coals toward liquefaction. Drying methods included thermal, microwave, and chemical dehydration. Coals of rank lignite to high volatile bituminous were studied. Coals that were dried or partially dried thermally and with microwaves had lower liquefaction conversions than coals containing equilibrium moisture contents. However, chemically dried coals had conversions equal to or greater than the premoisturized coals. The conversion behavior is consistent with changes in the physical structure and cross linking reactions because of drying. Thermal and microwave drying appear to cause a collapse in the pore structure, thus preventing donor solvents such as tetralin from contacting reactive sites inside the coals. Chemical dehydration does not appear to collapse the pore structure. These results are supported by the solvent swelling measurements in which the swelling ratios of thermally dried and microwave-dried coals were lower than those of premoisturized coals, indicating a greater degree of cross linking in the dried coals. The swelling ratios of the chemically dried coals were greater than those of the premoisturized coals because the pore structure remaining unchanged or increased when water was removed. These results are consistent with the NMR results, which did not show significant changes in coal chemical structure.

Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Wallace, J.C. Jr.; Butcher, C.H.; Mitzel, J.M.; Turner, T.F.; Hurtubise, R.J.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Investigations into coal coprocessing and coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of coal to liquid suitable as feedstock to a petroleum refinery is dependent upon several process variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, coal rank, catalyst type, nature of the feed to the reactor, type of process, etc. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a research program in the area of coal liquefaction to address the impact of some of these variables upon the yield and quality of the coal-derived liquid. The principal goal of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. Two different approaches are currently being investigated. These include the coprocessing of a heavy liquid, such as crude oil, and coal using a dispersed catalyst and the direct liquefaction of coal using a supported catalyst. Another important consideration in coal liquefaction is the utilization of hydrogen, including both externally- and internally-supplied hydrogen. Because the incorporation of externally-supplied hydrogen during conversion of this very aromatic fossil fuel to, for example, transportation fuels is very expensive, improved utilization of internally-supplied hydrogen can lead to reducing processing costs. The objectives of this investigation, which is Task 3.3.4, Coal Coprocessing, of the 1991--1992 Annual Research Plan, are: (1) to evaluate coal/oil pretreatment conditions that are expected to improve the liquid yield through more efficient dispersion of an oil-soluble, iron-based catalyst, (2) to characterize the coke deposits on novel, supported catalysts after coal liquefaction experiments and to correlate the carbon skeletal structure parameters of the coke deposit with catalyst performance as measured by coal liquefaction product yield, and (3) to determine the modes of hydrogen utilization during coal liquefaction and coprocessing. Experimental results are discussed in this report.

Guffey, F.D.; Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, K.P. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Zhang, Tiejun; Haynes, H.W. Jr. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains  

SciTech Connect

Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Explosive eruption of coal and basalt and the end-Permian mass extinction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...This massive coal combustion may have resulted from...surface, explosive combustion, and the atmospheric rise...sediments driving off hydrocarbons, including methane...repeatedly intrude and heat coal seams, causing...Canada suggest explosive combustion of coal by mafic intrusion...

Darcy E. Ogden; Norman H. Sleep

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Explosive eruption of coal and basalt and the end-Permian mass extinction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...This massive coal combustion may have resulted...surface, explosive combustion, and the atmospheric...sediments driving off hydrocarbons, including methane...repeatedly intrude and heat coal seams, causing...suggest explosive combustion of coal by mafic...isotopic excursion data. We provide example...

Darcy E. Ogden; Norman H. Sleep

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Portable stove intervention reduces lung cancer mortality risk in lifetime smoky coal users  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pattern that may be associated with household coal burning Howard D. Hosgood 1 William Pao...combustion, particularly from bituminous coal. To further explore the clinical and histological...all subjects with KRAS mutations burned coal indoors for heating and cooking, our findings...

H. Dean Hosgood; Min Shen; Robert Champan; Eric Chen; Tongzhang Zheng; Kyoung-mu Lee; Xingzhou He; Qing Lan

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

International Energy Outlook - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2004 Coal Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2025. Coal continues to dominate fuel markets in developing Asia. Figure 52. World Coal Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 53. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2001 and 2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 54. Coal Share of Regional Energy Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since

289

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys

290

Hydrogen from Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics ƒ Technical Barriers ƒ Targets ƒ Future Plans 2 3 Hydrogen from Coal Program Hydrogen from Coal Program FutureGen FutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Supports the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and FutureGen * The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is a $1.2 billion RD&D program to develop hydrogen

291

Low temperature pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of calcium compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal pyrolysis technique or process is described in which particulate coal is pyrolyzed in the presence of about 5 to 21 wt. % of a calcium compound selected from calcium oxide, calcined (hydrate) dolomite, or calcined calcium hydrate to produce a high quality hydrocarbon liquid and a combustible product gas which are characterized by low sulfur content. The pyrolysis is achieved by heating the coal-calcium compound mixture at a relatively slow rate at a temperature of about 450.degree. to 700.degree. C. over a duration of about 10 to 60 minutes in a fixed or moving bed reactor. The gas exhibits an increased yield in hydrogen and C.sub.1 -C.sub.8 hydrocarbons and a reduction in H.sub.2 S over gas obtainable by pyrolyzing cola without the calcium compound. The liquid product obtained is of a sufficient quality to permit its use directly as a fuel and has a reduced sulfur and oxygen content which inhibits polymerization during storage.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

5 - Introduction to Coal Utilization Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary The primary applications for coal use became electricity generation and the production of iron and steel. Coal has varied uses in the industrial sector for producing steam and electricity and also some chemicals are produced from coal. This chapter introduces the technologies and explains the processes for generating power, heat, coke, and chemicals including carbonization, combustion, liquefaction and gasification. These are referred to as “grand processes” in coal utilization and are explained in detail under separate sections. A brief history on the history of the processes and designs are provided with figures. The modern designs and processes are explained further with diagrams and the different boiler types and their relevance in technologies are available. The chemical processes involved in coal combustion, the involved and characteristics are summarized in table. Emphasis is also made on coal combustion and sets the stage for further reading on clean coal technologies in later portion of the book. Several direct liquefaction processes are introduced in this chapter. Although these are important, however, there are other processes conceived and researched.

Bruce G. Miller

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

STRUCTURAL ELUCIDATION, MOLECULAR REPRESENTATION AND SOLVENT INTERACTIONS OF VITRINITE-RICH AND INERTINITE-RICH SOUTH AFRICAN COALS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Two Permian-aged South African coals, vitrinite-rich Waterberg and inertinite-rich Highveld coals (similar rank, carbon content and Permian age), were studied to determine the structural differences… (more)

Van Niekerk, Daniel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Correlation relations between mineralogical components in ash from Kaa-Khem coals  

SciTech Connect

Regression analysis was used to study correlation relations between the mineral components of coals. Regularities in the variability of the concentrations of individual ash-forming elements with changing ash contents of coals and changing seam depth were found. The X-ray diffraction characteristics of coal ashes and the qualitative composition of their mineralogical components are presented.

N.N. Yanchat; L.Kh. Tas-ool [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kyzyl (Russia). Tuvinian Institute for Complex Exploration of Natural Resources

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin [OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This is the eighth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. Analyses were performed to determine the effects of coal product moisture on unit performance. Results are given showing how the coal product moisture level affects parameters such as boiler efficiency, power required to drive the fluidizing air fan, other station service power needed for fans and pulverizers, net unit heat rate, thermal energy rejected by the cooling tower, and stack emissions.

Nenad Sarunac; Edward Levy

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

US coal reserves: A review and update  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third in series of ``U.S. Coal Reserves`` reports. As part of the Administration of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) program to provide information on coal, it presents detailed estimates of domestic coal reserves, which are basic to the analysis and forecasting of future coal supply. It also describes the data, methods, and assumptions used to develop such estimates and explain terminology related to recent data programs. In addition, the report provides technical documentation for specific revisions and adjustments to the demonstrated reserve base (DRB) of coal in the United States and for coal quality and reserve allocations. It makes the resulting data available for general use by the public. This report includes data on recoverable coal reserves located at active mines and on the estimated distribution of rank and sulfur content in those reserves. An analysis of the projected demand and depletion in recoverable reserves at active mines is used to evaluate the areas and magnitude of anticipated investment in new mining capacity.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Coal: evolving supply and demand in world seaborne steam coal trade. [1975 to 1985; forecasting to 1995  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the evolution of world seaborne steam coal trade since 1975. It highlights current trends and the historic and present sources of supply and demand and discusses selected factors that may affect future world trade patterns. It concludes with a general discussion on the prospects for United States participation in the growing world markets for steam coal. Worldwide seaborne steam coal trade is linked very closely to the generation of electricity and industrial use of process heat in cement and other manufacturing plants. The main factors that influence this trade are: economic growth, electricity demand, indigenous coal production (and degree of protection from lower cost coal imports), and the delivered costs of coal relative to other substitutable fuels. It may be of interest to know how these factors have changed seaborne steam coal trade in the past twelve years. In 1970, the total world use of steam coal was about two billion short tons. International trade in steam coal was only 80 million tons or about 4% of the total. Seaborne trade accounted for about 30% of international trade, or about 25 million tons. In 1982, the latest year for which good statistics are available, total world use of steam coal was about 3.6 billion tons. Seaborne steam coal trade was 110 million tons which is about 3% of the total and 37% of the international trade. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Yancik, J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

SciTech Connect

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

300

Preparation and coking properties of coal maceral concentrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The concentrates with different maceral contents were obtained from Kailuan coking coals with different coal ranks ( R o,ran ? varying from 0.88% to 1.73%) by float–sink separation in lab. Then these concentrates were characterized by proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, petrography analysis and coking index determination. The results show that the vitrinite is characterized as nature of lower carbon content, higher hydrogen content, higher volatile matter and stronger caking property compared to inertinite. The relationships between variation rate of volatile matter and maximum volatile matter and coal ranks are identified, and a linear model is developed for fast determination of the maceral contents. Compared to inertinite-rich concentrate, the blending ratio of vitrinite-rich concentrate is increased by 13%, which is considered to be a potential technique based on maceral separation for expanding the coking coal resources.

