National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hd-5 propane propylene

  1. Selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the metal-organic frameworks M2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in the metal-organic frameworks M2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) Previous Next List Stephen J. Geier, Jarad A. Mason, Eric D. Bloch, Wendy L. Queen, Matthew R. Hudson, Craig M. Brown and Jeffrey R. Long, Chem. Sci., 4, 2054-2061 (2013) DOI: 10.1039/c3sc00032j Abstract: A

  2. A comparison of advanced distillation control techniques for a propylene/propane splitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokhale, V.; Hurowitz, S.; Riggs, J.B.

    1995-12-01

    A detailed dynamic simulator of a propylene/propane (C{sub 3}) splitter, which was bench-marked against industrial data, has been used to compare dual composition control performance for a diagonal PI controller and several advanced controllers. The advanced controllers considered are DMC, nonlinear process model based control, and artificial neural networks. Each controller was tuned based upon setpoint changes in the overhead production composition using 50% changes in the impurity levels. Overall, there was not a great deal of difference in controller performance based upon the setpoint and disturbance tests. Periodic step changes in feed composition were also used to compare controller performance. In this case, oscillatory variations of the product composition were observed and the variabilities of the DMC and nonlinear process model based controllers were substantially smaller than that of the PI controller. The sensitivity of each controller to the frequency of the periodic step changes in feed composition was also investigated.

  3. Compressible Solution Properties of Amorphous Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene, Crystalline Polystyrene-block-Poly(Hydrogenated Polybutadiene) and Their Corresponding Homopolymers: Fluid-Fluid, Fluid-Solid and Fluid-Micelle Phase Transitions in Propane and Propylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Winoto, Winoto; Radosz, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Polystyrene, polybutadiene, hydrogenated polybutadiene, and styrene diblock copolymers of these homopolymers can form homogenous solutions in compressible solvents, such as propane and propylene, which separate into two bulk phases upon reducing pressure. The cloud and micellization pressures for homopolymer and diblock copolymers are generally found to be higher in propane than in propylene, except for hydrogenated polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-(hydrogenated polybutadiene). Hydrogenated polybutadiene homopolymers and copolymers exhibit relatively pressure-independent crystallization and melting observed in both propane and propylene solutions.

  4. Propane/Propylene Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    541 624 597 739 622 676 1973-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 55 50 40 59 34 36 1981-2015 Midwest (PADD 2) 6 4 3 3 3 3 1981-2015 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 459 546 531 661 552 609 1981-2015 Rocky...

  5. Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon PropyleneHydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IRSpectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2007-01-31

    Propylene hydrogenation over Pt nanoparticles supported onmesoporous silica type SBA-15 was monitored by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy at 23 ms resolution using short propylene gas pulses thatjoined a continuous flow of hydrogen in N2 (1 atm total pressure).Experiments were conducted in the temperature range 323-413 K. Propanewas formed within 100 milliseconds or faster. The CH stretching regionrevealed distinct bands for propane molecules emerging inside thenanoscale channels of the silica support. Spectral analysis gave thedistribution of the propane product between support and surrounding gasphase as function of time. Kinetic analysis showed that the escape ofpropane molecules from the channels occurred within hundreds ofmilliseconds (3.1 + 0.4 s-1 at 383 K). A steady state distribution ofpropane between gas phase and mesoporous support is established as theproduct is swept from the catalyst zone by the continuous flow ofhydrogen co-reactant. This is the first direct spectroscopic observationof emerging products of heterogeneous catalysis on nanoporous supportsunder reaction conditions.

  6. Synthesis of Pt?Pd Core?Shell Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition: Application in Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation to Propylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.; Liu, Bin; Lu, Junling; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Wu, Tianpin; Feng, Hao; Xia, Xiaoxing; Mane, Anil U.; Libera, Joseph A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, J. W.

    2012-08-20

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to synthesize supported Pt?Pd bimetallic particles in the 1 to 2 nm range. The metal loading and composition of the supported Pt?Pd nanoparticles were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by applying ALD metal oxide coatings to modify the support surface chemistry. Highresolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed monodispersed Pt?Pd nanoparticles on ALD Al2O3 - and TiO2 -modi?ed SiO2 gel. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a stable Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the most stable surface con?guration for the Pt? Pd alloys in an H2 environment has a Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. In comparison to their monometallic counterparts, the small Pt?Pd bimetallic core?shell nanoparticles exhibited higher activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation as compared to their physical mixture.

  7. Stocks of Propane/Propylene

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    74,798 70,458 66,740 63,065 62,320 62,500 1993-2016 PADD 1 4,725 4,301 3,710 3,275 2,994 2,882 1993-2016 New England 343 555 510 457 416 389 1993-2016 Central Atlantic 3,254 2,773 2,351 2,010 1,744 1,635 1993-2016 Lower Atlantic 1,128 973 849 808 834 858 1993-2016 PADD 2 18,388 17,884 16,880 16,321 15,154 14,892 1993-2016 PADD 3 49,629 46,231 44,051 41,781 42,350 42,815 1993-2016 PADD's 4 & 5 2,057 2,041 2,098 1,688 1,822 1,910 2004

  8. Imports of Propane/Propylene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    29 178 153 142 130 113 2004-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 61 58 59 64 66 55 1993-2016 Midwest (PADD 2) 42 99 67 62 48 44 1993-2016 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993

  9. Propane Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL

    2010-03-01

    Propane powers about 190,000 vehicles in the U.S. and more than 14 million worldwide. Propane vehicles are a good choice for many fleet applications including school buses, shuttle buses, taxies and light-duty trucks.

  10. Product Supplied for Propane/Propylene

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    556 1,681 1,546 1,613 1,241 1,155

  11. Propane/Propylene Days of Supply

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 02/05/16 02/12/16 02/19/16 02/26/16 03/04/16 03/11/16 View History U.S. 44.3 40.0 40.1 39.4 41 45.0

  12. Propane update

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    update March 23,2016 | Washington, DC (Inventory data as of 31816; residential heating ... Source: EIA, Weekly Petroleum Status Report, data through March 18, 2016 *propane...

  13. 2013 Propane Market Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    domestic propane prices will not fully delink from oil prices, and competition against electricity and natural gas in traditional propane markets will remain very challenging....

  14. Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

    1998-02-01

    The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

  15. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices available The average retail price for propane is $2.30 per gallon, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel survey. Propane prices in the Midwest region, which has the most households that use propane, averaged $1.89 a gallon. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington. The EIA has expanded its propane price survey to include 14 more states located mostly in the South and the West. The survey now looks at propane prices in 38

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicles » Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on

  17. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, down 1 cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.92 per gallon, down 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 44.4 cents

  18. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.29 per gallon, down 3.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.80 per gallon, down 2.4 cents from last week

  19. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.32 per gallon, down 2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.82 per gallon, down 2.4 cents from last week. This is Marcela Rourk,

  20. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.01 per gallon, up 1.2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.47 per gallon, up 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 44.8

  1. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down 43

  2. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.03 per gallon, up 1 cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, up 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 40.7

  3. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.96 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.43 per gallon, up 1.3 cents from last week, and down 51.7

  4. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.97 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.44 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 50.

  5. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.98 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.44 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 49.7

  6. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices available The average retail price for propane is $1.94 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.40 per gallon. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  7. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.91 per gallon, up 1.4 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.39 per gallon, up 1 cent from last week, and down 55.3

  8. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Midwest and Northeast propane prices much higher this winter than last year Households that heat with propane will pay for that propane at prices averaging 39 percent higher in the Midwest and 14 percent higher in the Northeast this winter compared with last winter.....as much colder temperatures this winter boosts heating fuel demand. Midwest residential propane is expected to average $2.41 per gallon over the winter, while propane in the Northeast will average $3.43 per gallon, according to

  9. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Propane/Propylene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    641 1,674 1,701 1,697 1,641 1,680 2004-2016 PADD 1 159 164 155 158 158 152 1993-2016 New England 1993-2004 Central Atlantic 1993-2004 Lower Atlantic 1993-2004 PADD 2 364 360 387...

  10. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.35 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.92 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 47.9 cents

  11. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.39 per gallon, up 3.9 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.91 per gallon, down 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 63.1 cents

  12. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decrease The average retail price for propane is $2.37 per gallon, down 1.3 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.93 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 39.6 cents

  13. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.38 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.91 per gallon, down 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $2.29 cents

  14. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.37 per gallon, down 9-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.89 per gallon, down 1.4 cents from last week, and down $1.93 cents

  15. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.89 per gallon, down 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.67 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  16. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, down 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.89 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, and down $1.43 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  17. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.35 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.88 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.18 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  18. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.86 per gallon, down 1.6 cents from last week, and down 72.7 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk,

  19. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8, 2015 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.34 per gallon, down 1.7 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.85 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from last week, and down 63.2

  20. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.48 per gallon, down 15.9 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 3.06 a gallon, down 24.8 cents from last week, but up $1.28 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  1. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    05, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $2.40 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.95 per gallon, up 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 1.9

  2. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.39 per gallon, down 2.2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 per gallon, down 1.3 cents from last week, and down 17.5 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  3. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.00 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.46 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 46.2

  4. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 43.3

  5. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.47 per gallon, down 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 41.9

  6. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price virtually unchanged The average retail price for propane is $2.03 per gallon, up 1-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, down 1-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 39.8

  7. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.03 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 40 cents

  8. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.03 per gallon, down 2-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.47 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 41 cents

  9. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, up half of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.88 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down 90.5

  10. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, down 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.46 per gallon, down 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 40 cents

  11. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane virtually unchanged The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 1-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.46 per gallon, up 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down 38.8

  12. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.96 per gallon, up 1.8 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.42 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 52.9 cents

  13. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.41 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.95 per gallon, up 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 12.7 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  14. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.98 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.45 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 48.2

  15. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.99 per gallon, up 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.45 per gallon, up 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 47.6

  16. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $1.91 per gallon, down 6.7 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.40 per gallon, down 1.6 cents from last week, and down 49.5 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  17. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.90 per gallon, up 2-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.38 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from last week, and down 53 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  18. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.92 per gallon, up 1.4 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.42 per gallon, up 2.6 cents from last week, and down 53.2

  19. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $1.92 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.40 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from last week, and down 54.8 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  20. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.94 per gallon, up 2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.42 per gallon, up 1 cent from last week, and down 52.8 cents from a year ago.

  1. Residential propane prices decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5, 2014 Residential propane prices decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.89 per gallon, that's down 11.9 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 3.83 a gallon, down 36.8 cents from last week, but up $2.05 from a year ago. This is Amerine Woodyard

  2. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 3.9 cents from a week ago to $2.80 per gallon. That's up 53.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.32 a gallon, up 3.8 cents from last week, and up 59

  3. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 2.5 cents from a week ago to $2.83 per gallon. That's up 56 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.36 a gallon, up 3.9 cents from last week, and up 62.3

  4. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose to $2.40 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 a gallon, up 2.9 cents from last week, and up 2.6 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  5. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 5.5 cents per gallon from last week to $2.62 per gallon; up 37.4 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The retail price for propane in the Midwest region averaged 2.11 per gallon, up 3.4 cents per gallon from last week, and up 39.6

  6. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 9.1 cents from a week ago to $2.71 per gallon. That's up 46.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.22 a gallon, up 11 cents from last week, and up 50.8 cents from a year ago

  7. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 4.8 cents from a week ago to $2.76 per gallon. That's up 51.2 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.28 a gallon, up 6.3 cents from last week, and up 56.4

  8. Residential propane prices stable

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices stable The average retail price for propane is $2.37 per gallon. That's down 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel survey. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.89 a gallon. Down 2-tenths of a cent from last week. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  9. Residential propane prices stable

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.40 per gallon, down 9-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 per gallon, down 7-tenths of a cent from . last week, and down 8.7 cents from a year ago This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  10. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.30 per gallon, down 17.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.78 a gallon, down 27.9 cents from last week, but up 99.3

  11. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.17 per gallon, down 13.1 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.60 a gallon, down 18.5 cents from last week, but up 88.1

  12. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.08 per gallon, down 8.6 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.48 a gallon, down 10.7 cents from last week, but up 69.7

  13. Liquid Propane Injection Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturing/assembly guidelines, maintenance/repair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as gasoline counterpart.

  14. Auto propane -- Some technical considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    This booklet reviews some of the facts about propane as a vehicle fuel. It describes propane fuel properties, propane vehicle fuel systems and their components, propane vehicles and engines obtainable as original equipment from the vehicle manufacturer, after-market propane fuel system installations, propane vehicle operational characteristics, propane-fueled vehicle maintenance, government regulations and safety measures related to propane vehicles, and the environmental benefits of propane and propane-fueled vehicles. The final sections discuss the economics of propane vehicle ownership and the factors to be considered when estimating annual or lifetime savings or payback periods. Appendices include a directory of information sources, a sample worksheet for calculating payback, and examples of success stories relating the positive experiences of vehicle fleets with propane fueling.

  15. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 3.2 cents from a week ago to $2.86 per gallon. That's up 59.3 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.40 a gallon, up 3.2 cents from last week, and up 65.8 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  16. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 10.3 cents from a week ago to $2.96 per gallon. That's up 68.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is the largest single week increase since the heating season started in October. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.55 a gallon, up 14.9 cents from last week, and up 79.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in

  17. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 2.3 cents per gallon from last week to $2.57 per gallon; up 32.2 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The retail price for propane in the Midwest region averaged 2.08 per gallon, up 2.4 cents per gallon from last week, and up 36.9 cents from a year earlier. This is Marlana Anderson, with EIA, in Washington.

  18. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices surges The average retail price for propane rose to an all-time high of $4.01 a gallon, that's up $1.05 from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is the largest weekly increase since the survey began in 1990. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 4.20 a gallon, up $1.66 from last week, and up $2.43 from a

  19. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  20. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maps of states participating in Winter Fuels Survey Residential propane PADD map Residential heating oil PADD map

  1. Residential propane price decreases slightly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases slightly The average retail price for propane is $2.38 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.93 per gallon, down one cent from last week, and down 35.5

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Digg Find More places to share

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Production &

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Digg Find

  6. Residential propane price is unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    13, 2014 Residential propane price is unchanged The average retail price for propane is $2.40 per gallon, down one-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 per gallon, down 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 6

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Availability to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on

  11. Case Study … Propane School Bus Fleets

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane ................................................................................................................................... 4 Financial Benefits ........................................................................................................................................................... 4 Environmental and Energy Benefits ........................................................................................................................... 6 Project-Specific

  12. Propane Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels » Propane Fuel Basics Propane Fuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 4:31pm Addthis Photo of a man standing next to a propane fuel pump with a tank in the background. Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), or autogas, is a clean-burning, high-energy alternative fuel. It has been used for decades to fuel light-duty and heavy-duty propane vehicles. Propane is a three-carbon alkane gas (C3H8). Stored under pressure inside a tank, propane turns into a colorless, odorless liquid. As

  13. Propane Market Assessment for Winter

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    1997-1998 Final issue of this report. This article reviews the major components of propane supply and demand in the United States and their status entering the 1997-1998 heating season.

  14. Propane Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles » Propane Vehicle Basics Propane Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:16am Addthis There are more than 147,000 on-road propane vehicles in the United States. Many are used in fleets, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, taxicabs, police cars, and rental and delivery vehicles. Compared with vehicles fueled with conventional diesel and gasoline, propane vehicles can produce fewer harmful emissions. The availability of new light- and medium-duty propane vehicles has surged in

  15. Liquefied propane carburetor modification system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelor, D.R.; Batchelor, W.H.

    1983-01-25

    A system which can be retrofit into an existing conventional gasoline powered vehicle for enabling the vehicle to operate on either gasoline or liquefied propane fuel. The system includes a mixer in the form of an adapter to fit on the top of an existing carburetor. The mixer has a unique spring balanced metering device which controls flow of gaseous propane to the carburetor in proportion to airflow through the carburetor. The mixer is connected to a regulator assembly which receives liquid propane in a first chamber, heats the liquid propane to form a vapor, and feeds the vapor through an idle valve to control idling of the engine. The vapor is also passed to a second chamber of the regulator assembly in response to demand from the metering device which is sensed by a diaphragm actuated gas flow valve. From the second chamber, the gaseous propane is fed to a high speed inlet of the mixer. Engine manifold vacuum is also used to provide additional control for the gas flow valve to increase efficiency of the system. Other features include a special purpose fuel tank and an optional exhaust system oxygen sensor for further regulating gas flow to the engine.

  16. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Users Q1: Why are data not collected over the summer? The residential pricing data collected on heating oil and propane prices are for the Winter Heating Fuels Survey. The purpose of this survey is to collect prices for these fuels as they are used for heating purposes. For the purposes of the survey, the winter heating season extends from October through March. However, EIA does publish spot prices for heating oil and propane throughout the year. In addition, some State Energy Offices

  17. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FAQs for Respondents Q1: What is the purpose of this survey? The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Form EIA-877, "Winter Heating Fuels Telephone Survey," is designed to collect data on State-level stocks and residential prices of No. 2 heating oil and propane during the heating season. The data are used to monitor the prices of propane and No. 2 heating oil during the heating season, and to report to the Congress and others when requested. Q2: How does the survey work? The

  18. Propane - A Mid-Heating Season Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report will analyze some of the factors leading up to the rapid increase in propane demand and subsequent deterioration in supply that propelled propane prices to record high levels during December and early January.

  19. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  20. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  1. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection ...

  2. State Heating Oil and Propane Program Expansion of Propane Data Collection

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Heating Oil and Propane Program Expansion of Propane Data Collection Marcela Rourk April 14, 2014 | Washington, DC Key Topics Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC April 14, 2014 2 * Overview and history of State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) * Expansion of propane data collection * What is expected of SEOs that participate? * Benefits of participation What is SHOPP? Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC April 14, 2014 3 * State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) - cooperative data

  3. EERE Success Story-Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road | Department of Energy Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road EERE Success Story-Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road February 10, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program, an $8.6 million Clean Cities Recovery Act project, finished bringing 1,200 propane vehicles and 11 new stations to support them to

  4. Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane Vehicles to the Road | Department of Energy Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road February 10, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program, an $8.6 million Clean Cities Recovery Act project, finished bringing 1,200 propane vehicles and 11 new stations to support them to the road in October 2013.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Infrastructure Development to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure

  6. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1983-05-26

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  7. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard W. (Livermore, CA); Skinner, Dewey F. (Livermore, CA); Thorsness, Charles B. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  8. Residential propane price continues to decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2, 2014 Residential propane price continues to decrease The average retail price for propane fell to $3.76 per gallon, down 13.4 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 3.54 a gallon, down 28.5 cents from last week, but up $1.76 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk,

  9. Residential propane price continues to decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.64 per gallon, down 12.7 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 3.31 a gallon, down 24.5 cents from last week, but up $1.53 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk,

  10. Residential propane price decreases slightly decreases slightly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7, 2014 Residential propane price decreases slightly The average retail price for propane is $2.38 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 per gallon, the same price as last week, and down 28.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  11. State Heating Oil and Propane Program

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Heating Oil and Propane Program Marcela Rourk 2014 SHOPP Workshop October 8, 2014 | Washington, DC Key Topics Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC October 8, 2014 2 * Expansion of propane data collection * EIA resources available to States * Improvements to SHOPP What is SHOPP? Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC October 8, 2014 3 * State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) - cooperative data collection effort between EIA and State Energy Offices (SEOs) - data used by policymakers, industry

  12. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels.

  13. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels

  14. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holiday Release Schedule The Heating Oil and Propane Update is produced during the winter heating season, which extends from October through March of each year. The standard release time and day of the week will be at 1:00 p. m. (Eastern time) on Wednesdays with the following exceptions. All times are Eastern. Data for: Alternate Release Date Release Day Release Time Holiday October 12, 2015 October 15, 2015 Thursday 1:00 p.m. Columbus November 9, 2015 November 12, 2015 Thursday 1:00 p.m.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Airport Shuttles Run on Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Digg

  20. GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE:...

  1. Heating Oil and Propane Update - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    all Petroleum Reports Heating Oil and Propane Update Weekly heating oil and propane prices are only collected during the heating season, which extends from October through March. ...

  2. Kicking the Oil Habit: Making Propylene Glycol from Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many everyday consumer products from liquid detergents to pharmaceuticals and plastics contain the additive known as propylene glycol.  The downside is that propylene glycol is typically made from...

  3. Propane vehicles : status, challenges, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-17

    Propane as an auto fuel has a high octane value and has key properties required for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. To operate a vehicle on propane as either a dedicated fuel or bi-fuel (i.e., switching between gasoline and propane) vehicle, only a few modifications must be made to the engine. Until recently propane vehicles have commonly used a vapor pressure system that was somewhat similar to a carburetion system, wherein the propane would be vaporized and mixed with combustion air in the intake plenum of the engine. This leads to lower efficiency as more air, rather than fuel, is inducted into the cylinder for combustion (Myers 2009). A newer liquid injection system has become available that injects propane directly into the cylinder, resulting in no mixing penalty because air is not diluted with the gaseous fuel in the intake manifold. Use of a direct propane injection system will improve engine efficiency (Gupta 2009). Other systems include the sequential multi-port fuel injection system and a bi-fuel 'hybrid' sequential propane injection system. Carbureted systems remain in use but mostly for non-road applications. In the United States a closed-loop system is used in after-market conversions. This system incorporates an electronic sensor that provides constant feedback to the fuel controller to allow it to measure precisely the proper air/fuel ratio. A complete conversion system includes a fuel controller, pressure regulator valves, fuel injectors, electronics, fuel tank, and software. A slight power loss is expected in conversion to a vapor pressure system, but power can still be optimized with vehicle modifications of such items as the air/fuel mixture and compression ratios. Cold start issues are eliminated for vapor pressure systems since the air/fuel mixture is gaseous. In light-duty propane vehicles, the fuel tank is typically mounted in the trunk; for medium- and heavy-duty vans and trucks, the tank is located under the body of the vehicle. Propane tanks add weight to a vehicle and can slightly increase the consumption of fuel. On a gallon-to-gallon basis, the energy content of propane is 73% that of gasoline, thus requiring more propane fuel to travel an equivalent distance, even in an optimized engine (EERE 2009b).

  4. QER- Comment of Propane Education & Research Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I plan to attend and ask a question of the Secretary regarding propane supply for the upcoming winter. Please do not hesitate to call or email if you have questions. Tucker Perkins

  5. QER- Comment of National Propane Gas Association

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ladies and Gentlemen: Please find attached the QER comments of the National Propane Gas Association. Please feel to contact us if we can provide further information. Thank you for your attention to our submission.

  6. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid Electric Trolleys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01

    A 2-page fact sheet summarizing the evaluation done by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity on the Knoxville Area Transit's use of propane hybrid electric trolleys.

