National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for health effects assessment

  1. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  2. Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S.

    1990-12-31

    Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longstreth, J.

    1993-06-01

    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.

  4. Assessment of zero gravity effects on space worker health and safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    One objective of the study is to assess the effects of all currently known deviations from normal of medical, physiological, and biochemical parameters which appear to be due to zero gravity (zero-g) environment and to acceleration and deceleration to be experienced, as outlined in the reference Solar Power Satellite (SPS) design, by space worker. Study results include identification of possible health or safety effects on space workers - either immediate or delayed - due to the zero gravity environment and acceleration and deceleration; estimation of the probability that an individual will be adversely affected; description of the possible consequence to work efficiently in persons adversely affected; and description of the possible/probable consequences to immediate and future health of individuals exposed to this environment. A research plan, which addresses the uncertainties in current knowledge regarding the health and safety hazards to exposed SPS space workers, is presented. Although most adverse affects experienced during space flight soon disappeared upon return to the Earth's environment, there remains a definite concern for the long-term effects to SPS space workers who might spend as much as half their time in space during a possible five-year career period. The proposed 90-day up/90 day down cycle, coupled with the fact that most of the effects of weightlessness may persist throughout the flight along with the realization that recovery may occupy much of the terrestrial stay, may keep the SPS workers in a deviant physical condition or state of flux for 60 to 100% of their five-year career. (JGB)

  5. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Challenges, priorities, and future issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seigel, S.

    1990-12-31

    Issues related to developing information resources for assessing the health effects from chemical exposure include the question of how to address the individual political issues relevant to identifying and determining the timeliness, scientific credibility, and completeness of such kinds of information resources. One of the important ways for agencies to share information is through connection tables. This type of software is presently being used to build information products for some DHHS agencies. One of the challenges will be to convince vendors of data of the importance of trying to make data files available to communities that need them. In the future, information processing will be conducted with neural networks, object-oriented database management systems, and fuzzy-set technologies, and meta analysis techniques.

  6. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system-concept development and evaluation program-microwave health and ecological effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This report is concerned with the potential health and ecological effects of the microwave beam from the microwave power transmission system (MPTS) of the satellite power system (SPS). The report is written in the form of a detailed critical review of selected scientific articles from the published literature on the biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, followed by an assessment of the possible effects of the SPS, based on exposure values for the reference system (US DOE and NASA, 1978).

  7. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: nonmicrowave health and ecological effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, M R

    1980-11-01

    A Concept Development and Evaluation Program is being carried out for a proposed Satellite Power System (SPS). For purposes of this evaluation, a preliminary reference system has been developed. SPS, as described in the reference system, would collect solar energy on satellites in geosychronous orbit in space. The energy would be converted to microwaves and beamed to an earth-receiving antenna (rectenna). One task in the environmental part of the program is the assessment of the nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment. These effects would result from all phases of SPS development and operation. This report covers the current knowledge regarding these effects, and is based on the reference system. The assessment is summarized as to scope, methodology, impacts of terrestrial development, launch and recovery of spacecraft, space activities (including health effects of the space environment, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic exposure, spacecraft charging and environmental interactions, occupational hazards, etc.) and construction and operation of rectenna (ground receiving station).

  8. A Research Agenda on Assessing and Remediating Home Dampness and Mold to Reduce Dampness-Related Health Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, Mark J.

    2015-06-01

    This report briefly summarizes, based on recent review articles and selected more recent research reports, current scientific knowledge on two topics: assessing unhealthy levels of indoor D/M in homes and remediating home dampness-related problems to protect health. Based on a comparison of current scientific knowledge to that required to support effective, evidence-based, health-protective policies on home D/M, gaps in knowledge are highlighted, prior questions and research questions specified, and necessary research activities and approaches recommended.

  9. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 8. Health effects of oil shale development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotariu, G.J.

    1982-02-01

    Information on the potential health effects of a developing oil shale industry can be derived from two major sources: (1) the historical experience in foreign countries that have had major industries; and (2) the health effects research that has been conducted in the US in recent years. The information presented here is divided into two major sections: one dealing with the experience in foreign countries and the second dealing with the more recent work associated with current oil shale development in the US. As a result of the study, several observations can be made: (1) most of the current and historical data from foreign countries relate to occupational hazards rather than to impacts on regional populations; (2) neither the historical evidence from other countries nor the results of current research have shown pulmonary neoplasia to be a major concern, however, certain types of exposure, particularly such mixed source exposures as dust/diesel or dust/organic-vapor have not been adequately studied and the lung cancer question is not closed; (3) the industry should be alert to the incidence of skin disease in the industrial setting, however, automated techniques, modern industrial hygiene practices and realistic personal hygiene should greatly reduce the hazards associated with skin contact; and (4) the entire question of regional water contamination and any resultant health hazard has not been adequately addressed. The industrial practice of hydrotreating the crude shale oil will diminish the carcinogenic hazard of the product, however, the quantitative reduction of biological activity is dependent on the degree of hydrotreatment. Both Soviet and American experimentalists have demonstrated a correlation betweed carcinogenicity/toxicity and retorting temperature; the higher temperatures producing the more carcinogenic or toxic products.

  10. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertain assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M.; Harper, F.T.; Hora, S.C.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the expert panel on late health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  11. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haskin, F.E.; Harper, F.T.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on early health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  12. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  13. Human exposure to mercury: A critical assessment of the evidence of adverse health effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratcliffe, H.E.; Swanson, G.M.; Fischer, L.J.

    1996-10-25

    The ubiquitous nature of mercury in the environment, its global atmospheric cycling, and its toxicity to humans at levels that are uncomfortably close to exposures experienced by a proportion of the population are some of the current concerns associated with this pollutant. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the scientific quality of published reports involving human exposures to mercury and associated health outcomes as an aid in the risk evaluation of this chemical. A comprehensive review of the scientific literature involving human exposures to mercury was performed and each publication evaluated using a defined set of criteria that are considered standards in epidemiologic and toxicologic research. Severe, sometimes fatal, effects of mercury exposure at high levels were primarily reported as case studies. The disasters in Minamata, Japan, in the 1950s and in Iraq in 1971-1972 clearly demonstrated neurologic effects associated with ingestion of methylmercury both in adults and in infants exposed in utero. The effects were convincingly Associated with methylmercury ingestion, despite limitations of the study design. Several well-conducted studies have investigated the effects of methylmercury at levels below those in the Iraq incident but have not provided clear evidence of an effect. The lower end of the dose-response curve constructed from the Iraq data therefore still needs to be confirmed. The studies of mercury exposure in the workplace were mainly of elemental or inorganic mercury, and effects that were observed at relatively low exposure levels were primarily neurologic and renal. Several studies have investigated effects associated with dental amalgam but have been rated as inconclusive because of methodologic deficiencies. In our overall evaluation, 29 of 110 occupational studies and 20 of 54 studies where exposure occurred in the natural environment provided at least suggestive evidence of an exposure-related effect. 259 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Assessment of health risks of policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ádám, Balázs; Molnár, Ágnes; Ádány, Róza; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bitenc, Katarina; Chereches, Razvan; Cori, Liliana; Fehr, Rainer; Kobza, Joanna; Kollarova, Jana; and others

    2014-09-15

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals.

  15. ORISE: Environmental Assessment and Health Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Assessments and Health Physics Performing environmental assessments and independent verification is essential to building public trust and confidence in radiological cleanup. As the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other government agencies target contaminated sites across the country for decontamination and decommissioning, strict guidelines must be followed to ensure that property is effectively remediated before being released for public or private use. Through a combination

  16. Exposure assessment approaches to evaluate respiratory health effects of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quackenboss, J.J.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Several approaches can be taken to estimate or classify total personal exposures to air pollutants. While personal exposure monitoring (PEM) provides the most direct measurements, it is usually not practical for extended time periods or large populations. This paper describes the use of indirect approaches to estimate total personal exposure for NO2 and particulate matter (PM), summarizes the distributions of these estimates, and compares the effectiveness of these estimates with microenvironmental concentrations for evaluating effects on respiratory function and symptoms. Pollutant concentrations were measured at several indoor and outdoor locations for over 400 households participating in an epidemiological study in Tucson, Arizona. Central site monitoring data were significantly correlated with samples collected directly outside homes, but the former usually had higher pollutant concentrations. Integrated indices of daily total personal exposure were calculated using micro-environmental (ME) measurements or estimates and time-budget diary information. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were measured for up to four times a day during two-week study periods. In thirty children (ages 6-15 years) with current diagnosed asthma, a significant reduction in PEFR was associated with NO2 levels measured outside of their homes. Additional decrements of morning PEFR were found in those children sleeping in bedrooms with higher measured NO2 levels. Morning and noon PEFR decrements were also linked to higher morning NO2 levels that were measured at central monitoring stations. Effects of PM were also found, but were limited to morning PEFR. No effects were found in non-asthmatic children. The relationship of PEFR to the calculated indices of daily average total exposure were weaker than to the microenvironment concentrations.

  17. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume I. Introduction to the SPAHR demographic model for health risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.; Grahn, D.; Ginevan, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. The first volume presents the theory behind the SPAHR health risk projection model and several applications of the model to actual pollution episodes. The elements required for an effective health risk projection model are specified, and the models that have been used to date in health risk projections are outlined. These are compared with the demographic model, whose formulation is described in detail. Examples of the application of air pollution and radiation dose-response functions are included in order to demonstrate the estimation of future mortality and morbidity levels and the range of variation in excess deaths that occurs when populations structure is changed.

  18. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume II. SPAHR introductory guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of responses, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projects are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume gives the user of the SPAHR program the information required to operate the program when it is up and running on the computer. It assumes that the user is familiar with the concepts and terms relating to demography and health risk assessment. It contains a brief description of all commands and options available in SPAHR, as well as a user-oriented description of the structure and operation of the control system and language processor.

  19. River Corridor Baseline Risk Assessment (RCBRA) Human Health...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12, 2011 River Corridor Baseline Risk Assessment (RCBRA) Human Health Risk Assessment (Volume 2) * RCBRA Human Health Risk Assessment is final - Response provided to HAB ...

  20. Health and impact assessment: Are we seeing closer integration?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Richard K.

    2011-07-15

    Health has always had a place in wider impact assessment activities, from the earliest days of the National Environmental Policy Act in the United States. However, early thinking tended to focus on health protection and environmental health issues, especially in relation to the effects of pollution. The adoption of wider models of health was reflected in impact assessment circles from the early 1990s, with particular emphasis on an integrated approach to impact assessment, especially at the project level, which would see health impact assessment benefiting from working with other forms of impact assessment, such as social and ecological. Yet twenty years later, integration still seems a distant prospect in many countries. In this paper I examine the case for integrating health considerations within the wider IA process, discuss some of the problems that have historically restricted progress towards this end, and explore the degree to which impact assessment practitioners have been successful in seeking to improve the consideration of health in IA. In New Zealand, project-level impact assessment is based on an integrated model under the Resource Management Act. In addition, HIA was recognised in the early 1990s as a valuable addition to the toolkit for project assessment. Since then policy-level HIA has grown supported by extensive capacity building. If health is being integrated into wider impact assessment, it should be happening in New Zealand where so many enabling conditions are met. Three major project proposals from New Zealand are examined, to characterise the broad trends in HIA development in New Zealand in the last ten years and to assess the degree to which health concerns are being reflected in wider impact assessments. The findings are discussed in the context of the issues outlined in the early part of the paper.

  1. Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Protocol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Protocol for Oversight Activities, December 2015 December 2015 Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Protocol ...

  2. Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Protocol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Protocol for Required ... the Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments required reading program. ...

  3. Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Protocol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Protocol for the Development and ... (CRADs) used by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments (EA-30). ...

  4. PRIVACY IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Occupational Safety Health Occupational

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Occupational Safety & Health - Occupational Injury & Illness System PIA Template Version 3 - May, 2009 Department of Energy Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Guidance is provided in the template. See DOE Order 206.1 J Department of Energy Privacy Program, Appendix A, Privacy Impact Assessments, for requirements and additional guidance for conducting a PIA: http://www.directives.doe.gov/pdfs/doe/doetextlneword/206/o2061.pdf Please complete electronically: no hand-written submissions will be

  5. Health Effects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Health Effects Health Effects The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers research programs and monitoring activities, both domestic and international, that support the protection and promotion of the health of DOE workers, their families, and residents of neighboring communities near DOE sites, affected by exposure to hazardous materials from DOE sites or a result of nuclear weapons testing, use or accident. Domestic health activities include studies of historical workplace exposures,

  6. Assessment of Health Hazards of Repeated Inhalation of Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Health Hazards of Repeated Inhalation of Diesel Emissions, with Comparisons to Other Source Emissions Assessment of Health Hazards of Repeated Inhalation of Diesel Emissions, with ...

  7. Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Protocol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Protocol for Site Leads, April 2015 (Revision 1) - PROTOCOL - EA-31-01 April 2015 Office of Environment, Safety and Health ...

  8. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.

  9. Office of Worker Safety and Health Assessments | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Worker Safety and Health Assessments Office of Worker Safety and Health Assessments MISSION The Office of Worker Safety and Health Assessments conducts assessments to provide critical feedback and objective information on occupational safety and health programs and performance. This information provides assurance to our stakeholders and identifies areas for improvement to our leadership to support the safe performance of the Department's mission. FUNCTIONS Conducts analyses of occupational

  10. Environment, Safety and Health Assessments | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Environment, Safety and Health Assessments The Department of Energy's Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments, within the Office of Enterprise Assessments, is responsible for conducting assessments to provide information on programs and performance in protecting our workers, the public, and environment from hazards present at Department sites and operations. This information provides assurance to our stakeholders and identifies areas for

  11. A new approach to criteria for health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Goh, Yang Miang

    2012-01-15

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a developing component of the overall impact assessment process and as such needs access to procedures that can enable more consistent approaches to the stepwise process that is now generally accepted in both EIA and HIA. The guidelines developed during this project provide a structured process, based on risk assessment procedures which use consequences and likelihood, as a way of ranking risks to adverse health outcomes from activities subjected to HIA or HIA as part of EIA. The aim is to assess the potential for both acute and chronic health outcomes. The consequences component also identifies a series of consequences for the health care system, depicted as expressions of financial expenditure and the capacity of the health system. These more specific health risk assessment characteristics should provide for a broader consideration of health consequences and a more consistent estimation of the adverse health risks of a proposed development at both the scoping and risk assessment stages of the HIA process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more objective approach to health risk assessment is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences for chronic and acute impacts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences on the health care system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for event frequency that could impact on health. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach presented is currently being trialled in Australia.

  12. ORISE: Capabilities in environmental assessments and health physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) provides environmental assessments and health physics services for the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  13. Environmental, health, and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, E.C.

    1983-10-15

    Potential enviornmental, health, and safety (E,H and S) concerns associated with all phases of the photovoltaic (PV) energy system life cycle are identified and assessed. E,H and S concerns affecting the achievement of National PV Program goals or the viability of specific PV technologies are emphasized. The report is limited to near-term manufacturing process alternatives for crystalline silicon PV materials, addresses flat-plate and concentrator collector designs, and reviews system deployment in grid-connected, roof-mounted, residential and ground-mounted central-station applications. The PV life-cycle phases examined include silicon refinement and manufacture of PV collectors, system deployment, and decommissioning. The primary E,H and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  14. Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessments Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments MISSION The Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments conducts assessments to provide critical feedback and objective information on programs and performance in protecting our workers, the public and environment from the multiple hazards present at Department sites and operations.This information provides assurance to our stakeholders and identifies areas for improvement to our leadership to support the safe performance

  15. Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

  16. An equity tool for health impact assessments: Reflections from Mongolia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Wagler, Meghan; Lkhagvasuren, Oyun; Laing, Lory; Davison, Colleen; Janes, Craig

    2012-04-15

    A health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool for assessing the potential effects of a project or policy on a population's health. In this paper, we discuss a tool for successfully integrating equity concerns into HIAs. This discussion is the product of collaboration by Mongolian and Canadian experts, and it incorporates comments and suggestions of participants of a workshop on equity focused HIAs that took place in Mongolia in October, 2010. Our motivation for discussing this tool is based on the observation that existing HIAs tend either to fail to define equity or use problematic accounts of this concept. In this paper we give an overview of socio-demographic and health indicators in Mongolia and briefly discuss its mining industry. We then review three accounts of equity and argue for the importance of developing a consensus understanding of this concept when integrating considerations of equity into an HIA. Finally, we present findings from the workshop in Mongolia and outline a tool, derived from lessons from this workshop, for critically considering and integrating the concept of equity into an HIA.

  17. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma

    2011-01-15

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  18. Assessing the health risk of solar development on contaminated lands |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Assessing the health risk of solar development on contaminated lands December 11, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint A recently published report from Argonne's Environmental Science (EVS) division presents a methodology for assessing potential human health risks of developing utility-scale solar facilities on contaminated, previously developed sites. Developing on these lands rather than pristine, undeveloped lands can avoid or minimize environmental impacts, reduce

  19. Facilitating communities in designing and using their own community health impact assessment tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, Colleen; Ghosh, Sebanti; Eaton, Susan L.

    2011-07-15

    Reducing health inequities and improving the health of communities require an informed public that is aware of the social determinants of health and how policies and programs have an impact on the health of their communities. People Assessing Their Health (PATH) is a process that uses community-driven health impact assessment to build the capacity of people to become active participants in the decisions that affect the well-being of their community. The PATH process is both a health promotion and a community development approach that builds people's ability to bring critical analysis to a situation and to engage in effective social action to bring about desired change. Because it increases analytical skills and provides communities with their own unique tool to assess the potential impact of projects, programs or policies on the health and well-being of their community it is an empowering process. PATH was originally used in three communities in northeastern Nova Scotia, Canada in 1996 when the Canadian health care system was being restructured to a more decentralized system. Since then it has been used in other communities in Nova Scotia and India. This paper will describe the PATH process and the use of the community health impact assessment as well as the methodology used in the PATH process. The lessons learned from PATH's experiences of building capacity among the community in Canada and India will be presented.

  20. Health impact assessment in planning: Development of the design for health HIA tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsyth, Ann; Slotterback, Carissa Schively; Krizek, Kevin J.