Lei Zhang; Wenli Liu; Dongpo Men

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

An assessment of the potential for coal/residual oil coprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Among the promising new techniques to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal is coal/petroleum coprocessing based upon the use of heavy oil, tar sand bitumen and petroleum residua as ''solvents'' for the conversion of coal. Coprocessing is the simultaneous hydrogenation of coal and heavy oil fractions in specially designed reactors with coal contents by weight ranging from as low as 1% to potentially as high as 50-60% depending upon the technology employed. The results of a study on the potential for coal/residual oil coprocessing in the United States are addressed in this paper.

Huber, D.A.; Lee, Q.; Thomas, R.L.; Frye, K.; Rudins, G.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main tasks for this reporting period were to correlate well logs and refine coal property maps, evaluate methane content and gas composition of Wilcox Group coals, and initiate discussions concerning collection of additional, essential data with Anadarko. To assess the volume of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered and volume of methane that can be produced in the vicinity of the proposed Sam Seymour sequestration site, we used approximately 200 additional wells logs from Anadarko Petroleum Corp. to correlate and map coal properties of the 3 coal-bearing intervals of Wilcox group. Among the maps we are making are maps of the number of coal beds, number of coal beds greater than 5 ft thick, and cumulative coal thickness for each coal interval. This stratigraphic analysis validates the presence of abundant coal for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of Sam Seymour power plant. A typical wellbore in this region may penetrate 20 to 40 coal beds with cumulative coal thickness between 80 and 110 ft. Gas desorption analyses of approximately 75 coal samples from the 3 Wilcox coal intervals indicate that average methane content of Wilcox coals in this area ranges between 216 and 276 scf/t, basinward of the freshwater boundary indicated on a regional hydrologic map. Vitrinite reflectance data indicate that Wilcox coals are thermally immature for gas generation in this area. Minor amounts of biogenic gas may be present, basinward of the freshwater line, but we infer that most of the Wilcox coalbed gas in the deep coal beds is migrated thermogenic gas. Analysis based on limited data suggest that sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed gas recovery should be located basinward of the Wilcox freshwater contour, where methane content is high and the freshwater aquifer can be avoided.

Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement  

SciTech Connect

To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990  

SciTech Connect

This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

Not Available

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Coal gasification: Belgian first  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... hope for Europe's coal production came with the announcement this month that the first gasification of coal at depths of nearly 1,000 metres would take place this May in ... of energy.

Jasper Becker

1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

306

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

“From Coal to Coke”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN the Sixth Coal Science Lecture, organized by the British ... Science Lecture, organized by the British Coal Utilization Research Association, and given at the Institution of Civil Engineers on October 16, ...

1957-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

308

Coal Production 1992  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

Not Available

1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

309

Chemicals from coal  

SciTech Connect

This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

311

Indonesian coal mining  

SciTech Connect

The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

The status of coal briquetting technology in Korea  

SciTech Connect

Anthracite is the only indigenous fossil fuel resource produced in Korea and is an important main source of residential fuel. Due to its particular characteristics, the best way to use Korean coal is in the form of briquettes, called {open_quotes}Yontan.{close_quotes} The ability to use this coal as briquettes was a great discovery made nearly 50 years ago and since then, has made a great contribution to the energy consumption of low and middle income households. Korean anthracite in coal briquette form has been used widely for household heating purposes. Collieries in Korea produced no more than one million tons of anthracite annually in the 1960s. Production, however, increased substantially up to about 17 million tons per year in the mid-1970s. In 1986, Korea succeeded in raising its coal production to 24.2 million tons, which was the maximum production level achieved by the Korean coal industrial sector. Since then, anthracite production has fallen. In 1991, coal output dropped to 15.1 million tons, a decrease of 12.2 percent from the 17.2 million tons produced in 1990, due to falling coal demand and rising labor costs. The role of coal as an energy source will be more important in the future to meet projected economic growth in Korea. While the production of indigenous Korean anthracite is expected to decrease under a coal mining rationalization policy, imports of bituminous coal will increase rapidly and will be used as an oil substitute in industry and power generation. In this chapter, general aspects of the Korean coal industry and coal utilization for residential uses, especially the Yontan coal briquetting techniques, are discussed. In addition, coal briquetting technology applications suitable for the APEC region will be presented.

Choi, Woo-Zin

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Coal Conservation and the Gas Industry1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... won by mechanical excavation rather than underground mining. It is available, therefore, at the pit at a very low cost, and much of the German electric power supply is ... resinous bodies which cause many coals to fuse on heating and to evolve much gas, burning with a luminous smoky flame. It is owing to the absence of such components ...

J. W. COBB

1926-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

314

Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts  

SciTech Connect

During the first quarter of FY 1993, the Project proceeded close to the Project Plan. The analysis of the feed material has been completed as far as possible. Some unplanned distillation was needed to correct the boiling range of the Black Thunder solvent used during the autoclave tests. Additional distillation will be required if the same solvent is to be used for the bench unit tests. A decision on this is still outstanding. The solvent to be used with Illinois No. 6 coal has not yet been defined. As a result, the procurement of the feed and the feed analysis is somewhat behind schedule. Agglomeration tests with Black Thunder coal indicates that small agglomerates can be formed. However, the ash removal is quite low (about 10%), which is not surprising in view of the low ash content of the coal. The first series of autoclave tests with Black Thunder coal was completed as planned. Also, additional runs are in progress as repeats of previous runs or at different operating conditions based on the data obtained so far. The results are promising indicating that almost complete solubilization (close to 90%) of Black Thunder coal can be achieved in a CO/H[sub 2]O environment at our anticipated process conditions. The design of the bench unit has been completed. In contrast to the originally planned modifications, the bench unit is now designed based on a computerized control and data acquisition system. All major items of equipment have been received, and prefabrication of assemblies and control panels is proceeding on schedule. Despite a slight delay in the erection of the structural steel, it is anticipated that the bench unit will be operational at the beginning of April 1993.

Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L. (Canadian Energy Development, Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Exploratory Research on Novel Coal  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

NETL: Coal Gasification Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Gasification Systems News Gasifipedia Gasifier Optimization Feed Systems Syngas Processing Systems Analyses Gasification Plant Databases International Activity Program Plan...

317

Coal gasification development intensifies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal gasification development intensifies ... Three almost simultaneous developments in coal gasification, although widely divergent in purpose and geography, rapidly are accelerating the technology's movement into an era of commercial exploitation. ... A plant to be built in the California desert will be the first commercialsize coal gasification power plant in the U.S. In West Germany, synthesis gas from a coal gasification demonstration plant is now being used as a chemical feedstock, preliminary to scaleup of the process to commercial size. ...

1980-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

318

Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri. 1st Quarterly report for 1995, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Work continued on the study of coal log pipeline research. Individual projects described include fast compaction of coal logs; effect of cooling on coal log quality; coal log capping; effectiveness of adding fiber to enhance coal log quality; fabrication using hydrophobic binders; cost estimation of different lubricants; automatic control of coal log pipeline system; CLP design; coal log train transport; economics of coal log pipeline; legal aspects; heating, cooling, and drying of logs; vacuum systems to enhance production; design; and effect of piston modification on capping.

Liu, H.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

Badgley, P.R.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Turbines Electricity On-Site Consumption Sold to Utility Fuel Natural Gas Propane Biogas Landfill Gas Coal Steam Waste Products Others Generator Heat Exchanger Thermal Process...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Coal Study Guide for Elementary School  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Focuses on the basics of coal, history of coal use, conversion of coal into electricity, and climate change concerns.

322

Waste Heat Recovery  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the TechnologySystem ......

323

Effects of structural rearrangements on sorption capacity of coals  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the problems in practical application of experimental data and modeling to the sequestration of carbon dioxide in coal seams and the concurrent enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery have underscored the need for new approaches that take into account the ability of coal for structural rearrangements. Areas of interest include plasticization of coal due to CO2 dissolution, the effect of coal swelling on estimation of the capacity of a coal-seam to adsorb CO2 (adsorption isotherm), and the stability of the CO2 saturated phase once formed, especially with respect to how it might be affected by changes in the post-sequestration environment (environmental effects). Coals are organic macromolecular systems well known to imbibe organic liquids and carbon dioxide. CO2 dissolves in coals and swells them. The problems become more prominent in the region of supercritical CO2. We investigated the effects of moisture content and pressure cycling history on temporal changes in the coal sorptive capacity for a set of Argonne premium coals. The samples were tested as received, dried at 80oC for 36 hours, and moisture equilibrated at 96-97% RH and 30oC for 48 hours. The powders were compared to core samples. Additionally, plasticization of coal powders was studied by high pressure dilatometer.

Romanov, Vyacheslav; Soong, Yee; Warzinski, R.P.; Lynn, R.J.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

How Coal Gasification Power Plants Work | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gasification » How Coal Gasification » How Coal Gasification Power Plants Work How Coal Gasification Power Plants Work How Coal Gasification Power Plants Work The heart of a gasification-based system is the gasifier. A gasifier converts hydrocarbon feedstock into gaseous components by applying heat under pressure in the presence of steam. A gasifier differs from a combustor in that the amount of air or oxygen available inside the gasifier is carefully controlled so that only a relatively small portion of the fuel burns completely. This "partial oxidation" process provides the heat. Rather than burning, most of the carbon-containing feedstock is chemically broken apart by the gasifier's heat and pressure, setting into motion chemical reactions that produce "syngas." Syngas is primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide, but can include

325

Ash chemistry and mineralogy of an Indonesian coal during combustion: Part 1 Drop-tube observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper reports a systematic and comprehensive laboratory investigation into the ash chemistry and mineralogical changes undergone by a low-rank Indonesian coal during combustion. Combustion experiments conducted in a drop-tube furnace included ash formation experiments (using cyclone and filter arrangement) under closely controlled conditions in the range of 1200–1400 °C and deposition experiments at a probe temperature of 750 °C. Tests conducted with raw coal, coal/additive mixtures and washed coal indicated significant changes in ash characteristics. Of the ash formation and deposit samples examined, the raw coal + bauxite showed the lowest glass content and high contents of corundum indicating low ash deposition propensities. When compared to the ash formation samples, the deposit samples showed even significantly lower glass contents and were enriched in quartz. With the exception of the raw coal + bauxite sample, all are characterized by high silica and iron and moderate aluminium contents. In contrast, the raw coal + bauxite sample have low silica and much higher alumina contents which is in agreement with XRD observations. QEMSCAN™ results showed that the ash particles are sparsely distributed suggesting lack of a deposit initiation layer. Experimental observations suggest that the use of raw coal with bauxite would appear to offer the best performance with respect to handling ash-related issues. Present findings are of practical significance to power utilities employing Indonesian coal as there is no comprehensive work reported in the literature on ash chemistry and mineralogy of such coals.

