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1

Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Commercial Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multi-split heat pumps have evolved from a technology suitable for residential and light commercial buildings to variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems that can provide efficient space conditioning for large commercial buildings. VRF systems are enhanced versions of ductless multi-split systems, permitting more indoor units to be connected to each outdoor unit and providing additional features such as simultaneous heating and cooling and heat recovery. VRF systems are very popular in Asia and Europe and...

2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

2

Proceedings: Commercial Refrigeration Research Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improving refrigeration systems for commercial use can enhance both utility load factors and supermarket profits. This workshop has pinpointed research needs in commercial refrigeration and systems integration for a supermarket environment.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

List of Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigeration Equipment Incentives Refrigeration Equipment Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 103 Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 103) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs (West Virginia) Utility Rebate Program West Virginia Commercial Industrial Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Programmable Thermostats Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Ground Source Heat Pumps Yes AEP Ohio - Commercial New Construction Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Industrial Local Government Municipal Utility

4

Commercial Refrigeration Equipment | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigeration Equipment Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

5

Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water easy. Since refrigeration equipment runs more than heat pumps, energy savings can be large for ground-coupled refrigeration. The paper presents a design procedure for ground loops for heat pumps, hot water, ice machines, and water-cooled refrigeration. It gives an overview of the commercial ground-coupled systems in Louisiana that have both refrigeration and heat pumps. Systems vary from small offices to a three-story office building with 187 tons. A chain of hamburger outlets uses total ground-coupling in all of its stores. A grocery store has ground-coupling for heat pumps and refrigeration. Desuperheaters provide 80 percent of the hot water for a coin laundry in the same building. A comparison of energy costs in a bank with a ground-coupled heat pump system to a similar bank with air-conditioning and gas for heat revealed a 31 percent reduction in utility costs for the ground-coupled building. Two buildings of the Mississippi Power and Light Co. have ground-coupled heat pumps in one, and high efficiency air source heat pumps in the other. Energy savings in nine months was 60,000 kWh (25 percent), and electric peak demand was reduced 42 kW (35 percent).

Braud, H. J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Nonprofit Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Incentives over $5,000 must be pre-approved Program Info Funding Source Efficiency Vermont Public Benefit Fund Expiration Date 06/30/2013 State Vermont Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Outside Air Economizers: $1,250 Evaporator Fan Motors: $20 - $100 Evaporator Fan Motor Controls: $550 Door/Frame Heater Controls: $50 per door Case Light Occupancy Controls: $40 LED Refrigerator and Freezer Case Light Fixtures: $6 - $15 per foot Energy Star Ice Machines: $50 - $75 Efficient Compressors: $200 Display Case Strip-Curtain and Continuous Covers: $6 per foot

7

US Department of Energys Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

US Department of Energy's Regulatory Negotiations Convening on US Department of Energy's Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment Public Information for Convening Interviews I. What are the substantive issues DOE seeks to address? Strategies for grouping various basic models for purposes of certification; Identification of non-efficiency attributes, which do not impact the measured consumption of the equipment as tested by DOE's test procedure; The information that is certified to the Department; The timing of when the certification should be made relative to distribution in commerce; and Alterations to a basic model that would impact the certification.

8

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These comments...

9

Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

Barclay, J.A.; Prenger, F.C. Jr.

1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

11

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe of pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Prenger, Jr., F. Coyne (Madison, WI)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Commercial Refrigerator Door: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5351)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

13

DOE/EA-1643: Environmental Assessment for 10 CFR 431 Commercial Refrigeration Equipment (December 2008)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers; Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator- Freezers without Doors; and Remote Condensing Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator-Freezers December 2008 CHAPTER 16. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS TABLE OF CONTENTS 16.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 16-1 16.2 AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................ 16-1

14

Otter Tail Power Company - Commercial & Industrial Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heating Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Water Heating Maximum Rebate Refrigeration...

15

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

Jardine, D.M.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

16

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota) Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota) < Back...

20

Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool  

SciTech Connect

Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER for evaporation heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant R-134a flowing in a plate heat exchanger. Correlation heat exchanger are found to result in large discrepancies with their own experimental data

Kandlikar, Satish

23

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Research of Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle Heat Engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper firstly introduces the principles of Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle solar power towers This heat engines use solar reservoire. When the refrigerant in an engine cylinder absorbs heat from high-temperature heat sources, refrigerant ... Keywords: refrigerant phase-change cycle, heat engines, finite-time thermodynamics

Dezhong Huang; Fuer Wu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Industrial and Commercial Heat Pump Applications in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy crisis of 1973 accelerated the development of large-scale heat pumps in the United States. Since that time, the commercial, institutional, and industrial applications of heat pumps for waste heat recovery have expanded. This paper reviews the trends in heat pump cycle developments and discusses both the closed vapor compression cycle and refrigerants most commonly used and the open-cycle mechanical vapor compression heat pumps. Waste heat sources, heat loads served by heat pumps--and typical applications using heat pumps for large-scale space heating, domestic water heating, and industrial process water heating-- are discussed. Typical installations include commercial applications in hotels, high-rise apartments and condominiums, and office buildings. Institutional installations discussed include hospitals, universities, wastewater treatment plants, and airport terminals. Industrial applications largely center on food processing industries, feedwater heating, metal fabricating, and other industries. Reference is also made to other applications and alternative energy sources now gaining acceptance, including groundwater/geothermal water.

Niess, R. C.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Commercial laundry heat recovery system  

SciTech Connect

In a commercial laundry that is connected to a source of fresh water and generates heated waste water, a method is described for recovering heat from the heated waste comprising the steps of: (a) pumping the heated waste water through a heat exchanger; (b) introducing fresh water into the heat exchanger to receive heat from the waste water through a heat transfer effected by the heat exchanger; (c) withdrawing a first proportion of the heated fresh water at a first temperature; (d) conveying the first proportion of the heated fresh water to cold water storage tank; (e) withdrawing a second proportion of the heated fresh water at a second temperature higher than the first temperature; (f) conveying the second proportion of the heated fresh water to a hot water storage tank.

Kaufmann, R.O.

1986-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

29

Heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The bypass system operates to pass strong solution from the generator around the heat exchanger to the absorber of the absorption refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator above a selected level indicative of solidification of strong solution in the heat exchanger or other such blockage. The bypass system includes a bypass line with a gooseneck located in the generator for controlling flow of strong solution into the bypass line and for preventing refrigerant vapor in the generator from entering the bypass line during normal operation of the refrigeration system. Also, the bypass line includes a trap section filled with liquid for providing a barrier to maintain the normal pressure difference between the generator and the absorber even when the gooseneck of the bypass line is exposed to refrigerant vapor in the generator. Strong solution, which may accumulate in the trap section of the bypass line, is diluted, to prevent solidification, by supplying weak solution to the trap section from a purge system for the absorption refrigeration system.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Scaling and Optimization of Magnetic Refrigeration for Commercial Building HVAC Systems Greater than 175 kW in Capacity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR) account for approximately one- third of building energy consumption. Magnetic refrigeration presents an opportunity for significant energy savings and emissions reduction for serving the building heating, cooling, and refrigeration loads. In this paper, we have examined the magnet and MCE material requirements for scaling magnetic refrigeration systems for commercial building cooling applications. Scaling relationships governing the resources required for magnetic refrigeration systems have been developed. As system refrigeration capacity increases, the use of superconducting magnet systems becomes more applicable, and a comparison is presented of system requirements for permanent and superconducting (SC) magnetization systems. Included in this analysis is an investigation of the ability of superconducting magnet based systems to overcome the parasitic power penalty of the cryocooler used to keep SC windings at cryogenic temperatures. Scaling relationships were used to develop the initial specification for a SC magnet-based active magnetic regeneration (AMR) system. An optimized superconducting magnet was designed to support this system. In this analysis, we show that the SC magnet system consisting of two 0.38 m3 regenerators is capable of producing 285 kW of cooling power with a T of 28 K. A system COP of 4.02 including cryocooler and fan losses which illustrates that an SC magnet-based system can operate with efficiency comparable to traditional systems and deliver large cooling powers of 285.4 kW (81.2 Tons).

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; West, David L [ORNL; Mallow, Anne M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Performance monitoring strategies for effective running of commercial refrigeration systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Refrigeration systems often represent the largest electricity consumers in the supermarkets. Therefore there is a clear need for running these systems effectively. Performance monitoring uses different techniques to determine the actual system state. ... Keywords: COP, FDD, energy monitoring, performance measure, refrigeration

Martin Hrn?ár; Petr Stluka

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Heat pump/refrigerator using liquid working fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat transfer device is described that can be operated as a heat pump or refrigerator, which utilizes a working fluid that is continuously in a liquid state and which has a high temperature-coefficient of expansion near room temperature, to provide a compact and high efficiency heat transfer device for relatively small temperature differences as are encountered in heating or cooling rooms or the like. The heat transfer device includes a pair of heat exchangers that may be coupled respectively to the outdoor and indoor environments, a regenerator connecting the two heat exchangers, a displacer that can move the liquid working fluid through the heat exchangers via the regenerator, and a means for alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the working fluid. The liquid working fluid enables efficient heat transfer in a compact unit, and leads to an explosion-proof smooth and quiet machine characteristic of hydraulics. The device enables efficient heat transfer as the indoor-outdoor temperature difference approaches zero, and enables simple conversion from heat pumping to refrigeration as by merely reversing the direction of a motor that powers the device.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Solana Beach, CA); Knight, William R. (Corvallis, OR); Warkentin, Paul A. (San Diego, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Commercial and Industrial Prescriptive Rebates | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat pumps, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Motor VFDs, Refrigerators, Roofs, LED Exit Signs, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment, Food Service Equipment, Room Air...

35

DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD-0003 / (RIN)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD-0003 DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD-0003 / (RIN) 1904-AC19 DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD-0003 / (RIN) 1904-AC19 In today's call we discussed the new CRE proposed standard and how ControlTec anti-sweat controls can help meet those standards without sacrificing equipment performance or integrity. We have a revolutionary product that is the only in the business that has built in Measurement & Verification (M&V). All other anti-sweat heater controls are old technology that has algorithm's to estimate store conditions inaccurately. EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards.pdf More Documents & Publications General Electric: ENERGY STAR Referral (PFSF5NFZ****) Docket No. EERE- 2008-BT-STD-0005, RIN 1904-AB57 Ex parte

36

Commercial laundry heat recovery system  

SciTech Connect

Waste water of above ambient temperature in a commercial laundry is directed through a self-cleaning plate and frame heat exchanger to heat incoming fresh water. Some of the fresh water heated to a first temperature is directed to a cold water storage tank to raise the water therein above ambient temperature which results in substantially lessened downstream requirements for heat input with commensurate cost reductions. The remainder of the fresh water is heated to a higher second temperature and is directed to a hot water storage tank. A system of valves regulates the temperature of the water flowing into each of the hot and cold water storage tanks to maintain a preset temperature in each of the storage tanks.

Kaufmann, R.O.

1983-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-acceptable refrigerants. Whether involving design of specific new products or refriger- ants to which the entire industryElectric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

38

New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

Brant, B.; Brueske, S. [Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Erickson, D.; Papar, R. [Energy Concepts Co., Annapolis, MD (United States)

1998-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

39

Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration in a Meat Processing Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat recovery system consists of a shell and tube heat exchanger (16"? x 14'0") installed in the compressor hot gas discharge line. Water is recirculated from a 23,000-gallon tempered water storage tank to the heat exchanger by a circulating pump at the rate of 100 gallons per minute. All make-up water to the plant hot water system is supplied from this tempered water storage tank, which is maintained at a constant filled level. Tests to determine the actual rate of heat recovery were conducted from October 3, 1979 to October 12, 1979, disclosing an average usage of 147,000 gallons of hot water daily. These tests illustrated a varied heat recovery of from 0.5 to 1.0 million BTU per hour. The deviations were the result of both changing refrigeration demands and compressor operating modes. An average of 16 million BTU per day was realized, resulting in reduced boiler fuel costs of $30,000 annually, based on the present $.80 per gallon #2 fuel oil price. At the total installed cost of $79,000, including test instrumentation, the project was found to be economically viable. The study has demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of refrigeration waste heat recovery as a positive energy conservation strategy which has broad applications in industry and commerce.

Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Influence of External Heat Source on Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic refrigerants such as CFCs and HCFCs are harmful to the ozone and could cause greenhouse effect. Refrigerant alternatives research is very urgent. CO2 as a natural working fluid has zero ODP and its GWP=1, is receiving more and more attention ... Keywords: Coefficient of Performance, Experimental Investigation, Heat Source, Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration System

Liu Yingfu; Xiao Jian; Jin Guangya

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Application Availability of Insulation Heat of the Terrace in a Rebuilt Refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dealing with the terrace in rebuilt refrigerators influences the performance characteristics, performance safety and construction costs. This paper researches the heat transfer of the terrace of the rebuilt refrigerator by the numerical method, analyzes the temperature distribution of the terrace, and supplies guidance for rebuilding refrigerators.

Qu, C.; Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Energy Information Administration (EIA)- Commercial Buildings ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Data from the 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey ... and energy-using equipment types (heating, cooling, refrigeration, water ...

43

A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

Raustad, Richard A. [Florida Solar Energy Center

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation contains provisions for facilities and service related to electricity, natural gas, water, heating, refrigeration, and street railways. The chapter addresses the construction and...

45

Ground-source Heat Pumps Applied to Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Ground-source heat pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to heat and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source heat pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of a lack of experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a ground-coupling system, a conventional water-source heat pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing thermodynamic properties of earth and groundwater for efficient operation throughout the year in most climates. In essence, the ground (or groundwater) serves as a heat source during winter operation and a heat sink for summer cooling. Many varieties in design are available, so the technology can be adapted to almost any site. Ground-source heat pump systems can be used widely in commercial-building applications and, with proper installation, offer great potential for the commercial sector, where increased efficiency and reduced heating and cooling costs are important. Ground-source heat pump systems require less refrigerant than conventional air-source heat pumps or air-conditioning systems, with the exception of direct-expansion-type ground-source heat pump systems. This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. Ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are provided in Appendix A. Additional appendixes provide other information on the ground-source heat pump technology.

Parker, Steven A.; Hadley, Donald L.

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

46

Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Ground-source heat pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to heat and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source heat pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of a lack of experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a ground-coupling system, a conventional water-source heat pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing thermodynamic properties of earth and groundwater for efficient operation throughout the year in most climates. In essence, the ground (or groundwater) serves as a heat source during winter operation and a heat sink for summer cooling. Many varieties in design are available, so the technology can be adapted to almost any site. Ground-source heat pump systems can be used widely in commercial-building applications and, with proper installation, offer great potential for the commercial sector, where increased efficiency and reduced heating and cooling costs are important. Ground-source heat pump systems require less refrigerant than conventional air-source heat pumps or air-conditioning systems, with the exception of direct-expansion-type ground-source heat pump systems. This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. Ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are provided in Appendix A. Additional appendixes provide other information on the ground-source heat pump technology.

Parker, Steven A.; Hadley, Donald L.

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability  

SciTech Connect

This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were integrated into cycle models that were subsequently used to investigate the life-cycle costs of both an R-134a and water refrigeration cycle. It was found that the first cost associated with the water as a refrigerant cycle greatly exceeded the savings in operating costs associated with its somewhat higher COP. Therefore, the water refrigeration cycle is not an economically attractive option to today's R-134a refrigeration system. There are a number of other issues, most notably the requirements associated with purging non-condensable gases that accumulate in a direct contact heat exchanger, which will further reduce the economic viability of the water cycle.

Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Gregory F. Nellis; Douglas T. Reindl

2004-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

48

Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery  

SciTech Connect

An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

49

Control system for heat exchangers fans in a refrigeration system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents a method for controlling evaporator and condenser fans in a refrigeration system. The refrigeration system includes a refrigerant circuit defined by a compressor, a condenser, a throttling device, and an evaporator. The system includes ... Keywords: controlling, fan, refrigeration system, variable frequency drive unit

Cristian Iosifescu; Valeriu Damian; C?lin Ciufudean

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment Sign up for e-mail updates on regulations for this and other products...

51

Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

Lowe, K.T.

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

52

Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

Lowe, K.T.

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

53

Solar Heated Pools for Your Commercial Property  

SciTech Connect

A brochure describing the energy-saving and cost-saving benefits of using solar water heating in commercial swimming pools.

American Solar Energy Society

2001-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

54

Unique method for liquid nitrogen precooling of a plate fin heat exchanger in a helium refrigeration cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unique method for liquid nitrogen precooling of a plate fin heat exchanger in a helium refrigeration cycle

Weber, T B; Howell, G; Racine, M; Weisend, J G

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

A continuous heat regenerative adsorption refrigerator using spiral plate heat exchanger as adsorbers: improvements  

SciTech Connect

Spiral plate heat exchangers as adsorbers have been proposed, and a prototype heat regenerative adsorption refrigerator using activated carbon-methanol pair has been developed and tested. Various improvements have been made, the authors get a specific cooling power for 2.6 kg-ice/day-kg adsorbent at the condition of generation temperature lower than 100 C. Discussions on the arrangements of thermal cycles and influences of design are shown.

Wang, R.Z.; Wu, J.Y.; Xu, Y.X. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). Inst. of Refrigeration and Cryogenics

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Heat Transfer Fluids Containing Nanoparticles  

commercial and industrial heat-transfer applications. ... Refrigeration and other cooling systems Nuclear reactors Aerospace Defense Grinding and ...

57

COFELY Refrigeration | Rdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 CopyrightCOFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

©COFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten. Industrial Design #12;COFELY Refrigeration | RĂŒdiger Roth | European HeatCOFELY Refrigeration | RĂŒdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 Seite 1 Copyright©COFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten. #12;COFELY Refrigeration | RĂŒdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

58

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1997-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

59

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Programmable Thermostats, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment, Geothermal Heat Pumps, LED Lighting Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector Utility Energy Category Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Commercial Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey ... space cooling, water heating, ventilation, cooking, refrigeration, and lighting. The market segment ...

62

Energy Efficiency Report-Chapter 4: Commercial Buildings Sector  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) The CBECS ... water heating, refrigeration, powering office equipment, and other uses.

63

Comparing Variable Refrigerant Flow to Traditional Heating and Cooling Technologies: Assessing VRF Performance in Mobile, Alabama  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In America, most conditioned air is delivered by ductwork, which is often made of sheet metal covered in insulation and installed during construction. However, in Japan and Europe, because the office buildings often pre-date the invention of air conditioning, it is easier and more common for refrigerant pipes to run to wall- or ceiling-mounted heat exchangers. Using refrigerant pipes instead of ducting can eliminate duct loss and offer more precise control. Are Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) ...

2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

64

Performance Assessment of a Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Air Conditioning System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) technology uses smart integrated controls, variable speed drives, and refrigerant piping to provide energy efficiency, flexible operation, ease of installation, low noise, zone control, and comfort through all-electric technology. This report describes and documents the construction, performance, and application of a heat pump air conditioning system that uses VRF technology8212the Daikin VRV system. This variable refrigerant volume (VRV) system is manufactured by Daikin I...

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

65

List of Refrigerators Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigerators Incentives Refrigerators Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 657 Refrigerators Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-657) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Ohio - Commercial Custom Project Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government Tribal Government Boilers Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Furnaces Heat pumps Heat recovery Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Processing and Manufacturing Equipment Refrigerators Yes AEP Ohio - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Fed. Government Industrial

66

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

u COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION STANDBY External power suppliesTV External Power Supply Standby Transformers Computers/SeHeat Pump Water Heater Standby TV Refrigerator Others* Air

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

AHRI Comments - DOE Verification Testing in Support of Energy Star AHRI Comments - DOE Verification Testing in Support of Energy Star May 9, 2011 P a g e | 1 May 9, 2010 Ms. Ashley Armstrong U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 RE: DOE Verification Testing in Support of Energy Star Dear Ms. Armstrong: I am writing on behalf of the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) to address the proposed DOE requirements for verification testing in support of the Energy Star program. AHRI is the trade association representing manufacturers of heating, cooling, and commercial refrigeration equipment. More than 300 members strong, AHRI is an internationally recognized advocate for the industry, and develops standards for and certifies the performance of many of the

68

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) notice in the August 8, 2012 Federal Register...

69

IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

ANDREWS, J.W.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refrigeration processes (4 5) Vapor-compression refrigeration processes (4-5) Absorption refrigeration; Gas processing (O2, H2, CO2, LPG, LNG...) (3) Air conditioning, cooling towers, rg/pages/zon Air conditioning, cooling towers, food cooling and freezing (4) Heat pumps, heat pipes, special ww.sgisland.o p p

Zevenhoven, Ron

71

Heat Pump Water Heaters for Commercial Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reviews the technology of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) for commercial building applications. The report discusses the technical and conceptual background of heat pump water heaters, laboratory testing as performed at EPRI's laboratory, and implications of the test results. It provides analysis of the climactic applicability, financial scenarios, the air-cooling benefit or detriment of HPWH technology.