  7. This Week In Petroleum Propane Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane prices (dollars per gallon) Average Regional U.S. residential propane prices graph Regional residential propane prices graph Residential propane prices (dollars per gallon) more price data › Year ago Most recent 03/16/15 03/14/16 03/07/16 02/29/16 02/22/16 02/15/16 02/08/16 02/01/16 Average 2.342 2.021 2.020 2.026 2.028 2.034 2.032 2.022 East Coast (PADD 1) 3.042 2.763 2.761 2.766 2.760 2.768 2.768 2.750 New England (PADD 1A) 3.094 2.811 2.799 2.793 2.770 2.771 2.760 2.746

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    out Greener Future Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Schools Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Station Locations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Orleans Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production and Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Digg Find More places to

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    County Schools Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester County Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester County Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester County Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester County Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Company Rolling Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vans Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  19. Oxydehydrogenation of propane over vanadyl ion-containing VAPO-5 and CoAPO-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, M.; Luo, L.; Labinger, J.A.; Davis, M.E.

    2000-05-15

    Vanadyl ion-containing VAPO-5 and CoAPO-5 are prepared by contact with a vanadyl sulfate solution or by impregnation with aqueous vanadyl oxalate and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). Treatment of VAPO-5 with vanadyl ion results in incorporation of up to 1.0 wt% total vanadium into the AFI framework by filling lattice vacancies. At vanadium contents above ca. 1 wt%, extraframework vanadium is also obtained. TPR results show that framework vanadium can be reduced by hydrogen at a lower temperature than extraframework vanadium and vanadium in bulk V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Oxydehydrogenation of propane over VAPO-5 samples reveals that framework vanadium is the most active and selective species for propylene formation (at 400 C and 5% conversion, the selectivity is 72%); extraframework vanadium species are less active and selective.

  20. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. propane vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  1. Propane-induced biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Propane-induced biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Propane-induced biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene Microbial degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) has been demonstrated under aerobic conditions with propane. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of introducing a vapor phase form of TCE in the presence of propane to batch bioreactors containing a liquid phase

  2. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Specification | Department of Energy Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection technology can offer the same power, torque, and environmental vehicle performance while reducing imports of foreign oil PDF icon deer09_arnold.pdf More Documents & Publications Liquid Propane Injection Applications Liquid Propane Injection Applications Transportation Fuels: The

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Buses to Its Fleet Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane,

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Reducing Emissions Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane, Reducing Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane, Reducing Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane, Reducing Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane, Reducing Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Hybrid Trolleys Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Spotsylvania County Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in Spotsylvania County to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in Spotsylvania County on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in Spotsylvania County on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in Spotsylvania County on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts

  7. Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt065_ti_denbigh_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project

  8. Texas Propane Fleet Pilot Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fleet Pilot Program Texas Propane Fleet Pilot Program 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon tiarravt058_kelly_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project

  9. Portland Public School Children Move with Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 2-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of propane as a fuel source for Portland Public Schools' fleet of buses. It includes information on the history of the program, along with contact information for the local Clean Cities Coordinator and Portland Public Schools.

  10. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  11. Weekly Petroleum Status Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Figure 6. Stocks of Propane/Propylene

  12. Nonlinear process model based control of a propylene sidestream draw column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    While sidestream draw columns offer the incentives of reduced capital and operating expenses, they also pose more challenging control problems than ordinary distillation columns. This paper describes the application of nonlinear process model based control (PMBC) for composition control of all product streams for a simulation of a distillation column with a liquid sidestream draw. A tray-to-tray simulator of an industrial propylene/propane column that considers 5-min composition analyzer dead time was used to test the nonlinear PMBC controller for setpoint changes, a feed flow rate change, and feed composition changes. The nonlinear PMBC controller used an approximate model based upon the Smoker equation directly to make control decisions. The nonlinear PMBC controller exhibits excellent control performance for all test cases with a maximum relative deviation of the impurity from setpoint of about 10% for the two product streams. The nonlinear PMBC controller provides significantly improved control performance over a conventional single loop control scheme that is currently in industrial use.

  13. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    See footnotes at end of table. 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State 386 Energy Information...

  14. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1998 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  15. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketing Annual 1995 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  16. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1999 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  17. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metallurgical failure...

  18. Emissions with butane/propane blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet

  20. National propane safety week caps fifth anniversary of GAS Check

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowler, S.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on National Propane Safety Week. The publicity encompassed everything from preventative maintenance to safe winter storage of cylinders. This campaign focused much of its attention on GAS (gas appliance system) Check, the propane industry's most well-known safety program.

  1. Method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClure, G.

    1980-06-17

    A method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane under liquid-liquid contact conditions by mixing liquid propane containing carbonyl sulfide as an impurity with 2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol as the principal agent for the carbonyl sulfide removal. The 2(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol is reclaimed and reused for further carbonyl sulfide removal. 5 claims.

  2. Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt065_ti_jenkins_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program State of Indiana/Greater IN Clean Cities Alternative Fuels Implementation Plan

  3. Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon tiarravt065_christopher_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Technology Integration Overview

  4. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n - butane and propane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsz-Keung, Cheung; d`Itri, J.L.; Lange, F.C.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments catalytic testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure, 225-450{degrees}C, and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking; at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup -8} mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). The observation of butanes, pentanes, and methane as products is consistent with Olah superacid chemistry, whereby propane is first protonated by a very strong acid to form a carbonium ion. The carbonium ion then decomposes into methane and an ethyl cation which undergoes oligocondensation reactions with propane to form higher molecular weight alkanes. The results are consistent with the identification of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia as a superacid.

  5. Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) The adsorption of...

  6. Subnanometer platinum clusters highly active and selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vajda, S; Pellin, M. J.; Greeley, J. P.; Marshall, C. L.; Curtiss, L. A.; Ballentine, G. A.; Elam, J. W.; Catillon-Mucherie, S.; Redfern, P. C.; Mehmood, F.; Zapol, P.; Yale Univ.

    2009-03-01

    Small clusters are known to possess reactivity not observed in their bulk analogues, which can make them attractive for catalysis. Their distinct catalytic properties are often hypothesized to result from the large fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms. Here, we show that size-preselected Pt{sub 8-10} clusters stabilized on high-surface-area supports are 40-100 times more active for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane than previously studied platinum and vanadia catalysts, while at the same time maintaining high selectivity towards formation of propylene over by-products. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that under-coordination of the Pt atoms in the clusters is responsible for the surprisingly high reactivity compared with extended surfaces. We anticipate that these results will form the basis for development of a new class of catalysts by providing a route to bond-specific chemistry, ranging from energy-efficient and environmentally friendly synthesis strategies to the replacement of petrochemical feedstocks by abundant small alkanes.

  7. Processes and systems for the production of propylene glycol from glycerol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, John G; Oberg, Aaron A; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-01-20

    Processes and systems for converting glycerol to propylene glycol are disclosed. The glycerol feed is diluted with propylene glycol as the primary solvent, rather than water which is typically used. The diluted glycerol feed is sent to a reactor where the glycerol is converted to propylene glycol (as well as other byproducts) in the presence of a catalyst. The propylene glycol-containing product from the reactor is recycled as a solvent for the glycerol feed.

  8. Emissions results for dedicated propane Chrysler minivans: the 1996 propane vehicle challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buitrago, C.; Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), through Argonne National Laboratory, and in cooperation with Natural Resources-Canada and Chrysler Canada, sponsored and organized the 1996 Propane Vehicle Challenge (PVC). For this competition , 13 university teams from North America each received a stock Chrysler minivan to be converted to dedicated propane operation while maintaining maximum production feasibility. The converted vehicles were tested for performance (driveability, cold- and hot-start, acceleration, range, and fuel economy) and exhaust emissions. Of the 13 entries for the 1996 PVC, 10 completed all of the events scheduled, including the emissions test. The schools used a variety of fuel-management, fuel-phase and engine-control strategies, but their strategies can be summarized as three main types: liquid fuel-injection, gaseous fuel-injection, and gaseous carburetor. The converted vehicles performed similarly to the gasoline minivan. The University of Windsor`s minivan had the lowest emissions attaining ULEV levels with a gaseous-injected engine. The Texas A&M vehicle, which had a gaseous-fuel injection system, and the GMI Engineering and Management Institute`s vehicle, which had a liquid-injection system both reached LEV levels. Vehicles with an injection fuel system (liquid or gaseous) performed better in terms of emissions than carbureted systems. Liquid injection appeared to be the best option for fuel metering and control for propane, but more research and calibration are necessary to improve the reliability and performance of this design.

  9. Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    saving on fuel costs," he said. "If these law enforcement vehicles were running great on propane autogas in such a demanding environment, then this was the fuel for my fleet."...

  10. VEE-0040- In the Matter of Western Star Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 18, 1997, Western Star Propane, Inc. (Western) filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its application,...

  11. Revised Propane Stock Levels for 6/7/13

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised Propane Stock Levels for 6713 Release Date: June 19, 2013 Following the release of the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) for the week ended June 7, 2013, EIA...

  12. Advisory on the reporting error in the combined propane stocks...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Advisory on the reporting error in the combined propane stocks for PADDs 4 and 5 Release Date: June 12, 2013 The U.S. Energy Information Administration issued the following...

  13. Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits? October 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint School districts across the country are looking for ways to save money and be more...

  14. VEE-0060- In the Matter of Blakeman Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On May 11, 1999, Blakeman Propane, Inc. (Blakeman) of Moorcroft, Wyoming, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its...

  15. Microsoft Word - Joe Rose - Providence remarks.propane.JUR -...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and the greater Northeast. These include: The critical need for additional primary storage in the Northeast New England sells 7% of the nation's propane but has only 1% of the...

  16. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane bills Lower oil prices are not only driving down gasoline costs, but U.S. consumers will also see a bigger savings in ...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    County Schools Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Columbus, Ohio Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in

  20. RECS Propane Usage Form_v1 (Draft).xps

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane usage for this housing unit between September 2008 and April 2010. Delivery Number Enter the Delivery Date for each delivery 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Enter the Total Dollar Amount including taxes [Exclude late fees, merchandise, repairs, and service charges] 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Form EIA 457D OMB No. 1905-0092 Expires 1/31/13 2009 RECS Propane (Bottled Gas or LPG) Usage Form Delivery Address: Account Number: $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

  1. Structure of poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) diblock copolymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure of poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) diblock copolymer micelles in binary solvent mixtures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure of...

  2. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles ...

  3. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  4. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for propane.

  5. A practical grinding-assisted dry synthesis of nanocrystalline NiMoO{sub 4} polymorphs for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Miao; Wu Jialing; Liu Yongmei; Cao Yong; Guo Li; He Heyong; Fan Kangnian

    2011-12-15

    A practical two-stage reactive grinding-assisted pathway waste-free and cost-effective for the synthesis of NiMoO{sub 4} has been successfully developed. It was demonstrated that proper design in synthetic strategy for grinding plays a crucial role in determining the ultimate polymorph of NiMoO{sub 4}. Specifically, direct grinding (DG) of MoO{sub 3} and NiO rendered {alpha}-NiMoO{sub 4} after annealing, whereas sequential grinding (SG) of the two independently pre-ground oxides followed by annealing generated {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4} solid solution. Characterizations in terms of Raman and X-ray diffraction suggest the creation of {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4} precursor in the latter alternative is the key aspect for the formation of {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4}. The DG-derived {alpha}-NiMoO{sub 4} tested by oxidative dehydrogenation of propane exhibited superior activity in contrast to its analog synthesized via conventional coprecipitation. It is suggested that the favorable chemical composition facilely obtained via grinding in contrast to that by coprecipitation was essential for achieving a more selective production of propylene. - Graphical Abstract: Grinding-assisted synthesis of NiMoO{sub 4} offers higher and more reproducible activities in contrast to coprecipitation for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, and both {alpha}- and {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4} can be synthesized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiMoO{sub 4} was prepared through grinding-assisted pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct/sequential grinding rendered {alpha}-, {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4}, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grinding-derived {alpha}-NiMoO{sub 4} showed high and reproducible activity for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane.

  6. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks for kinetic separation of propane and propene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jing; Li, Kunhao; Olson, David H.

    2014-08-05

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) characterized by organic ligands consisting of imidazole ligands that are either essentially all 2-chloroimidazole ligands or essentially all 2-bromoimidazole ligands are disclosed. Methods for separating propane and propene with the ZIFs of the present invention, as well as other ZIFs, are also disclosed.

  7. Propane Market Outlook Key Market Trends, Opportunities, and Threats Facing the Consumer

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Market Outlook Key Market Trends, Opportunities, and Threats Facing the Consumer Propane Industry Through 2025 Prepared for the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) by: ICF International, Inc. 9300 Lee Highway Fairfax, VA 22031 Tel (703) 218-2758 www.icfi.com Principal Author: Mr. Michael Sloan msloan@icfi.com P R E S E N T E D B Y : Propane Market Outlook at a Glance ¡ ICF projects consumer propane sales to grow by about 800 million gallons (9 percent) between 2014 and

  8. Experimental study on transmission of an overdriven detonation wave from propane/oxygen to propane/air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Lai, W.H.; Chung, K.; Lu, F.K.

    2008-08-15

    Two sets of experiments were performed to achieve a strong overdriven state in a weaker mixture by propagating an overdriven detonation wave via a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process. First, preliminary experiments with a propane/oxygen mixture were used to evaluate the attenuation of the overdriven detonation wave in the DDT process. Next, experiments were performed wherein a propane/oxygen mixture was separated from a propane/air mixture by a thin diaphragm to observe the transmission of an overdriven detonation wave. Based on the characteristic relations, a simple wave intersection model was used to calculate the state of the transmitted detonation wave. The results showed that a rarefaction effect must be included to ensure that there is no overestimate of the post-transmission wave properties when the incident detonation wave is overdriven. The strength of the incident overdriven detonation wave plays an important role in the wave transmission process. The experimental results showed that a transmitted overdriven detonation wave occurs instantaneously with a strong incident overdriven detonation wave. The near-CJ state of the incident wave leads to a transmitted shock wave, and then the transition to the overdriven detonation wave occurs downstream. The attenuation process for the overdriven detonation wave decaying to a near-CJ state occurs in all tests. After the attenuation process, an unstable detonation wave was observed in most tests. This may be attributed to the increase in the cell width in the attenuation process that exceeds the detonability cell width limit. (author)

  9. Refinery & Blender Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    & Blender Net Production Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases EthaneEthylene Ethane Ethylene PropanePropylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane...

  10. Propane-air peakshaving impact on natural gas vehicles. Topical report, August 1993-January 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, M.E.; Shikari, Y.; Blazek, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Propane-air peakshaving activities can lead to higher-than-normal propane levels in natural gas. Natural gas vehicle (NGV) fueling station operation and NGV performance can be affected by the presence of excess propane in natural gas. To assess the impact on NGV markets due to propane-air peakshaving, a comprehensive survey of gas utilities nationwide was undertaken to compile statistics on current practices. The survey revealed that about half of the responders continue to propane-air peakshave and that nearly two-thirds of these companies serve markets that include NGV fueling stations. Based on the survey results, it is estimated that nearly 13,000 NGVs could be affected by propane-air peakshaving activities by the year 2000.

  11. Measurement of the soot concentration and soot particle sizes in propane oxygen flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockhorn, H.; Fetting, F.; Meyer, U.; Reck, R.; Wannemacher, G.

    1981-01-01

    Soot concentrations and particle sizes were measured by light scattering and probe measurements in the burnt gas region of atmospheric pressure propane-oxygen flames and propane-oxygen flames to which hydrogen or ammonia were added. The results show that the soot concentrations in propane-oxygen flames, to which hydrogen is added are lower compared to propane-oxygen flames. The decrease of soot concentration is much stronger when ammonia is added. Associated with the reduction of soot concentration is a reduction of mean particle size of the soot particles and a lower breadth of the particle size distributions. Electron micrographs of soot particles from the probe measurements showed that soot particles from flames with high soot concentrations (propane oxygen flames) are aggregates with chain or cluster structure while the structure of the particles from flames with lower soot concentration (propane oxygen flames with hydrogen or ammonia added) is more compact. 24 refs.

  12. Direct Epoxidation of Propylene over Stabilized Cu+ Surface Sites on Ti Modified Cu2O

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, X.; Kattel, S.; Xiong, K.; Mudiyanselage, K.; Rykov, S.; Senanayake, S. D.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Liu, P.; Stacchiola, D. J.; Chen, J. G.

    2015-07-17

    Direct propylene epoxidation by O2 is a challenging reaction because of the strong tendency for complete combustion. Results from the current study demonstrate the feasibility to tune the epoxidation selectivity by generating highly dispersed and stabilized Cu+ active sites in a TiCuOx mixed oxide. The TiCuOx surface anchors the key surface intermediate, oxametallacycle, leading to higher selectivity for epoxidation of propylene.

  13. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  14. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and EIA-782B, "Resellers'Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type 28 Energy Information Administration ...

  15. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  16. BF3-promoted electrochemical properties of quinoxaline in propylene carbonate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carino, Emily V.; Diesendruck, Charles E.; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2015-02-04

    Electrochemical and density functional studies demonstrate that coordination of electrolyte constituents to quinoxalines modulates their electrochemical properties. Quinoxalines are shown to be electrochemically inactive in most electrolytes in propylene carbonate, yet the predicted reduction potential is shown to match computational estimates in acetonitrile. We find that in the presence of LiBF4 and trace water, an adduct is formed between quinoxaline and the Lewis acid BF3, which then displays electrochemical activity at 1–1.5 V higher than prior observations of quinoxaline electrochemistry in non-aqueous media. Direct synthesis and testing of a bis-BF3 quinoxaline complex further validates the assignment of the electrochemically activemore » species, presenting up to a ~26-fold improvement in charging capacity, demonstrating the advantages of this adduct over unmodified quinoxaline in LiBF4-based electrolyte. The use of Lewis acids to effectively “turn on” the electrochemical activity of organic molecules may lead to the development of new active material classes for energy storage applications.« less

  17. Availability of Canadian imports to meet U.S. demand for ethane, propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, Canada has had a surplus of ethane, propane and butane. Almost all of the available propane and butane in Canadian natural gas streams is recovered. While there is significant ethane recovery in Canada, ethane that cannot be economically sold is left in the gas streams. All of the surplus Canadian ethane and most of the Canadian surplus propane and butane is exported to the US. Some volumes of Canadian propane and butane have been moved offshore by marine exports to the Asia-Pacific region or South America, or directly to Mexico by rail. Essentially all of the Canadian ethane, 86% of the propane and 74% of the butane are recovered by gas processing. Canadian natural gas production has increased significantly over the last 10 years. Canadian gas resources in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin should permit further expansion of gas exports, and several gas pipeline projects are pending to expand the markets for Canadian gas in the US. The prospective increase in Canadian gas production will yield higher volumes of ethane, propane and butane. While there is a potential to expand domestic markets for ethane, propane and butane, a significant part of the incremental production will move to export markets. This paper provides a forecast of the expected level of ethane, propane and butane exports from Canada and discusses the supply, demand and logistical developments which may affect export availability from Canada.

  18. Final report of the Rhode Island State Energy Office on residential no. 2 heating oil and propane prices [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClanahan, Janice

    2001-04-01

    Summary report on residential No.2 heating oil and propane prepared under grant. Summarizes the monitoring and analysis of heating oil and propane prices from October 2000 through March 2001.

  19. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  20. Simulation of hydrogen and hydrogen-assisted propane ignition in Pt catalyzed microchannel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seshadri, Vikram; Kaisare, Niket S.

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with self-ignition of catalytic microburners from ambient cold-start conditions. First, reaction kinetics for hydrogen combustion is validated with experimental results from the literature, followed by validation of a simplified pseudo-2D microburner model. The model is then used to study the self-ignition behavior of lean hydrogen/air mixtures in a Platinum-catalyzed microburner. Hydrogen combustion on Pt is a very fast reaction. During cold start ignition, hydrogen conversion reaches 100% within the first few seconds and the reactor dynamics are governed by the ''thermal inertia'' of the microburner wall structure. The self-ignition property of hydrogen can be used to provide the energy required for propane ignition. Two different modes of hydrogen-assisted propane ignition are considered: co-feed mode, where the microburner inlet consists of premixed hydrogen/propane/air mixtures; and sequential feed mode, where the inlet feed is switched from hydrogen/air to propane/air mixtures after the microburner reaches propane ignition temperature. We show that hydrogen-assisted ignition is equivalent to selectively preheating the inlet section of the microburner. The time to reach steady state is lower at higher equivalence ratio, lower wall thermal conductivity, and higher inlet velocity for both the ignition modes. The ignition times and propane emissions are compared. Although the sequential feed mode requires slightly higher amount of hydrogen, the propane emissions are at least an order of magnitude lower than the other ignition modes. (author)

  1. Effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamics of nanoconfined propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautam, Siddharth Liu, Tingting Welch, Susan; Cole, David; Rother, Gernot; Jalarvo, Niina; Mamontov, Eugene

    2014-04-24

    We report the effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamical properties of propane confined in nanoporous silica aerogel studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Our results demonstrate that the effect of a change in the pressure dominates over the effect of temperature variation on the dynamics of propane nano-confined in silica aerogel. At low pressures, most of the propane molecules are strongly bound to the pore walls, only a small fraction is mobile. As the pressure is increased, the fraction of mobile molecules increases. A change in the mechanism of motion, from continuous diffusion at low pressures to jump diffusion at higher pressures has also been observed.

  2. Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Test results show significant CO2 and NOx emission reductions, fuel economy gains, and overall energy savings with propane injection in a diesel engine. PDF icon p-18_servati.pdf More Documents & Publications Active DPF for Off-Road Particulate Matter (PM) Control Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology DPF for a Tractor Auxiliary Power Unit

  3. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles showed that, natural gas- and propane-fueled vehicles have high emissions of NH3 and CO, compared to diesel vehicles, while meeting certification requirements PDF icon deer11_johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Cummins-ORNL\FEERC Emissions

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  5. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

  6. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2016-01-01

    Propane has been a proven fuel for buses for decades. For the first time in 2007, Blue Bird rolled out a propane school bus using direct liquid injection, which was later followed by Thomas Built Buses and Navistar. Because this new technology is much more reliable than previous designs, it is essentially reintroducing propane buses to many school districts. During this same time period, vehicle emissions standards have tightened. To meet them, diesel engine manufacturers have added diesel particulate filters (DPF) and, more recently, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. As an alternative to diesel buses with these systems, many school districts have looked to other affordable, clean alternatives, and they've found that propane fits the bill.

  7. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane (Brochure), Clean Cities, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane's School Bus History While propane has been used in buses for decades, recent technologi- cal advancements have made it more reliable than ever. Prior to 2007, all propane vehicles used vapor injection technology. In 2007, Blue Bird rolled out a propane school bus using direct liquid injection for the first time, and this was followed by Thomas Built Buses and Navistar. Liquid injection technology makes propane buses a more reliable option. Since 2007, vehicle emissions standards have

  8. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize

  9. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Many standards development organizations (SDOs) are working to develop codes and standards needed for the utilization of alternative fuel vehicle technologies. This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for propane. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart Vehicle Systems Safety: Vehicle Tanks and Piping: Vehicle Components: Vehicle Dispensing Systems: Vehicle Dispensing System Components: Storage Systems: Storage

  10. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. propane vehicle and infrastructure projects. To determine which codes and standards apply to a specific project, identify the codes and standards currently in effect within the jurisdiction where the

  11. Assessment of the risk of transporting propane by truck and train

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geffen, C.A.