H.B. Vuthaluru; D. French

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Coal recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal Prices..AEO 2007 forecast for coal prices for PRB coal. Transmissionregimes. Sensitivity to Coal Prices Figure 9 is similar to

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

The environment of deposition of the Dalton Coal (Upper Pennsylvanian), Palo Pinto Co., TX.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, dried them in an oven, and picked the fossils out of the residue under a binocular scope. Or. Thomas Yancey assisted in the identification. Coal balls and concretions - Coal balls are thought to preserve the original texture, detrital mineral... kane content. Three of the samples were sent to Core Lab to determine the B. T. U. , ash, and sulfur content of the coal. I analyzed the remaining twenty- one samples with the use of the Oceanography department's Leco Combustion Furnace...

Lowenstein, Glenn Robert

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Trends, 2001 - 2010 Trends, 2001 - 2010 Transportation infrastructure overview In 2010, railroads transported over 70 percent of coal delivered to electric power plants which are generally concentrated east of the Mississippi River and in Texas. The U.S. railroad market is dominated by four major rail companies that account for 99 percent of U.S. coal rail shipments by volume. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by mode Rail Barge Truck Figure 2. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by rail, 2010 figure data Figure 3. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by barge, 2010 figure data Figure 4. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by truck, 2010 figure data The Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, where coal is extracted in

331

Coal | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation's electricity. The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. The Department is also investing in development of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy Secretary Moniz Visits Clean Coal Facility in Mississippi On Friday, Nov. 8, 2013, Secretary Moniz and international energy officials toured Kemper, the nation's largest carbon capture and storage facility, in Liberty, Mississippi. A small Mississippi town is making history with the largest carbon capture

332

Coal dust explosibility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports US Bureau of Mines (USBM) research on the explosibility of coal dusts. The purpose of this work is to improve safety in mining and other industries that process or use coal. Most of the tests were conducted in the USBM 20 litre laboratory explosibility chamber. The laboratory data show relatively good agreement with those from full-scale experimental mine tests. The parameters measured included minimum explosible concentrations, maximum explosion pressures, maximum rates of pressure rise, minimum oxygen concentrations, and amounts of limestone rock dust required to inert the coals. The effects of coal volatility and particle size were evaluated, and particle size was determined to be at least as important as volatility in determining the explosion hazard. For all coals tested, the finest sizes were the most hazardous. The coal dust explosibility data are compared to those of other hydrocarbons, such as polyethylene dust and methane gas, in an attempt to understand better the basics of coal combustion.

Kenneth L. Cashdollar

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Coal: the new black  

SciTech Connect

Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Strengthening the applicability of self-heating retorting process to oil shale via co-retorting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Recently a facile low-energy-input retorting route but without marked loss in the shale-oil yield is developed, which is achieved by a self-heating effect, that is, spontaneously increasing retorting temperature in the absence of external heat provision (Guo et al., 2013, 2014). In this work, the applicability of self-heating retorting (SHR) process to three Chinese oil shales from different places (i.e., Longkou, Huadian and Fushun) is studied. Of these three oil shales, Fushun oil shale is associated with coal and was previously abandoned during coal mining due to its not high kerogen or oil content. The results show that it’s hard for Fushun oil shale to obtain satisfying self-heating effect, while Longkou or Huadian oil shale with higher kerogen or oil content shows satisfactory SHR. However, by adding suitable amounts of Longkou or Huadian oil shale into Fushun oil shale, a satisfying self-heating effect can be obtained as well. Thus, the relatively low-grade Fushun oil shale can also be well utilized to produce shale oil via this facile SHR route. Moreover, to utilize Fushun oil shale with a greener SHR process, the process can be performed by co-retorting Fushun oil shale with pine needles, a kind of renewable biomass. This finding also provides a new starting point for exploring plentiful biomass resources to utilize low-grade oil shale to produce oil in the future work.

Hongfan Guo; Yindong Yang; Kuikui Wang; Yansong Pei; Qicheng Wu; Yunyi Liu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

U.S. Coal Reserves  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Data - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & Efficiency Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. Coal Reserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. Renewable & Alternative Fuels Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol.

336

Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion  

SciTech Connect

The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Low rank coal upgrading in a flow of hot water  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous hydrothermal degradation and extraction at around 350{sup o}C using flowing solvent as a reaction/extraction medium were proposed for upgrading brown coal, more specifically, for converting brown coal into several fractions having different molecular weight and chemical structure under mild conditions. When an Australian brown coal, Loy Yang coal, was treated by water at 350{sup o}C under 18 MPa, the coal was separated into four fractions: gaseous product by 8% yield, water-soluble extract at room temperature (soluble) by 23% yield, extract precipitates as solid at room temperature (deposit) by 23% yield, and residual coal (upgraded coal) by 46% yield on daf basis. The separation was found to be realized by in situ extraction of low-molecular-weight substances released from coal macromolecular structure and/or those generated by hydrothermal decomposition reactions at 350{sup o}C. The solid products obtained, deposit and upgraded coal, were characterized in detail to examine the possibility of their effective utilization as solid fuel and chemical feed stock. The upgraded coal showed higher heating value and higher gasification reactivity than the parent coal, indicating that the upgraded coal can be a better solid fuel than the parent coal. The solid extract, deposit, was found to show thermoplasticity at less than 200{sup o}C, suggesting the possibility of utilizing the deposit as a raw material of high performance carbon materials. Several variables affecting the performance of the proposed method are also examined in detail in this paper. 12 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Masato Morimoto; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Kouichi Miura [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

Progress in the China Shenhua coal liquefaction project  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. (HTI) signed an agreement with Shenhua Group, Ltd. (Shenhua) and China Coal Research Institute (CCRI) to conduct a feasibility study of a coal liquefaction commercial plant to be built in Shaanxi Province of People`s Republic of China. Coals produced in the Shenhua coal field, China`s largest developing coal field located in northern China, will be used as feedstock. HTI`s coal direct liquefaction process, HTI Coal, which incorporates a two-stage reactor system with interstage separator and an in-line fixed-bed hydrotreater, will be employed in the plant design. HTI`s proprietary iron-based catalyst, GelCat will be used in the process. The feasibility study includes two phases. Phase 1 work involves a bench-scale liquefaction testing of Shenhua coals from two seams and a preliminary economic evaluation. The results show that Shenhua coals, despite their low volatile matter and high inert macerals contents among the 14 Chinese coals studies by CCRI, demonstrated very good performance: fairly high coal conversions (up to 93%) and high distillate yields (63--68 wt%). Preliminary economic evaluation conducted on the basis of the bench-scale testing results and local economic data appear to be favorable. The Phase 2 work includes a 3--5 ton/day process development unit (PDU) testing Shenhua coals to confirm and improve the bench-scale performance, to collect a large product sample for refining studies, to obtain process data for an in-depth techno-economic analysis, and to provide engineering data for scale-up design. This run is scheduled in the middle of the year, and feed coal collection and run plan preparation are currently under way. The test results will be presented in this conference.

Zhou, P.; Popper, G.; Lee, L.K.; Comolli, A. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

339

Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

Loth, John L. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Friggens, Gary R. (Morgantown, WV)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

EIA-Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2007, DOE/EIA-M060(2007) (Washington, DC, 2007). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Forty separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade and sulfur content), and two mine types (underground and surface). Supply curves are constructed using an econometric formulation that relates the minemouth prices of coal for the supply regions and coal types to a set of independent variables. The independent variables include: capacity utilization of mines, mining capacity, labor productivity, the user cost of capital of mining equipment, and the cost of factor inputs (labor and fuel).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

EIA - Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2010, DOE/EIA-M060(2010) (Washington, DC, 2010). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade and sulfur content), and two mine types (underground and surface). Supply curves are constructed using an econometric formulation that relates the minemouth prices of coal for the supply regions and coal types to a set of independent variables. The independent variables include: capacity utilization of mines, mining capacity, labor productivity, the user cost of capital of mining equipment, the cost of factor inputs (labor and fuel), and other mine supply costs.

342

EIA - Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2008, DOE/EIA-M060(2008) (Washington, DC, 2008). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade and sulfur content), and two mine types (underground and surface). Supply curves are constructed using an econometric formulation that relates the minemouth prices of coal for the supply regions and coal types to a set of independent variables. The independent variables include: capacity utilization of mines, mining capacity, labor productivity, the user cost of capital of mining equipment, and the cost of factor inputs (labor and fuel).

343

Profitability analysis of non-coking coal preparation for power plants in India  

SciTech Connect

Currently coal-based power plants produce about 70% of the total electricity generated in India, where non-coking (steam) coals are utilized mostly without any preparation. A massive capacity addition of at least 140,000 MWe is required (over the 81,000 MWe of current installed capacity) during the next 15 years to meet growing energy demand. Such a rapid expansion of power generation capacity poses a serious challenge to the environment (at emission controls) and transportation infrastructure in India. Furthermore, the high ash content of indigenous coals and concentration of coal mines in central and northeastern India away from urban centers exacerbate the problem. Thus, coal preparation is envisioned to play a major role in shaping the energy future of India. Under the Indo-US Coal Preparation Program, the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is coordinating coal preparation activities for the US Agency for International Development. In this context, a detailed analysis of the washability characteristics of non-coking coals was performed using the PETC Coal Preparation Plant Simulator (CPPS) to identify coal preparation strategies for India. Based on these strategies, a profitability analysis of non-coking coal preparation has been conducted considering coal preparation and transportation costs, and coal quality impacts on power plant operations. This paper summarizes the results of this analysis and quantifies the significance of coal preparation for the Indian power sector.