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

72

The Effect of Circuiting Arrangement on the Thermal Performance of Refrigeration Mixtures in Tube-and-Fin Condensing Heat Exchangers  

SciTech Connect

For the pure or azeotropic refrigerants typically used in present air conditioning and refrigeration applications, the refrigerant changes phase at a constant temperature. Thus, the refrigerant circuiting arrangement such as crossfiow, counterfiow, or cross-counterflow, has no effect on the thermal performance. For zeotropic refrigerant mixtures, however, the phase-change occurs over a temperature range, or "glide", and the refrigerant circuiting arrangement, or flow path through the heat exchanger, can affect the thermal performance of both the heat exchangers as well as the overall efficiency of the vapor compression cooling cycle. The effects of tsvo diflerent circuiting arrangements on the thermal performance of a zeotropic retligerant mixture and an almost azeotropic refrigerant mixture in a four-row cross-countertlow heat exchanger arrangement are reported here. The two condensers differ only in the manner of circuiting the refrigerant tubes, where one has refrigerant always flowing downward in the active heat transfer region ("identical order") and the other has refrigerant alternating flow direction in the active heat transfer region ("inverted order"). All other geometric parameters, such as bce are% fin louver geometry, refrigerant tube size and enhancement etc., are the same for both heat exchangers. One refrigerant mixture (R-41OA) un&rgoes a small temperature change ("low glide") during phase change, and the other retligerant mixture (a multi- component proprietary mixture) has a substantial temperature change ("high glide") of approximately 10"C during the phase change process. The overall thermal conductance, two-phase conductance, and pressure drop are presented. For the flow conditions of these tests, which are representative of resi&ntial cooling conditions, inverted order circuiting is more desirable than identical order. The potential thermal advantages of the i&ntical order arrangement for high-glide zeotropic refrigerant mixtures are negated by the increased parasitic refrigerant-side pressure drop utiortunately resulting from tkbrication requirements of the identical order circuiting.

Chen, D.T.; Conklin, J.C.

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Effect of surface conditions on boiling heat transfer of refrigerants in shell-and-tube evaporators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental results are presented for the boiling heat transfer performance of R 22 and R 717 on surfaces with porous metallized coatings. A calculational-theoretical model is given for predicting the heat transfer of refrigerants boiling on a bundle of finned tubes.

Danilova, G.N.; Dyundin, V.A.; Borishanskaya, A.V.; Soloviyov, A.G.; Vol'nykh, Y.A.; Kozyrev, A.A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources is under investigation in this paper. The proposed cycle combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle. The ejector is driven by the exhausts from the turbine to produce power and refrigeration simultaneously. A simulation was carried out to analyze the cycle performance using R245fa as the working fluid. A thermal efficiency of 34.1%, an effective efficiency of 18.7% and an exergy efficiency of 56.8% can be obtained at a generating temperature of 395 K, a condensing temperature of 298 K and an evaporating temperature of 280 K. Simulation results show that the proposed cycle has a big potential to produce refrigeration and most exergy losses take place in the ejector. (author)

Zheng, B.; Weng, Y.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES  

SciTech Connect

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82Ă?ÂșC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.100.110.2 Typical refrigerant: R-134a, R- 600a and other hydrocarbons cture:http://1 Air-cooled condensing unit ncompressioisentropicwithprocess isentropicc realc t COP COP · The diagram gives some efficiency data from commercial vapour- 6 some efficiency data from commercial vapour compression refrigerators (T1 = TH, T2 = TL, data from 1976

Zevenhoven, Ron

77

The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar heat; • refrigeration loads that can be met either by standard equipment or absorption equivalents; • hot-water and space-heating

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Technology data characterizing refrigeration in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have access to energy end-use forecasting models that include more detailed representations of energy-using technologies in the commercial sector. These new forecasting models disaggregate energy consumption not only by fuel type, end use, and building type, but also by specific technology. The disaggregation of the refrigeration end use in terms of specific technologies, however, is complicated by several factors. First, the number of configurations of refrigeration cases and systems is quite large. Also, energy use is a complex function of the refrigeration-case properties and the refrigeration-system properties. The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND 4.0) and the associated data development presented in this report attempt to address the above complications and create a consistent forecasting framework. Expanding end-use forecasting models so that they address individual technology options requires characterization of the present floorstock in terms of service requirements, energy technologies used, and cost-efficiency attributes of the energy technologies that consumers may choose for new buildings and retrofits. This report describes the process by which we collected refrigeration technology data. The data were generated for COMMEND 4.0 but are also generally applicable to other end-use forecasting frameworks for the commercial sector.

Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Refrigerant Properties: Commercial Cooling Update Issue 5, Rev. 6, September 1999  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Update describes the properties of existing and proposed refrigerants. Because many of these properties are measured by techniques that are still evolving, some of the values shown may change. The data included are from the most recently published sources. Properties covered include: ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, refrigeration capacity, energy efficiency, flammability, exposure limits,and refrigerant blends. A table conveniently compares traditional refrigerants in use, new re...

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

80

City of Palo Alto Utilities - Commercial and Non-Profit Efficiency...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat pumps, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Motor VFDs, Refrigerators, Siding, Steam-system upgrades, Water Heaters, Windows, Commercial Cooking Equipment, Commercial...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

DOE Seeks Commercial Storage for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Seeks Commercial Storage for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Seeks Commercial Storage for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve March 14, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington,...

82

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Amarnath, M. Blatt, Variable refrigerant flow: where, why,simulation in the variable refrigerant flow air-conditioningsimulation of the variable refrigerant flow air conditioning

Hong, Tainzhen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

OE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps.

84

Direct Refrigeration from Heat Recovery Using 2-Stage Absorption Chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although the cost of some fossil fuels has moderated, the importance of energy conservation by heat recovery has not diminished. The application of waste heat generated steam to produce chilled water is not new. However, there is a newly developed absorption chiller which can produce chilled water 44% more efficiently than the conventional single stage absorption chillers. The new 2-stage parallel flow system makes the chiller package more compact, more efficient, and easier to operate. Many types of waste heat, not just steam, can be used directly in this new chiller without the need for costly recovery and conversion systems.

Hufford, P. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One Stage Compressor Heat Exchanger Refrigeration Load XBLOne Stage Compressor Heat Exchanger Refrigeration Load XBLcondensers, surface heat exchangers, surface condensers,

green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

New and Underutilized Technology: Commercial Ground Source Heat Pumps |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Ground Source Heat Commercial Ground Source Heat Pumps New and Underutilized Technology: Commercial Ground Source Heat Pumps October 8, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for commercial ground source heat pumps within the Federal sector. Benefits Commercial ground source heat pumps are ground source heat pump with loops that feed multiple packaged heat pumps and a single ground source water loop. Unit capacity is typically 1-10 tons and may be utilized in an array of multiple units to serve a large load. Application Condensing boilers are appropriate for housing, service, office, and research and development applications. Key Factors for Deployment FEMP has made great progress with commercial ground source heat pump technology deployment within the Federal sector. Primary barriers deal with

87

Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial Heat Pump  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial Heat Pump Program (Maine) Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial Heat Pump Program (Maine) < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State Maine Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Mini-Split Heat Pumps: $600; plus 7.75% financing if necessary Provider Bangor Hydro Electric Company Bangor Hydro Electric Company offers a two-tiered incentive program for residential and small commercial customers. Mini-Split Heat Pumps are eligible for a rebate of $600, as well as a loan to cover the initial cost of the heat pump purchase. Financing is offered at 7.75% APR, for up to

88

Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project Emerging Technologies » Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. As concerns about climate change intensify, it is becoming increasingly clear that suitable low-GWP refrigerants will be needed for both new and existing residential and commercial heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) equipment. Project Description This project seeks to develop alternative refrigerants for HVAC&R equipment. The overall environmental impacts of alternative refrigerants will be assessed using a life cycle climate performance model that accounts for direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and indirect

90

Analysis of a commercial absorption-refrigeration water-ammonia (ARWA) cycle using Aspen Plus simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Robur absorption-refrigeration-water-ammonia (ARWA) cycle is analyzed using Aspen Plus flowsheet simulator. The results are compared with experimental and some manufacturer data reported in the open literature. Among performance parameters analyzed ... Keywords: Aspen, COP, absorption, ammonia, refrigeration, simulation, water

N. A. Darwish; S. H. Al-Hashimi; A. S. Al-Mansoori

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Membrane-Based Absorption Refrigeration Systems: Nanoengineered Membrane-Based Absorption Cooling for Buildings Using Unconcentrated Solar & Waste Heat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: UFL is improving a refrigeration system that uses low quality heat to provide the energy needed to drive cooling. This system, known as absorption refrigeration system (ARS), typically consists of large coils that transfer heat. Unfortunately, these large heat exchanger coils are responsible for bulkiness and high cost of ARS. UFL is using new materials as well as system design innovations to develop nanoengineered membranes to allow for enhanced heat exchange that reduces bulkiness. UFL’s design allows for compact, cheaper and more reliable use of ARS that use solar or waste heat.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

AEP SWEPCO - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DuctAir sealing, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Motor VFDs, Motors, Roofs, LED Exit Signs, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment, Geothermal Heat Pumps, LED Lighting,...

93

Figure 61. Efficiency gains for selected commercial equipment ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Efficiency gains for selected commercial equipment in three cases, 2040 ... Refrigeration Electric water heating Ventilation Lighting $4.74 $4.35 ...

94

Figure 60. Energy intensity of selected commercial end uses ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refrigeration Lighting Heating, cooling, and ventilation Other 2040.00 2011.00 ... Energy intensity of selected commercial end uses, 2011 and 2040 ...

95

The Stirling alternative. Power systems, refrigerants and heat pumps  

SciTech Connect

This book provides an up-to-date reference on the technology, history, and practical applications of Stirling engines, including recent developments in the field and a convenient survey of the Stirling engine literature. The topics of the book include: fundamentals of Stirling technology, definition and terminology, thermodynamic laws and cycles: some elementary considerations, the Stirling cycle, practical regenerative cycle, theoretical aspects and computer simulation of Stirling machines, mechanical arrangements, control systems, heat exchangers, performance characteristics, working fluids, applications of Stirling machines, advantages of Stirling machines, disadvantages of Stirling machines, Stirling versus internal combustion engines, Stirling versus Rankine engines, applications for Stirling machines, Stirling power systems, the literature and sources of supply, the literature of Stirling engines, and the literature of cryocoolers.

Walker, G.; Reader, G.; Fauvel, O.R.; Bingham, E.R. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

How refrigeration, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning service technicians learn from troubleshooting (Dissertation ABstract)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to understand how refrigeration, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (RHVAC) service technicians (techs) learned from troubleshooting. This understanding resulted in instructional and curricular strategies designed to help community colleges prepare vocational students to learn more effectively from informal workplace learning. RHVAC techs were studied because they increasingly learn their trade skills through a combination of formal schooling and informal workplace learning, though many still learn their trade almost exclusively in the workplace. Even those with formal training require considerable workplace experience to become fully competent. Troubleshooting is a major job function for RHVAC service techs, and troubleshooting

Denis F. H. Green

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Study of Heat Loss: Commercial and Residential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is much savings involved in the prevention of heat loss. Many structures exhibit such loss. Much can be done to improve or minimize the heat loss in a structure. These include interior and exterior modifications. It has been shown that heat can move by means of convection, conduction, and radiation. Problems with heat loss can be due to moisture, and poor construction techniques. There is a beneficial cost savings involved in the prevention of heat loss. Prevention techniques include insulation, caulking, weather stripping, and double pane windows. There are tables available for one to reference and calculate the return on their investment or “payback tim”

Emmett Ientilucci

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Computer Modeling VRF Heat Pumps in Commercial Buildings using EnergyPlus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are increasingly used in commercial buildings in the United States. Monitored energy use of field installations have shown, in some cases, savings exceeding 30% compared to conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A simulation study was conducted to identify the installation or operational characteristics that lead to energy savings for VRF systems. The study used the Department of Energy EnergyPlus? building simulation software and four reference building models. Computer simulations were performed in eight U.S. climate zones. The baseline reference HVAC system incorporated packaged single-zone direct-expansion cooling with gas heating (PSZ-AC) or variable-air-volume systems (VAV with reheat). An alternate baseline HVAC system using a heat pump (PSZ-HP) was included for some buildings to directly compare gas and electric heating results. These baseline systems were compared to a VRF heat pump model to identify differences in energy use. VRF systems combine multiple indoor units with one or more outdoor unit(s). These systems move refrigerant between the outdoor and indoor units which eliminates the need for duct work in most cases. Since many applications install duct work in unconditioned spaces, this leads to installation differences between VRF systems and conventional HVAC systems. To characterize installation differences, a duct heat gain model was included to identify the energy impacts of installing ducts in unconditioned spaces. The configuration of variable refrigerant flow heat pumps will ultimately eliminate or significantly reduce energy use due to duct heat transfer. Fan energy is also studied to identify savings associated with non-ducted VRF terminal units. VRF systems incorporate a variable-speed compressor which may lead to operational differences compared to single-speed compression systems. To characterize operational differences, the computer model performance curves used to simulate cooling operation are also evaluated. The information in this paper is intended to provide a relative difference in system energy use and compare various installation practices that can impact performance. Comparative results of VRF versus conventional HVAC systems include energy use differences due to duct location, differences in fan energy when ducts are eliminated, and differences associated with electric versus fossil fuel type heating systems.

Raustad, Richard

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Ground-Source Heat Pumps for Domestic and Commercial Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ground-Source Heat Pumps for Domestic and Commercial Applications in Europe Speaker(s): Gran Hellstrm Date: May 2, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint of...

100

DOE Seeks Commercial Storage for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Seeks Commercial Storage for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve March 14, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The Department of Energy, through its agent, DLA Energy, has issued a solicitation for new contracts to store two million barrels of ultra low sulfur distillate for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve in New York Harbor and New England. Offers are due no later than 9:00 a.m. EDT on March 29, 2011. Of the U.S. households that use heating oil to heat their homes, 69% reside in the Northeast. The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve was established by the Energy Policy Act of 2000 to provide an emergency buffer that can supplement commercial fuel supplies in the event of an actual or imminent severe supply disruption. The Reserve can provide supplemental supplies for

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine Storage ... Suitability of commercial refrigerators for vaccine storage not ...

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

102

Modern Heating Options for Commercial/Institutional Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Heating Options for Commercial/Institutional Buildings Modern Heating Options for Commercial/Institutional Buildings Speaker(s): Thomas Durkin Date: February 23, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Moira Howard-Jeweler This seminar presentation will be video-conferenced from our Washington, DC Projects office.) According to USGBC, LBNL, and CBECS data, commercial/institutional buildings use one quarter of all the energy consumed in the US. Depending on the geographic area of the country, heating can be as little as 30% (Houston), or as much as 68% (Minneapolis) of the building total. Mr. Durkin will share his experience in dramatically reducing the heating energy in buildings using a combination of low temperature boilers, heat recovery strategies and a new approach to geo-thermal systems. His data from completed projects shows 50 to 60%

103

Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam single-effect absorption refrigeration, flue gas absorption refrigeration and hot water absorption refrigeration, etc. As a universal criterion, the COP coefficient cannot reflect the difference in availability of driving energy for different chillers. Exergy efficiency of optional chillers in CCHP system was analyzed and compared, which can be regarded as an important reference criterion in comparison of energy efficiency. Furthermore, a new index, relative electricity saving ratio, was put forward for evaluating end energy efficiency of all kinds of chillers in a CCHP system, which indicates actual energy or electricity saving ratio for different absorption chillers with various parameters in contrast to the reference electricity-driven refrigeration scheme.

Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

An Advanced Solar-Powered Rotary Solid Adsorption Refrigerator with High Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, according to practical consideration, a new solar powered rotary solid adsorption refrigerator system adopting activated carbon fibre + ethanol as its adsorption pair has been designed with higher performance. Moreover, the principle of the refrigeration cycle, different components of the machine, selection of working pairs and feasible theory analysis of the refrigeration system all have been presented in detail. In addition, it shows that the new refrigerator has many great advantages including a simple structure, fast refrigeration, higher thermodynamic coefficient, friendly to the atmospheric environment, etc. This paper explains that the refrigerating process is constant, which has a promising potential for competing the 'intermittent' cycle reported before. Through improving the refrigerant performance of heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent bed, the refrigeration cycle has been advanced from the aspect of utilization of the thermal energy from low-temperature level resources. In addition, it is shown that the commercial solar powered refrigerator will be existent in the near future.

Zheng, A.; Gu, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

106

Commercial high efficiency dehumidification systems using heat pipes  

SciTech Connect

An improved heat pipe design using separately connected two-section one-way flow heat pipes with internal microgrooves instead of wicks is described. This design is now commercially available for use to increase the dehumidification capacity of air conditioning systems. The design also includes a method of introducing fresh air into buildings while recovering heat and controlling the humidity of the incoming air. Included are applications and case studies, load calculations and technical data, and installation, operation, and maintenance information.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Improvement of xenon purification system using a combination of a pulse tube refrigerator and a coaxial heat exchanger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a compact cryogenic system with a pulse tube refrigerator and a coaxial heat exchanger. This liquefaction-purification system not only saves the cooling power used to reach high gaseous recirculation rate, but also reduces the impurity level with high speed. The heat exchanger operates with an efficiency of 99%, which indicates the possibility for fast xenon gas recirculation in a highpressurized large-scale xenon storage with much less thermal losses.

Chen, Wan-Ting; Cussonneau, J -P; Donnard, J; Duval, S; Lemaire, O; Calloch, M Le; Ray, P Le; Mohamad-Hadi, A -F; Morteau, E; Oger, T; Scotto-Lavina, L; Stutzmann, J -S; Thers, D; Briend, P; Haruyama, T; Mihara, S; Tauchi, T

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

109

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

112

Solar heating and cooling commercialization research program. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Heating and Cooling Commercialization Research Program has addressed a recognized need to accelerate the commercialization of solar products. The development of communication techniques and materials for a target group of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) wholesalers and distributors has been the primary effort. A summary of the program, the approach to the development of the techniques and materials, the conclusions derived from seminar feedback, the development of additional research activities and reports and the recommendations for follow-on activities are presented. The appendices offer detailed information on specific elements of the research effort.

Christensen, D.L.; Tragert, W.; Weir, S.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A first-of-its-kind Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP™) was installed by Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc. in partnership with Energy Concepts Co. at Ultramar Diamond Shamrock's 30,000 barrel per day refinery in Denver, Colorado. The refrigeration unit is designed to provide refrigeration for two process units at the refinery while utilizing waste heat as the energy source. The added refrigeration capacity benefits the refinery by recovering salable products, debottlenecking process units, avoiding additional electrical demand, and reducing the refinery Energy Intensity Index. In addition, the WHAARP unit lowers air pollutant emissions by reducing excess fuel gas that is combusted in the refinery flare. A comprehensive utility and process efficiency Master Plan developed for the Denver refinery by Planetec provided the necessary platform for implementing this distinctive project. The $2.3 million WHAARP system was paid for in part by a $760,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Energy, as part of their "Industry of the Future Program". Total combined benefits are projected to be approximately $1 million/year with a 1.6 year simple payback including the grant funding.

Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

comparison of VAV and VRF air conditioning systems in anThe variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heatthe energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP

Hong, Tainzhen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Commercial Air-Source Heat Pumps, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Energy efficiency purchasing specifications for federal procurements of commercial air-source heat pumps.

Not Available

2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

116

Large HVAC Codes and Standards Update 2000: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents EPRI activities in the year 2000 related to building codes and standards. The following activities are covered: attendance at the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) meetings and participation in technical committee and subcommittee meetings related to ASHRAE Standard 90.l; review of relevant U.S Department of Energy (DOE) appliance standards; review of developments of other building energy code organizations; and participation in the E...

2000-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

117

Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat to a water heating load. The tests, conducted for Georgia Power Company, examined both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the heat pumps and the overall water heating systems. The results provide valuable insight into the actual operating characteristics of heat pump water heaters and useful guidelines for system design and operation. The capacity and efficiency of the units agreed with manufacturers' specifications. COP values ranged from 2 .6 to 3.0 for water heating only, and from 4.1 to 5.0 when space cooling benefit was included. It was concluded that heat pump water heaters can provide economical water heating and space conditioning. However, application sites must be selected within certain constraints and a minimum level of operating control and maintenance must be observed.

Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on an experimental residential retrofit incorporating thermal storage, and extensive subsequent modeling, a commercial design was developed and implemented to use hot thermal storage to significantly reduce electric demand and utility energy costs during the cooling season as well as the heating season. To achieve air conditioning savings, the system separates dehumidification from sensible cooling; dehumidifies by desiccant absorption, using heat from storage to dry the desiccant; and then cools at an elevated temperature improving overall system efficiency. Efficient heat for desiccant regeneration is provided by a selective-energy system coupled with thermal storage. The selective-energy system incorporates diesel cogeneration, solar energy and off-peak electric resistance heating. Estimated energy and first cost savings, as compared with an all-electric VAV HVAC system, are: 30 to 50% in ductwork size and cost; 30% in fan energy; 25% in air handling equipment; 20 to 40% in utility energy for refrigeration; 10 to 20% in refrigeration equipment; and space savings due to smaller ductwork and equipment.

Meckler, G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators  

SciTech Connect

This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

Swift, G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

Marshall Municipal Utilities - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Marshall Municipal Utilities - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Marshall Municipal Utilities - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Marshall Municipal Utilities - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Manufacturing Other Appliances & Electronics Construction Heating Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate Custom Measures: 75% of the incremental cost of the measure Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: Varies by fixture type, wattage and application Central A/C: $100/ton Air-Source Heat Pumps: $150/ton Geothermal Heat Pumps: $200/ton Commercial Refrigeration: See Program Website

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High temperature refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

Steyert, Jr., William A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Yellowstone Valley Electric Cooperative - Residential/Commercial Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Yellowstone Valley Electric Cooperative - Residential/Commercial Efficiency Rebate Program Yellowstone Valley Electric Cooperative - Residential/Commercial Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Water Heating Maximum Rebate Add-On Heat Pump: $800 Geothermal Heat Pump: $1,000 (residential); $5,000 (commercial) Program Info State Montana Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Add-On Heat Pump: $200 per ton Geothermal Heat Pump: $200/ton (residential); $150/ton (commercial) Water Heater: $100 - $150 Energy Star Dishwasher: $25 Energy Star Refrigerator: $25 Energy Star Clothes Washer: $50 Provider

123

Advanced Heat Pump Water Heating Technology: Testing Commercial and Residential Systems in the Laboratory and Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) provide electric water heating at a much greater overall efficiency than conventional electric resistance systems. In the residential market, approximately half of all water heaters are electric resistance; these systems can be replaced by HPWHs in most applications with expected savings of 30%–60%. In commercial applications, most systems presently use natural gas or another fuel in direct combustion. Emerging HPWH systems are now able to provide water heating ...