    2010-01-15

    How can planners more systematically incorporate health concerns into practical planning processes? This paper describes a suite of health impact assessment tools (HIAs) developed specifically for planning practice. Taking an evidence-based approach the tools are designed to fit into existing planning activities. The tools include: a short audit tool, the Preliminary Checklist; a structured participatory workshop, the Rapid HIA; an intermediate health impact assessment, the Threshold Analysis; and a set of Plan Review Checklists. This description provides a basis for future work including assessing tool validity, refining specific tools, and creating alternatives.

  1. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, D.R.

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  2. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spickett, Jeffery T.; Brown, Helen L.; Katscherian, Dianne

    2011-04-15

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to

  3. The need for health impact assessment in China: Potential benefits for public health and steps forward

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Liming; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2011-07-15

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a useful tool to predict and estimate the potential health impact associated with programs, projects, and policies by comprehensively identifying relevant health determinants and their consequences. China is undergoing massive and rapid socio-economic changes leading to environment and population health challenges such as a large increase in non-communicable diseases, the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases, new health risks associated with environmental pollutants and escalating health inequality. These health issues are affected by multiple determinants which can be influenced by planned policies, programs, and projects. This paper discusses the needs for health impact assessment in China in order to minimize the negative health consequences from projects, programs and policies associated with rapid social and economic development. It first describes the scope of China's current impact assessment system and points out its inadequacy in meeting the requirements of population health protection and promotion. It then analyses the potential use of HIA and why China needs to develop and apply HIA as a tool to identify potential health impacts of proposed programs, projects and policies so as to influence decision-making early in the planning process. Thus, the paper recommends the development of HIA as a useful tool in China to enhance decision-making for the protection and promotion of population health. For this to happen, the paper outlines steps necessary for the establishment and successful implementation of HIA in China: beginning with the establishment of a HIA framework, followed by workforce capacity building, methodology design, and intersectoral collaboration and stakeholder engagement.

  4. Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Protocol for Oversight Activities, December 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Protocol for Oversight Activities, December 2015

  5. ORISE: Environmental Assessments and Health Physics fact sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Assessments and Health Physics ORAU helps protect workers, the public and the environment from potential radiological and chemical contamination by providing reviews and field surveys to assure contaminated sites are appropriately cleaned up. Working independently from the cleanup contractors, ORAU ensures that necessary quality assurance procedures are in place and verifies whether the cleanup meets federal requirements. What We Do * Independent Verification * Characterization

  6. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES&H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES&H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES&H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES&H issues.

  7. Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M.

    2012-10-23

    The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

  8. Stakeholder participation in health impact assessment: A multicultural approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negev, Maya; Davidovitch, Nadav; Garb, Yaakov; Tal, Alon

    2013-11-15

    The literature on impact assessment (HIA) registers the importance of stakeholder participation in the assessment process, but still lacks a model for engaging stakeholders of diverse ethnic, professional and sectorial backgrounds. This paper suggests that the multicultural approach can contribute to HIA through a revision of the generic 5-step HIA model, and its implementation in a metropolitan plan in Southern Israel. The health issue scoped by the stakeholders in the HIA is related to land uses in the vicinity of the national hazardous industry and hazardous waste site. The stakeholders were representatives of the diverse populations at stake, including rural Bedouins and Jewish city dwellers, as well as representatives from the public sector, private sector, non-governmental organizations and academia. The case study revealed that a multicultural stakeholder participation process helps to uncover health issues known to the community which were not addressed in the original plan, and provides local knowledge regarding health conditions that is especially valuable when scientific data is uncertain or absent. It enables diverse stakeholders to prioritize the health issues that will be assessed. The case study also reveals ways in which the model needs revisions and improvements such as in recruitment of diverse participants. This paper presents a multicultural model of HIA and discusses some of the challenges that are faced when HIA is implemented in the context of current decision-making culture. -- Highlights: • We revised the generic HIA model in light of the multicultural approach. • We tested the model in a case study of zoning a hazardous industry site. • Multicultural stakeholder participation uncovers health issues known to communities. • It enables community prioritization of health issues. • We present a model for multicultural stakeholder participation in HIA.

  9. Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

  10. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  11. Effect Of Ventilation On Chronic Health Risks In Schools And...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Effect Of Ventilation On Chronic Health Risks In Schools And Offices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect Of Ventilation On Chronic Health Risks In ...

  12. Components Responsible for the Health Effects of Inhaled Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Responsible for the Health Effects of Inhaled Engine Emissions Components Responsible for the Health Effects of Inhaled Engine Emissions Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel ...

  13. Stable Free Radicals and Potential Implications for Health Effects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stable Free Radicals and Potential Implications for Health Effects of Diesel Emissions Stable Free Radicals and Potential Implications for Health Effects of Diesel Emissions 2005 ...

  14. Lessons learned: Needs for improving human health risk assessment at USDOE Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1993-09-01

    Realistic health risk assessments were performed in a pilot study of three U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. These assessments, covering a broad spectrum of data and methods, were used to identify needs for improving future health risk assessments at USDOE sites. Topics receiving specific recommendations for additional research include: choice of distributions for Monte Carlo simulation; estimation of risk reduction; analysis of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Database on food and nutrient intakes; investigations on effects of food processing on contaminant levels; background food and environmental concentrations of contaminants; method for handling exposures to groundwater plumes, methods for analyzing less than lifetime exposure to carcinogens; and improvement of bioaccumulation factors.

  15. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ORAU's Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  16. Environment, Safety and Health Self-Assessment Report Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Scott

    2011-03-23

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Self-Assessment Program was established to ensure that Integrated Safety Management (ISM) is implemented institutionally and by all divisions. The ES&H Self-Assessment Program, managed by the Office of Contractor Assurance (OCA), provides for an internal evaluation of all ES&H programs and systems at LBNL. The primary objective of the program is to ensure that work is conducted safely and with minimal negative impact to workers, the public, and the environment. Self-assessment follows the five core functions and guiding principles of ISM. Self-assessment is the mechanism used to promote the continuous improvement of the Laboratory's ES&H programs. The process is described in the Environment, Safety, and Health Assurance Plan (PUB-5344) and is composed of three types of self-assessments: Division ES&H Self-Assessment, ES&H Technical Assurance Program Assessment, and Division ES&H Peer Review. The Division ES&H Self-Assessment Manual (PUB-3105) provides the framework by which divisions conduct formal ES&H self-assessments to systematically identify program deficiencies. Issue-specific assessments are designed and implemented by the divisions and focus on areas of interest to division management. They may be conducted by teams and involve advance planning to ensure that appropriate resources are available. The ES&H Technical Assurance Program Manual (PUB-913E) provides the framework for systematic reviews of ES&H programs and processes. The ES&H Technical Assurance Program Assessment is designed to evaluate whether ES&H programs and processes are compliant with guiding regulations, are effective, and are properly implemented by LBNL divisions. The Division ES&H Peer Review Manual provides the framework by which division ISM systems are evaluated and improved. Peer Reviews are conducted by teams under the direction of senior division management and focus on higher-level management

  17. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor`s organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of DOE`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES&H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems and new ES&H initiatives.

  18. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  19. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L.

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  20. Estimated long-term health effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardis, F.; Okeanov, A.E.; Likthariev, I.; Prisyazhniuk; Anspaugh, L.R.; Mabuchi, K.; Ivanov, V.K.

    1996-04-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact of the radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries. Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported, these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population to which they are compared. If the experience of atomic bomb survivors and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cancer and the total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the liquidators and among the residents of contaminated territories, of the order of 2,000 to 2,500. These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41,500 and 433,000 respectively (size of the exposed populations: 200,000 and 3,700,000, respectively). It is noted, however, that the exposures received by populations exposed as a result of Chernobyl are different (in type and pattern) from those of atomic bomb survivors. Predictions derived from these populations are therefore uncertain. Indeed, the extent of the increase in thyroid cancer incidence in persons exposed as children was not foreseen. In addition, only ten years have passed since the accident. It is essential therefore that monitoring of the health of the population be continued in order to assess the public health impact of the accident, even if, apart from leukemia among liquidators, little detectable increase of cancers due to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is expected.

  1. Environment, Safety, and Health Self-Assessment Report, Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chernowski, John

    2009-02-27

    annually. The primary focus of the review is workplace safety. The MESH review is an evaluation of division management of ES&H in its research and operations, focusing on implementation and effectiveness of the division's ISM plan. It is a peer review performed by members of the LBNL Safety Review Committee (SRC), with staff support from OCA. Each division receives a MESH review every two to four years, depending on the results of the previous review. The ES&H Technical Assurance Program (TAP) provides the framework for systematic reviews of ES&H programs and processes. The intent of ES&H Technical Assurance assessments is to provide assurance that ES&H programs and processes comply with their guiding regulations, are effective, and are properly implemented by LBNL divisions. The Appendix B Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plan (PEMP) requires that LBNL sustain and enhance the effectiveness of integrated safety, health, and environmental protection through a strong and well-deployed system. Information required for Appendix B is provided by EH&S Division functional managers. The annual Appendix B report is submitted at the close of the fiscal year. This assessment is the Department of Energy's (DOE) primary mechanism for evaluating LBNL's contract performance in ISM.

  2. A Population Health Model for Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitcher, Hugh M.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the initial results of a project to develop a population health model so we can extend the scenarios included in the IPCC's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios to include population health status.

  3. ORISE: Contacts for Environmental Assessments and Health Physics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CHP Health Physics Training Manager Work: 865.241.6620 health.physics@orau.org Wade Ivey IEAV Laboratory Manager Work: 865.576.9184 Dr. Bruce Baker Director, NOAAARLATDD...

  4. Natural Ventilation in California Offices: Estimated Health Effects...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects and Economic Consequences Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Natural Ventilation in California Offices: Estimated Health Effects and Economic Consequences ...

  5. Office of Worker Safety and Health Assessments | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the worker safety and health requirements that are enforceable under 10 CFR 851. Maintains a broad internal and external perspective on trends by providing ...

  6. ORISE: Making a difference in environmental assessment and health...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    agencies. ORISE strives for consistency and our health physicists have contributed to ANSI standards and the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey & Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM)....

  7. New Zealand-Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zealand-Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment Jump to: navigation, search Name Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A Guidance Manual for Local Government in New...

  8. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 5. Human health risk assessment (HHRA): Evaluation of potential risks from multipathway exposure to emissions. Draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) portion of the WTI Risk Assessment involves the integration of information about the facility with site-specific data for the surrounding region and population to characterize the potential human health risks due to emissions from the facility. The estimation of human health risks is comprised of the following general steps: (1) identification of substances of potential concern; (2) estimation of the nature and magnitude of chemical releases from the WTI facility; (3) prediction of the atmospheric transport of the emitted contaminants; (4) determination of the types of adverse effects associated with exposure to the substances of potential concern (referred to as hazard identification), and the relationship between the level of exposure and the severity of any health effect (referred to as dose-response assessment); (5) estimation of the magnitude of exposure (referred to as exposure assessment); and (6) characterization of the health risks associated with exposure (referred to as risk characterization).

  9. Health effects of Halon 1301 exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holness, D.L.; House, R.A. )

    1992-07-01

    An accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 system is reported. Thirty-one workers were assessed, 22 who were present at the time of the discharge, and 9 who worked the next shift. The incident was complicated by a small Freon-22 leak several hours later. Throat, eye, and nasal irritation and lightheadedness were reported by the majority of workers. Workers present during the halon discharge reported significantly more lightheadedness, headache, voice change, cough, and a fast heartbeat than did those who worked the later shift. These differences were significant even after correcting for confounding factors such as age, sex, and sense of anxiety at the time of the incident. The possible causes for the irritant symptoms include breakdown products of Halon 1301 and Freon-22 or contaminants from the halon discharge system. Although these irritant effects may not be an effect of Halon 1301 alone, they may occur in these discharge situations, and workers should be advised of this possibility. The possible cardiac and central nervous system effects also should be considered. The importance of a clear-cut protocol to deal with such incidents as well as worker education are discussed.

  10. Assessing health impacts in complex eco-epidemiological settings in the humid tropics: Modular baseline health surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, Mirko S.; Divall, Mark J.; Krieger, Gary R.; Schmidlin, Sandro; Magassouba, Mohamed L.; Knoblauch, Astrid M.; Singer, Burton H.; Utzinger, Juerg

    2012-02-15

    The quantitative assessment of health impacts has been identified as a crucial feature for realising the full potential of health impact assessment (HIA). In settings where demographic and health data are notoriously scarce, but there is a broad range of ascertainable ecological, environmental, epidemiological and socioeconomic information, a diverse toolkit of data collection strategies becomes relevant for the mainly small-area impacts of interest. We present a modular, cross-sectional baseline health survey study design, which has been developed for HIA of industrial development projects in the humid tropics. The modular nature of our toolkit allows our methodology to be readily adapted to the prevailing eco-epidemiological characteristics of a given project setting. Central to our design is a broad set of key performance indicators, covering a multiplicity of health outcomes and determinants at different levels and scales. We present experience and key findings from our modular baseline health survey methodology employed in 14 selected sentinel sites within an iron ore mining project in the Republic of Guinea. We argue that our methodology is a generic example of rapid evidence assembly in difficult-to-reach localities, where improvement of the predictive validity of the assessment and establishment of a benchmark for longitudinal monitoring of project impacts and mitigation efforts is needed.

  11. ORISE: Resources for environmental assessments and health physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    site MARSAME resources ORISE has led the way in providing training courses and instruction on using the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Assessment of Materials and...

  12. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-04-29

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem ({plus_minus}2.4) to 0.04 mrem ({plus_minus}0.13) and translate to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments to about 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site.

  13. EVMS Training Snippet: 5.3 PARSII Analysis: Schedule Health Assessment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EVMS Training Snippet: 5.3 PARSII Analysis: Schedule Health Assessment This EVMS Training Snippet, sponsored by the Office of Project Management (PM) is one in a series regarding ...

  14. EVMS Training Snippet: 5.3 PARSII Analysis: Schedule Health Assessment |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy 3 PARSII Analysis: Schedule Health Assessment EVMS Training Snippet: 5.3 PARSII Analysis: Schedule Health Assessment This EVMS Training Snippet, sponsored by the Office of Project Management (PM) is one in a series regarding PARS II Analysis reports. PARS II offers direct insight into EVM project data from the contractor's internal systems. The reports were developed with the users in mind, organized and presented in an easy to follow manner, with analysis results and

  15. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, J.J.; Wood, R.A.; Haszeldine, R.S.

    2011-10-04

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/ flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less than Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  16. Health and Environmental Effects Document on Geothermal Energy -- 1982 update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layton, David W.; Daniels, Jeffrey I.; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; O'Banion, Kerry D.

    1983-11-30

    We assess several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MWe for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10{sup 18} J). The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in food. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in 29 of 51 geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. Our best estimates and ranges of uncertainty for the health risks of chronic population exposures to atmospheric pollutants are as follows (risks expressed per 10{sup 18} J of electricity): particulate sulfate, 44 premature deaths (uncertainty range of 0 to 360); benzene, 0.15 leukemias (range of 0 to 0.51); elemental mercury, 14 muscle tremors (range of 0 to 39); and radon, 0.68 lung cancers (range of 0 to 1.8). The ultimate risk of fatal skin cancers as the result of the transfer of waste arsenic to the general population over geologic time ({approx} 100,000 y) was calculated as 41 per 10{sup 18} J. We based our estimates of occupational health effects on rates of accidental deaths together with data on occupational diseases and injuries in surrogate industries. According to our best estimates, there would be 8 accidental deaths per 10{sup 18} J of electricity, 300 cases of occupational diseases per 10{sup 18} J, and 3400 occupational injuries per 10{sup 18}J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants. We also studied the possible consequences of accidental releases of geothermal fluids and concluded that probably less than 5 ha of land would be affected by such releases during the production of 20 x 10{sup 18} J of electricity. Boron emitted from cooling towers in the

  17. Testing three health impact assessment tools in planning: A process evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schively Slotterback, Carissa; Forsyth, Ann; Krizek, Kevin J.; Johnson, Amanda; Pennucci, Aly

    2011-03-15

    There is increasing interest in Health Impact Assessment in planning. This paper describes the results of different approaches to health impact assessment (HIA) conducted in 10 municipalities and one county in Minnesota. The paper outlines the HIA processes, outputs, and short-term outcomes concluding that it is important to engage a diverse group of stakeholders. Overall, HIA is potentially an important new tool in the planning toolkit. Strategic use of HIA to evaluate draft plans and inform plan updates and project redesigns can help raise awareness about health issues and focus planning on important human problems.

  18. Technical Qualification Program Self-Assessment Report- Office of Health, Safety and Security- 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beginning in April 2014, a self-assessment of the Technical Qualification Program (TQP) was performed in the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS). The assessment was led by the HSS TQP Manager who is assigned the responsibility for maintaining and implementing the programs.

  19. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.; Moskowitz, P.

    1994-12-01

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate the need to regulate mercury emissions from electric utilities. In support of this forthcoming regulatory analysis the U.S. DOE, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the US MeHg is the predominant way of exposure to mercury originated in the atmosphere. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. The current paper summarizes the basic conclusions of this assessment and highlights issues dealing with emissions control and environmental transport.

  20. An analytical assessment of population reaction to environmental health hazards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stasiukaitis, B.

    1994-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), being a nuclear production facility, has created concern for the communities in the surrounding areas. After completing a Perceived Risk Survey (PRS) in 1993, it was found that some people express their concerns by contacting a public official. Thus, the Legislative Environmental Health Survey (LEHS) was created. This survey asked legislators of Georgia and South Carolina to respond to questions concerning various environmental concerns. The questions reflected how the legislators viewed their constituencies` concerns. These two surveys were compared to find differences in legislators` and public views.