Gollakota, S.V.; Rao, S.N. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Staats, G.E. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

Site clean up of coal gasification residues  

SciTech Connect

The coal gasification plant residues tested in this research consists of various particle sizes of rock, gravel, tar-sand agglomerates, fine sand and soil. Most of the soils particles were tar free. One of the fractions examined contained over 3000 ppM polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The residues were subjected to high pressure water jet washing, float and sink tests, and soil washing. Subsequent PAH analyses found less than 1 ppM PAHs in the water jet washing water. Soils washed with pure water lowered PAH concentrations to 276 ppM; the use of surfactants decreased PAHs to 47, 200, and 240 ppM for different test conditions. In the 47 ppM test, the surfactant temperature had been increased to 80 C, suggesting that surfactant washing efficiency can be greatly improved by increasing the solution temperature. The coal tar particles were not extracted by the surfactants used. Coke and tar-sand agglomerates collected from the float and sink gravimetric separation were tested for heating value. The tar exhibited a very high heating value, while the coke had a heating value close to that of bituminous coal. These processes are believed to have the potential to clean up coal gasification plant residues at a fairly low cost, pending pilot-scale testing and a feasibility study.

Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

345

Lung Tumor KRAS and TP53 Mutations in Nonsmokers Reflect Exposure to PAH-Rich Coal Combustion Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mutations, and p53-heat shock 70 protein...L. Indoor coal combustion emissions, GSTM1...indoor coal and wood combustion emissions from...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine from Xuan...PAH-rich coal combustion emissions. | We...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are the...

David M. DeMarini; Stefano Landi; Defa Tian; Nancy M. Hanley; Xueming Li; Fuding Hu; Barbara C. Roop; Marc J. Mass; Phouthone Keohavong; Weimin Gao; Magali Olivier; Pierre Hainaut; and Judy L. Mumford

2001-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Low-Rank Coal Grinding Performance Versus Power Plant Performance  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this project was to demonstrate that Alaskan low-rank coal, which is high in volatile content, need not be ground as fine as bituminous coal (typically low in volatile content) for optimum combustion in power plants. The grind or particle size distribution (PSD), which is quantified by percentage of pulverized coal passing 74 microns (200 mesh), affects the pulverizer throughput in power plants. The finer the grind, the lower the throughput. For a power plant to maintain combustion levels, throughput needs to be high. The problem of particle size is compounded for Alaskan coal since it has a low Hardgrove grindability index (HGI); that is, it is difficult to grind. If the thesis of this project is demonstrated, then Alaskan coal need not be ground to the industry standard, thereby alleviating somewhat the low HGI issue (and, hopefully, furthering the salability of Alaskan coal). This project studied the relationship between PSD and power plant efficiency, emissions, and mill power consumption for low-rank high-volatile-content Alaskan coal. The emissions studied were CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and Hg (only two tests). The tested PSD range was 42 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. Within the tested range, there was very little correlation between PSD and power plant efficiency, CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2}. Hg emissions were very low and, therefore, did not allow comparison between grind sizes. Mill power consumption was lower for coarser grinds.

Rajive Ganguli; Sukumar Bandopadhyay

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

CO2 adsorption capacity of argonne premium coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption and desorption isotherms of CO2 on dried Argonne Premium coal samples were investigated. A small hysteresis was detected between the adsorption and desorption isotherms. The hysteresis was small or negligible for high rank coals but discernable for low rank coals. The isotherms were found to be rectilinear and to fit the conventional adsorption equations poorly. The rectilinear shape of the adsorption isotherms was related to the solubility of the CO2 in the coal and to coal swelling. Using an adsorption model that accounted for volumetric effects provided good agreement between the surface areas calculated from the high-pressure isotherms and the literature values obtained under traditional low-pressure conditions. Ignoring the volumetric effects resulted in estimated surface areas that were 40% larger for the higher-ranked coals and 60–100% larger for the lower-ranked coals. The heat of adsorption, after correcting for volumetric effects, was fairly constant (26±1 kJ/mol) regardless of rank. The adsorption capacity, average pore size, and volume effect for each of the Argonne coals were also estimated employing the same model. The model equation explicitly accounts for volumetric effects, attributable to the solubility of CO2 in the organic matrix and the coal swelling, and estimates the actual adsorbed amount.

Ekrem Ozdemir; Badie I Morsi; Karl Schroeder

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Task II: evaluation of heat-exchanger and turbine materials for use in a coal-fired fluidized-bed-combustion environment. Final report, July 1, 1976-July 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Specific alloys were tested as in-bed and above-bed heat exchanger materials in the fireside environment of a pressurized fluidized bed coal combustor (PFBCC). Corrosion conditions on the alloys exposed to normal and very low oxygen pressures in the presence of calcium sulfate deposits were simulated. Bayonet-type specimen probes of selected alloys were exposed in the Exxon Miniplant at probe control temperatures representative of conventional steam, advanced steam, helium and liquid metal energy conversion cycles. Corrosion/erosion testing of the air cooled, welded samples consisted of a 117-hour shakedown run followed by an incremental 1000-hour exposure. Metallurgical analyses were run on removed specimens. The test matrix for in-bed and above-bed exposure was: 1050/sup 0/F (566/sup 0/C): 2.25 Cr-1Mo and 9Cr-1Mo steels (in-bed only); 1200/sup 0/F (649/sup 0/C): 304 SS and Incoloy-800; 1400/sup 0/F (760/sup 0/C): Incoloy-800 and Hastelloy-X; and 1600/sup 0/F (871/sup 0/C); Hastelloy-X and Haynes-188. Subscale sulfides formed in most of the alloys. The most severe corrosion was noted in the ferritic 2.25Cr-1Mo and 9Cr-1Mo steels at a nominal control temperature of 1050/sup 0/F (566/sup 0/C) and in Hastelloy-X at 1400/sup 0/F (760/sup 0/C) exposed in-bed. The best overall behavior of in-bed alloys was observed for Incoloy-800, which had a maximum metal loss of about .007 in (.18 mm) in 1117 hours of exposure at both 1200/sup 0/F (649/sup 0/C) and 1400/sup 0/F (760/sup 0/C) but averaged more nearly .001 in (.025 mm) to .002 in (.051 mm) and in Haynes-188 which showed maximum wall thinning of less than .003 in (.076 mm) at 1600/sup 0/F (871/sup 0/C) in the longest time exposure.

Not Available

1981-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

349

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fixation in slag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coallimestone and coal that form little fly ash and trap sulfurSulfate Organic Ash (%) "Organic Sulfur", in Wheelock, Coal

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Small-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) system for heat and power in remote areas  

SciTech Connect

Demand for heating and electric power has steadily increased in remote areas. The use of locally available fuel to achieve self sufficiency has become an important objective. Energy demands may require steam generation for district heating, power generation and process consumption. In addition, the steam generation unit can also be required to burn waste that includes MSW and sewage sludge. To meet these demands, new systems must be installed that use local fuel. This paper describes a lower cost CFBC for use in remote areas. With the support of DOE METC, in late summer 1994, DONLEE performed a test burn at its 10 MM btu/hr pilot CFBC using subbituminous coal from Wyoming. The Wyoming coal`s sulfur dioxide emissions were very low due to the low sulfur content of the Wyoming coal and the excellent efficiency at temperatures as low as 1,500 F thereby indicating no limestone addition was needed for sulfur capture. The CFBC testing indicated emissions met all of the environmental requirements, both Federal and state. These requirements include: particulates, SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, opacity, chlorinated dioxins/furans, etc. The unit can be fabricated in modules, making the installation easier and less expensive for use in remote areas. The design is highly reliable and can be fully automated thereby requiring limited staffing.

Stuart, J.M.; Korenberg, J. [DONLEE Technologies Inc., York, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The primary objectives for this reporting period were to construct a coal geological model for reservoir analysis and to continue acquisition of data pertinent to coal characterization that would help in determining the feasibility of carbon dioxide sequestration. Structural analysis and detailed correlation of coal zones are important for reservoir analysis and modeling. Evaluation of existing well logs indicates local structural complexity that complicates interpretations of continuity of the Wilcox Group coal zones. Therefore, we have begun searching for published structural maps for the areas of potential injection CO{sub 2}, near the coal-fired power plants. Preliminary evaluations of data received from Anadarko Petroleum Corporation suggest that coal properties and gas content and chemical composition vary greatly among coal seams. We are assessing the stratigraphic and geographic distributions and the weight of coal samples that Anadarko has provided to select samples for further laboratory analysis. Our goal is to perform additional isotherm analyses with various pure and/or mixed gases to enhance our characterization model. Additionally, we are evaluating opportunities for field determination of permeability with Anadarko, utilizing one of their wells.

Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4Q 2009 4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by transportation mode. The data sources beginning with the 2008 Coal Distribution Report

354

WCI Case for Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal The role of as an energy source The role of coal as an energy source Key Messages * Energy demand has grown strongly and will continue to increase, particularly in developing countries where energy is needed for economic growth and poverty alleviation. * All energy sources will be needed to satisfy that demand by providing a diverse and balanced supply mix. * Coal is vital for global energy security. It is abundantly available, affordable, reliable and easy and safe to transport. * In an energy hungry world the challenge for coal, as for other fossil fuels, is to further substantially reduce its greenhouse gas and other emissions, while continuing to make a major contribution to economic and social development and energy security. * Coal is part way down a technology pathway that has already delivered major

355

Process for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Clinkering properties of rammed coking coal and coal batches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The clinkering properties of rammed coking coal and coal batches are investigated. There is a close relation between the clinkering properties and coke quality.

V. M. Shmal’ko; M. A. Solov’ev

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost· Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Catalytic steam gasification of coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic steam gasification of coals ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ...

P. Pereira; G. A. Somorjai; H. Heinemann

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Coal Mining Tax Credit (Arkansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Coal Mining Tax Credit provides an income or insurance premium tax credit of $2.00 per ton of coal mined, produced or extracted on each ton of coal mined in Arkansas in a tax year. An...