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

124

Assessment and Demonstration of Advanced Heat Pumps for Commercial Building Water Heating Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWH) are an alternative to electric resistance or natural gas for domestic water heating. HPWHs are less common than other water heating technologies, but offer the potential for improved energy efficiency and potential for reduction of net CO2 emissions. New products, mainly for residential application, have been introduced to the American market over the last 2 years, which have been previously reviewed by EPRI. This report focuses on commercial applications and provides initi...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

Candidate chemical systems for air cooled, solar powered, absorption air conditioner design. Part II. Solid absorbents, high latent heat refrigerants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work done in attempting to qualify absorption refrigeration systems based on refrigerants with intermediate latent heats of vaporization is summarized. In practice, these comprise methanol, ammonia, and methylamine. A wide variety of organic substances, salts, and mixtures were evaluated in as systematic a manner as possible. Several systems of interest are described. The system, LiClO/sub 3/--LiBr--H/sub 2/O, is a good back up system to our first choice of an antifreeze additive system, and thermodynamically promising but subject to some inconvenient materials limitations. The system, LiBr/ZnBr/sub 2/--methanol, is thermodynamically promising but requires additional kinetic qualification. Chemical stability of the system, LiCNS--ammonia/methylamine with various other third components, does not appear to be adequate for a long-lived system.

Biermann, W. J.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Compare Energy Use in Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pumps Field Demonstration and Computer Model  

SciTech Connect

Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are often regarded as energy efficient air-conditioning systems which offer electricity savings as well as reduction in peak electric demand while providing improved individual zone setpoint control. One of the key advantages of VRF systems is minimal duct losses which provide significant reduction in energy use and duct space. However, there is limited data available to show their actual performance in the field. Since VRF systems are increasingly gaining market share in the US, it is highly desirable to have more actual field performance data of these systems. An effort was made in this direction to monitor VRF system performance over an extended period of time in a US national lab test facility. Due to increasing demand by the energy modeling community, an empirical model to simulate VRF systems was implemented in the building simulation program EnergyPlus. This paper presents the comparison of energy consumption as measured in the national lab and as predicted by the program. For increased accuracy in the comparison, a customized weather file was created by using measured outdoor temperature and relative humidity at the test facility. Other inputs to the model included building construction, VRF system model based on lab measured performance, occupancy of the building, lighting/plug loads, and thermostat set-points etc. Infiltration model inputs were adjusted in the beginning to tune the computer model and then subsequent field measurements were compared to the simulation results. Differences between the computer model results and actual field measurements are discussed. The computer generated VRF performance closely resembled the field measurements.

Sharma, Chandan; Raustad, Richard

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Technical Subtopic 2.1: Modeling Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Equipment in EnergyPlus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Central Florida/Florida Solar Energy Center, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute and several variable-refrigerant-flow heat pump (VRF HP) manufacturers, provided a detailed computer model for a VRF HP system in the United States Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE) EnergyPlus? building energy simulation tool. Detailed laboratory testing and field demonstrations were performed to measure equipment performance and compare this performance to both the manufacturer's data and that predicted by the use of this new model through computer simulation. The project goal was to investigate the complex interactions of VRF HP systems from an HVAC system perspective, and explore the operational characteristics of this HVAC system type within a laboratory and real world building environment. Detailed laboratory testing of this advanced HVAC system provided invaluable performance information which does not currently exist in the form required for proper analysis and modeling. This information will also be useful for developing and/or supporting test standards for VRF HP systems. Field testing VRF HP systems also provided performance and operational information pertaining to installation, system configuration, and operational controls. Information collected from both laboratory and field tests were then used to create and validate the VRF HP system computer model which, in turn, provides architects, engineers, and building owners the confidence necessary to accurately and reliably perform building energy simulations. This new VRF HP model is available in the current public release version of DOE?s EnergyPlus software and can be used to investigate building energy use in both new and existing building stock. The general laboratory testing did not use the AHRI Standard 1230 test procedure and instead used an approach designed to measure the field installed full-load operating performance. This projects test methodology used the air enthalpy method where relevant air-side parameters were controlled while collecting output performance data at discreet points of steady-state operation. The primary metrics include system power consumption and zonal heating and cooling capacity. Using this test method, the measured total cooling capacity was somewhat lower than reported by the manufacturer. The measured power was found to be equal to or greater than the manufacturers indicated power. Heating capacity measurements produced similar results. The air-side performance metric was total cooling and heating energy since the computer model uses those same metrics as input to the model. Although the sensible and latent components of total cooling were measured, they are not described in this report. The test methodology set the thermostat set point temperature very low for cooling and very high for heating to measure full-load performance and was originally thought to provide the maximum available capacity. Manufacturers stated that this test method would not accurately measure performance of VRF systems which is now believed to be a true statement. Near the end of the project, an alternate test method was developed to better represent VRF system performance as if field installed. This method of test is preliminarily called the Load Based Method of Test where the load is fixed and the indoor conditions and unit operation are allowed to fluctuate. This test method was only briefly attempted in a laboratory setting but does show promise for future lab testing. Since variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps include an on-board control algorithm to modulate capacity, these systems are difficult to test. Manufacturers do have the ability to override internal components to accommodate certification procedures, however, it is unknown if the resulting operation is replicated in the field, or if so, how often. Other studies have shown that variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps do out perform their single-speed counterparts though these field studies leave as many questions as they do provide answers. The measure

Raustad, Richard; Nigusse, Bereket; Domitrovic, Ron

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

128

Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Advice and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Advice and Incentives Program Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Advice and Incentives Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Manufacturing Other Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Commercial Weatherization Maximum Rebate 70% of project cost Program Info State Tennessee Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Commercial Dishwashers: $400 - $1500 Commercial Refrigerator: $60 - $100 Ice Machines: $100 - $400 Insulated Holding Cabinets: $250 - $600 Electric Steam Cookers: $400 Electric Convection Ovens: $200 Electric Griddles: $200 Electric Combination Ovens: $2,000

129

Hydrothermal electric and direct heat. Commercialization Phase III planning  

SciTech Connect

Nine environmental concerns have been identified: airborne effluents, waterborne effluents, noise, subsidence, enhanced seismicity, water use conflicts, land use, socioeconomic impacts, and system safety and occupational health. Resolution of these issues is expected to occur at staggered intervals over the next 8 to 10 years. Of these concerns, airborne emissions and water use conflicts are judged to have a medium likelihood of having research findings adverse to commercialization. Waterborne effluents and subsidence are also judged to have a medium likelihood. The other concerns--noise, enhanced seismicity, land use, socioeconomic impacts and system safety and occupational health--are judged to have a low likelihood of adverse findings. The overall environmental research and development plan related to hydrothermal electric and direct heat includes funds to assess the adequacy of candidate control technology options. However, it does not include the resource requirements to fully develop and demonstrate commercial control hardware, process modifications, and for strategies. The conclusions, stated as probabilities, are given.

Clusen, R.C.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance of ground source heat pump system in a near-zerosimulation tool for ground- source heat pump system designflow systems and ground source heat pump systems Abstract

Hong, Tainzhen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Screening analysis for EPACT-covered commercial HVAC and water-heating equipment  

SciTech Connect

EPCA requirements state that if the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) amends efficiency levels prescribed in Standard 90.1-1989, then DOE must establish an amended uniform national manufacturing standard at the minimum level specified in amended Standard 90.1. However, DOE can establish higher efficiency levels if it can show through clear and convincing evidence that a higher efficiency level, that is technologically feasible and economically justified, would produce significant additional energy savings. On October 29, 1999, ASHRAE approved the amended Standard 90.1, which increases the minimum efficiency levels for some of the commercial heating, cooling, and water-heating equipment covered by EPCA 92. DOE asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a screening analysis to determine the energy-savings potential of the efficiency levels listed in Standard 90.1-1999. The analysis estimates the annual national energy consumption and the potential for energy savings that would result if the EPACT-covered products were required to meet these efficiency levels. The analysis also estimates additional energy-savings potential for the EPACT-covered products if they were to exceed the efficiency levels prescribed in Standard 90-1-1999. In addition, a simple life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was performed for some alternative efficiency levels. This paper will describe the methodology, data assumptions, and results of the analysis. The magnitude of HVAC and SWH loads imposed on equipment depends on the building's physical and operational characteristics and prevailing climatic conditions. To address this variation in energy use, coil loads for 7 representative building types at 11 climate locations were estimated based on a whole-building simulation.

S Somasundaram; PR Armstrong; DB Belzer; SC Gaines; DL Hadley; S Katipumula; DL Smith; DW Winiarski

2000-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

132

Memorandum To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) Date: 1/12/2012 Subject: EX PARTE COMMUNICATION MEMO DOE ATTENDEES: Ashley Armstrong, John Cymbalsky, David Case, Laura Barhydt HARDI ATTENDEES: Talbot Gee, Jonathan Melchi AREAS OF DISCUSSION: DOE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. The meeting took place on Thursday January 5 th , 2012 from 2pm to 3-pm. The following topics were discussed. 1.) Sell-Through. HARDI asked for clarification on the DOE's notation on the Framework Document

133

Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Solar powered refrigeration apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Solar powered refrigeration apparatus is disclosed in which an absorption refrigeration system is operated directly by solar energy. One end of a heat pipe is thermally connected to the boiler of the absorption refrigeration system, and a solar collector is thermally coupled to the other remote end of the heat pipe. The heat pipe is a sealed, evacuated metal tube partially filled with water. The solar collector is a double walled glass vacuum tube with a central axial opening for accommodating the remote end of the heat pipe. Heat energy collected by the solar collector boils the water in the heat pipe to subsequently condense in the area of the boiler thus transferring heat energy along the heat pipe to the boiler. The heat pipe is installed sloping downwardly away from the boiler to permit the return of condensate down the pipe to the solar collector area thus permitting continuous operation.

Theakston, F.H.

1982-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

135

Lumbee River EMC - Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lumbee River EMC - Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Lumbee River EMC - Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Program Lumbee River EMC - Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Programmable Thermostat: $15 Central AC: $25 - $50 Heat Pump: $60 - $195 Geothermal Heat Pump: $350 Water Heaters: $45 - $75 Heat Pump Water Heater: $425 Refrigerator/Freezer Recycling: $50 - $75 Provider Lumbee River Electric Membership Corporation Lumbee River EMC (LREMC) offers rebates to its residential customers who purchase and install qualified energy efficient products or services.

136

Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

137

Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle Solar Power Towers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper firstly introduces the principles of Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle solar power towers This heat engines use solar reservoire. When the refrigerant in an engine cylinder absorbs heat from high-temperature heat sources, refrigerant ... Keywords: refrigerant phase-change cycle, heat engines, solar power tower, finite-time thermodynamics

Dezhong Huang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Salem Electric - Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Salem Electric - Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Efficiency Salem Electric - Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program Salem Electric - Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential State Government Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Appliances & Electronics Sealing Your Home Ventilation Manufacturing Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate ENERGY Star Light Fixtures: Not to exceed 50% of the fixture cost Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerators: $60 Freezers: $60 Clothes Washers: $60

139

Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control  

SciTech Connect

A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Focus on Energy - Commercial Solar Space-Heating Grant (WPS Customers...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Summary Focus on Energy (FOE) and Wisconsin Public Service (WPS) are partnering to offer solar space-heating grants for feasibility studies and installations. Commercial projects...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heating Refrigeration Air Conditioning Space Heating EnergyRefrigeration Air Conditioning Space Heating Savings inTorchiere Space heating Air conditioning Electric motors

Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Modern Heating Options for Commercial/Institutional Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reducing the heating energy in buildings using a combination of low temperature boilers, heat recovery strategies and a new approach to geo-thermal systems. His data from...

143

Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop During Condensation of Refrigerants in Microchannels .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Two-phase flow, boiling, and condensation in microchannels have received considerable attention in the recent past due to the growing interest in the high heat fluxes… (more)

Agarwal, Akhil

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system. The refrigeration system design involves sizing ofDesign Essentials for Refrigerated Storage Facilities, American Society for Heating Refrigeration anddesign considerations are mostly related to wall and roof types, shell insulation, and the refrigeration

Lekov, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Chapter 19. Heat Engines and Refrigerators That's not smoke. It's clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the cooling towers around a large power plant. The power plant is generating electricity by turning heat Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. electricity by turning heat fuel, into another, such as work. · Chapters 17 and 18 established two laws of thermodynamics Copyright

Dhamala, Mukesh

146

Barron Electric Cooperative - Commercial, Industrial, and Agricultural  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Barron Electric Cooperative - Commercial, Industrial, and Barron Electric Cooperative - Commercial, Industrial, and Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Barron Electric Cooperative - Commercial, Industrial, and Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Savings Category Other Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate $10,000 per account, not to exceed 20% of cost Scroll Refrigeration Compressors: $500 Variable Speed/Frequency Drive Motor: $500 Variable Speed Compressed Air Motor: $500 Energy Audit: One in Five Years Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Audit: Free General Lighting: $1 - $15/unit LED Lamps: $2/bulb

147

Method and apparatus for desuperheating refrigerant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim.

Zess, James A. (Kelso, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

149

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

150

Progress Energy Carolinas - SunSense Commercial Solar Water Heating...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fed. Government, Industrial, Institutional, Local Government, Nonprofit, Schools, State Government Eligible Technologies Solar Water Heat Active Incentive No Implementing...

151

Measured Effects of Retrofits - A Refrigerant Oil Additive and a Condenser Spray Device - On the Cooling Performance of a Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A 15-year old, 3-ton single package air-to-air heat pump was tested in laboratory environmental chambers simulating indoor and outdoor conditions. After documenting initial performance, the unit was retrofitted with a prototype condenser water-spray device and retested. Results at standard AM cooling rating conditions (95°F outdoor dry bulb and 80167 OF indoor dry bulb/wet bulb temperatures) showed the capacity increased by about 7%, and the electric power demand dropped by about 8%, resulting in a steady-state EER increase of 17%. Suction and discharge pressures were reduced by 7 and 37 psi, respectively. A refrigerant oil additive formulated to enhance refrigerant-side heat transfer was added at a dose of one ounce per ton of rated capacity. and the unit was tested for several days at the same 95°F outdoor conditions and showed essentially no increase in capacity, and a slight 3% increase in steady-state EER. Adding more additive lowered the EER slightly. Suction and discharge pressures were essentially unchanged. Our short-term testing showed that the condenser-spray device was effective in increasing the cooling capacity and lowering the electrical demand on an old and relatively inefficient heat pump, but the refrigerant additive had little effect on the cooling performance of our unit Sprayer issues to be resolved include the effect of a sprayer on a new, high-efficiency air conditioner/heat pump, reliable long-term operation, and economics.

Levins, W. P.; Sand, J. R.; Baxter, V. D.; Linkous, R. S.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the tower An (earlier) alternative is to use a spray pond to cool water; disadvantages are a large areaRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 7. Air conditioning, cooling towersg, g Ron Zevenhoven Ă?Ă?bo, is the hi htemperature at which condensation begins when air is cooled at constant pressurecooled

Zevenhoven, Ron

153

Improving the energy efficiency of refrigerators in India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five state-of-the-art, production refrigerators from different manufacturers in India were subjected to a variety of appliance rating and performance evaluation test procedures in an engineering laboratory. Cabinet heat loss, compressor calorimeter, high-ambient pull-down, and closed-door energy consumption tests were performed on each unit to assess the current status of commercially available Indian refrigerators and refrigerator component efficiencies. Daily energy consumption tests were performed at nominal line voltages and at 85% and 115% of nominal voltage to assess the effect of grid voltage variations. These test results were also used to indicate opportunities for effective improvements in energy efficiency. A widely distributed ``generic`` computer model capable of simulating single-door refrigerators with a small interior freezer section was used to estimate cabinet heat loss rates and closed door energy consumption values from basic cabinet and refrigeration circuit inputs. This work helped verify the model`s accuracy and potential value as a tool for evaluating the energy impact of proposed design options. Significant differences ranging from 30 to 90% were seen in the measured performance criterion for these ``comparable`` refrigerators suggesting opportunities for improvements in individual product designs. Modeled cabinet heat loadings differed from experimentally extrapolated values in a range from 2--29%, and daily energy consumption values estimated by the model differed from laboratory data by as little as 3% or as much as 25%, which indicates that refinement of the model may be needed for this single-door refrigerator type. Additional comparisons of experimentally measured performance criteria such as % compressor run times and compressor cycling rates to modeled results are given. The computer model is used to evaluate the energy saving impact of several modest changes to the basic Indian refrigerator design.

Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H. [Consulting Engineer, Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Heat extraction and refrigeration (HEAR) system. Phase I final progress report. [Restaurant kitchens  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Testing indicates that heat energy available to be recaptured grossly exceeds the capacity of the 1.5 ton medium temperature Freon 12 compressor being utilized. The unit produced 50 pounds of suction pressure with the damper (Figure 4) open and exceeded compressor operational limits with the damper closed. This indicates that the current compressor could be replaced by one of 5 ton capacity since current estimates indicate that 60,000 Btu's are available for recovery. This could be divided between space heating and water heating as required by using separate condensers. There were no real surprises in the feasibility model construction and test phase, and the validity of the assumptions made in the original project description have been established. That is, it has been demonstrated that it is feasible to extract heat from the kitchen exhaust duct in a restaurant and keep the heat pump evaporator clean. It is concluded that work done under this $10,000 grant demonstrated the technical feasibility of the HEAR System. However, additional funding (our original proposal called for a $47,000 grant) would be required to economically evaluate the benefit realized and to advance the HEAR System design to a workable prototype stage.

Venable, B.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

Bennett, G.A.

1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

156

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

Bennett, G.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Building Technologies Office: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Use to Save Money. Learn More. News DOE Issues Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Energy Conservation Standard August 29, 2013 DOE Issues...

159

Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers to someone by E-mail Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers on AddThis.com...

160

Adsorption Refrigeration System  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption refrigeration is an environmentally friendly cooling technology which could be driven by recovered waste heat or low-grade heat such as solar energy. In comparison with absorption system, an adsorption system has no problems such as corrosion at high temperature and salt crystallization. In comparison with vapor compression refrigeration system, it has the advantages of simple control, no moving parts and less noise. This paper introduces the basic theory of adsorption cycle as well as the advanced adsorption cycles such as heat and mass recovery cycle, thermal wave cycle and convection thermal wave cycle. The types, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different adsorbents used in adsorption refrigeration systems are also summarized. This article will increase the awareness of this emerging cooling technology among the HVAC engineers and help them select appropriate adsorption systems in energy-efficient building design.

Wang, Kai [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Air-Source Heat Pumps for Residential and Light Commercial Space Conditioning Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technology brief provides the latest information on current and emerging air-source heat pump technologies for space heating and space cooling of residential and light commercial buildings. Air-source heat pumps provide important options that can reduce ownership costs while reducing noise and enhancing reliability and customer comfort. The tech brief also describes new air-source heat pumps with an important load shaping and demand response option.

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Delta-Montrose Electric Association - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Energy Efficiency Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Delta-Montrose Electric Association - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Lighting Replacement Program: $20,000 LED Refrigerator Case Lighting: $3,000 Street/Area Lighting (LED and Induction): $20,000 Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Central Air Source Heat Pump: $125 - $150/ton; plus $150 Energy Star bonus Terminal Units: $85/unit; plus $150 Energy Star bonus Lighting Replacement Program: $250/kW saved LED Refrigerator Case Lighting: $60/door Street/Area Lighting (LED and Induction): 25% of head costs, up to

163

Duquesne Light Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Duquesne Light Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Duquesne Light Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program Duquesne Light Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Commercial Weatherization Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom: Varies Lighting: Varies widely by type Controls and Sensors: $10-$75 VFD for Chilled Water Loop $150/hp VFD for HVAC Fans: $80/hp Packaged Terminal AC: $45-$75/ton Food Service Equipment: Varies widely by type Refrigeration Equipment: Varies widely by type

164

Maine Public Service Company- Residential and Small Commercial Heat Pump Program (Maine)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Public Service Company offers a two-tiered incentive program for residential and small commercial customers. Mini-Split Heat Pumps are eligible for a rebate of $600, as well as a loan to cover...

165

Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (Electric) - Commercial Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vending Machine Controls, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment, Food Service Equipment, LED Lighting, Reach-In Door Closer, ECM Evaporator Fan MotorController, Refrigerated...

166

NICE3: Industrial Refrigeration System  

SciTech Connect

Energy Concepts has developed an absorption-augmented system as a cost-effective means of achieving more cooling capacity with a substantial reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for industrial refrigeration. It cuts fuel consumption by 30% by combining an internal combustion engine with a mechanical compression refrigeration system and an absorption refrigeration system. The absorption system is powered by engine waste heat. Conventional industrial refrigeration uses mechanical vapor compression, powered by electric motors, which results in higher energy costs. By the year 2010, the new system could cut fuel consumption by 19 trillion Btu and greenhouse emissions by more than 1 million tons per year.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

167

Development of Refrigerant Change Indicator and Dirty Air Filter Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The most common problems affecting residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are slow refrigerant leaks and dirty air filters. Equipment users are usually not aware of a problem until most of the refrigerant has escaped or the air filter is clogged with dirt. While a dirty air filter can be detected with a technology based on the air pressure differential across the filter, such as a ''whistling'' indicator, it is not easy to incorporate this technology into existing HVAC diagnostic equipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a low-cost, nonintrusive refrigerant charge indicator and dirty air filter detection sensor. The sensors, based on temperature measurements, will be inexpensive and easy to incorporate into existing heat pumps and air conditioners. The refrigerant charge indicator is based on the fact that when refrigerant starts to leak, the evaporator coil temperature starts to drop and the level of liquid subcooling drops. When the coil temperature or liquid subcooling drops below a preset reading, a signal, such as a yellow warning light, can be activated to warn the equipment user that the system is undercharged. A further drop of coil temperature or liquid subcooling below another preset reading would trigger a second warning signal, such as a red warning light, to warn the equipment user that the unit now detects a leak and immediate action should be taken. The warning light cannot be turned off until it is re-set by a refrigeration repairman. To detect clogged air filters, two additional temperature sensors can be applied, one each across the evaporator. When the air filter is accumulating buildup, the temperature differential across the evaporator will increase because of the reduced airflow. When the temperature differential reaches a pre-set reading, a signal will be sent to the equipment user that the air filter needs to be changed. A traditional refrigerant charge indicator requires intrusion into the system to measure the refrigerant high-side and low-side pressures. Once the pressures are known, based on the equipment's refrigerant charging chart? or in most cases, based on the technician's experience? the refrigerant charging status is determined. However, there is a catch: by the time a refrigeration technician is called, most of the refrigerant has already escaped into the atmosphere. The new technology provides a real-time warning so that when, say, 20% of the refrigerant has leaked, the equipment users will be warned, even though the equipment is still functioning properly at rated capacity. Temperature sensors are becoming very accurate and very low in cost, compared with pressure sensors. Using temperature sensors to detect refrigerant charge status is inherently nonintrusive, inexpensive, and accurate. With the addition of two temperature sensors for detecting dirty air filters, the capability of the diagnostic equipment is further enhanced with very little added cost. This report provides laboratory test data on the change of indoor coil refrigerant temperature and subcooling as a function of refrigerant charge for a 2-ton split heat pump system. The data can be used in designing the indicators for refrigerant loss and dirty air filter sensors.