    1980-03-01

    The risk of shipping propane is discussed and the risk assessment methodology is summarized. The risk assessment model has been constructed as a series of separate analysis steps to allow the risk to be readily reevaluated as additional data becomes available or as postulated system characteristics change. The transportation system and accident environment, the responses of the shipping system to forces in transportation accidents, and release sequences are evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a comparison with other reports in this series. Based on the information presented, accidents involving tank truck shipments of propane will be expected to occur at a rate of 320 every year; accidents involving bobtails would be expected at a rate of 250 every year. Train accidents involving propane shipments would be expected to occur at a rate of about 60 every year. A release of any amount of material from propane trucks, under both normal transportation and transport accident conditions, is to be expected at a rate of about 110 per year. Releases from propane rail tank cars would occur about 40 times a year. However, only those releases that occur during a transportation accident or involve a major tank defect will include sufficient propane to present the potential for danger to the public. These significant releases can be expected at the lower rate of about fourteen events per year for truck transport and about one event every two years for rail tank car transport. The estimated number of public fatalities resulting from these significant releases in 1985 is fifteen. About eleven fatalities per year result from tank truck operation, and approximately half a death per year stems from the movement of propane in rail tank cars.

  12. A study of partially premixed unconfined propane flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roekke, N.A.; Hustad, J.E.; Soenju, O.K. )

    1994-04-01

    Unconfined turbulent partially premixed propane/air flames issuing from a straight tube into quiescent air at atmospheric pressure and temperature are investigated. Experiments on lifted flames are performed. Flame height and liftoff are reported together with emission indices for oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub 3]). The degree of partially premixing has been varied between a fuel mass fraction of 1.0 to 0.15. Six different nozzle diameters, d[sub 0], of 3.2, 6, 10, 20.5, 23.3, and 29.5 mm have been used. This resulted in outlet velocities, u[sub 0], varying from 1 to 130 m/s, flame heights up to 2.5 m, Froude numbers, Fr, from 3 to 3 [times] 10[sup 5], and thermal heat releases up to 350 kW. Flame height and liftoff show a strong dependence upon the ratio of the nozzle outlet velocity to the outlet diameter, the Froude number, and the fuel mass fraction Y[sub f]. Both modified, simplified, and newly developed expressions for height, liftoff and NO[sub x] emissions are presented and discussed. All the proposed expressions scale with Y[sub f][sup a]Fr[sup b] or Y[sub r][sup a]f(u[sub 0], d[sub 0]). The emission index for NO[sub x] scales very well with a previously developed expression based on the buoyant flame volume. The agreement between predictions and experimental data is generally good and well within the underlying experimental and theoretical uncertainties. The results from this study contain new data, as very little focus has previously been directed toward lifted partially premixed free flames of this size.

  13. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  14. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1996--1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1997-08-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1996-97 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used in rural areas where Natural GAs is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity and its perception as a clean heating fuel has increased the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  15. Preparation of Propylene Glycol Fatty Acid Ester or Other Glycol, or Polyol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fatty Acid Esters - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Preparation of Propylene Glycol Fatty Acid Ester or Other Glycol, or Polyol Fatty Acid Esters Battelle Memorial Institute Contact BMI About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication View Patent (38 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This technology provides an alternate

  16. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2006-05-02

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  17. Number 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1991/92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1992-06-01

    During the 1991--92 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1991 through March, 1992. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1991--1992 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data and responses to the events which unfolded during the 1991--1992 heating season.

  18. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1992/93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1993-05-01

    During the 1992--93 heating season, the Massachusetts Division Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1992 through March, 1993. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1992--93 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  19. Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter despite recent cold spell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter despite recent cold spell Despite the recent cold weather, households that use heating oil or propane as their main space heating fuel are still expected to have lower heating bills compared with last winter. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the average household that uses heating oil will spend $1,780 this winter that's about $570 less than last winter. Those savings reflect lower crude

  20. Alternative descriptions of catalyst deactivation in aromatization of propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshelev, Yu.N.; Vorob`ev, B.L.; Khvorova, E.P.

    1995-08-20

    Deactivation of a zeolite-containing catalyst has been studied in aromatization of propane and butane. Various descriptions of the dependence of the alkane conversion on the coke concentration on the catalyst have been considered, and using a statistical method of estimating the model validity, the most preferable form of the deactivation function has been proposed.

  1. Analysis of U.S. Propane Markets Winter 1996-97, An

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    This study constitutes an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends. The Energy Information Administration's approach focused on identifying the underlying reasons for the tight supply/demand balance in the fall of 1996, and on examining the potential for a recurrence of these events next year.

  2. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guliants, Vadim

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  3. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall; Susan, Donald Francis

    2005-01-01

    A severe fire and explosion occurred at a propane storage yard in Truth or Consequences, N.M., when a truck ran into the pumping and plumbing system beneath a large propane tank. The storage tank emptied when the liquid-phase excess flow valve tore out of the tank. The ensuing fire engulfed several propane delivery trucks, causing one of them to explode. A series of elevated-temperature stress-rupture tears developed along the top of a 9800 L (2600 gal) truck-mounted tank as it was heated by the fire. Unstable fracture then occurred suddenly along the length of the tank and around both end caps, along the girth welds connecting the end caps to the center portion of the tank. The remaining contents of the tank were suddenly released, aerosolized, and combusted, creating a powerful boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Based on metallography of the tank pieces, the approximate tank temperature at the onset of the BLEVE was determined. Metallurgical analysis of the ruptured tank also permitted several hypotheses regarding BLEVE mechanisms to be evaluated. Suggestions are made for additional work that could provide improved predictive capabilities regarding BLEVEs and for methods to decrease the susceptibility of propane tanks to BLEVEs.

  4. State of Missouri 1991--1992 Energy Information Administration State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Missouri State Heating Oil and Propane Program was to develop a joint state-level company-specific data collective effort. The State of Missouri provided to the US Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration company specific price and volume information on residential No. 2 heating oil and propane on a semimonthly basis. The energy companies participating under the program were selected at random by the US Department of Energy and provided to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources' Division of Energy prior to the implementation of the program. The specific data collection responsibilities for the Missouri Department of Natural Resources' Division of Energy included: (1) Collection of semimonthly residential heating oil and propane prices, collected on the first and third Monday from August 1991 through August 1992; and, (2) Collection of annual sales volume data for residential propane for the period September 1, 1990 through August 31. 1991. This data was required for the first report only. These data were provided on a company identifiable level to the extent permitted by State law. Information was transmitted to the US Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration through the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO).

  5. Dielectric relaxation of ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate from molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I.; You, Xinli; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Rempe, Susan B.

    2015-11-24

    Ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) are widely used solvents in lithium (Li)-ion batteries and supercapacitors. Ion dissolution and diffusion in those media are correlated with solvent dielectric responses. Here, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the pure solvents to calculate dielectric constants and relaxation times, and molecular mobilities. The computed results are compared with limited available experiments to assist more exhaustive studies of these important characteristics. As a result, the observed agreement is encouraging and provides guidance for further validation of force-field simulation models for EC and PC solvents.

  6. Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Pingping; Siddiqi, Georges; Vining, William C.; Chi, Miaofang; Bell, Alexis T.

    2011-10-28

    Catalysts for the dehydrogenation of light alkanes were prepared by dispersing Pt on the surface of a calcined hydrotalcite-like support containing indium, Mg(In)(Al)O. Upon reduction in H{sub 2} at temperatures above 673 K, bimetallic particles of PtIn are observed by TEM, which have an average diameter of 1 nm. Analysis of Pt LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data shows that the In content of the bimetallic particles increases with increasing bulk In/Pt ratio and reduction temperature. Pt LIII-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) indicates that an increasing donation of electronic charge from In to Pt occurs with increasing In content in the PtIn particles. The activity and selectivity of the Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation reactions are strongly dependent on the bulk In/Pt ratio. For both reactants, maximum activity was achieved for a bulk In/Pt ratio of 0.48, and at this In/Pt ratio, the selectivity to alkene was nearly 100%. Coke deposition was observed after catalyst use for either ethane or propane dehydrogenation, and it was observed that the alloying of Pt with In greatly reduced the amount of coke deposited. Characterization of the deposit by Raman spectroscopy indicates that the coke is present as highly disordered graphite particles <30 nm in diameter. While the amount of coke deposited during ethane and propane dehydrogenation are comparable, the effects on activity are dependent on reactant composition. Coke deposition had no effect on ethane dehydrogenation activity, but caused a loss in propane dehydrogenation activity. This difference is attributed to the greater ease with which coke produced on the surface of PtIn nanoparticles migrates to the support during ethane dehydrogenation versus propane dehydrogenation.

  7. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid ElectricTrolleys; Advanced Technology Vehicles in Service, Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (Fact Sheet)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    website and in print publications. TESTING ADVANCED VEHICLES KNOXVILLE AREA TRANSIT ◆ PROPANE HYBRID ELECTRIC TROLLEYS Knoxville Area Transit PROPANE HYBRID ELECTRIC TROLLEYS NREL/PIX 13795 KNOXVILLE AREA TRANSIT (KAT) is recognized nationally for its exceptional service to the City of Knoxville, Tennessee. KAT received the American Public Transportation Associa- tion's prestigious Outstanding Achievement Award in 2004. Award-winning accomplishments included KAT's increase in annual ridership

  8. Determination of usage patterns and emissions for propane/LPG in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, M.

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine California usage patterns of Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), and to estimate propane emissions resulting from LPG transfer operations statewide, and by county and air basin. The study is the first attempt to quantify LPG transfer emissions for California. This was accomplished by analyzing data from a telephone survey of California businesses that use LPG, by extracting information from existing databases.

  9. Volumetric and phase behavior of selected Alberta bitumens saturated with supercritical-fluid CO{sub 2} and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, B.; Chen, G.; Peng, D.Yu.

    1995-12-31

    Supercritical solvents play an important role in separation processes. In enhanced oil recovery and in the upgrading of heavy oils, CO{sub 2} and propane are two frequently used solvents. The application of supercritical-fluid CO{sub 2} and supercritical-fluid propane in in situ recovery of heavy oils and bitumens necessitates information on the volumetric properties and phase behavior of mixtures of these petroleum fluids and supercritical-fluid solvents. To develop this information, we have conducted phase equilibrium studies for selected Alberta bitumens. The systems studied are Athabasca bitumen + CO{sub 2}, Peace River + CO{sub 2}, and Athabasca bitumen + propane. For the CO{sub 2}-containing systems, the experiments were carried out at 35, 45, 55, and 65{degrees}C, and at pressures up to 14 MPa. For the Athabasca bitumen + propane system, the measurements were taken at 108.6, 113.6, and 124.9{degrees}C, and at pressures up to 8.2 MPa. The experimental data show that the solubilities of propane in Athabasca bitumen under isothermal conditions are not monotonic functions of pressure. The data also indicate that under conditions of the same reduced temperatures the supercritical-fluid propane can extract substantially more bitumen components than can supercritical-fluid CO{sub 2}.

  10. Hydrate decomposition conditions in the system hydrogen sulfide-methane, and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeter, J.P.; Kobayashi, R.; Hildebrand, H.A.

    1982-12-01

    Experimental hydrate decomposition conditions are presented for 3 different H/sub 2/S-containing mixtures in the temperature region 0 C to 30 C. The 3 mixtures investigated were 4% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 89% methane; 12% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 81% methane; and 30% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 63% methane. Hydrate decomposition pressures and temperatures were obtained for each of these mixtures by observation of the pressure-temperature hysteresis curves associated with formation and decomposition of the hydrate crystals. A repeatable decomposition point was observed in every case, and this was identified as the hydrate point. The results for the 4% H/sub 2/S mixture were used to adjust parameters in a computer model based on the Parrish and Prausnitz statistical thermodynamics method, coupled with the BWRS equation of state. After the parameter adjustment, the computer model predicted the behavior of the 12% H/sub 2/S and the 30% H/sub 2/S mixtures to within 2 C. Experimental data for the 3 mixtures are given.

  11. Superheated-steam test of ethylene propylene rubber cables using a simultaneous aging and accident environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, P.R.; St. Clair, S.D.; Gilmore, T.W.

    1986-06-01

    The superheated-steam test exposed different ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables and insulation specimens to simultaneous aging and a 21-day simultaneous accident environment. In addition, some insulation specimens were exposed to five different aging conditions prior to the 21-day simultaneous accident simulation. The purpose of this superheated-steam test (a follow-on to the saturated-steam tests (NUREG/CR-3538)) was to: (1) examine electrical degradation of different configurations of EPR cables; (2) investigate differences between using superheated-steam or saturated-steam at the start of an accident simulation; (3) determine whether the aging technique used in the saturated-steam test induced artificial degradation; and (4) identify the constituents in EPR that affect moisture absorption.

  12. FIG13&14.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. PropanePropylene Supply and Disposition, Figure S14. PropanePropylene Ending Stocks, Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul 2003 2004 Months 0 25 50 75 100 0...

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - Joe Rose.Providence.Propane Supply Infrastructure.pptx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Propane Supply & Infrastructure Prepared for Quadrennial Energy Review Home Heating Panel April 21, 2014 Crop Drying DemandGallon * Record Corn Crop - 13.9 billion bushels * Cooler than normal weather in July and August delayed the harvest. * Above-average rainfall in October * Grain drying season started late and finished late Colder than Normal Weather October to March Heating Degree Days The 2013/2014 winter was: - 7.5 percent colder than 30- year normal weather - 10.5 percent colder

  14. Series 50 propane-fueled Nova bus: Engine development, installation, and field trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.

    1999-01-01

    The report describes a project to develop the Detroit Diesel series 50 liquefied propane gas (LPG) heavy-duty engine and to conduct demonstrations of LPG-fuelled buses at selected sites (Halifax Regional Municipality and three sites in the United States). The project included five main elements: Engine development and certification, chassis re-engineering and engine installation, field demonstration, LPG fuel testing, and LPG fuel variability testing. Lessons learned with regard to engine design and other issues are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development and testing.

  15. Direct Epoxidation of Propylene over Stabilized Cu+ Surface Sites on Ti Modified Cu2O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X.; Kattel, S.; Xiong, K.; Mudiyanselage, K.; Rykov, S.; Senanayake, S. D.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Liu, P.; Stacchiola, D. J.; Chen, J. G.

    2015-07-17

    Direct propylene epoxidation by O2 is a challenging reaction because of the strong tendency for complete combustion. Results from the current study demonstrate the feasibility to tune the epoxidation selectivity by generating highly dispersed and stabilized Cu+ active sites in a TiCuOx mixed oxide. The TiCuOx surface anchors the key surface intermediate, oxametallacycle, leading to higher selectivity for epoxidation of propylene.

  16. Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-10-05

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (Ω pilot ∼ 0.2-0.6 and Ω overall ∼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant Ω pilot (> 0.5), increasing Ω overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing Ω overall (at constant Ω pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  17. BF3-promoted electrochemical properties of quinoxaline in propylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carino, Emily V.; Diesendruck, Charles E.; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2015-02-04

    Electrochemical and density functional studies demonstrate that coordination of electrolyte constituents to quinoxalines modulates their electrochemical properties. Quinoxalines are shown to be electrochemically inactive in most electrolytes in propylene carbonate, yet the predicted reduction potential is shown to match computational estimates in acetonitrile. We find that in the presence of LiBF4 and trace water, an adduct is formed between quinoxaline and the Lewis acid BF3, which then displays electrochemical activity at 1–1.5 V higher than prior observations of quinoxaline electrochemistry in non-aqueous media. Direct synthesis and testing of a bis-BF3 quinoxaline complex further validates the assignment of the electrochemically active species, presenting up to a ~26-fold improvement in charging capacity, demonstrating the advantages of this adduct over unmodified quinoxaline in LiBF4-based electrolyte. The use of Lewis acids to effectively “turn on” the electrochemical activity of organic molecules may lead to the development of new active material classes for energy storage applications.

  18. Comparison of propane and methane performance and emissions in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-04-20

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  19. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

    2006-03-01

    U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

  20. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  1. Chemical kinetic modeling of high pressure propane oxidation and comparison to experimental results. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koert, D.N.; Pitz, W.J.; Bozzelli, J.W.; Cernansky, N.P.

    1996-02-01

    A pressure dependent kinetic mechanism for propane oxidation is developed and compared to experimental data from a high pressure flow reactor. Experimental conditions range from 10--15 atm, 650--800 K, and a residence time of 198 ms for propane-air mixtures at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The experimental results clearly indicate a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior. The chemistry describing this phenomena is critical in understanding automotive engine knock and cool flame oscillations. Results of the numerical model are compared to a spectrum of stable species profiles sampled from the flow reactor. Rate constants and product channels for the reaction of propyl radicals, hydroperoxy-propyl radicals and important isomers (radicals) with O{sub 2} were estimated using thermodynamic properties, with multifrequency quantum Kassel Theory for k(E) coupled with modified strong collision analysis for fall-off. Results of the chemical kinetic model show an NTC region over nearly the same temperature regime as observed in the experiments. Sensitivity analysis identified the key reaction steps that control the rate of oxidation in the NTC region. The model reasonably simulates the profiles for many of the major and minor species observed in the experiments.

  2. A theoretical study of the reaction paths for cobalt cation + propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, D.G.; Gordon, M.S.

    2000-03-23

    The triplet potential energy surface for the reaction of cobalt cation with propane has been studied along the two main reaction pathways leading to the formation of (1) hydrogen and propene and (2) methane and ethene. Effective core potentials for all elements have been used for all calculations. The geometries have been optimized at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level of theory, and the final energetics have been refined at the multireference second-order perturbation theory (MRMP2) level with polarization function augmented basis sets. Reasonable agreement with the experimental energetics has been obtained, and the predicted mechanism is consistent with the experimentally determined mechanism of Haynes, Fisher, and Armentrout (J.Phys.Chem. 1996, 100, 18300).

  3. Cross sections for electron scattering by propane in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, G. L. C. de; Lee, M.-T.; Sanches, I. P.; Rawat, P.; Iga, I.; Santos, A. S. dos; Machado, L. E.; Sugohara, R. T.; Brescansin, L. M.; Homem, M. G. P.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2010-07-15

    We present a joint theoretical-experimental study on electron scattering by propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer as well as total (elastic + inelastic) and total absorption cross sections are reported for impact energies ranging from 2 to 500 eV. Also, experimental absolute elastic cross sections are reported in the 40- to 500-eV energy range. A complex optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction dynamics. A theoretical method based on the single-center-expansion close-coupling framework and corrected by the Pade approximant is used to solve the scattering equations. The experimental angular distributions of the scattered electrons are converted to absolute cross sections using the relative flow technique. The comparison of our calculated with our measured results, as well as with other experimental and theoretical data available in the literature, is encouraging.

  4. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    In this project involving two homes, the IBACOS team evaluated the performance of the two space conditioning systems and the modeled efficiency of the two tankless domestic hot water systems relative to actual occupant use. Each house was built by Insight Homes and is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler).

  5. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Clusters Ligated with 1,3-Bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Priest, Thomas A.; Laskin, Julia

    2013-09-01

    In this multidisciplinary study we combine chemical reduction synthesis of novel gold clusters in solution with high-resolution analytical mass spectrometry (MS) to gain insight into the composition of the gold clusters and how their size, ionic charge state and ligand substitution influences their gas-phase fragmentation pathways. Ultra small cationic gold clusters ligated with 1,3-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane (DCPP) were synthesized for the first time and introduced into the gas phase using electrospray ionization (ESI). Mass-selected cluster ions were fragmented employing collision induced dissociation (CID) and the product ions were analysed using MS. The solutions were found to contain the multiply charged cationic gold clusters Au9L43+, Au13L53+, Au6L32+, Au8L32+ and Au10L42+ (L = DCPP). The gas-phase fragmentation pathways of these cluster ions were examined systematically employing CID combined with MS. In addition, CID experiments were performed on related gold clusters of the same size and ionic charge state but capped with 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (DPPP) ligands containing phenyl functional groups at the two phosphine centers instead of cyclohexane rings. It is shown that this relatively small change in the molecular substitution of the two phosphine centers in diphosphine ligands (C6H11 versus C6H5) exerts a pronounced influence on the size of the species that are preferentially formed in solution during reduction synthesis as well as the gas-phase fragmentation channels of otherwise identical gold cluster ions. The mass spectrometry results indicate that in addition to the length of the alkyl chain between the two phosphine centers, the substituents at the phosphine centers also play a crucial role in determining the composition, size and stability of diphosphine ligated gold clusters synthesized in solution.

  7. Chemical kinetic modeling of high pressure propane oxidation and comparison to experimental results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koert, D.N.; Pitz, W.J.; Bozzelli, J.W.; Cernansky, N.P.

    1995-11-08

    A pressure dependent kinetic mechanism for propane oxidation is developed and compared to experimental data from a high pressure flow reactor. The experiment conditions range from 10--15 atm, 650--800 K, and were performed at a residence time of 200 {micro}s for propane-air mixtures at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The experimental results include data on negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior, where the chemistry describing this phenomena is considered critical in understanding automotive engine knock and cool flame oscillations. Results of the numerical model are compared to a spectrum of stable species profiles sampled from the flow reactor. Rate constants and product channels for the reaction of propyl radicals, hydroperoxy-propyl radicals and important isomers with O{sub 2} were estimated using thermodynamic properties, with multifrequency quantum Kassel Theory for k(E) coupled with modified strong collision analysis for fall-off. Results of the chemical kinetic model show an NTC region over nearly the same temperature regime as observed in the experiments. The model simulates properly the production of many of the major and minor species observed in the experiments. Numerical simulations show many of the key reactions involving propylperoxy radicals are in partial equilibrium at 10--15 atm. This indicates that their relative concentrations are controlled by a combination of thermochemistry and rate of minor reaction channels (bleed reactions) rather than primary reaction rates. This suggests that thermodynamic parameters of the oxygenated species, which govern equilibrium concentrations, are important. The modeling results show propyl radical and hydroperoxy-propyl radicals reaction with O{sub 2} proceeds, primarily, through thermalized adducts, not chemically activated channels.

  8. Adsorption of propane, isopropyl, and hydrogen on cluster models of the M1 phase of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govindasamy, Agalya; Muthukumar, Kaliappan; Yu, Junjun; Xu, Ye; Guliants, Vadim V.

    2010-01-01

    The Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst possessing the M1 phase structure is uniquely capable of directly converting propane into acrylonitrile. However, the mechanism of this complex eight-electron transformation, which includes a series of oxidative H-abstraction and N-insertion steps, remains poorly understood. We have conducted a density functional theory study of cluster models of the proposed active and selective site for propane ammoxidation, including the adsorption of propane, isopropyl (CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 3}), and H which are involved in the first step of this transformation, that is, the methylene C-H bond scission in propane, on these active site models. Among the surface oxygen species, the telluryl oxo (Te=O) is found to be the most nucleophilic. Whereas the adsorption of propane is weak regardless of the MO{sub x} species involved, isopropyl and H adsorption exhibits strong preference in the order of Te=O > V=O > bridging oxygens > empty Mo apical site, suggesting the importance of TeO{sub x} species for H abstraction. The adsorption energies of isopropyl and H and consequently the reaction energy of the initial dehydrogenation of propane are strongly dependent on the number of ab planes included in the cluster, which points to the need to employ multilayer cluster models to correctly capture the energetics of surface chemistry on this mixed metal oxide catalyst.