362

Illinois Coal Revival Program (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Illinois Coal Revival Program is a grants program providing partial funding to assist with the development of new, coal-fueled electric generation capacity and coal gasification or IGCC units...

363

Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio...

364

Sandia National Laboratories: Clean Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ManagementClean Coal Clean Coal The term clean coal refers to a number of initiatives that seek to reduce or eliminate the hazardous emission or byproducts that result from using...

365

COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

Wrathall, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Coal extraction process  

SciTech Connect

Sub-divided coal is extracted under non-thermally destructive conditions with a solvent liquid containing a compound having the general formula:

Hammack, R. W.; Sears, J. T.; Stiller, A. H.

1981-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

367

Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

368

Coal Development (Nebraska)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This section provides for the development of newly-discovered coal veins in the state, and county aid for such development.

369

Spitsbergen Tertiary Coal Fossils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... grains and spores to be observed in coal deposits of Tertiary age in west Spitsbergen (Norsk Polarinstitutt, Med. 79, pp. 1-9; 1954; English summary).

1955-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

370

Coal Gasification Systems Solicitations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Cost Coal Conversion to High Hydrogen Syngas; FE0023577 Alstom's Limestone Chemical Looping Gasification Process for High Hydrogen Syngas Generation; FE0023497 OTM-Enhanced...

371

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Handbook of coal analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Handbook deals with the various aspects of coal analysis and provides a detailed explanation of the necessary standard tests and procedures that are applicable to coal in order to help define usage and behavior relative to environmental issues. It provides details of the meaning of various test results and how they might be applied to predict coal behavior during use. Emphasis is on ASTM standards and test methods but ISO and BSI standards methods are included. Chapter headings are: Coal analysis; Sampling and sample preparation; Proximate analysis; Ultimate analysis; Mineral matter; Physical and electrical properties; Thermal properties; Mechanical properties; Spectroscopic properties; Solvent properties; and Glossary.

James G. Speight

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

US coal market softens  

SciTech Connect

The operators table some near term expansion plans, meanwhile long-term fundamentals look strong. This is one of the findings of the Coal Age Forecast 2007 survey of readers predictions on production and consumption of coal and attitudes in the coal industry. 50% of respondents expected product levels in 2007 to be higher than in 2006 and 50% described the attitude in the coal industry to be more optimistic in 2007 than in 2006. Most expenditure is anticipated on going on new equipment but levels of expenditure will be less than in 2006. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 12, 2014 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report...

375

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......CFPPs installed in Turkey uses lignite, the catalagz CFPP uses the...basin, Turkey. The total reserve of the basin is estimated as...contents in feed coals from lignite-fired power plants in Western...equilibrium in the ashes produced in lignite-fired power plants. J......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Crystallization of Coal Ash Slags at High Temperatures and Effects on the Viscosity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coal samples were ashed in a muffle furnace at 815 °C, according to the Chinese Standard GB/T1574-2007. ... Shenfu and Beisu coals are enriched in glass modifying oxides (CaO + Fe2O3 + MgO > 30%), while the contents of Al2O3 in Baodian coal ash is higher than 30%; therefore, they exhibit the crystalline slag behavior. ... compn. of coals and coal ashes from a wide variety of deposits (41) were studied by a melting test, x-ray diffractometry, light microscopy, differential-thermal, thermogravimetric and chem. ...

Haiping Yuan; Qinfeng Liang; Xin Gong

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

377

The Role of Semifusinite in Plasticity Development for a Coking Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal rank is a factor of great importance in plasticity development during carbonization, since only some bituminous coals swell in a satisfactory manner and then resolidify to produce good commercial cokes. ... Diessel studied the carbonization behavior of the inertinite macerals in Australian coals by carrying out tests up to 1000 °C where the optical characteristics of the coked entities were correlated with their noncoked counterparts. ... For instance, large-scale coking experiments of some Australian coals containing more than 45% inertinite produced good quality coke, while a Carboniferous coal with that high of an inertinite content gave only a very poor coke. ...

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Darrell N. Taulbee; John M. Andrésen; James C. Hower; Colin E. Snape

1998-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

378

Development of a Coal Quality Expert  

SciTech Connect

ABB Power Plant Laboratories Combustion Engineering, Inc., (ABB CE) and CQ Inc. completed a broad, comprehensive program to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of using higher quality U.S. coals for electrical power generation and developed state-of-the-art user-friendly software--Coal Quality Expert (CQE)-to reliably predict/estimate these benefits in a consistent manner. The program was an essential extension and integration of R and D projects performed in the past under U.S. DOE and EPRI sponsorship and it expanded the available database of coal quality and power plant performance information. This software will permit utilities to purchase the lowest cost clean coals tailored to their specific requirements. Based on common interest and mutual benefit, the subject program was cosponsored by the U.S. DOE, EPRI, and eight U.S. coal-burning utilities. In addition to cosponsoring this program, EPN contributed its background research, data, and computer models, and managed some other supporting contracts under the terms of a project agreement established between CQ Inc. and EPRI. The essential work of the proposed project was performed under separate contracts to CQ Inc. by Electric Power Technologies (El?'T), Black and Veatch (B and V), ABB Combustion Engineering, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Decision Focus, Inc. Although a significant quantity of the coals tied in the United States are now cleaned to some degree before firing, for many of these coals the residual sulfur content requires users to install expensive sulfur removal systems and the residual ash causes boilers to operate inefficiently and to require frequent maintenance. Disposal of the large quantities of slag and ash at utility plant sites can also be problematic and expensive. Improved and advanced coal cleaning processes can reduce the sulfur content of many coals to levels conforming to environmental standards without requiring post-combustion desulfurization systems. Also, some coals may be beneficiated or blended to a quality level where significantly less costly desulfurization systems are needed. Coal cleaning processes may also be used to remove the precursors of other troublesome emissions that can be identified now or in the future. An added benefit of coal cleaning and blending is the reduction in concentrations of mineral impurities in the fuel leading to improved performance and operation of the'' boiler in which it is fired. The ash removed during the pre-combustion cleaning process can be more easily and safely disposed of at the mine than at the utility plant after combustion. EPRI's Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) has shown that improved fuel quality can result in savings in unit capital and operating costs. This project produced new and improved software to select coal types and specifications resulting in the best quality and lowest cost fuel to meet specific environmental requirements.

None

1998-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

379

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Evolving performance characteristics of clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of {open_quotes}semicommercial{close_quotes} facilities. These demonstrations are on a scale large enough to generate all the data, from design, construction, and operation, that are necessary for the private sector to judge commercial potential and make informed, confident decisions on commercial readiness. The projects in the program are demonstrating technologies that will encompass advanced electric power generation systems, high-performance pollution control devices, coal processing for clean fuels and industrial applications. The innovative CCTs being demonstrated offer tremendous potential as solutions to many complex problems in a rapidly changing arena dominated by energy, economic, and environmental issues. These issues include the following: air quality; global climate change; energy security; international competitiveness; acid rain; power production; and technology awareness. These technologies are expected to be of particular importance to the utility industry. Power production in the United States, particularly in the form of electricity, is expected to increase rapidly during the next 20 years. The growth in electricity consumption between 1990 and 2000 translates into the need for at least an additional 200,000 MWe of capacity by 2010. The ability to continue to use coal to produce electricity and as a source of industrial heat and power is critical. In the United States approximately 86 percent of coal is critical. The CCT Program is developing through demonstration new power and steam production systems using coal-based technologies that will permit coal to be a clean, efficient, reliable source of affordable energy.

Miller, C.L.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

382

Coal-to-liquids bill introduced in the Senate  

SciTech Connect

Of immense importance to the coal industry is the announcement, on 7 June 2006 by US Senators Barack Obama (D-IL) and Jim Bunning (R-KY) of S.3325, the 'Coal-to-Liquid Fund Promotion Act of 2006'. This legislation creates tax incentives for coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies and construction of CTL plants. If passed, this will create the infrastructure needed to make CTL a viable energy resource throughout America. The article gives comment and background to this proposed legislation. Illinois Basin coal is well suited for CTL because of its high Btu content. If Sasol constructs a proposed plant in Illinois it would increase coal production in the state by 10 mt. 1 fig.

Buchsbaum, L.

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

384

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Clean Coal Today Newsletter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Demonstrations Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today is a quarterly newsletter of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Office of Clean Coal. Among other things, Clean Coal Today highlights progress under the Clean Coal Power Initiative, the Power Plant Improvement Initiative, and the few remaining projects of the original Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Reporting on coal R&D performed at government laboratories, as well as in conjunction with stakeholders, it provides key information on FE's coal-related activities, most of which are directed toward near-zero emissions, ultra-efficient technologies of the future. Subscriptions are free – to have your name placed on the mailing list, contact the Editor at Phoebe.Hamill@hq.doe.gov.

385

Geochemistry of coal from Cretaceous Corwin and Chandler formations, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)  

SciTech Connect

Ninety coal samples from these formations within NPRA were collected and analyzed in order to evaluate coal quality and elemental distribution. Their apparent rank ranges from lignite A in the northern part of NPRA to high-volatile AS bituminous coal in the southern part. Mean vitrinite reflectance values range from 0.65 to 0.74%. Some Corwin Formation coal samples west of NPRA have coking potential with free-swelling indexes between 3.0 and 5.0. Compared to other western United States Cretaceous coal, NPRA coal is significantly lower in ash, volatile matter, O, Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Ti, Cu, F, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, and Zn. Statistical comparisons of element concentrations indicate that the mean content of Si, Al, K, Li, Sc, Y, and Yb increases as the mean ash content increases (correlation coefficient at least 0.7). Sulfur values are extremely low (0.1%), and elements that normally show positive correlation with sulfur, such as Fe, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn, are also low. Therefore, coal from NPRA can be characterized by low ash and sulfur contents and low contents of elements of environmental concern, such as As, Be, Hg, Mo, Sb, and Se. The elements found to have positive correlations with ash content are probably present as aluminosilicate or stable oxide minerals. Variations in element content and quality of NPRA coal were probably influenced by the geochemical conditions that existed in the Corwin and Umiat delta systems.