Mei, V.

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

168

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

169

Dual source heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

A New Absorption Cycle: The Single-Effect Regenerative Absoprtion Refrigeration Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REGENERATIVE ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION CYCLE ABSTRACT A new absorption cycle , using heat as the energy

Dao, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Overton, Jr., William C. (Los Alamos, NM); Stewart, Walter F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Alameda Municipal Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alameda Municipal Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Alameda Municipal Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Alameda Municipal Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Home Weatherization Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Contact utility regarding maximum incentive amounts Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom Rebates (Motors): $0.09/kWh Custom Rebates (Lighting): $0.15/kWh Custom Rebates (HVAC, Refrigeration, Networks): $0.11/kWh HVAC System: 50% of the difference in cost between Title 24 required

173

Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads are high and the cooling season is long. Because commercial kitchens and laundry facilities have simultaneous water heating and cooling needs, they are excellent applications for heat pump water heaters. Typical heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) operate at an annual coefficient of performance (COP) of approximately 3.0 for water heating alone. Space conditioning benefits of about 0.67 Btu are delivered at no additional cost for each Btu of water heating output. In situations in which this cooling output is valued, the dual thermal outputs for heating and cooling make heat pump water heaters particularly attractive. The comfort value of added cooling in overheated facilities and the resulting increase in employee and customer satisfaction are frequently cited as additional benefits. This paper describes currently available heat pump water heating equipment and offers guidelines for successful applications in commercial facilities. The results of field test programs involving more than 100 units in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee, South Carolina, and other areas are incorporated. Initial conclusions are drawn from a reliability database, and interviews with utility applications specialists and manufacturers are discussed. Design tools are reviewed, including a new comprehensive computer simulation model. Emphasis is placed on identifying sound candidates for installations and on application and design considerations. A brief survey is provided of environmental implications of heat pump water heaters and new developments in heat pump water heater equipment.

Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Solar heat collectors. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains selected patents concerning solar heat collector apparatus and systems. Building panels, air conditioning systems, chemical heat pumps, refrigeration systems, and controls are discussed. Applications include residential and commercial building space and water heating, greenhouse heating, and swimming pool heating. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Roughness and surface material effects on nucleate boiling heat transfer from cylindrical surfaces to refrigerants R-134a and R-123  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results of an experimental investigation carried out to determine the effects of the surface roughness of different materials on nucleate boiling heat transfer of refrigerants R-134a and R-123. Experiments have been performed over cylindrical surfaces of copper, brass and stainless steel. Surfaces have been treated by different methods in order to obtain an average roughness, Ra, varying from 0.03 {mu}m to 10.5 {mu}m. Boiling curves at different reduced pressures have been raised as part of the investigation. The obtained results have shown significant effects of the surface material, with brass being the best performing and stainless steel the worst. Polished surfaces seem to present slightly better performance than the sand paper roughened. Boiling on very rough surfaces presents a peculiar behavior characterized by good thermal performance at low heat fluxes, the performance deteriorating at high heat fluxes with respect to smoother surfaces. (author)

Jabardo, Jose M. Saiz [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de la Coruna, Mendizabal s/n Esteiro, 15403 Ferrol, Coruna (Spain); Ribatski, Gherhardt; Stelute, Elvio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense 400 Centro, 13566-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

DOE/EA-1643: Finding of No Significant Impact for 10 CFR Part 431 Commerical Refrigeration Equipment (12/31/08)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers; Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator- Freezers without Doors; and Remote Condensing Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator-Freezers December 31, 2008 [6450-01-P] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 [Docket Number: EERE-2006-STD-OI26] RIN 1904-AB59 Energy Conservation Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers; Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator- . Freezers without

178

Otter Tail Power Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial and Industrial Energy Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Otter Tail Power Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heating Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Water Heating Maximum Rebate Refrigeration/Cooking/Lighting: rebate will not exceed 75% of project cost Retrocommissioning: $20,000 Retrocommissioning: Building must have at least 40,000 sq ft of conditioned space Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Water Heating: $150 - $300 or $20/kW Thermal Storage: $20 - $40/kW Condensers: $25/HP - $100/HP

179

DOE Seeks Commercial Storage to Complete Fill of Northeast Home Heating Oil  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

to Complete Fill of Northeast Home to Complete Fill of Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Seeks Commercial Storage to Complete Fill of Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve August 26, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The Department of Energy (DOE), through its agent DLA Energy, has issued a solicitation seeking commercial storage contracts for the remaining 350,000 barrels of ultra low sulfur distillate needed to complete the fill of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve. Offers are due no later than 9:00 a.m., August 31, 2011. Earlier this year, DOE sold its entire inventory of heating oil stocks with plans to replace it with cleaner burning ultra low sulfur distillate. New storage contracts were awarded in August 2011 for 650,000 barrels, and awards from this solicitation will complete the fill of the one million

180

Technical and Economic Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Technologies for Commercial Customer Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In general, the overall efficiency of energy utilization by conventional power systems averages around 33 percent. Combined heat and power (CHP) technologies installed at commercial and industrial sites, however, can increase the overall efficiency beyond 85 percent by recovering waste heat and putting it to beneficial use. Thus, CHP reduces the energy consumption and improves environmental quality. Currently, CHP accounts for approximately only 7 percent of total generation capacity and 40 percent of th...

2003-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

List of Geothermal Heat Pumps Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat Pumps Incentives Heat Pumps Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 729 Geothermal Heat Pumps Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-729) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs (West Virginia) Utility Rebate Program West Virginia Commercial Industrial Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Programmable Thermostats Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Ground Source Heat Pumps Yes AEP SWEPCO - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs (Arkansas) Utility Rebate Program Arkansas Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government

182

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a cryogenic refrigerator which cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He/[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1991-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

183

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

184

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a cryogenic refrigerator which cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of {sup 3}He in a single phase {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He solution. The {sup 3}He in superfluid {sup 4}He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid {sup 3}He at an initial concentration in superfluid {sup 4}He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of {sup 4}He while restricting passage of {sup 3}He. The {sup 3}He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1991-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

185

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

188

The Impact of Charge on Performance of an Air-to-Air Heat Pump for R22 and Three Binary Blends of Refrigerants 32 and 134a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted in which the performance of three blends of R134a and R32 were compared to R22. The effect of refrigerant charge and the size of expansion device on the performance of these refrigerants in an air-to-air heat pump operating in the air-conditioning mode was quantified. All tests were conducted according to ASHRAE Standard 116 (1983). The mixtures consisted of 60%/40%, 70%/30% and 80%/20% ratios by mass of R134a and R32. Charge levels of 5, 5.45, 5.90 and 6.00 kilograms (11, 12, 13 and 14 pounds) were tested. At each charge level, outdoor room conditions of 27.8°C, 35.0°C and 40.6°C (82°F, 95°F and 105°F) were tested. For each combination of charge level and outdoor room temperature, orifice diameters of 1.64, 1.78, 1.96 and 2.07 millimeters (0.0645, 0.0700, 0.0770 and 0.0815 inches) were tested. Three variables were used to quantify refrigerant performance: total capacity, total electrical power consumption and coefficient of performance (COP). Several other variables such as mass flow rate, compressor suction pressures and differential pressures were also used to determine system characteristics. The performance of the three mixtures was not as good as the R22. The capacities were between 7 and 17% lower than R22. The energy efficiency ratios were IV within three percent in some cases but the corresponding capacities at these EERs were more than 12% lower than the R22 base case. The best results for a mixture was the 60/40 blend. The capacity was 7.3% lower than the base case and the EER was 8.5% lower.

Robinson, J. H.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Heat Pumps (5.4 >=< 20 Tons) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pumps (5.4 >=< 20 Tons) Heat Pumps (5.4 >=< 20 Tons) Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Heat Pumps (5.4 >=< 20 Tons) October 8, 2013 - 2:22pm Addthis Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Project Type New Installation Replacement New Installation Condenser Type Air Source Water Source Air Source Existing Capacity * ton - Existing Cooling Efficiency * EER - Existing Heating Efficiency * COP - Existing IPLV Efficiency * IPLV - New Capacity ton 10 tons New Cooling Efficiency EER 10.1 EER New Heating Efficiency COP 3.2 COP New IPLV Efficiency IPLV 10.4 IPLV Energy Cost $ per kWh $0.06 per kWh

190

Multiple source heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and gives it off at higher ail.asp?article temperature (and pressure) and gives it off at higher temperature or no pressure changes Coolant for an engine: e:http://www 8.11.2012Ă?bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering - Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 32/64 pressure changes. Coolant for an engine: not a refrigerant

Zevenhoven, Ron

192

certification, compliance and enforcement regulations for Commercial...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

needs to be redone. certification, compliance and enforcement regulations for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment (CRE) More Documents & Publications Regulatory Burden RFI...

193

DOE Convening Report on Certification of Commercial HVAC and CRE Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Convening Report on Certification of Commercial HVAC and CRE Products, October 2, 2012 Convening Report on Certification of Commercial HVAC and CRE Products, October 2, 2012 1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONVENING REPORT ON THE FEASIBILITY OF A NEGOTIATED RULEMAKING TO REVISE THE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM FOR COMMERCIAL HEATING, VENTILATING AIR CONDITIONING AND COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT October 2, 2012 Alan W. Strasser, Esq., MA Convener

194

Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) Investigation for Residential and Small Commercial Air-Source Heat Pumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric utilities frequently use the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) in air conditioning–based incentive programs to categorize energy efficiency and to quantify financial value. For residential and small commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps, SEER is determined by the procedures outlined in ANSI/AHRI Standard 210/240. Within Standard 210/240, SEER is calculated based on laboratory test results and equations that follow specific assumptions regarding indoor temperature, ...

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

195

Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design." Atlanta, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, andRefrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers Brake horsepower Building Management System Constant air volume Center for Environmental Design

Xu, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Commercial Building Energy Asset Scoring Tool Application Programming Interface  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Building Energy Asset Scoring Tool Commercial Building Energy Asset Scoring Tool Application Programming Interface NORA WANG GEOFF ELLIOTT JUSTIN ALMQUIST EDWARD ELLIS Pacific Northwest National Laboratory JUNE 14, 2013 Commercial Building Energy Asset Score Energy asset score evaluates the as- built physical characteristics of a building Energy Asset Score and its overall energy efficiency, independent of occupancy and operational choices. The physical characteristics include Building envelope (window, wall, roof) HVAC systems (heating, cooling, air distribution) Lighting system (luminaire and lighting control systems) Service hot water system Other major energy-using equipment (e.g. commercial refrigerator, commercial kitchen appliances, etc.) Building energy use is affected by many factors.

197

An analysis of heating and cooling conservation features in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

One purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship in commercial buildings between conservation investments, fuel prices, building occupancy and building characteristics for new buildings and for existing buildings. The database is a nationwide survey of energy in commercial buildings conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in 1906. Some simple cross-tabulations indicate that conservation measures vary with building size, building age, and fuel used for building heating. Regression estimates of a conservation model indicate that the number of conservation model indicate that the number of conservation features installed during construction is a positive function of the price of the heating fuel at the time of construction. Subsequent additions of conservation features are positively correlated with increases in heating fuel prices. Given the EIA projection of relatively stable future energy prices, the number of retrofits may not increase significantly. Also, energy efficiency in new buildings may not continue to increase relative to current new buildings. If fuel prices affect consumption via initial conservation investments, current fuel prices, marginal or average, are not the appropriate specification. The fuel price regression results indicate that conservation investments in new buildings are responsive to market signals. Retrofits are less responsive to market signals. The number of conservation features in a building is not statistically related to the type of occupancy (owner versus renter), which implies that conservation strategies are not impeded by the renting or leasing of buildings.

Sutherland, R.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

An analysis of heating and cooling conservation features in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

One purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship in commercial buildings between conservation investments, fuel prices, building occupancy and building characteristics for new buildings and for existing buildings. The database is a nationwide survey of energy in commercial buildings conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in 1906. Some simple cross-tabulations indicate that conservation measures vary with building size, building age, and fuel used for building heating. Regression estimates of a conservation model indicate that the number of conservation model indicate that the number of conservation features installed during construction is a positive function of the price of the heating fuel at the time of construction. Subsequent additions of conservation features are positively correlated with increases in heating fuel prices. Given the EIA projection of relatively stable future energy prices, the number of retrofits may not increase significantly. Also, energy efficiency in new buildings may not continue to increase relative to current new buildings. If fuel prices affect consumption via initial conservation investments, current fuel prices, marginal or average, are not the appropriate specification. The fuel price regression results indicate that conservation investments in new buildings are responsive to market signals. Retrofits are less responsive to market signals. The number of conservation features in a building is not statistically related to the type of occupancy (owner versus renter), which implies that conservation strategies are not impeded by the renting or leasing of buildings.

Sutherland, R.J.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

199

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

200

www.heatpumpcentre.org IEA HEAT PUMP PROGRAMME  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of residential HP and AC annual/ seasonal performance (Operating Agent: SE) Establish common calculation and test ­ Refrigeration Covers applications in ­ Residential and commercial buildings ­ Industry HEAT PUMPING TECHNOLOGY boilers and gas boilers Annex 38 - Systems using solar thermal energy in combination with heat pumps

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Realistic Probability Estimates For Destructive Overpressure Events In Heated Center Wing Tanks Of Commercial Jet Aircraft  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) identified 17 accidents that may have resulted from fuel tank explosions on commercial aircraft from 1959 to 2001. Seven events involved JP 4 or JP 4/Jet A mixtures that are no longer used for commercial aircraft fuel. The remaining 10 events involved Jet A or Jet A1 fuels that are in current use by the commercial aircraft industry. Four fuel tank explosions occurred in center wing tanks (CWTs) where on-board appliances can potentially transfer heat to the tank. These tanks are designated as ''Heated Center Wing Tanks'' (HCWT). Since 1996, the FAA has significantly increased the rate at which it has mandated airworthiness directives (ADs) directed at elimination of ignition sources. This effort includes the adoption, in 2001, of Special Federal Aviation Regulation 88 of 14 CFR part 21 (SFAR 88 ''Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements''). This paper addresses SFAR 88 effectiveness in reducing HCWT ignition source probability. Our statistical analysis, relating the occurrence of both on-ground and in-flight HCWT explosions to the cumulative flight hours of commercial passenger aircraft containing HCWT's reveals that the best estimate of HCWT explosion rate is 1 explosion in 1.4 x 10{sup 8} flight hours. Based on an analysis of SFAR 88 by Sandia National Laboratories and our independent analysis, SFAR 88 reduces current risk of historical HCWT explosion by at least a factor of 10, thus meeting an FAA risk criteria of 1 accident in billion flight hours. This paper also surveys and analyzes parameters for Jet A fuel ignition in HCWT's. Because of the paucity of in-flight HCWT explosions, we conclude that the intersection of the parameters necessary and sufficient to result in an HCWT explosion with sufficient overpressure to rupture the HCWT is extremely rare.

Alvares, N; Lambert, H

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

202

Fluorescent refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement. 6 figs.

Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Gosnell, T.R.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

203

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

subpart W. Statutory Authority The current energy conservation standards for commercial refrigeration equipment are mandated by Part A-1, the "Certain Industrial Equipment" of...

204

Heat pump with freeze-up prevention  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Comparison of Several Eco-Friendly Refrigeration Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, the operation principles, thermodynamics characteristics, and technical practicability were compared between thermoelectric refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration and adsorption refrigeration. The TE refrigeration is the most well-developed, applicable and competitive technology. Three eco-friendly refrigeration systems are increasingly getting attention, especially in a day with increasingly energy and environmental crises. In summary, thermoelectric refrigeration possesses the following superiorities: a longer developmental period, more perfect techniques, increasing applications, a larger range of refrigerating capacity, and a better economic property in small refrigerating capacity. Thermoelectric refrigeration cannot be replaced in special fields, and its applications have received more and more attention in recovering waste heat. Magnetic refrigeration has been widely applied in lower temperature regions; its application in middle temperature regions is juvenile. In particular, there is no application of this technique in high temperature regions. Adsorption refrigeration is practical only in near room temperatures. Its advantage is that it can be used in some fields where conventional refrigeration cannot be applied, such as in the application of solar energy, geothermal energy, and other renewable energy, and the recovery of residual and waste heat.? Supported by the Young Foundation of Central South University of Forestry & Technology (06002A) The disadvantages are as follows: the cost is expensive, no practical technique is available at present, and thus, it possesses no general superiority versus other refrigeration technologies.

Tang, C.; Luo, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure is directed to a low temperature 4 to 20 K. refrigeration apparatus and method utilizing a ring of magnetic material moving through a magnetic field. Heat exchange is accomplished in and out of the magnetic field to appropriately utilize the device to execute Carnot and Stirling cycles.

Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e., ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site's annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities plus a natural gas company, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB's assumed utilization is far higherthan is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at stimulating CHP deployment, while the SGIP buy down is more powerful. The attractiveness of CHP varies widely by climate zone and service territory, but in general, hotter inland areas and San Diego are the more attractive regions because high cooling loads achieve higher equipment utilization. Additionally, large office buildings are surprisingly good hosts for CHP, so large office buildings in San Diego and hotter urban centers emerge as promising target hosts. Overall the effect on CO2 emissions is limited, never exceeding 27percent of the CARB target. Nonetheless, results suggest that the CO2 emissions abatement potential of CHP in mid-sized CA buildings is significant, and much more promising than is typically assumed.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

208

Louisville Gas and Electric - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Louisville Gas and Electric - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Louisville Gas and Electric - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Louisville Gas and Electric - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate $50,000 per facility per calendar year Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount T5 Fixtures (T12 Replacement): $3 - $12 T5 HO High-Bay Fixtures: $15 - $74 T8 Fixtures: $1 - $16 T8 High-Bay Fixtures: $21 - $34 CFL Hardwired Fixture/Bulb: $4 CFL/LED Bulbs: $2 CFL Highbay Fixture: $35 LED Refrigerated Display Light: $6 LED Interior Lights: $5 - $10

209

UES - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

UES - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program UES - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program UES - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Home Weatherization Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate 85% of incremental costs up to $10,000 per customer per year. For customers who have a demand load of 500KW or greater, the cap is increased to $50,000 per year for each year that the program is in effect. Program Info Start Date 1/1/2009 State Arizona Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerator Doors: $120/door

210

Ames Electric Department - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ames Electric Department - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Ames Electric Department - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs Ames Electric Department - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Other Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Appliances: 50% of equipment cost per unit Lighting: Will not exceed equipment cost per unit, (contact AED about incentives expected to exceed $10,000) Power Factor Correction Equipment: Incentives over $15,000 will be examined on case by case basis Custom Rebate: Incentives over $15,000 willexamined on case by case basis Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerators: $25 - $100

211

Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Appliances & Electronics Commercial Weatherization Manufacturing Commercial Lighting Lighting Home Weatherization Insulation Design & Remodeling Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info State Hawaii Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Air Cooled Packaged/Split AC: $200/ton Variable Refrigerant Flow AC: $250 - $350/ton Water Cooled Chiller (Standard): $50/ton Water Cooled Chiller (Enhanced): $150/ton VFD Control (Air Handler): $50/HP VFD Control (Chilled/Condenser Water Pumps): $80/HP VFD Pool Pump System: $225/HP VFD Domestic Water Pump System: $3,000 plus $80/HP reduction

212

Kentucky Utilities Company - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Kentucky Utilities Company - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Kentucky Utilities Company - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Kentucky Utilities Company - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate $50,000 per facility per calendar year Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount T5 Fixtures (T12 Replacement): $3 - $12 T5 HO High-Bay Fixtures: $15 - $74 T8 Fixtures: $1 - $16 T8 High-Bay Fixtures: $21 - $34 CFL Hardwired Fixture/Bulb: $4 CFL/LED Bulbs: $2 CFL Highbay Fixture: $35 LED Refrigerated Display Light: $6 LED Interior Lights: $5 - $10 LED Exterior Lights: $10 - $30 LED Pole Light Replacement: $30 - $88

213

ARTI refrigerant database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

ARTI refrigerant database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)] [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

ARTI refrigerant database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state material—an elastic shape memory metal alloy—as a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Superinsulation in refrigerators and freezers  

SciTech Connect

The results presented here were obtained during Phase 4 of the first CRADA, which had the specific objective of determining the lifetime of superinsulations when installed in simulated refrigerator doors. The second CRADA was established to evaluate and test design concepts proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption in a refrigerator-freezer that is representative of approximately 60% of the US market. The stated goal of this CRADA is to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50%, the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 L) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translates to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research is to facilitate the introduction of efficient appliances by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. In previous work on this project, a Phase 1 prototype refrigerator-freezer achieved an energy consumption of 1.413 kWh/d [Vineyard, et al., 1995]. Following discussions with an advisory group comprised of all the major refrigerator-freezer manufacturers, several options were considered for the Phase 2 effort, one of which was cabinet heat load reductions.