  9. Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

    1991-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

  10. Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

    1991-12-31

    Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

  11. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  12. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  13. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of propane in coflow jets with tribrachial edge and mild combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, B.C.; Kim, K.N.; Chung, S.H.

    2009-02-15

    Characteristics of laminar lifted flames have been investigated experimentally by varying the initial temperature of coflow air over 800 K in the non-premixed jets of propane diluted with nitrogen. The result showed that the lifted flame with the initial temperature below 860 K maintained the typical tribrachial structure at the leading edge, which was stabilized by the balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and the local flow velocity. For the temperature above 860 K, the flame was autoignited without having any external ignition source. The autoignited lifted flames were categorized in two regimes. In the case with tribrachial edge structure, the liftoff height increased nonlinearly with jet velocity. Especially, for the critical condition near blowout, the lifted flame showed a repetitive behavior of extinction and reignition. In such a case, the autoignition was controlled by the non-adiabatic ignition delay time considering heat loss such that the autoignition height was correlated with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. In the case with mild combustion regime at excessively diluted conditions, the liftoff height increased linearly with jet velocity and was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)

  14. Catalytic propane dehydrogenation over In?O?Ga?O? mixed oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Shuai; Gil, Laura Briones; Subramanian, Nachal; Sholl, David S.; Nair, Sankar; Jones, Christopher W.; Moore, Jason S.; Liu, Yujun; Dixit, Ravindra S.; Pendergast, John G.

    2015-08-26

    We have investigated the catalytic performance of novel In?O?Ga?O? mixed oxides synthesized by the alcoholic-coprecipitation method for propane dehydrogenation (PDH). Reactivity measurements reveal that the activities of In?O?Ga?O? catalysts are 13-fold (on an active metal basis) and 1228-fold (on a surface area basis) higher than an In?O?Al?O? catalyst in terms of C?H? conversion. The structure, composition, and surface properties of the In?O?Ga?O? catalysts are thoroughly characterized. NH?-TPD shows that the binary oxide system generates more acid sites than the corresponding single-component catalysts. Raman spectroscopy suggests that catalysts that produce coke of a more graphitic nature suppress cracking reactions, leading to higher C?H? selectivity. Lower reaction temperature also leads to higher C?H? selectivity by slowing down the rate of side reactions. XRD, XPS, and XANES measurements, strongly suggest that metallic indium and In?O? clusters are formed on the catalyst surface during the reaction. The agglomeration of In?O? domains and formation of a metallic indium phase are found to be irreversible under O? or H? treatment conditions used here, and may be responsible for loss of activity with increasing time on stream.

  15. A rapid compression machine study of the oxidation of propane in the negative temperature coefficient regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, S.M.; Curran, H.J.; Metcalfe, W.K.; Healy, D.; Simmie, J.M.; Bourque, G.

    2008-04-15

    The oxidation of propane has been studied in the temperature range 680-970 K at compressed gas pressures of 21, 27, and 37 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. These data are consistent with other experiments presented in the literature for alkane fuels in that, when ignition delay times are plotted as a function of temperature, a characteristic negative coefficient behavior is observed. In addition, these data were simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that qualitatively the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio and pressure, predicting that fuel-rich, high-pressure mixtures ignite fastest, while fuel-lean, low-pressure mixtures ignite slowest. Moreover, reactivity as a function of temperature is well captured, with the model predicting negative temperature coefficient behavior similar to the experiments. Quantitatively the model is faster than experiment for all mixtures at the lowest temperatures (650-750 K) and is also faster than experiment throughout the entire temperature range for fuel-lean mixtures. (author)

  16. Comparison between a propane-air combustion front and a helium-air simulated combustion front

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barraclough, S.

    1983-12-01

    Turbulent combustion experiments were performed in a right cylindrical combustion bomb using a premixed propane-air gaseous fuel. The initial conditions inside the combustion chamber were three psig and room temperature. Prior to spark firing, the turbulence intensity inside the combustion chamber was measured and could be varied over a ten fold range. The effect of initial turbulence intensity on turbulent flame propagation was investigated. Two regimes of turbulent combustion were identified, which is in agreement with a previous investigator's results. One of them, a ''transition regime'' occurs when the turbulence intensity is approximately twice the laminar flame speed. Within the transition regime, the turbulent burning speed is linearly proportional to initial turbulence intensity and independent of laminar flame speed and turbulence length scale. A high pressure helium front was injected into the combustion chamber to simulate the combustion front. Since the helium front is isothermal, hot-wire anemometry can be used to quantify the change in turbulence intensity ahead of the propagating front. The helium front was found to have different characteristics than the combustion front.

  17. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-15

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  18. New insights into low-temperature oxidation of propane from synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry and multi-scale informatics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welz, Oliver; Burke, Michael P.; Antonov, Ivan O.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Savee, John David; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Sheps, Leonid

    2015-04-10

    We studied low-temperature propane oxidation at P = 4 Torr and T = 530, 600, and 670 K by time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS), which probes the reactants, intermediates, and products with isomeric selectivity using tunable synchrotron vacuum UV ionizing radiation. The oxidation is initiated by pulsed laser photolysis of oxalyl chloride, (COCl)2, at 248 nm, which rapidly generates a ~1:1 mixture of 1-propyl (n-propyl) and 2-propyl (i-propyl) radicals via the fast Cl + propane reaction. At all three temperatures, the major stable product species is propene, formed in the propyl + O2 reactions by direct HO2 elimination from both n- and i-propyl peroxy radicals. The experimentally derived propene yields relative to the initial concentration of Cl atoms are (20 4)% at 530 K, (55 11)% at 600 K, and (86 17)% at 670 K at a reaction time of 20 ms. The lower yield of propene at low temperature reflects substantial formation of propyl peroxy radicals, which do not completely decompose on the experimental time scale. In addition, C3H6O isomers methyloxirane, oxetane, acetone, and propanal are detected as minor products. Our measured yields of oxetane and methyloxirane, which are coproducts of OH radicals, suggest a revision of the OH formation pathways in models of low-temperature propane oxidation. The experimental results are modeled and interpreted using a multiscale informatics approach, presented in detail in a separate publication (Burke, M. P.; Goldsmith, C. F.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Welz, O.; Huang H.; Antonov I. O.; Savee J. D.; Osborn D. L.; Zdor, J.; Taatjes, C. A.; Sheps, L. Multiscale Informatics for Low-Temperature Propane Oxidation: Further Complexities in Studies of Complex Reactions. J. Phys. Chem A. 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b01003). Additionally, we found that the model predicts the time profiles and yields of the experimentally observed primary products well, and shows satisfactory agreement for products formed mostly via secondary radicalradical reactions.

  19. New Insights into Low-Temperature Oxidation of Propane from Synchrotron Photoionization Mass Spectrometry and Multi-Scale Informatics Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welz, Oliver; Burke, Michael P.; Antonov, Ivan O.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Savee, John David; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Sheps, Leonid

    2015-04-10

    We studied low-temperature propane oxidation at P = 4 Torr and T = 530, 600, and 670 K by time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS), which probes the reactants, intermediates, and products with isomeric selectivity using tunable synchrotron vacuum UV ionizing radiation. The oxidation is initiated by pulsed laser photolysis of oxalyl chloride, (COCl)2, at 248 nm, which rapidly generates a ~1:1 mixture of 1-propyl (n-propyl) and 2-propyl (i-propyl) radicals via the fast Cl + propane reaction. At all three temperatures, the major stable product species is propene, formed in the propyl + O2 reactions by direct HO2 elimination from both n- and i-propyl peroxy radicals. The experimentally derived propene yields relative to the initial concentration of Cl atoms are (20 4)% at 530 K, (55 11)% at 600 K, and (86 17)% at 670 K at a reaction time of 20 ms. The lower yield of propene at low temperature reflects substantial formation of propyl peroxy radicals, which do not completely decompose on the experimental time scale. In addition, C3H6O isomers methyloxirane, oxetane, acetone, and propanal are detected as minor products. Our measured yields of oxetane and methyloxirane, which are coproducts of OH radicals, suggest a revision of the OH formation pathways in models of low-temperature propane oxidation. The experimental results are modeled and interpreted using a multiscale informatics approach, presented in detail in a separate publication (Burke, M. P.; Goldsmith, C. F.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Welz, O.; Huang H.; Antonov I. O.; Savee J. D.; Osborn D. L.; Zdor, J.; Taatjes, C. A.; Sheps, L. Multiscale Informatics for Low-Temperature Propane Oxidation: Further Complexities in Studies of Complex Reactions. J. Phys. Chem A. 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b01003). Additionally, we found that the model predicts the time profiles and yields of the experimentally observed primary products well, and shows satisfactory agreement for products formed mostly via secondary radicalradical reactions.

  20. New insights into low-temperature oxidation of propane from synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry and multi-scale informatics modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Welz, Oliver; Burke, Michael P.; Antonov, Ivan O.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Savee, John David; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Sheps, Leonid

    2015-04-10

    We studied low-temperature propane oxidation at P = 4 Torr and T = 530, 600, and 670 K by time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS), which probes the reactants, intermediates, and products with isomeric selectivity using tunable synchrotron vacuum UV ionizing radiation. The oxidation is initiated by pulsed laser photolysis of oxalyl chloride, (COCl)2, at 248 nm, which rapidly generates a ~1:1 mixture of 1-propyl (n-propyl) and 2-propyl (i-propyl) radicals via the fast Cl + propane reaction. At all three temperatures, the major stable product species is propene, formed in the propyl + O2 reactions by direct HO2 elimination frommore » both n- and i-propyl peroxy radicals. The experimentally derived propene yields relative to the initial concentration of Cl atoms are (20 ± 4)% at 530 K, (55 ± 11)% at 600 K, and (86 ± 17)% at 670 K at a reaction time of 20 ms. The lower yield of propene at low temperature reflects substantial formation of propyl peroxy radicals, which do not completely decompose on the experimental time scale. In addition, C3H6O isomers methyloxirane, oxetane, acetone, and propanal are detected as minor products. Our measured yields of oxetane and methyloxirane, which are coproducts of OH radicals, suggest a revision of the OH formation pathways in models of low-temperature propane oxidation. The experimental results are modeled and interpreted using a multiscale informatics approach, presented in detail in a separate publication (Burke, M. P.; Goldsmith, C. F.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Welz, O.; Huang H.; Antonov I. O.; Savee J. D.; Osborn D. L.; Zádor, J.; Taatjes, C. A.; Sheps, L. Multiscale Informatics for Low-Temperature Propane Oxidation: Further Complexities in Studies of Complex Reactions. J. Phys. Chem A. 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b01003). Additionally, we found that the model predicts the time profiles and yields of the experimentally observed primary products well, and shows satisfactory agreement for products formed mostly via secondary radical–radical reactions.« less

  1. Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    Insight Homes constructed two houses in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, with identical floor plans and thermal envelopes but different heating and domestic hot water (DHW) systems. Each house is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler). Both houses were occupied during the test period. Results indicate that efficiency of the two heating systems was not significantly different. Three issues dominate these results; lower system design performance resulting from the indoor refrigerant coil selected for the standard house, an incorrectly functioning defrost cycle in the standard house, and the low resolution of the natural gas monitoring equipment. The thermal comfort of both houses fell outside the ASHRAE Standard 55 heating range but was within the ACCA room-to-room temperature range when compared to the thermostat temperature. The monitored DHW draw schedules were input into EnergyPlus to evaluate the efficiency of the tankless hot water heater model using the two monitored profiles and the Building America House Simulation Protocols. The results indicate that the simulation is not significantly impacted by the draw profiles.

  2. ED-XAS Data Reveal In-situ Time-Resolved Adsorbate Coverage on Supported Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts during Propane Dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramaker, David; Gatewood, Daniel; Beale, Andrew M.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2007-02-02

    Energy-Dispersive X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (ED-XAS) data combined with UV/Vis, Raman, and mass spectrometry data on alumina- and silica-supported molybdenum oxide catalysts under propane dehydrogenation conditions have been previously reported. A novel {delta}{mu} adsorbate isolation technique was applied here to the time-resolved (0.1 min) Mo K-edge ED-XAS data by taking the difference of absorption, {mu}, at t>1 against the initial time, t=0. Further, full multiple scattering calculations using the FEFF 8.0 code are performed to interpret the {delta}{mu} signatures. The resulting difference spectra and interpretation provide real time propane coverage and O depletion at the MoOn surface. The propane coverage is seen to correlate with the propene and/or coke production, with the maximum coke formation occurring when the propane coverage is the largest. Combined, these data give unprecedented insight into the complicated dynamics for propane dehydrogenation.

  3. High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-Polyisoprene Solutions in Propane Exhibit Cloud-Pressure Reduction and Distinct Micellization End Points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winoto, Winoto; Radosz, Maciej; Tan, Sugata; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical non-micellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size and ratio, and on the polymer concentration. For a given pressure, the micellization end-point temperature corresponds to the "critical micelle temperature." The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

  4. Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.S.; Anh, D.H.; Chung, S.H.

    2008-08-15

    Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

  5. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates",11,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release

  6. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates",11,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release

  7. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF 4 in propylene carbonate. A model lithium ion battery electrolyte

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2014-08-20

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li+ ion in this model electrolyte.more » By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li+-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li+–solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures.« less

  8. Experimental and kinetic study of autoignition in methane/ethane/air and methane/propane/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.; Bushe, W.K.

    2006-01-01

    The ignition delay of homogeneous methane/air mixtures enriched with small fractions of ethane/propane was measured using the reflected-shock technique at temperatures from 900 to 1400 K and pressures from 16 to 40 bar. The results show complex effects of ethane/propane on the ignition of methane, but a common trend observed with both hydrocarbons is an increased promotion effect for temperatures below 1100 K. A detailed kinetic mechanism was used to investigate the interaction between ethane/propane and the ignition chemistry of methane under the above conditions. It was found that at relatively low temperatures, the reactions between ethane/propane and methylperoxy (CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}) lead to an enhanced rate of formation of OH radicals in the initiation phase of the ignition. By systematically applying the quasi-steady-state assumptions to the intermediate species involved in the main reaction path identified, we have achieved an analytical description of the ignition process in the transitional temperature regime. The analytical solutions agree reasonably well with the detailed kinetic model and the experimental results for both ignition delay and concentrations of major intermediate species.

  9. An In-Situ XAS Study of the Structural Changes in a CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 Catalyst during Total Oxidation of Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silversmith, Geert; Poelman, Hilde; Poelman, Dirk; Gryse, Roger de; Olea, Maria; Balcaen, Veerle; Heynderickx, Philippe; Marin, Guy B.

    2007-02-02

    A CuOx-CeOx/Al2O3 catalyst was studied with in-situ transmission Cu K XAS for the total oxidation of propane as model reaction for the catalytic elimination of volatile organic compounds. The local Cu structure was determined for the catalyst as such, after pre-oxidation and after reduction with propane. The catalyst as such has a local CuO structure. No structural effect was observed upon heating in He up to 600 deg. C or after pre-oxidation at 150 deg. C. A full reduction of the Cu2+ towards metallic Cu0 occurred, when propane was fed to the catalyst. The change in local Cu structure during propane reduction was followed with a time resolution of 1 min. The {chi}(k) scans appeared as linear combinations of start and end spectra, CuO and Cu structure, respectively. However, careful examination of the XANES edge spectra indicates the presence of a small amount of additional Cu1+ species.

  10. State of Missouri 1991--1992 Energy Information Administration State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP). Final report, August 9, 1991--August 8, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The objective of the Missouri State Heating Oil and Propane Program was to develop a joint state-level company-specific data collective effort. The State of Missouri provided to the US Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration company specific price and volume information on residential No. 2 heating oil and propane on a semimonthly basis. The energy companies participating under the program were selected at random by the US Department of Energy and provided to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources` Division of Energy prior to the implementation of the program. The specific data collection responsibilities for the Missouri Department of Natural Resources` Division of Energy included: (1) Collection of semimonthly residential heating oil and propane prices, collected on the first and third Monday from August 1991 through August 1992; and, (2) Collection of annual sales volume data for residential propane for the period September 1, 1990 through August 31. 1991. This data was required for the first report only. These data were provided on a company identifiable level to the extent permitted by State law. Information was transmitted to the US Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration through the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO).

  11. Anomalous dynamics of aqueous solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether confined in MCM-41 by quasielastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, Jan Elamin, Khalid; Chen, Guo; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Sakai, Victoria Garcia

    2014-12-07

    The molecular dynamics of solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether (2PGME) and H{sub 2}O (or D{sub 2}O) confined in 28 Å pores of MCM-41 have been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering and differential scanning calorimetry over the concentration range 0–90 wt.% water. This system is of particular interest due to its pronounced non-monotonic concentration dependent dynamics of 2PGME in the corresponding bulk system, showing the important role of hydrogen bonding for the dynamics. In this study we have elucidated how this non-monotonic concentration dependence is affected by the confined geometry. The results show that this behaviour is maintained in the confinement, but the slowest diffusive dynamics of 2PGME is now observed at a considerably higher water concentration; at 75 wt.% water in MCM-41 compared to 30 wt.% water in the corresponding bulk system. This difference can be explained by an improper mixing of the two confined liquids. The results suggest that water up to a concentration of about 20 wt.% is used to hydrate the hydrophilic hydroxyl surface groups of the silica pores, and that it is only at higher water contents the water becomes partly mixed with 2PGME. Hence, due to this partial micro-phase separation of the two liquids larger, and thereby slower relaxing, structural entities of hydrogen bonded water and 2PGME molecules can only be formed at higher water contents than in the bulk system. However, the Q-dependence is unchanged with confinement, showing that the nature of the molecular motions is preserved. Thus, there is no indication of localization of the dynamics at length scales of less than 20 Å. The dynamics of both water and 2PGME is strongly dominated by translational diffusion at a temperature of 280 K.

  12. Ignition of ethane, propane, and butane in counterflow jets of cold fuel versus hot air under variable pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotache, C.G.; Wang, H.; Law, C.K.

    1999-06-01

    This study investigates experimentally the nonpremixed ignition of ethane, propane, n-butane, and isobutane in a configuration of opposed fuel versus heated air jets. For each of these fuels the authors explore the effects of inert dilution, system pressure, and flow strain rate, for fuel concentrations ranging between 3--100% by volume, pressures between 0.2 and 8 atm, and strain rates of 100--600 s{sup {minus}1}. Qualitatively, these fuels share a number of characteristics. First, flame ignition typically occurs after an interval of mild oxidation, characterized by minimal heat release, fuel conversion, and weak light emission. The temperature extent of this regime decreases with increasing the fuel concentration, the ambient pressure, or the flow residence time. Second, the response to strain rate, pressure, and fuel concentration is similar for all investigated fuels, in that the ignition temperatures monotonically decrease with increasing fuel content, decreasing flow strain, and increasing ambient pressure. The C{sub 4} alkanes, however, exhibit three distinct p-T ignition regimes, similar to the homogeneous explosion limits. Finally, at 1 atm, 100% fuel, and a fixed flow strain rate the ignition temperature increases in the order of ethane < propane < n-butane < i-butane. Numerical simulation was conducted for ethane ignition using detailed reaction kinetics and transport descriptions. The modeling results suggest that ignition for all fuels studied at pressures below 5 atm is initiated by fuel oxidation following the high-temperature mechanism of radical chain branching and with little contribution by low-to-intermediate temperature chemistry.

  13. TIME-VARYING FLAME IONIZATION SENSING APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE BLENDS IN A PRESSURIZED LEAN PREMIXED (LPM) COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Straub; B. T. Chorpening; E. D. Huckaby; J. D. Thornton; W. L. Fincham

    2008-06-13

    In-situ monitoring of combustion phenomena is a critical need for optimal operation and control of advanced gas turbine combustion systems. The concept described in this paper is based on naturally occurring flame ionization processes that accompany the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Previous work has shown that flame ionization techniques may be applied to detect flashback, lean blowout, and some aspects of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities. Previous work has focused on application of DC electric fields. By application of time-varying electric fields, significant improvements to sensor capabilities have been observed. These data have been collected in a lean premixed combustion test rig operating at 0.51-0.76 MPa (5-7.5 atm) with air preheated to 588 K (600F). Five percent of the total fuel flow is injected through the centerbody tip as a diffusion pilot. The fuel composition is varied independently by blending approximately 5% (volume) propane with the pipeline natural gas. The reference velocity through the premixing annulus is kept constant for all conditions at a nominal value of 70 m/s. The fuel-air equivalence ratio is varied independently from 0.46 0.58. Relative to the DC field version, the time-varying combustion control and diagnostic sensor (TV-CCADS) shows a significant improvement in the correlation between the measured flame ionization current and local fuel-air equivalence ratio. In testing with different fuel compositions, the triangle wave data show the most distinct change in flame ionization current in response to an increase in propane content. Continued development of this sensor technology will improve the capability to control advanced gas turbine combustion systems, and help address issues associated with variations in fuel supplies.

  14. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    The principal constituents are methane, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, propane, propylene, etc. Still gas is used as a refinery fuel and a petrochemical...

  15. ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that indicate H2 concentrations > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions:...

  16. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2003) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that indicate H2 concentrations > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions...

  17. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Movements by Tanker and Barge...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tanker and Barge between PAD Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Liquefied Petroleum Gases PropanePropylene Unfinished Oils Motor ...

  18. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Stocks by Type Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases EthaneEthylene PropanePropylene Normal ...

  19. Vanadium oxide based nanostructured materials for catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of propane : effect of heterometallic centers on the catalyst performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, M. I.; Deb, S.; Aydemir, K.; Alwarthan, A. A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Miller, J. T.; Marshall, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic properties of a series of new class of catalysts materials-[Co{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42} (XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Co), [Fe{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Fe) (X = V, S) and [H{sub 6}Mn{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(VO{sub 4})].30H{sub 2}O for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane is studied. The open-framework nanostructures in these novel materials consist of three-dimensional arrays of {l_brace}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4}){r_brace} (X = V, S) clusters interconnected by {l_brace}-O-M-O-{r_brace} (M = Mn, Fe, Co) linkers. The effect of change in the heterometallic center M (M = Mn, Co, Fe) of the linkers on the catalyst performance was studied. The catalyst material with Co in the linker showed the best performance in terms of propane conversion and selectivity at 350 C. The material containing Fe was most active but least selective and Mn containing catalyst was least active. The catalysts were characterized by Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), BET surface area measurement, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. TPR results show that all three catalysts are easily reducible and therefore are active at relatively low temperature. In situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) studies revealed that the oxidation state of Co(II) remained unchanged up to 425 C (even after pretreatment). The reduction of Co(II) into metallic form starts at 425 C and this process is completed at 600 C.