Affolter, R.H.; Stricker, G.D.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Iron Minerals in Coal, Weathered Coal and Coal Ash – SEM and Mössbauer Results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the present investigation was to identify and quantify the iron mineral phases present in South African coal from various coal fields and in coal ash, after industrial and laboratory combustion process...

F. B. Waanders; E. Vinken; A. Mans; A. F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi

387

COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM  

SciTech Connect

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced ?cars?) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993?1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High-Calcium Coal Combustion By-Products, 5) Development of an Environmentally Appropriate Leaching Procedure for Coal Combustion By-Products, 6) Set Time of Fly Ash Concrete, 7) Coal Ash Properties Database (CAPD), 8) Development of a Method for Determination of Radon Hazard in CCBs, 9) Development of Standards and Specifications, 10) Assessment of Fly Ash Variability, and 11) Development of a CCB Utilization Workshop. The primary goal of CARRC is to work with industry to solve CCB-related problems and promote the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economical utilization and disposal of these highly complex materials. CARRC 1993?1998 accomplishments included: C Updating the CAPD to a user-friendly database management system, and distributing it to CARRC members. C ASTM standard preparation for a guide to using CCBs as waste stabilization agents. C Preliminary identification of specific mineral transformations resulting from fly ash hydration. C Limited determination of the effects of fly ash on the set time of concrete. C Statistical evaluation of a select set of fly ashes from several regional coal-fired power plants. C Development and presentation of a workshop on CCB utilization focused on government agency representatives and interested parties with limited CCB utilization experience. C Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants  

SciTech Connect

The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The extruder is special because all of its auger surface and the internal barrier surface are covered with the membranes allowing water to drain and solid particles retained. It is believed that there are four mechanisms working together in the dewatering process. They are hydrophilic diffusion flow, pressure flow, agitation and air purging. Hydrophilic diffusion flow is effective with hydrophilic membrane. Pressure flow is due to the difference of hydraulic pressure between the two sides of the membrane. Agitation is provided by the rotation of the auger. Purging is achieved with the air blow from the near bottom of the extruder, which is in vertical direction.

Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

389

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products - Utilization Projects -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University of North Dakota, EERC - Table of Contents University of North Dakota, EERC - Table of Contents Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Stabilizing Feedlots Using Coal Ash Environmental Evaluation for Utilization of Ash in Soil Stabilization Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Background CAEEC is a cooperation among industry, government, and the research community to work together to solve CCB- related problems and promote the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable utilization and disposal of CCBs. Objectives To improve the technical and economic aspects of coal combustion by-product (CCB) management. Description CARRC tasks fall into three general categories: Member-prioritized research tasks, Technical and administrative tasks, and Special projects that support CARRC objectives and strengthen and increase the availability of sound technical data for CARRC use.

390

Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Fine Anthracite Coal Washing Using Spirals  

SciTech Connect

The spiral performed well in cleaning the coarse 8 x 16 mesh size fraction, as demonstrated by the Ep ranging from 0.091 to 0.177. This is in line with typical spiral performance. In addition, the presence of the coarser size fraction did not significantly affect spiral performance on the typical 16 x 100 mesh fraction, in which the Ep ranged from 0.144 to 0.250. Changes in solids concentration and flow rate did not show a clear correlation with spiral performance. However, for difficult-to-clean coals with high near-gravity material, such as this anthracite, a single-stage spiral cleaning such a wide size fraction may not be able to achieve the clean coal ash and yield specifications required. In the first place, while the performance of the spiral on the coarse 8 x 16 mesh fraction is good with regard to Ep, the cutpoints (SG50s) are high (1.87 to 1.92), which may result in a clean coal with a higher-than-desired ash content. And second, the combination of the spiral's higher overall cutpoint (1.80) with the high near-gravity anthracite results in significant misplaced material that increases the clean coal ash error. In a case such as this, one solution may be to reclean the clean coal and middlings from the first-stage spiral in a second stage spiral.

R.P. Killmeyer; P.H. Zandhuis; M.V. Ciocco; W. Weldon; T. West; D. Petrunak

2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

Simulating Carbon Dioxide Sequestration/ECBM Production in Coal Seams: Effects of Permeability Anisotropies and Other Coal Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Economics for Sequestering CO Economics for Sequestering CO 2 in Coal Seams with Horizontal Wells Grant S. Bromhal, NETL/US DOE W. Neal Sams, NETL/EG&G Sinisha A. Jikich, NETL/Parsons Turgay Ertekin, Penn State Duane H. Smith, NETL/US DOE 3 rd Annual Sequestration Conference May 3-6, 2004 Alexandria, VA Descriptor - include initials, /org#/date Problem: How do economics change the optimal design of coal seam sequestration in Eastern coal seams? * Eastern coal seams tend to be thin with relatively high methane content and sequestration capacity per mass of coal. * Horizontal wells have shown promise for improved methane recovery and CO 2 injectivity. * Many studies have been performed to optimize design for total volume of CO 2 sequestered, but economics have not been included. Descriptor - include initials, /org#/date

393

Coal-fueled diesels for modular power generation  

SciTech Connect

Interest in coal-fueled heat engines revived after the sharp increase in the prices of natural gas and petroleum in the 1970`s. Based on the success of micronized coal water slurry combustion tests in an engine in the 1980`s, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy. initiated several programs for the development of advanced coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine engines for use in cogeneration, small utilities, industrial applications and transportation. Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have been developing technology since 1985, under the sponsor of METC, to enable coal water slurry (CWS) to be utilized in large bore, medium-speed diesel engines. Modular power generation applications in the 10--100 MW size (each plant typically using from two to eight engines) are the target applications for the late 1990`s and beyond when, according to the US DOE and other projections, oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate much more rapidly compared to the price of coal. As part of this program over 7.50 hours of prototype engine operation has been achieved on coal water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder full scale engine with Integrated Emissions Control System in 1993. In this paper, the authors described the project cost of the CWS fuel used, the heat rate of the engine operating on CWS, the projected maintenance cost for various engine components, and the demonstrated low emissions characteristics of the coal diesel system.

Wilson, R.P. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Rao, A.K. [Cooper-Bessemer Reciprocating, Grove City, PA (United States); Smith, W.C. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Morgantown Energy Technology Center

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Process for removal of hazardous air pollutants from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for removing mercury and other trace elements from coal containing pyrite by forming a slurry of finely divided coal in a liquid solvent capable of forming ions or radicals having a tendency to react with constituents of pyrite or to attack the bond between pyrite and coal and/or to react with mercury to form mercury vapors, and heating the slurry in a closed container to a temperature of at least about 50.degree. C. to produce vapors of the solvent and withdrawing vapors including solvent and mercury-containing vapors from the closed container, then separating mercury from the vapors withdrawn.

Akers, David J. (Indiana, PA); Ekechukwu, Kenneth N. (Silver Spring, MD); Aluko, Mobolaji E. (Burtonsville, MD); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas  

SciTech Connect

High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, zirconia, and fireclay glass. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products (phase equilibria) and the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time.

Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

1992-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

396

Coal characterisation for \\{NOx\\} prediction in air-staged combustion of pulverised coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A series of world-traded coal samples has been tested using the Imperial College high temperature wire mesh apparatus (HTWM) in order to assess the relationship between high temperature (1600°C) char nitrogen content and \\{NOx\\} formation in Hemweg Power Station (in the Netherlands) using deep furnace air staging. A linear relationship between high temperature char nitrogen and \\{NOx\\} formation has been confirmed. These results suggest that high temperature char N content is the main factor limiting \\{NOx\\} emissions with deep air-staged combustion. Char N and (hence apparently deep air-staged NOx) can be predicted with an accuracy of approximately ±20% for most coals from the coal proximate and ultimate analysis—but this might not be sufficient for stations operating close to their emission limits. Measuring high temperature char N directly reduces the likely uncertainty in deep air-staged \\{NOx\\} emissions for coals (and most blends) to approximately ±10%. Its use should be considered on a routine basis for coal selection on plants employing this technology.

C.K. Man; J.R. Gibbins; J.G. Witkamp; J. Zhang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SHR Sensible heat ratio T&RH Temperature and relative humidity TC Thermocouple UA Heat loss coefficient v Table of Contents List of Figures ......

398

Coal Gasification in Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... P. S. Andrews gave a full account of the Federal project for the pressure gasification of non-coking coals for the combined purpose of town's gas ' and the ... of town's gas ' and the production of synthetic liquid fuel. Work on the gasification of brown coal in. Victoria was commenced in 1931 by the technical staff of ...

1955-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

399

Chemicals from Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Mas-sachusetts Institute of Technology, 1974; J. B. Howard...Petras, in Coal Pro-cessing Technology (American Institute of Chem-ical...with the solidifcation of a fluid bituminous coal as it undergoes...Policy Analyst, Science and Technology Policy Office (Staff to the...

Arthur M. Squires

1976-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

400

Incentives boost coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Higher energy prices are making technologies to gasify the USA's vast coal reserves attractive again. The article traces the development of coal gasification technology in the USA. IGCC and industrial gasification projects are now both eligible for a 20% investment tax credit and federal loan guarantees can cover up to 80% of construction costs. 4 photos.

Hess, G.

2006-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

HS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Coal Fossil Energy Study Guide: Coal Coal is the most plentiful fuel in the fossil family. The United States has more coal reserves than any other country in the world. In fact, one-fourth of all known coal in the world is in the United States, with large deposits located in 38 states. The United States has almost as much energ y in coal that can be mined as the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. TYPES OF COAL Coal is a black rock made up of large amounts of carbon. Like all fossil fuels, coal can be burned to release energy. Coal contains elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; has various amounts of minerals; and is itself considered to be a mineral of organic origin. Due to the variety of materials buried over time in the

402

STEO November 2012 - coal supplies  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to decline in 2013, primarily because of continuing economic weakness in Europe, lower international coal prices, and higher coal production in Asia. However, U.S. coal exports next year are still expected to top 100 million tons for the third year in a row

403

Group effects on fuel NOx emissisons from coal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GROUP EFFECTS ON FUEL NOX EMISSIONS FROM COAL A Thesis by ANAND ANAKKARA VADAKKATH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering GROUP EFFECTS ON FUEL NOX EMISSIONS FROM COAL A Thesis by ANAND ANAKKARA VADAKKATH Approved ss to style and content by: K. Annamalai (Chair of Committee) Cr, R. Laster (Member) J. Wagne (Member...

Vadakkath, Anand Anakkara

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

404

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Origin State, Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

405

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report April-June 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of B.D. Hong, Leader, Coal Infor- mation Team, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section should be directed to Paulette Young at (202) 426-1150, email

406

By Coal Destination State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Colorado Total 2,113 - - - 2,113 Colorado Railroad 2,113 - - - 2,113 Illinois Total 336 - - - 336 Illinois River 336 - - - 336 Indiana Total 1,076

407

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report January-March 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of B.D. Hong, Leader, Coal Infor- mation Team, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section should be directed

408

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Destination State, Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

409

Coal in China  

SciTech Connect

The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

By Coal Origin State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Florida Total - - 15 - 15 Florida Railroad - - 11 - 11 Florida Truck - - 3 - 3 Georgia Total 196 - 15 - 211 Georgia Railroad 189 - 1 - 190 Georgia Truck

411

Multi-parameter on-line coal bulk analysis  

SciTech Connect

This was a four-year grant that was given a no cost extension for one more year. The purpose of the grant was to develop a pulsed neutron-based technique that could measure on-line all the major and minor elements in coal. Such measurements would allow the continuous monitoring of bulk parameters such as coal heating value (BTU/lb), volatile matter, moisture etc., deemed important to the coal industry. Such parameters, along with the continuous measurement of elements such as sulfur and sodium, are of major economic and environmental concern, and their measurement would assist in a more efficient use of the coal-fired boilers, as well as limiting emissions controlled by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. It was hoped that this study would lead to the development of a technique able to create a marketable product, an On-Line Elemental Coal Analyzer. The study was separated in the following major parts: (1) Devise an efficient system for the detection of gamma rays; (2) Prior to experimentation, perform modeling and simulations for items such as detector shielding, coal sample configuration, and neutron tube collimation; (3) Develop a computer code for data reduction and analysis; (4) Measure the elemental composition of various coal samples; and (5) Design a prototype, on-line elemental coal analyzer, based on the PFTNA principle.

NONE

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The Cherokee and Crawford County Coal Field With Analyses of the Coal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The most serious objection to this method is the claim that certain non-coking coals suffer mechanical loss from the rapid heating. No evidence to support this con- tention has been submitted. 51. ASH. In the determination of ash, either a new sample... in the purchase of fuel on the B .t .u . basis. This method is used in the fuel inspection laboratory of the Bureau of Mines. ( Methods of analysing Coal and Coke, Bureau of Mines, Technical paper #8 . ) 35, CALORIFIC VALUE OF DETERMINATION. T£e calorific...

Carpenter, C.B.; Brown, H.R.

1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program December 18, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Uncovering Coal’s Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program The challenges confronting the environmentally sound use of our country's fossil energy resources are best addressed through collaborative research and development. That's why this approach, which stretches federal dollars, is at the heart of the Office of Fossil Energy's University Coal Research (UCR) Program. Managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UCR program funds university research to improve understanding of the chemical and physical properties of coal, one of our nation's most abundant

414

Solvent extraction of bituminous coals using light cycle oil: characterization of diaromatic products in liquids  

SciTech Connect

Many studies of the pyrolytic degradation of coal-derived and petroleum-derived aviation fuels have demonstrated that the coal-derived fuels show better thermal stability, both with respect to deposition of carbonaceous solids and cracking to gases. Much previous work at our institute has focused on the use of refined chemical oil (RCO), a distillate from the refining of coal tar, blended with light cycle oil (LCO) from catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil. Hydroprocessing of this blend forms high concentrations of tetralin and decalin derivatives that confer particularly good thermal stability on the fuel. However, possible supply constraints for RCO make it important to consider alternative ways to produce an 'RCO-like' product from coal in an inexpensive process. This study shows the results of coal extraction using LCO as a solvent. At 350{sup o}C at a solvent-to-coal ratio of 10:1, the conversions were 30-50 wt % and extract yields 28-40 wt % when testing five different coals. When using lower LCO/coal ratios, conversions and extract yields were much smaller; lower LCO/coal ratios also caused mechanical issues. LCO is thought to behave similarly to a nonpolar, non-hydrogen donor solvent, which would facilitate heat-induced structural relaxation of the coal followed by solubilization. The main components contributed from the coal to the extract when using Pittsburgh coal are di- and triaromatic compounds. 41 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Josefa M. Griffith; Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). EMS Energy Institute

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Combustion characteristics of dry coal-powder-fueled adiabatic diesel engine: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at investigating the combustion characteristics of dry coal powder fueled diesel engine. During this program, significant achievements were made in overcoming many problems facing the coal-powder-fueled engine. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept was used to enhance the combustion of coal powder fuel. The major coal-fueled engine test results and accomplishments are as follows: design, fabrication and engine testing of improved coal feed system for fumigation of coal powder to the intake air; design, fabrication and engine testing of the TICS chamber made from a superalloy material (Hastelloy X); design, fabrication and engine testing of wear resistant chrome oxide ceramic coated piston rings and cylinder liner; lubrication system was improved to separate coal particles from the contaminated lubricating oil; control of the ignition timing of fumigated coal powder by utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and variable TICS chamber temperature; coal-fueled engine testing was conducted in two configurations: dual fuel (with diesel pilot) and 100% coal-fueled engine without diesel pilot or heated intake air; cold starting of the 100% coal-powder-fueled engine with a glow plug; and coal-fueled-engine was operated from 800 to 1800 rpm speed and idle to full load engine conditions.

Kakwani, R.M.; Kamo, R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Effects of paleolatitude on coal quality - model for organic sulfur distribution in US coal  

SciTech Connect

In the conterminous US, most Carboniferous peats accumulated at latitudes of 0/degrees/-15/degrees/S, Cretaceous Rocky Mountain province peats at 30/degrees/-45/degrees/N, Tertiary northern Great Plains peats at 40/degrees/-55/degrees/N, and Tertiary Gulf Coast peats at 30/degrees/-40/degrees/N. Alaskan Cretaceous and Tertiary peats accumulated at latitudes above 70/degrees/N. A comparison of paleolatitudes calculated from paleomagnetic poles and organic sulfur contents for more than 7000 coal samples indicates that the higher the latitude in which a peat swamp developed, the lower the mean organic sulfur content of the subsequent coal (correlation coefficient - 0.4; significant at the 99% confidence level). Mean organic sulfur contents range from 0.90% (range = 0.01-5.08%, standard deviation = 0.56) in low-latitude Carboniferous coal to 0.25% (range = 0.01-1.41%, standard deviation = 0.23) in high-latitude Alaskan Cretaceous and Tertiary coal.

Affolter, R.H.; Stricker, G.D.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Particulate control for low rank coals  

SciTech Connect

The power generating system in Victoria currently comprises a total capacity of 6650 MW. Eighty percent of this capacity consists of base load stations in the Latrobe Valley using brown coal. The Latrobe Valley brown coals have unique characteristics with high moisture content ranging from 58 percent to 70 percent and an ash content which is relatively low but very variable in nature. These and other factors associated with the coal have caused special problems in handling and combustion of the coal and the de-dusting of the boiler flue gases. In recent years, this has been the basis for the design parameters adopted for all the plants in the system. With respect to flue gas de-dusting, the SECV has carried out extensive laboratory studies to characterize the different ashes obtained from the Latrobe Valley brown coals, including precipitability and aerodynamic tests. It also carried out full-scale tests on operating plants and pilot tests have been conducted on inertial collectors, precipitators and bag filters. The Environmental Protection Authority of Victoria has established a particulate emission level of 0.150 grams/m{sup 3} n.t.p. dry for recent Latrobe Valley boilers. However, the mandated emission level takes into account wide variations in operating conditions, and the plants normally achieve much lower emission levels. The Latrobe Valley plants presently in operation include Yallourn W (2x350 MW + 2x375 MW), Morwell (170 MW total and briquette factory), Hazelwood (8x200 MW) and Loy Yang (4x500 MW). The Yalloum W boilers are supplied with coal from the Yalloum Open Cut, the Morwell and Hazelwood boilers from the Morwell Open Cut and Loy Yang boilers from the Loy Yang Open Cut. All boilers are pulverized coal fired (PCF) and incorporate special firing equipment to enable the as-mined wet coal to be fired directly into the furnaces. All boilers are fitted with electrostatic precipitators. The locations of the stations and open cuts are shown.

Touzel, R.McD.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

418

Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40%) with coal.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Conditioner for flotation of coal  

SciTech Connect

A method for recovering coal is described which comprises the steps of floating coal in an aqueous frothing medium containing an amount of a condensation product of an alkanolamine and naphthenic acid sufficient to increase the recovery of coal as compared to the recovery of coal in an identical process using none of the condensation product.

Nimerick, K.H.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

420

Coal market momentum converts skeptics  

SciTech Connect

Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Coal Science: Basic Research Opportunities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...carbon is arranged in coal becomes real. What...NMR experiments at high temperatures. This...of characterizing high-boiling coal "liquids" which...reactions. Coal mineral matter. Most U.S. coals...burned is called ash. Techniques are...

Martin L. Gorbaty; Franklin J. Wright; Richard K. Lyon; Robert B. Long; Richard H. Schlosberg; Zeinab Baset; Ronald Liotta; Bernard G. Silbernagel; Dan R. Neskora

1979-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

422

Report of Shelton wood-coal firing tests conducted March 16-April 2, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Wood and coal combinations were tested at representative steam rates while boiler performance, gaseous and particulate emissions were measured. Wood and coal combinations were tested at representative steam rates while boiler performance, gaseous and particulate emissions were measured. Wood contributed up to 50% of the Btu requirements of the boilers during the tests. The Quinault-Pacific system will permit selected green mill residues to be used in place of coal at the rate of 2.5 tons of wood per ton of coal. Green wood and coal are compatible fuels. Heat provided by the coal and other combustion effects are enough to offset the effects of moisture in green wood and in some cases improve boiler performance. The combined firing of wood with coal at typical steam rates results in better flyash collection, lower emissions, improved opacity, better cinder recovery and lower steam costs.