Vineyard, E.; Stovall, T.K.; Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, K.W.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

List of Heat recovery Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

recovery Incentives recovery Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 174 Heat recovery Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 174) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Ohio - Commercial Custom Project Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government Tribal Government Boilers Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Furnaces Heat pumps Heat recovery Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Processing and Manufacturing Equipment Refrigerators Yes AEP Ohio - Commercial Self Direct Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government

219

Table 2.11 Commercial Buildings Electricity Consumption by End ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. Coal. ... Refrigeration: Office Equipment: Computers: Other 1: Total: ...

220

2102, Page 1 Experimental Investigation of Closed Loop Oscillating Heat Pipe as the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

improvement in the coefficient of performance (COP) of a commercial heat pump using a mixture of refrigerants can be removed with the intent of performing composition analyses on them. The copper condenser commercial product, process, or serviceby trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does

Ghajar, Afshin J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

Mark J. Bergander

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

222

The Heat Loss Analysis and Commissioning of a Commercial Helium Dewar (SULI paper)  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature cryostat suitable for many different experiments will be commissioned at the cryogenic test facility at SLAC. The scope of the project is to make commission a commercial Helium dewar. The building of the top flange will be followed from its design phase through to its finished assembly. In addition, diagnostic tools such as thermometry, level detector, pressure gauge, transfer lines for He and N2, vent lines with relief valves for He and N2 will be incorporated. Instrumentation to read and plot this data will also be included. Once the cryostat is assembled, we will cool down the cryostat to measure its performance. A typical consumption rate of Helium will be measured and from this, the overall heat leak to the dewar will be calculated. A processing instrumentation diagram (PID) of the dewar system was created with SolidEdge and was later approved and published as an official SLAC document. The plots comparing the liquid level changes of the 36 inch probe with the time and the heat loss as a function of time proved to be a valid indication that the data was interpreted and recorded correctly and that the dewar was put together successfully.

Bellamy, Marcus; /New Mexico U. /SLAC

2006-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

223

Screening Analysis for EPACT-Covered Commercial HVAC and Water-Heating Equipment  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) establishes that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulate efficiency levels of certain categories of commercial heating, cooling, and water-heating equip-ment. EPACT establishes the initial minimum efficiency levels for products falling under these categories, based on ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 requirements. EPCA states that, if ASHRAE amends Standard 90.1-1989 efficiency levels, then DOE must establish an amended uniform national manufacturing standard at the minimum level specified in the amended Standard 90.1 and that it can establish higher efficiency levels if they would result in significant additional energy savings. Standard 90.1-1999 increases minimum efficiency levels for some of the equipment categories covered by EPCA 92. DOE conducted a screening analysis to determine the energy-savings potential for EPACT-covered products meet and exceeding these levels. This paper describes the methodology, data assumptions, and results of the analysis.

Somasundaram, Sriram; Armstrong, Peter R.; Belzer, David B.; Gaines, Suzanne C.; Hadley, Donald L.; Katipumula, S.; Smith, David L.; Winiarski, David W.

2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

224

Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by heat activated absorption cooling, direct-fired naturalwith absorption chillers that use waste heat for cooling (

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

Lucas, Timothy S. (Glen Allen, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

AvAilAble for licensing Provides substantial improvement in heat transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

towers and more Cooling of power and microelectronics Refrigeration and other cooling systems Nuclear for commercial and industrial heat-transfer applications. Benefits More efficient cooling systems Higher productivity Energy savings Applications and Industries Heat exchangers for engines, fuel cells, cooling

Kemner, Ken

228

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

229

Thermoacoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoacoustic device having a thermal stack made from a piece of porous material which provides a desirable ratio of thermoacoustic area to viscous area, which has a low resistance to flow, which minimizes acoustic streaming and which has a high specific heat and low thermal conductivity is disclosed. The thermal stack is easy and cheap to form and it can be formed in small sizes. Specifically, in one embodiment, a thermal stack which is formed by the natural structure of a porous material such as reticulated vitreous carbon is disclosed. The thermal stack is formed by machining a block of reticulated vitreous carbon into the required shape of the thermal stack. In a second embodiment, a micro-thermoacoustic device is disclosed which includes a thermal stack made of a piece of porous material such as reticulated vitreous carbon. In another embodiment, a heat exchanger is disclosed which is formed of a block of heat conductive open cell foam material.

Moss, William C. (San Mateo, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Redding Electric - Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Savings For Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Ventilation Manufacturing Heat Pumps...

231

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CL COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION STANDBY External power suppliesTV, refrigerator, fans, standby, air conditioner, electricConditioner Diff 3.59E-04 The standby power consumption of

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Update on maintenance and service costs of commercial building ground-source heat pump systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An earlier paper showed that commercial ground-source heat pump systems have significantly lower service and maintenance costs than alternative HVAC systems. This paper expands on those results by adding 13 more buildings to the original 25 sites and by comparing the results to the latest ASHRAE survey of HVAC maintenance costs. Data from the 38 sites are presented here including total (scheduled and unscheduled) maintenance costs in cents per square foot per year for base cost, in-house, and contractor-provided maintenance. Because some of the new sites had maintenance costs that were much higher than the industry norm, the resulting data are not normally distributed. Analysis (O'Hara Hines 1998) indicated that a log-normal distribution is a better fit; thus, the data are analyzed and presented here as log-normal. The log-mean annual total maintenance costs for the most recent year of the survey ranged from 6.07 cents per square foot to 8.37 cents per square foot for base cost and contractor-provided maintenance, respectively.

Cane, D.; Garnet, J.M.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Duct Systems in large commercial buildings: Physical characterization, air leakage, and heat conduction gains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Leakage, and Heat Conduction Gains William 1. Fisk,0.75 to 0.90; thus, heat conduction decreased the coolingby air leakage or heat conduction, because these ducts are

Fisk, W.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

235

Method of reducing chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant emissons to the atmosphere  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for reducing chloroflurocarbon (CFC) refrigerant emissions during removal or transfer or refrigerants from a vapor compression cooling system or heat pump which comprises contacting the refrigerant with a suitable sorbent material. The sorbent material allows for the storage and retention or the chlorofluorocarbon in non-gaseous form so that it does not tend to escape to the atmosphere where it would cause harm by contributing to ozone depletion. In other aspects of the invention, contacting of CFC refrigerants with sorbent material allows for purification and recycling of used refrigerant, and a device containing stored sorbent material can be employed in the detection of refrigerant leakage in a cooling system or heat pump.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Fairchild, Phillip D. (Clinton, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a mucilage glue fiber factory, the design of the refrigeration system takes into account the characteristics of mucilage glue fiber production and fully uses the refrigeration compressor heat to economize energy and reduce the production cost. In this paper, the author introduces different points of this kind of design with conventional design. For efficient use of the compressed heat of the refrigeration system, the designer should calculate the number of condensers according to the changes that the refrigeration system undergoes after using the soft water as cooling water. To economize the investment, the designer should use the refrigeration workshop and the soft water workshop and obtain optimum processing to shorten the duct. Through an economizing energy analysis, the paper demonstrates that an optimum design for a refrigeration system for a mucilage glue factory has a significant energy saving potential.

Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storageCHP, often with absorption chillers that use waste heat forand • heat-driven absorption chillers. Figure 1 shows a

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of several installation items on the high outdoor ambient temperature performance of air conditioners. These installation items were: improper amount of refrigerant charge, reduced evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging tests, the indoor room conditions were 80'F (27.8'C) dry-bulb and 50% relative humidity. The outdoor conditions ranged from 95'F (350C) all the way up to 120'F (48.9'C). Charge levels ranged from 30% undercharged to 40% overcharged for the short-tube orifice unit. For the thermal expansion valve (TXV) unit, charge levels ranged from-36% charging to +27% charging. Performance was quantified with the following variables: total capacity, energy efficiency ratio (EER), and power. The performance of the orifice unit was more sensitive to charge than it was for the TXV unit. For the TXV unit on the -27% to +27% charging range, the capacity and EER changed little with charge. A TXV unit and a short-tube orifice unit were also tested for reduced evaporator airflow. As evaporator airflow decreased, the capacity and EER both decreased as expected. However, the drop was not as significant as with the charging tests. For the extreme case of 50% reduced evaporator airflow, neither unit's capacity or EER dropped more than 25%. Return air leakage from hot attic spaces was simulated by assuming adiabatic mixing of the indoor air at normal conditions with the attic air at high temperatures. Effective capacity and EER both decreased with increased return air leakage. However, power consumption was relatively constant for all variables except outdoor temperature, which meant that for the same power consumption, the unit delivered much lower performance when there was return air leakage. The increase in sensible heat ratio (SHR) with increasing leakage showed perhaps the most detrimental effect of return air leakage on performance, which was the inability of the unit to absorb moisture from the environment.

Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Effect of Refrigerant Charge, Duct Leakage, and Evaporator Air Flow on the High Temperature Performance of Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of several installation items on the high outdoor ambient temperature performance of air conditioners. These installation items were: improper amount of refrigerant charge, reduced evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging tests, the indoor room conditions were 80°F (27.8°C) dry-bulb and 50% relative humidity. The outdoor conditions ranged from 95°F (35°C) all the way up to 120°F (48.9°C). Charge levels ranged from 30% undercharged to 40% overcharged for the short-tube orifice unit. For the thermal expansion valve (TXV) unit, charge levels ranged from -36% charging to +27% charging. Performance was quantified with the following variables: total capacity, energy efficiency ratio (EER), and power. The performance of the orifice unit was more sensitive to charge than it was for the TXV unit. For the TXV unit on the -27% to +27% charging range, the capacity and EER changed little with charge. A TXV unit and a short-tube orifice unit were also tested for reduced evaporator airflow. As evaporator airflow decreased, the capacity and EER both decreased as expected. However, the drop was not as significant as with the charging tests. For the extreme case of 50% reduced evaporator airflow, neither unit's capacity or EER dropped more than 25%. Return air leakage from hot attic spaces was simulated by assuming adiabatic mixing of the indoor air at normal conditions with the attic air at high temperatures. Effective capacity and EER both decreased with increased return air leakage. However, power consumption was relatively constant for all variables except outdoor temperature, which meant that for the same power consumption, the unit delivered much lower performance when there was return air leakage. The increase in sensible heat ratio (SHR) with increasing leakage showed perhaps the most detrimental effect of return air leakage on performance, which was the inability of the unit to absorb moisture from the environment.

Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

2007-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

240

BTRIC - Refrigerant testing heats up  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cases and three 12 foot freezer cases are in the indoor chamber, and their condenser and compressor rack are in the outdoor one. Plastic tubs filled with water simulate...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Assessment of Supply Chain Energy Efficiency Potentials: A U.S. Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heating Elec: Industrial refrigeration Petr: Agriculturalestimates for industrial HVAC, refrigeration, and lightingCommercial Refrigeration NG: Industrial process heating

Masanet, Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Coldwater Board of Public Utilities - Commercial & Industrial...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CustomOthers pending approval, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Motor VFDs, Motors, LED Exit Signs, Vending Machine Controls, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment, Food Service...

243

Barron Electric Cooperative - Commercial, Industrial, and Agricultural...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lighting: 15fixture LED Exit Sign: 5sign Occupancy Sensors: 5switch Commercial Air Conditioning Units: 40ton Plate CoolersPre-Coolers: 500unit Dairy Refrigeration...

244

Energy conservation for household refrigerators and water heaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energy conservation arrangement for household refrigerators and water heaters, in which the source of cold water to the hot water heater is divided and part is caused to flow through and be warmed in the condenser of the refrigerator. The warmed water is then further heated in the oil cooling loop of the refrigerator compressor, and proceeds then to the top of the hot water tank.

Speicher, T. L.

1984-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

245

FS: heat pump water heaters | The Better Buildings Alliance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Food Service » Install a heat pump Food Service » Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specificat Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specification The Food Service team developed a Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater Specification that can be used to reduce water heating energy by 70%. An older, electric resistance water heater (operated in a building with a hot water demand of 500 gallons a day) can cost more than $3,500 each year

246

A capital cost comparison of commercial ground-source heat pump systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the report is to compare capital costs associated with the three designs of ground source heat pumps. Specifically, the costs considered are those associated with the heat source/heat sink or ground source portion of the system. In order to standardize the heat rejection over the three designs, it was assumed that the heat pump loop would operate at a temperature range of 85{degree} (to the heat pumps) to 95{degree} (from the heat pumps) under peak conditions. The assumption of constant loop temperature conditions for all three permits an apples-to-apples comparison of the alternatives.

Rafferty, K.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Edison (2007). DR Strategies for Coldof Southern California Edison Refrigerated Warehouses byTable 5. Southern California Edison Commercial Cold Storage

Lekov, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Heat transfer characteristics of porous sludge deposits and their impact on the performance of commercial steam generators  

SciTech Connect

Steam generator (SG) fouling, in the form of corrosion deposits on the secondary sides of SG tubes, has been known to occur in almost all commercial US nuclear PWR (pressurized water reactor) plants. The level of fouling, as measured by the quantity of corrosion products that form, varies widely from plant to plant. In addition, the effect of SG fouling, as measured by a decrease in effective heat-transfer coefficient, has also varied substantially among commercial US plants. While some have observed large decreases in heat transfer, others have noted little change in performance despite the presence of significant quantities of secondary corrosion layers on their SG tubes. This observation has led to considerable confusion about what role secondary deposits play in causing heat-transfer degradation in SGs. As will become clear later in this report, secondary deposits can have a wide range of effects on heat transfer, from highly resistive to slightly enhancing (reflected by negative fouling). These different behaviors are the result of differences in deposit thickness, composition, and morphology. The main focus of this report is an investigation of the effects of secondary deposits on SG thermal performance. This investigation includes compilation of detailed information on the properties of tube scale at five commercial US nuclear plants and corresponding information characterizing SG thermal performance at these plants.

Kreider, M.A.; White, G.A.; Varrin, R.D.; Ouzts, P.J.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Geothermal potential for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) was evaluated for industrial and commercial direct heat applications at Salida, Colorado, which is located approximately five miles east of Poncha Hot Springs. Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd., holds the geothermal leases on the prospect and the right-of-way for the main pipeline to Salida. The Poncha Hot Springs are located at the intersection of two major structural trends, immediately between the Upper Arkansas graben and the Sangre de Cristo uplift. Prominent east-west faulting occurs at the actual location of the hot springs. Preliminary exploration indicates that 1600 gpm of geothermal fluid as hot as 250/sup 0/F is likely to be found at around 1500 feet in depth. The prospective existing endusers were estimated to require 5.02 x 10/sup 10/ Btu per year, but the total annual amount of geothermal energy available for existing and future endusers is 28.14 x 10/sup 10/ Btu. The engineering design for the study assumed that the 1600 gpm would be fully utilized. Some users would be cascaded and the spent fluid would be cooled and discharged to nearby rivers. The economic analysis assumes that two separate businesses, the energy producer and the energy distributor, are participants in the geothermal project. The producer would be an existing limited partnership, with Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. as one of the partners; the distributor would be a new Colorado corporation without additional income sources. Economic evaluations were performed in full for four cases: the Base Case and three alternate scenarios. Alternate 1 assumes a three-year delay in realizing full production relative to the Base Case; Alternate 2 assumes that the geothermal reservoir is of a higher quality than is assumed for the Base Case; and Alternate 3 assumes a lower quality reservoir. 11 refs., 34 figs., 40 tabs.

Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.; Galloway, M.J.; Gross, J.T.; Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

35% of CA commercial electricity demand. Simulating thesereflect the benefit of electricity demand displacement byApr. ) Electricity electricity demand electricity demand

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Commercial-Building Microgrids,” IEEE Transactions on2009, Special Issue on Microgrids and Energy Management, (CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators.

Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Daniel Alonso; Gerardo Adesso

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

253

Commercial building unitary heat pump system with solar heating. Final report, May 1, 1976--October 31, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A generalized dynamic computer program (SYRSOL) has been developed for the mathematical simulation of the thermal behavior of multi-zone solar heated buildings. The system modeled employs a series of water-to-air heat pumps connected in a closed loop, flat-plate liquid cooled solar collector, a water storage tank, and a cooling tower. Weather data are represented by sinusoids, which provide a convenient and economical alternative to weather tapes. Results indicate that the use of sinusoidal functions for temperature and monthly average values for cloud cover is quite realistic and accurate. Temperature functions for thirteen cities are presented. A preliminary analysis has been done of the feasibility of using solar-energized desiccant dehumidification systems to reduce summer cooling loads. Service hot water production using a water-to-water heat pump from the storage tank is shown to be highly effective and idle solar collectors can be used directly to make service hot water in the summer. A new mathematical heat pump heating model, in which the COP increases linearly with the source water temperature, has been developed and incorporated into SYRSOL. The computer simulation capability has been extended from a heating season to an entire year. The results of some experiments, that have improved the COP of a heat pump, are also reported.

Drucker, E.E.; Ucar, M.; LaGraff, J.E.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

InterTechnology Corporation proposed systems level plan for solar heating and cooling commercial buildings. National Solar Demonstration Program. Executive summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program for non-residential buildings are embodied in the following: (1) Demonstrate the ultimate economic and technical feasibility of solar heating and combined heating and cooling. (2) Stimulate industry to produce and market solar equipment. (3) Stimulate a commercial market for solar systems. The systems level plan is designed to address the above stated goals as they relate to the building community associated with the commercial sector of the economy. (WDM)

None

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Potential Refrigerants for Power Electronics Cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past, automotive refrigerants have conventionally been used solely for the purpose of air conditioning. However, with the development of hybrid-electric vehicles and the incorporation of power electronics (PEs) into the automobile, automotive refrigerants are taking on a new role. Unfortunately, PEs have lifetimes and functionalities that are highly dependent on temperature and as a result thermal control plays an important role in the performance of PEs. Typically, PEs are placed in the engine compartment where the internal combustion engine (ICE) already produces substantial heat. Along with the ICE heat, the additional thermal energy produced by PEs themselves forces designers to use different cooling methods to prevent overheating. Generally, heat sinks and separate cooling loops are used to maintain the temperature. Disturbingly, the thermal control system can consume one third of the total volume and may weigh more than the PEs [1]. Hence, other avenues have been sought to cool PEs, including submerging PEs in automobile refrigerants to take advantage of two-phase cooling. The objective of this report is to explore the different automotive refrigerants presently available that could be used for PE cooling. Evaluation of the refrigerants will be done by comparing environmental effects and some thermo-physical properties important to two-phase cooling, specifically measuring the dielectric strengths of potential candidates. Results of this report will be used to assess the different candidates with good potential for future use in PE cooling.

Starke, M.R.

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

257

Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

ARTI refrigerant database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Calm, J.M.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

China Refrigerator Information Label  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-246E China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact Jianhong Cheng China National Institute of Standardization Tomoyuki Sakamoto The Institute of Energy

260

Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants  

Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a new magnetic material that can be used at low temperatures (sub liquid hydrogen) for magnetic refrigerators.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

City of Lompoc Utilities - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program City of Lompoc Utilities - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Other Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: Up to 30% of cost Clothes Washer: $120 Dishwasher: $50 Refrigerator Replacement Rebate: $144 Refrigerator Buy-Back Program: $35 LED Exit Signs: $15 Custom Rebate: $0.15 per watt saved Provider Utility Conservation City of Lompoc Utilities offers rebates to commercial customers for the purchase and installation of energy efficiency lighting, clothes washers, dishwashers, replaced refrigerators, new refrigerators, LED exit signs and

263

Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum [University of Dayton, Ohio; Wenning, Thomas J [ORNL; Sever, Franc [University of Dayton, Ohio; Kissock, Professor Kelly [University of Dayton, Ohio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Energy Saving with Absorption Refrigeration Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absorption refrigeration technology can be an economical and cost effective means of reducing energy cost and/or improving the efficiency and output of your process. We believe the potential benefits of absorption refrigeration technology have generally been overlooked by the process industry. This paper will address the application of the lithium bromide-water cycle in various energy saving modes. A waste heat powered absorption chiller producing chilled water can reduce energy consumption in a process plant by replacing an existing mechanical refrigeration system or replacing cooling tower water with a lower temperature cooling medium at negligible increase in energy cost. A variety of waste heat sources can be used at temperatures as low as 150 F.

Davis, R. C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Available Technologies: Convection Heat Pump  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Solar thermal systems; Heating and cooling systems for buildings; Refrigeration; Compressed air source; Recycling waste heat from chimneys

266

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods Sign up for e-mail updates on regulations for this and other products The Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to revise and expand its existing regulations governing the use of alternative efficiency determination methods (AEDM) and alternate rating methods (ARM) for covered products as alternatives to testing for the purpose of certifying compliance. Recent Updates | Public Meeting Information | Submitting Public Comments | Milestones and Documents | Related Rulemakings | Statutory Authority | Contact Information Recent Updates DOE published a final rule revising its existing regulations governing the use of particular methods as alternatives to testing for commercial heating, ventilating, air conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration equipment. 78 FR 79579 (December 31, 2013).

267

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

Calm, J.M.