  1. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-07-15

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  2. Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System for Assessing Doses and Health Risks from Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-11-10

    Version: 00 CRRIS consists of eight fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport of atmospheric releases of radionuclides and resulting doses and health risks to individuals or populations. Each code may be used alone for various assessment applications. Because of its modular structure, CRRIS allows assessments to be tailored to the user's needs. Radionuclides are handled by CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or the exposure radionuclides which consist of both themore » released nuclides and decay products that build up during environmental transport. Atmospheric dispersion calculations are performed by the ANEMOS computer code for distances less than 100 km and by the RETADD-II computer code for regional-scale distances. Both codes estimate annual-average air concentrations and ground deposition rates by location. SUMIT will translate and scale multiple ANEMOS runs onto a master grid. TERRA reads radionuclide air concentrations and deposition rates to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in food and surface soil. Radiologic decay and ingrowth, soil leaching, and transport through the food chain are included in the calculations. MLSOIL computes an effective radionuclide ground-surface concentration to be used in computing external health effects. The five-layer model of radionuclide transport through soil in MLSOIL provides an alternative to the single-layer model used in TERRA. DFSOIL computes dose factors used in MLSOIL to compute doses from the five soil layers and from the ground surface. ANDROS reads environmental concentrations of radionuclides computed by the other CRRIS codes and produces tables of doses and risks to individuals or populations from atmospheric releases of radionuclides.« less

  3. Radiological/Health physics program assessement at Rocky Flats, the process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Psomas, P.O.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Energy, Rocky Flats Office, Safety and Health Group, Health Physics Team (HPT) is responsible for oversight of the Radiation Protection and Health Physics Program (RPHP) of the Integrating Management Contractor (IMC), Kaiser-Hill (K-H) operations at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). As of 1 January 1996 the Rocky Flats Plant employed 300 DOE and 4,300 contractor personnel (K-H and their subcontractors). WSI is a subcontractor and provides plant security. To accomplish the RPHP program oversight HPT personnel developed a systematic methodology for performing a functional RPHP Assessment. The initial process included development of a flow diagram identifying all programmatic elements and assessment criteria documents. Formulation of plans for conducting interviews and performance of assessments constituted the second major effort. The generation of assessment reports was the final step, based on the results of this process. This assessment will be a 6 person-year effort, over the next three years. This process is the most comprehensive assessment of any Radiation Protection and Health Physics (RPHP) Program ever performed at Rocky Flats. The results of these efforts will establish a baseline for future RPHP Program assessments at RFETS. This methodology has been well-received by contractor personnel and creates no Privacy Act violations or other misunderstandings.

  4. On Assessing the Robustness of Structural Health Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, Christopher J.; Hemez, Francois M.; Farrar, Charles R.

    2012-08-24

    As Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) continues to gain popularity, both as an area of research and as a tool for use in industrial applications, the number of technologies associated with SHM will also continue to grow. As a result, the engineer tasked with developing a SHM system is faced with myriad hardware and software technologies from which to choose, often adopting an ad hoc qualitative approach based on physical intuition or past experience to making such decisions. This paper offers a framework that aims to provide the engineer with a quantitative approach for choosing from among a suite of candidate SHM technologies. The framework is outlined for the general case, where a supervised learning approach to SHM is adopted, and the presentation will focus on applying the framework to two commonly encountered problems: (1) selection of damage-sensitive features and (2) selection of a damage classifier. The data employed for these problems will be drawn from a study that examined the feasibility of applying SHM to the RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response observatory network.

  5. USING ANT COMMUNITIES FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM HEALTH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Michael Paller, M; Eric Nelson, E

    2007-01-12

    Ecosystem health with its near infinite number of variables is difficult to measure, and there are many opinions as to which variables are most important, most easily measured, and most robust, Bioassessment avoids the controversy of choosing which physical and chemical parameters to measure because it uses responses of a community of organisms that integrate all aspects of the system in question. A variety of bioassessment methods have been successfully applied to aquatic ecosystems using fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Terrestrial biotic index methods are less developed than those for aquatic systems and we are seeking to address this problem here. This study had as its objective to examine the baseline differences in ant communities at different seral stages from clear cut back to mature pine plantation as a precursor to developing a bioassessment protocol. Comparative sampling was conducted at four seral stages; clearcut, 5 year, 15 year and mature pine plantation stands. Soil and vegetation data were collected at each site. All ants collected were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and identified to genus. Analysis of the ant data indicates that ants respond strongly to the habitat changes that accompany ecological succession in managed pine forests and that individual genera as well as ant community structure can be used as an indicator of successional change. Ants exhibited relatively high diversity in both early and mature seral stages. High ant diversity in the mature seral stages was likely related to conditions on the forest floor which favored litter dwelling and cool climate specialists.

  6. Radiological Assessment of effects from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NNSA presentation on Radiological Assessment of effects from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from May 13, 2011

  7. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. A macro environmental risk assessment methodology for establishing priorities among risks to human health and the environment in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gernhofer, S.; Oliver, T.J.; Vasquez, R.

    1994-12-31

    A macro environmental risk assessment (ERA) methodology was developed for the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) as part of the US Agency for International Development Industrial Environmental Management Project. The DENR allocates its limited resources to mitigate those environmental problems that pose the greatest threat to human health and the environment. The National Regional Industry Prioritization Strategy (NRIPS) methodology was developed as a risk assessment tool to establish a national ranking of industrial facilities. The ranking establishes regional and national priorities, based on risk factors, that DENR can use to determine the most effective allocation of its limited resources. NRIPS is a systematic framework that examines the potential risk to human health and the environment from hazardous substances released from a facility, and, in doing so, generates a relative numerical score that represents that risk. More than 3,300 facilities throughout the Philippines were evaluated successfully with the NRIPS.

  9. Assessing the health equity impacts of regional land-use plan making: An equity focussed health impact assessment of alternative patterns of development of the Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Regional Plan, Australia (Short report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunning, Colleen; Harris, Patrick; Mallett, John

    2011-07-15

    Health service and partners completed an equity focussed health impact assessment to influence the consideration of health and equity within regional land-use planning in Queensland, Australia. This project demonstrated how an equity oriented assessment matrix can assist in testing regional planning scenarios. It is hoped that this HIA will contribute to the emerging interest in ensuring that potential differential health impacts continue to be considered as part of land-use planning processes.

  10. Stable Free Radicals and Potential Implications for Health Effects of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Emissions | Department of Energy Stable Free Radicals and Potential Implications for Health Effects of Diesel Emissions Stable Free Radicals and Potential Implications for Health Effects of Diesel Emissions 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_dellinger.pdf (1.03 MB) More Documents & Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons ACES: Evaluation of Tissue Response to Inhaled

  11. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation: Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Book, S.; Buncher, C.; Denniston, C.; Gilbert, E.; Hahn, F.; Hertzberg, V.; Maxon, H.; Scott, B.

    1989-05-01

    This report provides dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Two-parameter Weibull hazard functions are recommended for estimating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid and ''other''. The category, ''other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Linear and linear-quadratic models are also recommended for assessing genetic risks. Five classes of genetic disease -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocation and multifactorial diseases --are considered. In addition, the impact of radiation-induced genetic damage on the incidence of peri-implantation embryo losses is discussed. The uncertainty in modeling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of all model parameters. Data are provided which should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk. 22 refs., 14 figs., 51 tabs.

  12. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  13. USDOE study: Human health and ecological risk assessment for produced water discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1994-12-31

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain high concentrations of radionuclides, organics and heavy metals. There are concerns about potential human health and ecological impacts from the discharge of these contaminants to the Gulf of Mexico. Data collected in the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) field study are being used in a series of human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will support scientifically-based regulation and risk management. This presentation: summarizes risk assessments performed for produced water discharges; describes how uncertainties in these assessments are guiding data collection efforts in the USDOE field study; and outlines ongoing risk assessment studies. In these studies, risk assessment is treated as an iterative process. An initial screening-level assessment is performed to identify important contaminants, transport and exposure pathways, and parameters. These intermediate results are used to guide data collection efforts and refinements to the analysis. At this stage in the analysis, risk is described in terms of probabilities; the uncertainties in each measured or modeled parameter are considered explicitly.

  14. Public health assessment for public health assessment addendum, Stauffer Chemical Company, Tarpon Springs, Florida, Region 4, CERCLIS number FLD010596013. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-08-06

    From 1947 to 1981, the Stauffer Chemical Company in Tarpon Springs, Florida, made elemental phosphorus from phosphate ore. Residents in the area expressed concern about possible adverse health effects resulting from exposure to radium and heavy metals leaching from phosphate slag that was used in nearby roads and buildings. Besides radium, other contaminants of concern to residents were arsenic, asbestos, uranium, radon, and ionizing radiation. There is elevated background radiation from natural radium in phosphate slag and aggregate, but exposures are not expected to result in any adverse health outcomes. Phosphate slag contains concentrations of metals above background levels. However, based on current epidemiological and medical information the levels are not likely to represent a public health hazard.

  15. Review of Department of Energy research on human health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy research program on the human health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation consists of 16 projects conducted under the sponsorship of the Human Health and Assessments Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. Each of these projects was reviewed by the Committee with the project's principal investigators and associated scientific personnel and with the DOE staff and the associate directors of the national laboratories where appropriate. The principal objectives of this research program include the determination of the risks from exposure to external radiation and from internally deposited radionuclides and the use of this information in the development of standards to protect the health of nuclear workers at DOE and related facilities and of the population at large. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. The application of computer modeling to health effect research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, R.S.H.

    1996-12-31

    In the United States, estimates show that more than 30,000 hazardous waste disposal sites exist, not including military installations, U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities, and hundreds and thousands of underground fuel storage tanks; these sites undoubtedly have their own respective hazardous waste chemical problems. When so many sites contain hazardous chemicals, how does one study the health effects of the chemicals at these sites? There could be many different answers, but none would be perfect. For an area as complex and difficult as the study of chemical mixtures associated with hazardous waste disposal sites, there are no perfect approaches and protocols. Human exposure to chemicals, be it environmental or occupational, is rarely, if ever, limited to a single chemical. Therefore, it is essential that we consider multiple chemical effects and interactions in our risk assessment process. Systematic toxicity testing of chemical mixtures in the environment or workplace that uses conventional toxicology methodologies is highly impractical because of the immense numbers of mixtures involved. For example, about 600,000 chemicals are being used in our society. Just considering binary chemical mixtures, this means that there could be 600,000 x 599,999/2 = 359,999,400,000 pairs of chemicals. Assuming that only one in a million of these pairs of chemicals acts synergistically or has other toxicologic interactions, there would still be 359,999 binary chemical mixtures possessing toxicologic interactions. Moreover, toxicologic interactions undoubtedly exist among chemical mixtures with three or more component chemicals; the number of possible combinations for these latter mixtures is almost infinite. These are astronomically large numbers with respect to systematic toxicity testing. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Establishing Economic Effectiveness through Software Health-Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pizka, M; Panas, T

    2009-05-27

    More than two thirds of the annual software budget of large-scale organizations dealing with complex software systems is spent on the perfection, correction, and operation of existing software systems. A significant part of these running costs could be saved if the software systems that need to be constantly extende, maintained and operated were in a better technical condition. This paper proposes Software Health-Checks as a method to assess the technical condition of existing software systems and to deduce measures for improving the health of software in a structured manner. Since 2006 numerous commercial software systems with a total of 30 MLOC, implemented in various technologies, were already checked with this method. The actions suggested as a result of these Software 'Health-Checks', repeatedly yielded dramatic performance improvements, risk reductions and cost savings between 30% and 80%.

  18. Targeted Health Assessment for Wastes Contained at the Niagara Falls Storage Site to Guide Planning for Remedial Action Alternatives - 13428

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busse, John; Keil, Karen; Staten, Jane; Miller, Neil; Barker, Michelle; MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Chang, Young-Soo; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is evaluating potential remedial alternatives at the 191-acre Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York, under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) brought radioactive wastes to the site during the 1940's and 1950's, and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) consolidated these wastes into a 10-acre interim waste containment structure (IWCS) in the southwest portion of the site during the 1980's. The USACE is evaluating remedial alternatives for radioactive waste contained within the IWCS at the NFSS under the Feasibility Study phase of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. A preliminary evaluation of the IWCS has been conducted to assess potential airborne releases associated with uncovered wastes, particularly during waste excavation, as well as direct exposures to uncovered wastes. Key technical issues for this assessment include: (1) limitations in waste characterization data; (2) representative receptors and exposure routes; (3) estimates of contaminant emissions at an early stage of the evaluation process; (4) consideration of candidate meteorological data and air dispersion modeling approaches; and (5) estimates of health effects from potential exposures to both radionuclides and chemicals that account for recent updates of exposure and toxicity factors. Results of this preliminary health risk assessment indicate if the wastes were uncovered and someone stayed at the IWCS for a number of days to weeks, substantial doses and serious health effects could be incurred. Current controls prevent such exposures, and the controls that would be applied to protect onsite workers during remedial action at the IWCS would also effectively protect the public nearby. This evaluation provides framing context for the upcoming development and detailed evaluation of

  19. Public health assessment for Iron Horse Park, Billerica, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Region 1. Cerclis No. MAD051787323. Addendum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-11

    The initial health assessment and related amendment for Iron Horse Park were completed in December of 1988 and amended in April of 1990 (PB90-136128 and PB92-963707), respectively. These health assessments identified numerous data gaps which were addressed in subsequent investigations released by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Health concerns detailed in this addendum are based on findings of these monitoring activities conducted on or near the Shaffer Landfill at Iron Horse Park.

  20. Health assessment for Stringfellow, Glen Avon, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAT08001286. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-05-25

    The Stringfellow Hazardous Waste site lies at the head of the Pyrite Canyon in Riverside County less than a mile north of the community of Glen Avon. The principal contaminants of concern in the ground water include trichloroethene (TCE), chloroform, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, para-chlorobenzene sulfonic acid (p-CBSA), chromium, and cadmium. The principal environmental pathways for contaminant transport include ground water, surface water, soil, sediment, and air. The Pyrite Canyon portion of the site is of public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from probable past and present exposure to hazardous substances that may result in adverse human health effects.

  1. Assessing the toxic effects of ethylene glycol ethers using Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Mumtaz, Moiz; Gombar, Vijay

    2011-07-15

    Experimental determination of toxicity profiles consumes a great deal of time, money, and other resources. Consequently, businesses, societies, and regulators strive for reliable alternatives such as Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship (QSTR) models to fill gaps in toxicity profiles of compounds of concern to human health. The use of glycol ethers and their health effects have recently attracted the attention of international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO). The board members of Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICAD) recently identified inadequate testing as well as gaps in toxicity profiles of ethylene glycol mono-n-alkyl ethers (EGEs). The CICAD board requested the ATSDR Computational Toxicology and Methods Development Laboratory to conduct QSTR assessments of certain specific toxicity endpoints for these chemicals. In order to evaluate the potential health effects of EGEs, CICAD proposed a critical QSTR analysis of the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and developmental effects of EGEs and other selected chemicals. We report here results of the application of QSTRs to assess rodent carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and developmental toxicity of four EGEs: 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-propoxyethanol, and 2-butoxyethanol and their metabolites. Neither mutagenicity nor carcinogenicity is indicated for the parent compounds, but these compounds are predicted to be developmental toxicants. The predicted toxicity effects were subjected to reverse QSTR (rQSTR) analysis to identify structural attributes that may be the main drivers of the developmental toxicity potential of these compounds.

  2. GIS applications to evaluate public health effects of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regens, J.L.; Hodges, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    Modeling projections of future climatic conditions suggest changes in temperature and precipitation patterns that might induce direct adverse effects on human health by altering the extent and severity of infectious and vector-borne diseases. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, for example, could increase substantially in areas where temperature and relative humidity rise. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers new methodologies to evaluate the impact of global warming on changes in the incidence of infectious and vector-borne diseases. This research illustrates the potential analytical and communication uses of GIS for monitoring historical patterns of climate and human health variables and for projecting changes in these health variables with global warming.

  3. Environment, safety and health compliance assessment, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The Secretary of Energy established independent Tiger Teams to conduct environment, safety, and health (ES H) compliance assessments at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. This report presents the assessment of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the assessment at FMPC is to provide the Secretary with information regarding current ES H compliance status, specific ES H noncompliance items, evaluation of the adequacy of the ES H organizations and resources (DOE and contractor), and root causes for noncompliance items. Areas reviewed included performance under Federal, state, and local agreements and permits; compliance with Federal, state and DOE orders and requirements; adequacy of operations and other site activities, such as training, procedures, document control, quality assurance, and emergency preparedness; and management and staff, including resources, planning, and interactions with outside agencies.

  4. Waste management health risk assessment: A case study of a solid waste landfill in South Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davoli, E.; Fattore, E.; Paiano, V.; Colombo, A.; Palmiotto, M.; Rossi, A.N.; Il Grande, M.; Fanelli, R.

    2010-08-15

    An integrated risk assessment study has been performed in an area within 5 km from a landfill that accepts non hazardous waste. The risk assessment was based on measured emissions and maximum chronic population exposure, for both children and adults, to contaminated air, some foods and soil. The toxic effects assessed were limited to the main known carcinogenic compounds emitted from landfills coming both from landfill gas torch combustion (e.g., dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) and from diffusive emissions (vinyl chloride monomer, VCM). Risk assessment has been performed both for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results indicate that cancer and non-cancer effects risk (hazard index, HI) are largely below the values accepted from the main international agencies (e.g., WHO, US EPA) and national legislation ( and ).

  5. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ? Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ? Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ? Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ? Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  6. Health impact assessment in the United States: Has practice followed standards?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuchter, Joseph; Bhatia, Rajiv; Corburn, Jason; Seto, Edmund

    2014-07-01

    As an emerging practice, Health Impact Assessment is heterogeneous in purpose, form, and scope and applied in a wide range of decision contexts. This heterogeneity challenges efforts to evaluate the quality and impact of practice. We examined whether information in completed HIA reports reflected objectively-evaluable criteria proposed by the North American HIA Practice Standards Working Group in 2009. From publically-available reports of HIAs conducted in the U.S. and published from 2009 to 2011, we excluded those that were components of, or comment letters on, Environmental Impact Assessments (5) or were demonstration projects or student exercises (8). For the remaining 23 reports, we used practice standards as a template to abstract data on the steps of HIA, including details on the rationale, authorship, funding, decision and decision-makers, participation, pathways and methods, quality of evidence, and recommendations. Most reports described screening, scoping, and assessment processes, but there was substantial variation in the extent of these processes and the degree of stakeholder participation. Community stakeholders participated in screening or scoping in just two-thirds of the HIAs (16). On average, these HIAs analyzed 5.5 determinants related to 10.6 health impacts. Most HIA reports did not include evaluation or monitoring plans. This study identifies issues for field development and improvement. The standards might be adapted to better account for variability in resources, produce fit-for-purpose HIAs, and facilitate innovation guided by the principles. - Highlights: Our study examined reported HIAs in the U.S. against published practice standards. Most HIAs used some screening, scoping and assessment elements from the standards. The extent of these processes and stakeholder participation varied widely. The average HIA considered multiple health determinants and impacts. Evaluation or monitoring plans were generally not included in reports.