Not Available

1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

423

The relationship between the thermoplastic behavior of blends and their component coals  

SciTech Connect

The thermoplastic behaviors of a number of coking coal blends were measured using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) to determine to what extent they were affected by interactions between the component coals. Most blends showed evidence that at temperatures near their temperatures of maximum fluidity the extent to which they fused was different to that expected if the coals did not interact. Only blends of coking coals of different rank fused to a greater extent than expected in the absence of interactions. Semi-anthracite, low rank coals and charcoal reduced the extent of fusion of coking coals to values below those expected if they were acting as inert diluents. These interactions are interpreted as being mediated by transfer of volatile material between the coals on heating.

Sakurovs, R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict environmental requirements. DOE provided $117,327,000 of the total project cost of $282,300,000, or 41.6 percent. Construction for the demonstration project was started in May 1995, and completed in November 1997. Operations were initiated in January 1998, and completed in December 1999. The evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from the AIDEA's Final Report (Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, 2001), as well as other references cited.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Research on the evolvement of morphology of coking coal during the coking process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The evolvement of morphology and structure of the coal with different metamorphic degrees during coking process in the vertical furnace was investigated by infrared Image detector. Moreover, the temperature distribution in the radial direction and the crack formation were also studied in heating process. The results show that the amount of crack and the shrinkage level of char decrease with the coal rank rising. In addition, the initial temperature of crack formation for char increases with the coal rank rising.

Xiangyun Zhong; Shiyong Wu; Yang Liu; Zhenning Zhao; Yaru Zhang; Jinfeng Bai; Jun Xu; Bai Xi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and closer temperature control. The heat storage capacity of water per cubic foot is considerably greater than steam at equivalent saturation pressures, as shown in Table No. II (below). This inherent reserve or "fly wheel" effect permits closer... furnace and convection section. Coal ash fouling characteristics will have a bearing on the convection section tube spacing. Low grade coals should be reviewed for their slagging and fouling characteristics. For example, lignite and low grade coals...

Boushell, C. C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

428

MS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL America has more coal than any other fossil fuel resource. Th e United States also has more coal reserves than any other single country in the world. In fact, 1/4 of all the known coal in the world is in the United States. Th e United States has more energy in coal that can be mined than the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. Currently, coal is mined in 25 of the 50 states. Coal is used primarily in the United States to generate electricity. In fact, it is burned in power plants to produce nearly half of the electricity we use. A stove uses about half a ton of coal a year. A water heater uses about two tons of coal a year. And a refrigerator, that's another half-ton a year. Even though you

429

Small boiler uses waste coal  

SciTech Connect

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Colorado Railroad 575 - - - 575 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 241 - - - 241 Kentucky Railroad 827 - 12 - 839 Kentucky (East) Railroad 76 - - - 76 Kentucky (West) Railroad

431

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 839 11 83 - 933 Alabama River 1,347 - - - 1,347 Alabama Truck 118 216 236 - 571 Alabama Total 2,304 227 320 - 2,850 Colorado Railroad 514 - - - 514 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 172 - - - 172 Kentucky Railroad 635 - 11 - 647 Kentucky (East) Railroad 45 - - - 45 Kentucky (West)

432

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 944 16 77 - 1,037 Alabama River 781 - - - 781 Alabama Truck 77 224 220 - 521 Alabama Total 1,802 240 298 - 2,340 Colorado Railroad 385 - - - 385 Illinois River 15 - - - 15 Indiana Railroad 1 - - - 1 Indiana River 350 - - - 350 Indiana Total 351 - - - 351 Kentucky Railroad 682 - 2 - 685 Kentucky (East)

433

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

June 2010 DOE/EIA-0121 (2010/01Q) June 2010 DOE/EIA-0121 (2010/01Q) Revised: July 2012 Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2010 June 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.gov/coal/production/quarterly/ _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

434

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 907 10 59 - 975 Alabama River 903 - - - 903 Alabama Truck 150 144 253 - 546 Alabama Total 1,960 153 311 - 2,424 Colorado Railroad 640 - - - 640 Illinois River 123 - - - 123 Indiana River 312 - - - 312 Kentucky Railroad 622 - 36 - 658 Kentucky (East) Railroad 96 - 36 - 132 Kentucky (West)

435

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Colorado Total 468 - - - 468 Colorado Railroad 468 - - - 468 Illinois Total 90 - 26 - 116 Illinois River 90 - 26 - 116 Indiana Total 181 - - - 181 Indiana River 181 -

436

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2012 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Colorado Total 82 - - - 82 Colorado Railroad 82 - - - 82 Illinois Total 149 - 14 - 163 Illinois Railroad 44 - - - 44 Illinois River 105 - 14 - 119 Indiana Total 99 - - - 99

437

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2008 July 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

438

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2009 September 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

439

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7/01Q) 7/01Q) Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2007 June 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

440

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Georgia Railroad 23 - - - 23 Georgia Truck s - - - s Georgia Total 23 - - - 23 Indiana Railroad - 115 - - 115 Indiana Truck - 71 - - 71 Indiana Total - 186 - - 186 Tennessee Railroad - - 1 - 1 Tennessee Truck

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat content coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3Q) 3Q) Quarterly Coal Report July - September 2008 December 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

442

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2008 September 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

443

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8/04Q) 8/04Q) Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2008 March 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

444

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 1,040 18 80 - 1,138 Alabama River 668 - - - 668 Alabama Truck 52 164 223 - 438 Alabama Total 1,760 181 303 - 2,244 Colorado Railroad 600 - - - 600 Illinois River 203 - 13 - 217 Indiana River 180 - - - 180 Kentucky Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Kentucky (West) Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Utah Railroad 18 - - -

445

Coal combustion products (CCPs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

combustion products (CCPs) combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an important contribution in this regard. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Coal Combustion Products Fossil Energy Research Benefits

446

Modelling coal gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal gasification processes in a slurry-feed-type entrained-flow gasifier are studied. Novel simulation methods as well as numerical results are presented. We use the vorticity-stream function method to study the characteristics of gas flow and a scalar potential function is introduced to model the mass source terms. The random trajectory model is employed to describe the behaviour of slurry-coal droplets. Very detailed results regarding the impact of the O2/coal ratio on the distribution of velocity, temperature and concentration are obtained. Simulation results show that the methods are feasible and can be used to study a two-phase reacting flow efficiently.

Xiang Jun Liu; Wu Rong Zhang; Tae Jun Park

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

448

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,486 155 328 - 1,970 Alabama Railroad 1,020 - 75 - 1,095 Alabama River 417 - - - 417 Alabama Truck 49 155 253 - 458 Colorado Total 195 - - - 195 Colorado Railroad 195 - - - 195 Illinois Total 127 - 18 - 145 Illinois Railroad 20 - - - 20 Illinois River 107 - 18 - 125 Indiana Total

450

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2012 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Georgia Total s - s - s Georgia Truck s - s - s Indiana Total - 98 - - 98 Indiana Railroad - 98 - - 98 Kentucky Total - - 12 - 12 Kentucky Truck - - 12 - 12 Ohio Total - 30 - - 30 Ohio

451

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,942 160 335 - 2,437 Alabama Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 Alabama River 741 - - - 741 Alabama Truck 52 160 278 - 490 Colorado Total 621 2 - - 623 Colorado Railroad 621 2 - - 623 Illinois Total 113 - 11 - 123 Illinois River 113 - 11 - 123 Indiana Total 265 - - - 265 Indiana Railroad

452

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Georgia Total s - - - s Georgia Truck s - - - s Indiana Total - 72 - - 72 Indiana Railroad - 72 - - 72 Tennessee Total - - 7 - 7 Tennessee Truck - - 7 - 7 Origin State Total 1,896

453

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal ... Studies of the reactions of coal in electric discharges by two chemists at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Pittsburgh Coal Research Center may lead to improved ways of producing acetylene and other useful chemicals from coal. ... Other workers have produced high yields of acetylene from coal by extremely rapid pyrolysis using energy sources such as plasma jets, laser beams, arc-image reactors, and flash heaters. ...

1968-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

454

Coal-fueled diesel locomotive test  

SciTech Connect

The biggest challenges to the development of a commercially-acceptable coal-fueled diesel-electric locomotive are integrating all systems into a working unit that can be operated in railroad service. This involves mainly the following three systems: (1) the multi-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine, (2) the locomotive and engine controls, and (3) the CWS fuel supply system. Consequently, a workable 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine was considered necessary at this stage to evolve the required locomotive support systems, in addition to gaining valuable multi-cylinder engine operating experience. The CWS fuel used during this project was obtained from Otisca, Inc. (Syracuse, NY). It was prepared from micronized and deashed Kentucky Blue Gem coal to 49.0% coal loading by weight, with less than 1% ash and 5 micron mean diameter particle size. Its higher heating value was analyzed at approximately 34630 kJ/k. Anti-agglomerating additive Triton X-114 was added to the CWS at GE Transportation Systems at 2% of coal weight. The nature of the Otisca CWS fuel makes it inherently more difficult to store, pump, and inject than diesel fuel, since concepts which govern Newtonian or normally viscous liquids do not apply entirely to CWS. Otisca CWS tends to be unstable and to settle in tanks and lines after a period of time, making it necessary to provide a means of agitation during storage. To avoid long term settling problems and to minimize losses, piping velocities were designed to be in the 60-90 m/min range.

Hsu, B.D.; McDowell, R.E.; Confer, G.L.; Basic, S.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Optimization of multigravity separation for recovery of ultrafine coal  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced gravity separation appears to be one of the most promising methods for processing all types of < 200-{mu}m coal feeds and tailings. Systems based on this technology are reviewed, and the results of investigations based on C900 Multi-Gravity Separator tests conducted to assess the treatment of < 200-{mu}m, extremely difficult-to-wash coal settling pond tailings are presented. Multi-Gravity Separator processing tests of ultra-fine tailings with a high clay particle size content (22.6% < 10 {mu}m and 60.1 % < 40 {mu}m) and a 69.56% ash content show that this material can be effectively treated after desliming (< 10 {mu}m) of clay-size particles to produce a coal with a