1992-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

268

1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","All Sources",4,85.9,80.09  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

STATE_CODE","PRODUCER_TYPE","FUEL_SOURCE","GENERATORS","NAMEPLATE_CAPACITY STATE_CODE","PRODUCER_TYPE","FUEL_SOURCE","GENERATORS","NAMEPLATE_CAPACITY (Megawatts)","SUMMER_CAPACITY (Megawatts)" 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","All Sources",4,85.9,80.09 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","Coal",3,65.5,61.1 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","Petroleum",1,20.4,18.99 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Industrial Power","All Sources",23,229.4,204.21 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Industrial Power","Natural Gas",28,159.32,136.67 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Industrial Power","Petroleum",8,68.28,65.86

269

Solar refrigeration in rural West Bengal: Design of a product service system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solarbear is a refrigerator that cools with the heat of the sun only. This technology, more formally known as solar powered adsorption cooling, has been… (more)

Van Genuchten, R.P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Detailed CFD modelling of open refrigerated display cabinets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive and detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) modelling of air flow and heat transfer in an open refrigerated display cabinet (ORDC) is performed in this study. The physical-mathematical model considers the flow through the internal ...

Pedro Dinis Gaspar; L. C. Carrilho Gonçalves; R. A. Pitarma

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Part A-1 of Title III (42 U.S.C. 6311-6317) establishes a similar program for ''Certain Industrial Equipment,'' which includes commercial refrigeration equipment. Amendments to...

272

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989 -- Executive  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Energy End-Use Intensities > Executive Summary 9 Energy End-Use Intensities > Executive Summary Executive Summary Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A through F of the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. divider line The demand for energy in U.S. stores, offices, schools, hospitals, and other commercial buildings has been increasing. This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and "other." The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand.

273

Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alone—making CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems— enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Spray generators for absorption refrigeration systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spray generator for an absorption refrigeration system that includes a heat exchanger comprised of a multiplicity of variably spaced heat exchange tubes. The tubes are spaced close together near the top of the heat exchanger and spaced more widely apart near the bottom of the heat exchanger. Dilute absorbent solution is sprayed down through the heat exchanger. The close nesting of the tubes in the top portion of the heat exchanger retards liquid flow and aids heating of the solution. The wide spacing of the tubes in the lower section of the heat exchanger facilitate vapor flow out of the heat exchanger and eliminates liquid "blow-off". The top tubes are covered by a baffle to prevent the liquid solution from splashing out of the heat exchanger off of these top tubes.

Sibley, Howard W. (Baldwinsville, NY)

1979-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

275

Mild Hybrid System in Combination with Waste Heat Recovery for Commercial Vehicles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Performance of two different waste heat recovery systems (one based on Rankine cycle and the other one using thermoelectricity) combined with non-hybrid, mild-hybrid and… (more)

Namakian, Mohsen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Available Technologies: Heat Transfer Interface for Thermo ...  

Refrigeration systems; Internal combustion engines; ... The components of the technology could be used to improve heat transfer in industrial, ...

277

The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

://eetd.lbl.gov/EA/EMP/emp-pubs.html The work described in this report was funded by the California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by its trade name examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt

278

Performance Assessment of an Advanced Hydronic Heat Pump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report details testing of the Daikin Altherma, a variable speed hydronic heat pump for residential and small commercial application. The system is a highly flexible provider of relatively high-grade (high temperature) heat or cooling for a residence or small commercial institution. Nominal capacity is 36,000 Btu/hr, but this capacity can be exceeded depending on conditions. It is an air-to-water heat pump operating on the standard reverse-Rankine cycle with R-410a as the refrigerant. The outdoor hea...

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

279

Heat Pump Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate...

280

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators September 28, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the release of a new proposed energy efficiency standard for residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers. The standard, as proposed, could save consumers as much as $18.6 billion over thirty years. The Obama Administration has made efficiency standards a major priority as a way to save energy and money for American families and businesses. Since January 2009, the Department of Energy has finalized new efficiency standards for more than twenty household and commercial products, which will cumulatively save consumers between $250 billion and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Refrigerated cryogenic envelope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

Loudon, John D. (Boulder, CO)

1976-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

282

Coast Electric Power Association - Commercial Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Coast Electric Power Association - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Eligibility Commercial Savings For Heating & Cooling...

283

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.1 Commercial Sector Energy Consumption  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 2003 Commercial Buildings Delivered Energy End-Use Intensities, by Building Activity (Thousand Btu per SF) (1) Space Heating Cooling Ventilation Water Heating Lighting Cooking Refrigeration Office Equipment Computers Other Total Space Heating Cooling Ventilation Water Heating Lighting Cooking Refrigeration Office Equipment Computers Other Total Space Heating Cooling Ventilation Water Heating Lighting Cooking Refrigeration Office Equipment Computers Other Total Note(s): Source(s): 43.5 45.2 164.4 20.9 1) Due to rounding, end-uses do not sum to total. EIA, 2003 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey, Energy End-Uses, Oct. 2008, Table E.2A. 0.3 0.6 3.0 N.A. 4.9 4.8 18.9 3.1 1.7 3.5 6.0 N.A. 0.1 0.2 N.A. N.A. 4.4 13.1 34.1 1.7 0.8 N.A. N.A. N.A. 1.4 2.0 6.1 0.4 0.8 0.6 2.1 0.1 26.2 19.3 79.4 14.4 2.9 1.3 10.5 0.6 Religious

284

List of Commercial Cooking Equipment Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooking Equipment Incentives Cooking Equipment Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 39 Commercial Cooking Equipment Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 39) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Ohio - Commercial New Construction Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Industrial Local Government Municipal Utility Nonprofit Schools State Government Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Water Heaters Commercial Cooking Equipment Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Room Air Conditioners Yes Agricultural Energy Efficiency Program (New York) State Rebate Program New York Agricultural Agricultural Equipment

285

Microgrids for Commercial Building Combined Heat and Power and Power and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biofuels), photovoltaics (PV), fuel cells, local heat and electricity storage, etc. Trends emerging at a consistent level of PQR throughout large regions. For example, PQR targets are consistent virtually all cost, point A, which in Fig. 3 occurs to the left of the current U.S. target of about 3-4 nines, point

286

Exploring the Limits of Boiling and Evaporative Heat Transfer Using Micro/Nano Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small passages of compact heat-exchangers, Int J Therm Sci,and refrigeration and compact heat exchangers [4], chemical

Lu, Ming-Chang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Use of an open-cycle absorption system for heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar cooling for commercial applications using open-cycle absorption refrigeration systems has been investigated and found to be feasible. If an open-cycle absorption system can be operated as a chemical heat pump for winter heating operation, the system would offer year-round operation that could make the system economically viable for many regions of the US. An analysis of heating operation for the open-cycle system is presented using a computer program that simulates heat and mass transfer processes for any environmental condition. The open-cycle absorption refrigeration system can be operated as a chemical heat pump. Simulations for winter heating operation were run for five US cities, with solar COP's in the range of .06 to .16. At these levels, the OCAR system can provide full heating and cooling operation for office buildings in many southern US cities.

Schlepp, D. R.; Collier, R. K.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Heat exchanger-accumulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Table 2.11 Commercial Buildings Electricity Consumption by End ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refrigeration: Office Equipment: Computers: Other 1: Total: All Buildings. 167: 481: 436: 88: 1,340: 24: 381: 69: 156: 418: 3,559: ... "Commercial ...

291

Fort Collins Utilities - Residential and Small Commercial Appliance...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

RefrigeratorFreezer Recycling: 35, plus free pick-up Fort Collins Utilities offers a number of appliance and recycling rebates to residential and small commercial customers....

292

Ameren Illinois (Electric)- Commercial Kitchen and Grocery Incentives Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Ameren offers several programs targeted at grocery stores, convenience stores, refrigerated warehouses or spaces, and commercial kitchens. These programs are designed to improve the energy...

293

Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

Calm, James M.

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

294

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Annual DOE Active Solar Heating and Cooling Contractors'and Annual DOE Active Solar Heating and Cooling Contractors'refrigeration systems for solar active heating and cooling

Dao, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 Main Commercial Primary Energy Use of Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995 Heating Equipment | Cooling Equipment Packaged Heating Units 25% | Packaged Air Conditioning Units 54% Boilers 21% | Room Air Conditioning 5% Individual Space Heaters 2% | PTAC (2) 3% Furnaces 20% | Centrifugal Chillers 14% Heat Pumps 5% | Reciprocating Chillers 12% District Heat 7% | Rotary Screw Chillers 3% Unit Heater 18% | Absorption Chillers 2% PTHP & WLHP (1) 2% | Heat Pumps 7% 100% | 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) PTHP = Packaged Terminal Heat Pump, WLHP = Water Loop Heat Pump. 2) PTAC = Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume 1: Chillers, Refrigerant Compressors, and Heating Systems, Apr. 2001, Figure 5-5, p. 5-14 for cooling and Figure 5-10, p. 5-18 for heating

298

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Cain, J.M. (Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States))

1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

299

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Title Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California...

300

Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator - Energy ...  

... -phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Application of Cryocoolers to a Vintage Dilution Refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

A dilution refrigerator is required for 50mK detector operation of CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search). Besides shielding the dilution refrigerator itself, the liquid nitrogen shield and liquid helium bath in the refrigerator cool the detector cryostat heat shields and cool electronics, resulting in significant external heat loads at 80K and at 4K. An Oxford Instruments Kelvinox 400 has served this role for ten years but required daily transfers of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Complicating the cryogen supply is the location 800 meters below ground in an RF shielded, class 10000 clean room at Soudan, MN. Nitrogen and helium re-liquefiers using cryocoolers were installed outside the clean room and continuously condense room temperature gas and return the liquids to the dilution refrigerator through a transfer line. This paper will describe the design, installation, controls and performance of liquefaction systems.

Schmitt, Richard; Smith, Gary; Ruschman, Mark; /Fermilab; Beaty, Jim; /Minnesota U.

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

302

Impact of the antitrust laws on the commercialization of solar heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many energy industry observers and solar equipment producers view the commercialization of solar technologies as an opportunity to undermine the dominance now enjoyed by energy companies and electric utilities. Whether their hopes will be realized depends on Congress' posture towards interenergy diversification (which is currently permissive), DOE's spending practices (which have, in the past, been relatively insensitive to competitive consequences), and ultimately, the Supreme Court's willingness to aggressively enforce the antitrust laws (which is not unlikely, given recent holdings). Notwithstanding the legislative and administrative branches' tacit compliance with entrenched firms' involvement in the various solar energy submarkets, injured business persons and consumers (as well as the Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission) have the opportunity to force the controversy onto the judiciary by bringing suit under the antitrust laws against companies allegedly displaying anti-competitive market practices. The interchangeability between end uses of renewable and nonrenewable energy resources creates opportunities and motives for market manipulation. Consequently, the potential of energy firms for facilitating solar technology development (due to technological knowledge, managerial expertise and capital resources) must be weighed against the possibility that their involvement will, in the long run, retard development. 356 references.

Gross, J.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (Electric) - Commercial Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings For Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics...

304

Super energy saver heat pump with dynamic hybrid phase change material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heat pump has a refrigerant loop, a compressor in fluid communication with the refrigerant loop, at least one indoor heat exchanger in fluid communication with the refrigerant loop, and at least one outdoor heat exchanger in fluid communication with the refrigerant loop. The at least one outdoor heat exchanger has a phase change material in thermal communication with the refrigerant loop and in fluid communication with an outdoor environment. Other systems, devices, and methods are described.

Ally, Moonis Raza (Oak Ridge, TN); Tomlinson, John Jager (Knoxville, TN); Rice, Clifford Keith (Clinton, TN)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

305

Japanese refrigerators field testing  

SciTech Connect

Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual operation. The units have also undergone laboratory testing sponsored by BPA at ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc. in Cortland, New York. A final report of the project -- due at the end of 1989 -- will correlate in detail the results of field and laboratory tests in comparison to performance ratings determined by the manufacturer.

Lou, A.T.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Japanese Refrigerators Field Testing.  

SciTech Connect

Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual operation. The units have also undergone laboratory testing sponsored by BPA at ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc. in Cortland, New York. A final report of the project -- due at the end of 1989 -- will correlate in detail the results of field and laboratory tests in comparison to performance ratings determined by the manufacturer.

Lou, Albert T.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

Calm, J.M.

1992-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

308

Refrigerator recycling and CFCs  

SciTech Connect

Utility-sponsored refrigerator and freezer pick-up programs have removed almost 900,000 inefficient appliances from the North American electric grid to date. While the CFC-12 refrigerant from the discarded appliances is typically removed and recycled, in all but a few programs the CFC-11 in the foam insulation is not. About a quarter-billion pounds of CFC-11 are banked in refrigerator foam in the United States. Release of this ``bank`` of CFC, combined with that from foam insulation used in buildings, will be the largest source of future emissions if preventive measures are not taken. Methods exist to recover the CFC for reuse or to destroy it by incineration. The task of recycling or destroying the CFCs and other materials from millions of refrigerators is a daunting challenge, but one in which utilities can play a leadership role. E Source believes that utilities can profitably serve as the catalyst for public-private partnerships that deliver comprehensive refrigerator recycling. Rather than treating such efforts solely as a DSM resource acquisition, utilities could position these programs as a multifaceted service delivery that offers convenient appliance removal for homeowners, a solid waste minimization service for landfills, a source of recycled materials for industry, and a CFC recovery and/or disposal service in support of the HVAC industry and society`s atmospheric protection goals and laws. Financial mechanisms could be developed through these public-private enterprises to ensure that utilities are compensated for the extra cost of fully recycling refrigerators, including the foam CFC.

Shepard, M.; Hawthorne, W.; Wilson, A.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

309

COLD STORAGE DESIGN REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COLD STORAGE DESIGN AND REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART 1 \\ "..\\- ,,, T I Fishery Leaflet 427 Washington 25, D. C. June 1956 REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART em; COlD STORAGE DESIGN · · · · · 18 Specific design features 0 0 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 19 Refrigerated surfaces 0 · · 0 0 0 · 0

310

Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Zha, Shitong [Hillphoenix

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Frost sensor for use in defrost controls for refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring the total thermal resistance to heat flow from the air to the evaporative cooler fins of a refrigeration system. The apparatus is a frost sensor that measures the reduction in heat flow due to the added thermal resistance of ice (reduced conduction) as well as the reduction in heat flow due to the blockage of airflow (reduced convection) from excessive ice formation. The sensor triggers a defrost cycle when needed, instead of on a timed interval. The invention is also a method for control of frost in a system that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant along a thermal path. The method involves measuring the thermal conductivity of the thermal path from the air to the refrigerant, recognizing a reduction in thermal conductivity due to the thermal insulation effect of the frost and due to the loss of airflow from excessive ice formation; and controlling the defrosting of the system.

French, Patrick D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Butz, James R. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Veatch, Bradley D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); O' Connor, Michael W. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Improving Industrial Refrigeration System Efficiency - Actual Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses actual design and modifications for increased system efficiency and includes reduced chilled liquid flow during part load operation, reduced condensing and increased evaporator temperatures for reduced system head, thermosiphon cycle cooling during winter operation, compressor intercooling, direct refrigeration vs. brine cooling, insulation of cold piping to reduce heat gain, multiple screw compressors for improved part load operation, evaporative condensers for reduced system head and pumping energy, and using high efficiency motors.

White, T. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator Amikam Levy and Ronnie Kosloff  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

source to replace mechanical work for driving a heat pump [1]. The first device was developed in 1850 an ab- sorption refrigerator with no moving parts [2]. This idea has been incorporated recently c J h P Tc Th Tw - - - 0 FIG. 1: The quantum trickle: A quantum heat pump des- ignated

Kosloff, Ronnie

314

THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar heat; refrigeration loads that can be met either by standard equipment or absorption equivalents; hot-water and space-heating

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy Resources in California's Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar heat; refrigeration loads that can be met either by standard equipment or absorption equivalents; hot-water and space-heating

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

DOE/EA-1673: Environmental Assessment for Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment (July 2009)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 3 Environmental Assessment for 10 CFR 431 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air- Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment July 2009 8-i CHAPTER 8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS 8.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 8-1 8.2 AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................... 8-1 8.3 AIR POLLUTANT DESCRIPTIONS ................................................................................ 8-1 8.4 AIR QUALITY REGULATIONS ...................................................................................... 8-3

317

Energy Smart - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (20 Municipalities) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling...

318

Cape Light Compact - Commercial, Industrial and Municipal Buildings...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Manufacturing Other Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Commercial Weatherization Water Heating Maximum Rebate Retrofit: 50% of cost...

319

Condensation of refrigerants on vertical fluted tubes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were run to determine heat transfer performance of single vertical fluted tubes with selected fluids condensing on the outside. Working fluids included six fluorocarbons (Refrigerants 11, 21, 22, 113, 114, and 115) and a hydrocarbon (Refrigerant 600a or isobutane). The nine test tubes were of 2.54-cm (1-in.) nominal outside diameter and 1.2 m (4 ft) in length with from 0 (smooth) to 60 axial flutes. Condensing heat transfer coefficients ranged from 620 to 7900 W/m/sup 2/ . K (110 to 1400 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/ . /sup 0/F) over the heat flux range of 2000 to 43,000 W/m/sup 2/ (920 to 13,600 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/). All parameters are based on total condensing surface area. The data show that, for a given heat flux, a fluted tube can increase condensing coefficients up to 6.0 times smooth tube values. Further heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the use of drainage skirts on fluted tubes; these skirts effectively divided the 1.2-m (4-ft) tubes into two, four, and eight equal condensing lengths.

Combs, S.K.; Mailen, G.S.; Murphy, R.W.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Multilayer Thermionic Refrigeration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review is presented of our program to construct an efficient solid state refrigerator based on thermionic emission of electrons over periodic barriers in the solid. The experimental program is to construct a simple device with one barrier layer using a three layers: metal-semiconductor-metal. The theoretical program is doing calculations to determine: (i) the optimal layer thickness, and (ii) the thermal conductivity.

Mahan, G.D.

1999-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

SCREW COMPRESSOR CHARACTERISTICS FOR HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The oil injected screw compressors have practically replaced all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, minimal vibration, reliability and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression.At the present state of compressor system designs for helium systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. Therefore it is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design these compression systems to match the refrigeration process. This presentation summarizes separate tests that have been conducted on Sullair compressors at the Superconducting Super-Collider Laboratory (SSCL) in 1993, Howden compressors at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in 2006 and Howden compressors at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2006. This work is part of an ongoing study at JLab to understand the theoretical basis for these efficiencies and their loss

Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Creel, Jonathan; Arenius, Dana; Casagrande, Fabio; Howell, Matt

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Vaccine refrigerator testing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

For the Central American Health Clinic Project initiated in 1986, Sandia National Laboratories and the Florida Solar Energy Center recognized the need for a test and evaluation program for vaccine refrigeration systems. At the Florida Solar Energy Center, side-by-side testing of three photovoltaic powered vaccine refrigerators began in 1987. The testing was expanded in 1988 to include a kerosene absorption refrigerator. This report presents observations, conclusions, and recommendations derived from testing the four vaccine refrigeration systems. Information is presented pertaining to the refrigerators, photovoltaic arrays, battery subsystems, charge controllers, and user requirements. This report should be of interest to designers, manufacturers, installers, and users of photovoltaic-powered vaccine refrigeration systems and components.

Ventre, G.G. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Kilfoyle, D.; Marion, B. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Dilution Refrigeration of Multi-Ton Cold Masses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dilution refrigeration is the only means to provide continuous cooling at temperatures below 250 mK. Future experiments featuring multi-ton cold masses require a new generation of dilution refrigeration systems, capable of providing a heat sink below 10 mK at cooling powers which exceed the performance of present systems considerably. This thesis presents some advances towards dilution refrigeration of multi-ton masses in this temperature range. A new method using numerical simulation to predict the cooling power of a dilution refrigerator of a given design has been developed in the framework of this thesis project. This method does not only allow to take into account the differences between an actual and an ideal continuous heat exchanger, but also to quantify the impact of an additional heat load on an intermediate section of the dilute stream. In addition, transient behavior can be simulated. The numerical model has been experimentally verified with a dilution refrigeration system which has been designed, ...

Wikus, P; CERN. Geneva

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Magnetic Refrigeration - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 6, 2013 ... Magnetic Refrigeration a 21st Century Highly Efficient and Green Cooling .... In order to advance their incorporation in prototypes and industrial ...

325

PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the heat pump effect. The Stirling engine/Rankine cycle refrigeration loop heat pump being developed would and replacement segments of each. The Preliminary Design was completed in 1975. During this phase, several. As a result of this phase, a Stirling/ Rankine, prime mover/refrigeration cycle approach was selected

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

326

Transient heat and mass transfer in a drop experiencing absorption with internal circulation  

SciTech Connect

Absorption of gas and vapor into moving liquid droplet is frequently encountered in numerous applications in chemical industries and refrigeration technology. Here, transient heat and mass transfer associated with a moving liquid drop during absorption was numerically studied in this work. The roles played by the internal circulation inside the droplet and the exothermic heat effect were demonstrated. The numerical results reveal that the significant absorption enhancement by internal circulation becomes negligible with the increase of exothermic absorption heat. The highly exothermic system of LiBr/H{sub 2}O, which is used as a typical refrigerant/absorbent combination in commercial absorption heat pump (AHP), was selected as an example to illustrate this point.