  20. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

  1. Nanostructure of Solid Precipitates Obtained by Expansion of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene Solutions in Near Critical Propane: Block Ratio and Micellar Solution Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Jade; Tyrrell, Zachary; Radosz, Maciej; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to incompressible liquid solutions, compressible near-critical solutions of block copolymers allow for controlling rapid structure transformations with pressure alone. For example, when dissolved in near-critical propane, polystyrene-block-polybutadiene can form a random molecular solution at high pressures, a micellar solution at moderate pressures, and a solvent-free precipitate at low pressures. In contrast to the unstructured virgin copolymer, such a propane-treated precipitate rapidly self-assembles toward structures characteristic of equilibrated block copolymers, such as lamellae, spheres, or cylinders, which depend on the block ratio rather than on the decompression rate or temperature, at least within the rate and temperature ranges investigated in this work. At lower temperatures, however, say below 40 C, glass transition of the styrene-butadiene diblocks can inhibit independent structure formation, while crystallization of their hydrogenated-butadiene analogues can preserve the micellar-solution structure.

  2. Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M.; Ouerghi, A.; Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T.

    2010-10-25

    We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

  3. Deuteration Can Impact Micellization Pressure and Cloud Pressure of Polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in Compressible Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winoto, Winoto; Shen, Youqin; Radosz, Maciej; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    The deuterated homopolymers and their corresponding polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene copolymers require lower cloud pressures than their hydrogenous analogues to dissolve in a compressible alkane solvent, such as propane. For symmetric diblocks, deuteration reduces the micellization pressure. By contrast, for asymmetric diblocks with a long diene block relative to the styrene block, deuteration can increase the micellization pressure. All in all, however, the deuteration effects, while measurable, do not qualitatively change the principal diblock properties in compressible propane solutions, such as pressure-induced micelle decomposition, micelle formation and micelle size, and their temperature dependence. Therefore, isotope labeling should be a useful approach to neutron-scattering characterization for styrene-diene block copolymers in compressible alkane systems.

  4. Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2011-10-05

    Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane and at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.

  5. Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace Rehoboth Beach, Delaware PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: New Home Type: Single-family, affordable IBACOS, www.ibacos.com Builder: Insight Homes, Rehoboth Beach, DE www.itsjustabetterhouse.com Size: 1,715 ft 2 Price Range: About $230,000 Date Completed: 2012 Climate Zone: Mixed-humid PERFORMANCE DATA Builder standard practice = 56 Case study house = 1,715 ft 2 With renewables = Not applicable Without renewables = 56 Projected annual energy cost

  6. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2, Winter 2014/2015: Past, Present, Future: Propane Proves Dependable Over the Long Term (Newsletter), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    2 Winter 2014/2015 Inside: 2013: One Year-One Billion and Beyond Northern Colorado Cements Success With Partnerships Braun's Express Celebrates Petroleum Reduction Past, Present, Future: Propane proves dependable over the long term Carl Lisek, left, South Shore Clean Cities Coor- dinator, and Lorrie Lisek, Wisconsin Clean Cities Coordinator, were selected by the Society of Innovators of Northwest Indiana as the September 2014 innovators of the month. In This Issue Events Spur EV Adoption in

  7. Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M.; Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T.

    2013-05-28

    Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

  8. Propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-Te-Nb-O M1 phase: Reactivity of surface cations in hydrogen abstraction steps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthukumar, Kaliappan; Yu, Junjun; Xu, Ye; Guliants, Vadim V.

    2011-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations (GGA-PBE) have been performed to investigate the adsorption of C3 (propane, isopropyl, propene, and allyl) and H species on the proposed active center present in the surface ab planes of the bulk Mo-V-Te-Nb-O M1 phase in order to better understand the roles of the different surface cations in propane ammoxidation. Modified cluster models were employed to isolate the closely spaced V=O and Te=O from each other and to vary the oxidation state of the V cation. While propane and propene adsorb with nearly zero adsorption energy, the isopropyl and allyl radicals bind strongly to V=O and Te=O with adsorption energies, {Delta}E, being {le} -1.75 eV, but appreciably more weakly on other sites, such as Mo=O, bridging oxygen (Mo-O-V and Mo-O-Mo), and empty metal apical sites ({Delta}E > -1 eV). Atomic H binds more strongly to Te = O ({Delta}E {le} -3 eV) than to all the other sites, including V = O ({Delta}E = -2.59 eV). The reduction of surface oxo groups by dissociated H and their removal as water are thermodynamically favorable except when both H atoms are bonded to the same Te=O. Consistent with the strong binding of H, Te=O is markedly more active at abstracting the methylene H from propane (E{sub a} {le} 1.01 eV) than V = O (E{sub a} = 1.70 eV on V{sup 5+} = O and 2.13 eV on V{sup 4+} = O). The higher-than-observed activity and the loose binding of Te = O moieties to the mixed metal oxide lattice of M1 raise the question of whether active Te = O groups are in fact present in the surface ab planes of the M1 phase under propane ammoxidation conditions.

  9. Advanced Diagnostics and Life Estimation of Extruded Dielectric Cable: Nonproprietary Results Related to Cross-Linked Polyethylene and Ethylene Propylene Rubber Insulated Shielded Cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Toman

    2006-03-31

    This report describes research on accelerated aging and diagnostic testing of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation and an earlier test program on ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables. The XLPE research subjected cable specimens to accelerated cable life tests (ACLTs) and assessed the specimens with six nondestructive electrical tests and two destructive tests. The EPR program subjected EPR insulation to a similar accelerated aging protocol but focused on breakdown voltage to assess aging. Objectives ? To correlate advanced diagnostic test data with time-to-failure data as a means of determining the value of each diagnostic test for cable condition assessment and future life predictions (XLPE program) ? To perform accelerated aging tests of EPR insulated cables under various controlled conditions of temperature and voltage stress in a wet environment (EPR program) ? To ascertain the relative influence of temperature and voltage stress on aging (EPR program)

  10. Shock tube and theoretical studies on the thermal decomposition of propane : evidence for a roaming radical channel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Su, M.-C.; Michael, J. V.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Ruscic, B.

    2011-04-21

    The thermal decomposition of propane has been studied using both shock tube experiments and ab initio transition state theory-based master equation calculations. Dissociation rate constants for propane have been measured at high temperatures behind reflected shock waves using high-sensitivity H-ARAS detection and CH{sub 3} optical absorption. The two major dissociation channels at high temperature are C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 5} (eq 1a) and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 4} + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (eq 1b). Ultra high-sensitivity ARAS detection of H-atoms produced from the decomposition of the product, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, in (1a), allowed measurements of both the total decomposition rate constants, k{sub total}, and the branching to radical products, k{sub 1a}/k{sub total}. Theoretical analyses indicate that the molecular products are formed exclusively through the roaming radical mechanism and that radical products are formed exclusively through channel 1a. The experiments were performed over the temperature range 1417-1819 K and gave a minor contribution of (10 {+-} 8%) due to roaming. A multipass CH{sub 3} absorption diagnostic using a Zn resonance lamp was also developed and characterized in this work using the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}I as a reference reaction. The measured rate constants for CH{sub 3}I decomposition agreed with earlier determinations from this laboratory that were based on I-atom ARAS measurements. This CH{sub 3} diagnostic was then used to detect radicals from channel 1a allowing lower temperature (1202-1543 K) measurements of k1a to be determined. Variable reaction coordinate-transition state theory was used to predict the high pressure limits for channel (1a) and other bond fission reactions in C{sub 3}H{sub 8}. Conventional transition state theory calculations were also used to estimate rate constants for other tight transition state processes. These calculations predict a negligible contribution (<1%) from all other bond fission and tight transition state processes, indicating that the bond fission channel (1a) and the roaming channel (1b) are indeed the only active channels at the temperature and pressure ranges of the present experiments. The predicted reaction exo- and endothermicities are in excellent agreement with the current version of the Active Thermochemical Tables. Master equation calculations incorporating these transition state theory results yield predictions for the temperature and pressure dependence of the dissociation rate constants for channel 1a. The final theoretical results reliably reproduce the measured dissociation rate constants that are reported here and in the literature. The experimental data are well reproduced over the 500-2500 K and 1 x 10{sup -4} to 100 bar range (errors of {approx}15% or less) by the following Troe parameters for Ar as the bath gas: k{sub {infinity}} = 1.55 x 10{sup 24}T{sup -2.034} exp(-45490/T) s{sup -1}, k{sub 0} = 7.92 x 10{sup 53}T{sup -16.67} exp(-50380/T) cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, and F{sub c} = 0.190 exp(-T/3091) + 0.810 exp(-T/128) + exp(-8829/T).

  11. Hardware assembly and prototype testing for the development of a dedicated liquefied propane gas ultra low emission vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    On February 3, 1994, IMPCO Technologies, Inc. started the development of a dedicated LPG Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) under contract to the Midwest Research Institute National Renewable Energy Laboratory Division (NREL). The objective was to develop a dedicated propane vehicle that would meet or exceed the California ULEV emissions standards. The project is broken into four phases to be performed over a two year period. The four phases of the project include: (Phase 1) system design, (Phase 2) prototype hardware assembly and testing, (Phase 3) full-scale systems testing and integration, (Phase 4) vehicle demonstration. This report describes the approach taken for the development of the vehicle and the work performed through the completion of Phase II dynamometer test results. Work was started on Phase 2 (Hardware Assembly and Prototype Testing) in May 1994 prior to completion of Phase 1 to ensure that long lead items would be available in a timely fashion for the Phase 2 work. In addition, the construction and testing of the interim electronic control module (ECM), which was used to test components, was begun prior to the formal start of Phase 2. This was done so that the shortened revised schedule for the project (24 months) could be met. In this report, a brief summary of the activities of each combined Phase 1 and 2 tasks will be presented, as well as project management activities. A technical review of the system is also given, along with test results and analysis. During the course of Phase 2 activities, IMPCO staff also had the opportunity to conduct cold start performance tests of the injectors. The additional test data was most positive and will be briefly summarized in this report.

  12. Liquid Propane Injection Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  13. Structures, Mechanisms, and Kinetics of Ammoxidation and Selective Oxidation of Propane Over the M2 Phase of MoVNbTeO Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goddard, William A.; Liu, Lianchi; Mueller, Jonathan E.; Pudar, Sanja; Nielsen, Robert J.

    2011-05-04

    We report here first-principles-based predictions of the structures, mechanisms, and activation barriers for propane activation by the M2 phase of the MoVNbTeO multi-metal oxide catalysts capable of the direct conversion of propane to acrylonitrile. Our approach is to combine extensive quantum mechanical (QM) calculations to establish the mechanisms for idealized representations of the surfaces for these catalytic systems and then to modify the parameters in the ReaxFF reactive force field for molecular dynamics (MD) calculations to describe accurately the activation barriers and reaction mechanisms of the chemical reactions over complex mixed metal oxides. The parameters for ReaxFF are derived entirely from QM without the use of empirical data so that it can be applied to novel systems on which there is little or no data. To understand the catalysis in these systems it is essential to determine the surface structures that control the surface chemistry. High quality three-dimensional (3D) Rietveld structures are now available for the M1 and M2 phases of the MoVNbTeO catalysts.

  14. Low Temperature Propane Oxidation over Co3O4 based Nano-array Catalysts: Ni Dopant Effect, Reaction Mechanism and Structural Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Zheng; Wu, Zili; Gao, Puxian

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature propane oxidation has been achieved by Co3O4-based nano-array catalysts featuring low catalytic materials loading. The Ni doping into the Co3O4 lattice has led to enhanced reaction kinetics at low temperature by promoting the surface lattice oxygen activity. In situ DRIFTS investigation in tandem with isotopic oxygen exchange reveals that the propane oxidation proceeds via Mars-van Krevelen mechanism where surface lattice oxygen acts as the active site whereas O2 in the reaction feed does not directly participate in CO2 formation. The Ni doping promotes the formation of less stable carbonates on the surface to facilitate the CO2 desorption. The thermal stability of Ni doped Co3O4 decreases with increased Ni concentration while catalytic activity increases. A balance between enhanced activity and compromised thermal stability shall be considered in the Ni doped Co3O4 nano-array catalysts for low temperature hydrocarbon oxidation. This study provides useful and timely guidance for rational catalyst design toward low temperature catalytic oxidation.

  15. Low Temperature Propane Oxidation over Co3O4 based Nano-array Catalysts. Ni Dopant Effect, Reaction Mechanism and Structural Stability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ren, Zheng; Wu, Zili; Gao, Puxian; Song, Wenqiao; Xiao, Wen; Guo, Yanbing; Ding, Jun; Suib, Steven L.; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2015-06-09

    Low temperature propane oxidation has been achieved by Co3O4-based nano-array catalysts featuring low catalytic materials loading. The Ni doping into the Co3O4 lattice has led to enhanced reaction kinetics at low temperature by promoting the surface lattice oxygen activity. In situ DRIFTS investigation in tandem with isotopic oxygen exchange reveals that the propane oxidation proceeds via Mars-van Krevelen mechanism where surface lattice oxygen acts as the active site whereas O2 in the reaction feed does not directly participate in CO2 formation. The Ni doping promotes the formation of less stable carbonates on the surface to facilitate the CO2 desorption. Themore » thermal stability of Ni doped Co3O4 decreases with increased Ni concentration while catalytic activity increases. A balance between enhanced activity and compromised thermal stability shall be considered in the Ni doped Co3O4 nano-array catalysts for low temperature hydrocarbon oxidation. This study provides useful and timely guidance for rational catalyst design toward low temperature catalytic oxidation.« less

  16. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF 4 in propylene carbonate. A model lithium ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2014-08-20

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li+ ion in this model electrolyte. By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li+-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li+solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures.

  17. STEM HAADF Image Simulation of the Orthorhombic M1 Phase in the Mo-V-Nb-Te-O Propane Oxidation Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D Blom; X Li; S Mitra; T Vogt; D Buttrey

    2011-12-31

    A full frozen phonon multislice simulation of high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) images from the M1 phase of the Mo-V-Nb-Te-O propane oxidation catalyst has been performed by using the latest structural model obtained using the Rietveld method. Simulated contrast results are compared with experimental HAADF images. Good agreement is observed at ring sites, however significant thickness dependence is noticed at the linking sites. The remaining discrepancies between the model based on Rietveld refinement and image simulations indicate that the sampling of a small volume element in HAADF STEM and averaging elemental contributions of a disordered site in a crystal slab by using the virtual crystal approximation might be problematic, especially if there is preferential Mo/V ordering near the (001) surface.

  18. Fractional distillation of C/sub 2//C/sub 3/ hydrocarbons at optimum pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tedder, D.W.

    1984-08-07

    A method of recovering by distillation the separate components of a hydrocarbon gas mixture comprising ethylene, ethane, propylene and propane which comprises separating the ethylene and ethane as an overhead from a propylene and propane bottom in a first distillation tower at from about 400 to about 600 psia, separating ethylene and ethane as an ethylene overhead and an ethane bottom in a second distillation tower at from about 600 to about 700 psia, and separating propylene as an overhead from a propane bottom in a third distillation tower at from about 280 to about 300 psia is disclosed.

  19. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine: Basic Operating Characteristics and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-12

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  20. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-01

    This factsheet describes a project whose goal is to commercialize a production process for propylene and acrylic acid from propane using a catalytic auto-thermal oxydehydrogenation process operating at short contact times.

  1. TABLES8.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    S8. PropanePropylene Supply and Disposition, 1988 - Present (Thousand Barrels per Day, Except Where Noted) a A negative number indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive number...

  2. TABLE04.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1 111 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 1,522 833 304 - 515 - 179 48 1,916 EthaneEthylene ... 676 19 (s) - 58 - 0 0 637 PropanePropylene...

  3. TABLE16.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 87 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 1,024 520 188 - 118 326 - 103 13 1,408 EthaneEthylene ... 470 19 0 - 149 41 - 0 0 597 PropanePropylene...

  4. TABLE12.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    19 8 - 41 1 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 267 144 81 - -26 141 - 32 9 284 EthaneEthylene ... 119 0 (s) - -63 17 - 0 0 39 PropanePropylene...

  5. TABLE05.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    177 2 134 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 1,519 711 246 - 78 - 216 46 2,137 EthaneEthylene ... 672 22 (s) - 6 - 0 0 688 PropanePropylene...

  6. TABLE13.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    17 2 - 43 1 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 269 112 94 - (s) 14 - 43 6 412 EthaneEthylene ... 117 0 (s) - -51 -1 - 0 0 68 PropanePropylene...

  7. TABLE08.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - 0 (s) - 0 (s) 2 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 15 69 31 - 69 37 - 5 3 140 EthaneEthylene ... 1 (s) 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 1 PropanePropylene...

  8. TABLE09.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - 0 - 0 (s) - 0 2 1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 15 56 45 - 98 5 - 4 3 201 EthaneEthylene ... 1 (s) 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 1 PropanePropylene...

  9. TABLE17.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    99 0 110 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 1,015 462 99 - 52 61 - 120 21 1,426 EthaneEthylene ... 471 22 (s) - 129 8 - 0 0 614 PropanePropylene...

  10. TABLE06.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Gases ... 467 2,152 958 - 2,153 1,136 - 162 97 4,335 7,396 EthaneEthylene ... 17 11 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 28 0 PropanePropylene...

  11. TABLE07.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gases ... 3,152 11,938 9,601 - 20,805 1,160 - 858 563 42,915 7,396 EthaneEthylene ... 161 52 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 213 0 PropanePropylene...

  12. Gold(I) chloride adducts of 1,3-bis(di-2-pyridylphosphino)propane: synthesis, structural studies and antitumour activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, Anthony S.; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Berners-Price, Susan J.; Koutsantonis, George A.; Skelton, Brian W.; White, Allan H.

    2008-06-30

    The novel water soluble bidentate phosphine ligand 1,3-bis(di-2-pyridylphosphino)propane (d2pypp) has been synthesized by a convenient route involving treatment of 2-pyridyllithium with Cl{sub 2}P(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}PCl{sub 2} and isolation in crystalline form as the hydrochloride salt. The synthesis of the precursor Cl{sub 2}P(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}PCl{sub 2} has been optimized by the use of triphosgene as the chlorinating agent. The 2:1 and 1:2 AuCl:d2pypp adducts have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray studies, and shown to be of the form (AuCl){sub 2}({mu}-d2pypp-P,P{prime}) and Au(d2pypp-P,P{prime}){sub 2}Cl(-3.75H{sub 2}O), respectively. The latter is more lipophilic than analogous 1:2 adducts of gold(I) chloride with the diphosphine ligands 1,2-bis(di-n-pyridylphosphino)ethane (dnpype) for n = 2, 3 and 4, based on measurement of the n-octanol-water partition coefficient (log P = -0.46). A single crystal structure determination of the 1:2 Au(I) complex of the 3-pyridyl ethane ligand shows it to be of the form [Au(d3pype-P,P{prime}){sub 2}]Cl {center_dot} 5H{sub 2}O. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of [Au(d2pypp){sub 2}]Cl was assessed in human normal and cancer breast cells and selective toxicity to the cancer cells found. The significance of these results to the antitumour properties of chelated 1:2 Au(I) diphosphine complexes is discussed.

  13. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project whose goal is to commercialize a production process for propylene and acrylic acid from propane using a catalytic auto-thermal oxydehydrogenation process operating at short contact times. Auto-thermal oxidation for conversion of propane to propylene and acrylic acid promises energy savings of 20 trillion Btu per year by 2020. In addition to reducing energy consumption, this technology can reduce manufacturing costs by up to 25 percent, and reduce a variety of greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Refinery Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55

  15. Residential Propane Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices (October...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.034 2.028 2.026 2.020 2.022 2.014 1990-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 2.768 2.760 2.766 2.761 2.764 2.752 1990-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 2.771 2.770 2.793 2.799 2.815 2.822 1990-2016 ...

  16. Wholesale Propane Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices (October...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.471 0.471 0.509 0.525 0.555 0.532 2013-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 0.557 0.565 0.604 0.618 0.639 0.618 2013-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 0.593 0.597 0.634 0.649 0.675 0.655 ...

  17. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices - Industrial

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    06 1.880 - - - - 1994-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1.686 1.945 - - - - 1994-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 1.765 1.954 - - - - 1994-2014 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 1.760 2.021 - - - - 1994-2014 Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) 1.640 1.917 - - - - 1994-2014 Midwest (PADD 2) 1.698 1.822 - - - - 1994-2014 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 1.785 1.842 - - - - 1994-2014 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 1.745 1.918 - - - - 1994-2014 West Coast (PADD 5) 1.701 1.927

  18. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... of Compliance Certification Regarding Drug-free Workplace Simpson-Craig Checklist A ... Q8: How does my State Energy Office draw grant funds? The U.S. Department of Energy has ...

  19. Propane Supply & Infrastructure Suggested Slides

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... over reliability of rail for delivery. * Large Companies - campaigns for residential and crop dryers to fill over the summer reportedly successful. Less success with COD customers.

  20. Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  1. Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  2. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    SHOPP Financial Forms - for State Energy Officials The Federal forms below are required ... The Federal Financial Report, Form SF-425, collects basic data on federal and recipient ...

  3. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xin Lingyun; Liu Guangzhen; Wang Liya

    2011-06-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)]{sub n}(2), and [Cu{sub 2}(PHDA){sub 2}(BPP)]{sub n}(3) (H{sub 2}PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D{yields}2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4{sup 8}6{sup 6}8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D {yields} 2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: > Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP. > The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. > Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.

  4. U.S. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Stocks by Type

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propylene (Nonfuel Use) Normal Butane/Butylene Refinery Grade Butane Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils,

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Propane/Propylene " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Stocks of Propane/Propylene ",8,"Weekly","3/11/2016","3/5/1993" ,"Release Date:","3/16/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/23/2016" ,"Excel File

  6. Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment. Addthis Related Articles Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from...

  7. Gas-phase propane fuel delivery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, J.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a gas-phase fuel delivery system for delivering a vapor phase fuel independent of exterior temperatures. It comprises:a storage tank for storing a volume of fuel; a regulator in fluid communication with the tank for receiving fuel from the tank and for outputting the fuel in a vapor phase; a pressure sensor in fluid communication with the tank for monitoring pressure within the tank, the pressure sensor being operative to generate a pump enable signal when the pressure within the tank is less than a predetermined threshold; a pump in fluid communication with the tank.

  8. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices - Commercial/Institutional

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    698 1.873 - - - - 1994-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1.731 2.006 - - - - 1994-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 1.689 1.952 - - - - 1994-2014 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 1.811 2.075 - - - - 1994-2014 Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) 1.690 1.984 - - - - 1994-2014 Midwest (PADD 2) 1.608 1.689 - - - - 1994-2014 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 1.740 1.853 - - - - 1994-2014 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 1.742 1.760 - - - - 1994-2014 West Coast (PADD 5) 1.692 1.824

  9. Thermodynamic properties of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Interim report 15 Aug 75-31 Jan 77 (final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallet, D.W.; Wu, K.F.