  7. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spickett, Jeffery; Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia ; Katscherian, Dianne; Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia ; Harris, Patrick

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting

  8. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  9. A risk assessment software tool for evaluating potential risks to human health and the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drendel, G.; Allen, B.; Gentry, R.; Shipp, A.; Van Landingham, C.

    1994-12-31

    The Ecology and National Environmental Policy Act Division (END), is providing a sitewide evaluation of alternative strategies for the final disposition of the Rocky Flats Plant material inventory. This analysis is known as the Systems Engineering Analysis (SEA) for the Rocky Flats Plant. The primary intent of the SEA is to support the Rocky Flats Plant decision-making. As part of the SEA project, a risk assessment software tool has been developed which will assist in the analysis by providing an evaluation of potential risks to human health and the environment for the purpose of augmenting future decisions at the site.

  10. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. METC is currently a research and development facility, managed by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. Its goal is to focus energy research and development to develop engineered fossil fuel systems, that are economically viable and environmentally sound, for commercial application. There is clear evidence that, since the 1991 Tiger Team Assessment, substantial progress has been made by both FE and METC in most aspects of their ES&H program. The array of new and restructured organizations, systems, and programs at FE and METC; increased assignments of staff to support these initiatives; extensive training activities; and the maturing planning processes, all reflect a discernable, continuous improvement in the quality of the ES&H performance.

  11. An analysis of uranium dispersal and health effects using a Gulf War case study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Albert Christian

    2005-07-01

    The study described in this report used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to depleted uranium (DU) during the 1991 Gulf War for both U.S. troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. Only a few veterans in vehicles accidentally struck by U.S. DU munitions are predicted to have inhaled sufficient quantities of DU particulate to incur any significant health risk (i.e., the possibility of temporary kidney damage from the chemical toxicity of uranium and about a 1% chance of fatal lung cancer). The health risk to all downwind civilians is predicted to be extremely small. Recommendations for monitoring are made for certain exposed groups. Although the study found fairly large calculational uncertainties, the models developed and used are generally valid. The analysis was also used to assess potential uranium health hazards for workers in the weapons complex. No illnesses are projected for uranium workers following standard guidelines; nonetheless, some research suggests that more conservative guidelines should be considered.

  12. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG&G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization`s pursuit of continuous ES&H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site`s ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES&H excellence.

  13. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs.

  14. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardis, E.

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  15. Health assessment for Cedartown Municipal Landfill NPL Site, Cedartown, Polk County, Georgia, Region 4. CERCLIS No. GAD980495402. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-08

    In compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has prepared Health Assessment reports for sites currently on, or proposed for, the National Priorities List. In the report, the presence and nature of health hazards at this site are assessed, and the public health implications specific to this site are evaluated. The Health Assessment is based on such factors as the nature, concentration, toxicity, and extent of contamination at the site; the existence of potential pathways for the human exposure; the size and nature of the community likely to be exposed; and any other information available.

  16. A joint discussion model for assessing safety, health, and environmental risks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Industries competing in the global marketplace constantly evaluate potential opportunities for joint ventures and partnerships all over the world. In the petroleum industry, these prospects to explore for and produce oil and gas range geographically from densely populated areas, to offshore, to the remote reaches of a tropical rainforest. There are numerous risks associated with these prospects which must be assessed so that the best investments are selected. The risk categories include: commercial, technical geological, political and safety, health and environmental (SHE). SHE risks are sometimes the most difficult to assess within businesses because they do not allow an easy evaluation of economic impact or other quantification. Additionally, these issues are often not familiar to business development personnel and consequently are not evaluated on an equal basis with other risk criteria. This paper presents a joint discussion model that facilitates the communication between SHE personnel and other members of the multi-disciplinary teams responsible for evaluating and selecting the most attractive prospects. This tool uses a simple approach in contrast to the many quantitative decision-making software products currently available. It provides a set of questions related to relevant SHE issues, establishes a way to approximate the level of uncertainty in the answers, and sums the results so that a comparison among prospects is possible. In the end, a more rigorous, consistent SHE assessment of all prospects is made, and the rationale for each decision is archived so that improvement in the process over time is made easier.

  17. ASA conference on radiation and health: Health effects of electric and magnetic fields: Statistical support for research strategies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This report is a collection of papers documenting presentations made at the VIII ASA (American Statistical Association) Conference on Radiation and Health entitled Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields: Statistical Support for Research Strategies. Individual papers are abstracted and indexed for the database.

  18. Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Joe L. Mauderly; Daniel L. Costa; Ronald E. Wyzga; Sverre Vedal; George M. Hidy; Sam L. Altshuler; David Marrack; Jon M. Heuss; George T. Wolff; C. Aden Pope III; Douglas W. Dockery

    2006-10-15

    In the 2006 A&WMA Critical Review on 'Health Effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect' Drs. C. Arden Pope III and Douglas Dockery addressed the epidemiological evidence for the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health indicators. The review documents substantial progress since the 1997 Critical Review in the areas of: (1) short-term exposure and mortality; (2) long-term exposure and mortality; (3) time scales of exposure; (4) the shape of the concentration-response function; (5) cardiovascular disease; and (6) biological plausibility. This critical review discussion was compiled from written submissions and presentation transcripts, which were revised for conciseness and to minimize redundancy. The invited discussants were as follows were: Dr. Joe L. Mauderly, Dr. Daniel L. Costa, Dr. Ronald E. Wyzga, and Dr. Sverre Vedal. The contributing discussants were: Dr. George M. Hidy, Sam L. Altshuler, Dr. David Marrack, Jon M. Heuss, and Dr. George T. Wolff. See Coal Abstracts entry Sep 2006 00390 for the Critical Review. 80 refs.

  19. Integration of health into urban spatial planning through impact assessment: Identifying governance and policy barriers and facilitators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Gray, Selena; Lease, Helen; Pilkington, Paul

    2012-01-15

    This article presents the results of a review of literature examining the barriers and facilitators in integrating health in spatial planning at the local, mainly urban level, through appraisals. Our literature review covered the UK and non UK experiences of appraisals used to consider health issues in the planning process. We were able to identify four main categories of obstacles and facilitators including first the different knowledge and conceptual understanding of health by different actors/stakeholders, second the types of governance arrangements, in particular partnerships, in place and the political context, third the way institutions work, the responsibilities they have and their capacity and resources and fourth the timeliness, comprehensiveness and inclusiveness of the appraisal process. The findings allowed us to draw some lessons on the governance and policy framework regarding the integration of health impact into spatial planning, in particular considering the pros and cons of integrating health impact assessment (HIA) into other forms of impact assessment of spatial planning decisions such as environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environment assessment (SEA). In addition, the research uncovered a gap in the literature that tends to focus on the mainly voluntary HIA to assess health outcomes of planning decisions and neglect the analysis of regulatory mechanisms such as EIA and SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Governance and policy barriers and facilitators to the integration of health into urban planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review of literature on impact assessment methods used across the world. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knowledge, partnerships, management/resources and processes can impede integration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIA evaluations prevail uncovering research opportunities for evaluating other techniques.

  20. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreira, A.M.M.; Guenther, W.M.R.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized

  1. Method of assessing a lipid-related health risk based on ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.

    2010-12-14

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  2. Effects of inhalable particles on respiratory health of children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Stram, D.O.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Results are presented from a second cross-sectional assessment of the association of air pollution with chronic respiratory health of children participating in the Six Cities Study of Air Pollution and Health. Air pollution measurements collected at quality-controlled monitoring stations included total suspended particulates (TSP), particulate matter less than 15 microns (PM15) and 2.5 microns (PM2.5) aerodynamic diameter, fine fraction aerosol sulfate (FSO4), SO2, O3, and No2. Reported rates of chronic cough, bronchitis, and chest illness during the 1980-1981 school year were positively associated with all measures of particulate pollution (TSP, PM15, PM2.5, and FSO4) and positively but less strongly associated with concentrations of two of the gases (SO2 and NO2). Frequency of earache also tended to be associated with particulate concentrations, but no associations were found with asthma, persistent wheeze, hay fever, or nonrespiratory illness. No associations were found between pollutant concentrations and any of the pulmonary function measures considered (FVC, FEV1, FEV0.75, and MMEF). Children with a history of wheeze or asthma had a much higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and there was some evidence that the association between air pollutant concentrations and symptom rates was stronger among children with these markers for hyperreactive airways. These data provide further evidence that rates of respiratory illnesses and symptoms are elevated among children living in cities with high particulate pollution. They also suggest that children with hyperreactive airways may be particularly susceptible to other respiratory symptoms when exposed to these pollutants.

  3. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Results of the environmental health activities and needs assessment of the South Carolina statewide family practice system for the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program: EHAP Volume 1, No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musham, C.; Hainer, B.

    1993-05-01

    An activities and needs assessment was conducted to determine what each of the seven family practice residency programs in South Carolina is providing in environmental health education. In addition, this study was designed to determine: what are the barriers to greater emphasis on environmental health in family practice residency programs and, what the basic environmental health educational goals for family practice residency programs should be.

  4. Health and environmental research. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1981. [Health and environmental effects of waste and biomass to energy processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Progress on the following studies is summarized: health and environmental impact of waste and biomass to energy processes; characterization of organic pollutants; environmental effects of using municipal solid wastes as a supplementary fuel; microbiological air quality of the Ames Municipal Solid Waste Recovery System; solid waste to methane study; high resolution luminescence spectroscopy (x-ray laser excited Shpol'skii spectroscopy, rotationally cooled fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence line narrowing spectroscopy); lead mission-environmental aspects of energy recovery from waste and biomass; risk assessment of municipal wastes as a supplemental fuel. An executive summary of a report on the health and environmental effects of refuse-derived fuel production and coal co-firing technologies is also included. (JGB)

  5. Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of children: a cross-sectional study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spinaci, S.; Arossa, W.; Bugiani, M.; Natale, P.; Bucca, C.; de Candussio, G.

    1985-09-01

    To investigate the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of children, a subject of some controversy, a comparative study was undertaken of 2,385 school children who lived in central urban, peripheral urban, and suburban areas. Daily monitoring of sulfur dioxide and total suspended particle concentrations in all areas showed that pollutant concentrations in central and peripheral urban areas were above commonly accepted safety levels for respiratory health, while concentrations in the suburban area were within acceptable limits. A questionnaire administered to each mother assessed environmental exposure to pollutants in the household, the occurrence of respiratory symptoms as well as lung diseases as diagnosed by a physician, and general information. Children were interviewed about smoking habits and any acute respiratory symptoms. Children also performed standard lung function tests. Results showed that children from both urban areas had lessened pulmonary function and a higher prevalence of bronchial secretion with common colds than did those from the suburban area. These differences persisted after corrections for exposure to indoor pollutants, active or passive smoking, socioeconomic status, and sex. Parental cigarette smoking was related to a fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and an increased incidence of acute respiratory illnesses and chronic cough in children. Although boys had higher lung volumes and lower air flow, regression analysis showed no significant influence of the interactions sex-geographic area and sex-smoking on lung function. It was concluded that air pollution has a significant effect on the respiratory health of children.

  6. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuchter, Joseph; Rutt, Candace; Seto, Edmund

    2015-01-15

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building.

  7. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  8. Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sale, Michael J.; Shih-Chieh, Kao; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Kaiser, Dale P.; Martinez, Rocio; Webb, Cindy; Wei, Yaxing

    2012-10-01

    As directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, including federal dam owners, has prepared a comprehensive assessment examining the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities. This Oak Ridge National Laboratory report, referred to as the “9505 Assessment,” describes the technical basis for the report to Congress that was called for in the SECURE Water Act.

  9. Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Protocol for Site Leads, April 2015 (Revision 1) – PROTOCOL – EA-31-01

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Protocol for Site Leads, April 2015 (Revision 1) – PROTOCOL – EA-31-01

  10. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  11. Natural Ventilation in California Offices: Estimated Health Effects...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: ASHRAE IAQ 2013: Environmental Health in Low Energy Buildings, Vancouver, British Colombia, October 15-18, 2013 Research Org: Ernest Orlando Lawrence ...

  12. Acute health effects of PM10 pollution on symptomatic and asymptomatic children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, C.A. 3d.; Dockery, D.W. )

    1992-05-01

    This study assessed the association between daily changes in respiratory health and respirable particulate pollution (PM10) in Utah Valley during the winter of 1990-1991. During the study period, 24-h PM10 concentrations ranged from 7 to 251 micrograms/m3. Participants included symptomatic and asymptomatic samples of fifth- and sixth-grade students. Relatively small but statistically significant (p less than 0.01) negative associations between peak expiratory flow (PEF) and PM10 were observed for both the symptomatic and asymptomatic samples. The association was strongest for the symptomatic children. Large associations between the incidence of respiratory symptoms, especially cough, and PM10 pollution were also observed for both samples. Again the association was strongest for the symptomatic sample. Immediate and delayed PM10 effects were observed. Respiratory symptoms and PEF changes were more closely associated with 5-day moving-average PM10 levels than with concurrent-day levels. These associations were also observed at PM10 levels below the 24-h standard of 150 micrograms/m3. This study indicates that both symptomatic and asymptomatic children may suffer acute health effects of respirable particulate pollution, with symptomatic children suffering the most.

  13. Development of a structural health monitoring system for the life assessment of critical transportation infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Jauregui, David Villegas; Daumueller, Andrew Nicholas

    2012-02-01

    Recent structural failures such as the I-35W Mississippi River Bridge in Minnesota have underscored the urgent need for improved methods and procedures for evaluating our aging transportation infrastructure. This research seeks to develop a basis for a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to provide quantitative information related to the structural integrity of metallic structures to make appropriate management decisions and ensuring public safety. This research employs advanced structural analysis and nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for an accurate fatigue analysis. Metal railroad bridges in New Mexico will be the focus since many of these structures are over 100 years old and classified as fracture-critical. The term fracture-critical indicates that failure of a single component may result in complete collapse of the structure such as the one experienced by the I-35W Bridge. Failure may originate from sources such as loss of section due to corrosion or cracking caused by fatigue loading. Because standard inspection practice is primarily visual, these types of defects can go undetected due to oversight, lack of access to critical areas, or, in riveted members, hidden defects that are beneath fasteners or connection angles. Another issue is that it is difficult to determine the fatigue damage that a structure has experienced and the rate at which damage is accumulating due to uncertain history and load distribution in supporting members. A SHM system has several advantages that can overcome these limitations. SHM allows critical areas of the structure to be monitored more quantitatively under actual loading. The research needed to apply SHM to metallic structures was performed and a case study was carried out to show the potential of SHM-driven fatigue evaluation to assess the condition of critical transportation infrastructure and to guide inspectors to potential problem areas. This project combines the expertise in transportation infrastructure at New

  14. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels Jeffrey I.,Chapman Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  15. Public health assessment for Sayreville Landfill, Sayreville, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD980505754. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-16

    The Sayreville Landfill site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey, was used primarily for the disposal of municipal wastes from 1970 through 1977. Illegal dumping of possibly hazardous materials allegedly occurred during active landfill operations and after landfill closure. Organic and inorganic compounds were found in on-site subsurface soil, ground water, surface water, and sediments at levels above public health assessment comparison values. The community is concerned about the safety of eating fish from the South River. The potential exists for past, present, and future exposure of local residents and workers to contaminated subsurface soil, nearby surface water, and sediments. The New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) has concluded that the site is an indeterminate public health hazard since insufficient data exist for all environmental media to which humans may be exposed.

  16. Modeling threat assessments of water supply systems using markov latent effects methodology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, Consuelo Juanita

    2006-12-01

    Recent amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act emphasize efforts toward safeguarding our nation's water supplies against attack and contamination. Specifically, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 established requirements for each community water system serving more than 3300 people to conduct an assessment of the vulnerability of its system to a terrorist attack or other intentional acts. Integral to evaluating system vulnerability is the threat assessment, which is the process by which the credibility of a threat is quantified. Unfortunately, full probabilistic assessment is generally not feasible, as there is insufficient experience and/or data to quantify the associated probabilities. For this reason, an alternative approach is proposed based on Markov Latent Effects (MLE) modeling, which provides a framework for quantifying imprecise subjective metrics through possibilistic or fuzzy mathematics. Here, an MLE model for water systems is developed and demonstrated to determine threat assessments for different scenarios identified by the assailant, asset, and means. Scenario assailants include terrorists, insiders, and vandals. Assets include a water treatment plant, water storage tank, node, pipeline, well, and a pump station. Means used in attacks include contamination (onsite chemicals, biological and chemical), explosives and vandalism. Results demonstrated highest threats are vandalism events and least likely events are those performed by a terrorist.

  17. Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, Samuel F.; Canter, Larry W.

    2011-09-15

    Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

  18. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-07-15

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  19. Health and environmental effects document on geothermal energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... HYDROGEN SULFIDES; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; MERCURY; RADON; SULFATES; ACCIDENTS; AIR POLLUTION; CHEMICAL EFFLUENTS; ENERGY; HUMAN POPULATIONS; LUNGS; MORTALITY; NERVOUS SYSTEM ...

  20. Water chlorination: environmental impact and health effects. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolley, R. L.; Brungs, W. A.; Cumming, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The papers dealt with the major facets of chlorination and its associated effects. Each has been abstracted and indexed individually for ERA/EDB. (JGB)

  1. Student research activities in the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division, Summer 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chester, R.O.; Roberts, D.A.

    1981-08-01

    Reports summarizing activities of students assigned to the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division for the summer 1980 are presented. Unless indicated otherwise, each report was written by the student whose work is being described. For each student, the student's supervisor, the name of the program under which the student was brought to ORNL, the academic level of the student, and the name of the ORNL project to which the student was assigned are tabulated. The reports are presented in alphabetical order of the students' last names.

  2. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  3. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  4. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  5. Assessment of health-care waste disposal methods using a VIKOR-based fuzzy multi-criteria decision making method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hu-Chen; Wu, Jing; Li, Ping

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Propose a VIKOR-based fuzzy MCDM technique for evaluating HCW disposal methods. • Linguistic variables are used to assess the ratings and weights for the criteria. • The OWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers. • A case study is given to illustrate the procedure of the proposed framework. - Abstract: Nowadays selection of the appropriate treatment method in health-care waste (HCW) management has become a challenge task for the municipal authorities especially in developing countries. Assessment of HCW disposal alternatives can be regarded as a complicated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem which requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and conflicting tangible and intangible criteria. The objective of this paper is to present a new MCDM technique based on fuzzy set theory and VIKOR method for evaluating HCW disposal methods. Linguistic variables are used by decision makers to assess the ratings and weights for the established criteria. The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group assessment. The computational procedure of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study in Shanghai, one of the largest cities of China. The HCW treatment alternatives considered in this study include “incineration”, “steam sterilization”, “microwave” and “landfill”. The results obtained using the proposed approach are analyzed in a comparative way.

  6. Direct health effects of global warming in Japan and China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, K.

    1997-12-31

    Combustion of fossil fuels and industrial and agricultural activities are resulting in greater emissions of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, therefore contributing to global warming. Using general circulation models, it is estimated that surface temperatures in temperate regions will rise 1 to 3 degrees C during the next 100 years. Because global warming may increase the frequency and length of high temperatures during hot summer months, various health risks caused by heat stress have been studied. According to our epidemiological survey, the incidence of heat-related illness was significantly correlated to hot environments in Tokyo, Japan and in Nanjing and Wuhan, China. The epidemiological results also showed that the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality in the elderly increased very rapidly in summer. The regression analysis on these data showed that the number of heat stroke patients increased exponentially when the mean daily temperature and maximum daily temperature exceeded 27C and 32C in Tokyo and 31C and 36C in Wuhan and Nanjing, respectively. Since the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality has been shown to increase as a result of exposure to long periods of hot summer temperatures, it is important to determine to what extent the incidence of heat stress-related morbidity and mortality will be affected as a result of global warming.

  7. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Devonian shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and examine potential public health and safety issues and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Devonian age shale. This document will serve as background data and information for planners within the government to assist in development of our new energy technologies in a timely and environmentally sound manner. This report describes the resource and the DOE eastern gas shales project in Section 2. Section 3 describes the new and developing recovery technologies associated with Devonian shale. An assessment of the environment, health and safety impacts associated with a typical fields is presented in Section 4. The typical field for this assessment occupies ten square miles and is developed on a 40-acre spacing (that is, there is a well in each 40-acre grid). This field thus has a total of 160 wells. Finally, Section 5 presents the conclusions and recommendations. A reference list is provided to give a greater plant. Based on the estimated plant cost and the various cases of operating income, an economic analysis was performed employing a profitability index criterion of discounted cash flow to determine an interest rate of return on the plant investment.

  8. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Tight Western Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedel, E.F.; Cowan, C.E.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1980-02-01

    Results of a study to identify and evaluate potential public health and safety problems and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Tight Western Sands are reported. A brief discussion of economic and technical constraints to development of this resource is also presented to place the environmental and safety issues in perspective. A description of the resource base, recovery techniques, and possible environmental effects associated with tight gas sands is presented.

  9. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickenheim, B.; Bibler, N.

    2010-06-08

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be

  10. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Hay, M.

    2011-06-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and

  11. Comparative health and safety assessment of alternative future electrical-generation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habegger, L.J.; Gasper, J.R.; Brown, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The report is an analysis of health and safety risks of seven alternative electrical generation systems, all of which have potential for commercial availability in the post-2000 timeframe. The systems are compared on the basis of expected public and occupational deaths and lost workdays per year associated with 1000 MWe average unit generation. Risks and their uncertainties are estimated for all phases of the energy production cycle, including fuel and raw material extraction and processing, direct and indirect component manufacture, on-site construction, and system operation and maintenance. Also discussed is the potential significance of related major health and safety issues that remain largely unquantifiable. The technologies include: the SPS; a low-Btu coal gasification system with an open-cycle gas turbine combined with a steam topping cycle (CG/CC); a light water fission reactor system without fuel reprocessing (LWR); a liquid metal fast breeder fission reactor system (LMFBR); a central station terrestrial photovoltaic system (CTPV); and a first generation fusion system with magnetic confinement. For comparison with the baseload technologies, risk from a decentralized roof-top photovoltaic system with 6 kWe peak capacity and battery storage (DTPV) was also evaluated.

  12. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-05-01

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables.

  13. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J Lybeck; Magdy S Tawfik

    2012-05-01

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespans. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depend on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system.

  14. Health assessment for Midvale Slag Site, Midvale, Utah, Region 8. CERCLIS No. UTD081834277. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-07-21

    The Midvale Slag Site (MSS) is on the National Priorities List. The site is located west of Midvale (Salt Lake County), Utah. MSS is a former copper and lead smelting facility. Approximately 2 million tons of slag containing lead, arsenic, cadmium, and potential radioactive contamination are present onsite. Arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, silver, zinc slag, and bag-house dust are present on-site. Potential environmental pathways include contaminated ground water, surface water, soils, and contaminants entrained in air. MSS represents a public health concern to on-site employees, remedial workers, and area residents who have access to the site through inhalation and ingestion of, or direct contact with, contaminated media (soil, sediment, surface water, and ground water). Complete restriction of the site is warranted. In addition, the possibility for exposure through contaminated agricultural products, garden vegetables, fish, water fowl, and livestock cannot be overlooked.

  15. Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory TM report, referred to as the "9505 Assessment" describes the technical basis for the report to Congress that was called for in the SECURE Water Act. The 9505...

  16. Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Environment, Safety and Health Assessments The Department of Energy's Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments, within the Office of Enterprise Assessments, is responsible for conducting assessments to provide information on programs and performance in protecting our workers, the public, and environment from hazards present at Department sites and operations. This information provides assurance to our stakeholders and identifies areas for

  17. Phase 1 data summary report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health risk and ecological risk screening assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Longman, R.C.; McGinn, C.W.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.; Williams, L.F.

    1992-12-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels in fish, sediment, and water from the CR/WBR; (2) determine the in the range of contaminant concentrations present river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants.

  18. Assessing the benefits of OHER (Office of Health and Environmental Research) research: Three case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesse, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Nicholls, A.K.; Serot, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate the societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, includes research conducted elsewhere in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the development of high-purity germanium that is used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at the research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appear to show benefits in excess of costs. We examined in detail one of the OHER marine research program's accomplishments - the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model show that environmental information of the type supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. The germanium case study indicated that the benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant.

  19. Non-Targeted Effects Induced by Ionizing Radiation: Mechanisms and Potential Impact on Radiation Induced Health Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, William F.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2015-01-01

    Not-targeted effects represent a paradigm shift from the "DNA centric" view that ionizing radiation only elicits biological effects and subsequent health consequences as a result of an energy deposition event in the cell nucleus. While this is likely true at higher radiation doses (> 1Gy), at low doses (< 100mGy) non-targeted effects associated with radiation exposure might play a significant role. Here definitions of non-targeted effects are presented, the potential mechanisms for the communication of signals and signaling networks from irradiated cells/tissues are proposed, and the various effects of this intra- and intercellular signaling are described. We conclude with speculation on how these observations might lead to and impact long-term human health outcomes.

  20. Methodology for comparing the health effects of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhyne, W.R.; El-Bassioni, A.A.

    1981-12-08

    A methodology was developed for comparing the health risks of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels. The health effects attributable to the construction, operation, and decommissioning of each facility in the two fuel cycle were considered. The methodology is based on defining (1) requirement variables for the materials, energy, etc., (2) effluent variables associated with the requirement variables as well as with the fuel cycle facility operation, and (3) health impact variables for effluents and accidents. The materials, energy, etc., required for construction, operation, and decommissioning of each fuel cycle facility are defined as primary variables. The materials, energy, etc., needed to produce the primary variable are defined as secondary requirement variables. Each requirement variable (primary, secondary, etc.) has associated effluent variables and health impact variables. A diverging chain or tree is formed for each primary variable. Fortunately, most elements reoccur frequently to reduce the level of analysis complexity. 6 references, 11 figures, 6 tables.

  1. Public health assessment for public health implications of radiation contamination at former clock factories located in Bristo (Hartford County), New Haven, (New Haven County), Thomaston (Litchfield County), and Waterbury (New Haven County), Connecticut, Region 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-01-29

    This public health assessment was developed (1) to evaluate the radiation data collected by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CT DEP) at structures that once housed clock factories in four Connecticut municipalities, and (2) to determine whether a public health hazard exists at any of these sites from the contamination. Contamination was detected at levels that may pose a health risk to current occupants at the former Waterbury Clock Factory, the former Lux Clock Factory, and the former Benrus Clock Company buildings in Waterbury; the former Sessions Clock Company in Bristol; and the former Seth Thomas Clock Company in Thomaston. However, none of the radiation levels detected pose an immediate health problem. The Connecticut Department of Public Health recommends that individuals be disassociated from areas with radiation at levels exceeding 15 mRem/year.

  2. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  3. Final Report DE-EE0005380 - Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems | Department of Energy Final Report DE-EE0005380 - Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems Final Report DE-EE0005380 - Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems Report that assesses possible interference to various kinds of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed.

  4. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  5. Approaches to advancing quantitative human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Euling, Susan Y.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Subramaniam, Ravi P.

    2013-09-15

    The contribution of genomics and associated technologies to human health risk assessment for environmental chemicals has focused largely on elucidating mechanisms of toxicity, as discussed in other articles in this issue. However, there is interest in moving beyond hazard characterization to making more direct impacts on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) i.e., the determination of toxicity values for setting exposure standards and cleanup values. We propose that the evolution of QRA of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era will involve three, somewhat overlapping phases in which different types of approaches begin to mature. The initial focus (in Phase I) has been and continues to be on augmentation of weight of evidence using genomic and related technologies qualitatively to increase the confidence in and scientific basis of the results of QRA. Efforts aimed towards integration of these data with traditional animal-based approaches, in particular quantitative predictors, or surrogates, for the in vivo toxicity data to which they have been anchored are just beginning to be explored now (in Phase II). In parallel, there is a recognized need for expansion of the use of established biomarkers of susceptibility or risk of human diseases and disorders for QRA, particularly for addressing the issues of cumulative assessment and population risk. Ultimately (in Phase III), substantial further advances could be realized by the development of novel molecular and pathway-based biomarkers and statistical and in silico models that build on anticipated progress in understanding the pathways of human diseases and disorders. Such efforts would facilitate a gradual reorientation of QRA towards approaches that more directly link environmental exposures to human outcomes.

  6. Assessment of transboundary environmental effects in the Pearl River Delta Region: Is there a role for strategic environmental assessment?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsden, Simon

    2011-11-15

    China's EIA Law does not require transboundary proposals to be assessed, despite recognition of this globally, for example in the Espoo Convention and Kiev Protocol, and in the European EIA and SEA Directives. In a transboundary context assessment within a state is unusual, as regulating these effects is primarily about the relationship between states. However where a state has more than one legal system such as in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region of southern China, transboundary effects should also be addressed. Yet despite the geographical connections between Guangdong Province in mainland China (where the EIA Law applies) and the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions (which have their own provisions, neither of which requires transboundary assessments), EIA and SEA are carried out separately. Coordinated or joint approaches to transboundary assessment are generally absent, with the legal autonomy of Hong Kong and Macau a major constraint. As a result institutional responses at the policy level have developed. The article considers global experiences with regulating transboundary EIA and SEA, and analyses potential application to land use, transport and air and water planning in the PRD Region. If applied, benefits may include prevention or mitigation of cumulative effects, broader public participation, and improvements to environmental governance. The PRD Region experience may encourage China to conduct and coordinate EIA and SEA processes with neighbouring states, which has been non-existent or extremely limited to date.

  7. Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    As directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law ... the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal ...

  8. Health assessment for Cedartown Industries, Cedartown, Polk County, Georgia, Region 4. CERCLIS No. GAD95840674. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-29

    The Cedartown Industries, Inc. site has been proposed for the National Priorities List (NPL) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The 7-acre site is located in Cedartown, Polk County, Georgia, in the northwest part of the State. In 1986, one sediment sample from an on-site impoundment and two soil samples (one background) were collected on-site and analyzed by EPD. Only Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity testing was performed on these samples. The test which measures the concentration of leachate generated from the soil showed leachate with lead concentrations up to 720 parts per million (ppm) and cadmium concentrations up to 1.4 ppm. Based on the information reviewed, ATSDR has concluded that the site is of potential public health concern because humans may be exposed to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in the Human Exposure Pathways Section above, human exposure to lead may occur via ingestion of, inhalation of, and dermal contact with surface water, sediments, soils, ground water, air, and food-chain entities.

  9. Including the temporal change in PM{sub 2.5} concentration in the assessment of human health impact: Illustration with renewable energy scenarios to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschwind, Benoit; Lefevre, Mireille; Blanc, Isabelle; Ranchin, Thierry; Wyrwa, Artur; Drebszok, Kamila; Cofala, Janusz; Fuss, Sabine

    2015-04-15

    This article proposes a new method to assess the health impact of populations exposed to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) during their whole lifetime, which is suitable for comparative analysis of energy scenarios. The method takes into account the variation of particle concentrations over time as well as the evolution of population cohorts. Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050: the Baseline (BL) and the Low Carbon, Maximum Renewable Power (LC-MRP). These pathways were combined with three sets of assumptions about emission control measures: Current Legislation (CLE), Fixed Emission Factors (FEFs), and the Maximum Technically Feasible Reductions (MTFRs). Analysis was carried out for 45 European countries. Average PM{sub 2.5} concentration over Europe in the LC-MRP/CLE scenario is reduced by 58% compared with the BL/FEF case. Health impacts (expressed in days of loss of life expectancy) decrease by 21%. For the LC-MRP/MTFR scenario the average PM{sub 2.5} concentration is reduced by 85% and the health impact by 34%. The methodology was developed within the framework of the EU's FP7 EnerGEO project and was implemented in the Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA). The Platform enables performing health impact assessments for various energy scenarios. - Highlights: • A new method to assess health impact of PM{sub 2.5} for energy scenarios is proposed. • An algorithm to compute Loss of Life Expectancy attributable to exposure to PM{sub 2.5} is depicted. • Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050. • Integrating the temporal evolution of PM{sub 2.5} is of great interest for assessing the potential impacts of energy scenarios.

  10. Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessment of the Surveillance Program of the High-Level Waste Storage Tanks at Hanford :.~I LALI i~E REJ 163 ROOM 1t 4 F77L.~ ~ -_77 .:earmn OfEeg Asitn Sertr fo niomn 4 z. r _________ rment of the Surveilance Prograrn of the High-Level Storage- Tanks at Hanford P. E WOOD Robert J. Catln, Deputy Directat - Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview Office of Environment MARCH 1980 Report to the U.S. Departrent of Energy Assistant Secretary for Environment Washkngon, DC C March 27, 1980

  11. Saint-Gobain Shows the Way on Effectively Preparing for Energy Savings Assessments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study examines how Saint-Gobain used its history in energy efficiency and experiences with DOE initiatives to develop a generic approach for any plant to effectively prepare for an energy assessment.

  12. Saint-Gobain Shows the Way on Effectively Preparing for Energy Savings Assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-10

    Saint-Gobain developed an approach to help guide other companies on effectively preparing for an Energy Savings Assessment in a manner that will maximize its value and ensure implementation of efficiency improvement recommendations. Learn about Saint-Gobain's approach.

  13. Public meetings on radiation and its health effects caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiyama, K.; Ayame, J.; Takashita, H.; Yamamoto, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has held public meetings on radiation and its health effects mainly for parents of students in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures after the Fukushima nuclear accident. These meetings are held based on our experience of practicing risk communication activities for a decade in JAEA with local residents. By analyzing questionnaires collected after the meetings, we confirmed that interactive communication is effective in increasing participants' understanding and in decreasing their anxiety. Most of the participants answered that they understood the contents and that it eased their mind. (authors)

  14. New dimensions in our understanding of the human health effects of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, D.O.

    1996-12-31

    The term {open_quotes}hazardous{close_quotes} waste is used primarily in reference to potential hazards to human health and, to a lesser decree, hazards to wildlife and the ecosystem. Many of the chemicals associated with hazardous waste sites are also widely distributed throughout the environment; therefore, the health hazards associated with hazardous waste sites are not different from those associated with general environmental contamination. Until recently, it was generally assumed that cancer was the human disease of greatest concern associated with toxic chemicals. In fact, most governmental regulations related to exposure are designed on the basis of presumed cancer risks. Since the evidence that hazardous chemicals can cause cancer is strong, it is appropriate to be concerned about cancer risk. Recent evidence, however, has triggered a reevaluation of the assumption that only cancer is of concern. New evidence suggests that noncancer endpoints may occur more frequently than cancer, may affect a greater number of individuals, and may occur at lower concentrations. Of particular concern is evidence of irreversible effects on the embryo and very young children, which influence intelligence, attention span, sexual development, and immune function. Although these effects are often subtle and difficult to quantify, the combined evidence is sufficiently compelling to necessitate a reevaluation of those outcomes of primary concern to human health. 57 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Static magnetic fields: A summary of biological interactions, potential health effects, and exposure guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-05-01

    Interest in the mechanisms of interaction and the biological effects of static magnetic fields has increased significantly during the past two decades as a result of the growing number of applications of these fields in research, industry and medicine. A major stimulus for research on the bioeffects of static magnetic fields has been the effort to develop new technologies for energy production and storage that utilize intense magnetic fields (e.g., thermonuclear fusion reactors and superconducting magnet energy storage devices). Interest in the possible biological interactions and health effects of static magnetic fields has also been increased as a result of recent developments in magnetic levitation as a mode of public transportation. In addition, the rapid emergence of magnetic resonance imaging as a new clinical diagnostic procedure has, in recent years, provided a strong rationale for defining the possible biological effects of magnetic fields with high flux densities. In this review, the principal interaction mechanisms of static magnetic fields will be described, and a summary will be given of the present state of knowledge of the biological, environmental, and human health effects of these fields.

  16. The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Moving Forward with Assessing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Emissions and Health Effects of New Diesel Technology | Department of Energy Moving Forward with Assessing the Emissions and Health Effects of New Diesel Technology The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Moving Forward with Assessing the Emissions and Health Effects of New Diesel Technology 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_greenbaum.pdf (158.75 KB) More Documents & Publications The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study

  17. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenner-Crisp, P.

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  18. Health and environmental effects of oil and gas technologies: research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R. D.

    1981-07-01

    This report discusses health and environmental issues associated with oil and gas technologies as they are currently perceived - both those that exist and those that are expected to emerge over the next two decades. The various sections of this report contain discussions of specific problem areas and relevant new research activities which should be pursued. This is not an exhaustive investigation of all problem areas, but the report explores a wide range of issues to provide a comprehensive picture of existing uncertainties, trends, and other factors that should serve as the focus of future research. The problem areas of major concern include: effects of drilling fluids, offshore accidents, refineries and worker health, and biota and petroleum spills, indoor air pollution, information transfer, and unconventional resources. These are highlighted in the Executive Summary because they pose serious threats to human health and the environment, and because of the sparcity of accumulated knowledge related to their definition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for selected sections of this report for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  19. The Chernobyl papers. Volume 1. Doses to the Soviet population and early health effects studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merwin, S.E.; Balonov, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this Volume 1 of a series, discuss studies initiated following the nuclear reactor accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4. All authored by scientists of the former Soviet Union. Included in Volume 1 are considerations of the internal and external radiation doses received by the inhabitants of the regions recording the highest levels of radioactive contamination (the republics of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine). Also included are three papers presenting data and analysis pretaining to actual and potential health effects from the accident.

  20. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swartjes, Frank A. Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plantsoil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plantsoil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a conservative vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a realistic worst case site-specific vegetable

  1. Human health risk assessment and remediation activities at White Oak Creek Embayment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaylock, B.G.

    1994-12-31

    Cesium-137 concentrations of >10{sup 6} Bq/kg dry wt (10{sup 4} pCi/g dry wt) were found in the surface sediments of White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE) during 1990. A review of past data indicated Cesium-137, among other contaminants, was released from White Oak dam in the mid 1950s and had accumulated in the sediment of WOCE. The sediments from WOCE were being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and water turbulence. Sampling was conducted to determine the extent of radiological and nonradiological contamination. A contaminant screening analysis was conducted to determine which contaminants pose a problem from a human health standpoint. All noncarcinogens had screening indices of <1.0, indicating that concentrations of noncarcinogens were below the levels of concern for a realistic maximum exposure situation. An illegal intruder or an individual using the embayment for fishing purposes could be exposed to >10{sup 4} risk of excess lifetime cancer incidence from external exposure to Cesium-137 in sediment and from ingestion of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish. As a result of these analyses and the fact that >10{sup 6} Bq/kg dry wt (10{sup 4} pCi/g dry wt) of Cesium-137 could be transported from the Oak Ridge Reservation, a coffer-cell dam was constructed at the mouth of White Oak Creek in 1992 to: (1) reduce sediment erosion and the transport of radioactive sediments from the WOCE into the Clinch River, (2) maintain year-round inundation of the embayment sediments to reduce external radiation exposure, and (3) impede the movement of fish into and out of the embayment. The effectiveness of this remediation is being evaluated.

  2. Framing effectiveness in impact assessment: Discourse accommodation in controversial infrastructure development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozema, Jaap G.; Bond, Alan J.

    2015-01-15

    There is ongoing debate about the effectiveness of impact assessment tools, which matters both because of the threat to future practice of the tools which are frequently perceived to be ineffective, and because of the disillusionment that can ensue, and controversy generated, amongst stakeholders in a decision context where opportunities for meaningful debate have not been provided. In this article we regard debate about the meaning of effectiveness in impact assessment as an inevitable consequence of increased participation in environmental decision-making, and therefore frame effectiveness based on an inclusive democracy role to mean the extent to which impact assessment can accommodate civil society discourse. Our aim is to investigate effectiveness based on this framing by looking at one type of impact assessment – environmental impact assessment (EIA) – in two controversial project proposals: the HS2 rail network in England; and the A4DS motorway in the Netherlands. Documentary analysis and interviews held with key civil society stakeholders have been deployed to identify discourses that were mobilised in the cases. EIA was found to be able to accommodate only one out of four discourses that were identified; for the other three it did not provide the space for the arguments that characterised opposition. The conclusion in relation to debate on framings of effectiveness is that EIA will not be considered effective by the majority of stakeholders. EIA was established to support decision-making through a better understanding of impacts, so its ineffectiveness is unsurprising when its role is perceived to be broader. However, there remains a need to map discourses in different decision contexts and to analyse the extent to which the range of discourses are accommodated throughout the decision process, and the role of impact assessment in those processes, before recommendations can be made to either improve impact assessment effectiveness, or whether it is

  3. Environmental, Health and Safety Assessment: ATS 7H Program (Phase 3R) Test Activities at the GE Power Systems Gas Turbine Manufacturing Facility, Greenville, SC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-17

    International Technology Corporation (IT) was contracted by General Electric Company (GE) to assist in the preparation of an Environmental, Health and Safety (HI&3) assessment of the implementation of Phase 3R of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) 7H program at the GE Gas Turbines facility located in Greenville, South Carolina. The assessment was prepared in accordance with GE's contractual agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (GE/DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-95MC3 1176) and supports compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. This report provides a summary of the EH&S review and includes the following: General description of current site operations and EH&S status, Description of proposed ATS 7H-related activities and discussion of the resulting environmental, health, safety and other impacts to the site and surrounding area. Listing of permits and/or licenses required to comply with federal, state and local regulations for proposed 7H-related activities. Assessment of adequacy of current and required permits, licenses, programs and/or plans.

  4. Health assessment for Chemsol Inc. , Piscataway, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD980528889. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-10

    The Chemsol Inc. Site is on the National Priorities List. The inactive 12-acre site is located in Piscataway (Middlesex County), New Jersey. EPA suspects that 40 drums of chemical waste are buried on-site. Access to the site is restricted. Removal actions have not occurred. Preliminary on-site sampling results have identified various volatile organic compounds. They include chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, and benzene. Neither the sampling results nor the environmental media where the contaminants were found were reported. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of human exposure to hazardous substances.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baalman, R.W.; Hays, I.D.

    1981-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications. (DLS)

  6. Working Group 7.0 Environmental Transport and Health Effects, Chernobyl Studies Project. Progress report, October 1994 -- March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    This document presents the details from the working group 7.0 Chernobyl Studies Project. This working group looked at the environmental transport and health effects from the fallout due to the meltdown of Chernobylsk-4 reactor. Topics include: hydrological transport; chromosome painting dosimetry; EPR, TL and OSL dosimetry; stochastic effects; thyroid studies; and leukemia studies.

  7. Human-health effects of radium: an epidemiolgic perspective of research at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The topic of health effects of radium has recently been considerably broadened by the identification of multiple myeloma as a specific outcome of bone-seeking radionuclides, and by evidence that the incidence of breast cancer may be significantly increased by radium exposure. All soft-tissue tumors are now suspect, especially leukemias. Concepts of dose-response need to be broadened to include the concept of risk factors, or, if one prefers, of susceptible subgroups. Biological factors relating to radium uptake and retention require study, as do risk factors modifying risk of both the clasical tumors, osteosarcoma and nasal sinus/mastoid, and the more recently suspect soft-tissue tumors. The history, organization, and current research activities in epidemiology at Argonne National Laboratory are described, and findings of the last decade and a half reviewed. Plans for future research are briefly discussed.

  8. ORISE: Worker Health Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Worker Health Research Worker Health Research The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) provides technical assistance to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other government agencies by performing specialized worker health research to assess the health of workers and other populations. Statistical methods, epidemiologic research and hazard assessments are core ORISE worker health research competencies. Because information technology is an integral part of the epidemiologic

  9. Health assessment for Hyde Park Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) site, Niagara Falls, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD000831644. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-07

    The Hyde Park Landfill National Priorities List Site was used by Hooker Chemical and Plastic Corporation, now Occidental Chemical Corporation, to dispose of approximately 80,000 tons of waste from 1953 to 1975. Significant amounts of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is believed to be in the landfill. Site-related contaminants have been detected in the overburden and bedrock aquifers. Analyses of samples taken from ground water seeps at the Niagara Gorge Face also show site-related contaminants. Leachate from the landfill appears to have entered Bloody Run Creek. Sediment sample analyses from the creek show site-related contaminants. The 1985 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Enforcement Decision Document outlines remedial activities to be conducted at the site. The site without remediation is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects.

  10. Health assessment for Rhinehart (Aka Winchester) Tire Fire National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Frederick County, Virginia, Region 3. CERCLIS No. VAD980831796. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-17

    The Rhinehart (aka Winchester) Tire Fire Site is located near the town of Winchester in Frederick County, Virginia. In October 1983, a fire was started in the tires disposed of on the site. Hot oil was released from the melting and pyrolysis of the tires. This oil made its way to Massey Run, a nearby surface water body. The fire was brought under control within a few days, but continued to smolder for six months. The migration of the oil and the residue from the fire have contaminated the site. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse human health effects. Human exposure to heavy metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds may occur via ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption of contaminated groundwater, surface water, sediments and soils.

  11. Health assessment for Vogel Paint and Wax, Maurice, Sioux County, Iowa, Region 7. CERCLIS No. IAD980630487. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-29

    The Vogel Paint and Wax National Priority List site is situated in northwest Iowa in Sioux County. Contaminants found at the site consist of heavy metals (particularly cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury) and volatile organic compounds (benzene, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylene). Two towns, Maurice and Struble, and the Southern Sioux County Rural Water System well field are located within three miles of the site, and two families live within 1600 feet of the waste-disposal site. Environmental pathways include contaminated soil and ground water, as well as potential surface water and air contamination. Although there does not appear to be any immediate public health threat, the site is of potential health concern because of the possibility for further off-site migration of contaminants into the ground water aquifer and for direct on-site contact.

  12. Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables – The relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustsson, Anna L.M.; Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E.; Hogmalm, K. Johan; Filipsson, Monika E.M.

    2015-04-15

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable. - Highlights: • Uptake of Cd and Pb by lettuce and potatoes increased with soil contamination. • Consumption of homegrown vegetables may lead to a daily Cd intake above TDIs. • The variability in the calculated BCFs is high when compared to previous studies. • Exposure assessments are most sensitive to the choice of BCFs at low contamination.

  13. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: Respiratory symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dockery, D.W. |; Cunningham, J.; Damokosh, A.I.

    1996-05-01

    We examined the respiratory health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among 13,369 white children 8 to 12 years old from 24 communities in the United States and Canada between 1988 and 1991. Each child`s parent or guardian completed a questionnaire. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for a 1-year period. We used a two-stage logistic regression model to analyze the data, adjusting for the period confounding effects of sex, history of allergies, parental asthma, parental education, and current smoking in the home. Children living in the community with the highest levels of particle strong acidity were significantly more likely [odds ratio (OR) = 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-2.48] to report at least one episode of bronchitis in the past year compared to children living in the least-polluted community. Fine particulate sulfate was also associated with higher reporting of bronchitis (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.12-2.42). No other respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in association with any of the air pollutants of interest. No sensitive subgroups were identified. Reported bronchitis, but neither asthma, wheeze, cough, nor phlegm, were associated with levels of particle strong acidity for these children living in a nonurban environment. 26 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Appraising the sustainability of project alternatives: An increasing role for cumulative effects assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senner, Robert

    2011-09-15

    Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with regard to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project appraisal. In the United States, this component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment practice. Cumulative effects assessment provides a way to appraise the sustainability of project alternatives in terms of their probable contributions to long-term trends affecting the condition of valued environmental components. Sustainability metrics and predictors are being developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation processes that are applied to community planning, building design, and transportation infrastructure. Increasing interest in adaptive management is also providing cost-effective solutions to optimizing safety and function throughout the long-term operation of a facility or infrastructure. Recent federal legislation is making it easier to integrate sustainability features into development alternatives through early, community-based planning.

  15. Management Challenges in Developing Performance Assessments and Effectively Communicating Their Results - 13612

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Steve; Mahoney, Mark

    2013-07-01

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the cleaned waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making, performance assessments have been developed for the low-level waste disposal facility and for the SRS Tank Farms. Although these performance assessments share many similar features, the nature of the hazards and associated containments differ. As a management team, we are challenged to effectively communicate both the similarities and differences of these performance assessments, how they should be used to support sound decision making for treatment, disposal and waste tank cleaning decisions, and in defending their respective assumptions to the regulatory community and the public but, equally important, to our own corporate decision makers and operations personnel. Effective development and defense of these performance assessments, and effective interpretation and communication of the results are key to making cost-effective, pragmatic decisions for the safe disposal of the low-level waste and stabilization and operational closure of the cleaned tanks and associated structures. This paper will focus on the importance and challenges in communicating key attributes, conclusions and operational implications within a company. (authors)

  16. Saint-Gobain Shows the Way on Effectively Preparing for Energy Savings Assessments

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM As the front runner in the world's habitation markets, Saint-Gobain has set itself the goal of providing innovative solutions to the upcoming challenges of environmental protection and energy saving. - Pierre-André deChalendar, Saint Gobain CEO continued > Saint-Gobain Shows the Way on Effectively Preparing for Energy Savings Assessments Saint-Gobain, a world leader in high-performance materials and glass manufacturing, uses its rich history in energy

  17. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: atmospheric effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rote, D.M.; Brubaker, K.L.; Lee, J.L.

    1980-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a preliminary, three-year program to investigate the impacts of the construction and operation of a satellite power system, of unprecedented scale. The Department of Energy's program, titled The Concept Development and Evaluation Program, focused its investigations on a Reference System description that calls for the use of either silicon (Si) or gallium aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) photovoltaic cells on 60 satellites to be constructed in GEO over a 30-yr period. Rectennas would be constructed on the ground to receive microwave energy from the satellites. Each satellite-rectenna pair is designed to produce 5 GW of power on an essentially continuous basis for use as a baseload power source for an electric power distribution system. The environmental assessment part of the program was divided into five interdependent task areas. The present document constitutes the final technical report on one of the five task areas, the Assessment of the Atmospheric Effects, and as such presents an in-depth summary of work performed during the assessment program. The issues associated with SPS activities in the troposphere are examined. These include tropospheric weather modification related to rectenna operations and rocket launches, and air quality impacts related to rocketlaunch ground clouds. Then progressing upward through the various levels of the atmosphere, the principal middle and upper atmospheric effects associated with rocket effluents are analyzed. Finally, all of the potential SPS atmospheric effects are summarized.

  18. Ocean thermal energy conversion: environmental effects assessment program plan, 1981-85. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Act of 1980 calls for a legal regime to encourage commercial OTEC while protecting the oceanic and coastal environments. The Act also requires a generic plan for assessing the environmental effects of OTEC development. The plan outlined in this report establishes a priority list of nine environmental effects and a research strategy for reducing uncertainties, with an emphasis on large-scale and long-term ecosystem implications and on the impacts of multiple facilities. 70 references, 4 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  19. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, John G; Brandt, Craig C; Christensen, Sigurd W

    2011-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  20. Effects of ozone on the respiratory health, allergic sensitization, and cellular immune system in children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwick, H.; Popp, W.; Wagner, C.; Reiser, K.; Schmoeger, J.B.; Boeck, A.H.; Herkner, K.; Radunsky, K. )

    1991-11-01

    To investigate the lasting effects of high ozone concentrations under environmental conditions, we examined the respiratory health, pulmonary function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, allergic sensitization, and lymphocyte subpopulations of 10- to 14-yr-old children. A total of 218 children recruited from an area with high ozone concentrations (Group A) were tested against 281 children coming from an area with low ozone concentrations (Group B). As to subjective complaints, categorized as 'usually cough with or without phlegm,' 'breathlessness,' and 'susceptibility to chest colds,' there was no difference between the two groups. The lung function parameters were similar, but in Group A subjects' bronchial hyperresponsiveness occurred more frequently and was found to be more severe than in Group B (29.4 versus 19.9%, p less than 0.02; PD20 2,100 {plus minus} 87 versus 2,350 {plus minus} 58 micrograms, p less than 0.05). In both groups the number of children who had been suffering from allergic diseases and sensitization to aeroallergens, found by means of the skin test, was the same. Comparison of the total IgE levels showed no difference at all between the two groups. As far as the white blood cells are concerned, the total and differential cell count was the same, whereas lymphocyte subpopulations showed readily recognizable changes.

  1. Respiratory health effects of the indoor environment in a population of Dutch children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dijkstra, L.; Houthuijs, D.; Brunekreef, B.; Akkerman, I.; Boleij, J.S. )

    1990-11-01

    The effect of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide on respiratory health was studied over a period of 2 yr in a population of nonsmoking Dutch children 6 to 12 yr of age. Lung function was measured at the schools, and information on respiratory symptoms was collected from a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents of the children. Nitrogen dioxide was measured in the homes of all children with Palmes' diffusion tubes. In addition, information on smoking and dampness in the home was collected by questionnaire. There was no relationship between exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the home and respiratory symptoms. Respiratory symptoms were found to be associated with exposure to tobacco smoke and home dampness. There was a weak, negative association between maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF) and exposure to nitrogen dioxide. FEV1, peak expiratory flow, and MMEF were all negatively associated with exposure to tobacco smoke. Home dampness was not associated with pulmonary function. Lung function growth, measured over a period of 2 yr, was not consistently associated with any of the indoor exposure variables. The development of respiratory symptoms over time was not associated with indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide. There was a significant association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the home and the development of wheeze. There was also a significant association between home dampness and the development of cough.

  2. Risk assessment in international operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stricklin, Daniela L.

    2008-11-15

    During international peace-keeping missions, a diverse number of non-battle hazards may be encountered, which range from heavily polluted areas, endemic disease, toxic industrial materials, local violence, traffic, and even psychological factors. Hence, elevated risk levels from a variety of sources are encountered during deployments. With the emphasis within the Swedish military moving from national defense towards prioritization of international missions in atypical environments, the risk of health consequences, including long term health effects, has received greater consideration. The Swedish military is interested in designing an optimal approach for assessment of health threats during deployments. The Medical Intelligence group at FOI CBRN Security and Defence in Umea has, on request from and in collaboration with the Swedish Armed Forces, reviewed a variety of international health threat and risk assessment models for military operations. Application of risk assessment methods used in different phases of military operations will be reviewed. An overview of different international approaches used in operational risk management (ORM) will be presented as well as a discussion of the specific needs and constraints for health risk assessment in military operations. This work highlights the specific challenges of risk assessment that are unique to the deployment setting such as the assessment of exposures to a variety of diverse hazards concurrently.

  3. Using after-action review based on automated performance assessment to enhance training effectiveness.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Gieseler, Charles J.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris

    2010-09-01

    Training simulators have become increasingly popular tools for instructing humans on performance in complex environments. However, the question of how to provide individualized and scenario-specific assessment and feedback to students remains largely an open question. In this work, we follow-up on previous evaluations of the Automated Expert Modeling and Automated Student Evaluation (AEMASE) system, which automatically assesses student performance based on observed examples of good and bad performance in a given domain. The current study provides a rigorous empirical evaluation of the enhanced training effectiveness achievable with this technology. In particular, we found that students given feedback via the AEMASE-based debrief tool performed significantly better than students given only instructor feedback on two out of three domain-specific performance metrics.

  4. Public health assessment for Petro-Chemical, Inc. (Turtle Bayou) Liberty, Liberty County, Texas, Region 6. CERCLIS No. TXD980873350. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-30

    The Petro-Chemical Systems, Inc. site, located near Liberty, Texas, is a site where unauthorized disposal of petroleum-based oils has taken place. Although there is evidence of past exposure to site contaminants, the best available evidence does not indicate that humans are currently being exposed to site contaminants at levels that could cause adverse health effects. Contaminated ground water, surface water, soils, and surface water sediments have been found on the site. Although sampling was done for 144 priority pollutants, the primary contaminants of concern are benzene, ethylbenzene, xylene, naphthalene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and lead. Because the greatest threat to public health would be contamination of drinking water, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has recommended that necessary actions are taken to insure that private wells do not become contaminated with site contaminants.

  5. Public health assessment for JIS Landfill, South Brunswick, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Region 2. Cerclis No. NJD97400998. addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-25

    The Jones Industrial Services (JIS) Landfill site is an approximately eleven acre landfill located on a 24 acre site in South Brunswick Town, Middlesex County, New Jersey. The landfill records document that sludges, solvents, pesticides, and industrial wastes, some of which are toxic and/or hazardous substances were accepted at the landfill from the 1960`s through the early 1970`s. On-site and off-site soil and groundwater is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, and heavy metals. The landfill may have posed a public health hazard in the past, since the site information indicates that human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals in domestic drinking water wells may have occurred. However, available data do not indicate that humans are presently being exposed to contaminants at levels expected to cause adverse health effects.

  6. Phase 1 data summary report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health risk and ecological risk screening assessment. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Longman, R.C.; McGinn, C.W.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.; Williams, L.F.

    1992-12-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels in fish, sediment, and water from the CR/WBR; (2) determine the in the range of contaminant concentrations present river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants.

  7. Health assessment for Coleman Evans Wood Preserving Site, Whitehouse, Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD991279894. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-21

    The Coleman Evans Wood Preserving Site is an 11-acre National Priorities List site located in Whitehouse, Duval County, Florida, approximately 8 miles west of Jacksonville. The site is an active wood treatment facility which began operating in 1954 and uses fuel oil and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the treatment process. The contamination is generally within the upper 10 feet of the surface with the highest concentrations coinciding with the water table. However, PCP has been detected to depths of 35 feet in the landfill area. Off-site surface soil, water, and sediments are also contaminated with PCP. The contamination of the surface water and sediment extends several hundred feet along a drainage ditch which runs through a residential area. The surficial soil contamination appears consistent with surface water runoff patterns. Groundwater analyses indicated the PCP contamination is limited to the surficial aquifer. The site is of potential public health concern because of the migration of PCP off-site by surface water runoff and the potential for contaminating the aquifer used for domestic purposes by area residents.

  8. ORISE: Health physics services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health physics services Nuclear power plant The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and ... Nuclear power plant Dose modeling and sssessments We perform dose modeling and assessment ...

  9. Chernobyl Studies Project - working group 7.0 environmental transport and health effects. Progress report, October 1993--January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, S.M.

    1994-03-01

    The DOE-funded Chernobyl Studies Project was begun as part of a cooperative agreement between the US and the former USSR, (quote) To develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future reactor accident (quote). Most of the initial tasks for this project are completed or near completion. The focus has now turned primarily to the issue of health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Currently, we are extensively engaged in case-control and cohort studies of thyroid diseases among Belarussian children and in the Ukraine. A major part of the effort is providing methods and applications of dose reconstruction and providing support and equipment for the medical teams. This document contains reports on progress in the following task areas: Management; External Dose; Hydrological Transport; Chromosome Painting Dosimetry; Stochastic Effects; Thyroid Studies; and Leukemia Studies.

  10. Effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Tumasonis, C.; Briggs, R.G.; Narang, A.S.; Narang, R.S.; Rej, R.; Stein, V.; McMartin, D.N.; Kaminsky, L.S.

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  11. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 3. Generator routines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrichs, D.R.; Argo, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for utilization by the hydraulic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the third of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System.

  12. Comparison of test specific sediment effect concentrations with marine sediment quality assessment guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Marine Ecotoxicology Research Station; Long, E.R. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); MacDonald, D.D. [MacDonald Environmental Sciences Ltd., Ladysmith, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    As part of NOAA`s National Status and Trends (NS and T) Bioeffects Assessment program and studies conducted by the National Biological Service, numerous sediment quality assessment surveys have recently been conducted along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the US using the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development tests with pore water. Additional toxicity tests were also conducted in conjunction with most of these studies. The areas that have been sampled include Boston harbor, Massachusetts; Charleston Harbor, Winyah Bay, and Savannah River, South Carolina; St. Simon Sound, Georgia; Biscayne Bay, Tampa Bay, Choctawhatchee Bay, Apalachicola Bay, St. Andrew Bay, and Pensacola Bay, Florida; Galveston Bay, Lavaca Bay, and Sabine Lake, Texas, and 200 stations in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Sufficient data are now available from this series of surveys to calculate test specific sediment effect concentrations (SECs). Based on these recent studies, SECs were developed for the sea urchin porewater and amphipod tests and compared with existing marine sediment quality assessment guidelines.

  13. Health assessment for Fletcher's Paint Works and Storage Facility Hazardous Waste Material, Milford, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, Region 1. CERCLIS No. NHD981067614. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-11

    Fletcher's Paint Works and Storage Facility Hazardous Waste Site (Fletcher's Paint Site) in Milford, New Hampshire, consists of three distinct entities: Fletcher's Paint Works at 21 Elm Street, Fletcher's Paint Storage Facility on Mill Street, and a drainage ditch leading from the storage facility property to Hampshire Paper Company property. The aggregation of these three properties was based on the similar nature of operations and wastes, the close proximity of the areas, the same target population, and the same underlying aquifer at risk of contamination. The aggregated site has contributed to the contamination of soil, groundwater, surface water, sediment, and air with various volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs), heavy metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Environmental monitoring related to the Fletcher's Paint Site has consisted of sampling of the Keyes Well by the NH WSPCC, and sampling at the paint works, storage facility and drainage ditch by NUS Corporation and EPA's Environmental Services Division (ESD). Contaminant levels at each location is discussed individually. Based upon the available information, the Fletcher's Paint NPL Site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to public health caused by potential exposure to hazardous substances, such as VOCs, PCBs, PAHs, and heavy metals, at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. Exposure to contaminated soil and surface water, and potentially contaminated fish may be occurring. The site is located in a densely populated part of town, while the storage facility is readily accessible to children walking to and from school.

  14. Who plans for health improvement? SEA, HIA and the separation of spatial planning and health planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Alan; Cave, Ben; Ballantyne, Rob

    2013-09-15

    This study examines whether there is active planning for health improvement in the English spatial planning system and how this varies across two regions using a combination of telephone surveys and focus group interviews in 2005 and 2010. The spatial planning profession was found to be ill-equipped to consider the health and well-being implications of its actions, whilst health professionals are rarely engaged and have limited understanding and aspirations when it comes to influencing spatial planning. Strategic Environmental Assessment was not considered to be successful in integrating health into spatial plans, given it was the responsibility of planners lacking the capacity to do so. For their part, health professionals have insufficient knowledge and understanding of planning and how to engage with it to be able to plan for health gains rather than simply respond to health impacts. HIA practice is patchy and generally undertaken by health professionals outside the statutory planning framework. Thus, whilst appropriate assessment tools exist, they currently lack a coherent context within which they can function effectively and the implementation of the Kiev protocol requiring the engagement of health professionals in SEA is not to likely improve the consideration of health in planning while there continues to be separation of functions between professions and lack of understanding of the other profession. -- Highlights: ? Health professionals have limited aspirations for health improvement through the planning system. ? Spatial planners are ill-equipped to understand the health and well-being implications of their activities. ? SEA and HIA currently do not embed health consideration in planning decisions. ? The separation of health and planning functions is problematic for the effective conduct of SEA and/or HIA.

  15. Chernobyl Studies Project: Working group 7.0, Environmental transport and health effects. Progress report, March--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M.

    1994-12-01

    In April 1988, the US and the former-USSR signed a Memorandum of Cooperation (MOC) for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety; this MOC was a direct result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 and the following efforts by the two countries to implement a joint program to improve the safety of nuclear power plants and to understand the implications of environmental releases. A Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS) was formed to implement the MOC. The JCCCNRS established many working groups; most of these were the responsibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as far as the US participation was concerned. The lone exception was Working Group 7 on Environmental Transport and Health Effects, for which the US participation was the responsibility of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of Working Group 7 was succintly stated to be, ``To develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future nuclear reactor accident.`` To implement the work DOE then formed two subworking groups: 7.1 to address Environmental Transport and 7.2 to address Health Effects. Thus, the DOE-funded Chernobyl Studies Project began. The majority of the initial tasks for this project are completed or near completion. The focus is now turned to the issue of health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Currently, we are involved in and making progress on the case-control and co-hort studies of thyroid diseases among Belarussian children. Dosimetric aspects are a fundamental part of these studies. We are currently working to implement similar studies in Ukraine. A major part of the effort of these projects is supporting these studies, both by providing methods and applications of dose reconstruction and by providing support and equipment for the medical teams.

  16. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  17. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Technical Report - Assessing Climate Change Effects on Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiteman, Cameron; Capps, Scott

    2014-11-05

    Specialized Vertum Partners software tools were prototyped, tested and commercialized to allow wind energy stakeholders to assess the uncertainties of climate change on wind power production and distribution. This project resulted in three commercially proven products and a marketing tool. The first was a Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) based resource evaluation system. The second was a web-based service providing global 10m wind data from multiple sources to wind industry subscription customers. The third product addressed the needs of our utility clients looking at climate change effects on electricity distribution. For this we collaborated on the Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index (SAWTi), which was released publicly last quarter. Finally to promote these products and educate potential users we released “Gust or Bust”, a graphic-novel styled marketing publication.

  18. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, G; Daniels, J; Wegrecki, A

    2007-10-01

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as 'high explosives' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the onsite test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for further handling and

  19. Local governments' efforts to implement environmental impact assessment requirements on development activities: Cause and effect in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spangler, J.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Various government entities in North Carolina have seen the need to implement specific policy which requires organizations responsible for certain development activities to perform a detailed assessment of comprehensive environmental impacts. Some governments have enacted policy, and a number of others are evaluating the need for policy implementation. The consideration of environmental effects of the development action early in the project planning process is, in many cases, an effect of the implementation of such policies, rather than a purpose. This study evaluates the varying ideals and rationale upon which local leaders have based environmental policies. Also, this study assesses the effectiveness of a variety of policies currently enacted and compares the final results of projects which have had to comply with the policies. Through the use of a survey distributed to officials responsible for policy enactment, local government personnel responsible for implementation and others involved in both public and private development, a relative assessment of effectiveness of different policies is postulated.

  20. Assessing the Effects of Data Compression in Simulations Using Physically Motivated Metrics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Laney, Daniel; Langer, Steven; Weber, Christopher; Lindstrom, Peter; Wegener, Al

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether lossy compression can be used effectively in physics simulations as a possible strategy to combat the expected data-movement bottleneck in future high performance computing architectures. We show that, for the codes and simulations we tested, compression levels of 3–5X can be applied without causing significant changes to important physical quantities. Rather than applying signal processing error metrics, we utilize physics-based metrics appropriate for each code to assess the impact of compression. We evaluate three different simulation codes: a Lagrangian shock-hydrodynamics code, an Eulerian higher-order hydrodynamics turbulence modeling code, and an Eulerian coupled laser-plasma interaction code. Wemore » compress relevant quantities after each time-step to approximate the effects of tightly coupled compression and study the compression rates to estimate memory and disk-bandwidth reduction. We find that the error characteristics of compression algorithms must be carefully considered in the context of the underlying physics being modeled.« less

  1. Ozone Risk Assessment Utilities

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-08-10

    ORAMUS is a user-friendly, menu-driven software system that calculates and displays user-selected risk estimates for health effects attributable to short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone. Inputs to the risk assessment are estimates of exposure to ozone and exposure-response relationships to produce overall risk estimates in the form of probability distributions. Three fundamental models are included: headcount risk, benchmark risk, and hospital admissions. Exposure-response relationships are based on results of controlled human exposure studies. Exposure estimates aremore » based on the EPA''s probabilistic national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exposure model, pNEM/Osub3, which simulates air quality associated with attainment of alternative NAAQS. Using ORAMUS, risk results for 27 air quality scenarios, air quality in 9 urban areas, 33 health endpoints, and 4 chronic health endpoints can be calculated.« less

  2. Ecological Risk Assessments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ecological Risk Assessments Ecological Risk Assessments Ecological risk assessment is the appraisal of potential adverse effects of exposure to contaminants on plants and animals....

  3. Enterprise Assessments, Lessons Learned from Targeted Reviews...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enterprise Assessments (EA), Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments, ... hazard analysis and implementation of work controls) as a targeted assessment area ...

  4. Tiger Team Assessment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of the safety and health assessment was to determine the effectiveness of representative safety and health programs at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within the safety and health programs at LANL, performance was assessed in the following technical areas: Organization and Administration, Quality Verification, Operations, Maintenance, Training and Certification, Auxiliary Systems, Emergency Preparedness, Technical Support, Packaging and Transportation, Nuclear Criticality Safety, Security/Safety Interface, Experimental Activities, Site/Facility Safety Review, Radiological Protection, Personnel Protection, Worker Safety and Health (OSHA) Compliance, Fire Protection, Aviation Safety, Explosives Safety, Natural Phenomena, and Medical Services.

  5. Chernobyl Studies Project. Working Group 7.0, environmental transport and health effects. Progress report, February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, S.M.

    1994-04-01

    The focus of the Chernobyl Studies Project has now turned to the issue of health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Currently, we are involved in and making progress on the case-control and co-hort studies of thyroid diseases among Belarussian children. Dosimetric aspects are a fundamental part of these studies. We are working to implement similar studies in Ukraine. A major part of the effort of these projects is supporting these studies, both by providing methods and applications of dose reconstruction and by providing support and equipment for the medical teams.

  6. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT ON THE INTEGRATION OF A PROCESS UTILIZING LOW-ENERGY SOLVENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE ENABLED BY A COMBINATION OF ENZYMES AND VACUUM REGENERATION WITH A SUBCRITICAL PC POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, David; Vidal, Rafael; Russell, Tania; Babcock, Doosan; Freeman, Charles; Bearden, Mark; Whyatt, Greg; Liu, Kun; Frimpong, Reynolds; Lu, Kunlei; Salmon, Sonja; House, Alan; Yarborough, Erin

    2014-12-31

    The results of the preliminary environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risk assessment for an enzyme-activated potassium carbonate (K2CO3) solution post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) plant, integrated with a subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant, are presented. The expected emissions during normal steady-state operation have been estimated utilizing models of the PCC plant developed in AspenTech’s AspenPlus® software, bench scale test results from the University of Kentucky, and industrial experience of emission results from a slipstream PCC plant utilizing amine based solvents. A review of all potential emission species and their sources was undertaken that identified two credible emission sources, the absorber off-gas that is vented to atmosphere via a stack and the waste removed from the PCC plant in the centrifuge used to reclaim enzyme and solvent. The conditions and compositions of the emissions were calculated and the potential EH&S effects were considered as well as legislative compliance requirements. Potential mitigation methods for emissions during normal operation have been proposed and solutions to mitigate uncontrolled releases of species have been considered. The potential emissions were found to pose no significant EH&S concerns and were compliant with the Federal legislation reviewed. The limitations in predicting full scale plant performance from bench scale tests have been noted and further work on a larger scale test unit is recommended to reduce the level of uncertainty.

  7. Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Pacific Storm Track Using a Multiscale Global Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Renyi; Ghan, Steven J.; Lin, Yun; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Levy, Misti; Jiang, Jonathan; Molina, Mario J.

    2014-05-13

    Atmospheric aerosols impact weather and global general circulation by modifying cloud and precipitation processes, but the magnitude of cloud adjustment by aerosols remains poorly quantified and represents the largest uncertainty in estimated forcing of climate change. Here we assess the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the Pacific storm track using a multi-scale global aerosol-climate model (GCM). Simulations of two aerosol scenarios corresponding to the present day and pre-industrial conditions reveal long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols across the north Pacific and large resulting changes in the aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud and ice water paths. Shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere are changed by - 2.5 and + 1.3 W m-2, respectively, by emission changes from pre-industrial to present day, and an increased cloud-top height indicates invigorated mid-latitude cyclones. The overall increased precipitation and poleward heat transport reflect intensification of the Pacific storm track by anthropogenic aerosols. Hence, this work provides for the first time a global perspective of the impacts of Asian pollution outflows from GCMs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the multi-scale modeling framework is essential in producing the aerosol invigoration effect of deep convective clouds on the global scale.

  8. Effects of ambient sulfur oxides and suspended particles on respiratory health of preadolescent children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.; Dockery, D.W.; Spengler, J.D.; Stram, D.O.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-05-01

    Reported here are the results from an ongoing study of outdoor air pollution and respiratory health of children living in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States. The study enrolled 10,106 white preadolescent children between 1974 and 1977 in 3 successive annual visits to each city. Each child received a spirometric examination, and a parent completed a standard questionnaire. Of this cohort, 8,380 children were seen for a second examination 1 yr later. An air pollution monitoring program was begun in each community at about the time of the first examination. For this report, measurements of total suspended particulates (TSP), the sulfate fraction of TSP (TSO/sub 4/), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations at study-affiliated outdoor stations were combined with measurements at other public and private monitoring sites to create a record of TSP, TSO/sub 4/, and SO/sub 2/ concentrations in each of 9 air pollution regions during the 1-yr period preceding each examination and, for TSP, during each child's lifetime up to the time of testing. Across the 6 cities, frequency of cough was significantly associated with the average of 24-h mean concentrations of all 3 air pollutants during the year preceding the health examination (p less than 0.01). Rates of bronchitis and a composite measure of lower respiratory illness were significantly associated with average particulate concentrations (p less than 0.05). In analyses restricted to lifetime residents, these outcomes were significantly associated with measures of lifetime mean TSP concentration. Within the cities, however, temporal and spatial variation in air pollutant concentrations and illness and symptom rates were not positively associated.

  9. Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

    2008-09-29

    Wildfire is a frequent perturbation in shrub steppe ecosystems, altering the flora, fauna, atmosphere, and soil of these systems. Research on the fire effects has focused mostly on natural ecosystems with essentially no attention on engineered systems like surface barriers. The scope of the project is to use a simulated wildfire to induce changes in an engineered surface barrier and document the effects on barrier performance. The main objective is to quantify the effects of burning and the resulting post-fire conditions on alterations in soil physical properties; hydrologic response, particularly the water balance; geochemical properties; and biological properties. A secondary objective is to use the lessons learned to maximize fire protection in the design of long-term monitoring systems based on electronic sensors. A simulated wildfire will be initiated, controlled and monitored at the 200-BP-1 barrier in collaboration with the Hanford Fire Department during the fall of 2008. The north half of the barrier will be divided into nine 12 x 12 m plots, each of which will be randomly assigned a fuel load of 2 kg m-2 or 4 kg m-2. Each plot will be ignited around the perimeter and flames allowed to carry to the centre. Any remaining unburned vegetation will be manually burned off using a drip torch. Progress of the fire and its effects will be monitored using point measurements of thermal, hydrologic, and biotic variables. Three measures of fire intensity will be used to characterize fire behavior: (1) flame height, (2) the maximum temperature at three vertical profile levels, and (3) total duration of elevated temperature at these levels. Pre-burn plant information, including species diversity, plant height, and canopy diameter will be measured on shrubs from the plots to be burned and from control plots at the McGee ranch. General assessments of shrub survival, recovery, and recruitment will be made after the fire. Near-surface soil samples will be collected pre- and

  10. An assessment of the effect on Olkiluoto repository capacity achievable with advanced fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juutilainen, P.; Viitanen, T.

    2013-07-01

    Previously a few scenarios have been simulated for transition from thermal to fast reactor fleet in Finland in order to determine how much the transuranic inventory could be reduced with the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) technologies. Those calculations, performed with COSI6 code developed by CEA, are extended in the present study, in which the effect of P-T on the capacity of the planned final disposal repository at Olkiluoto (Finland) is evaluated by taking into account the created fission products and transuranic residuals from the reprocessing operations. The decay heat is assumed to be the most restrictive factor in defining the waste disposal packing density. The repository capacity evaluation of this study is based on the comparison of the decay heats produced by the deposited waste in various scenarios. The reference scenario of this article involves only Light Water Reactors (LWR) in an open fuel cycle. The capacity requirement of the geological repository is estimated in a few closed fuel cycle scenarios, all including actinide transmutation with Fast Reactors (FR). The comparison between the P-T scenarios and reference is based on the decay heat production of the deposited waste. The COSI6 code is used for simulations to provide the repository decay heat curves. Applying the closed fuel cycle would change the disposal concept and schedule, because of which it is not quite straightforward to assess the impact of P-T on the capacity. However, it can be concluded that recycling the transuranic nuclides probably decreases the required volume for the disposal, but thermal dimensioning analysis is needed for more specific conclusions.

  11. Effect of Intrafraction Prostate Motion on Proton Pencil Beam Scanning Delivery: A Quantitative Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Shikui; Deville, Curtiland; McDonough, James; Tochner, Zelig; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Vapiwala, Neha; Both, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric impact caused by the interplay between intrafraction prostate motion and the intermittent delivery of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS). Methods and Materials: A cohort of 10 prostate patients was treated with PBS using a bilateral single-field uniform dose (SFUD) modality. Bilateral intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans were generated for comparison. Because beam-on time in PBS was intermittent, the actual beam-on time was determined from treatment logs. Prostate motion was generalized according to real-time Calypso tracking data from our previously reported prospective photon trial. We investigated potential dose deviations by considering the interplay effect resulting from the worst-case scenario motion and the PBS delivery sequence. Results: For both bilateral-field SFUD and IMPT plans, clinical target volume (CTV) D{sub 99}% coverage was degraded <2% owing to prostate intrafraction motion when averaged over the course of treatment, but was >10% for the worst fraction. The standard deviation of CTV D{sub 99}% distribution was approximately 1.2%. The CTV coverage of individual fields in SFUD plans degraded as time elapsed after the initial alignment, owing to prostate drift. Intensity-modulated proton therapy and SFUD demonstrated comparable results when bilateral opposed fields were used. Single-field SFUD plans that were repainted twice, which could reduce half of the treatment time, resulted in similar CTV coverage as bilateral-field plans. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate motion affects the actual delivered dose to CTV; however, when averaged over the course of treatment, CTV D{sub 99}% coverage degraded only approximately 2% even for the worst-case scenario. The IMPT plan results are comparable to those of the SFUD plan, and similar coverage can be achieved if treated by SFUD 1 lateral field per day when rescanning the field twice to shorten the treatment time and mitigate intrafraction motion.

  12. Effective use of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for geothermal development projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, S.J.

    2000-05-28

    Both the developed and developing nations of the world would like to move toward a position of sustainable development while paying attention to the restoration of natural resources, improving the environment, and improving the quality of life. The impacts of geothermal development projects are generally positive. It is important, however, that the environmental issues associated with development be addressed in a systematic fashion. Drafted early in the project planning stage, a well-prepared Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can significantly add to the quality of the overall project. An EIA customarily ends with the decision to proceed with the project. The environmental analysis process could be more effective if regular monitoring, detailed in the EIA, continues during project implementation. Geothermal development EIAs should be analytic rather than encyclopedic, emphasizing the impacts most closely associated with energy sector development. Air quality, water resources and quality, geologic factors, and socioeconomic issues will invariably be the most important factors. The purpose of an EIA should not be to generate paperwork, but to enable superb response. The EIA should be intended to help public officials make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences and take proper actions. The EIA process has been defined in different ways throughout the world. In fact, it appears that no two countries have defined it in exactly the same way. Going hand in hand with the different approaches to the process is the wide variety of formats available. It is recommended that the world geothermal community work towards the adoption of a standard. The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)(OLADE, 1993) prepared a guide that presents a comprehensive discussion of the environmental impacts and suggested mitigation alternatives associated with geothermal development projects. The OLADE guide

  13. Tiger Team Assessment of the Ames Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report documents the Tiger Assessment of the Ames Laboratory (Ames), located in Ames, Iowa. Ames is operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Iowa State University. The assessment was conducted from February 10 to March 5, 1992, under the auspices of the Office of Special Projects, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Environment, Safety and Health, Headquarters, DOE. The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) disciplines; management practices; and contractor and DOE self-assessments. Compliance with applicable Federal, State of Iowa, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal requirements at Ames Laboratory were assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of DOE and the site contractor's management of ES H/quality assurance program was conducted.

  14. Non-Targeted Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Implications for Risk Assessment and the Radiation Dose Response Profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, William F.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2009-11-01

    Radiation risks at low doses remain a hotly debated topic. Recent experimental advances in our understanding of effects occurring in the progeny of irradiated cells, and/or the non-irradiated neighbors of irradiated cells, i.e., non-targeted effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, have influenced this debate. The goal of this document is to summarize the current status of this debate and speculate on the potential impact of non-targeted effects on radiation risk assessment and the radiation dose response profile.

  15. United States-Russian workshop on the stochastic health effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    In August 1988, two years after the Chernobyle accident, the United States and the Soviet Union signed an agreement to sponsor a Joint coordinating Committee on Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety, (JCCCNRS). The Soviet Union agreed to provide some information on late effects of radiation exposures and to attempt to add some new insights into low dose and low dose rate radiation consequences. At that time, it had just been revealed that significant radiation exposures had occurred in the South Ural Mountains, associated with the early years of operation of the MAYAK nuclear complex. The need to be able to better predict the long term consequences of overexposures, such as occurred with the Chernobyl accident, was a major factor in organizing this workshop. We decided to invite a small number of experts from the Soviet Union, who had direct knowledge of the situation. A small group of American experts was invited to help in a discussion of the state of knowledge of continual low level exposure. The experts and expertise included: Aspects of bask theoretical radiobiological models, studies on experimental animals exposed to chronic or fractionated external or internal radiation, studies on populations exposed to chronic intake and continual exposures, workers exposed to low or high continual levels of radiation. The intent was to begin a dialog on the issue of a better understanding of the dose rate effect in humans. No detailed conclusions could be reached at this first interaction between out two countries, but a model was prepared which seems to support a range of what are known as low dose and dose rate effectiveness factors. A beginning of an evaluation of the role of radiation dose rate on leukemia risk was also accomplished.

  16. Evaluation of health and environmental effects of two methods for residential lead paint removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfel, M.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this prospective study was to compare the effectiveness of traditional lead-paint abatement to the alternative approach outlined in recent, but never tested, Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines which were followed by Baltimore City work crews in a one-year project. Concurrent serial measurements of lead in house-dust (PbD) and children's blood (PbB) were made pre, post, and 6 month post-abatement in 53 dwellings of affected children abated by traditional methods and 18 abated by city crews using methods similar to CDC guidelines. Traditional methods increased exposure to lead in house dust. CDC guidelines represent modest improvement, although they do no adequately reduce the hazard associated with domestic exposure to particulate lead.

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health, and safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baalman, R.W.; Dotson, C.W.

    1980-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1979 Annual Report to the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for the Environment presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Technology Impacts, the Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The report is in four sections, corresponding to the program elements: technology impacts, environmental control engineering, operational and environmental compliance, and human health studies. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1979 on individual projects.

  18. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian C. O'Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  19. Evaluation of MC&A Effectiveness and Its Contribution to the Safeguarding Of Nuclear Material with Assurance Assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlegel, Steven C.

    2007-07-10

    Safeguards and Security within the DOE complex has struggled with integrating MC&A and Physical Security together in a single model. Attempts were made to incorporate MC&A elements that provide detection into vulnerability assessments. While this approach has met with some success, it does not fully address the different contributions that each make to nuclear material protection. Protection measures that rely on the lack of alarms to imply all nuclear material is still present, in the correct location, and intended use are limited due to their passive nature. A highly effective system may provide confidence that all nuclear material is still present, but it does not provide assurance that it is there. MC&A, through active measures that confirm or verify the actual presence of nuclear material, provides assurance that all of the nuclear material is controlled and accounted for. This paper presents a model that combines the detection and assessment functions from vulnerability assessments with assurance activities provided by MC&A to provide an integrated model that can be used for evaluation of current systems, evaluation of system changes, and monitoring assurance in real time based upon operational activities. 1.0 OVERVIEW Material control and accounting (MC&A) and physical security provide complementary measures that can effectively protect nuclear material against the threats of theft, diversion, and sabotage. Tools have been introduced to evaluate and quantify the effectiveness of different protective measures and schemes, but the ability to fully model the contribution of MC&A to protection effectiveness has been limited. This is due, in part, by not fully recognizing that the two areas contribute differently, but not independently, to protection effectiveness. Physical protection provides detection, assessment, interruption, neutralization, and deterrence against a threat. Except for deterrence, mathematical models have been developed to quantify the

  20. Health & Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health & Safety Health & Safety1354608000000Health & SafetySome of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access.NoQuestions? 667-5809library@lanl.gov Health &...

  1. Public health assessment for St. Louis Airport, Hazelwood Interim Storage/Futura Coatings Company, St. Louis, St. Louis County, Missouri, Region 7. Cerclis No. MOD980633176. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-20

    The St. Louis Airport/Hazelwood Iterim Storage/Futura Coatings Company, a National Priorities List site, is in St. Louis County, Missouri. From 1946 to 1973, the site was used to store radioactive materials resulting from uranium processing. High levels of uranium, thorium, radium, and radon were detected in soil, groundwater, and air. The site is still being used to store radioactive materials. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry considers the St. Louis Airport site to be an indeterminate public health hazard. Although there are emissions of radon and the presence of thorium in on-site air and off-site soils and the emission of radiation resulting from the presence of these materials is not currently considered a health hazard. At present conditions, the concentration of radon off-site is indistinguishable from background levels. However, in the past, these contaminants may have been present at levels of health concern.

  2. Public health assessment for J and L landfill, Avon Township, Oakland County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980609440. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-19

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) placed the J L Landfill site on the National Priorities List (NPL) on March 31, 1989. Beginning in 1951, steel-making firms, including Jones Laughlin, used the site as a landfill for slag, dust from air cleaners at their plants, and general rubbish. By 1980, the landfill had been filled to capacity, and Jones Laughlin closed and coverd the site. The cover on the landfill is inadequate by current standards. Surface soils contain concentrations of metals that are of health concern. The groundwater contains metals and organic chemicals at concentrations of health concern, some of which may be attributable to other sites in the area. The site poses no apparent public health hazard under present conditions, however, several potential exposure pathways may pose hazards should they be completed in the future.

  3. LAND AND WATER USE CHARACTERISTICS AND HUMAN HEALTH INPUT PARAMETERS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DOSIMETRY AND RISK ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, T.; Karapatakis, D.; Lee, P.; Farfan, E.

    2010-08-06

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters but the use of site-specific values by the applicant is encouraged. A detailed survey of land and water use parameters was conducted in 1991 and is being updated here. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS are documented. Based on comparisons to the 2009 SRS environmental compliance doses, the following effects are expected in future SRS compliance dose calculations: (1) Aquatic all-pathway maximally exposed individual doses may go up about 10 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors; (2) Aquatic all-pathway collective doses may go up about 5 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors that offset the reduction in average individual water consumption rates; (3) Irrigation pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go up about 40 percent due to increases in the element-specific transfer factors; (4) Irrigation pathway collective doses may go down about 50 percent due to changes in food productivity and production within the 50-mile radius of SRS; (5) Air pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go down about 10 percent due to the changes in food productivity in the SRS area and to the changes in element-specific transfer factors; and (6

  4. Estimated human health risks of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the contaminants` toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks.

  5. Beryllium Health Advocates - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health Advocates About Us Hanford Cultural Resources Beryllium Program Beryllium Program Points of Contact Beryllium Facilities & Areas Beryllium Program Information Hanford CBDPP Committee Beryllium FAQs Beryllium Related Links Hanford Beryllium Awareness Group (BAG) Program Performance Assessments Beryllium Program Feedback Beryllium Health Advocates Primary Contractors/Employers Medical Testing and Surveillance Facilities General Resources Beryllium Health Advocates Email Email Page |

  6. Health Code Number (HCN) Development Procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrocchi, Rocky; Craig, Douglas K.; Bond, Jayne-Anne; Trott, Donna M.; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2013-09-01

    This report provides the detailed description of health code numbers (HCNs) and the procedure of how each HCN is assigned. It contains many guidelines and rationales of HCNs. HCNs are used in the chemical mixture methodology (CMM), a method recommended by the department of energy (DOE) for assessing health effects as a result of exposures to airborne aerosols in an emergency. The procedure is a useful tool for proficient HCN code developers. Intense training and quality assurance with qualified HCN developers are required before an individual comprehends the procedure to develop HCNs for DOE.

  7. Enterprise Assessments Review of the East Tennessee Technology...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emergency Management Program July 2015 Office of Emergency Management Assessments Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Office of Enterprise Assessments U.S....

  8. Health assessment for Rhone Poulenc (ZOECON), East Palo Alto, San Mateo County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAT000611350. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-11-29

    The Rhone Poulenc site has been proposed for listing on the National Priorities List. The site has been the location of chemical manufacturing since before 1926. Flue dust from Anaconda, Montana copper-smelting operations was used to manufacture sodium arsenate from 1920s to 1960s. The current owners have manufactured insecticides at the site from 1972 to the present. The environmental contamination on-site consists of arsenic, lead, cadmium, selenium, mercury, copper, and zinc in soil and surface water. The environmental contamination off-site consists of arsenic in surface water in the adjacent tidal marsh; and arsenic, lead, cadmium, selenium, copper, mercury, zinc in seasonally pounded surface water. In addition, soil contamination has been detected on the levy and in the tidal marsh. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated surface soil, sediment, and water.

  9. Tiger Team Assessment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) located in Los Alamos, New Mexico. LANL is operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the University of California. The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from September 23 to November 8, 1991, under the auspices of the DOE Office of Special Projects, Office of Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health. The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety, and health (ES H) disciplines; management; and contractor and DOE self-assessments. Compliance with applicable Federal, state, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal LANL site requirements was assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and the site contractors' management of ES H/quality assurance programs was conducted. This volume discusses findings concerning the environmental assessment.

  10. Final Report DE-EE0005380 Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN Final Report DE-EE0005380 Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Prepared by: Hao Ling (UT) Mark F. Hamilton (ARL:UT) Rajan Bhalla (SAIC) Walter E. Brown (ARL:UT) Todd A. Hay (ARL:UT) Nicholas J. Whitelonis (UT) Shang-Te Yang (UT) Aale R. Naqvi (UT) 9/30/2013 DE-EE0005380 The University of Texas at Austin ii Notice and Disclaimer This report is being disseminated by