Lu, H.H.; Wu, T.C.; Yang, Y.M.; Maa, J.R. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Heat reclaiming method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus to extract heat by transferring heat from hot compressed refrigerant to a coolant, such as water, without exceeding preselected temperatures in the coolant and avoiding boiling in a water system by removing the coolant from direct or indirect contact with the hot refrigerant.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADVANCED HEAT EXCHANGER MODEL FOR STEADY STATE AND FROSTING CONDITIONS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Air-to-refrigerant fin-and-tube heat exchangers are a key component in the heating, air conditioning and refrigeration industry. Considering their dominance, the industry has focused immensely on… (more)

Singh, Varun

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Commercial | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Commercial Commercial Jump to: navigation, search Click to return to AEO2011 page AEO2011 Data From AEO2011 report . Market Trends The AEO2011 Reference case shows minimal change in commercial energy use per capita between 2009 and 2035 (Figure 62). While growth in commercial floorspace (1.2 percent per year) is faster than growth in population (0.9 percent per year), energy use per capita remains relatively steady due to efficiency improvements in equipment and building shells. Efficiency standards and the addition of more efficient technologies account for a large share of the improvement in the efficiency of end-use services, notably in space cooling, refrigeration, and lighting.[1] Issues in Focus In 2009, the residential and commercial buildings sectors used 19.6

330

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

331

REFRIGERATIONREFRIGERATION ((svsv: Kylteknik): Kylteknik) 424503 E 2010 #4424503 E 2010 #4 --rzrz 4.4. RefrigerationRefrigeration processprocess comparisoncomparison;;f gf g pp pp  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.100.110.2 Typical refrigerant: R-134a, R- 600a and other hydrocarbons cture:http://1 Air-cooled condensing unit gives some efficiency data from commercial vapour- 3.11.2010 Ă?bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 20/32 The diagram gives some efficiency data from commercial vapour

Zevenhoven, Ron

332

Indoor unit for electric heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

1984-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

333

Well simulation using Refrigerant 114  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple method for the investigation of thermodynamic (substance) similarity in the two-phase domain is introduced based on the assumptions of a simplified model fluid. According to this method, the investigation of the conditions for thermodynamic similarity between substances in the two-phase region reveals the important role the latent heat of evaporation (h/sub fg/) plays in the definition of the property scales. These greatly influence the dynamic and geometric similarity of the process under investigation. The introduction of the thermodynamic similarity property scales into the energy conservation equations for a certain process (e.g., flow up a geothermal well) brings forth a thermodynamic length scale and kinetic energy scale. Refrigerant 114 has been examined for similarity with water substance according to this method and found to be adequate for geothermal well simulation in the laboratory. Low pressures and temperatures and a substantial reduction of mass flow rates and geometric scales are a few of the advantages of using R114 for such experiments.

Nikitopoulos, D.E.; Dickinson, D.A.; DiPippo, R.; Maeder, P.F.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Title Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-4837E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Goli, Sasank, Aimee T. McKane, and Daniel Olsen Conference Name 2011 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry Date Published 08/2011 Conference Location Niagara Falls, NY Keywords market sectors, openadr, refrigerated warehouses Abstract Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

335

Water-heating dehumidifier - Energy Innovation Portal  

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator ...

336

Electric Commercial Cooking Appliance Development Needs: Preparation and Characterization of Chromium- Coated Residual Heat Removal System Piping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Foodservice establishments are the most energy-intensive customers in the commercial sector. This report addresses the need to improve the energy efficiency of electric cooking appliances by identifying current market opportunities and technologies for further development.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Black Hills Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

or contact the utility directly. Water Heaters: .94 EF minimum Air-Source Heat Pump: 15 SEER, 8.5 HSPF minimum Geothermal Heat Pump: 15 SEER, 4.2 COP minimum Refrigerator: Must be...

338

Black Hills Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

website or contact the utility directly. Water Heaters: .94 EF Air-Source Heat Pump: 15 SEER, 8.5 HSPF minimum Geothermal Heat Pump: 15 SEER, 4.2 COP minimum Refrigerator: Must be...

339

Black Hills Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of no more than 4,500 watts at Water Heaters: .94 EF minimum Air-Source Heat Pump: 15 SEER, 8.5 HSPF minimum Geothermal Heat Pump: 15 SEER, 4.2 COP minimum Refrigerator: Must be...

340

Refrigerant testing heats up | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cases and three 12-foot freezer cases are in the indoor chamber; and their condenser and compressor rack are in the outdoor one. Plastic tubs filled with water simulate...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Counter-Top Thermoacoustic Refrigerator- An Experimental Investigation  

SciTech Connect

Thermoacoustic phenomenon is a new alternative refrigeration technology. Though design and fabrication is complex for getting the desired effect, it is environmentally friendly and successful system showed that it is relatively easy to run compared to the traditional vapor compression refrigeration system. Currently, theories supporting the thermoacoustic refrigeration systems are yet to be comprehensive to make them commercially viable. Theoretical, experimental, and numerical studies are being done to address the thermodynamics-acoustics interactions. In this study, experimental investigations were completed to test the feasibility of the practical use of a thermoacoustic refrigerator in its counter-top form for future specific application. The system was designed and fabricated based on linear acoustic theory. Acoustic power was given by a loud speaker and thermoacoustic effects were measured in terms of the cooling effects produced at resonanance. Investigations showed that discrepancies between designed and working resonance frequency exist. Thermoacoutic cooling improved at a certain frequency, achieved when the working frequency was varied away from the design frequency. A cooling effect of 4.8 K below the ambient temperature of 23.3 deg. C was obtained from the counter-top thermoacoustic system. This system uses no refrigerants and no compressor to generate the cooling effect, a potential to be further investigated for a practical system.

Anwar, Mahmood; Ghazali, Normah Mohd [Department of Thermo-Fluids, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia)

2010-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

342

ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heating Elec: Industrial refrigeration Petr: Agricultural estimates for industrial HVAC, refrigeration, and  lighting Commercial Refrigeration NG: Industrial process heating

Masanet, Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

Crunkleton, James A. (Cambridge, MA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

Crunkleton, J.A.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

345

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

2011-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

346

Deep Production Well for Geothermal Direct-Use Heating of A Large Commercial Greenhouse, Radium Springs, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Expansion of a large commercial geothermally-heated greenhouse is underway and requires additional geothermal fluid production. This report discusses the results of a cost-shared U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and A.R. Masson, Inc. drilling project designed to construct a highly productive geothermal production well for expansion of the large commercial greenhouse at Radium Springs. The well should eliminate the potential for future thermal breakthrough from existing injection wells and the inducement of inflow from shallow cold water aquifers by geothermal production drawdown in the shallow reservoir. An 800 feet deep production well, Masson 36, was drilled on a US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Geothermal Lease NM-3479 at Radium Springs adjacent to the A. R. Masson Radium Springs Farm commercial greenhouse 15 miles north of Las Cruces in Dona Ana County, New Mexico just west of Interstate 25 near the east bank of the Rio Grande. The area is in the Rio Grande rift, a tectonically-active region with high heat flow, and is one of the major geothermal provinces in the western United State.

James C. Witcher

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

347

Teton Coin Op Laundry: heat recovery unit. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Experience with a heat recovery unit using Freon 11 refrigerant as a transfer medium is reported. Heat exchangers were fabricated for use in dryer stacks and the waste heat was used in heating the water for the laundry. (MHR)

1984-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

348

Energy Information Administration (EIA)- Commercial Buildings ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, ... commercial buildings, manufacturing, ... solar, wind, geothermal, ...

349

Dakota Electric Association - Commercial and Industrial Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Water Heating Maximum Rebate 100,000 Building Measures: 50%...

350

Vapor Compression Refrigeration Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ice from central ice-making facilities to household iceboxes. ... that extracts heat from the space to be cooled. ... for another run of the cooling cycle while ...

2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

351

Building Technologies Office: Central Air Conditioner and Heat...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Use to Save Money. Learn More. News DOE Issues Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Energy Conservation Standard August 29, 2013 DOE Issues...

352

The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program: Case study of a Golden Carrot program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The work in this report was conducted by the Analytic Studies Division (ASD) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies. This case study describes the development and implementation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP), which awarded $30 million to the refrigerator manufacturer that developed and commercialized a refrigerator that exceeded 1993 federal efficiency standards by at least 25%. The program was funded by 24 public and private utilities. As the first Golden Carrot program to be implemented in the United States, SERP was studied as an example for future `market-pull` efforts.

Eckert, J B

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

Lubell, M.S.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

354

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

but solar thermal and absorption cooling are attractive, andthermal heat collection, and heat-activated cooling can befrom solar thermal Total heat load Heat for cooling Heat

Stadler, Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) Public Use Data  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

CBECS Public Use Data CBECS Public Use Data CBECS Public Use Data Public Use Files: yellow indicator arrow 2003 CBECS | yellow indicator arrow 1999 CBECS | yellow indicator arrow 1995 CBECS | yellow indicator arrow 1992 CBECS The Public Use Files are microdata files that contain more than 5,000 records, representing commercial buildings from the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Each record corresponds to a single responding, in-scope sampled building and contains information for that building about the building size, year constructed, types of energy used, energy-using equipment, conservation features, energy consumption and expenditures, and the amount of energy used for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and other end uses.

356

ETME 422 -REFRIGERATION & HVAC SYSTEMS FALL 2011 LEC -10:00 -10:50am M W F RH 312  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

10/31/2011 ETME 422 - REFRIGERATION & HVAC SYSTEMS FALL 2011 LEC - 10:00 - 10:50am M W F RH 312 Catalog Description ETME 422 PRINCIPLES OF HVAC I F 3 cr. LEC 3 PREREQUISITE: EMEC 320 or EGEN 324. -- Refrigeration and heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) for comfort and industrial applications

Dyer, Bill

357

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

Goli, Sasank; McKane, Aimee; Olsen, Daniel

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

Energy conservation opportunities in commercial appliances. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes a data base of energy-consuming appliances in the commercial sector, and identifies and rates the most-promising development opportunities that would save significant amounts of energy on a national level. A detailed national inventory of 45 major appliances and their energy consumption was established for the year 1975. Thirty-four potential appliance improvements were identified, evaluated, and ranked. The opportunities are identified by means of a literature search and contact with industry representatives. The commercial sector is defined in terms of the divisions prescribed in the S.I.C. Manual (1972) of the OMB. These groups are recombined into the commercial subsectors of communications; utilities; wholesale; retail; finance, insurance, real estate, and services; hospital; schools; and public administration. The major energy-consuming appliances in the following six functional-use categories were identified: space heating and cooling; water heating; refrigeration; cooking; and lighting. The equipment in these categories was estimated to consume 87% of the total energy used in the commercial sector, with the remaining 13% consumed by equipment such as computers, business machines, laundry equipment, dishwashing, and other food-service equipment. (MCW)

Hurley, J.R.; Searight, E.F.; Wong, A.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.

Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. (Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States). Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Model documentation report: Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module is a simulation tool based upon economic and engineering relationships that models commercial sector energy demands at the nine Census Division level of detail for eleven distinct categories of commercial buildings. Commercial equipment selections are performed for the major fuels of electricity, natural gas, and distillate fuel, for the major services of space heating, space cooling, water heating, ventilation, cooking, refrigeration, and lighting. The algorithm also models demand for the minor fuels of residual oil, liquefied petroleum gas, steam coal, motor gasoline, and kerosene, the renewable fuel sources of wood and municipal solid waste, and the minor services of office equipment. Section 2 of this report discusses the purpose of the model, detailing its objectives, primary input and output quantities, and the relationship of the Commercial Module to the other modules of the NEMS system. Section 3 of the report describes the rationale behind the model design, providing insights into further assumptions utilized in the model development process to this point. Section 3 also reviews alternative commercial sector modeling methodologies drawn from existing literature, providing a comparison to the chosen approach. Section 4 details the model structure, using graphics and text to illustrate model flows and key computations.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Design and installation considerations for refrigerant charged thermosyphoning solar DHW systems  

SciTech Connect

The recent introduction of refrigerants into the realm of passive solar technologies has provided some advantages in performance over the typical liquid solar domestic hot water system. These advantages can be offset by the lack of familiarity by designers or installers with the operation, layout or components of a phase-change thermosyphon water heater. The considerations which were evaluated in the design and installation of a passive solar domestic hot water system in Golden, Colorado, are described. A discussion of collector selection, storage and heat exchanger design, refrigerant type selection, system integration design, and refrigeration requirements is presented.

DeAngelis, M.; Nordham, D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

364

City of Palo Alto Utilities - Commercial and Non-Profit Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Construction Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Other Ventilation Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting...

365

PARAMETER ESTIMATION BASED MODELS OF WATER SOURCE HEAT PUMPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Singapore. ©2006, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www operating refrigerant pressure limits). A design goal must therefore be to control the rise or drop exponent is dependent on the refrigerant type; the values of the isentropic exponents are obtained from

366

The role of market research in the commercialization of technology  

SciTech Connect

The objectiv eof this report is to provide information on available empirical work that describes criteria used by the residential consumer market in selectign energy and energy-related products. This market is important to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Building and Community Services (OBCS), which sponsors the developement of many energy-conserving technologies ultimately used by the residential consumer. In this report, the consumer decision-making process is described, and case studies are presented to illustrate the importance of conducting systematic market research in the early stages of the technology-development process. Consumer decision making is examined through a discussion of the steps of the decision-making process: problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, and purchase decision. Post-purchase behavior and its implications to the OBCS and to commercial marketing research are also discussed. The four case studies that are presented in this report illustrate the importance of market research in building energy loss, lighting, water heating, and refrigeration: (1) low-emissivity (low-E) windows; (2) long life light bulbs; (3) heat pump water heaters; and (4) energy efficient refrigerator-freezer.

Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The role of market research in the commercialization of technology  

SciTech Connect

The objectiv eof this report is to provide information on available empirical work that describes criteria used by the residential consumer market in selectign energy and energy-related products. This market is important to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Building and Community Services (OBCS), which sponsors the developement of many energy-conserving technologies ultimately used by the residential consumer. In this report, the consumer decision-making process is described, and case studies are presented to illustrate the importance of conducting systematic market research in the early stages of the technology-development process. Consumer decision making is examined through a discussion of the steps of the decision-making process: problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, and purchase decision. Post-purchase behavior and its implications to the OBCS and to commercial marketing research are also discussed. The four case studies that are presented in this report illustrate the importance of market research in building energy loss, lighting, water heating, and refrigeration: (1) low-emissivity (low-E) windows; (2) long life light bulbs; (3) heat pump water heaters; and (4) energy efficient refrigerator-freezer.

Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability:A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In past work, Berkeley Lab has developed the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). Given end-use energy details for a facility, a description of its economic environment and a menu of available equipment, DER-CAM finds the optimal investment portfolio and its operating schedule which together minimize the cost of meeting site service, e.g., cooling, heating, requirements. Past studies have considered combined heat and power (CHP) technologies. Methods and software have been developed to solve this problem, finding optimal solutions which take simultaneity into account. This project aims to extend on those prior capabilities in two key dimensions. In this research storage technologies have been added as well as power quality and reliability (PQR) features that provide the ability to value the additional indirect reliability benefit derived from Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid capability. This project is intended to determine how attractive on-site generation becomes to a medium-sized commercial site if economical storage (both electrical and thermal), CHP opportunities, and PQR benefits are provided in addition to avoiding electricity purchases. On-site electrical storage, generators, and the ability to seamlessly connect and disconnect from utility service would provide the facility with ride-through capability for minor grid disturbances. Three building types in both California and New York are assumed to have a share of their sensitive electrical load separable. Providing enhanced service to this load fraction has an unknown value to the facility, which is estimated analytically. In summary, this project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York; (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and electricity storage; and (3) to make an initial effort towards adding consideration of PQR into the capabilities of DER-CAM.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

The (safety-related) heat exchangers aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants, and developments since 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and US nuclear power plant utilities, is preparing a series of aging management guidelines (AMGs) for commodity types of components (e.g., heat exchangers, electrical cable and terminations, pumps). Commodities are included in this series based on their importance to continued nuclear plant operation and license renewal. The AMGs contain a detailed summary of operating history, stressors, aging mechanisms, and various types of maintenance and surveillance practices that can be combined to create an effective aging management program. Each AMG is intended for use by the systems engineers and plant maintenance staff (i.e., an AMG is intended to be a hands-on technical document rather than a licensing document). The heat exchangers AMG, published in June 1994, includes the following information of interest to nondestructive examination (NDE) personnel: aging mechanisms determined to be non-significant for all applications; aging mechanisms determined to be significant for some applications; effective conventional programs for managing aging; and effective unconventional programs for managing aging. Since the AMG on heat exchangers was published four years ago, a brief review has been conducted to identify emerging regulatory issues, if any. The results of this review and lessons learned from the collective set of AMGs are presented.

Clauss, J.M.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

372

Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

373

Energy end-use intensities in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and other. The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand. The source of data for the analysis is the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption survey (CBECS), which collected detailed data on energy-related characteristics and energy consumption for a nationally representative sample of approximately 6,000 commercial buildings. The analysis used 1989 CBECS data because the 1992 CBECS data were not yet available at the time the study was initiated. The CBECS data were fed into the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system, a building energy simulation program developed by the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to derive engineering estimates of end-use consumption for each building in the sample. The FEDS estimates were then statistically adjusted to match the total energy consumption for each building. This is the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) first report on energy end-use consumption in commercial buildings. This report is part of an effort to address customer requests for more information on how energy is used in buildings, which was an overall theme of the 1992 user needs study. The end-use data presented in this report were not available for publication in Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1989 (DOE/EIA-0318(89), Washington, DC, April 1992). However, subsequent reports on end-use energy consumption will be part of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures series, beginning with a 1992 data report to be published in early 1995.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

New Proposed Standards for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers to Lower Energy Use by as much as Twenty-Five Percent

375

Magnetocaloric Effect and Enhanced Refrigeration effectiveness in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Magnetocaloric Effect and Enhanced Refrigeration effectiveness in ... Industrial Needs and Applications for Soft Magnetic Materials · Industrial ...

376

Optimization of the Refrigerant Capacity in Multiphase ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Magnetic Materials for Energy Applications. Presentation Title, Optimization of the Refrigerant Capacity in Multiphase Magnetocaloric Materials.

377

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

Barclay, J.A.

1982-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

380

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

382

Frontiers in thermoacoustic refrigeration and mixture separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pulse-tube refrigerator shown in Figure 1 dissipates acoustic power by design because power must flowFrontiers in thermoacoustic refrigeration and mixture separation S. Backhaus1 , D. Geller2 , B oscillating thermodynamics in a gas in a sealed system. Since then, many related engines and refrigerators

383

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

384

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

385

Ongoing Commissioning of a high efficiency supermarket with a ground coupled carbon dioxide refrigeration plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant reduction in the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of supermarkets can be reached by the combination of several innovative components and the continuous optimization of their operation. A German food retail chain developed a new supermarket concept combining several innovative solutions for the refrigeration, lighting and heating/ventilation with the goal to reduce the energy consumption by about 30% compared to a standard subsidiary. A highly insulated building envelope, the use of daylight and covered refrigeration units contribute jointly to reach the goals. The key component of the concept is a carbon dioxide refrigeration plant with waste heat recovery. To reduce the efficiency losses in supercritical operation, carbon dioxide is cooled through a borehole heat exchanger using the ground as a heat sink. In the paper the design concept, the results of simulation studies and of the first monitoring year are presented and discussed.

Rehault, N.; Kalz, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Heat pump having improved defrost system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

387

Heat pump having improved defrost system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Murphy, Richard W. (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Investigation of Chlorine-Free Refrigerants for Low-Temperature Supermarket Refrigeration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants, supermarkets are seeking a replacement for R-502, the refrigerant of choice for low-temperature (frozen food) refrigeration. EPRI has conducted field testing to characterize the performance of the new hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) nonchlorinated refrigerants replacements for R-502. Results showed that energy and demand savings can be obtained using these alternative refrigerants with zero ozone-depleting potential.

1996-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

389

IID Energy - Commercial Rebate Program (Commercial Check Me) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

IID Energy - Commercial Rebate Program (Commercial Check Me) IID Energy - Commercial Rebate Program (Commercial Check Me) IID Energy - Commercial Rebate Program (Commercial Check Me) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Other Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Construction Commercial Weatherization Manufacturing Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate General: $100,000 per customer per year; may not exceed 50% of the total installed cost of measures New Construction (Whole Building Approach - Owner): $150,000 per year New Construction (Whole Building Approach - Design Team): $30,000 per year New Construction (Systems Approach): $50,000 per year Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Programmable Thermostats: $50/unit

390

Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

Boeder, A; Zimm, C

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

391

Otter Tail Power Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating &...

392

Kansas City Power and Light - Commercial/Industrial Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate Maximum custom incentive amount varies from...

393

Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the existence of the principal-agent (PA) problem in non-government, non-mall commercial buildings in the U.S. in 2003. The analysis concentrates on space heating and cooling energy consumed by centrally installed equipment in order to verify whether a market failure caused by the PA problem might have prevented the installation of energy-efficient devices in non-owner-occupied buildings (efficiency problem) and/or the efficient operation of space-conditioning equipment in these buildings (usage problem). Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 2003 data for single-owner, single-tenant and multi-tenant occupied buildings were used for conducting this evaluation. These are the building subsets with the appropriate conditions for assessing both the efficiency and the usage problems. Together, these three building types represent 51.9percent of the total floor space of all buildings with space heating and 59.4percent of the total end-use energy consumption of such buildings; similarly, for space cooling, they represent 52.7percent of floor space and 51.6percent of energy consumption. Our statistical analysis shows that there is a usage PA problem. In space heating it applies only to buildings with a small floor area (<_50,000 sq. ft.). We estimate that in 2003 it accounts for additional site energy consumption of 12.3 (+ 10.5 ) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 14.6 [+- 12.4] TBtu), corresponding to 24.0percent (+- 20.5percent) of space heating and 10.2percent (+- 8.7percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings. In space cooling, however, the analysis shows that the PA market failure affects the complete set of studied buildings. We estimate that it accounts for a higher site energy consumption of 8.3 (+-4.0) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 25.5 [+- 12.2]TBtu), which corresponds to 26.5percent (+- 12.7percent) of space cooling and 2.7percent (+- 1.3percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings.

Blum, Helcio; Sathaye, Jayant

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

394

Building Technologies Office: Space Heating and Cooling Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(HVAC) and refrigeration. DOE is conducting research into integration of optimized heat exchanger designs into new products and space conditioning systems. DOE projects...

395

Pioneering Heat Pump Project Geothermal Project | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

that will serve multiple buildings, converting them from a traditional gas-fired boiler system to ground source heat pumps that use carbon dioxide as the refrigerant source,...