    1980-04-01

    The thermodynamic properties of several liquefied petroleum gases (with particular emphasis on propane) are discussed in detail. It is concluded that the widely used propane data by Stearns and George are too inconsistent and too inaccurate to be used for mass flow calculations of propane and propane mixtures through safety valves of rail tank cars. Accordingly, the thermodynamic properties of propane, propylene, n-butane, and a mixture of 65% (by mole) propane, 25% propylene, and 10% n-butane are recalculated using equations of states proposed by Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWR) and by Starling. It is shown that Starling's equation results in thermodynamic properties which are more consistent and compare better with measured values than the BWR equation. Thermodynamic data for the four liquefied petroleum gases discussed above are calculated and presented in tabular form. In addition, predictions of pure propane mass flow rates (based upon isentropic), homogeneous equilibrium flow) are given. The influence of the thermodynamic data upon the predicted mass flow rates is demonstrated.

  10. TABLE17.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7. Refinery Net Production of Finished Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Liquefied Refinery Gases ........................................... 576 -7 569 2,415 -51 392 2,756 Ethane/Ethylene ..................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ethane ............................................................... W W W W W W W Ethylene ............................................................ W W W W W W W Propane/Propylene

  11. ERRATA SHEET FOR WPSR WEEK ENDING 6/7/2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6713 733 830 97 9 Other Oils Product Supplied U.S. WWOUPNUS2 6713 3,038 2,941 -97 A1 PropanePropylene Monthly from Weekly Stocks U.S. NA May 2013 47.5 47.4 -0.1 A1 Other...

  12. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,797 14,651 14,958 24,531 - 87 1,187 899 55,764 6,788 EthaneEthylene 101 73 0 0 - 0 0 0 174 0 PropanePropylene 2,462 13,334 13,224 24,164 - -1,369 0...

  13. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    95 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14,528 24,908 905 0 - -17 14,218 6,684 19,456 3,094 EthaneEthylene 44 0 0 0 - -1 0 0 45 0 PropanePropylene 4,842 20,540 672 0 - 130 0 5,589 20,335...

  14. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Gases 96,786 38,214 39,774 8,116 - -1,564 25,650 3,426 155,378 28,105 EthaneEthylene 42,381 0 215 -20,104 - -929 0 0 23,421 2,622 PropanePropylene 36,474 39,477...

  15. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 7,801 2,345 2,659 608 - -1,415 2,208 292 12,328 39,735 EthaneEthylene 3,343 0 11 -1,329 - -285 0 0 2,310 2,564 PropanePropylene 3,057 3,173 2,300...

  16. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Gases 5,178 15,123 22,036 36,994 - -1,344 1,656 1,039 77,980 5,357 EthaneEthylene 148 107 0 0 - 0 0 0 255 0 PropanePropylene 3,345 17,172 19,114 36,150 - -1,318 0...

  17. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    258 171 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,934 -136 508 -2,842 - -136 269 0 1,331 1,382 EthaneEthylene 1,429 0 0 -1,576 - -5 0 0 -142 323 PropanePropylene 1,519 232 420 -635 - -203 0...

  18. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    95 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14,530 25,070 857 0 - -13 13,691 6,684 20,095 3,094 EthaneEthylene 43 0 0 0 - -1 0 0 44 0 PropanePropylene 4,845 20,606 627 0 - 134 0 5,589 20,355...

  19. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 6,559 2,031 4,512 3,583 - -9,046 3,705 97 21,929 28,248 EthaneEthylene 2,484 0 9 -500 - -249 0 0 2,242 2,622 PropanePropylene 2,717 3,506 3,958 3,271 -...

  20. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 48,006 1,688 1,875 -40,115 - 125 2,495 172 8,662 1,510 EthaneEthylene 23,291 0 0 -21,961 - -7 0 0 1,337 322 PropanePropylene 15,540 2,285 1,537...

  1. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 62,586 1,434 3,056 -51,188 - -3 3,410 185 12,296 1,382 EthaneEthylene 29,842 0 0 -28,059 - -6 0 0 1,789 323 PropanePropylene 20,545 2,970 2,464...

  2. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Gases 5,202 15,123 23,191 36,994 - -1,344 1,693 1,039 79,122 5,357 EthaneEthylene 148 107 0 0 - 0 0 0 255 0 PropanePropylene 3,359 17,172 20,262 36,150 - -1,318 0...

  3. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 62,852 1,440 3,251 -51,618 - -58 3,410 185 12,388 1,382 EthaneEthylene 29,950 0 0 -27,892 - -9 0 0 2,067 323 PropanePropylene 20,635 2,967 2,659...

  4. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    242 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 10,892 20,928 694 0 - 2,397 9,225 5,184 15,708 5,504 EthaneEthylene 32 0 0 0 - -1 0 0 33 0 PropanePropylene 3,600 15,411 482 0 - 916 0 4,094 14,483...

  5. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 37,139 145 36,994 72,800 64,684 8,116 96,744 90,236 6,508 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 13,894 33,998 -20,104 59,102 11,106 47,996 PropanePropylene 36,220 70...

  6. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1 423 424 2,395 7 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,039 3,426 8,005 185 6,684 19,338 53 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 206 544 7,332 12 5,589 13,683 37 Normal...

  7. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    -660 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 4,949 0 4,949 8,145 4,562 3,583 5,504 11,194 -5,690 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 1,084 1,584 -500 2,956 880 2,076 PropanePropylene 4,739 0 4,739 5,400...

  8. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Pentanes Plus 30 - 1 -17 - 0 6 1 6 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 172 4 9 -141 - 0 9 1 34 EthaneEthylene 82 0 0 -76 - 0 0 0 6 PropanePropylene 57 8 7 -39 - 0 0 0 33 Normal Butane...

  9. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    507 778 -271 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,645 0 2,645 4,543 3,935 608 6,974 5,995 979 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 962 2,291 -1,329 4,412 751 3,661 PropanePropylene 2,638 0 2,638 2,474...

  10. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Han

    2011-09-30

    This project was undertaken in response to the Department of Energy's call to research and develop technologies 'that will reduce energy consumption, enhance economic competitiveness, and reduce environmental impacts of the domestic chemical industry.' The current technology at the time for producing 140 billion pounds per year of propylene from naphtha and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) relied on energy- and capital-intensive steam crackers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units. The propylene is isolated from the product stream in a costly separation step and subsequently converted to acrylic acid and other derivatives in separate production facilities. This project proposed a Short Contact Time Reactor (SCTR)-based catalytic oxydehydrogenation process that could convert propane to propylene and acrylic acid in a cost-effective and energy-efficient fashion. Full implementation of this technology could lead to sizeable energy, economic and environmental benefits for the U. S. chemical industry by providing up to 45 trillion BTUs/year, cost savings of $1.8 billion/year and a combined 35 million pounds/year reduction in environmental pollutants such as COx, NOx, and SOx. Midway through the project term, the program directive changed, which approval from the DOE and its review panel, from direct propane oxidation to acrylic acid at millisecond contact times to a two-step process for making acrylic acid from propane. The first step was the primary focus, namely the conversion of propane to propylene in high yields assisted by the presence of CO2. The product stream from step one was then to be fed directly into a commercially practiced propylene-to-acrylic acid tandem reactor system.

  11. LPG--a direct source of C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ olefins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Berg, R.C.; Vora, B.V.

    1983-03-28

    This article describes the selective production of olefins by the catalytic dehydrogenation of the corresponding paraffins by means of UOP's Oleflex process. In this process, propylene can be obtained at about 85 mol % selectivity by the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane. Isobutylene can be obtained at selectivities in excess of 90 mol % from isobutane, and n-butenes (1-butene plus 2-butene) at about 80 mol % from n-butane. The availability of this technology, coupled with an abundant supply of LPG (C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ paraffins), opens new avenues for the selective production of propylene and butylenes.

  12. FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

    1989-05-29

    Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

  13. Search | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Propane Propane Market Propane Market Forecast Propane Market Growth Propane Market Size Propane Market Trends Propionic Acid Ethyl Ester Market Propionic Acid Ethyl Ester Market...

  14. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang; Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  15. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  16. U.S. Refinery Net Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Total 379,398 376,546 352,148 350,299 353,077 362,368 2005-2015 Liquefied Refinery Gases 26,335 25,920 17,388 13,536 9,912 10,243 2005-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 188 127 158 202 196 226 2005-2015 Ethane 163 110 133 173 165 194 2005-2015 Ethylene 25 17 25 29 31 32 2005-2015 Propane/Propylene 18,010 17,811 15,869 16,121 16,574 17,905 2005-2015 Propane 8,767 8,530 7,955 7,965 8,303 8,831 2005-2015 Propylene 9,243 9,281 7,914 8,156 8,271 9,074

  17. Rapid processing of carbon-carbon composites by forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaidyaraman, S.; Lackey, W.J.; Agrawal, P.K.; Freeman, G.B.; Langman, M.D.

    1995-10-01

    Carbon fiber-carbon matrix composites were fabricated using the forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process. Preforms were prepared by stacking 40 layers of plain weave carbon cloth in a graphite holder. The preforms were infiltrated using propylene, propane, and methane. The present work showed that the FCVI process is well suited for fabricating carbon-carbon composites; without optimization of the process, the authors have achieved uniform and thorough densification. Composites with porosities as low as 7% were fabricated in 8--12 h. The highest deposition rate obtained in the present study was {approximately}3 {micro}m/h which is more than an order of magnitude faster than the typical value of 0.1--0.25 {micro}m/h for the isothermal process. It was also found that the use of propylene and propane as reagents resulted in faster infiltration compared to methane.

  18. Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. DOE PETC seventh quarterly progress report, April 1, 1995--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, B.C.

    1996-02-01

    Iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia is a catalyst for the conversion of propane, but the rate of conversion of propane is much less than the rate of conversion of butane. Whereas this catalyst appears to be a good candidate for practical, industrial conversion of butane, it appears to lack sufficient activity for practical conversion of propane. The propane conversion data reported here provide excellent insights into the chemistry of the catalytic conversion. Solid and catalysts, namely, sulfated zirconia, iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia, and USY zeolite, were tested for conversion of propane at 1 atm, 200-450{degrees}C, and propane partial pressures in the range of 0.01-0.05 atm. Both promoted and unpromoted sulfated zirconia were found to be active for conversion of propane into butanes, pentanes, methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene in the temperature range of 200-350{degrees}C, but catalyst deactivation was rapid. At the higher temperatures, only cracking and dehydrogenation products were observed. In contrast to the zirconia-supported catalysts, USY zeolite was observed to convert propane (into propylene, methane, and ethylene) only at temperatures {ge}400{degrees}C. The initial (5 min on stream) rates of propane conversion in the presence of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia, sulfated zirconia, and USY zeolite at 450{degrees}C and 0.01 atm propane partial pressure were 3.3 x 10{sup -8}, 0.3 x 10{sup -8}, and 0.06 x 10{sup -8} mol/(s{center_dot}g), respectively. The product distributions in the temperature range 200-450{degrees}C are those of acid-base catalysis, being similar to what has been observed in superacid solution chemistry at temperatures <0{degrees}C. If propane conversion at 450{degrees}C can be considered as a probe of acid strength of the catalyst, the activity comparison suggests that the promoted sulfated zirconia is a stronger acid than sulfated zirconia, which is a stronger acid than USY zeolite.

  19. table07.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    558 - 893 -73 1,935 -111 0 3,387 38 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 283 89 116 - 9 -210 - 123 24 558 Pentanes Plus .................................. 37 - 1 - 17 7 - 25 15 9 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 246 89 115 - -8 -217 - 98 10 550 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 94 0 (s) - -71 -4 - 0 0 26 Propane/Propylene ....................... 100 116 86 - 31 -155 - 0 3 485 Normal Butane/Butylene .............. 37 -27 16 - 18 -48 - 74 6 12 Isobutane/Isobutylene

  20. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter

  1. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Movements by Pipeline between PAD

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Districts Pipeline between PAD Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Normal Butane/Butylene Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Renewable Diesel Fuel Finished Motor Gasoline

  2. East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other

  3. Crude Oil Movements by Tanker, Pipeline, Barge and Rail between PAD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Components (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable

  4. Crude Oil Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail between PAD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Districts Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Fuel

  5. Product Supplied for Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished

  6. Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils

  7. New construction era reflected in East Texas LPG pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittler, T.J. )

    1990-04-02

    Installation of 240 miles of 6, 10, and 12-in. LPG pipelines from Mont Belvieu to Tyler, Tex., has provided greater feedstock-supply flexibility to a petrochemical plant in Longview, Tex. The project, which took place over 18 months, included tie-ins with metering at four Mont Belvieu suppliers. The new 10 and 12-in. pipelines now transport propane while the new and existing parts of a 6-in. pipeline transport propylene.

  8. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending Components Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur

  9. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending Components Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur

  10. Matthew T. Kapelewski | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies | Blandine Jerome T. Kapelewski Previous Next List PhD Student Department of Chemistry University of California, Berkeley Email: matt.kapelewski [at] berkeley.edu Phone: 510-643-3832 BS in Chemistry, Penn State University EFRC research: My research pertains to the separation of hydrocarbons in metal-organic frameworks. Many hydrocarbon mixtures have compounds that are difficult to separate, such as mixtures of ethane/ethylene, propane/propylene, and xylene isomers. By taking

  11. Conceptos basicos sobre el propano (Propane Basics), Programa...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    variedad de vehculos. Podr encontrar una lista de sistemas certificados en el sitio web de la EPA, http:iaspub.epa. govotaqpubpublist1.jsp. Tambin hay vehculos a...

  12. Propane-induced biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    John Carollo Engineers, College Station, TX (United States) Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering Publication Date: 1995-05-20 OSTI ...

  13. Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This article is part of the Energy.gov series celebrating the 20th anniversary of the ... A network of comprehensive community mental health centers in Mississippi, Community ...

  14. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices - Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    77 1.976 - - - - 1994-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 2.133 2.374 - - - - 1994-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 2.241 2.442 - - - - 1994-2014 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 2.263 2.480 - - - -...

  15. Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt059tiday2012o...

  16. Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt059tiday2011...

  17. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History Sales to End Users, Average 1.777 1.976 - - - - 1994-2014 Residential 2.025 2.224 - - - - 1994-2014 CommercialInstitutional 1.698 1.873...

  18. Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon tiarravt059day2010...

  19. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.7 588.5 56,673.6 54,346.7 12,106.5 21,030.6 33,137.1 February ... 834.8 890.3 57,750.3 47,277.7 10,579.0 22,424.4 33,003.4 March...

  20. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices - Sales to End Users

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. - - - - - - 1993-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) - - - - - - 1993-2015 New England (PADD 1A) - - - - - - 1993-2015 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) - - - - - - 1993-2015 Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) - - - - - - 1993-2015 Midwest (PADD 2) - - - - - - 1993-2015 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) - - - - - - 1993-2015 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) - - - - - - 1993-2015 West Coast (PADD 5) - - - - - - 1993-2015

  1. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Propane (Consumer Grade)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    28,546.5 30,625.4 36,654.7 49,014.8 1983-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 4,342.7 5,706.3 6,490.8 6,681.4 8,062.3 11,247.2 1983-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 640.7 901.2 1,199.2 ...

  2. Wholesale Heating Oil Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.134 1.102 1.131 1.239 1.287 1.309 2013-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 1.139 1.101 1.124 1.238 1.281 1.300 2013-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 1.191 1.154 1.179 1.305 1.349 1.366 2013-2016 ...

  3. Residential Heating Oil Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.103 2.094 2.089 2.096 2.122 2.132 1990-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 2.109 2.100 2.095 2.101 2.127 2.136 1990-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 2.044 2.043 2.034 2.039 2.061 2.070 1990-2016 ...

  4. Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network, Clean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    School Bus/Vehicle Incentive & Green Jobs Outreach Program | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt059_ti_day_2012_o

  5. Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network, Clean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    School Bus/Vehicle Incentive & Green Jobs Outreach Program | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt059_ti_day_2011

  6. Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network, Clean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    School Bus/Vehicle Incentive & Green Jobs Outreach Program | Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon tiarravt059_day_2010

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - Propane_Briefing_140312.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    situation update March 12, 2014 | Washington, DC By Energy Information Administration NOAA forecast shows below normal temperatures across most of the Midwest for March 10 through March 18 U.S. Energy Information Administration 2 Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Prediction Center, made March 11 6-10 day outlook 8-14 day outlook Natural gas and electricity are the major heating fuels for most of the United States U.S. Energy Information Administration 3 Source: U.S.

  8. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    see even lower natural gas and heating oil bills this winter than previously expected ... said the average household heating with oil will experience a 41% drop in heating oil ...

  9. Modifying structure-sensitive reactions by addition of Zn to Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childers, David J.; Schweitzer, Neil M.; Kamali Shahari, Seyed Mehdi; Rioux, Robert M.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Meyer, Randall J.

    2014-10-01

    Silica-supported Pd and PdZn nanoparticles of a similar size were evaluated for neopentane hydrogenolysis/isomerization and propane hydrogenolysis/dehydrogenation. Monometallic Pd showed high neopentane hydrogenolysis selectivity. Addition of small amounts of Zn to Pd lead PdZn scatters in the EXAFS spectrum and an increase in the linear bonded CO by IR. In addition, the neopentane turnover rate decreased by nearly 10 times with little change in the selectivity. Increasing amounts of Zn lead to greater PdZn interactions, higher linear-to-bridging CO ratios by IR and complete loss of neopentane conversion. Pd NPs also had high selectivity for propane hydrogenolysis and thus were poorly selective for propylene. The PdZn bimetallic catalysts, however, were able to preferentially catalyze dehydrogenation, were not active for propane hydrogenolysis, and thus were highly selective for propylene formation. The decrease in hydrogenolysis selectivity was attributed to the isolation of active Pd atoms by inactive metallic Zn,demonstrating that hydrogenolysis requires a particular reactive ensemble whereas propane dehydrogenation does not.

  10. Jet fuel from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, R.E.; Jones, J.R.

    1983-02-01

    Explains how jet fuel can be manufactured from propane and/or butane with attractive rates of return. This scheme is advantageous where large reserves of LPG-bearing gas is available or LPG is in excess. The following sequence of processes in involved: dehydrogenation of propane (and/or butane) to propylene (and/or butylene); polymerization of this monomer to a substantial yield of the desired polymer by recycling undesired polymer; and hydrotreating the polymer to saturate double bonds. An attribute of this process scheme is that each of the individual processes has been practiced commercially. The process should have appeal in those parts of the world which have large reserves of LPG-bearing natural gas but little or no crude oil, or where large excesses of LPG are available. Concludes that economic analysis shows attractive rates of return in a range of reasonable propane costs and product selling prices.

  11. Advanced Nanostructured Molecular Sieves for Energy Efficient Industrial Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunhao Li, Michael Beaver

    2012-01-18

    Due to the very small relative volatility difference between propane and propylene, current propane/propylene separation by distillation requires very tall distillation towers (150-250 theoretical plates) and large reflux ratios (up to 15), which is considered to be the most energy consuming large-scale separation process. Adsorptive separation processes are widely considered to be more energy-efficient alternatives to distillation. However, slow diffusion kinetics/mass transport rate through the adsorbent bed often limits the performance of such processes, so further improvements are possible if intra-particle mass transfer rates can be improved. Rive Technology, Inc. is developing and commercializing its proprietary mesoporous zeolite technology for catalysis and separation. With well-controlled intracrystalline mesoporosity, diffusion kinetics through such mesoporous zeolite based catalysts is much improved relative to conventional zeolites, leading to significantly better product selectivity. This 'proof-of-principle' project (DE-EE0003470) is intended to demonstrate that Rive mesoporous zeolite technology can be extended and applied in adsorptive propane/propylene separation and lead to significant energy saving compared to the current distillation process. In this project, the mesoporous zeolite Y synthesis technology was successfully extended to X and A zeolites that are more relevant to adsorbent applications. Mesoporosity was introduced to zeolite X and A for the first time while maintaining adequate adsorption capacity. Zeolite adsorbents were tested for liquid phase separation performance using a pulse flow test unit and the test results show that the separation selectivity of the mesoporous zeolite adsorbent is much closer to optimal for a Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) separation process and the enhanced mesoporosity lead to >100% increase of overall mass transport rate for propane and propylene. These improvements will significantly improve the performance of an adsorptive separation unit for propane/propylene separation compared with traditional zeolite adsorbents. The enhanced transport will allow for more efficient utilization of a given adsorbent inventory by reducing process cycle time, allowing a faster production rate with a fixed amount of adsorbent or smaller adsorbent inventory at a fixed production rate. Smaller adsorbent inventory would also lead to significant savings in the capital cost due to smaller footprint of the equipment. Energy consumption calculation, based on the pulse test results for rived NaX zeolite adsorbent, of a hypothetical moderate-scale SMB propane/propylene separation plant that processes 6000 BPSD refinery grade propylene (70% propylene) will consume about 60-80% less energy (both re-boiler and condenser duties) compared to a C3 splitter that process the same amount of feed. This energy saving also translates to a reduction of 30,000-35,000 tons of CO2 emission per year at this moderate processing rate. The enhancement of mass transport achievable by introduction of controlled mesoporosity to the zeolite also opens the door for the technology to be applied to several other adsorption separation processes such as the separation of xylene isomers by SMB, small- and large scale production of O2/N2 from air by pressure swing adsorption, the separation of CO2 from natural gas at natural gas wellheads, and the purification of ultra-high purity H2 from the off gas produced by steam-methane-reforming.

  12. Search | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Project Management Project Management Project Management Tool Project Management Tool Propane Propane Market Propane Market Forecast Propane Market Growth Propane Market Size...

  13. Evaluation of aftermarket LPG conversion kits in light-duty vehicle applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, E.A.

    1993-06-01

    SwRI was contracted by NREL to evaluate three LPG conversion kits on a Chevrolet Lumina. The objective of the project was to measure the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy of these kits, and compare their performance to gasoline-fueled operation and to each other. Varying LPG fuel blends allowed a preliminary look at the potential for fuel system disturbance. The project required kit installation and adjustment according to manufacturer`s instructions. A limited amount of trouble diagnosis was also performed on the fuel systems. A simultaneous contract from the Texas Railroad Commission, in cooperation with NREL, provided funds for additional testing with market fuels (HD5 propane and industry average gasoline) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions speciation to determine the ozone-forming potential of LPG HC emissions. This report documents the procurement, installation, and testing of these LPG conversion kits.

  14. Energy minimization of separation processes using conventional/membrane hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L. )

    1990-09-28

    The purpose of this study was to identify the general principles governing the choice of hybrid separation systems over straight membrane or straight nonmembrane systems and to do so by examining practical applications (process design and economics). Our focus was to examine the energy consumption characteristics and overall cost factors of the membrane and nonmembrane technologies that cause hybrid systems to be preferred over nonhybrid systems. We evaluated four cases studies, chosen on the basis of likelihood of commercial viability of a hybrid system and magnitude of energy savings: (1) propane/propylene separation; (2) removal of nitrogen from natural gas; (3) concentration of Kraft black liquor; and (4)solvent deasphalting. For propane/propylene splitting, the membrane proved to be superior to distillation in both thermodynamic efficiency and processing cost (PC) when the product was 95% pure propylene. However, to produce higher purity products, the membrane alone could not perform the separation, and a membrane/distillation hybrid was required. In these cases, there is an optimum amount of separation to be accomplished by the membrane (expressed as the fraction of the total availability change of the membrane/distillation hybrid that takes place in the membrane and defined as {phi}{sub m}, the thermodynamic extent of separation). Qualitative and quantitative guidelines are discussed with regard to choosing a hybrid system. 54 refs., 66 figs., 36 tabs.

  15. table05.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    27 - 1,721 -65 -3 170 0 1,511 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 27 18 40 - 153 -28 - 8 1 257 Pentanes Plus .................................. 3 - 0 - 0 (s) - 0 (s) 2 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 24 18 40 - 153 -28 - 8 1 254 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 8 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 8 Propane/Propylene ........................ 11 54 39 - 149 -8 - 0 1 261 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 4 -27 1 - 3 -18 - 5 (s) -7 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 1 -9 0 - 0 -2

  16. table09.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3,434 - 5,080 -9 -1,729 230 0 6,546 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 1,272 347 65 - -68 -208 - 229 29 1,566 Pentanes Plus .................................. 188 - 33 - -5 30 - 66 0 119 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 1,084 347 31 - -63 -238 - 163 29 1,446 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 503 24 18 - 112 -52 - 0 0 709 Propane/Propylene ....................... 363 301 4 - -158 -120 - 0 21 610 Normal Butane/Butylene .............. 76 3 6 - -11 -89 - 100 8 54

  17. table10.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1,049 - 6,332 1,608 -4,050 -23 0 14,962 0 0 12,816 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ......... 4,049 -11 536 - -2,893 -15 - 595 6 1,095 1,354 Pentanes Plus ................................... 771 - 112 - -352 -8 - 163 5 371 219 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ............... 3,278 -11 424 - -2,541 -7 - 432 (s) 725 1,135 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 950 0 0 - -1,270 0 - 0 0 -320 213 Propane/Propylene ....................... 1,473 284 233 - -705 -50 - 0 (s) 1,335 439 Normal Butane/Butylene

  18. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    350 27 3,748 1,617 3,858 102 154 3,693 239 5,616 Crude Oil 48 - - - - 702 387 102 37 1,145 56 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 302 0 14 59 -21 - - -21 48 49 277 Pentanes Plus 35 0 - - - 0 - - 1 3 1 29 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 267 - - 14 59 -20 - - -22 45 48 248 Ethane/Ethylene 102 - - 1 - -104 - - 1 - - -2 Propane/Propylene 112 - - 39 51 84 - - -12 - 39 259 Normal Butane/Butylene 38 - - -26 3 0 - - -12 32 9 -15 Isobutane/Isobutylene 15 - - 0 5 0 - - 0 13 0 6 Other

  19. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2,576 962 4,466 2,693 -646 -330 113 4,240 396 4,972 Crude Oil 1,802 - - - - 2,581 -260 -368 63 3,661 29 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 775 -20 24 76 -69 - - -181 122 238 607 Pentanes Plus 90 -20 - - 0 175 - - 41 11 163 30 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 684 - - 24 76 -244 - - -222 111 75 577 Ethane/Ethylene 239 - - - - -56 - - 7 - 64 112 Propane/Propylene 292 - - 117 61 -188 - - -122 - 2 402 Normal Butane/Butylene 98 - - -88 6 -5 - - -106 63 9 45 Isobutane/Isobutylene 55 - -

  20. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,035 14 648 320 -731 57 36 615 23 669 Crude Oil 715 - - - - 296 -423 50 21 600 16 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 320 0 5 22 -293 - - -19 27 6 39 Pentanes Plus 56 0 - - - -44 - - -1 5 5 2 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 264 - - 5 22 -249 - - -18 22 2 37 Ethane/Ethylene 70 - - - - -74 - - 0 - - -4 Propane/Propylene 124 - - 9 21 -110 - - -6 - 0 50 Normal Butane/Butylene 51 - - -5 0 -40 - - -13 13 1 5 Isobutane/Isobutylene 20 - - 1 1 -25 - - 1 9 - -13 Other Liquids - - 14 - - 1

  1. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,158 20 2,921 1,258 550 42 -236 2,766 460 2,958 Crude Oil 1,092 - - - - 1,042 166 3 -59 2,362 0 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 67 0 -4 11 0 - - -60 82 36 16 Pentanes Plus 31 0 - - - - - - 0 26 0 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 36 - - -4 11 0 - - -60 56 35 13 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 12 - - 29 11 - - - -28 - 31 49 Normal Butane/Butylene 14 - - -33 0 - - - -31 39 4 -31 Isobutane/Isobutylene 10 - - 1 0 0 - - -1 17 0 -5 Other Liquids - - 21 - -

  2. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,070 15 662 340 -704 -26 10 637 18 693 Crude Oil 746 - - - - 326 -421 -32 9 602 8 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 323 0 13 10 -297 - - 1 20 7 21 Pentanes Plus 55 0 - - - -45 - - 0 6 5 -1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 268 - - 13 10 -252 - - 1 14 2 22 Ethane/Ethylene 77 - - - - -76 - - 0 - - 1 Propane/Propylene 122 - - 9 9 -110 - - 0 - 0 29 Normal Butane/Butylene 50 - - 3 0 -40 - - 1 7 2 5 Isobutane/Isobutylene 19 - - 0 1 -25 - - 0 7 0 -13 Other Liquids - - 15 - - 1 16 -12 1

  3. U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period: Annual (as of January 1) Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Total 710,413 -- -- -- -- -- 1982-2015 Crude Oil 180,846 -- -- -- -- -- 1985-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 33,842 -- -- -- -- -- 1982-2015 Propane/Propylene 8,513 -- --

  4. U.S. Working Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period: Annual (as of January 1) Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Total 617,513 -- -- -- -- -- 1982-2015 Crude Oil 153,181 -- -- -- -- -- 1982-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 30,852 -- -- -- -- -- 1982-2015 Propane/Propylene 8,150 -- --

  5. Conversion of 1,2-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    observed product at the expense of D2O formation. Authors: Chen, Long ; Li, Zhenjun ; Smith, R. Scott ; Kay, Bruce D. ; Dohnalek, Zdenek Publication Date: 2014-07-17 OSTI...

  6. Microwave Enhanced Direct Cracking of Hydrocarbon Feedstock for Energy Efficient Production of Ethylene and Propylene.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shulman, Holly; Fall, Morgana; Wagner, Eric; Bowlin, Ricardo

    2012-02-13

    This project demonstrated microwave cracking of ethane with good product conversion and ethylene selectivity, with a short residence time ({approx}0.001 sec). The laboratory scale equipment was designed and built, along with concept designs for larger scale implementation. The system was operated below atmospheric pressures, in the range of 15-55 torr, with argon as a carrier gas. The measured products included hydrogen, methane, acetylene, and ethylene. The results followed similar trends to those predicted by the modeling software SPYRO{reg_sign}, with the exception that the microwave appeared to produce slightly lower amounts of ethylene and methane, although enhanced analytical analysis should reduce the difference. Continued testing will be required to verify these results and quantify the energy consumption of microwave vs. conventional. The microwave cracking process is an attractive option due to the possibility of selectively heating the reaction volume rather than the reactor walls, which may allow novel reactor designs that result in more efficient production of ethylene. Supplemental studies are needed to continue the laboratory testing and refine processing parameters.

  7. State Heating Oil and Propane Program final report. Survey of No.2 heating oil and propane prices at the retail level October 2001 [sic] through March 2001 [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-04-06

    Data collected by Division staff was entered into the EIA-PEDRO system. No written reports of data were required.

  8. Washington Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propane-Air 1980-1998 Other

  9. Wisconsin Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Synthetic 1980-1998 Propane-Air

  10. Wyoming Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propane-Air 1980-1998 Other

  11. Study of autoignition in a premixed charge, internal combustion engine using comprehensive chemical kinetics: experiments and predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimpelfeld, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    A model is developed to predict autoignition in a premixed charge engine. Experimental data are obtained with spark ignition and premixed charge compression ignition. Seven fuels are examined: methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, methanol, ethylene, and propylene. Binary fuel mixtures are also examined, as are the effects of engine speed, equivalence ratio, load, and compression ratio. An initial temperature correction must be used to accurately predict the observed time of autoignition. Analysis of spark-ignited data show that the fuels fall into two groups, depending on the temperature correction ranging from 35 K to 80 K: methane, propane, n-butane, and methanol. Three fuels fall into the group with a temperature correction ranging from 110K and 140K: ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The rate of pressure rise during compression ignition is controlled by varying the fuel-air equivalence ratio. The effects of compression ratio and load on the rate and load on the rate of pressure rise are also examined. The predicted rates of temperature rise during compression ignition are compared to the observed rates of temperature rise.

  12. The importance of FCC catalyst selection on LPG profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Gilman, R.; Pearce, J.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Recently the value of LPG in chemical operations downstream of the FCC unit has increased. Such downstream operations utilize propylene not only in alkylate, but also in rapid growth petrochemical applications such as for a raw material in the manufacture of polypropylene and propylene oxide. Isobutane and the butenes (particularly butene-2 in sulfuric acid catalyzed alkylation units) are prized for alkylate feed. The profit potential and incentives to use other LPG components such as isobutene to make MTBE is now increased because of legislative actions and increased octane performance demand; and because of the greater isobutene content in the LPG from the new FCC octane catalysts. A low non-framework alumina (NFA) zeolite studied made a more olefinic LPG with higher iso-to normal C4 ratio than the other zeolites. Pilot plant data has also shown the new low NFA zeolite gave not only outstanding motor octane (MON) performance, but produced an LPG with better propylene to propane ratio, more isobutene, more n-butenes and more C4 branching than other RE promoted zeolite catalysts. Commercial results have verified the improved performance and profitability for the new low-NFA type zeolite catalysts. Three commercial examples are described.

  13. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    - Jeanne Vandemark, Director of Transportation, Mesa Unified School District C L E A N C I T I E S VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE * January 2016 * Page 2 Case Study: Eastern...

  14. Cummins Engine Company B5.9 Propane Engine Development, Certification, and Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The ADEPT Group, Inc.

    1998-12-18

    The objective of this project was to successfuly develop and certify an LPG-dedicated medium-duty original equipment manufacturer (OEM) engine that could be put into production. The engine was launched into production in 1994, and more than 800 B5.9G engines are now in service in the United States and abroad. This engine is now offered by more than 30 bus and truck OEMs.

  15. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    January ... 88.4 75.9 64.4 71.4 27.3 65.1 80.9 33.2 February ... 89.8 77.0 67.5 72.7 29.4 68.1 82.1 35.3 March ......

  16. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    82.5 68.1 NA 34.5 71.8 86.3 42.3 February ... 96.1 84.9 70.3 81.9 38.3 75.2 88.5 45.1 March ... 96.3 86.1 70.1 68.7 36.5 75.5 87.7 42.3...

  17. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1996 ... 99.1 88.4 73.3 75.7 41.3 76.4 88.6 47.1 1997 January ... 117.8 105.9 91.0 88.6 54.0 93.7 110.0 61.2 February...

  18. 35095,"AGWAY PETRO CORP",1,231,"PROPANE/NGL",0712,"CHAMPL-RS...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    REFG CO",7,850,"UNFINISHED OILS, RESIDUUM",1003,"NEWARK, NJ","NEW JERSEY",1,830,"SPAIN",219,0,20.5,"BAYWAY REFG CO","BAYWAY","NJ","NEW JERSEY",1 35095,"BAYWAY REFG...

  19. 34730,"AGWAY PETRO CORP",1,231,"PROPANE/NGL",0712,"CHAMPL-RS...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    CORP",7,850,"UNFINISHED OILS, RESIDUUM",1903,"PASCAGOULA, MS","MISSISSIPPI",3,830,"SPAIN",219,0,0,"CHEVRON USA INC","PASCAGOULA","MS","MISSISSIPPI",3 34730,"CHEVRON...

  20. Structure analysis of O,O-propane-1,3-diyl bis[diphenyl(phosphinothioate)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaman, M.; Irisli, S.; Bykgngr, O.

    2013-12-15

    A new diphosphine disulphide compound with the formula C{sub 27}H{sub 26}O{sub 2} vertical bar P{sub 2}S{sub 2}, was synthesized from the reaction between PPh{sub 2}SCl and 1,3-propanediol and characterized with different spectroscopic methods. Its structure has also been studied by X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-bar1. Pentavalent phosphorus atoms in the molecule are in distorted tetrahedral environments.

  1. U.S. Total Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Sales to End Users, Average - - - - - - 1993-2015 Residential - - - - - - 1993-2015 Commercial/Institutional - - - - - - 1993-2015 Industrial - - - - - - 1993-2015 Through Retail Outlets - - - - - - 1993-2015 Petro-Chemical - - - - - - 1994-2015 Other End Users - - - - - - 1993-2015 Sales for Resale - - - - - - 1993-2015

  2. U.S. Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices (October - March)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Florida Georgia North Carolina Virginia Midwest (PADD 2) Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma South Dakota Tennessee Wisconsin Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Alabama Arkansas Mississippi Texas Rocky

  3. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali; Orler, Bruce; Tornga, Stephanie; Welch, Cindy

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

  4. Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulationif its not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GEs low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

  5. table06.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7,308 - 27,686 -2,263 59,993 -3,449 0 105,005 1,168 0 70,132 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ......... 8,763 2,756 3,599 - 265 -6,499 - 3,820 752 17,310 23,020 Pentanes Plus ................................... 1,146 - 42 - 519 214 - 769 455 269 1,988 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ............... 7,617 2,756 3,557 - -254 -6,713 - 3,051 297 17,041 21,032 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 2,909 0 12 - -2,215 -110 - 0 0 816 2,868 Propane/Propylene ....................... 3,095 3,602 2,661 - 968

  6. table08.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    106,453 - 157,490 -279 -53,603 7,143 0 202,918 0 0 717,193 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 39,438 10,759 2,005 - -2,109 -6,438 - 7,105 885 48,541 46,872 Pentanes Plus .................................. 5,820 - 1,031 - -167 925 - 2,057 0 3,702 4,603 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 33,618 10,759 974 - -1,942 -7,363 - 5,048 885 44,839 42,269 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 15,603 751 544 - 3,485 -1,605 - 0 0 21,988 14,111 Propane/Propylene ....................... 11,268

  7. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2,637 1,124 19,833 9,726 12 -218 18,732 5,275 19,544 Crude Oil 9,262 - - - - 7,900 -200 -195 16,765 392 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,375 -22 330 180 - - -619 649 1,067 2,765 Pentanes Plus 409 -22 - - 10 - - 13 134 170 80 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,967 - - 330 170 - - -632 515 898 2,685 Ethane/Ethylene 1,210 - - 7 - - - 12 - 64 1,141 Propane/Propylene 1,134 - - 578 144 - - -251 - 751 1,356 Normal Butane/Butylene 314 - - -243 11 - - -379 304 78 79

  8. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0,841 851 116,203 50,123 119,592 3,155 4,776 114,478 7,424 174,087 192,970 Crude Oil 1,479 - - - - 21,756 11,999 3,151 1,162 35,500 1,723 0 16,298 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 9,362 -13 436 1,822 -645 - - -645 1,503 1,519 8,585 8,270 Pentanes Plus 1,085 -13 - - - -11 - - 40 95 30 896 209 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 8,277 - - 436 1,822 -634 - - -685 1,408 1,489 7,689 8,061 Ethane/Ethylene 3,174 - - 19 - -3,224 - - 31 - - -62 118 Propane/Propylene 3,478 - - 1,217 1,571

  9. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7,518 100 8,051 3,839 -3,031 140 -286 7,418 4,156 5,329 Crude Oil 5,606 - - - - 3,280 130 12 -259 8,997 292 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 1,912 -1 291 12 383 - - -338 370 739 1,826 Pentanes Plus 197 -1 - - 10 -130 - - -29 88 1 16 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,715 - - 291 2 514 - - -309 282 738 1,811 Ethane/Ethylene 798 - - 7 - 235 - - 5 - - 1,035 Propane/Propylene 593 - - 384 - 214 - - -83 - 678 596 Normal Butane/Butylene 114 - - -92 2 46 - - -218 157 54 76

  10. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    32,086 435 20,083 9,909 -22,661 1,779 1,127 19,054 723 20,728 45,547 Crude Oil 22,162 - - - - 9,162 -13,121 1,559 662 18,615 486 0 23,545 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 9,924 -11 162 670 -9,094 - - -592 835 196 1,212 3,622 Pentanes Plus 1,725 -11 - - - -1,367 - - -21 159 143 66 310 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 8,199 - - 162 670 -7,727 - - -571 676 53 1,146 3,312 Ethane/Ethylene 2,176 - - - - -2,308 - - 2 - - -134 432 Propane/Propylene 3,830 - - 281 647 -3,411 - - -199 - 10

  11. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    35,912 633 90,537 38,985 17,037 1,301 -7,327 85,751 14,270 91,713 144,121 Crude Oil 33,844 - - - - 32,297 5,156 104 -1,814 73,215 0 0 55,165 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,068 -13 -116 356 -8 - - -1,851 2,532 1,108 498 4,933 Pentanes Plus 951 -13 - - - - - - 5 810 13 110 44 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,117 - - -116 356 -8 - - -1,856 1,722 1,095 388 4,889 Ethane/Ethylene 3 - - - - - - - - - - 3 - Propane/Propylene 376 - - 890 346 - - - -862 - 961 1,513 1,492 Normal

  12. U.S. Natural Gas Processing Plant

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 6,491 6,324 6,877 6,774 5,691 4,837 1993-2015 Pentanes Plus 828 813 728 852 804 780 1993-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 5,663 5,511 6,149 5,922 4,887 4,057 1993-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 1,250 999 1,243 1,336 1,311 819 1993-2015 Propane/Propylene 1,640 1,796 1,843 1,671 1,598 1,677 1993-2015 Normal Butane/Butylene 2,260 2,239 2,529 2,411 1,701 1,160 1993-2015 Isobutane/Butylene 513 477 534 504 277 40

  13. Weekly Petroleum Status Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Table 6. Stocks of Distillate, Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel, Residual Fuel Oil, and Propane/Propylene by PAD District (Million Barrels) Product / Region Current Week Last Week Year Ago 2 Years Ago 3/11/16 3/4/16 Difference 3/13/15 Percent Change 3/14/14 Percent Change Distillate Fuel Oil 1 ..................................... 161.3 162.5 -1.1 125.9 28.2 110.8 45.6 East Coast (PADD 1) 1 ........................ 58.1 59.4 -1.3 27.8 109.2 29.2 99.4 New England (PADD 1A) 1 .............. 10.9 10.7 0.2

  14. From PADD 1 to PADD 2 Movements by Pipeline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 110,859 111,081 109,179 110,752 136,352 148,001 1985-2015 Crude Oil 0 0 1,352 1,629 2,423 1,821 1985-2015 Petroleum Products 110,859 111,081 107,827 109,123 133,929 146,180 1981-2015 Pentanes Plus 452 113 19 2 30 121 2009-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 0 0 0 236 23,034 33,098 1981-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 236 22,845 32,344 2013-2015 Propane/Propylene 0 0 0 0 135 538 2005-2015 Isobutane/Isobutylene 0 0 0 39 156 2008-2015

  15. From PADD 1 to PADD 2 Movements by Tanker, Pipeline, Barge and Rail

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 112,461 113,596 110,881 113,554 139,062 150,573 1981-2015 Crude Oil 274 590 1,646 2,729 3,915 2,727 1981-2015 Petroleum Products 112,187 113,006 109,235 110,825 135,147 147,846 1981-2015 Pentanes Plus 452 113 19 2 30 121 2009-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 0 0 0 236 23,034 33,098 1981-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 236 22,845 32,344 2013-2015 Propane/Propylene 0 0 0 0 135 538 2005-2015 Normal Butane/Butylene 0 0 0 0 15 60

  16. U.S. Refinery

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 347,764 351,758 354,511 354,703 353,837 349,090 1993-2015 Crude Oil 99,146 101,838 102,678 105,923 101,530 100,805 1981-2015 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 248,618 249,920 251,833 248,780 252,307 248,285 1993-2015 Pentanes Plus 877 682 778 711 1,018 718 1993-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 16,246 18,334 18,650 18,308 16,631 14,329 1993-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 70 138 190 215 135 86 1993-2015 Propane/Propylene 3,949 4,665 4,567 4,837 5,033 4,107 1993-2015 Normal

  17. From PADD 3 to PADD 1 Movements by Tanker and Barge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 216,441 213,762 220,029 205,719 215,315 219,022 1981-2015 Crude Oil 3,636 6,372 972 5,049 9,588 13,715 1981-2015 Petroleum Products 212,805 207,390 219,057 200,670 205,727 205,307 1981-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 584 328 146 232 220 144 1981-2015 Propane/Propylene 584 328 146 232 220 144 2005-2015 Unfinished Oils 437 305 0 1,084 1981-2015 Motor Gasoline Blending Components 75,434 75,906 107,437 96,812 106,100 96,777

  18. U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4,967 4,564 4,884 4,628 4,817 5,275 1973-2015 Crude Oil 526 461 409 500 320 392 1920-2015 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 1,021 991 1,136 970 1,058 1,067 1981-2015 Pentanes Plus 200 197 234 153 201 170 1984-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 821 794 903 817 857 898 1973-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 65 60 51 68 66 64 1981-2015 Propane/Propylene 624 597 739 622 676 751 1973-2015 Normal Butane/Butylene 125 128 107 116 109 78 1981-2015 Isobutane/Isobutylene 6 10 5 10 7 5 1984-2015 Other

  19. U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    294,833 302,821 280,042 272,798 273,770 301,517 1981-2015 Crude Oil 227,255 236,785 216,669 220,747 221,117 244,915 1920-2015 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,621 4,126 3,046 4,026 4,880 5,580 1981-2015 Pentanes Plus 4 325 2 316 647 318 1981-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,617 3,801 3,044 3,710 4,233 5,262 1981-2015 Ethane 1993-2006 Ethylene 1993-2015 Propane 2,284 2,486 1,935 2,476 3,127 3,853 1995-2015 Propylene 668 724 433 344 383 608 1993-2015 Normal Butane 140 76

  20. U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9,511 9,768 9,335 8,800 9,126 9,726 1973-2015 Crude Oil 7,331 7,638 7,222 7,121 7,371 7,900 1920-2015 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 117 133 102 130 163 180 1981-2015 Pentanes Plus 0 10 0 10 22 10 1981-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 117 123 101 120 141 170 1973-2015 Ethane 1993-2006 Ethylene 1993-2015 Propane 74 80 65 80 104 124 1995-2015 Propylene 22 23 14 11 13 20 1993-2015 Normal Butane 5 2 6 17 10 7 1995-2015 Butylene 4 4 5 3 2 4 1993-2015 Isobutane 12 13 11 8 12 15

  1. U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    19,979 19,814 19,225 19,350 19,188 19,544 1963-2015 Crude Oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2015 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs 2,402 2,335 2,135 2,429 2,552 2,765 1981-2015 Pentanes Plus 73 146 62 135 36 80 1981-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,329 2,189 2,072 2,294 2,516 2,685 1973-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 1,067 971 1,035 1,068 1,170 1,141 1981-2015 Propane/Propylene 980 998 896 1,020 1,145 1,356 1973-2015 Normal Butane/Butylene 190 123 66 99 99 79 1981-2015 Isobutane/Isobutylene 93 97 75 107 102 109 1981-2015

  2. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Third annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B.

    1997-07-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls, feedforward from a feed composition analyzer, and decouplers. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning for setpoint changes was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. In addition, robustness tests were conducted by inducting reboiler duty upsets. For single composition control, the (L, V) configuration was found to be best. For dual composition control, the optimum configuration changes from one column to another. Moreover, the use of analysis tools, such as RGA, appears to be of little value in identifying the optimum configuration for dual composition control. Using feedforward from a feed composition analyzer and using decouplers are shown to offer significant advantages for certain specific cases.

  3. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. First annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B.

    1996-11-01

    A detailed dynamic simulator of a propylene/propane (C{sub 3}) splitter, which was bench-marked against industrial data, has been used to compare dual composition control performance for a diagonal PI controller and several advanced controllers. The advanced controllers considered are dynamic matrix control (DMC), nonlinear process model based control, and artificial neutral networks. Each controller was tuned based upon setpoint changes in the overhead product composition using 50% changes in the impurity levels. Overall, there was not a great deal of difference in controller performance based upon the setpoint and disturbance tests. Periodic step changes in feed composition were also used to compare controller performance. In this case, oscillatory variations of the product composition were observed and the variabilities of the DC and nonlinear process model based controllers were substantially smaller than that of the PI controller. The sensitivity of each controller to the frequency of the periodic step changes in feed composition was also investigated.

  4. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. First annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    A detailed dynamic simulator of a propylene/propane (C3) splitter, which was bench-marked against industrial data, has been used to compare dual composition control performance for a diagonal PI controller and several advanced controllers. The advanced controllers considered are DMC, nonlinear process model based control, and articial neutral networks. Each controller was tuned based upon setpoint changes in the overhead product composition using 50% changes in the impurity levels. Overall, there was not a great deal of difference in controller performance based upon the setpoint and disturbance tests. Periodic step changes in feed composition were also used to compare controller performance. In this case, oscillatory variations of the product composition were observed and the variabilities of the DMC and nonlinear process model based controllers were substantially smaller than that of the PI controller. The sensitivity of each controller to the frequency of the periodic step changes in feed composition was also investigated.

  5. Injection of LPG into TCC unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, T.S.

    1987-02-03

    A process is described for catalytically cracking hydrocarbon feed in a bed of catalyst effective to crack the hydrocarbon feed, comprising contacting the feed under catalytic cracking conditions, with the catalyst in a first portion of the bed, to produce cracked product. Another portion of that bed of catalyst is sealed by introducing into another portion of that bed a seal selected from the group consisting of ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, isobutylene and mixtures thereof whereby feed and cracked product are prevented from surging into another portion; whereby contact of the seal with catalyst in another portion of the bed results in conversion of the seal to the higher molecular weight adducts thereof, the condition in another portion of the bed being effective to provide the conversion.

  6. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12,703 1,095 19,893 9,401 343 434 18,855 4,750 19,395 Crude Oil 9,430 - - - - 7,351 136 252 16,207 458 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,273 -21 612 144 - - 60 516 967 2,465 Pentanes Plus 429 -21 - - 11 - - 0 146 182 91 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,844 - - 612 133 - - 60 369 785 2,375 Ethane/Ethylene 1,108 - - 6 0 - - -3 - 65 1,051 Propane/Propylene 1,117 - - 559 112 - - 51 - 615 1,121 Normal Butane/Butylene 324 - - 55 10 - - 12 169 98 110 Isobutane/Isobutylene 296 - - -7

  7. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    327 28 3,799 1,686 3,728 98 96 3,748 247 5,574 Crude Oil 50 - - - - 624 436 94 3 1,121 79 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 277 -1 39 46 -12 - - 3 35 45 267 Pentanes Plus 32 -1 - - 0 0 - - 0 2 2 28 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 245 - - 39 46 -12 - - 2 33 43 239 Ethane/Ethylene 84 - - 0 - -87 - - 0 - - -2 Propane/Propylene 110 - - 37 41 76 - - 3 - 38 223 Normal Butane/Butylene 36 - - 2 1 0 - - -1 23 6 11 Isobutane/Isobutylene 14 - - -1 4 0 - - 0 10 0 7 Other Liquids - - 29 - -

  8. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    569 926 4,517 2,414 -572 32 125 4,312 433 5,015 Crude Oil 1,873 - - - - 2,305 -426 -2 109 3,561 79 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 696 -19 112 70 -45 - - 6 92 253 463 Pentanes Plus 88 -19 - - 0 127 - - 2 18 172 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 608 - - 112 70 -172 - - 4 73 81 460 Ethane/Ethylene 191 - - 0 0 -27 - - 2 - 65 98 Propane/Propylene 274 - - 112 57 -122 - - -2 - 4 318 Normal Butane/Butylene 94 - - 2 7 -26 - - 4 27 12 33 Isobutane/Isobutylene 48 - - -1 6 4 - - 0 46 0

  9. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7,603 102 7,850 3,587 -2,973 131 193 7,261 3,647 5,199 Crude Oil 5,693 - - - - 2,974 255 8 114 8,531 284 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 1,910 -1 398 13 354 - - 51 299 625 1,699 Pentanes Plus 223 -1 - - 11 -81 - - -3 96 1 58 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,687 - - 398 2 435 - - 54 204 624 1,641 Ethane/Ethylene 755 - - 5 - 190 - - -4 - - 955 Propane/Propylene 599 - - 360 0 156 - - 52 - 551 512 Normal Butane/Butylene 131 - - 40 2 67 - - 6 86 66 81 Isobutane/Isobutylene 202 - -

  10. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    413,995 8,734 1,118,507 501,579 190,464 39,327 3,721 1,057,433 147,442 1,064,010 144,121 Crude Oil 389,809 - - - - 409,542 56,842 25,213 5,899 872,597 2,909 0 55,165 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 24,186 -154 18,390 2,042 -8 - - -146 25,753 13,086 5,763 4,933 Pentanes Plus 11,099 -154 - - 18 - - - -30 9,090 723 1,180 44 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,087 - - 18,390 2,024 -8 - - -116 16,663 12,363 4,583 4,889 Ethane/Ethylene 35 - - - - - - - - - - 35 - Propane/Propylene

  11. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,134 24 3,064 1,374 522 108 10 2,897 404 2,915 Crude Oil 1,068 - - - - 1,122 156 69 16 2,391 8 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 66 0 50 6 0 - - 0 71 36 16 Pentanes Plus 30 0 - - 0 - - - 0 25 2 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 36 - - 50 6 0 - - 0 46 34 13 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 12 - - 41 5 - - - -2 - 22 39 Normal Butane/Butylene 12 - - 7 0 - - - 2 25 12 -20 Isobutane/Isobutylene 11 - - 3 0 0 - - 0 21 0 -6 Other Liquids - - 24 - - 114 314 15 3

  12. U.S. Natural Gas Processing Plant

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 4,738 3,841 4,828 5,118 4,005 4,837 1993-2015 Pentanes Plus 619 501 383 486 924 780 1993-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 4,119 3,340 4,445 4,632 3,081 4,057 1993-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 956 647 837 856 572 819 1993-2015 Propane/Propylene 1,371 1,505 1,944 2,297 1,246 1,677 1993-2015 Normal Butane/Butylene 1,292 688 907 992 678 1,160 1993-2015 Isobutane/Butylene 500 500 757 487 585 40

  13. Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginosar, Daniel M; Fox, Robert V; Petkovic, Lucia M

    2009-04-07

    A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

  14. U.S. Refinery

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 339,907 336,327 341,211 326,400 343,792 349,090 1993-2015 Crude Oil 88,982 90,640 88,781 85,114 95,794 100,805 1981-2015 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 250,925 245,687 252,430 241,286 247,998 248,285 1993-2015 Pentanes Plus 971 895 884 564 580 718 1993-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14,896 14,429 15,934 11,693 15,100 14,329 1993-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 220 223 214 93 150 86 1993-2015 Propane/Propylene 4,278 4,087 4,574 2,831 4,652 4,107 1993-2015 Normal

  15. From PADD 1 to PADD 2 Movements by Pipeline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 13,081 13,231 12,645 13,446 13,070 11,827 1986-2015 Crude Oil 147 121 121 152 113 126 1986-2015 Petroleum Products 12,934 13,110 12,524 13,294 12,957 11,701 1986-2015 Pentanes Plus 10 10 11 10 10 11 2009-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,241 2,966 2,828 2,956 3,262 3,331 1986-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 3,178 2,904 2,766 2,893 3,200 3,269 2013-2015 Propane/Propylene 45 44 44 45 44 44 2005-2015 Isobutane/Isobutylene

  16. From PADD 1 to PADD 2 Movements by Tanker, Pipeline, Barge and Rail

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 13,211 13,548 12,776 13,576 13,240 12,063 1986-2015 Crude Oil 197 135 121 152 136 126 1986-2015 Petroleum Products 13,014 13,413 12,655 13,424 13,104 11,937 1986-2015 Pentanes Plus 10 10 11 10 10 11 2009-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,241 2,966 2,828 2,956 3,262 3,331 1986-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 3,178 2,904 2,766 2,893 3,200 3,269 2013-2015 Propane/Propylene 45 44 44 45 44 44 2005-2015 Normal Butane/Butylene

  17. Tennessee Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Synthetic 1980-2003 Propane-Air 1980-2004

  18. The crystal and molecular structure of bis[1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane] dichlororuthenium(II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontes, M.R.M.; Oliva, G.; Cordeiro, L.A.C.; Batista, A.A.

    1993-12-31

    The title compound, trans-[Ru(dpp){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}], crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1, with a = 9.529(1), b = 11.071(1), c = 11.936(1) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 71.967(9), {beta} = 72.879(6), {gamma} = 88.703(9){degrees}, V = 1141.1(2) {angstrom}{sup 3} and Z = 1. The structure was solved and refined to a final R = 0.039, for 3126 independently observed reflections with I > 3{sigma} (I). The ruthenium(II) ion is located on a crystallographic centre of symmetry and shows a distorted octahedral coordination with the chloride atoms in an exactly trans configuration. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. U.S. Refinery Net Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Total 4,568,301 4,484,600 4,395,128 4,433,893 4,349,316 4,273,291 2005-2015 Liquefied Refinery Gases 240,454 225,992 230,413 227,349 238,485 223,448 2005-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 7,228 7,148 6,597 2,626 2,038 2,134 2005-2015 Ethane 5,200 5,105 4,835 2,439 1,777 1,835 2005-2015 Ethylene 2,028 2,043 1,762 187 261 299 2005-2015 Propane/Propylene 204,223 201,492 202,309 206,038 214,378 203,954 2005-2015 Propane 102,913 98,508 100,933 103,568 111,813 103,253

  20. The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    area. * Completed columns in propane refrigeration, Dehydration Mercury removal and ... compressors area, HRU unit, propane refrigeration, inlet facilities, utilities waste ...

  1. Potential for Microbial Stimulation in Deep Vadose Zone Sediments by Gas-Phase Nutrients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.W.; Plymale, A. E.; Brockman, F.J.

    2006-04-05

    Viable microbial populations are low, typically 10{sup 4} cells per gram, in deep vadose zones in arid climates. There is evidence that microbial distribution in these environments is patchy. In addition, infiltration or injection of nutrient-laden water has the potential to spread and drive contaminants downward to the saturated zone. For these reasons, there are uncertainties regarding the feasibility of bioremediation of recalcitrant contaminants in deep vadose zones. The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of denitrifying activity and gaseous carbon-utilizing activity in arid-climate deep vadose zone sediments contaminated with, and/or affected by past exposure to, carbon tetrachloride (CT). These metabolisms are known to degrade CT and/or its breakdown product chloroform under anoxic conditions. A second objective was to determine if CT would be degraded in these sediments under unsaturated, bulk-phase aerobic incubation conditions. Both denitrifier population (determined by MPN) and microbial heterotrophic activity (measured by mineralization of 14-C labeled glucose and acetate) were relatively low and the sediments with greater in situ moisture (10-21% versus 2-7%) tended to have higher activities. When sediments were amended with gaseous nutrients (nitrous oxide and triethyl/tributyl phosphate) and gaseous C sources (a mixture of methane, ethane, propylene, propane, and butane) and incubated for 6 months, approximately 50% of the samples showed removal of one or more gaseous C sources, with butane most commonly used (44% of samples), followed by propylene (42%), propane (31%), ethane (22%), and methane (4%). Gaseous N and gaseous P did not stimulate removal of gaseous C substrates compared to no addition of N and P. CT and gaseous C sources were spiked into the sediments that removed gaseous C sources to determine if hydrocarbon-degraders have the potential to degrade CT under unsaturated conditions. In summary, gaseous C sources--particularly butane and propylene--have promise for increasing the numbers and activity of indigenous microbial populations in arid-climate deep vadose zone sediments.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Education, Research, and Training The Propane Education and Research Act of 1996 established the Propane Education and Research Council (PERC) to develop programs education and training programs for safe propane use. PERC is funded and operated by the propane industry, and helps coordinate efforts to promote the use of propane as an alternative fuel. The Propane Education and Research Enhancement Act of 2014 expanded PERC's duties by tasking the council with developing training programs

  3. Regional analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons and meteorology of the rural southeast United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagerman, L.M.

    1996-11-01

    Measurements of non-methane hydrocarbons, as well as ozone, meteorological and trace gas data, were made at four rural sites located within the southeastern United States as a part of the Southern Oxidants Study. Fifty-six C2-C10 hydrocarbons were collected from 1200-1300 local time, once every six days from September 1992 through October 1993. The measurements were made in an effort to enhance the understanding of the behavior and trends of ozone and other photochemical oxidants in this region. The light molecular weight alkanes (ethane, propane, n-butane, iso-butane), ethene and acetylene display a seasonal variation with a winter maximum and summer minimum. Isoprene was virtually non-existent during the winter at all sites, and averaged from 9.8 ppbC (Yorkville, GA) to 21.15 ppbC (Centreville, AL) during the summer. The terpene concentration was greatest in the summer with averages ranging between 3.19 ppbC (Centreville, AL) to 6.38 ppbC (Oak Grove, MS), but was also emitted during the winter months, with a range of 1.25 to 1.9 ppbC for all sites. Propylene-equivalent concentrations were calculated to account for differences in reaction rates between the hydroxyl radical and individual hydrocarbons, and to thereby estimate their relative contribution to ozone, especially in regards to the highly reactive biogenic compounds such as isoprene. It was calculated that biogenics represent at least 65% of the total non-methane hydrocarbon sum at these four sites during the summer season when considering propylene-equivalent concentrations. An ozone episode which occurred from July 20 to July 24 1993 was used as an example to show ozone profiles at each of the sites, and to show the effect of synoptic meteorology on high ozone by examining NOAA daily weather maps and climatic data.

  4. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2013-11-21

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane on Delicious

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Veolia Transportation Converts Taxi Fleet to

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Veolia Transportation Converts Taxi Fleet to Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Veolia Transportation Converts Taxi Fleet to Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Veolia Transportation Converts Taxi Fleet to Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Veolia Transportation Converts Taxi Fleet to Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Veolia Transportation Converts Taxi Fleet to Propane on

  8. SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene A. Fritzler

    2005-09-01

    The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

  9. Ethane enrichment and propane depletion in subsurface gases indicate gas hydrate occurrence in marine sediments at southern Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milkov, Alexei V.; Claypool, G E.; Lee, Young-Joo; Torres, Marta E.; Borowski, W S.; Tomaru, H; Sassen, Roger; Long, Philip E.

    2004-07-02

    The recognition of finely disseminated gas hydrate in deep marine sediments heavily depends on various indirect techniques because this mineral quickly decomposes upon recovery from in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Here, we discuss molecular properties of closely spaced gas voids (formed as a result of core recovery) and gas hydrates from an area of relatively low gas flux at the flanks of the southern Hydrate Ridge Offshore Oregon (ODP Sites 1244, 1245 and 1247).

  10. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous-fueled for gasoline-fueled heavy-duty vehicles. Finally, it raises and expands on the relevance of AFVs and their deployment to some other provisions embedded in EPA`s current guidance for implementing 1-hour NAAQS--standards which currently remain in effect--as tools to provide immediate reductions in ozone, without waiting for promised future clean technologies.

  11. Landi-Hartog U. S. A. adjusts to the U. S. market. [Marketing of LPG carburetor systems for using propane as an automotive fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Landi-Hartog U.S.A. has adjusted to the U.S. market in providing LPG carburetor systems for passenger cars. Landi-Hartog (LH) had to completely redesign the components on the system to be compatible with U.S. 300-525 cu in. engines. The company has California Air Resources Board approval for 300 cu in. engines and above in dual-fuel service. However, the U.S. market will remain severely restricted unless basic distribution (and the political) changes are made. The U.S. is st

  12. Microsoft PowerPoint - T. Lidderdale Presentation.pptx

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Heating Oil and Propane (SHOPP) Webinar 2012 State Heating Oil and Propane (SHOPP) Webinar Heating Fuels Outlook Tancred Lidderdale August 14, 2012 | Washington, D.C....

  13. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8, 2015 | Next release date: July 15, 2015 Exports provide an outlet for growing propane production Exports of propane from the United States have been increasing rapidly since...

  14. EIA Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December 1, 1999 VEE-0060 - In the Matter of Blakeman Propane, Inc. On May 11, 1999, Blakeman Propane, Inc. (Blakeman) of Moorcroft, Wyoming, filed an Application for Exception...

  15. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3, 2014 Next Release: August 20, 2014 Midwest propane inventories show strong growth in recent weeks Last winter, high propane prices, low inventories and logistical and...

  16. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0, 2010 (Next Release on November 17, 2010) Propane Costs This Winter The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects households heating primarily with propane to spend an...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: Success Stories | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    realize the benefits of alternative fuels. February 10, 2014 Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road DOE supports...

  18. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    the cycle of either rebuilding crude oil or refined products may continue. East Coast Propane Supply Situation Industry concern over the adequacy of propane supply in the East...

  19. EIA Winter Fuels Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7, 2014 2 EIA actions to improve winter fuels information * More Detailed Weekly Propane Stock Data - In addition to weekly PADD- level propane stocks, EIA will publish...

  20. Alternative Fueling Station Locator App Provides Info at Your...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    that offer electricity, natural gas, biodiesel, E85, propane, or hydrogen. | Energy ... that offer electricity, natural gas, biodiesel, E85, propane, or hydrogen. | Energy ...

  1. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  2. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  3. Radical-cured block copolymer-modified thermosets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redline, Erica M.; Francis, Lorraine F.; Bates, Frank S.

    2013-01-10

    Poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized and added at 4 wt % to 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (BisGMA), a monomer that cures using free radical chemistry. In separate experiments, poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) was combined as a secondary monomer with BisGMA and the monomers were loaded with 4 wt % PEP-PEO. The diblock copolymers self-assembled into well-dispersed spherical micelles with PEP cores and PEO coronas. No appreciable change in the final extent of cure of the thermosets was caused by the addition of diblock copolymer, except in the case of BisGMA, where the addition of the block copolymer increased extent of cure by 12%. Furthermore, the extent of cure was increased by 29% and 37% with the addition of 25 and 50 wt % PEGDMA, respectively. Elastic modulus and fracture resistance were also determined, and the values indicate that the addition of block copolymers does not significantly toughen the thermoset materials. This finding is surprising when compared with the large increase in fracture resistance seen in block copolymer-modified epoxies, and an explanation is proposed.

  4. U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    153,972 141,476 146,514 143,463 144,525 163,526 1981-2015 Crude Oil 16,312 14,293 12,273 15,501 9,596 12,167 1920-2015 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 31,654 30,723 34,091 30,066 31,743 33,089 1981-2015 Pentanes Plus 6,200 6,116 7,006 4,753 6,020 5,261 1984-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 25,454 24,607 27,085 25,312 25,723 27,827 1981-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 2,024 1,860 1,532 2,113 1,976 1,985 1981-2015 Propane/Propylene 19,359 18,494 22,171 19,292 20,268 23,266 1981-2015

  5. U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    619,354 614,238 576,739 599,856 575,651 605,862 1981-2015 Crude Oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2015 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs 74,462 72,397 64,042 75,293 76,572 85,729 1981-2015 Pentanes Plus 2,248 4,534 1,874 4,194 1,087 2,486 1981-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 72,214 67,863 62,168 71,100 75,485 83,244 1981-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 33,077 30,108 31,059 33,115 35,088 35,366 1981-2015 Propane/Propylene 30,376 30,936 26,884 31,606 34,361 42,033 1981-2015 Normal Butane/Butylene 5,878 3,802 1,967 3,065 2,976

  6. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. ATV identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal PI composition controllers. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state RGA values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity), were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  7. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B.

    1996-11-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of two industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter and a xylene/toluene column) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state relative gain array (RGA) values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity) were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  8. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Fourth annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B.

    1998-09-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selection for single-ended and dual-composition control as well as compare conventional and advanced control approaches. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that in order to identify the optimum configuration, detailed testing using dynamic simulation is required. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the control performance of conventional PI controllers, DMC (Dynamic Matrix Control), PMBC (Process Model Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that DMC works best when one product is much more important than the other while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and DMC.

  9. Rhode Island Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 1967-2014 Propane-Air 1980-1998

  10. South Carolina Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    * * 1 1967-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1 1980-2014

  11. South Dakota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propane-Air 1980-2007 Biomass 1999-2005 Other 1980-2005

  12. Texas Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propane-Air 1981-2005 Refinery Gas 1981-2005 Other 1999-2005

  13. New Hampshire Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Propane-Air 1980-2007

  14. North Carolina Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Propane-Air 1980-2003

  15. Oregon Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Propane-Air 1982-200

  16. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued ...

  17. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    State Heating Oil and Propane Program Expansion of Propane Data Collection Monday, April 14th, 2014 Key Topics Overview and history of State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) Expansion of propane data collection What is expected of SEOs that participate? Benefits of participation Presentation Presentation PDF MP4

  18. Clean Cities Launches iPhone App for Alternative Fueling Station Locations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The new app helps users find stations offering electricity, natural gas, propane, and other alternative fuels.

  19. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | | | | | | | | | | | | Geographic Area | Aviation | Naphtha- | Kerosene- | Propane Month | Gasoline | Type | Type | (Consumer | |...

  20. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | | | | | | | | | | | | Geographic Area | Aviation | Kerosene- | No. 4 | Propane Month | Gasoline | Type | Fuel | (Consumer | | Jet...