396

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1334E-2009 1334E-2009 Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States Michael Stadler, Chris Marnay, Afzal Siddiqui, Judy Lai, Brian Coffey, and Hirohisa Aki Environmental Energy Technologies Division Revised March 2009 http://eetd.lbl.gov/EA/EMP/emp-pubs.html The work described in this paper was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration Program in the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02- 05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct

397

Utilizing the heat content of gas-to-liquids by-product streams for commercial power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Gas-to-liquids (GTL) processes produce a large fraction of by-products whose disposal or handling ordinarily becomes a cost rather than benefit. As an alternative strategy to market stranded gas reserves, GTL provides middle distillates to an unsaturated global market and offers opportunities to generate power for commercial purposes from waste by-product streams, which normally are associated with increased expenses incurred from additional handling cost. The key concept investigated in this work is the possibility of integrating the GTL process with power generation using conventional waste by-product steam streams. Simulation of the integrated process was conducted with the aim of identifying the critical operating conditions for successful integration of the GTL and power generation processes. About 500 MW of electric power can be generated from 70% of the exit steam streams, with around 20 to 25% steam plant thermal efficiency. A detailed economic analysis on the LNG, stand-alone GTL, and Integrated GTL Power-Generation plants indicates that the integrated system is more profitable than the other options considered. Justifying the technology and economics involved in the use of the by-product streams to generate power could increase the net revenue and overall profitability of GTL projects. This technology may be transferable to GTL projects in the world, wherever a market for generated power exists.

Adegoke, Adesola Ayodeji

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Proof of concept of a magnetically coupled Stirling engine-driven heat pump  

SciTech Connect

A prototype magnetically-coupled Stirling engine-driven heat pump module has been designed and fabricated by Sunpower, Inc. under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary testing indicates that the magnetic coupling is an effective means for transmitting power from a free-piston Stirling engine to a refrigerant compressor. Compared with other power transmission concepts, the magnetic coupling has relatively low cost, and will help make commercial development of Stirling-driven heat pumps more likely in the future.

Shonder, J.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Chen, Gong; McEntee, J. (Sunpower, Inc., Athens, OH (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Proof of concept of a magnetically coupled Stirling engine-driven heat pump  

SciTech Connect

A prototype magnetically-coupled Stirling engine-driven heat pump module has been designed and fabricated by Sunpower, Inc. under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary testing indicates that the magnetic coupling is an effective means for transmitting power from a free-piston Stirling engine to a refrigerant compressor. Compared with other power transmission concepts, the magnetic coupling has relatively low cost, and will help make commercial development of Stirling-driven heat pumps more likely in the future.

Shonder, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chen, Gong; McEntee, J. [Sunpower, Inc., Athens, OH (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab has for several years been developing methods for selection of optimal microgrid systems, especially for commercial building applications, and applying these methods in the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York, (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and electricity storage, and (3) to make an initial effort towards adding consideration of power quality and reliability (PQR) to the capabilities of DER-CAM. All of these objectives have been pursued via analysis of the attractiveness of a Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid consisting of multiple nameplate 100 kW Tecogen Premium Power Modules (CM-100). This unit consists of an asynchronous inverter-based variable speed internal combustion engine genset with combined heat and power (CHP) and power surge capability. The essence of CERTS Microgrid technology is that smarts added to the on-board power electronics of any microgrid device enables stable and safe islanded operation without the need for complex fast supervisory controls. This approach allows plug and play development of a microgrid that can potentially provide high PQR with a minimum of specialized site-specific engineering. A notable feature of the CM-100 is its time-limited surge rating of 125 kW, and DER-CAM capability to model this feature was also a necessary model enhancement.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

DOE Seeks Commercial Storage to Complete Fill of Northeast Home...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Seeks Commercial Storage to Complete Fill of Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Seeks Commercial Storage to Complete Fill of Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve August 26,...

402

Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial Heat Pump Program (Maine) Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial Heat Pump Program...

403

Duke Energy - Small Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate Combined maximum of 50,000facilityyear...

404

Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (Electric) - Commercial Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate 1,000,000corporate tax IDyear Commercial...

405

Cedarburg Light & Water Utility - Commercial Shared Savings Loan...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& Skylights Commercial Weatherization Ventilation Construction Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate 50,000 Program Information Wisconsin Program...

406

Direct condensation refrigerant recovery and restoration system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a refrigerant recovery and purification system for removing gaseous refrigerant from a disabled refrigeration unit, cleaning the refrigerant of contaminants, and converting the gaseous refrigerant to a liquid state for storage. It comprises a low pressure inlet section; a high pressure storage section; the low pressure inlet section comprising: an oil and refrigerant gas separator, including a separated oil removal means, first conduit means for connecting an inlet of the separator to the disabled refrigerant unit, a slack-sided accumulator, second conduit means connecting the separator to the slack-sided accumulator, a reclaim condenser, third conduit means connecting the separator and the reclaim condenser in series, an evaporator coil in the reclaim condenser connectable to a conventional operating refrigeration system for receiving a liquid refrigerant under pressure for expansion therein, the evaporator coil forming a condensing surface for condensing the refrigerant gas at near atmospheric pressure in the condenser, a liquid receiver, a reclaimed refrigerant storage tank, fourth conduit means further connecting the liquid receiver in series with the reclaim condenser, downstream thereof, means between the reclaim condenser and the liquid receiver.

Grant, D.C.H.

1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

407

Columbia Water & Light - Commercial Super Saver Loans | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Super Saver Loans Columbia Water & Light - Commercial Super Saver Loans Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Nonprofit State Government Savings For Heating...

408

Montana-Dakota Utilities (Gas) - Commercial Natural Gas Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Natural Gas Efficiency Rebate Program Montana-Dakota Utilities (Gas) - Commercial Natural Gas Efficiency Rebate Program Eligibility Commercial Savings For Other Heating...

409

FirstEnergy (West Penn Power) - Commercial and Industrial Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Source Heat Pumps: 250unit Chillers: 12.50-25ton Custom: 0.05kWh saved annually RefrigerationFood Service Equipment: Varies Provider FirstEnergy (West Penn Power)...

410

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

but solar thermal and absorption cooling are attractive, andthermal heat collection, and heat-activated cooling can bethe cooling offset by utilization of solar thermal heat,

Stadler, Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey website.Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 2003of the total end-use energy consumption of such buildings;

Blum, Helcio

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market  

SciTech Connect

Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Roetker, Jack [General Electric - Appliance Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a heat absorption method for an absorption chiller. It comprises: providing a firs absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range, providing a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range; heat exchanging refrigerant and absorber solution; thermal communication with an external heat load. This patent describes a heat absorption apparatus for use as an absorption chiller. It includes: a first absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range; a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range which has a lower maximum temperature relative to the first temperature range; the first circuit having generator means, condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operatively connected together; the second circuit having generator means condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operative connected together; and the first circuit condenser means and the first circuit absorber means being in heat exchange communication with the second circuit generator means.

DeVault, R.C.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

414

An overview of the planned Jefferson Lab 12-GeV helium refrigerator upgrade  

SciTech Connect

In February 2006, Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, VA, received â Critical Decision 1â (CD-1) approval to proceed with the engineering and design of the long anticipated upgrade to increase the beam energy of CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, from 6 GeV to 12 GeV. This will require the installation of 10 new cryomodules, and additional 2.1-K refrigeration beyond the available 4600 W to handle the increased heat loads. Additionally, a new experimental hall, Hall D, is planned that will require the installation of a small, available refrigerator. This paper will present an overview of the integration of the new proposed refrigeration system into CEBAF, the installation of the available refrigerator for Hall D, and includes planned work scope, current schedule plans and project status.

Arenius, Dana; Creel, Jonathan; Dixon, Kelly; Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Wright, Mathew

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Building Technologies Office: Commercial Building Codes and Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Codes and Standards Codes and Standards Photo of two inspectors looking at a clipboard on a commercial building site with the steel frame of a commercial building in the background. Local code officials enforce building energy codes. Credit: iStockphoto Once an energy-efficient technology or practice is widely available in the market, it can become the baseline of performance through building energy codes and equipment standards. The Building Technologies Office (BTO) provides support to states and local governments as they adopt and monitor commercial building code as well as builders working to meet and exceed code. BTO also develops test procedures and minimum efficiency standards for commercial equipment. Building Energy Codes DOE encourages using new technologies and better building practices to improve energy efficiency. Mandating building energy efficiency by including it in state and local codes is an effective strategy for achieving that goal. The Building Energy Codes Program works with the International Code Council (ICC), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), American Institute of Architects (AIA), the building industry, and state and local officials to develop and promote more stringent and easy-to-understand building energy codes and to assess potential code barriers to new energy-efficient technologies.

416

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) April 25, 2013 DOE ordered Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards. The Order adopted a Compromise Agreement, which reflected settlement terms between DOE and Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) More Documents & Publications Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355) Schott Gemtron: Order (2013-CE-5358

417

AHRI Comments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 90 percent of the residential and commercial air-conditioning, space heating, water heating, and commercial refrigeration equipment manufactured ...

2012-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

418

Optimal Performance of Quantum Refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. We find that if the energy spectrum of the working medium possesses an uncontrollable gap, then there is a minimum achievable temperature above zero. Such a gap, combined with a negligible amount of noise, prevents adiabatic following during the demagnetization stage which is the necessary condition for reaching $T_c \\to 0$. The refrigerator is based on an Otto cycle where the working medium is an interacting spin system with an energy gap. For this system the external control Hamiltonian does not commute with the internal interaction. As a result during the demagnetization and magnetization segments of the operating cycle the system cannot follow adiabatically the temporal change in the energy levels. We connect the nonadiabatic dynamics to quantum friction. An adiabatic measure is defined characterizing the rate of change of the Hamiltonian. Closed form solutions are found for a const...

Feldmann, Tova

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

A compact rotating dilution refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the design and performance of a new rotating dilution refrigerator that will primarily be used for investigating the dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid 4He. All equipment required to operate the refrigerator and perform experimental measurements is mounted on two synchronously driven, but mechanically decoupled, rotating carousels. The design allows for relative simplicity of operation and maintenance and occupies a minimal amount of space in the laboratory. Only two connections between the laboratory and rotating frames are required for the transmission of electrical power and helium gas recovery. Measurements on the stability of rotation show that rotation is smooth to around 0.001 rad/s up to angular velocities in excess of 2.5 rad/s. The behavior of a high-Q mechanical resonator during rapid changes in rotation has also been investigated.

Fear, M J; Chorlton, D A; Zmeev, D E; Gillott, S J; Sellers, M C; Richardson, P P; Agrawal, H; Batey, G; Golov, A I

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor  

SciTech Connect

A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell.

Nelson, Richard T. (Worthington, OH); Middleton, Marc G. (West Jefferson, OH)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

1983-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

422

Conceptual design of an advanced absorption cycle: the double-effect regenerative absorption refrigeration cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An advanced absorption refrigeration cycle was proposed as a heat-activated refrigeration system. Referred to as the double-effect regenerative absorption cycle of cycle 2R, it improves the performance of the conventional single-effect absorption cycle at high heat source temperatures. The performance of cycle 2R continually improves as input temperatures rise, in contrast to the conventional double-effect absorption cycle that has a sharp cut-off temperature below which it ceases to operate. Cycle 2R operates with two subcycles, the first-effect and the second-effect subcycles.

Dao, K.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and heat pumps are air-cooled, water-cooled, evaporatively-cooled, or water source unitary air conditioners or heat pumps that are used for space conditioning of commercial...

424

Energy Optimization (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Optimization (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Program Energy Optimization (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Program Energy Optimization (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Other Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Manufacturing Ventilation Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate General: See program web site Custom: 50% of project cost Program Info Expiration Date 12/31/2013 State Michigan Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom: $0.06/kWh/yr saved CFL Bulbs: $1 - $5 CFL Fixtures: $22/fixture High Performance T8 Lighting Retrofit: $4-$20/fixture retrofit

425

Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Other Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Water Heating Maximum Rebate Varies depending on utility Program Info Start Date Varies Expiration Date Varies State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Varies depending on utility Provider Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company Certain municipal utilities in Massachusetts, in cooperation with

426

Burlington Electric Department - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Burlington Electric Department - Commercial Energy Efficiency Burlington Electric Department - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Burlington Electric Department - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Rebates exceeding $5,000 require pre-approval by BED prior to purchase Buildings exceeding 10,000 square feet must consult BED regarding rebates prior to purchase Program Info State Vermont Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: See Program Website HVAC Air Conditioners/Heat Pumps: $50 - $100/ton Integrated Dual Enthalpy Economizer Controls: $250/controlled unit Ventilation Fans: $35 - $60

427

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers  

SciTech Connect

Information contained in this reporters designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. Swell measurements have been made on approximately 50% of the proposed elastomers (94 total)in both the lubricant (7 total) and refrigerant (10 total) materials. Swell behavior in the these fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 hours and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Columbia Gas of Massachusetts - Commercial Energy Efficiency...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat recovery, Processing and Manufacturing Equipment, Programmable Thermostats, Steam-system upgrades, Water Heaters, Commercial Cooking Equipment, Tankless Water Heaters...

429

Transport Refrigeration Units: A Technical Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates the prospects for operating transport refrigeration systems on electricity while they are stationary at a distribution center or refrigerated warehouses. Because most transport refrigeration units (TRUs) in use today are powered by diesel engines, concentrations of diesel exhaust products including particulate matter occur near these distribution centers. Operating TRUs on electricity would eliminate diesel exhaust emissions concentrations at these facilities, but would increase cos...

2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

430

Heat transfer characteristics of a three-phase volume boiling direct contact heat exchanger  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The advantages of direct contact heat transfer over heat transfer utilizing conventional metallic heat exchangers are listed. The performance characteristics of a three-phase direct contact heat exchanger in near counterflow operation were evaluated using water as the continuous phase fluid and refrigerant 113 as the dispersed phase fluid. Conclusions are drawn from the results having to do with refrigerant injection technique, vessel operating height, mass flow rate of refrigerant, water inlet temperature, operation at pinch point temperature differences below 13 to 20/sup 0/C, and operation with a dispersed phase fluid less dense than water. (MHR)

Blair, C.K.; Boehm, R.F.; Jacobs, H.R.

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

An Alternative Refrigeration System For Automotive Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The air conditioning systems currently utilized in automobiles are the vapor compression systems. This type of system has many disadvantages: the refrigerant used is not… (more)

McLaughlin, Shannon

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

have developed a multi-stage refrigerator, designed to recapture and utilize the acoustic energy that would ordinarily be wasted in traditional Stirling configurations. Available...

433

NIST Quantum Refrigerator Offers Extreme Cooling and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST's prototype solid-state refrigerator uses quantum physics in the square chip mounted on the green circuit board to cool the much larger copper ...

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

434

Magnetic Refrigeration a 21 - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Magnetic Refrigeration a 21st Century Highly Efficient and Green ... Alloy Design and Powder Processing of Mn-Al Based Materials for Rare

435

Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants - Energy Innovation Portal  

Magnetic refrigeration is being investigated as an alternative to conventional gas compressor technology ... because of its potential to save energy and ...

436

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

437

Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts. Report on Phases 1 and 1A  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.

Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. [Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States). Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Low heat-leak cryogenic envelope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plurality of cryogenic envelope sections are joined together to form a power transmission line. Each of the sections is comprised of inner and outer tubes having multilayer metalized plastic spirally wrapped within a vacuum chamber formed between the inner and outer tubes. A refrigeration tube traverses the vacuum chamber, but exits one section and enters another through thermal standoffs for reducing heat-leak from the outer tube to the refrigeration tube. The refrigeration tube passes through a spirally wrapped shield within each section's vacuum chamber in a manner so that the refrigeration tube is in close thermal contact with the shield, but is nevertheless slideable with respect thereto.

DeHaan, James R. (Boulder, CO)

1976-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

439

Commercial Solar Hot Water Financing Program | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nonprofit Schools State Government Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Water Heating Program Info State Massachusetts...

440

Poudre Valley REA - Commercial Lighting Rebate Program (Colorado) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Lighting Rebate Program (Colorado) Commercial Lighting Rebate Program (Colorado) Poudre Valley REA - Commercial Lighting Rebate Program (Colorado) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Commercial Lighting Retrofit: 50% of equipment cost, $20,000 LED Street Lighting/Induction Street Lighting: $20,000 Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount LED Refrigerated Case Lighting (Top Lighting): $60 per ln ft LED Refrigerated Case Lighting (Case Lighting): $60 per door LED Street Lighting: $44 - $475 per fixture Induction Street Lighting: $33 - $355 per fixture Commercial Lighting Retrofit: $250 per kW saved Provider Poudre Valley REA Poudre Valley Rural Electric Association (PVREA), a Touchstone Energy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "heat commercial refrigeration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Commercial Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exterior glass windows of office tower Commercial Buildings Commercial building systems research explores different ways to integrate the efforts of research in windows, lighting,...

442

Commercial Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Commercial Performance Objectives: To review the market potential for improvements in commercial building glazings, quantify the energy savings potentials, explore potential design...

443

Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines to someone by E-mail Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on AddThis.com...

444

DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm...

445

Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... style refrigerator and a freezerless household refrigerator used ... possible that the nature of the cooling system and ... model simply do not cool the side ...

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

446

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ERKELEY N ATIONAL L ABORATORY China Refrigerator InformationDivision Jianhong Cheng China National Institute of7 Table 2 Coefficient Values for China Refrigerator 2003

Fridley, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be used to design and optimize refrigeration cycles as wellCOMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATIONTrial Design Fixed state parameters (bar) Refrigeration

green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys Title U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon...

449

Comparison of Standard 90.1-07 and the 2009 IECC with Respect to Commercial Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9054 9054 Comparison of Standard 90.1-07 and the 2009 IECC with Respect to Commercial Buildings December 11, 2009 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington 99352 iii Acronyms and Abbreviations AMCA Air Movement and Control Association ANSI American National Standards Institute ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials BECP Building Energy Codes Program bhp brake horsepower DCV demand control ventilation DDC Direct Digital Control (Systems) DOE U.S. Department of Energy EPACT Federal Energy Policy Act of 1992 hp horsepower HSPF Heating Seasonal Performance Factor

450

Redding Electric - Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Redding Electric - Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Low-Income Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Ventilation Manufacturing Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Windows: $250 - Residential; $750 (Commercial) Insulation: up to $500 - Residential; pre-approval required - Commercial Water Heater Blanket: $20 per unit Radiant/Thermal Barrier Material: $500 - Residential; pre-approval required - Commercial Duct Repair/Replacement: $500

451

Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When considering electric driven refrigeration compressors, proper integration with the process may result in reduced power consumption. However, the total utility situation must be considered when evaluating the compressor driver. Conversion from steam drivers to electric drivers may be more economical when considering proper process integration. These questions and various scenarios must be addressed in light of the total process requirements and constraints. During the last few years, Union Carbide has successfully applied ADVENT™ technology to several complex processes that utilize refrigeration systems. In most cases the design of a complex refrigeration system in isolation (i.e., without considering process integration) generally results in non-optimum refrigeration levels and excessive refrigeration consumption. By applying ADVENT™ Process Integration Technologv to these non-optimal designs, retrofit projects have emerged that clearly identify how to optimize the existing design with good project economics. This paper presents the results of an ADVENT Process Integration Study for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) of Palo Alto, California. The study objective was to demonstrate process synthesis techniques for retrofit design in two industrial refrigeration intensive processes: an olefins process and a beer brewery process. Study results for each retrofit design are explained along with generalized guidelines for application to other processes. An industry scoping portion of the study is discussed in terms of identifying refrigeration intensive processes. Specific and general conclusions are presented to help facilitate proper industrial refrigeration system design throughout the industry.

Witherell, W. D.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Roseville Electric - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Roseville Electric - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Home Weatherization Insulation Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info Expiration Date 6/30/2013 State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Unitary AC/Heat Pump: $120/ton or $500/ton Package Terminal AC/Heat Pumps: $125/unit Variable Frequency Drive: $120/hp Variable Speed Motor: $75/hp Window Film: $4/sq ft Shade Tree: $30/tree Desktop Computer Network Controller: $10/computer Cold Cathode Lamps: $4/lamp Ceramic Metal Halide: $20/lamp

453

Liberty Utilities (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentive  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liberty Utilities (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Liberty Utilities (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs Liberty Utilities (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Schools Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Manufacturing Other Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Custom Incentives: amount that buys down the cost of the project to a 1 year simple payback Program Info State New Hampshire Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom Retrofits and Engineering Studies: 50% of project cost Fluorescent Lighting: $10-$50 High Bay: $70 or $100 (retrofit) Metal Halide: $50 or $70 LED Exit Signs: $12 LED Traffic Signals: $50

454

Liberty Utilities (Gas) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liberty Utilities (Gas) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs Liberty Utilities (Gas) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs Liberty Utilities (Gas) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Other Construction Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Custom Projects: $100,000 (existing facilities); $250,000 (new construction) Energy Efficiency Engineering Study: $10,000 Steam Traps: $2500 Programmable Thermostats: up to five units Boiler Reset Controls: up to two units Program Info State New Hampshire Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount

455

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training Date | 2Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training #12;Date | 2Refrigeration Flow Coil Design etc. Finger Print Relationship Every evaporator is unique Unstable Region * = examples

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

456

Joint heating and cooling with the aid of a solar installation using a glazed regenerator-heater for the solution  

SciTech Connect

A solar unit for the joint production of heating and refrigeration has been designed on the basis of glazed solution regeneration. The unit is similar to installations employing glazed solution regenerators for cooling alone. Equations are presented for calculating specific refrigeration and heating capacities as a function of such factors as meteorological conditions. The calculations show that the unit has good heating and refrigeration capacity and that optimum performance is obtained when water must be heated to 45 to 55 C.

Khandurdev, A.; Kakabaev, A.; Kurbankuliev, Ch.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Mohave Electric Cooperative - Heat Pump Rebate Program | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Rebate Program Mohave Electric Cooperative - Heat Pump Rebate Program Eligibility Residential Savings For Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps...