National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hc2-1a household characteristics

  1. char_household2001.pdf

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Contact: Stephanie J. Battles, Survey Manager (stephanie.battles@eia.doe.gov) World Wide Web: http:www.eia.doe.govemeuconsumption Table HC2-1a. Household Characteristics by ...

  2. Household and environmental characteristics related to household energy-consumption change: A human ecological approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerin, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study focused on the family household as an organism and on its interaction with the three environments of the human ecosystem (natural, behavioral, and constructed) as these influence energy consumption and energy-consumption change. A secondary statistical analysis of data from the US Department of Energy Residential Energy Consumption Surveys (RECS) was completed. The 1980 and 1983 RECS were used as the data base. Longitudinal data, including household, environmental, and energy-consumption measures, were available for over 800 households. The households were selected from a national sample of owner-occupied housing units surveyed in both years. Results showed a significant( p = <.05) relationship between the dependent-variable energy-consumption change and the predictor variables heating degree days, addition of insulation, addition of a wood-burning stove, year the housing unit was built, and weighted number of appliances. A significant (p = <.05) relationship was found between the criterion variable energy-consumption change and the discriminating variables of age of the head of the household, cooling degree days, heating degree days, year the housing unit was built, and number of stories in the housing unit.

  3. Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in NewCalifornia Houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

    2006-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine occupant use of windows and mechanical ventilation devices; barriers that inhibit their use; satisfaction with indoor air quality (IAQ); and the relationship between these factors. A questionnaire was mailed to a stratified random sample of 4,972 single-family detached homes built in 2003, and 1,448 responses were received. A convenience sample of 230 houses known to have mechanical ventilation systems resulted in another 67 completed interviews. Some results are: (1) Many houses are under-ventilated: depending on season, only 10-50% of houses meet the standard recommendation of 0.35 air changes per hour. (2) Local exhaust fans are under-utilized. For instance, about 30% of households rarely or never use their bathroom fan. (3) More than 95% of households report that indoor air quality is ''very'' or ''somewhat'' acceptable, although about 1/3 of households also report dustiness, dry air, or stagnant or humid air. (4) Except households where people cook several hours per week, there is no evidence that households with significant indoor pollutant sources get more ventilation. (5) Except households containing asthmatics, there is no evidence that health issues motivate ventilation behavior. (6) Security and energy saving are the two main reasons people close windows or keep them closed.

  4. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian C. O'Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  5. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  6. Table HC6.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total...................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 16.3 9.4 4.0 2.7 3.2 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 13.8 25.4 14.4 13.2 8.8 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.9 17.4 8.5 7.3 5.2

  7. Table HC6.2 Living Space Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total...................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 1.7 0.8 0.4 0.3 Q 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 10.2 6.4 3.4 2.3 1.5 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 5.5 6.3 3.0 3.3 2.6 1,500 to

  8. Table HC6.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC6.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total U.S.............................................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven.................................................. 109.6 29.5 34.4 18.2 15.7 11.8 1................................................................. 103.3 28.4 32.0 17.3 14.7 11.0 2 or More.................................................... 6.2 1.1 2.5 1.0 0.9 0.8 Do Not

  9. Table HC1-3a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  10. Table HC6.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total..................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............ 1.2 0.3 0.3 Q 0.2 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment............... 109.8 29.7 34.5 18.2 15.6 11.8 Use Main Space Heating Equipment................. 109.1 29.5 34.4 18.1 15.5 11.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It................... 0.8 Q Q Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel and

  11. S:\\VM3\\RX97\\TBL_LIST.WPD

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Contact: Robert Latta, Survey Manager (rlatta@eia.doe.gov) World Wide Web: http:www.eia.doe.govemeuconsumption Table HC2-1a. Household Characteristics by Climate Zone, Million ...

  12. charlock-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Household Tables (Million U.S. Households; 24 pages, 122 kb) Contents Pages HC2-1a. Household Characteristics by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC2-2a. Household Characteristics by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC2-3a. Household Characteristics by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC2-4a. Household Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC2-5a. Household Characteristics by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing

  13. Household magnets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Household magnets Chances are very good that you have experimented with magnets. People have been fascinated with magnetism for thousands of years. As familiar to us as they may be, magnets still have some surprises for us. Here is a small collection of some of our favorite magnet experiments. What happens when we break a magnet in half? Radio Shack sells cheap ceramic magnets in several shapes. Get a ring shaped magnet and break it with pliers or a tap with a hammer. Try to put it back

  14. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0a. Air Conditioning by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.4 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 20.5 13.6 6.8 2.2 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 0.3 Q Q 27.5 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1

  15. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1a. Air Conditioning by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.3 1.4 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 37.2 19.3 6.4 11.5 1.5 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 0.4 Q Q Q 28.2 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1

  16. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Air Conditioning by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.4 1.2 1.7 1.4 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 10.7 3.4 7.2 7.1 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 1.1 0.2 0.9 15.5 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1 ........................................ 80.8 9.6 3.2

  17. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4a. Air Conditioning by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.4 0.6 1.5 1.4 1.8 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ........ 82.9 58.7 6.5 12.4 5.3 4.9 Air Conditioners Not Used ............ 2.1 1.1 Q 0.6 Q 21.8 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1

  18. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8a. Air Conditioning by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.8 1.4 1.3 1.4 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 36.8 13.6 18.9 13.6 4.3 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 1.2 0.2 0.4 0.3 21.4 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 2 ........................................ 80.8 35.6 13.4

  19. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Air Conditioning by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.8 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 14.5 11.3 3.2 3.3 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 0.3 0.3 Q 28.3 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1

  20. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  1. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-02

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide.

  2. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ... to 79,999","80,000 or More" "Water Heating Characteristics" ...

  3. EIA - Household Transportation report: Household Vehicles Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    logo printer-friendly version logo for Portable Document Format file Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 August 1997 Release Next Update: EIA has discontinued this series....

  4. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Air Conditioning by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.4 1.6 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 0.9 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ........ 82.9 13.6 16.0 14.7 10.4 10.5 17.6 4.7 Air Conditioners Not Used ............ 2.1 Q 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5 27.2 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 2

  5. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5a. Air Conditioning by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Owner- Occupied Units Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.5 0.5 1.5 1.4 1.8 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ........ 59.5 58.7 6.5 12.4 5.3 5.2 Air Conditioners Not Used ............ 1.2 1.1 Q 0.6 Q 23.3 Households Using

  6. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6a. Air Conditioning by Type of Rented Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Rented Units Type of Rented Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.8 0.5 1.4 1.2 1.6 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ........ 23.4 58.7 6.5 12.4 5.3 6.1 Air Conditioners Not Used ............ 0.9 1.1 Q 0.6 Q 23.0 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning

  7. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Appliances by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.5 1.0 1.7 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 23.3 6.7 16.6 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 22.1 6.6 15.5 1.1 1

  8. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.1 1.7 1.2 1.2 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 4.9 6.0 7.4 6.2 2.4 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 0.1 0.8 Q 0.1 23.2 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1 ........................................ 80.8 4.7 5.2 7.4 6.1 2.6 Type of Electric Air-Conditioning Used Central

  9. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-02

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide.

  10. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Households with Children Households...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 7.6 2.1 3.3 2.2 11.5 Q Q Q 1.4 6.9 2.8 18.8 Below Poverty Line 100 Percent ... 6.6 1.6 3.6 1.3 5.8 0.3 0.7...

  11. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0a. Appliances by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.5 Total .............................................................. 107.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 23.8 16.6 7.2 NE 1

  12. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1a. Appliances by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.5 Total .............................................................. 107.0 38.9 20.3 6.8 11.8 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 36.2 19.4 6.4 10.3 1.5 1

  13. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4a. Appliances by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.4 0.5 1.7 1.6 1.9 Total ............................................... 107.0 73.7 9.5 17.0 6.8 4.2 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ........................................... 101.7 69.1 9.4 16.7 6.6 4.3 1

  14. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5a. Appliances by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Owner- Occupied Units Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.3 0.4 2.1 3.1 1.3 Total ............................................... 72.7 63.2 2.1 1.8 5.7 6.7 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ...........................................

  15. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6a. Appliances by Type of Rented Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Rented Units Type of Rented Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.9 2.5 Total ............................................... 34.3 10.5 7.4 15.2 1.1 6.9 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ........................................... 33.4 10.1 7.3 14.9 1.1

  16. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8a. Appliances by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.3 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.1 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 47.5 17.5 19.9 16.8 4.2 1

  17. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Appliances by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.0 1.3 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 20.3 14.8 5.4 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 19.6 14.5 5.2 1.1 1

  18. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0a. Space Heating by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 Q Q Q 19.8 No

  19. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1a. Space Heating by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.3 Total .............................................................. 107.0 38.9 20.3 6.8 11.8 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 38.8 20.2 6.8 11.8 NE Do Not Heat Home

  20. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Space Heating by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.6 1.0 1.6 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 23.3 6.7 16.6 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 22.6 6.7 15.9 NE Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 0.7 Q 0.7 10.6 No Heating Equipment

  1. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5a. Space Heating by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Owner- Occupied Units Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.4 0.4 1.9 3.0 1.3 Total ............................................... 72.7 63.2 2.1 1.8 5.7 6.7 Heat Home ..................................... 72.4 63.0 2.0 1.7 5.7 6.7 Do Not Heat Home

  2. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6a. Space Heating by Type of Rented Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Rented Units Type of Rented Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.9 2.5 Total ............................................... 34.3 10.5 7.4 15.2 1.1 6.9 Heat Home ..................................... 33.7 10.4 7.4 14.8 1.1 6.9 Do Not Heat Home

  3. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8a. Space Heating by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.6 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.3 Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 49.1 18.0 21.2 17.8 4.3 Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.1 25.8 No Heating

  4. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Space Heating by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.7 Total .............................................................. 107.0 20.3 14.8 5.4 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 20.1 14.7 5.4 NE Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 Q Q Q 19.9 No

  5. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Appliances Tables (Million U.S. Households; 60 pages, 240 kb) Contents Pages HC5-1a. Appliances by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-2a. Appliances by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-3a. Appliances by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-4a. Appliances by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-5a. Appliances by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-6a. Appliances by Type of Rented

  6. 1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Housing Unit Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Million U.S. Households; 45 pages, 128 kb) Contents Pages HC1-1a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-2a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-3a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-4a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 1997 3 HC1-5a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit,

  7. 1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Housing Unit Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Percent of U.S. Households; 45 pages, 121 kb) Contents Pages HC1-1b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Climate Zone, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-2b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-3b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-4b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 3 HC1-5b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Owner-Occupied

  8. housingunit_household2001.pdf

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  9. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  10. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  11. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  12. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Appliances by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Climate Zone 1 RSE Row Factors Fewer than 2,000 CDD and -- 2,000 CDD or More and Fewer than 4,000 HDD More than 7,000 HDD 5,500 to 7,000 HDD 4,000 to 5,499 HDD Fewer than 4,000 HDD 0.4 1.9 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 Total .................................................. 107.0 9.2 28.6 24.0 21.0 24.1 7.8 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven

  13. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Appliances by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.4 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 0.9 Total ............................................... 107.0 15.5 18.2 18.8 13.8 14.2 26.6 4.2 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ........................................... 101.7 14.3 17.2 17.8 12.9 13.7 25.9 4.2 1

  14. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Space Heating by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.5 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.9 Total ............................................... 107.0 15.5 18.2 18.8 13.8 14.2 26.6 4.3 Heat Home ..................................... 106.0 15.4 18.2 18.6 13.6 13.9 26.4 4.3 Do Not Heat Home ........................

  15. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4a. Space Heating by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.5 0.5 1.5 1.4 1.7 Total ............................................... 107.0 73.7 9.5 17.0 6.8 4.4 Heat Home ..................................... 106.0 73.4 9.4 16.4 6.8 4.5 Do Not Heat Home ........................ 1.0 0.3 Q 0.6 Q 19.0 No

  16. Housing characteristics 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  17. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    or commercial trucks (See Table 1). Energy Information AdministrationHousehold Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991 5 The 1991 RTECS count includes vehicles that were owned or used...

  18. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    logo printer-friendly version logo for Portable Document Format file Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991 December 1993 Release Next Update: August 1997. Based on the 1991...

  19. Perceptions of risk among households in two Australian coastal communities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elrick-Barr, Carmen E.; Smith, Timothy F.; Thomsen, Dana C.; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-04-20

    There is limited knowledge of risk perceptions in coastal communities despite their vulnerability to a range of risks including the impacts of climate change. A survey of 400 households in two Australian coastal communities, combined with semi-structured interviews, provides insight into household perceptions of the relative importance of climatic and non-climatic risks and the subsequent risk priorities that may inform household adaptive action. In contrast to previous research, the results demonstrated that geographic location and household characteristics might not affect perceptions of vulnerability to environmental hazards. However, past experience was a significant influence, raising the priority of environmental concerns. Overall,more » the results highlight the priority concerns of coastal households (from finance, to health and environment) and suggest to increase the profile of climate issues in coastal communities climate change strategies need to better demonstrate links between climate vulnerability and other household concerns. Moreover, promoting generic capacities in isolation from understanding the context in which households construe climate risks is unlikely to yield the changes required to decrease the vulnerability of coastal communities.« less

  20. Perceptions of risk among households in two Australian coastal communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elrick-Barr, Carmen E.; Smith, Timothy F.; Thomsen, Dana C.; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-04-20

    There is limited knowledge of risk perceptions in coastal communities despite their vulnerability to a range of risks including the impacts of climate change. A survey of 400 households in two Australian coastal communities, combined with semi-structured interviews, provides insight into household perceptions of the relative importance of climatic and non-climatic risks and the subsequent risk priorities that may inform household adaptive action. In contrast to previous research, the results demonstrated that geographic location and household characteristics might not affect perceptions of vulnerability to environmental hazards. However, past experience was a significant influence, raising the priority of environmental concerns. Overall, the results highlight the priority concerns of coastal households (from finance, to health and environment) and suggest to increase the profile of climate issues in coastal communities climate change strategies need to better demonstrate links between climate vulnerability and other household concerns. Moreover, promoting generic capacities in isolation from understanding the context in which households construe climate risks is unlikely to yield the changes required to decrease the vulnerability of coastal communities.

  1. Household Vehicles Energy Use Cover Page

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Use Cover Page Glossary Home > Households, Buildings & Industry >Transportation Surveys > Household Vehicles Energy Use Cover Page Contact Us * Feedback * PrivacySecurity *...

  2. Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collecting Household Energy Data Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for ...

  3. Next Generation Household Refrigerator | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Household Refrigerator Next Generation Household Refrigerator Embraco's high efficiency, oil-free linear compressor.
    Credit: Whirlpool Embraco's high ...

  4. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... 29.1 5.3 22.7 3.8 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  5. char_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 15.0 13.2 1.8 Q ...

  6. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    16.8 17.4 18.6 18.9 1.7 2.2 0.6 1.5 Energy Information AdministrationHousehold Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991 15 Vehicle Miles Traveled per Vehicle (Thousand) . . . . . . . . ....

  7. Cover Page of Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Household Vehicles Energy Use Cover Page Cover Page of Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends...

  8. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0a. Home Office Equipment by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 22.4 15.7 6.7 1.3 Personal Computers 1 ................................. 60.0

  9. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1a. Home Office Equipment by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.3 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 38.9 20.3 6.8 11.8 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 34.6 18.4 6.0 10.1 1.2 Personal Computers 1

  10. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Home Office Equipment by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.5 1.0 1.6 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 23.3 6.7 16.6 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 21.4 6.2 15.2 1.0 Personal Computers 1 ................................. 60.0 14.3 4.0 10.4 3.7 Number of

  11. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Home Office Equipment by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.1 1.4 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 20.3 14.8 5.4 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 17.9 12.8 5.0 1.3 Personal Computers 1 ................................. 60.0 10.9

  12. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... 29.1 5.3 22.7 3.8 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State income

  13. Fact #748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 Fact 748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 The overall share of annual household ...

  14. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Home Office Equipment by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.4 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.0 Total ............................................... 107.0 15.5 18.2 18.8 13.8 14.2 26.6 4.2 Households Using Office Equipment .......................... 96.2 14.9 16.7 17.0 12.2 13.0 22.4 4.4 Personal Computers 2

  15. Energy-efficient housing alternatives: a predictive model of factors affecting household perceptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreckengost, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The major purpose of this investigation was to assess the impact of household socio-economic factors, dwelling characteristics, energy conservation behavior, and energy attitudes on the perceptions of energy-efficient housing alternatives. Perceptions of passive solar, active solar, earth sheltered, and retrofitted housing were examined. Data used were from the Southern Regional Research Project, S-141, Housing for Low and Moderate Income Families. Responses from 1804 households living in seven southern states were analyzed. A conceptual model was proposed to test the hypothesized relationships which were examined by path analysis. Perceptions of energy efficient housing alternatives were found to be a function of selected household and dwelling characteristics, energy attitude, household economic factors, and household conservation behavior. Age and education of the respondent, family size, housing-income ratio, utility income ratio, energy attitude, and size of the dwelling unit were found to have direct and indirect effects on perceptions of energy-efficient housing alternatives. Energy conservation behavior made a significant direct impact with behavioral energy conservation changes having the most profound influence. Conservation behavior was influenced by selected household and dwelling characteristics, energy attitude, and household economic factors.

  16. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.1 1.0 1.5 1.5 Total .............................................................. 107.0 7.1 12.3 7.7 6.3 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 6.2 11.4 6.7 5.9 1.7 Personal Computers 1 ................................. 60.0 3.4 7.9 4.1 3.8 4.4 Number of Desktop PCs 1

  17. Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 5: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income In the annual Consumer Expenditure Survey, household incomes are grouped into five equal parts called quintiles (each quintile is 20%). Households in the second and third quintiles consistently have a higher share of spending on gasoline each year than households in the other quintiles. Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Quintile Bar graph

  18. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim; Schmoyer, Richard L; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2007-05-01

    Policy makers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and to accommodate future demand. These data are also needed to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-mitigating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, and intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and it collected both daily and long-distance trips. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel were not part of the survey. Due to the survey's design, data in the NHTS survey series were not recommended for estimating travel statistics for categories smaller than the combination of Census division (e.g., New England, Middle

  19. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  20. Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Nevada-based contracting firm Nevada ...

  1. Energy Information Administration/Household Vehicles Energy Consumptio...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    , Energy Information AdministrationHousehold Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 ix Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 presents statistics about energy-related...

  2. Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Better Buildings Residential Network Multifamily and Low-Income Housing Peer ...

  3. Household Response To Dynamic Pricing Of Electricity: A Survey...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Household Response To Dynamic Pricing Of Electricity: A Survey Of The Experimental Evidence Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Household Response To Dynamic...

  4. Microsoft Word - Household Energy Use CA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 20 40 60 80 100 US PAC CA Site Consumption million Btu $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 US PAC CA Expenditures dollars ALL ENERGY average per household (excl. transportation) 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 US PAC CA Site Consumption kilowatthours $0 $250 $500 $750 $1,000 $1,250 $1,500 US PAC CA Expenditures dollars ELECTRICITY ONLY average per household  California households use 62 million Btu of energy per home, 31% less than the U.S. average. The lower than average site

  5. Microsoft Word - Household Energy Use CA

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 20 40 60 80 100 US PAC CA Site Consumption million Btu $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 US PAC CA Expenditures dollars ALL ENERGY average per household (excl. transportation) 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 US PAC CA Site Consumption kilowatthours $0 $250 $500 $750 $1,000 $1,250 $1,500 US PAC CA Expenditures dollars ELECTRICITY ONLY average per household  California households use 62 million Btu of energy per home, 31% less than the U.S. average. The lower than average site

  6. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  7. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolealov, Markta; Beneov, Libue; Zvodsk, Anita

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: The character of household waste in the three different types of households were assesed. The quantity, density and composition of household waste were determined. The physicochemical characteristics were determined. The changing character of household waste during past 10 years was described. The potential of energy recovery of household waste in Czech republic was assesed. - Abstract: The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in rural

  8. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.3 Total .............................................................. 107.0 7.1 12.3 7.7 6.3 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 6.9 11.4 6.7 6.1 1.6 1 .............................................................. 95.2 6.2 10.7 6.3 6.0 2.1 2 or More

  9. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.5 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 7.1 12.3 7.7 6.3 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 7.1 12.0 7.7 6.2 NE Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 Q 0.3 Q 0.1 20.7 No Heating Equipment ................................ 0.5 Q 0.1 Q Q 41.3

  10. Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances - Energy

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances Release date: May 25, 2016 Introduction According to the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), household appliances1accounted for 35% of U.S. household energy consumption, up from 24% in 1993. Thus, improvements in the energy performance of residential appliances as well as increases in the use of more efficient appliances can be effective in reducing household energy consumption and

  11. Comparison of energy expenditures by elderly and non-elderly households: 1975 and 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siler, A.

    1980-05-01

    The relative position of the elderly in the population is examined and their characteristic use of energy in relation to the total population and their non-elderly counterparts is observed. The 1985 projections are based on demographic, economic, and socio-economic, and energy data assumptions contained in the 1978 Annual Report to Congress. The model used for estimating household energy expenditure is MATH/CHRDS - Micro-Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System. Characteristics used include households disposable income, poverty status, location by DOE region and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA), and race and sex of the household head as well as age. Energy use by fuel type will be identified for total home fuels, including electricity, natural gas, bottled gas and fuel oil, and for all fuels, where gasoline use is also included. Throughout the analysis, both income and expenditure-dollar amounts for 1975 and 1985 are expressed in constant 1978 dollars. Two appendices contain statistical information.

  12. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  13. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-10

    Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1987, Part 1: National Data is the second publication in a series from the 1987 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). It is prepared by the Energy End Use Division (EEUD) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use (EMEU), Energy Information Administration (EIA). The EIA collects and publishes comprehensive data on energy consumption in occupied housing units in the residential sector through the RECS. 15 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collecting Household Energy Data Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, July 19, 2012. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (700.06 KB) More Documents & Publications Homeowner and Contractor Surveys Mastermind: Jim Mikel, Spirit Foundation Generating Energy Efficiency Project Leads and Allocating Leads to Contractors

  15. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-22

    This report is the third in the series of reports presenting data from the 1987 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). The 1987 RECS, seventh in a series of national surveys of households and their energy suppliers, provides baseline information on household energy use in the United States. Data from the seven RECS and its companion survey, the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS), are made available to the public in published reports such as this one, and on public use data files. This report presents data for the four Census regions and nine Census divisions on the consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil and kerosene (as a single category), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Data are also presented on consumption of wood at the Census region level. The emphasis in this report is on graphic depiction of the data. Data from previous RECS surveys are provided in the graphics, which indicate the regional trends in consumption, expenditures, and uses of energy. These graphs present data for the United States and each Census division. 12 figs., 71 tabs.

  16. Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

    2011-06-30

    This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

  17. Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Family Households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Provides state and local policymakers with information on successful approaches to the design and implementation of residential efficiency programs for households ineligible for low-income programs.

  18. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  19. Characterization of household hazardous waste from Marin County, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathje, W.L.; Wilson, D.C.; Lambou, V.W.; Herndon, R.C.

    1987-09-01

    There is a growing concern that certain constituents of common household products, that are discarded in residential garbage, may be potentially harmful to human health and the environment by adversely affecting the quality of ground and surface water. A survey of hazardous wastes in residential garbage from Marin County, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana, was conducted in order to determine the amount and characteristics of such wastes that are entering municipal landfills. The results of the survey indicate that approximately 642 metric tons of hazardous waste are discarded per year for the New Orleans study area and approximately 259 metric tons are discarded per year for the Marin County study area. Even though the percent of hazardous household waste in the garbage discarded in both study areas was less than 1%, it represents a significant quantity of hazardous waste because of the large volume of garbage involved.

  20. Reconstructing householder vectors from Tall-Skinny QR

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Jacquelin, Mathias; Knight, Nicholas; Nguyen, Hong Diep

    2015-08-05

    The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm is more communication efficient than the standard Householder algorithm for QR decomposition of matrices with many more rows than columns. However, TSQR produces a different representation of the orthogonal factor and therefore requires more software development to support the new representation. Further, implicitly applying the orthogonal factor to the trailing matrix in the context of factoring a square matrix is more complicated and costly than with the Householder representation. We show how to perform TSQR and then reconstruct the Householder vector representation with the same asymptotic communication efficiency and little extra computational cost. We demonstratemore » the high performance and numerical stability of this algorithm both theoretically and empirically. The new Householder reconstruction algorithm allows us to design more efficient parallel QR algorithms, with significantly lower latency cost compared to Householder QR and lower bandwidth and latency costs compared with Communication-Avoiding QR (CAQR) algorithm. Experiments on supercomputers demonstrate the benefits of the communication cost improvements: in particular, our experiments show substantial improvements over tuned library implementations for tall-and-skinny matrices. Furthermore, we also provide algorithmic improvements to the Householder QR and CAQR algorithms, and we investigate several alternatives to the Householder reconstruction algorithm that sacrifice guarantees on numerical stability in some cases in order to obtain higher performance.« less

  1. Reconstructing householder vectors from Tall-Skinny QR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Jacquelin, Mathias; Knight, Nicholas; Nguyen, Hong Diep

    2015-08-05

    The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm is more communication efficient than the standard Householder algorithm for QR decomposition of matrices with many more rows than columns. However, TSQR produces a different representation of the orthogonal factor and therefore requires more software development to support the new representation. Further, implicitly applying the orthogonal factor to the trailing matrix in the context of factoring a square matrix is more complicated and costly than with the Householder representation. We show how to perform TSQR and then reconstruct the Householder vector representation with the same asymptotic communication efficiency and little extra computational cost. We demonstrate the high performance and numerical stability of this algorithm both theoretically and empirically. The new Householder reconstruction algorithm allows us to design more efficient parallel QR algorithms, with significantly lower latency cost compared to Householder QR and lower bandwidth and latency costs compared with Communication-Avoiding QR (CAQR) algorithm. Experiments on supercomputers demonstrate the benefits of the communication cost improvements: in particular, our experiments show substantial improvements over tuned library implementations for tall-and-skinny matrices. Furthermore, we also provide algorithmic improvements to the Householder QR and CAQR algorithms, and we investigate several alternatives to the Householder reconstruction algorithm that sacrifice guarantees on numerical stability in some cases in order to obtain higher performance.

  2. Projecting household energy consumption within a conditional demand framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teotia, A.; Poyer, D.

    1991-01-01

    Few models attempt to assess and project household energy consumption and expenditure by taking into account differential household choices correlated with such variables as race, ethnicity, income, and geographic location. The Minority Energy Assessment Model (MEAM), developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides a framework to forecast the energy consumption and expenditure of majority, black, Hispanic, poor, and nonpoor households. Among other variables, household energy demand for each of these population groups in MEAM is affected by housing factors (such as home age, home ownership, home type, type of heating fuel, and installed central air conditioning unit), demographic factors (such as household members and urban/rural location), and climate factors (such as heating degree days and cooling degree days). The welfare implications of the revealed consumption patterns by households are also forecast. The paper provides an overview of the model methodology and its application in projecting household energy consumption under alternative energy scenarios developed by Data Resources, Inc., (DRI).

  3. Projecting household energy consumption within a conditional demand framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teotia, A.; Poyer, D.

    1991-12-31

    Few models attempt to assess and project household energy consumption and expenditure by taking into account differential household choices correlated with such variables as race, ethnicity, income, and geographic location. The Minority Energy Assessment Model (MEAM), developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides a framework to forecast the energy consumption and expenditure of majority, black, Hispanic, poor, and nonpoor households. Among other variables, household energy demand for each of these population groups in MEAM is affected by housing factors (such as home age, home ownership, home type, type of heating fuel, and installed central air conditioning unit), demographic factors (such as household members and urban/rural location), and climate factors (such as heating degree days and cooling degree days). The welfare implications of the revealed consumption patterns by households are also forecast. The paper provides an overview of the model methodology and its application in projecting household energy consumption under alternative energy scenarios developed by Data Resources, Inc., (DRI).

  4. Fact #618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Fact 618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Since 1969, the number of vehicles per ...

  5. "Table HC7.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Household Income...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ... for 2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ...

  6. "Table HC7.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ... for 2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ...

  7. "Table HC7.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ... for 2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ...

  8. Fact #748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation, 1984-2010 | Department of Energy 8: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 Fact #748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 The overall share of annual household expenditures for transportation was lower in 2010 than it was in 1984, reaching its lowest point in 2009 at 15.5%. In the early to mid-1980s when oil prices were high, gasoline and motor oil made up a larger share of transportation

  9. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Air Conditioning Characteristics"

  10. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC7.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Home Appliances Characteristics" "Total

  11. Table 2. Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey Years " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",85.5450237,89.00343643,88.75545852,89.42917548,87.25590956,92.08...

  12. Fact #618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Statistics | Department of Energy 8: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Fact #618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Since 1969, the number of vehicles per household has increased by 66% and the number of vehicles per licensed driver has increased by 47%. The number of workers per household has changed the least of the statistics shown here. There has been a decline in the number of persons per household from 1969 to

  13. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, J.D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual household. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies. 21 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, James E.; Dunham, Camilla; Shown, Leslie J.; McCure, Quandra T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual households. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies.

  15. New York Household Travel Patterns: A Comparison Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim

    2007-05-01

    In 1969, the U. S. Department of Transportation began collecting detailed data on personal travel to address various transportation planning issues. These issues range from assessing transportation investment programs to developing new technologies to alleviate congestion. This 1969 survey was the birth of the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed to the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. In addition to the number of sample households that the national NPTS/NHTS survey allotted to New York State (NYS), the state procured an additional sample of households in both the 1995 and 2001 surveys. In the 1995 survey, NYS procured an addition sample of more than 9,000 households, increasing the final NY NPTS sample size to a total of 11,004 households. Again in 2001, NYS procured 12,000 additional sample households, increasing the final New York NHTS sample size to a total of 13,423 households with usable data. These additional sample households allowed NYS to address transportation planning issues pertinent to geographic areas significantly smaller than for what the national NPTS and NHTS data are intended. Specifically, these larger sample sizes enable detailed analysis of twelve individual Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs). Furthermore, they allowed NYS to address trends in travel behavior over time. In this report, travel data for the entire NYS were compared to those of the rest of the country with respect to personal travel behavior and key travel determinants. The influence of New York City (NYC) data on the comparisons of the state of New York to the rest of the country was also examined. Moreover, the analysis examined the relationship between population density and travel patterns, and the similarities and differences among New

  16. A Glance at China’s Household Consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Bin

    2009-10-01

    Known for its scale, China is the most populous country with the world’s third largest economy. In the context of rising living standards, a relatively lower share of household consumption in its GDP, a strong domestic market and globalization, China is witnessing an unavoidable increase in household consumption, related energy consumption and carbon emissions. Chinese policy decision makers and researchers are well aware of these challenges and keen to promote green lifestyles. China has developed a series of energy policies and programs, and launched a wide-range social marketing activities to promote energy conservation.

  17. Shared Solar Projects Powering Households Throughout America | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Shared Solar Projects Powering Households Throughout America Shared Solar Projects Powering Households Throughout America January 31, 2014 - 2:30pm Addthis Shared solar projects allow consumers to take advantage of solar energy’s myriad benefits, even though the system is not located on the consumer’s own rooftop. | Photo courtesy of the Vote Solar Initiative Shared solar projects allow consumers to take advantage of solar energy's myriad benefits, even though the system

  18. Household heating bills expected to be lower this winter

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Household heating bills expected to be lower this winter U.S. consumers are expected to pay less this winter on their home heating bills because of lower oil and natural gas prices and projected milder temperatures than last winter. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said households that rely on heating oil which are mainly located in the Northeast will pay the lowest heating expenditures in 9 years down 25% from last winter as consumers are expected to save about

  19. Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter despite recent cold spell Despite the recent cold weather, households that use heating oil or propane as their main ...

  20. Fact #727: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Vehicles | Department of Energy 7: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or More Vehicles Fact #727: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or More Vehicles Household vehicle ownership has changed over the last six decades. In 1960, over twenty percent of households did not own a vehicle, but by 2010, that number fell to less than 10%. The number of households with three or more vehicles grew from 2% in 1960 to nearly 20% in 2010. Before 1990,

  1. Fact #729: May 28, 2012 Secondary Household Vehicles Travel Fewer Miles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 9: May 28, 2012 Secondary Household Vehicles Travel Fewer Miles Fact #729: May 28, 2012 Secondary Household Vehicles Travel Fewer Miles When a household has more than one vehicle, the secondary vehicles travel fewer miles than the primary vehicle. In a two-vehicle household, the second vehicle travels less than half of the miles that the primary vehicle travels in a day. In a six-vehicle household, the sixth vehicle travels fewer than five miles a day. Daily Vehicle

  2. "Table HC15.3 Household Characteristics by Four Most Populated...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Income Relative to Poverty Line" "Below 100 Percent",16.6,1.5,1,1.5,... " 1. Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  3. Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Better Buildings Residential Network Multifamily and Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households, March 13, 2014. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (919.64 KB) More Documents & Publications EcoHouse Program Overview Strengthening Relationships Between Energy Programs and Housing Programs Targeted Marketing and Program

  4. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first reported in the 1995 survey, have the youngest average age. Average Vehicle Age by Vehicle Type Graph showing the average vehicle age by type (car, van, pickup, SUV, all household

  5. Effect of Income on Appliances in U.S. Households, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    Entails how people live, the factors that cause the most differences in home lifestyle, including energy use in geographic location, socioeconomics and household income.

  6. Forum on Enhancing the Delivery of Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Households: Discussion Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-09-20

    Summarizes discussions and recommendations from a forum for practitioners and policymakers aiming to strengthen residential energy efficiency program design and delivery for middle income households.

  7. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan; Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Most household TWARC waste is sold directly to private e-waste collectors in HK. ► The current e-waste recycling network is popular with HK households. ► About 80% of household generated TWARC is exported overseas each year. ► Over 7000 tonnes/yr of household generated TWARC reach landfills. ► It is necessary to upgrade safety and awareness in HK’s e-waste recycling industry. - Abstract: A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced.

  8. Commercial viability of hybrid vehicles : best household use and cross national considerations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-16

    Japanese automakers have introduced hybrid passenger cars in Japan and will soon do so in the US. In this paper, we report how we used early computer simulation model results to compare the commercial viability of a hypothetical near-term (next decade) hybrid mid-size passenger car configuration under varying fuel price and driving patterns. The fuel prices and driving patterns evaluated are designed to span likely values for major OECD nations. Two types of models are used. One allows the ''design'' of a hybrid to a specified set of performance requirements and the prediction of fuel economy under a number of possible driving patterns (called driving cycles). Another provides an estimate of the incremental cost of the hybrid in comparison to a comparably performing conventional vehicle. In this paper, the models are applied to predict the NPV cost of conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles vs. parallel hybrid vehicles. The parallel hybrids are assumed to (1) be produced at high volume, (2) use nickel metal hydride battery packs, and (3) have high-strength steel bodies. The conventional vehicle also is assumed to have a high-strength steel body. The simulated vehicles are held constant in many respects, including 0-60 time, engine type, aerodynamic drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and frontal area. The hybrids analyzed use the minimum size battery pack and motor to meet specified 0-60 times. A key characteristic affecting commercial viability is noted and quantified: that hybrids achieve the most pronounced fuel economy increase (best use) in slow, average-speed, stop-and-go driving, but when households consistently drive these vehicles under these conditions, they tend to travel fewer miles than average vehicles. We find that hours driven is a more valuable measure than miles. Estimates are developed concerning hours of use of household vehicles versus driving cycle, and the pattern of minimum NPV incremental cost (or benefit) of selecting the hybrid over

  9. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  10. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  11. Fact #616: March 29, 2010 Household Vehicle-Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 6: March 29, 2010 Household Vehicle-Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose Fact #616: March 29, 2010 Household Vehicle-Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose In 2009, getting to and from work accounted for about 27% of household vehicle-miles of travel (VMT). Work-related business was 8.4% of VMT in 2001, but declined to 6.7% in 2009, possibly due to advancements in computing technology making it possible for more business to be handled electronically. VMT for shopping was almost

  12. Table 2.5 Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures by End...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Household 1 Energy Consumption and Expenditures by End Use, Selected Years, 1978-2005 Year Space ... 3 Fuel Oil 4 LPG 5 Total Electricity 3 Natural Gas Elec- tricity 3 ...

  13. How Do You Encourage Everyone in Your Household to Save Energy?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anyone who has decided to save energy at home knows that the entire household needs to be involved if you really want to see savings. Some people—be they roommates, spouses, children, or maybe even...

  14. EPA Webinar: Bringing Energy Efficiency and Renewable Housing to Low-Income Households

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, this webinar will explore the topic of linking and leveraging energy efficiency and renewable energy programs for limited-income households, including the need to coordinate with other energy assistance programs.

  15. Competition Helps Kids Learn About Energy and Save Their Households Some

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Money | Department of Energy Competition Helps Kids Learn About Energy and Save Their Households Some Money Competition Helps Kids Learn About Energy and Save Their Households Some Money May 21, 2013 - 2:40pm Addthis Students can register now to save energy and win prizes with the Home Energy Challenge. Students can register now to save energy and win prizes with the Home Energy Challenge. Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  16. Residential Network Members Impact More Than 42,000 Households | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Impact More Than 42,000 Households Residential Network Members Impact More Than 42,000 Households Photo of a row of townhomes. Eligible Better Buildings Residential Network members reported completing 27,563 home energy upgrades during 2013 as part of the Residential Network's first reporting cycle. In addition, 13 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program partners completed 12,166 home energy upgrades, and six Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Sponsors completed 2,540 home energy

  17. A Mixed Nordic Experience: Implementing Competitive Retail Electricity Markets for Household Customers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Johnsen, Tor Arnt; Lewis, Philip

    2006-11-15

    Although the Nordic countries were among the first to develop competition in the electricity industry, it took a long time to make retail competition work. In Norway and Sweden a considerable number of households are actively using the market but very few households are active in Finland and Denmark. One problem has been institutional barriers involving metering, limited unbundling of distribution and supply, and limited access to reliable information on contracts and prices. (author)

  18. Development of the household sample for furnace and boilerlife-cycle cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, Jim

    2005-05-31

    Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated. The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

  19. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  20. NYSERDA's Green Jobs-Green New York Program: Extending Energy Efficiency Financing To Underserved Households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

    2011-01-24

    The New York legislature passed the Green Jobs-Green New York (GJGNY) Act in 2009. Administered by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), GJGNY programs provide New Yorkers with access to free or low-cost energy assessments,1 energy upgrade services,2 low-cost financing, and training for various 'green-collar' careers. Launched in November 2010, GJGNY's residential initiative is notable for its use of novel underwriting criteria to expand access to energy efficiency financing for households seeking to participate in New York's Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program.3 The GJGNY financing program is a valuable test of whether alternatives to credit scores can be used to responsibly expand credit opportunities for households that do not qualify for traditional lending products and, in doing so, enable more households to make energy efficiency upgrades.

  1. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015 Although retail gasoline prices have risen in recent weeks U.S. consumers are still expected to save about $675 per household in motor fuel costs this year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says the average pump price for regular grade gasoline in 2015 will be $2.43 per gallon. That's about 93 cents lower than last year's average. The savings for consumers will be even bigger during the

  2. EERE Success Story-Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households EERE Success Story-Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Nevada-based contracting firm Nevada Controls, LLC used a low-interest loan from the Nevada State Office of Energy's Revolving Loan Fund to help construct a hydropower project in the small Nevada town of Kingston. The Kingston Creek Project-benefitting the Young Brothers Ranch-is a 175-kilowatt hydro generation plant

  3. Drivers of U.S. Household Energy Consumption, 1980-2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drivers of U.S. Household Energy Consumption, 1980-2009 February 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Drivers of U.S. Household Energy Consumption, 1980-2009 i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any

  4. Households to pay more than expected to stay warm this winter

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Households to pay more than expected to stay warm this winter Following a colder-than-expected November, U.S. households are forecast to consume more heating fuels than previously expected....resulting in higher heating bills. Homeowners that rely on natural gas will see their total winter expenses rise nearly 13 percent from last winter....while users of electric heat will see a 2.6 percent increase in costs. That's the latest forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane

  5. 1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Housing Unit Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... RSE Column Factor: Total 1997 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 1997 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  6. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Housing Characteristics...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    either air or liquid as the working fluid. It does not refer :<: passive collection of solar thermal energy. Fuel Oil Paid by Household: The household paid directly to the fuel...

  7. A Multi Agent-Based Framework for Simulating Household PHEV Distribution and Electric Distribution Network Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Xiaohui; Liu, Cheng; Kim, Hoe Kyoung; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2011-01-01

    The variation of household attributes such as income, travel distance, age, household member, and education for different residential areas may generate different market penetration rates for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Residential areas with higher PHEV ownership could increase peak electric demand locally and require utilities to upgrade the electric distribution infrastructure even though the capacity of the regional power grid is under-utilized. Estimating the future PHEV ownership distribution at the residential household level can help us understand the impact of PHEV fleet on power line congestion, transformer overload and other unforeseen problems at the local residential distribution network level. It can also help utilities manage the timing of recharging demand to maximize load factors and utilization of existing distribution resources. This paper presents a multi agent-based simulation framework for 1) modeling spatial distribution of PHEV ownership at local residential household level, 2) discovering PHEV hot zones where PHEV ownership may quickly increase in the near future, and 3) estimating the impacts of the increasing PHEV ownership on the local electric distribution network with different charging strategies. In this paper, we use Knox County, TN as a case study to show the simulation results of the agent-based model (ABM) framework. However, the framework can be easily applied to other local areas in the US.

  8. Material World: Forecasting Household Appliance Ownership in a Growing Global Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2009-03-23

    Over the past years the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed an econometric model that predicts appliance ownership at the household level based on macroeconomic variables such as household income (corrected for purchase power parity), electrification, urbanization and climate variables. Hundreds of data points from around the world were collected in order to understand trends in acquisition of new appliances by households, especially in developing countries. The appliances covered by this model are refrigerators, lighting fixtures, air conditioners, washing machines and televisions. The approach followed allows the modeler to construct a bottom-up analysis based at the end use and the household level. It captures the appliance uptake and the saturation effect which will affect the energy demand growth in the residential sector. With this approach, the modeler can also account for stock changes in technology and efficiency as a function of time. This serves two important functions with regard to evaluation of the impact of energy efficiency policies. First, it provides insight into which end uses will be responsible for the largest share of demand growth, and therefore should be policy priorities. Second, it provides a characterization of the rate at which policies affecting new equipment penetrate the appliance stock. Over the past 3 years, this method has been used to support the development of energy demand forecasts at the country, region or global level.

  9. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  10. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parizeau, Kate; Massow, Mike von; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  11. Table 2.6 Household End Uses: Fuel Types, Appliances, and Electronics, Selected Years, 1978-2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Household End Uses: Fuel Types, Appliances, and Electronics, Selected Years, 1978-2009 Appliance Year Change 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1984 1987 1990 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 1980 to 2009 Total Households (millions) 77 78 82 83 84 86 91 94 97 101 107 111 114 32 Percent of Households<//td> Space Heating - Main Fuel 1 Natural Gas 55 55 55 56 57 55 55 55 53 52 55 52 50 -5 Electricity 2 16 17 18 17 16 17 20 23 26 29 29 30 35 17 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 0 Distillate

  12. The importance of China's household sector for black carbon emissions - article no. L12708

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streets, D.G.; Aunan, K.

    2005-06-30

    The combustion of coal and biofuels in Chinese households is a large source of black carbon (BC), representing about 10-15% of total global emissions during the past two decades, depending on the year. How the Chinese household sector develops during the next 50 years will have an important bearing on future aerosol concentrations, because the range of possible outcomes (about 550 Gg yr{sup -1}) is greater than total BC emissions in either the United States or Europe (each about 400-500 Gg yr{sup -1}). In some Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios biofuels persist in rural China for at least the next 50 years, whereas in other scenarios a transition to cleaner fuels and technologies effectively mitigates BC emissions. This paper discusses measures and policies that would help this transition and also raises the possibility of including BC emission reductions as a post-Kyoto option for China and other developing countries.

  13. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Reports > 2003 Building Characteristics Overview 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption SurveyCommercial Buildings Characteristics Released: May 2002 Topics: Energy...

  14. Evaluation of bulk paint worker exposure to solvents at household hazardous waste collection events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, M.

    1995-09-01

    In fiscal year 93/94, over 250 governmental agencies were involved in the collection of household hazardous wastes in the State of California. During that time, over 3,237,000 lbs. of oil based paint were collected in 9,640 drums. Most of this was in lab pack drums, which can only hold up to 20 one gallon cans. Cost for disposal of such drums is approximately $1000. In contrast, during the same year, 1,228,000 lbs. of flammable liquid were collected in 2,098 drums in bulk form. Incineration of bulked flammable liquids is approximately $135 per drum. Clearly, it is most cost effective to bulk flammable liquids at household hazardous waste events. Currently, this is the procedure used at most Temporary Household Hazardous Waste Collection Facilities (THHWCFs). THHWCFs are regulated by the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) under the new Permit-by Rule Regulations. These regulations specify certain requirements regarding traffic flow, emergency response notifications and prevention of exposure to the public. The regulations require that THHWCF operators bulk wastes only when the public is not present. [22 CCR, section 67450.4 (e) (2) (A)].Santa Clara County Environmental Health Department sponsors local THHWCF`s and does it`s own bulking. In order to save time and money, a variance from the regulation was requested and an employee monitoring program was initiated to determine actual exposure to workers. Results are presented.

  15. Household`s choices of efficiency levels for appliances: Using stated- and revealed-preference data to identify the importance of rebates and financing arrangements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Train, K.; Atherton, T.

    1994-11-01

    We examine customers` choice between standard and high-efficiency equipment, and the impact of utility incentives such as rebates and loans on this decision. Using data from interviews with 400 households, we identify the factors that customers consider in their choice of efficiency level for appliances and the relative importance of these factors. We build a model that describes customers` choices and can be used to predict choices in future situations under changes in the attributes of appliances and in the utility`s DSM and as part of the appliance-choice component of utilities` end-use forecasting systems. As examples, the model is used to predict the impacts of: doubling the size of rebates, replacing rebates with financing programs, and offering loans and rebates as alternative options for customers.

  16. The Impact of Carbon Control on Low-Income Household Electricity and Gasoline Expenditures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2008-06-01

    In July of 2007 The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA) released its impact analysis of 'The Climate Stewardship And Innovation Act of 2007,' known as S.280. This legislation, cosponsored by Senators Joseph Lieberman and John McCain, was designed to significantly cut U.S. greenhouse gas emissions over time through a 'cap-and-trade' system, briefly described below, that would gradually but extensively reduce such emissions over many decades. S.280 is one of several proposals that have emerged in recent years to come to grips with the nation's role in causing human-induced global climate change. EIA produced an analysis of this proposal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to generate price projections for electricity and gasoline under the proposed cap-and-trade system. Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrated those price projections into a data base derived from the EIA Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 and the EIA public use files from the National Household Transportation Survey (NHTS) for 2001 to develop a preliminary assessment of impact of these types of policies on low-income consumers. ORNL will analyze the impacts of other specific proposals as EIA makes its projections for them available. The EIA price projections for electricity and gasoline under the S.280 climate change proposal, integrated with RECS and NHTS for 2001, help identify the potential effects on household electric bills and gasoline expenditures, which represent S.280's two largest direct impacts on low-income household budgets in the proposed legislation. The analysis may prove useful in understanding the needs and remedies for the distributive impacts of such policies and how these may vary based on patterns of location, housing and vehicle stock, and energy usage.

  17. Table HC6.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total.............................................................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day........................................... 8.2 1.4 1.9 1.4 1.0 2.4 2 Times A Day........................................................ 24.6 4.3 7.6 4.3 4.8 3.7 Once a Day............................................................ 42.3 9.9

  18. Table HC6.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total................................................................................ 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer............................. 35.5 16.3 9.4 4.0 2.7 3.2 Use a Personal Computer.......................................... 75.6 13.8 25.4 14.4 13.2 8.8 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model.....................................................

  19. Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total........................................................................ 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment.......................... 17.8 5.4 5.3 2.7 2.5 2.0 Have Cooling Equipment...................................... 93.3 24.6 29.6 15.7 13.4 10.0 Use Cooling Equipment....................................... 91.4 24.0 29.1 15.5 13.2 9.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it......................

  20. Assessment of lead contamination in Bahrain environment. I. Analysis of household paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madany, I.M.; Ali, S.M.; Akhter, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of lead in household paint collected from various old buildings in Bahrain is reported. The atomic absorption spectrophotometric method, both flame and flameless (graphite furnace) techniques, were used for the analysis. The concentrations of lead in paint were found in the range 200 to 5700 mg/kg, which are low compared to the limit of 0.5% in UK and 0.06% in USA. Nevertheless, these are hazardous. Recommendations are reported in order to avoid paint containing lead. 17 references, 1 table.

  1. WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigum, Marianne; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyse 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 Danish households. • We quantify and characterise misplaced WEEE and portable batteries. • We compare misplaced WEEE and batteries to collection through dedicated schemes. • Characterisation showed that primarily small WEEE and light sources are misplaced. • Significant amounts of misplaced batteries were discarded as built-in WEEE. - Abstract: A total of 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6 kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11 kg of batteries, 2.2 kg of toners and 16 kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29 g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4 g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1 g of toners and 7 g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these

  2. Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005 " ,,"Average Square Feet per--" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Housing Unit",,,"Household Member" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2171,1618,1031,845,630,401 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,2334,1664,562,911,649,220

  3. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J.; Arman, B. |

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  4. A Method for Modeling Household Occupant Behavior to Simulate Residential Energy Consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Brandon J; Starke, Michael R; Abdelaziz, Omar; Jackson, Roderick K; Tolbert, Leon M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical method for modeling the behavior of household occupants to estimate residential energy consumption. Using data gathered by the U.S. Census Bureau in the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), actions carried out by survey respondents are categorized into ten distinct activities. These activities are defined to correspond to the major energy consuming loads commonly found within the residential sector. Next, time varying minute resolution Markov chain based statistical models of different occupant types are developed. Using these behavioral models, individual occupants are simulated to show how an occupant interacts with the major residential energy consuming loads throughout the day. From these simulations, the minimum number of occupants, and consequently the minimum number of multiple occupant households, needing to be simulated to produce a statistically accurate representation of aggregate residential behavior can be determined. Finally, future work will involve the use of these occupant models along side residential load models to produce a high-resolution energy consumption profile and estimate the potential for demand response from residential loads.

  5. 1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Home Office Equipment Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Percent of U.S. Households; 13 pages, 48 kb) Contents Pages HC7-1b. Home Office Equipment by Climate Zone, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 1 HC7-2b. Home Office Equipment by Year of Construction, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 1 HC7-3b. Home Office Equipment by Household Income, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 1 HC7-4b. Home Office Equipment by Type of Housing Unit, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 1 HC7-5b. Home Office Equipment by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Percent of U.S.

  6. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  7. Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    schedules and the number of workers across all shifts as well as the main shift. * Energy Management Characteristics - Energy management questions were expanded to ask whether or...

  8. Table HC6.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total U.S. Housing Units.................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Heating Equipment..................... 1.2 0.3 0.3 Q 0.2 0.2 Have Space Heating Equipment....................... 109.8 29.7 34.5 18.2 15.6 11.8 Use Space Heating Equipment........................ 109.1 29.5 34.4 18.1 15.5 11.6 Have But Do Not Use Equipment.................... 0.8 Q Q Q Q Q Space Heating Usage During 2005

  9. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-01-25

    This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

  11. Household energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Northwest: Tracking changes between 1983 and 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.M.; Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi, R.T.; Shankle, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has analyzed the changes in consumer energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Pacific Northwest between 1983 and 1985. The information was collected through stratified random telephone surveys on 2000 and 1058 households, respectively, for 1983 and 1985 in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area in Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Western Montana. This report covers four topic areas and tests two hypotheses. The topics are as follows: consumer perceptions and attitudes of energy use and conservation in the home; consumer perceptions of energy institutions and other entities; past and intended conservation actions and investments; and segmentation of homeowners into market prospect groups. The hypotheses tested are as follows: (1) There has been no change in the size and psychographic make-up of the original three market segments found in the 1983 survey analysis; and (2) image profiles of institutions with respect to familiarity, overall impression, and believability as sources of energy conservation information remain unchanged since 1983.

  12. A Green Approach to SNF Reprocessing: Are Common Household Reagents the Answer?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peper, Shane M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Douglas, Matthew

    2008-04-03

    It has been discovered that UO2, the principal component of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), can efficiently be dissolved at room temperature using a combination of common household reagents, namely hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, and ammonia. This rather serendipitous discovery opens up the possibility, for the first time, of considering a non-acidic process for recycling U from SNF. Albeit at the early stages of development, our unconventional dissolution approach possesses many attractive features that could make it a reality in the future. With dissolution byproducts of water and oxygen, our approach poses a minimal threat to the environment. Moreover, the use of common household reagents to afford actinide oxide dissolution suggests a certain degree of economic favorability. With the use of a “closed” digestion vessel as a reaction chamber, our approach has substantial versatility with the option of using either aqueous or gaseous reactant feeds or a combination of both. Our approach distinguishes itself from all existing reprocessing technologies in two important ways. First and foremost, it is an alkaline rather than an acidic process, using mild non-corrosive chemicals under ambient conditions to effect actinide separations. Secondly, it does not dissolve the entire SNF matrix, but rather selectively solubilizes U and other light actinides for subsequent separation, resulting in potentially faster head-end dissolution and fewer downstream separation steps. From a safeguards perspective, the use of oxidizing alkaline solutions to effect actinide separations also potentially offers a degree of inherent proliferation resistance, by allowing the U to be selectively removed from the remaining dissolver solution while keeping Pu grouped with the other minor actinides and fission products. This paper will describe the design and general experimental setup of a “closed” digestion vessel for performing uranium oxide dissolutions under alkaline conditions using

  13. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  14. Crude Oil Characteristics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SAE Plan June 29, 2015 Page 1 Crude Oil Characteristics Research Sampling, Analysis and Experiment (SAE) Plan The U.S. is experiencing a renaissance in oil and gas production. The ...

  15. ARM - Measurement - Soil characteristics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characteristics ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil characteristics Includes available water capacity, bulk density, permeability, porosity, rock fragment classification, rock fragment volume, percent clay, percent sand, and texture classification Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer

  16. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gent, Janneane F.; Kezik, Julie M.; Hill, Melissa E.; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  17. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  18. Influence of assumptions about household waste composition in waste management LCAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagstad, Helene; Brattebo, Helge

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainty in waste composition of household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systematically changed waste composition in a constructed waste management system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste composition important for the results of accounting LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robust results for comparative LCA. - Abstract: This article takes a detailed look at an uncertainty factor in waste management LCA that has not been widely discussed previously, namely the uncertainty in waste composition. Waste composition is influenced by many factors; it can vary from year to year, seasonally, and with location, for example. The data publicly available at a municipal level can be highly aggregated and sometimes incomplete, and performing composition analysis is technically challenging. Uncertainty is therefore always present in waste composition. This article performs uncertainty analysis on a systematically modified waste composition using a constructed waste management system. In addition the environmental impacts of several waste management strategies are compared when applied to five different cities. We thus discuss the effect of uncertainty in both accounting LCA and comparative LCA. We found the waste composition to be important for the total environmental impact of the system, especially for the global warming, nutrient enrichment and human toxicity via water impact categories.

  19. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  20. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

  1. Weatherization assistance for low-income households: An evaluation of local program performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweitzer, M.; Rayner, S.; Wolfe, A.K.; Mason, T.W.; Ragins, B.R.; Cartor, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) funds local agencies to provide weatherization services to low-income households. This report describes the most salient features of this program, examines relationships between organization and program outcomes, and presents recommendations for the program's further development. Data were collected by written surveys administered to local weatherization agencies, a telephone survey of 38 states and eight DOE support offices, and site visits to selected local agencies. Locally controlled factors found to be significantly related to program performance include the amount of the weatherization director's time spent on program administration, the use of established client selection criteria, the frequency of evaluation of local goal attainment, and the type of weatherization crews used. Factors controlled at the state or federal levels that influence program performance include delays in state reimbursements of local agency expenditures and local flexibility in the choice of weatherization measures. Data-gathering difficulties experienced during this project indicate a need for possible improvements in goal-setting and record-keeping procedures.

  2. The evolving price of household LED lamps: Recent trends and historical comparisons for the US market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Ngo, Allison T.; Alstone, Andrea L.; Fisseha, Kibret S.

    2014-10-14

    In recent years, household LED light bulbs (LED A lamps) have undergone a dramatic price decline. Since late 2011, we have been collecting data, on a weekly basis, for retail offerings of LED A lamps on the Internet. The resulting data set allows us to track the recent price decline in detail. LED A lamp prices declined roughly exponentially with time in 2011-2014, with decline rates of 28percent to 44percent per year depending on lumen output, and with higher-lumen lamps exhibiting more rapid price declines. By combining the Internet price data with publicly available lamp shipments indices for the US market, it is also possible to correlate LED A lamp prices against cumulative production, yielding an experience curve for LED A lamps. In 2012-2013, LED A lamp prices declined by 20-25percent for each doubling in cumulative shipments. Similar analysis of historical data for other lighting technologies reveals that LED prices have fallen significantly more rapidly with cumulative production than did their technological predecessors, which exhibited a historical decline of 14-15percent per doubling of production.

  3. LCA for household waste management when planning a new urban settlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagstad, Helene; Brattebo, Helge

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household waste management of a new carbon neutral settlement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EASEWASTE as a LCA tool to compare different centralised and decentralised solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental benefit or close to zero impact in most of the categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paper and metal recycling important for the outcome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discusses the challenges of waste prevention planning. - Abstract: When planning for a new urban settlement, industrial ecology tools like scenario building and life cycle assessment can be used to assess the environmental quality of different infrastructure solutions. In Trondheim, a new greenfield settlement with carbon-neutral ambitions is being planned and five different scenarios for the waste management system of the new settlement have been compared. The results show small differences among the scenarios, however, some benefits from increased source separation of paper and metal could be found. The settlement should connect to the existing waste management system of the city, and not resort to decentralised waste treatment or recovery methods. However, as this is an urban development project with ambitious goals for lifestyle changes, effort should be put into research and initiatives for proactive waste prevention and reuse issues.

  4. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2012-07-19

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  5. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: Multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, R.; Buysse, J.; Gellynck, X.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal is to compare collection costs for residual household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have clustered all municipalities in order to find mutual comparable pairs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each pair consists of one private and one public operating waste collection program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All cases show that private service has lower costs than public service. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipalities were contacted to identify the deeper causes for the waste management program. - Abstract: The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private.

  6. Insights from Smart Meters. Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors and Characteristics that drive savings in Behavior-Based Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles A.

    2014-12-01

    In this report, we use smart meter data to analyze specific actions, behaviors, and characteristics that drive energy savings in a behavior-based (BB) program. Specifically, we examine a Home Energy Report (HER) program. These programs typically obtain 1% to 3% annual savings, and recent studies have shown hourly savings of between 0.5% and 3%. But what is driving these savings? What types of households tend to be “high-savers”, and what behaviors are they adopting? There are several possibilities: one-time behaviors (e.g., changing thermostat settings); reoccurring habitual behaviors (e.g., turning off lights); and equipment purchase behaviors (e.g., energy efficient appliances), and these may vary across households, regions, and over time.

  7. A life cycle approach to the management of household food waste - A Swedish full-scale case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2011-08-15

    Research Highlights: > The comparison of three different methods for management of household food waste show that anaerobic digestion provides greater environmental benefits in relation to global warming potential, acidification and ozone depilation compared to incineration and composting of food waste. Use of produced biogas as car fuel provides larger environmental benefits compared to a use of biogas for heat and power production. > The use of produced digestate from the anaerobic digestion as substitution for chemical fertilizer on farmland provides avoidance of environmental burdens in the same ratio as the substitution of fossil fuels with produced biogas. > Sensitivity analyses show that results are highly sensitive to assumptions regarding the environmental burdens connected to heat and energy supposedly substituted by the waste treatment. - Abstract: Environmental impacts from incineration, decentralised composting and centralised anaerobic digestion of solid organic household waste are compared using the EASEWASTE LCA-tool. The comparison is based on a full scale case study in southern Sweden and used input-data related to aspects such as source-separation behaviour, transport distances, etc. are site-specific. Results show that biological treatment methods - both anaerobic and aerobic, result in net avoidance of GHG-emissions, but give a larger contribution both to nutrient enrichment and acidification when compared to incineration. Results are to a high degree dependent on energy substitution and emissions during biological processes. It was seen that if it is assumed that produced biogas substitute electricity based on Danish coal power, this is preferable before use of biogas as car fuel. Use of biogas for Danish electricity substitution was also determined to be more beneficial compared to incineration of organic household waste. This is a result mainly of the use of plastic bags in the incineration alternative (compared to paper bags in the

  8. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, July 19, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    19, 2012 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance  Is your program getting household energy data? How? * Program Experience and Lessons:  Janelle Beverly and Jeff Hughes, University of North Carolina Environmental Finance Center (http://www.efc.unc.edu/index.html) * Discussion:  What are successful strategies for obtaining

  9. Better Buildings Residential Network Multi-Family & Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households, March 13, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Family & Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households March 13, 2014 Agenda  Call Logistics and Introductions  Featured Participants  Becca Harmon Murphy (Indianapolis Neighborhood Housing Partnership)  Discussion:  What strategies or approaches has your program used to build interest in your loan programs for moderate- and low-income households? What has worked well, and why do you think it was effective?  What

  10. LED Color Characteristics

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    LED Color Characteristics Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating lighting products. This fact sheet reviews the fundamentals regarding light and color, summarizing the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems, including color consistency, stability, tuning, and rendering, as well as chromaticity. LED Emission Attributes Individual LED dies, often referred to as chips, emit light in a narrow range of wavelengths, giving the appearance of a monochromatic

  11. Residential energy consumption across different population groups: Comparative analysis for Latino and non-Latino households in U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.; Henderson, L.

    1998-05-01

    Residential energy cost, an important part of the household budget, varies significantly across different population groups. In the United States, researchers have conducted many studies of household fuel consumption by fuel type -- electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) -- and by geographic areas. The results of past research have also demonstrated significant variation in residential energy use across various population groups, including white, black, and Latino. However, research shows that residential energy demand by fuel type for Latinos, the fastest-growing population group in the United States, has not been explained by economic and noneconomic factors in any available statistical model. This paper presents a discussion of energy demand and expenditure patterns for Latino and non-Latino households in the United States. The statistical model developed to explain fuel consumption and expenditures for Latino households is based on Stone and Geary`s linear expenditure system model. For comparison, the authors also developed models for energy consumption in non-Latino, black, and nonblack households. These models estimate consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and LPG by various households at the national level. The study revealed significant variations in the patterns of fuel consumption for Latinos and non-Latinos. The model methodology and results of this research should be useful to energy policymakers in government and industry, researchers, and academicians who are concerned with economic and energy issues related to various population groups.

  12. Crude Oil Characteristics Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SAE Plan June 29, 2015 Page 1 Crude Oil Characteristics Research Sampling, Analysis and Experiment (SAE) Plan The U.S. is experiencing a renaissance in oil and gas production. The Energy Information Administration projects that U.S. oil production will reach 9.3 million barrels per day in 2015 - the highest annual average level of oil production since 1972. This domestic energy boom is due primarily to new unconventional production of light sweet crude oil from tight-oil formations like the

  13. Table HC1-2a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.5 1.6 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1 0.8 Total ............................................... 107.0 15.5 18.2 18.8 13.8 14.2 26.6 4.3 Census Region and Division Northeast ...................................... 20.3 1.5 2.4 2.1 2.8 3.0 8.5 8.8 New

  14. Housing characteristics, 1987: Residential Energy Consumption Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-05-26

    This report is the first of a series of reports based on data from the 1987 RECS. The 1987 RECS is the seventh in the series of national surveys of households and their energy suppliers. These surveys provide baseline information on how households in the United States use energy. A cross section of housing types such as single-family detached homes, townhouses, large and small apartment buildings, condominiums, and mobile homes were included in the survey. Data from the RECS and a companion survey, the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS), are available to the public in published reports such as this one and on public use tapes. 10 figs., 69 tabs.

  15. Wafer characteristics via reflectometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2010-10-19

    Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

  16. Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W.

    1995-12-31

    A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

  17. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  18. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Lighting Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Lighting Usage Indicators" "Total U.S. Housing

  19. Separate collection of household food waste for anaerobic degradation - Comparison of different techniques from a systems perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2012-05-15

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four modern and innovative systems for household food waste collection are compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct emissions and resource use were based on full-scale data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of nutrients/energy content over the system was considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systems with high energy/nutrient recovery are most environmentally beneficial. - Abstract: Four systems for household food waste collection are compared in relation the environmental impact categories eutrophication potential, acidification potential, global warming potential as well as energy use. Also, a hotspot analysis is performed in order to suggest improvements in each of the compared collection systems. Separate collection of household food waste in paper bags (with and without drying prior to collection) with use of kitchen grinders and with use of vacuum system in kitchen sinks were compared. In all cases, food waste was used for anaerobic digestion with energy and nutrient recovery in all cases. Compared systems all resulted in net avoidance of assessed environmental impact categories; eutrophication potential (-0.1 to -2.4 kg NO{sub 3}{sup -}eq/ton food waste), acidification potential (-0.4 to -1.0 kg SO{sub 2}{sup -}eq/ton food waste), global warming potential (-790 to -960 kg CO{sub 2}{sup -}eq/ton food waste) and primary energy use (-1.7 to -3.6 GJ/ton food waste). Collection with vacuum system results in the largest net avoidance of primary energy use, while disposal of food waste in paper bags for decentralized drying before collection result in a larger net avoidance of global warming, eutrophication and acidification. However, both these systems not have been taken into use in large scale systems yet and further investigations are needed in order to confirm the outcomes from the comparison. Ranking of scenarios differ largely if considering only emissions in the foreground system, indicating the

  20. CBECS Buildings Characteristics --Revised Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Totals and Means of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and Hours of Operation, 1995 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million...

  1. Property:Other Characteristics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Characteristics Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Other Characteristics Property Type String Pages using the property "Other Characteristics" Showing 8 pages using this...

  2. Process for the utilization of household rubbish or garbage and other organic waste products for the production of methane gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunziker, M.; Schildknecht, A.

    1985-04-16

    Non-organic substances are separated from household garbage and the organic substances are fed in proportioned manner into a mixing tank and converted into slurry by adding liquid. The slurry is crushed for homogenization purposes in a crushing means and passed into a closed holding container. It is then fed over a heat exchanger and heated to 55/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/ C. The slurry passes into a plurality of reaction vessels in which the methane gas and carbon dioxide are produced. In a separating plant, the mixture of gaseous products is broken down into its components and some of the methane gas is recycled by bubbling it through both the holding tank and the reaction tank, the remainder being stored in gasholders. The organic substances are degraded much more rapidly through increasing the degradation temperature and as a result constructional expenditure can be reduced.

  3. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  4. Travel Patterns And Characteristics Of Transit Users In New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Wilson, Daniel W.; Reuscher, Tim; Chin, Shih-Miao; Taylor, Rob D.

    2015-12-01

    This research is a detailed examination of the travel behaviors and patterns of transit users within New York State (NYS), primarily based on travel data provided by the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) in 2009 and the associated Add-on sample households purchased by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT). Other data sources analyzed in this study include: NYS General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) to assist in analyzing spatial relationships for access to transit and the creation of Transit Shed geographic areas of 1, 2.5, and 5 miles from transit stop locations, LandScan population database to understand transit coverage, and Census Bureau s American Community Survey (ACS) data to examine general transit patterns and trends in NYS over time. The majority of analyses performed in this research aimed at identifying transit trip locations, understanding differences in transit usage by traveler demographics, as well as producing trip/mode-specific summary statistics including travel distance, trip duration, time of trip, and travel purpose of transit trips made by NYS residents, while also analyzing regional differences and unique travel characteristics and patterns. The analysis was divided into two aggregated geographic regions: New York Metropolitan Transportation Council (NYMTC) and NYS minus NYMTC (Rest of NYS). The inclusion of NYMTC in all analysis would likely produce misleading conclusions for other regions in NYS. TRANSIT COVERAGE The NYS transit network has significant coverage in terms of transit stop locations across the state s population. Out of the 19.3 million NYS population in 2011, about 15.3 million (or 79%) resided within the 1-mile transit shed. This NYS population transit coverage increased to 16.9 million (or 88%) when a 2.5-mile transit shed was considered; and raised to 17.7 million (or 92%) when the 5-mile transit shed was applied. KEY FINDINGS Based on 2009 NHTS data, about 40% of NYMTC households used transit

  5. The impact of rising energy prices on household energy consumption and expenditure patterns: The Persian Gulf crisis as a case example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, L.J. ); Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S. . Energy Systems Div.)

    1992-09-01

    The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent war between Iraq and an international alliance led by the United States triggered immediate increases in world oil prices. Increases in world petroleum prices and in US petroleum imports resulted in higher petroleum prices for US customers. In this report, the effects of the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath are used to demonstrate the potential impacts of petroleum price changes on majority, black, and Hispanic households, as well as on poor and nonpoor households. The analysis is done by using the Minority Energy Assessment Model developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The differential impacts of these price increases and fluctuations on poor and minority households raise significant issues for a variety of government agencies, including DOE. Although the Persian Gulf crisis is now over and world oil prices have returned to their prewar levels, the differential impacts of rising energy prices on poor and minority households as a result of any future crisis in the world oil market remains a significant long-term issue.

  6. EIA - Household Transportation report: Household Vehicles Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    National Research Council, Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2002), p. 85. 4 8.3 million...

  7. Boundary Layer Cloud Turbulence Characteristics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boundary Layer Cloud Turbulence Characteristics Virendra Ghate Bruce Albrecht Parameter Observational Readiness (/10) Modeling Need (/10) Cloud Boundaries 9 9 Cloud Fraction Variance Skewness Up/Downdraft coverage Dominant Freq. signal Dissipation rate ??? Observation-Modeling Interface

  8. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  9. Travel Patterns and Characteristics of Elderly Subpopulation in New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Wilson, Daniel W.; Reuscher, Tim; Yang, Jianjiang; Taylor, Rob D.; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2015-03-01

    With the increasing demographic shift towards a larger population of elderly (individuals 65 years and older), it is essential for policy makers and planners to have an understanding of transportation issues that affect the elderly. These issues include livability of the community, factors impacting travel behavior and mobility, transportation safety, etc. In this study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the New York State (NYS) Department of Transportation to conduct a detailed examination of travel behaviors, and identify patterns and trends of the elderly within NYS. The National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) was used as the primary data source to analyze subjects and address questions such as: Are there differences in traveler demographics between the elderly population and those of younger age groups who live in various NYS regions; e.g., New York City, other urban areas of NYS, or other parts of the country? How do they compare with the population at large? Are there any regional differences (e.g., urban versus rural)? Gender differences? Do any unique travel characteristics or patterns exist within the elderly group? In addition to analysis of NHTS data, roadway travel safety concerns associated with elderly travelers were also investigated in this study. Specifically, data on accidents involving the elderly (including drivers, passengers, and others) as captured in the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database was analyzed to examine elderly driver and elderly pedestrian travel safety issues in NYS. The analyses of these data sets provide a greater understanding of the elderly within NYS and their associated transportation issues. Through this study, various key findings on elderly population size, household characteristics, and travel patterns were produced and are report herein this report.

  10. 1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Home Office Equipment Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... RSE Column Factor: Total 1997 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... 32.3 39.0 2.7 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State income. ...

  11. Table 2.4 Household Energy Consumption by Census Region, Selected Years, 1978-2009 (Quadrillion Btu, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Household 1 Energy Consumption by Census Region, Selected Years, 1978-2009 (Quadrillion Btu, Except as Noted) Census Region 2 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1984 1987 1990 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 United States Total (does not include wood) 10.56 9.74 9.32 9.29 8.58 9.04 9.13 9.22 10.01 10.25 9.86 10.55 10.18 Natural Gas 5.58 5.31 4.97 5.27 4.74 4.98 4.83 4.86 5.27 5.28 4.84 4.79 4.69 Electricity 3 2.47 2.42 2.48 2.42 2.35 2.48 2.76 3.03 3.28 3.54 3.89 4.35 4.39 Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene 2.19

  12. Characterizing Walk Trips in communities by Using Data from 2009 National Household Travel Survey, American Community Survey, and Other Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Reuscher, Tim; Wilson, Daniel W; Murakami, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Non-motorized travel (i.e. walking and bicycling) are of increasing interest to the transportation profession, especially in context with energy consumption, reducing vehicular congestion, urban development patterns, and promotion of healthier life styles. This research project aimed to identify factors impacting the amount of travel for both walk and bike trips at the Census block group or tract level, using several public and private data sources. The key survey of travel behavior is the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) which had over 87,000 walk trips for persons 16 and over, and over 6000 bike trips for persons 16 and over. The NHTS, in conjunction with the Census Bureau s American Community Survey, street density measures using Census Bureau TIGER, WalkScore , Nielsen Claritas employment estimates, and several other sources were used for this study. Stepwise Logistic Regression modeling techniques as well as Discriminant Analysis were applied using the integrated data set. While the models performed reasonably well for walk trips, travel by bike was abandoned due to sparseness of data. This paper discusses data sources utilized and modeling processes conducted under this study. It also presents a summary of findings and addresses data challenges and lesson-learned from this research effort.

  13. User interface in ORACLE for the Worldwide Household Goods Information System for Transportation Modernization (WHIST-MOD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, T. ); Loftis, J. )

    1990-07-01

    The Directorate of Personal Property of the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) requested that Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) design a prototype decision support system, the Worldwide Household Goods Information System for Transportation Modernization (WHIST-MOD). This decision support system will automate current tasks and provide analysis tools for evaluating the Personal Property Program, predicting impacts to the program, and planning modifications to the program to meet the evolving needs of military service members and the transportation industry. The system designed by ORNL consists of three application modules: system dictionary applications, data acquisition and administration applications, and user applications. The development of the user applications module is divided into two phases. Round 1 is the data selection front-end interface, and Round 2 is the output or back-end interface. This report describes the prototyped front-end interface for the user application module. It discusses user requirements and the prototype design. The information contained in this report is the product of in-depth interviews with MTMC staff, prototype meetings with the users, and the research and design work conducted at ORNL. 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Lands with Wilderness Characteristics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with Wilderness Characteristics Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLandswithWildernessCharacteristics&oldid647799...

  15. Health Care Buildings : Basic Characteristics Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Basic Characteristics Tables Buildings and Size Data by Basic Characteristics for Health Care Buildings Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million...

  16. LED Color Characteristics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Color Characteristics LED Color Characteristics Reviews the fundamentals regarding light and color, summarizing the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems. (6 pages, April 2016) led-color-characteristics-factsheet.pdf (1.77 MB) More Documents & Publications Evaluating Color Rendition Using IES TM-30-15 LED Color Characteristics presentation slides: UNDERSTANDING AND APPLYING TM-30-15

  17. Next Generation Household Refrigerator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: Whirlpool - Benton Harbor, MI

  18. Try This: Household Magnets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Now which is stronger, gravity or magnetism? What is going on? How do flexible refrigerator magnets work? Get two of these magnets, they are often the size of a business card....

  19. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  20. Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-25

    A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

  1. "Table HC11.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "20 Years or More",6.5,0.7,0.7,"Q" "Don't Know",4.5,0.3,"Q","Q" "Used by Two or More ... "20 Years or More",0.3,"Q","Q","N" "Don't Know",0.7,"Q","N","Q" "Household Pays for ...

  2. Characteristics of Strong Programs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characteristics of Strong Programs Characteristics of Strong Programs Existing financing programs offer a number of important lessons on effective program design. Some characteristics of strong financing programs drawn from past program experience are described below. Engage Contractor Networks The programs with the highest volume of loans have strong contractor networks and regular program communication with those contractors. Significant time and effort are often expended to make sure the

  3. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Biomass: Types/Characteristics |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Biomass: Types/Characteristics BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Biomass: Types/Characteristics BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Biomass: Types/Characteristics This infographic was created by students from Albany Academies and Academy of the Holy Names in Albany, NY, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge encourages young people to improve their foundational understanding of bioenergy,

  4. CASL - The Michigan Parallel Characteristics Transport Code

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Michigan Parallel Characteristics Transport Code Verification of MPACT: The Michigan Parallel Characteristics Transport Code Benjamin Collins, Brendan Kochunas, Daniel Jabbay, Thomas Downar, William Martin Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences University of Michigan Andrew Godfrey Oak Ridge National Laboroatory MPACT (Michigan PArallel Characteristics Transport Code) is a new reactor analysis tool being developed at the University of Michigan as an advanced pin-resolved

  5. Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1995 - Index Page

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    >Commercial Buildings Home > 1995 Characteristics Data 1995 Data Executive Summary Table of Contents Overview to Detailed Tables Detailed Tables 1995 national and Census region...

  6. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Census Region

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Top Return to: "1999 CBECS-Commercial Buildings Characteristics" Specific questions...

  7. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Year Constructed

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Top Return to: "1999 CBECS-Commercial Buildings Characteristics" Specific questions...

  8. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Top Return to: "1999 CBECS-Commercial Buildings Characteristics" Specific questions...

  9. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Disaggregated Principal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Top Return to: "1999 CBECS-Commercial Buildings Characteristics" Specific questions...

  10. Principal Characteristics of a Modern Grid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... MODERN GRID S T R A T E G Y 5 5 Principal Characteristics The Smart Grid is "transactive" ... Utility Operational Benefits Operational improvements Metering and billing Outage ...

  11. Principal Characteristics of a Modern Grid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    peaking units builds *Cancelled baseload coal plants pressure pressure 5 Office of ... Today's Grid Principal Characteristic Modern Grid Consumers are uninformed and ...

  12. Mechanical properties and energy absorption characteristics of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanical properties and energy absorption characteristics of a polyurethane foam Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical properties and energy absorption ...

  13. DERIVATION OF STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION MODEL CHARACTERISTICS FOR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FOR SOLAR FLARES FROM RHESSI HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DERIVATION OF STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION MODEL CHARACTERISTICS FOR SOLAR FLARES ...

  14. Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep wells, Raft River geothermal area Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book:...

  15. LED Color Characteristics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE EERE Building Technologies Program Solid-State Lighting fact sheet led-color-characteristics-factsheet.pdf (804.38 KB) More Documents & Publications LED Color Characteristics Evaluating Color Rendition Using IES TM-30-15 Report 23: Photometric Testing of White Tunable LED Luminaires

  16. Principal Characteristics of a Modern Grid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... MODERN GRID S T R A T E G Y 24 24 The Smart Grid Gap Characteristic Today's Grid Smart ... MODERN GRID S T R A T E G Y Utility Benefits Operational efficiencies Metering and billing ...

  17. NREL: Wind Research - Site Wind Resource Characteristics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site Wind Resource Characteristics A graphic showing the location of National Wind Technology Center and its wind power class 2. Click on the image to view a larger version. ...

  18. Probability-theoretic characteristics of solar batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lidorenko, N.S.; Asharin, L.N.; Borisova, N.A.; Evdokimov, V.M.; Ryabikov, S.V.

    1980-01-01

    Results are reported for an investigation into the characteristics of solar batteries on the basis of probability theory with the photocells treated as current generators; methods for reducing solar-battery circuit losses are considered.

  19. 1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Housing Unit Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Contact: Robert Latta, Survey Manager (rlatta@eia.doe.gov) World Wide Web: http:www.eia.doe.govemeuconsumption Table HC1-1a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Climate Zone, ...

  20. Crude Oil Characteristics Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil Characteristics Research Crude Oil Characteristics Research July 9, 2015 - 1:00pm Addthis Paula Gant Paula Gant Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary The DOE Office of Fossil Energy wanted to identify the actions needed to obtain a science-based understanding of outstanding questions associated with the production, treatment, and transportation of various types of crude oil, including Bakken crude oil. In support of that effort, DOE - in collaboration with the Department of

  1. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the strain characteristics of the wire.

  2. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  3. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.J.; Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.

    1979-12-19

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  4. Table HC1.2.1. Living Space Characteristics by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Space Characteristics by" " Total, Heated, and Cooled Floorspace, 2005" ,,,"Total Square Footage" ,"Housing Units",,"Total1",,"Heated",,"Cooled" "Living Space Characteristics","Mil...

  5. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Chamber Characteristics Test (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Chamber Characteristics Test Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Chamber Characteristics Test ...

  6. Origins of optical absorption characteristics of Cu2+ complexes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Origins of optical absorption characteristics of Cu2+ complexes in solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Origins of optical absorption characteristics of Cu2+ ...

  7. Spectral characteristics of time resolved magnonic spin Seebeck...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectral characteristics of time resolved magnonic spin Seebeck effect Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spectral characteristics of time resolved magnonic spin Seebeck ...

  8. Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dataset: Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems, 1960-2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic...

  9. Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot: Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation Title Oxidation characteristics of gasoline...

  10. Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions in salt Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characteristics of seismic waves from...

  11. A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by ... Title: A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained ...

  12. Forward and reverse characteristics of irradiated MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paccagnella, A.; Ceschia, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Soncini, G.; Bellutti, P.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1996-06-01

    pMOSFETs biased with V{sub gs} < V{sub gd} during Co{sup 60} {gamma} irradiation have shown substantial differences between the forward and reverse subthreshold characteristics, induced by a non-uniform charge distribution in the gate oxide. Correspondingly, modest differences have been observed in the over-threshold I-V characteristics. After irradiation, the forward subthreshold curves can shift at higher or lower gate voltages than the reverse ones. The former behavior has been observed in long-channel devices, in agreement with the classical MOS theory and numerical simulations. The latter result has been obtained in short-channel devices, and it has been correlated to a parasitic punch-through conduction mechanism.

  13. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM`s Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW.

  14. Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Svoboda, John M.; Sawyer, J. Wayne; Hess, John R.; Hess, J. Richard

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

  15. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... For this report, the heating or cooling degree-days are a measure of how cold or how hot a location is over a period of one year, relative to a base temperature of 65 degrees ...

  16. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... For this report, the heating or cooling degree-days are a measure of how cold or how hot a location is over a period of one year, relative to a base temperature of 65 degrees ...

  17. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... For this report, the heating or cooling degree-days are a measure of how cold or how hot a location is over a period of one year, relative to a base temperature of 65 degrees ...

  18. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 9.8 2.8 2.1 4.4 0.5 11.6 100 to 150 Percent ...... 5.1 1.4 1.1 2.3 Q 14.2 Above 150 ...

  19. char_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 0.9 0.5 0.6 13.0 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  20. char_household2001.pdf

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 0.6 0.5 Q 17.4 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  1. char_household2001.pdf

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 5.2 3.9 Q Q 1.1 21.9 100 to 150 Percent ...... 6.4 5.2 0.2 Q 0.9 16.5 Above 150 Percent ...

  2. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... definition. 2 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  3. char_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 15.0 1.4 2.3 ... were conducted. 2 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  4. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 0.7 0.4 0.2 18.4 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  5. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 15.0 1.0 3.4 ... weather station. 2 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  6. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 1.2 0.7 0.5 11.3 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  7. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 1.5 0.5 1.0 14.6 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  8. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 15.0 6.7 2.3 ... 4.9 Q Q 0.2 14.8 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  9. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    selected tabulations were produced using two different software programs, Table Producing Language (TPL) and Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Energy Information Administration...

  10. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Matching: A model-based procedure used to impute for item nonresponse. This method uses logistic models to compute predicted means that are used to statistically match each...

  11. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    were imputed as disposed vehicles. To impute vehicle stock changes in the 1991 RTECS, logistic regression equations were used to compute a predicted probability (or propensity)...

  12. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    production vehicles in order to assess compliance with Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. The EPA Composite MPG is based on the assumption of a "typical" vehicle-use...

  13. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    more fuel-efficient vehicles, and the implementation of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) 6 standards. Figure 13. Average Fuel Efficiency of All Vehicles, by Model Year 6...

  14. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of vehicles in the residential sector. Data are from the 1991 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey. The "Glossary" contains the definitions of terms used in the...

  15. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for 1994, will continue the 3-year cycle. The RTECS, a subsample of the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), is an integral part of a series of surveys designed by...

  16. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a comparison between the 1991 and previous years RTECS designs; (2) the sample design; (3) the data-collection procedures; (4) the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN); (5)...

  17. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DC, October 1995), Table DL-1B. 5. "Chained dollars" is a measure used to express real prices. Real prices are those that have been adjusted to remove the effect of changes...

  18. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Contact: Stephanie J. Battles, Survey Manager (stephanie.battles@eia.doe.gov) World Wide Web: http:www.eia.doe.govemeuconsumption Table HC4-1a. Air Conditioning by Climate ...

  19. usage_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Contact: Stephanie J. Battles, Survey Manager (stephanie.battles@eia.doe.gov) World Wide Web: http:www.eia.doe.govemeuconsumption Table HC6-1a. Usage Indicators by Climate ...

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.2 Residential Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Total Number of Households and Buildings, Floorspace, and Household Size, by Year 1980 80 N.A. 227 2.9 1981 83 N.A. 229 2.8 1982 84 N.A. 232 2.8 1983 85 N.A. 234 2.8 1984 86 N.A. 236 2.7 1985 88 N.A. 238 2.7 1986 89 N.A. 240 2.7 1987 91 N.A. 242 2.7 1988 92 N.A. 244 2.7 1989 93 N.A. 247 2.6 1990 94 N.A. 250 2.6 1991 95 N.A. 253 2.7 1992 96 N.A. 257 2.7 1993 98 N.A. 260 2.7 1994 99 N.A. 263 2.7 1995 100 N.A. 266 2.7 1996 101 N.A. 269 2.7 1997 102 N.A. 273 2.7 1998 104 N.A. 276 2.7 1999 105 N.A.

  1. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation. The third chapter contains information regarding households' willingness to make energy conserving investments and their ranking of various conservation features. In the final chapter conclusions and recommendations are presented with an emphasis on the policy implications of this study. (MCW)

  2. Nuclear reactor characteristics and operational history

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Ownership Data, Table 3. Characteristics and Operational History Table 1. Nuclear Reactor, State, Type, Net Capacity, Generation, and Capacity Factor PDF XLS Plant/Reactor Name Generator ID State Type 2009 Summer Capacity Net MW(e)1 2010 Annual Generation Net MWh2 Capacity Factor Percent3 Arkansas Nuclear One 1 AR PWR 842 6,607,090 90 Arkansas Nuclear One 2 AR PWR 993 8,415,588 97 Beaver Valley 1 PA PWR 892 7,119,413 91 Beaver Valley 2 PA PWR 885 7,874,151 102 Braidwood Generation Station 1

  3. Coal-water slurry atomization characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    The overall objective of this work was to fully characterize the CWS fuel sprays of a medium-speed diesel engine injection system. Specifically, the spray plume penetration as a function of time was determined for a positive-displacement fuel injection system. The penetration was determined as a function of orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the engine, and fuel line pressure. Preliminary droplet information also was obtained. The results of this study will assist CWS engine development by providing much needed insight about the fuel spray. In addition, the results will aid the development and use of CWS engine cycle simulations which require information on the fuel spray characteristics.

  4. An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR System An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR ...

  5. Characteristics of transverse waves in chromospheric mottles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Jess, D. B.; Keenan, F. P. [Astrophysics Research Center, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Verth, G.; Erdlyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Center (SP2RC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Morton, R. J. [Mathematics and Information Science, Northumbria University, Camden Street, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Christian, D. J., E-mail: dkuridze01@qub.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Using data obtained by the high temporal and spatial resolution Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument on the Dunn Solar Telescope, we investigate at an unprecedented level of detail transverse oscillations in chromospheric fine structures near the solar disk center. The oscillations are interpreted in terms of propagating and standing magnetohydrodynamic kink waves. Wave characteristics including the maximum transverse velocity amplitude and the phase speed are measured as a function of distance along the structure's length. Solar magnetoseismology is applied to these measured parameters to obtain diagnostic information on key plasma parameters (e.g., magnetic field, density, temperature, flow speed) of these localized waveguides. The magnetic field strength of the mottle along the ?2 Mm length is found to decrease by a factor of 12, while the local plasma density scale height is ?280 80 km.

  6. Gas sensor with attenuated drift characteristic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ing-Shin [Danbury, CT; Chen, Philip S. H. [Bethel, CT; Neuner, Jeffrey W. [Bethel, CT; Welch, James [Fairfield, CT; Hendrix, Bryan [Danbury, CT; Dimeo, Jr., Frank [Danbury, CT

    2008-05-13

    A sensor with an attenuated drift characteristic, including a layer structure in which a sensing layer has a layer of diffusional barrier material on at least one of its faces. The sensor may for example be constituted as a hydrogen gas sensor including a palladium/yttrium layer structure formed on a micro-hotplate base, with a chromium barrier layer between the yttrium layer and the micro-hotplate, and with a tantalum barrier layer between the yttrium layer and an overlying palladium protective layer. The gas sensor is useful for detection of a target gas in environments susceptible to generation or incursion of such gas, and achieves substantial (e.g., >90%) reduction of signal drift from the gas sensor in extended operation, relative to a corresponding gas sensor lacking the diffusional barrier structure of the invention

  7. Buildings and Energy in the 1980s

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    No. PB83-199554, 220. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Household Transportation Panel Monthly Gas Purchases and Vehicle and Household Characteristics, 679-981; Order...

  8. DOE/EIA-0516(85) Energy Information Administration Manufacturing...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Order No. PB83- 199554HAA Residential Energy Consumption Survey: HouseholdTransportation Panel Monthly Gas Purchases and Vehicle and Household Characteristics, 6179-9181 * Order...

  9. Buildings and Energy in the 1980s

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    conducted in two stages: (1) A Household (RECS)Building (CBECS) Survey and an Energy Suppliers Survey. The HouseholdBuilding Characteristics Survey consists of personal...

  10. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Data

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) Home energy use & costs Release Date: ... Household characteristics Home energy use & costs Detailed household microdata Commercial ...

  11. Foaming characteristics of refigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Shah, D.O.; Jotshi, C.K.; Bhagwat, S.; Leung, M.; Gregory, A.

    1997-04-01

    The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry has moved to HFC refrigerants which have zero ozone depletion and low global warming potential due to regulations on CFC and HCFC refrigerants and concerns for the environment. The change in refrigerants has prompted the switch from mineral oil and alkylbenzene lubricants to polyolester-based lubricants. This change has also brought about a desire for lubricant, refrigerant and compressor manufacturers to understand the foaming properties of alternative refrigerant/ lubricant mixtures, as well as the mechanisms which affect these properties. The objectives of this investigation are to experimentally determine the foaming absorption and desorption rates of HFC and blended refrigerants in polyolester lubricant and to define the characteristics of the foam formed when the refrigerant leaves the refrigerant/ lubricant mixture after being exposed to a pressure drop. The refrigerants being examined include baseline refrigerants: CFC-12 (R-12) and HCFC-22 (R-22); alternative refrigerants: HFC-32 (R-32), R-125, R-134a, and R-143a; and blended refrigerants: R-404A, R-407C, and R-410A. The baseline refrigerants are tested with ISO 32 (Witco 3GS) and ISO 68 (4GS) mineral oils while the alternative and blended refrigerants are tested with two ISO 68 polyolesters (Witco SL68 and ICI RL68H).

  12. "Table HC14.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "20 Years or More",6.5,1.3,0.3,1 "Don't Know",4.5,0.6,"Q",0.5 "Used by Two or More ... "20 Years or More",0.3,"Q","N","Q" "Don't Know",0.7,"Q","N","Q" "Household Pays for ...

  13. "Table HC12.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "20 Years or More",6.5,1.5,1,0.5 "Don't Know",4.5,1.3,0.7,0.6 "Used by Two or More ... "20 Years or More",0.3,"Q","Q","N" "Don't Know",0.7,"Q","Q","Q" "Household Pays for ...

  14. "Table HC15.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "20 Years or More",6.5,"Q",0.5,0.8,0.9 "Don't Know",4.5,"Q",0.4,0.7,0.4 "Used by Two or ... "20 Years or More",0.3,"N","Q","Q","Q" "Don't Know",0.7,"N","Q","Q","Q" "Household Pays ...

  15. TableHC1.1.1.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Housing Unit Housing Unit Characteristics Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Household Member ...

  16. Sooting characteristics of surrogates for jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mensch, Amy; Santoro, Robert J.; Litzinger, Thomas A.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2010-06-15

    Currently, modeling the combustion of aviation fuels, such as JP-8 and JetA, is not feasible due to the complexity and compositional variation of these practical fuels. Surrogate fuel mixtures, composed of a few pure hydrocarbon compounds, are a key step toward modeling the combustion of practical aviation fuels. For the surrogate to simulate the practical fuel, the composition must be designed to reproduce certain pre-designated chemical parameters such as sooting tendency, H/C ratio, autoignition, as well as physical parameters such as boiling range and density. In this study, we focused only on the sooting characteristics based on the Threshold Soot Index (TSI). New measurements of TSI values derived from the smoke point along with other sooting tendency data from the literature have been combined to develop a set of recommended TSI values for pure compounds used to make surrogate mixtures. When formulating the surrogate fuel mixtures, the TSI values of the components are used to predict the TSI of the mixture. To verify the empirical mixture rule for TSI, the TSI values of several binary mixtures of candidate surrogate components were measured. Binary mixtures were also used to derive a TSI for iso-cetane, which had not previously been measured, and to verify the TSI for 1-methylnaphthalene, which had a low smoke point and large relative uncertainty as a pure compound. Lastly, surrogate mixtures containing three components were tested to see how well the measured TSI values matched the predicted values, and to demonstrate that a target value for TSI can be maintained using various components, while also holding the H/C ratio constant. (author)

  17. Primary Characteristics of Loan Loss Reserve Funds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Primary Characteristics of Loan Loss Reserve Funds Primary Characteristics of Loan Loss Reserve Funds Loan loss reserve (LLR) funds have four primary characteristics, detailed here. Portfolio approach to credit Leverage Financial institution partner Secondary market support Portfolio Approach to Credit LLRs take a "portfolio approach," meaning that state and local governments setting up LLRs do so on the basis of the entire portfolio of loans they support. For example, a 5% loss

  18. About the Rhythms of Variability of the Submicron Aerosol Characterist...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the distribution of the aerosol characteristics were considered. The periodograms (Fourier spectra of the discrete data set) were calculated for all data arrays using...

  19. Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and ...

  20. Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    atmospheric plasma jet Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics in a helium atmospheric plasma jet We ...

  1. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Detection Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool for Detection Performance You are ...

  2. Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  3. Measurement Of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detector Characteristics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurement Of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detector Characteristics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement Of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detector ...

  4. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors ...

  5. Effects of Ion Beam on Nanoindentation Characteristics of Glassy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of Ion Beam on Nanoindentation Characteristics of Glassy Polymeric Carbon Surface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of Ion Beam on Nanoindentation ...

  6. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool for Detection Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Receiver Operating ...

  7. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  8. Transport characteristics across drum filter vents and polymer bags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    The rate at which hydrogen (H {sub 2}) or a volatile organic compound (VOC) exits a layer of confinement in a vented waste drum is proportional to the concentration difference across the layer. The proportionality constant is the gas transport characteristic. A series of transport experiments were conducted to determine H{sub 2} and VOC transport characteristics across different drum filter vents and polymer bags. This report reviews the methods and results of past investigators in defining transport characteristics across filter vents and polymer bags, describes the apparatus and procedures used in these experiments, compares the reported and estimated transport characteristics with earlier results, and discusses the impact of changing the transport characteristic values used in model calculations.

  9. A molecular dynamics investigation of the diffusion characteristics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    137, 83-91 (2011) DOI: 10.1016j.micromeso.2010.08.026 Full-size image (36 K) Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the diffusion characteristics...

  10. Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft river geothermal area and environs, Cassia County, Idaho, Box Elder county, Utah Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  11. Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy | Department of Energy Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy qAsh accumulation is a dynamic process … Ash first primarily accumulates along channel walls

  12. System Design - Lessons Learned, Generic Concepts, Characteristics &

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts | Department of Energy System Design - Lessons Learned, Generic Concepts, Characteristics & Impacts System Design - Lessons Learned, Generic Concepts, Characteristics & Impacts Presented at the DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop on March 29, 2011. apu2011_11_hoffman.pdf (1.75 MB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell 101 DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop Agenda Manufacturing Fuel Cell Manhattan

  13. Wafer Characteristics via Reflectometry and Wafer Processing Apparatus and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Method - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Wafer Characteristics via Reflectometry and Wafer Processing Apparatus and Method National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Wafers find a variety of uses in the semiconductor, solar energy and other industries. Wafer quality often depends on variables such as thickness and surface characteristics. Depending on end use, poor

  14. NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics May 5, 2015 Presenter: Randy P. Lanham, PE, CSP, Fire Protection Chief Engineer Consolidated Nuclear Solutions - Pantex, LLC Topics Covered: CGD Definition Safety Function / DSA Requirements Example of CGD for items Example form Questions Commercial-Grade Dedication (CGD) for acceptance of commercial grade items procured under an ASME NQA-1 Quality Program. NQA-1

  15. Particulate Matter Characteristics for Highly Dilute Stoichiometric GDI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Operations | Department of Energy Matter Characteristics for Highly Dilute Stoichiometric GDI Engine Operations Particulate Matter Characteristics for Highly Dilute Stoichiometric GDI Engine Operations The overall goal of this study is to help identify which conditions and potential mechanisms impede soot formation in GDI operations. p-24_storey.pdf (602.58 KB) More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Effects of Advanced

  16. Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector August 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and

  17. An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine with Urea-SCR System | Department of Energy Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR System An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR System Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  18. Flame and flow characteristics of double concentric jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, R.F.; Yang, J.T.; Lee, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristic flame and flow modes of a double concentric type of combustor possessing a central air jet and an annular propane gas are experimentally studied. Subject to the effects of the gravitational, inertial, and pressure forces, the cold flow is classified into three primary patterns: annular fountain, unstable fountain, and recirculation bubble flows. Using direct and schlieren photography techniques, the flames in the velocity domain of annulus and central jets are systematically classified into several characteristic modes. At low central jet velocity, a central flame enclosed in a annular diffusion flame might exist. At high central jet velocity, only the annular flames exist. The existence of the central flame dominates the flame and flow behaviors at low central jet velocity. The interaction between the central jet and the recirculation bubble in the near wake region dominates the flame characteristics at high central jet velocity. The interaction between the flame behavior and the flow patterns in each characteristic mode is comprehensively discussed. The temperature profiles are probed by a fine-wire thermocouple. The radial temperature profiles for each characteristic flame mode at various levels are presented to show the thermal structures.

  19. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, W.Y.; Min, S.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc. 14 figs.

  20. Optimization of distribution transformer efficiency characteristics. Final report, March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A method for distribution transformer loss evaluation was derived. The total levalized annual cost method was used and was extended to account properly for conditions of energy cost inflation, peak load growth, and transformer changeout during the evaluation period. The loss costs included were the no-load and load power losses, no-load and load reactive losses, and the energy cost of regulation. The demand and energy components of loss costs were treated separately to account correctly for the diversity of load losses and energy cost inflation. The complete distribution transformer loss evaluation equation is shown, with the nomenclature and definitions for the parameters provided. Tasks described are entitled: Establish Loss Evaluation Techniques; Compile System Cost Parameters; Compile Load Parameters and Loading Policies; Develop Transformer Cost/Performance Relationship; Define Characteristics of Multiple Efficiency Transformer Package; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Single Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Multiple Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; and Interpretation.

  1. High pressure injection and atomization characteristics of methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aigal, A.K.; Pundir, B.P.; Khatchian, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Research on conversion of diesel engines for operation on methanol is, currently, of worldwide interest. Due to requirements of higher cyclic delivery of methanol and changes in fuel properties e.g. compressibility, wave propagation velocity, viscosity, surface tension, density etc., injection and atomization characteristics of methanol are expected to be different from diesel. From the equation of continuity and forces acting on the injection system elements and applying the principles of similarity, modifications required in the injection system were identified. Methanol injection and atomization characteristics were studied with a modified injection system and compared with those observed with diesel fuel. Methanol gave more favourable cyclic delivery characteristics than diesel. Laser diffraction technique was used to study time and space resolved drop size distribution in methanol and diesel sprays. With methanol, drop size distribution were, generally, much narrower and droplets were smaller than diesel. Spatial distribution of drop size in methanol spray showed somewhat different trends than for diesel.

  2. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wei-yang (Pleasanton, CA); Min, Shermann (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc.

  3. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2001 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 9.4 9.2 19.6 41 19 40.2 16 607 0.29 598 231 Census Region and

  4. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 0 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 57.7 44.8 106.3 109 46 84.2 32 609 0.26 472 181 Census Region

  5. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 3 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 58.7 46.0 111.9 115 47 89.9 34 696 0.29 546 206 Census Region

  6. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires Natural Gas, 1997 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures Total per Floor- per Square per per per Total Total space (1) Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 61.9 51.3 106.1 103 50 85.3 32 698 0.34

  7. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2001 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 66.9 53.8 137.2 90 35 72.4 27 873 0.34 702 265 Census Region

  8. Table HC1.1.1 Housing Unit Characteristics by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Housing Unit Characteristics by" " Total, Heated, and Cooled Floorspace, 2005" ,,,"Total Square Footage" ,"Housing Units",,"Total",,"Heated",,"Cooled" "Housing Unit Characteristics","Millions","Percent","Billions","Percent","Billions","Percent","Billions","Percent" "Total",111.1,100,256.5,100,179.8,100,114.5,100 "Census Region

  9. how-to-speed-up-traffic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Housing Unit Tables (Million U.S. Households; 49 pages, 210 kb) Contents Pages HC1-1a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC1-2a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 4 HC1-3a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 2001 4 HC1-4a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 4 HC1-5a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of

  10. Oak Ridge Reservation. Physical Characteristics and National Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parr, Patricia Dreyer; Joan, F. Hughes

    2006-10-09

    The topology, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions. The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR.

  11. Investigation of lasing characteristics of 1% Nd : YAG laser ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatnik, S M; Osipov, V V; Vedin, I A; Kurbatov, P F

    2013-03-31

    The lasing characteristics of 1 % Nd : YAG laser ceramics synthesised at the Institute of Electrophysics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences are studied. CW lasing is obtained in all the samples with the slope and total optical efficiencies of 25 % and 18 %, respectively. Intrinsic absorption and scattering losses in the ceramics are estimated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  12. Characteristics of neutrons produced by muons in a standard rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malgin, A. S.

    2015-10-15

    Characteristics of cosmogenic neutrons, such as the yield, production rate, and flux, were determined for a standard rock. The dependences of these quantities on the standard-rock depth and on the average muon energy were obtained. These properties and dependences make it possible to estimate easy the muon-induced neutron background in underground laboratories for various chemical compositions of rock.

  13. The Residential Building Characteristics On-Site Inspection: summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weakley, S.A.; Darwin, R.F.; Howe, T.L.

    1990-06-01

    The Residential Building Characteristics On-Site Inspection (RI) was sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and implemented by Energy Counselors, Inc., of Beaverton, Oregon. The purpose of the inspection was to collect detailed information on the structural characteristics and capital equipment of residences participating in BPA's End-Use Load and Conservation Assessment Program (ELCAP). ELCAP is a long-term program to collect information on the structural characteristics of residences in the Pacific Northwest as well as the attitudinal, behavioral, and demographic characteristics of the residences' occupants. Combined with other data collection efforts, the information obtained by the RI will be used to assess and evaluate energy use and conservation within the region's residential sector. This report documents the design of the inspection instruments (forms), the implementation of the inspection, and some of the results from the data base. The number of residences inspected was 416 or 93% of the potential sample of 447 residences. 1 ref., 2 figs., 38 tabs.

  14. "Table HC4.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. ... Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Att...

  15. "Table HC3.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. ... Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Att...

  16. "Table HC13.8 Water Heating Characteristics by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing ... ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"South ...

  17. "Table HC14.8 Water Heating Characteristics by West Census Region...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ... ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pac...

  18. "Table HC11.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing ... ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Middle ...

  19. "Table HC12.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing ... ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"East North ...

  20. Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Federal Highway Administration. Accessed on the world-wide web at http:www.fhwa.dot.govenvironmentcmaqpgsamaq03cmaq1fig3.htm on July 11, 2005. ENERGY INFORMATION...

  1. Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E : C H R O N O L O G Y O F W O R L D O I L M A R K E T E V E N T S ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATIONHOUSEHOLD VEHICLES ENERGY USE: LATEST DATA & TRENDS 177 APPENDIX E A P P E N D...

  2. Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (EERE) program in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24. Note: * a recession year. Estimates are displayed as rounded values....

  3. Advances in Household Appliances- A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2011-01-01

    An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S. market. The significance and usefulness of each technology was evaluated in order to prioritize the R&D needs to improve energy efficiency of appliances in view of energy savings, cost, and complexity. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Although significant energy savings may be achieved, one of the major barriers in most cases is high first cost. One way of addressing this issue and promoting the introduction of new technologies is to level the playing field for all manufacturers by establishing Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) which are not cost prohibitive and promoting energy efficient products through incentives to both manufacturers and consumers.

  4. Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    fuel, diesel motor fuel, electric, and natural gas, excluding propane because NHTSA's CAFE program does not track these vehicles. See Gasoline, Gasohol, Unleaded Gasoline, Leaded...

  5. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 - Appendix C

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    discusses several issues relating to the quality of the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS) data and to the interpretation of conclusions based on...

  6. Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    vehicle type, and vehicle model year. "600" - represents a "match" based on EIA expert analysis using subject matter experience, in conjunction with past RTECS. Additionally,...

  7. Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    C : Q U A L I T Y O F T H E D ATA APPENDIX C A P P E N D I X C QUALITY OF THE DATA INTRODUCTION This section discusses several issues relating to the quality of the National...

  8. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies.

  9. Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Laboratory (ORNL), Engineering Science Technology Division, Center for Transportation Analysis. For 1,262 vehicles, the work conducted by ORNL did not result in a viable annual VMT...

  10. Apparatus for indication of at least one subsurface barrier characteristic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, John G.; Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

    2006-06-06

    A containment system for use adjacent to a selected region of a subterranean formation and comprising a plurality of laterally interlocked casing strings. At least one electrically conductive element is disposed along at least a portion of a casing string and is used for performing electrical time domain reflectometry. At least one protective element may be positioned between portions of adjacent casing strings of the barrier, and at least one electrically conductive element may be disposed at least partially within the at least one protective element for use in indicating at least one characteristic of at least a portion of the containment system. Electrical time domain reflectometry (TDR) may be used to indicate the at least one characteristic; for instance, TDR may be used to indicate leakage through the barrier or a discontinuity or void in a barrier filler material.

  11. Structural characteristics and hydration kinetics of modified steel slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jianxin; Yu Qijun; Wei Jiangxiong Zhang Tongsheng

    2011-03-15

    This study investigates the structural characteristics and hydration kinetics of modified basic oxygen furnace steel slag. The basic oxygen furnace steel slag (BOFS) was mixed with electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS) in appropriate ratios and heated again at high temperature in the laboratory. The mineralogical and structural characteristics of both BOFS and modified steel slag (MSS) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The results show that modification increases alite content in MSS and decreases alite crystal size with the formation of C{sub 6}AF{sub 2}. One more obvious heat evolution peak appears in MSS's heat-flow rate curves in comparison to BOFS, becoming similar to that of typical Portland cement paste. As a result, its cementitious activity is much improved.

  12. Clamping characteristics study on different types of clamping unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiao, Zhiwei; Liu, Haichao; Xie, Pengcheng; Yang, Weimin

    2015-05-22

    Plastic products are becoming more and more widely used in aerospace, IT, digital electronics and many other fields. With the development of technology, the requirement of product precision is getting higher and higher. However, type and working performance of clamping unit play a decisive role in product precision. Clamping characteristics of different types of clamping unit are discussed in this article, which use finite element numerical analysis method through the software ABAQUS to study the clamping uniformity, and detect the clamping force repeatability precision. The result shows that compared with toggled three-platen clamping unit, clamping characteristics of internal circulation two-platen clamping unit are better, for instance, its mold cavity deformation and force that bars and mold parting surface suffered are more uniform, and its clamping uniformity and repeatability precision is also better.

  13. Temperature dependent transport characteristics of graphene/n-Si diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parui, S.; Ruiter, R.; Zomer, P. J.; Wojtaszek, M.; Wees, B. J. van; Banerjee, T.

    2014-12-28

    Realizing an optimal Schottky interface of graphene on Si is challenging, as the electrical transport strongly depends on the graphene quality and the fabrication processes. Such interfaces are of increasing research interest for integration in diverse electronic devices as they are thermally and chemically stable in all environments, unlike standard metal/semiconductor interfaces. We fabricate such interfaces with n-type Si at ambient conditions and find their electrical characteristics to be highly rectifying, with minimal reverse leakage current (<10{sup ?10}?A) and rectification of more than 10{sup 6}. We extract Schottky barrier height of 0.69?eV for the exfoliated graphene and 0.83?eV for the CVD graphene devices at room temperature. The temperature dependent electrical characteristics suggest the influence of inhomogeneities at the graphene/n-Si interface. A quantitative analysis of the inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier heights is presented using the potential fluctuation model proposed by Werner and Gttler.

  14. Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

    1998-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

  15. Cross flow characteristics in a three fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bae, J. H.; Euh, D. J.; Park, C. K.; Youn, Y. J.; Kwon, T. S.

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the reactor thermal margin of APR+, reactor core flow distribution including both axial and lateral directional hydraulic resistances of fuel assemblies should be known. 3-Ch cross flow test facility has been constructed with three full-size fuel assemblies to investigate the cross flow characteristics. Performance tests have been performed. The axial and lateral directional hydraulic resistances of fuel assemblies have been measured. The test results have been compared to the CFD calculation. (authors)

  16. Characteristics and upgrading technologies of Chinese heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghuang Yang; Jinsen Gao

    1995-12-31

    The characteristics of typical Chinese heavy oils produced in the eastern, northwestern, and northeastern parts of China are presented to show the uniqueness of heavy oils on the Chinese mainland. Henceforth, upgrading technologies of Chinese domestic heavy crudes are discussed along this line. Two main categories of upgrading technologies, decarbonization and hydrogenation, as realized or being developed in this country are presented. It is concluded that most Chinese heavy crudes are adaptable to conventional upgrading processes.

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.2 Commercial Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Number of Floors and Type of Ownership, as of 2003 (Percent of Total Floorspace) Floors Ownership One 40% Nongovernment Owned 76% Two 25% Owner-Occupied 36% Three 12% Nonowner-Occupied 37% Four to Nine 16% Unoccupied 3% Ten or More 8% Government Owned 24% Total 100% Federal 3% State 5% Local 15% Total 100% Source(s): EIA, Commercial Building Characteristics 2003, June 2006, Table C1

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.2 Commercial Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Share of Commercial Floorspace, by Census Region and Vintage, as of 2003 (Percent) Region Prior to 1960 1960 to 1989 1990 to 2003 Total Northeast 9% 8% 3% 20% Midwest 8% 11% 6% 25% South 5% 18% 14% 37% West 3% 9% 5% 18% 100% Source(s): EIA, 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Building Characteristics Tables, Oct. 2006, Table A2, p. 3-4

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.2 Commercial Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Commercial Building Vintage, as of 2003 1919 or Before 5% 1920 to 1945 10% 1946 to 1959 10% 1960 to 1969 12% 1970 to 1979 17% 1980 to 1989 17% 1990 to 1999 20% 2000 to 2003 9% Total 100% Source(s): Percent of Total Floorspace EIA, 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Building Characteristics Tables, Oct. 2006, Table A1, p. 1-

  20. Quantifying the Rheological and Hemodynamic Characteristics of Sickle Cell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anemia | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Quantifying the Rheological and Hemodynamic Characteristics of Sickle Cell Anemia Authors: Lei, H., Karniadakis, G.E. Sickle erythrocytes exhibit abnormal morphology and membrane mechanics under deoxygenated conditions due to the polymerization of hemoglobin S. We employed dissipative particle dynamics to extend a validated multiscale model of red blood cells (RBCs) to represent different sickle cell morphologies based on a simulated annealing

  1. Characteristics and development report for the MC3493 thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, A.R.; Pitre, L.J.

    1981-09-01

    The design intent, product characteristics, and development history of the MC3493 fused-salt, fast-rise, pulse-type thermal battery are described. The MC3493 employs the Fe/Ca/LiCl.KCl/CaCrO/sub 4//Fe electrochemical system. The battery is a right-circular cylinder measuring 19.4 mm in diameter and 34.2 mm in length. The battery was designed to supply reefing-line cutter power for the B83 system.

  2. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  3. Differences in the Physical Characteristics of Diesel PM with Increasing Biofuel Blend Level

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Measure physical characteristics, carbon state, and surface bound oxygen of soot from biodiesel blends.

  4. Characteristics and Performance of Existing Load Disaggregation Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Butner, Ryan S.; Hao, He; Baechler, Michael C.

    2015-04-10

    Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) or non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is an analytic approach to disaggregate building loads based on a single metering point. This advanced load monitoring and disaggregation technique has the potential to provide an alternative solution to high-priced traditional sub-metering and enable innovative approaches for energy conservation, energy efficiency, and demand response. However, since the inception of the concept in the 1980’s, evaluations of these technologies have focused on reporting performance accuracy without investigating sources of inaccuracies or fully understanding and articulating the meaning of the metrics used to quantify performance. As a result, the market for, as well as, advances in these technologies have been slowly maturing.To improve the market for these NILM technologies, there has to be confidence that the deployment will lead to benefits. In reality, every end-user and application that this technology may enable does not require the highest levels of performance accuracy to produce benefits. Also, there are other important characteristics that need to be considered, which may affect the appeal of NILM products to certain market targets (i.e. residential and commercial building consumers) and the suitability for particular applications. These characteristics include the following: 1) ease of use, the level of expertise/bandwidth required to properly use the product; 2) ease of installation, the level of expertise required to install along with hardware needs that impact product cost; and 3) ability to inform decisions and actions, whether the energy outputs received by end-users (e.g. third party applications, residential users, building operators, etc.) empower decisions and actions to be taken at time frames required for certain applications. Therefore, stakeholders, researchers, and other interested parties should be kept abreast of the evolving capabilities, uses, and characteristics

  5. Motion characteristics of long ac arcs in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu Shanqiang; He Jinliang; Zeng Rong; Zhang Bo; Xu Guozheng; Chen Weijiang

    2007-01-29

    Experiments on the motion of long alternating current arcs in atmospheric air show that the anode and cathode arc roots have different motion characteristics because of different formation mechanisms. During a half cycle of the arc current, the anode arc root moves towards the direction of magnetic force and occasionally has a jumping motion, while the cathode arc root moves sufficiently slow to consider it stationary and hardly has any jump. The arc column has a complex shape and moves under the drive of the magnetic force and is also quickened by the lower arc root.

  6. Optical system for determining physical characteristics of a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2001-01-01

    The invention provides an improved optical system for determining the physical characteristics of a solar cell. The system comprises a lamp means for projecting light in a wide solid-angle onto the surface of the cell; a chamber for receiving the light through an entrance port, the chamber having an interior light absorbing spherical surface, an exit port for receiving a beam of light reflected substantially normal to the cell, a cell support, and an lower aperture for releasing light into a light absorbing baffle; a means for dispersing the reflection into monochromatic components; a means for detecting an intensity of the components; and a means for reporting the determination.

  7. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.2 Residential Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 Characteristics of a Typical Single-Family Home (1) Year Built | Building Equipment Fuel Age (5) Occupants 3 | Space Heating Natural Gas 12 Floorspace | Water Heating Natural Gas 8 Heated Floorspace (SF) 1,934 | Space Cooling 8 Cooled Floorspace (SF) 1,495 | Garage 2-Car | Stories 1 | Appliances Size Age (5) Foundation Concrete Slab | Refrigerator 19 Cubic Feet 8 Total Rooms (2) 6 | Clothes Dryer Bedrooms 3 | Clothes Washer Other Rooms 3 | Range/Oven Full Bathroom 2 | Microwave Oven Half

  8. Characteristics and development report for the MC3573 thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Street, H.K.

    1983-02-01

    This report describes the design intent, product characteristics, and development history of the MC3573 high-current, electrically activated thermal battery. This battery is required to operate five to six times longer than the usual weapon system power battery. The MC3573 employs the Li(Si)/LiCl.KCl/FeS/sub 2/ electrochemical system. The battery is a right-circular cylinder with attached mounting brackets. It measures 122.1 mm in length, 88.9 mm in diameter, and stands 96.2 mm high. The battery is the power supply for the W81 and W85 JTA telemetry systems.

  9. Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of different fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Bei-Jing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Qing-Tao

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of methane (CH{sub 4}), n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and dimethyl ether (DME) were studied experimentally in a Pt-coated monolith catalytic reactor. It is concluded that DME has the lowest catalytic ignition temperature and the least required H{sub 2} flow, while CH{sub 4} has the highest catalytic ignition temperature and the highest required H{sub 2} flow among the three fuels. (author)

  10. Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

    2009-04-08

    Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

  11. Parameter extraction from I-V characteristics of PV devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macabebe, Erees Queen B.; Sheppard, Charles J.; Dyk, E. Ernest van

    2011-01-15

    Device parameters such as series and shunt resistances, saturation current and diode ideality factor influence the behaviour of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of solar cells and photovoltaic modules. It is necessary to determine these parameters since performance parameters are derived from the I-V curve and information provided by the device parameters are useful in analyzing performance losses. This contribution presents device parameters of CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells, as well as, CuInSe{sub 2}, mono- and multicrystalline silicon modules determined using a parameter extraction routine that employs Particle Swarm Optimization. The device parameters of the CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells show that the contribution of recombination mechanisms exhibited by high saturation current when coupled with the effects of parasitic resistances result in lower maximum power and conversion efficiency. Device parameters of photovoltaic modules extracted from I-V characteristics obtained at higher temperature show increased saturation current. The extracted values also reflect the adverse effect of temperature on parasitic resistances. The parameters extracted from I-V curves offer an understanding of the different mechanisms involved in the operation of the devices. The parameter extraction routine utilized in this study is a useful tool in determining the device parameters which reveal the mechanisms affecting device performance. (author)

  12. "Table HC10.8 Water Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Water Heating Characteristics",,"Northeas...

  13. Modeling of RHIC insulating vacuum for system pumpdown characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, R.J.; Pate, D.J.; Welch, K.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a model for predicting the pumpdown characteristics of a 480 m RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) vacuum cryostat. The longitudinal and transverse conductances of a typical cryostat were calculated. A voltage analogue of these conductances was constructed for room temperature conditions. The total longitudinal conductance of a room temperature cryostat was thereby achieved. This conductance was then used to calculate the diameter of an equivalent long outgassing tube, having more convenient analytical expressions for pressure profiles when pumped. The equivalent of a unit outgassing rate for this tube was obtained using previously published MLI (multi-layer insulation) outgassing data. With this model one is then able to predict a cryostat pumpdown rate as a function of the location and size of roughing pumps.

  14. Kerosene space heaters--combustion technology and kerosene characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubayashi, k.; I Wasaki, N.

    1984-07-01

    This paper describes kerosene combustion technology. Unvented wick-type kerosene space heaters are very popular in Japan because of their economy and convenience. In recent years new vaporized kerosene burners having premixed combustion systems have been developed to solve some of the problems encountered in the older portable type. Some of the features of the new burners are instantaneous ignition, no vaporizing deposit on the burner and a wide range heating capacity. These new kerosene heaters have four major components: an air supply fan, a fuel supply assembly, a burner assembly and a control assembly. These heaters are designed to be highly reliable, have stable combustion characteristics, yield minimum carbon deposit. Finally, they are simple and inexpensive to operate.

  15. Characteristic of a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, W.; Li, M.; Chen, L.

    2012-02-15

    In order to generate a better ion beam, a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source has been developed. Three plasma generators in the vacuum arc plasma source are equally located on a circle. Each generator initiated by means of a high-voltage breakdown between the cathode and the anode could be operated separately or simultaneously. The arc plasma expands from the cathode spot region in vacuum. In order to study the behaviors of expanding plasma plume generated in the vacuum arc plasma source, a Langmuir probe array is employed to measure the saturated ion current of the vacuum arc plasma source. The time-dependence profiles of the saturated current density of the triple vacuum arc plasma source operated separately and simultaneously are given. Furthermore, the plasma characteristic of this vacuum arc plasma source is also presented in the paper.

  16. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Y.; Adelman, S.

    1995-06-01

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  17. Parallel Scaling Characteristics of Selected NERSC User ProjectCodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, David; Verdier, Francesca; Anand, Harsh; Carter,Jonathan; Durst, Mark; Gerber, Richard

    2005-03-05

    This report documents parallel scaling characteristics of NERSC user project codes between Fiscal Year 2003 and the first half of Fiscal Year 2004 (Oct 2002-March 2004). The codes analyzed cover 60% of all the CPU hours delivered during that time frame on seaborg, a 6080 CPU IBM SP and the largest parallel computer at NERSC. The scale in terms of concurrency and problem size of the workload is analyzed. Drawing on batch queue logs, performance data and feedback from researchers we detail the motivations, benefits, and challenges of implementing highly parallel scientific codes on current NERSC High Performance Computing systems. An evaluation and outlook of the NERSC workload for Allocation Year 2005 is presented.

  18. Predicting aerodynamic characteristic of typical wind turbine airfoils using CFD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, W.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ochs, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

    1997-09-01

    An investigation was conducted into the capabilities and accuracy of a representative computational fluid dynamics code to predict the flow field and aerodynamic characteristics of typical wind-turbine airfoils. Comparisons of the computed pressure and aerodynamic coefficients were made with wind tunnel data. This work highlights two areas in CFD that require further investigation and development in order to enable accurate numerical simulations of flow about current generation wind-turbine airfoils: transition prediction and turbulence modeling. The results show that the laminar-to turbulent transition point must be modeled correctly to get accurate simulations for attached flow. Calculations also show that the standard turbulence model used in most commercial CFD codes, the k-e model, is not appropriate at angles of attack with flow separation. 14 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Detailed characteristics of intermittent current pulses due to positive corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Xuebao; Xiang, Yu; Wang, Xiaobo

    2014-08-15

    In order to get detailed characteristics of intermittent current pulses due to positive corona such as the repetition rate of burst-pulse trains, the peak value ratio of the primary pulse to the secondary pulse, the number of pulses per burst, and the interval of the secondary pulses, a systematic study was carried out in a coaxial conductor-cylinder electrode system with the conductor electrode being set with a discharge point. Empirical formulae for the number of pulses per burst and the interval of the secondary pulses are first presented. A theoretical model based on the motion of the space-charge clouds is proposed. Analysis with the model gives explanations to the experimental results and reveals some new insights into the physical mechanism of positive intermittent corona.

  20. 1995 solid waste 30-year characteristics volume summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Rice, G.I.; Valero, O.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site has been designated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to store, treat, and dispose of solid waste received from both onsite and offsite generators. This waste is currently or planned to be generated from ongoing operations, maintenance and deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the waste to be shipped to Hanford`s SWOC. The physical waste forms and hazardous constituents are described for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic - transuranic mixed waste (TW{underscore}TRUM).

  1. Design and operational characteristics of a cast steel mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blantocas, Gene Q.; Ramos, Henry J.; Wada, Motoi

    2004-09-01

    A cast steel magnetic sector mass analyzer is developed for studies of hydrogen and helium ion beams generated by a gas discharge compact ion source. The optimum induced magnetic flux density of 3500 G made it possible to scan the whole spectrum of hydrogen and helium ion species. Analysis of beam characteristics shows that the mass spectrometer sensitivity, and resolving power are approximately inversely proportional. The resolution is enhanced at higher pressures and lower current discharges. In contrast, the instrument sensitivity increased at higher current discharges and decreased at higher pressures. Calculations of the ultimate resolving power with reference to analyzer dimensions yield a numerical value of 30. System anomaly in the form of spherical aberrations was also analyzed using the paraxial beam envelope equation. Beam divergence is most significant at high discharge conditions where angular spread reaches an upper limit of 8.6 deg.

  2. Correlations in Characteristic Data of Concentrator Photovoltaics (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweet, C.; Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    This study is motivated by a reported 1-2% infant mortality rate in concentrator photovoltaic cell assemblies. Approximately 650 bare III-V multi-junction PV cells were initially characterized via electroluminescence imaging and both light and dark current-voltage responses were recorded. The cells were then packaged into receivers and their IV response again evaluated both before and after an outdoor high concentration exposure of at least four hours above 750 DNI. Correlations exist between the initial dark IV characteristic and artifacts found in the EL image. Initial results also suggest that artifacts observed in the bare cell may serve as an indicator for early on-sun degradation, though may not be able to predict the infant mortality population.

  3. Macrophage characteristics of stem cells revealed by transcriptome profiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charriere, Guillaume M.; Cousin, Beatrice; Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Saillan-Barreau, Corinne; Andre, Mireille; Massoudi, Ali; Dani, Christian; Penicaud, Luc; Casteilla, Louis . E-mail: casteil@toulouse.inserm.fr

    2006-10-15

    We previously showed that the phenotypes of adipocyte progenitors and macrophages were close. Using functional analyses and microarray technology, we first tested whether this intriguing relationship was specific to adipocyte progenitors or could be shared with other progenitors. Measurements of phagocytic activity and gene profiling analysis of different progenitor cells revealed that the latter hypothesis should be retained. These results encouraged us to pursue and to confirm our analysis with a gold-standard stem cell population, embryonic stem cells or ESC. The transcriptomic profiles of ESC and macrophages were clustered together, unlike differentiated ESC. In addition, undifferentiated ESC displayed higher phagocytic activity than other progenitors, and they could phagocytoze apoptotic bodies. These data suggest that progenitors and stem cells share some characteristics of macrophages. This opens new perspectives on understanding stem cell phenotype and functionalities such as a putative role of stem cells in tissue remodeling by discarding dead cells but also their immunomodulation or fusion properties.

  4. Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis for Detecting Explosives-related Threats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oxley, Mark E; Venzin, Alexander M

    2012-11-14

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) are interested in developing a standardized testing procedure for determining the performance of candidate detection systems. This document outlines a potential method for judging detection system performance as well as determining if combining the information from a legacy system with a new system can signicantly improve performance. In this document, performance corresponds to the Neyman-Pearson criterion applied to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the detection systems in question. A simulation was developed to investigate how the amount of data provided by the vendor in the form of the ROC curve eects the performance of the combined detection system. Furthermore, the simulation also takes into account the potential eects of correlation and how this information can also impact the performance of the combined system.

  5. Characteristics and development report for the MC3714 thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharrer, G.L.; Lasky, F.P.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the design intent, design considerations, system use, development, product characteristics, and early production history of the MC3714 Thermal Battery. This battery has a required operating life of 146 s above 24.0 V with a constant current load of 0.5 A. It is activated when the MC3830 Actuator initiates the WW42C1 Percussion Primer in the battery. The MC3714 employs the Li(Si)/LiCl-CCl/lithiated FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system. The battery is a hermetically sealed right-circular cylinder with an antirotation ring brazed to the base of the cylinder. The battery is 50 mm long and 38.1 mm in diameter. The mass of the battery is 165 g. The battery was designed and developed to provide the power for the W82 JTA Telemetry System. 8 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. SUMMARY OF REVISED TORNADO, HURRICANE AND EXTREME STRAIGHT WIND CHARACTERISTICS AT NUCLEAR FACILITY SITES

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Summary of Revised Tornado, Hurricane and Extreme Straight Wind Characteristics at Nuclear Facility Sites BY: John D. Stevenson Consulting Engineer

  7. Simulation of the frequency dispersion of effective dielectric characteristics of composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlev, V. B.; Bardushkin, V. V.; Lavrov, I. V. Yakovleva, E. N.

    2014-12-15

    The problems of calculating the effective dielectric characteristics of polycrystalline materials are considered taking into account the frequency dependence of the characteristics of individual components. The effective characteristics of ceramics such as lead zirconate-titanate with titanium and zirconium oxide, metal lead, and water inclusions are calculated in the Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman approximations. The dependences of the effective dielectric characteristics on the inclusion concentration and applied electromagnetic-field frequency are obtained.

  8. Residential Energy Efficiency Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    questionnaires 0 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 81.6 65.3 142.5 38 17 30.3 11 625 0.29 500 178 Census Region and Division

  9. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires

    0 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 81.6 65.3 142.5 38 17 30.3 11 625 0.29 500 178 Census Region and Division

  10. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 1 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 83.1 66.1 144.2 37 17 29.1 10 678 0.31 539 192 Census Region and Division

  11. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 83.7 66.0 142.2 36 16 28.0 10 708 0.33 558 204 Census Region and Division

  12. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 4 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 86.3 67.4 144.3 37 17 28.8 11 808 0.38 632 234 Census Region and Division

  13. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 7 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 90.5 70.4 156.8 39 18 30.5 12 875 0.39 680 262 Census Region and Division

  14. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 97 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures Total per Floor- per Square per per per Total Total space (1) Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 101.4 83.2 168.8 42 21 35.0 13 1,061 0.52 871 337 Census Region and

  15. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2001 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 107.0 85.2 211.2 46 18 36.0 14 1,178 0.48 938 366 Census Region and Division

  16. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005" " Million U.S. ... Members","4 Members","5 or More Members" "Water Heating Characteristics" ...

  17. Primordial Black Holes: Observational characteristics of the final evaporation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Stump, D. R.; Linnemann, J. T.; MacGibbon, J. H.; Marinelli, S. S.; Yapici, T.; Tollefson, K.

    2016-07-01

    For many early universe theories predict the creation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). PBHs could have masses ranging from the Planck mass to 105 solar masses or higher depending on the size of the universe at formation. A Black Hole (BH) has a Hawking temperature which is inversely proportional to its mass. Hence a sufficiently small BH will quasi-thermally radiate particles at an ever-increasing rate as emission lowers its mass and raises its temperature. Moreover, the final moments of this evaporation phase should be explosive and its description is dependent on the particle physics model. In this work we investigatemore » the final few seconds of BH evaporation, using the Standard Model and incorporating the most recent Large Hadron Collider (LHC) results, and provide a new parameterization for the instantaneous emission spectrum. We calculate for the first time energy-dependent PBH burst light curves in the GeV/TeV energy range. Moreover, we explore PBH burst search methods and potential observational PBH burst signatures. We have found a unique signature in the PBH burst light curves that may be detectable by GeV/TeV gamma-ray observatories such as the High Altitude Water Cerenkov (HAWC) observatory. Finally, the implications of beyond the Standard Model theories on the PBH burst observational characteristics are also discussed, including potential sensitivity of the instantaneous photon detection rate to a squark threshold in the 5–10 TeV range.« less

  18. Magnetostrictive materials and method for improving AC characteristics in same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pulvirenti, Patricia P.; Jiles, David C.

    2001-08-14

    The present invention provides Terfenol-D alloys ("doped" Terfenol) having optimized performances under the condition of time-dependent magnetic fields. In one embodiment, performance is optimized by lowering the conductivity of Terfenol, thereby improving the frequency response. This can be achieved through addition of Group III or IV elements, such as Si and Al. Addition of these types of elements provides scattering sites for conduction electrons, thereby increasing resistivity by 125% which leads to an average increase in penetration depth of 80% at 1 kHz and an increase in energy conversion efficiency of 55%. The permeability of doped Terfenol remains constant over a wider frequency range as compared with undoped Terfenol. These results demonstrate that adding impurities, such as Si and Al, are effective in improving the ac characteristics of Terfenol. A magnetoelastic Gruneisen parameter, .gamma..sub.me, has also been derived from the thermodynamic equations of state, and provides another means by which to characterize the coupling efficiency in magnetostrictive materials on a more fundamental basis.

  19. Thermal cycling characteristics of plasma synthesized mullite films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteiro, O.R.; Hou, P.Y.; Brown, I.G.

    1997-12-01

    The authors have developed a plasma-based technique for the synthesis of mullite and mullite-like films on silicon carbide substrate material. The method, which they refer to as MePIIID (for Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition), uses two vacuum arc plasma sources and simultaneous pulse biasing of the substrate in a low pressure oxygen atmosphere. The Al:Si ratio can be controlled via the separate plasma guns, and the film adhesion, structure and morphology can be controlled via the ion energy which in turn is controlled by the pulse bias voltage. The films are amorphous as-deposited, and crystalline mullite is formed by subsequent annealing at 1000 C for 2 hours in air. Adhesion between the aluminum-silicon oxide film and the substrate increases after this first annealing. They have tested the behavior of films when subjected to repetitive thermal cycling between room temperature and 1100 C, and found that the films retain their adhesion and quality. Here they review the plasma synthesis technique and the characteristics of the mullite films prepared in this way, and summarize the status of the thermal cycling experiments.

  20. The petroleum geologic characteristics of Sichuan basin, central China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Li De )

    1991-03-01

    Sichuan basin is the main gas producer of China. It covers an area of 230,000 km{sup 2}. The evolution of this basin since Meso-Cenozoic was influenced by both trans-Eurasia Tethys tectonism from the west and the circum-Pacific tectonism from the east. So it has dual characteristics, compressional and tensional. The northward-moving Indian Plate resulted in a series of thrust fault zones along the Longmenshan western margin of Sichuan basin. Jurassic oil pools and Triassic, Permian, Carboniferous, and Sinian gas pools are present, where a series of box-like anticlines, comblike anticlines, and gentle slope dome anticlines, and gentle slope dome anticline, carbonate reef buildups are the main trap types. Significant role of fractures and caves of carbonate reservoir formations in Sichuan basin affects the production capacity of gas/oil wells and abundances of gas/oil reserves. Three-dimensional seismic methods are used to predict the unconformities and the paleokarst and fracture zones. Acidizing treatments were used for well completions.

  1. The leaching characteristics of selenium from coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, T.; Wang, J.; Burken, J.G.; Ban, H.; Ladwig, K.

    2007-11-15

    The leaching characteristics of selenium from several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes under different pH conditions were investigated using batch methods. Results indicated that pH had a significant effect on selenium leaching from bituminous coal ash. The minimum selenium leaching occurred in the pH range between 3 and 4, while the maximum selenium leaching occurred at pH 12. The release of selenium from subbituminous coal ashes was very low for the entire experimental pH range, possibly due to the high content of calcium which can form hydration or precipitation products as a sink for selenium. The adsorption results for different selenium species indicated that Se(VI) was hardly adsorbable on either bituminous coal ashes or subbitumminous coal ashes at any pH. However, Se(I) was highly adsorbed by bituminous coal ashes under acidic pH conditions and was mostly removed by subbitumminous coal ashes across the entire pH range. This result suggests that the majority of selenium released from the tested fly ashes was Se(IV). A speciation-based model was developed to simulate the adsorption of Se(IV) on bituminous coal fly ash, and the pH-independent adsorption constants of HSeO{sup 3-} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} were determined. The modeling approach is useful for understanding and predicting the release process of selenium from fly ash.

  2. DeNOx characteristics using two staged radical injection techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kambara, S.; Kumano, Y.; Yukimura, K.

    2009-06-15

    Ammonia radical injection using pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been investigated as a means to control NOx emissions from combustors. When DBD plasma-generated radicals (NH{sub 2}, NH, N, and H) are injected into a flue gas containing nitrogen oxide (NOx), NOx is removed efficiently by chain reactions in the gas phase. However, because the percentage of NOx removal gradually decreases with increasing oxygen concentrations beyond 1% O{sub 2}, improvement of the DeNOx (removal of nitrogen oxide) characteristics at high O{sub 2} concentrations was necessary for commercial combustors. A two-staged injection of the DeNOx agent was developed based on the detailed mechanisms of electron impact reactions and gas phase reactions. A concentration of H radical was observed to play an important role in NOx formation and removal. The effects of applied voltages, oxygen concentrations, and reaction temperatures on NOx removal were investigated under normal and staged injection. NOx removal was improved by approximately 20% using staged injection at O{sub 2} concentrations of 1 to 4%.

  3. Parallel 3-D method of characteristics in MPACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kochunas, B.; Dovvnar, T. J.; Liu, Z.

    2013-07-01

    A new parallel 3-D MOC kernel has been developed and implemented in MPACT which makes use of the modular ray tracing technique to reduce computational requirements and to facilitate parallel decomposition. The parallel model makes use of both distributed and shared memory parallelism which are implemented with the MPI and OpenMP standards, respectively. The kernel is capable of parallel decomposition of problems in space, angle, and by characteristic rays up to 0(104) processors. Initial verification of the parallel 3-D MOC kernel was performed using the Takeda 3-D transport benchmark problems. The eigenvalues computed by MPACT are within the statistical uncertainty of the benchmark reference and agree well with the averages of other participants. The MPACT k{sub eff} differs from the benchmark results for rodded and un-rodded cases by 11 and -40 pcm, respectively. The calculations were performed for various numbers of processors and parallel decompositions up to 15625 processors; all producing the same result at convergence. The parallel efficiency of the worst case was 60%, while very good efficiency (>95%) was observed for cases using 500 processors. The overall run time for the 500 processor case was 231 seconds and 19 seconds for the case with 15625 processors. Ongoing work is focused on developing theoretical performance models and the implementation of acceleration techniques to minimize the number of iterations to converge. (authors)

  4. Permeation characteristics of some iron and nickel based alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, D.J.; Edge, E.M.

    1985-06-15

    The permeation characteristics of deuterium in several iron and nickel based alloys were measured by the gas phase breakthrough technique in the temperature range 100 to 500 /sup 0/C with applied pressures ranging from 10 Pa to 100 kPa. The restriction of the gas flux imposed by surface oxides was modeled in order to evaluate the effects of surface oxide retardation of the gas flux on the effective values of the deuterium permeabilities and diffusivities in the alloys. The most permeable alloys were 430 and 431 stainless steels. The next most permeable alloy was Monel K-500, which exceeded the permeability of pure Ni by more than a factor of five at room temperature. The alloys with permeabilities less than pure Ni were, in order of decreasing permeability: the Inconels 625, 718, and 750, the Fe-Ni-Co glass-sealing alloys Kovar and Ceramvar, and the 300-series stainless steels. Deuterium trapping within the alloys appeared to influence the values of bulk diffusivities, which were not correlated with either the permeabilities or the chemical compositions of the alloys.

  5. Characteristics of uranium carbonitride microparticles synthesized using different reaction conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, Chinthaka M; Lindemer, Terrence; Voit, Stewart L; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Besmann, Theodore M; Terrani, Kurt A; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2014-11-01

    Three sets of different experimental conditions by changing the cover gases during the sample preparation were tested to synthesize uranium carbonitride (UC1-xNx) microparticles. In the first two sets of experiments using (N2 to N2-4%H2 to Ar) and (Ar to N2 to Ar) environments, single phase UC1-xNx was synthesized. When reducing environments (Ar-4%H2 to N2-4%H2 to Ar-4%H2) were utilized, theoretical densities up to 97% of single phase UC1-xNx kernels were obtained. Physical and chemical characteristics such as density, phase purity, and chemical compositions of the synthesized UC1-xNx materials for the diferent experimental conditions used are provided. In-depth analysis of the microstrutures of UC1-xNx has been carried out and is discussed with the objective of large batch fabrication of high density UC1-xNx kernels.

  6. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management

  7. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Brnsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with

  8. Characteristics of discharge disruptions in the T-10 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanovskii, A. M. Dremin, M. M.; Kakurin, A. M.; Kislov, A. Ya.; Mal'tsev, S. G.; Notkin, G. E.; Pavlov, Yu. D.; Poznyak, V. I.; Sushkov, A. V.

    2013-06-15

    The results of experimental studies of discharge disruptions in the T-10 tokamak at the limiting plasma density are presented. On the basis of measurements of the generated soft X-ray emission, for a group of 'slow' disruptions, the dynamics of the magnetic configuration of the central part of the plasma column is studied and the possible role of the m/n = 1/1 mode in the excitation of predisruptions or the final stage of disruption is analyzed. It is shown that the characteristics of plasma electron cooling in predisruptions correspond to those of electron cooling upon pellet injection into T-10 and in discharge predisruptions occurring in regimes with the 'quiet mode.' It is found that, in the latter case, the reason for predisruptions and fast electron cooling in the plasma core is the instability of the m/n = 2/1 mode, its spontaneous spatial reconstruction, and the generation of a 'cooling wave' during this process. Measurements of the electron temperature (determined from the plasma radiation intensity at the second electron cyclotron harmonic) in the zone of the m/n = 2/1 mode have shown that the transformation of the m/n = 2/1 mode leads to the excitation of predisruptions and the final phase of disruption not only in regimes with the 'quiet mode,' but also in disruptions of ordinary ohmic discharges. The experimental results obtained in this work make it possible to determine the scenario of the development of 'slow' discharge disruptions in the T-10 tokamak at the limiting plasma density.

  9. Pressure and flow characteristics of restrictive flow orifice devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrouf, Roger D.

    2003-06-01

    A Restrictive Flow Orifice (RFO) can be used to enhance the safe design of a pressure system in several ways. Pressure systems frequently incorporate a regulator and relief valve to protect the downstream equipment from accidental overpressure caused by regulator failure. Analysis frequently shows that in cases of high-flow regulator failure, the downstream pressure may rise significantly above the set pressure of the relief valve. This is due to limited flow capacity of the relief valve. A different regulator or relief valve may need to be selected. A more economical solution to this problem is to use an RFO to limit the maximum system flow to acceptable limits within the flow capacity of the relief valve, thereby enhancing the overpressure protection of laboratory equipment. An RFO can also be used to limit the uncontrolled release of system fluid (gas or liquid) upon component or line failure. As an example, potential asphyxiation hazards resultant from the release of large volumes of inert gas from a 'house' nitrogen system can be controlled by the use of an RFO. This report describes a versatile new Sandia-designed RFO available from the Swagelok Company and specifies the gas flow characteristics of this device. Two sizes, 0.010 and 0.020 inch diameter RFOs are available. These sizes will allow enhanced safety for many common applications. This new RFO design are now commercially available and provide advantages over existing RFOs: a high pressure rating (6600 psig); flow through the RFO is equal for either forward or reverse directions; they minimize the potential for leakage by incorporating the highest quality threaded connections; and can enhance the safety of pressure systems.

  10. Intrinsic excitations in deformed nuclei: characteristic predictions of the IBA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casten, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Deformed nuclei represent perhaps the largest and best studied class of nuclear level schemes. The Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model is devised so as to provide a general framework for the description of low lying collective states in nuclei spanning vibrational, rotational (i.e., deformed) and axially asymmetric types as well as the transitional species intermediate between these limiting cases. The juxtaposition of these two statements makes it all the more surprising that until recently there had been no thorough test of the model in such nuclei. Partly, the explanation for this lies in the type of data required for an adequate test. Since the IBA predicts a broad range of collective states it requires a correspondingly thorough empirical test. Moreover, in deformed nuclei, though the characteristic predictions that distinguish the IBA from the traditional, familiar collective model of harmonic ..beta.. and ..gamma.. vibrations are important, their clearest manifestation occurs in very weak, hard-to-detect low energy transitions between excited vibrational bands (in particular between ..beta.. and ..gamma.. bands), that had not heretofore been systematically observed. The present brief summary will begin with a review of the properties of the (n,..gamma..) reaction that render it a useful empirical tool for such studies, and follow this with a description of the results of the /sup 168/Er study and the application of the IBA model to the resultant level scheme. The discussion will then be generalized to other deformed nuclei and to the inherent systematic predictions that must characterize the IBA for such nuclei. Many of these ideas will be related to the role of finite boson number in the IBA.

  11. Table 4

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4. Light Usage by Total Number of Rooms, Percent of U.S. Households, 1993 Total Number of Rooms Housing Unit and Household Characteristics Total 1 or 2 3 to 5 6 to 8 9 or More RSE...

  12. Table 4

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. Light Usage by Total Number of Rooms, Million U.S. Households, 1993 Total Number of Rooms (excluding bathrooms) Housing Unit and Household Characteristics Total 1 or 2 3 to 5 6...

  13. Eddy current nondestructive testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample utilizing Walsh functions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Libby, Hugo L.; Hildebrand, Bernard P.

    1978-01-01

    An eddy current testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample generates a signal which varies with variations in such characteristics. A signal expander samples at least a portion of this generated signal and expands the sampled signal on a selected basis of square waves or Walsh functions to produce a plurality of signal components representative of the sampled signal. A network combines these components to provide a display of at least one of the characteristics of the sample.

  14. Turbulent Flame Propagation Characteristics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitzman, Jerry; Lieuwen, Timothy

    2014-09-30

    This final report describes the results of an effort to better understand turbulent flame propagation, especially at conditions relevant to gas turbines employing fuels with syngas or hydrogen mixtures. Turbulent flame speeds were measured for a variety of hydrogen/carbon monoxide (H2/CO) and hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) fuel mixtures with air as the oxidizer. The measurements include global consumption speeds (ST,GC) acquired in a turbulent jet flame at pressures of 1-10 atm and local displacement speeds (ST,LD) acquired in a low-swirl burner at atmospheric pressure. The results verify the importance of fuel composition in determining turbulent flame speeds. For example, different fuel-air mixtures having the same unstretched laminar flame speed (SL,0) but different fuel compositions resulted in significantly different ST,GC for the same turbulence levels (u'). This demonstrates the weakness of turbulent flame speed correlations based simply on u'/SL,0. The results were analyzed using a steady-steady leading points concept to explain the sensitivity of turbulent burning rates to fuel (and oxidizer) composition. Leading point theories suggest that the premixed turbulent flame speed is controlled by the flame front characteristics at the flame brush leading edge, or, in other words, by the flamelets that advance farthest into the unburned mixture (the so-called leading points). For negative Markstein length mixtures, this is assumed to be close to the maximum stretched laminar flame speed (SL,max) for the given fuel-oxidizer mixture. For the ST,GC measurements, the data at a given pressure were well-correlated with an SL,max scaling. However the variation with pressure was not captured, which may be due to non-quasi-steady effects that are not included in the current model. For the ST,LD data, the leading points model again faithfully captured the variation of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of fuel-compositions and turbulence intensities. These results provide

  15. "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal

  16. "Table HC15.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Water Heating ...

  17. Study on the photophysical characteristics of R6G-. beta. cyclodextrin aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xingkang Zhang; Jianxin Chen; Guangzhi Xu

    1987-02-01

    Photophysical characteristics of R6G-..beta.. cyclodextrin system in aqueous solution have been studied by examining the steady and time-resolved fluorescence. Results are discussed.

  18. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) - Data - U.S. Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration (EIA) 3 RECS Survey Data 2009 | 2005 | 2001 | 1997 | 1993 | Previous Housing characteristics Consumption & expenditures Microdata Methodology Housing Characteristics Tables Topical Sections Entire Section All Detailed Tables PDF Tables: HC1 Household Characteristics, Million U.S. Households Presents data relating to location, type, ownership, age, size, construction, and householder demographic and income characteristics. PDF Tables: HC2 Space Heating, Million

  19. General formulation of characteristic time for persistent chemicals in a multimedia environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, D.H.; McKone, T.E.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1999-02-01

    A simple yet representative method for determining the characteristic time a persistent organic pollutant remains in a multimedia environment is presented. The characteristic time is an important attribute for assessing long-term health and ecological impacts of a chemical. Calculating the characteristic time requires information on decay rates in multiple environmental media as well as the proportion of mass in each environmental medium. The authors explore the premise that using a steady-state distribution of the mass in the environment provides a means to calculate a representative estimate of the characteristic time while maintaining a simple formulation. Calculating the steady-state mass distribution incorporates the effect of advective transport and nonequilibrium effects resulting from the source terms. Using several chemicals, they calculate and compare the characteristic time in a representative multimedia environment for dynamic, steady-state, and equilibrium multimedia models, and also for a single medium model. They demonstrate that formulating the characteristic time based on the steady-state mass distribution in the environment closely approximates the dynamic characteristic time for a range of chemicals and thus can be used in decisions regarding chemical use in the environment.

  20. Effect of the mobility on (I-V) characteristics of the MOSFET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benzaoui, Ouassila; Azizi, Cherifa

    2013-12-16

    MOSFET Transistor was the subject of many studies and research works (electronics, data-processing, telecommunications...) in order to exploit its interesting and promising characteristics. The aim of this contribution is devoted to the effect of the mobility on the static characteristics I-V of the MOSFET. The study enables us to calculate the drain current as function of bias in both linear and saturated modes; this effect is evaluated using a numerical simulation program. The influence of mobility was studied. Obtained results allow us to determine the mobility law in the MOSFET which gives optimal (I-V) characteristics of the component.

  1. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 0 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 94.0 74.2 169.2 124 54 98.1 38 1,485 0.65 1,172 450 Census

  2. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 3 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 96.6 76.4 181.2 43 18 34.0 13 1,061 0.45 840 321 Census Region

  3. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 0 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 15.4 11.6 29.7 131 51 99.0 36 1,053 0.41 795 287 Census

  4. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 1 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 14.6 11.0 28.9 116 44 87.9 32 1,032 0.39 781 283 Census

  5. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 15.5 12.2 30.0 98 40 77.1 27 829 0.34 650 231 Census

  6. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 4 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 17.5 13.8 32.0 91 39 71.9 27 697 0.30 550 203 Census

  7. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 7 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 17.4 14.0 33.3 87 37 70.3 27 513 0.22 414 156 Census

  8. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 90 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 16.3 13.5 33.2 77 31 63.9 23 609 0.25 506 181 Census

  9. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 3 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 13.8 11.6 29.8 92 36 77.5 28 604 0.23 506 186 Census

  10. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 7 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures Total per Floor- per Square per per per Total Total space (1) Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 13.2 11.0 23.2 97 46 81.1 31 694 0.33 578 224 Census

  11. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires Fuel Oil/Kerosene, 2001 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 11.2 9.4 26.0 80 29 67.1 26 723 0.26

  12. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 1 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 7.3 7.2 12.2 44 26 42.8 15 389 0.23 382 133 Census Region and Division

  13. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 7.3 7.2 11.7 40 25 39.6 14 383 0.23 376 132 Census Region and Division

  14. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 4 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 7.8 7.7 12.0 41 26 40.1 15 406 0.26 398 146 Census Region and Division

  15. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 7 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 7.7 7.6 12.3 41 26 41.1 15 369 0.23 366 131 Census Region and Division

  16. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 0 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 8.2 0.5 13.9 542 20 34.1 12 6,063 0.23 381 134 Census Region and

  17. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 3 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 8.1 7.9 14.9 48 25 46.8 17 481 0.26 470 170 Census Region and Division

  18. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 7 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures Total per Floor- per Square per per per Total Total space (1) Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 8.1 8.0 13.9 45 26 44.6 17 508 0.29 500 192 Census Region and

  19. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 1 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 53.4 41.5 92.8 127 57 98.7 35 578 0.26 450 159 Census Region and

  20. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 54.2 41.0 91.8 116 52 87.6 32 658 0.29 498 183 Census Region and

  1. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 4 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 55.4 41.3 93.2 121 53 89.9 33 722 0.32 537 198 Census Region and

  2. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 7 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 57.3 42.5 99.4 114 49 84.3 33 615 0.26 456 176 Census Region and

  3. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 1 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (millionBtu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 83.1 66.1 144.2 141 64 111.7 40 1,256 0.58 998 356

  4. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 83.8 66.1 142.2 130 60 102.3 37 1,309 0.61 1,033 377

  5. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 4 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 86.3 67.5 144.4 134 63 104.7 39 1,437 0.67 1,123 417

  6. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 7 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 90.5 70.4 156.8 130 58 100.8 39 1,388 0.62 1,080 416

  7. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 0 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 94.0 74.2 169.2 124 54 98.1 38 1,485 0.65 1,172 450

  8. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 3 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 96.6 76.5 181.2 131 55 103.6 40 1,620 0.68 1,282 491

  9. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 7 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures Total per Floor- per Square per per per Total Total space(2) Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 101.5 83.2 168.8 123 61 101.0 39 1,633 0.80

  10. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2001 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 107.0 85.2 211.3 116 47 92.2 36 1,875 0.76 1,493

  11. R93HC.PDF

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Total Air-Conditioning in U.S. Households, 1993 Housing Unit and Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Households (millions) Cooled Floorspace (square feet per household) Number of Cooling Degree-Days per Household Air-Conditioner Use in Summer 1993 1 (percent of households) RSE Row Factors 1993 Normal Total Not at All Only a Few Times Quite a Bit All Summer 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 3.5 0.9 1.4 1.2 Total .................................................... 66.1 1,416 1,536 1,438 100.0 3.4

  12. S:\VM3\RX97\TBL_LIST.WPD

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    V 1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Space Heating Tables (Million U.S. Households; 24 pages, 83 kb) Contents Pages HC3-1a. Space Heating by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 1997 2 HC3-2a. Space Heating by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 1997 2 HC3-3a. Space Heating by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 1997 2 HC3-4a. Space Heating by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 1997 2 HC3-5a. Space Heating by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S.

  13. Comparison of direct current and 50?Hz alternating current microscopic corona characteristics on conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang

    2014-06-15

    Corona discharge is one of the major design factors for extra-high voltage and ultra-high voltage DC/AC transmission lines. Under different voltages, corona discharge reveals different characteristics. This paper aims at investigating DC and AC coronas on the microscopic scale. To obtain the specific characteristics of DC and AC coronas, a new measurement approach that utilizes a coaxial wire-cylinder corona cage is designed in this paper, and wires of different diameters are used in the experiment. Based on the measurements, the respective microscopic characteristics of DC and AC coronas are analyzed and compared. With differences in characteristics between DC and AC coronas proposed, this study provides useful insights into DC/AC corona discharges on transmission line applications.

  14. Current-voltage characteristics of dc corona discharges in air between coaxial cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Yuesheng; Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang

    2015-02-15

    This paper presents the experimental measurement and numerical analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of dc corona discharges in air between coaxial cylinders. The current-voltage characteristics for both positive and negative corona discharges were measured within a specially designed corona cage. Then the measured results were fitted by different empirical formulae and analyzed by the fluid model. The current-voltage characteristics between coaxial cylinders can be expressed as I = C(U − U{sub 0}){sup m}, where m is within the range 1.5–2.0, which is similar to the point-plane electrode system. The ionization region has no significant effect on the current-voltage characteristic under a low corona current, while it will affect the distribution for the negative corona under a high corona current. The surface onset fields and ion mobilities were emphatically discussed.

  15. Apparatus and methods for determining at least one characteristic of a proximate environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novascone, Stephen R.; West, Phillip B.; Anderson, Michael J.

    2008-04-15

    Methods and an apparatus for determining at least one characteristic of an environment are disclosed. A vibrational energy may be imparted into an environment and a magnitude of damping of the vibrational energy may be measured and at least one characteristic of the environment may be determined. Particularly, a vibratory source may be operated and coupled to an environment. At least one characteristic of the environment may be determined based on a shift in at least one steady-state frequency of oscillation of the vibratory source. An apparatus may include at least one vibratory source and a structure for positioning the at least one vibratory source proximate to an environment. Further, the apparatus may include an analysis device for determining at least one characteristic of the environment based at least partially upon shift in a steady-state oscillation frequency of the vibratory source for the given impetus.

  16. Determination of the fuel characteristics of refuse-derived fuels by macroanalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecklinger, R.S.; Large, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    There is need for a means of determining the fuel characteristics of refuse-derived fuels to adjust the producer/user contractual relationship for fuel value. The authors discuss efforts to establish a macroanalysis procedure.

  17. Evaluation of Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M.; Day, K.; Brooker, A.

    2010-05-01

    This poster presentation demonstrates an approach to evaluate trade-offs among hydrogen storage system characteristic across several vehicle configurations and estimates the sensitivity of hydrogen storage system improvements on vehicle viability.

  18. A comparison of the CO2 capture characteristics of zeolites and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    comparison of the CO2 capture characteristics of zeolites and metal-organic frameworks Previous Next List Rajamani Krishna, Jasper M. van Baten, Sep. Purif. Technol., 87, 120-126...

  19. Multi-Year Comparisons of Summertime Cloud Characteristics at Barrow and Atqasuk

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multi-Year Comparisons of Summertime Cloud Characteristics at Barrow and Atqasuk J. C. Doran, J. C. Barnard, and W. J. Shaw Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Barrow and Atqasuk were chosen as sites for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement's (ARM's) North Slope of Alaska studies because of expected contrasts in the cloud characteristics at coastal (Barrow) and inland (Atqasuk) sites. With the successful completion of several years of data acquisition with a

  20. Characteristics of the Department of Energy's Building Inventory 2005-2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loper, Susan A.; Sandusky, William F.

    2012-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as part of their on-going support to the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) was asked to analyze special building data for an agency to gain a better understanding of the portfolio characteristics to help better shape implementation of their alternative financing activities. This report provides information for one agency, Department of Energy (DOE), and how those characteristics have changed over time.

  1. End-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linge, I. I.; Mitenkova, E. F. Novikov, N. V.

    2012-12-15

    The results of end-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent nuclear fuel are presented. Details of formation of neutron and gamma-radiation sources are analyzed. Distributed sources of different types of radiation are considered. A comparative analysis of calculated radiation characteristics is performed with the use of nuclear data from different ENDF/B and EAF files and ANSI/ANS and ICRP standards.

  2. Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Compliant Passenger Car | Department of Energy Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions Compliant Passenger Car Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions Compliant Passenger Car Comparisons between CTL, GTL, no. 2, and European diesel include fuel economy, regulated and unregulated emissions in a 50 State compliant passenger car with DOC, NOx adsorber and particulate trap deer10_shaburg.pdf (750.07 KB) More

  3. Metabolic characteristics of dominant microbes and key rare species from an

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    acidic hot spring in Taiwan revealed by metagenomics (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Metabolic characteristics of dominant microbes and key rare species from an acidic hot spring in Taiwan revealed by metagenomics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metabolic characteristics of dominant microbes and key rare species from an acidic hot spring in Taiwan revealed by metagenomics Microbial diversity and community structures in acidic hot springs have been characterized by 16S rRNA

  4. A parameter study to optimizing scintillator characteristics for increased sensitivity in nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards, and security based applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shy, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    A parameter study to optimizing scintillator characteristics for increased sensitivity in nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards, and security based applications

  5. Conceptualisation of the characteristics of advanced practitioners in the medical radiation professions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Tony; Harris, Jillian; Woznitza, Nick; Maresse, Sharon; Sale, Charlotte

    2015-09-15

    Professions grapple with defining advanced practice and the characteristics of advanced practitioners. In nursing and allied health, advanced practice has been defined as ‘a state of professional maturity in which the individual demonstrates a level of integrated knowledge, skill and competence that challenges the accepted boundaries of practice and pioneers new developments in health care’. Evolution of advanced practice in Australia has been slower than in the United Kingdom, mainly due to differences in demography, the health system and industrial relations. This article describes a conceptual model of advanced practitioner characteristics in the medical radiation professions, taking into account experiences in other countries and professions. Using the CanMEDS framework, the model includes foundation characteristics of communication, collaboration and professionalism, which are fundamental to advanced clinical practice. Gateway characteristics are: clinical expertise, with high level competency in a particular area of clinical practice; scholarship and teaching, including a masters qualification and knowledge dissemination through educating others; and evidence-based practice, with judgements made on the basis of research findings, including research by the advanced practitioner. The pinnacle of advanced practice is clinical leadership, where the practitioner has a central role in the health care team, with the capacity to influence decision making and advocate for others, including patients. The proposed conceptual model is robust yet adaptable in defining generic characteristics of advanced practitioners, no matter their clinical specialty. The advanced practice roles that evolve to meet future health service demand must focus on the needs of patients, local populations and communities.

  6. Characteristics of a piezoresistive accelerometer in high frequency, high shock environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bateman, V.I.; Davie, N.T.; Brown, F.A.

    1993-12-31

    The characteristics of a piezoresistive accelerometer in shock environments are being studied at Sandia National Laboratories in the Mechanical Shock Testing Laboratory. A Hopkinson bar capability has been developed to extend our understanding of the piezoresistive accelerometer with and without mechanical isolation in the high frequency, high shock environments where measurements are being made. Two different Hopkinson bar materials are being used: titanium and beryllium. The characteristics of the piezoresistive accelerometer for frequencies of DC-10 kHz and shock magnitudes of up to 4,000 g as determined from measurements with a titanium Hopkinson bar are presented. The SNL uniaxial shock isolation technique has demonstrated acceptable characteristics for a temperature range of {minus}50{degree}F to +186{degree}F and a frequency bandwidth of DC to 10 kHz. These characteristics have been verified by the calibration of the Hopkinson bar used for accelerometer testing. The beryllium Hopkinson bar configuration is described. Preliminary characteristics of the piezoresistive accelerometer at a nominal shock level of 17,000 g for a frequency range of DC-50 kHz are presented.

  7. Event Classification and Identification Based on the Characteristic Ellipsoid of Phasor Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jian; Diao, Ruisheng; Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2011-09-23

    In this paper, a method to classify and identify power system events based on the characteristic ellipsoid of phasor measurement is presented. The decision tree technique is used to perform the event classification and identification. Event types, event locations and clearance times are identified by decision trees based on the indices of the characteristic ellipsoid. A sufficiently large number of transient events were simulated on the New England 10-machine 39-bus system based on different system configurations. Transient simulations taking into account different event types, clearance times and various locations are conducted to simulate phasor measurement. Bus voltage magnitudes and recorded reactive and active power flows are used to build the characteristic ellipsoid. The volume, eccentricity, center and projection of the longest axis in the parameter space coordinates of the characteristic ellipsoids are used to classify and identify events. Results demonstrate that the characteristic ellipsoid and the decision tree are capable to detect the event type, location, and clearance time with very high accuracy.

  8. Building Decision Trees for Characteristic Ellipsoid Method to Monitor Power System Transient Behaviors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jian; Diao, Ruisheng; Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2010-12-01

    The characteristic ellipsoid is a new method to monitor the dynamics of power systems. Decision trees (DTs) play an important role in applying the characteristic ellipsoid method to system operation and analysis. This paper presents the idea and initial results of building DTs for detecting transient dynamic events using the characteristic ellipsoid method. The objective is to determine fault types, fault locations and clearance time in the system using decision trees based on ellipsoids of system transient responses. The New England 10-machine 39-bus system is used for running dynamic simulations to generate a sufficiently large number of transient events in different system configurations. Comprehensive transient simulations considering three fault types, two fault clearance times and different fault locations were conducted in the study. Bus voltage magnitudes and monitored reactive and active power flows are recorded as the phasor measurements to calculate characteristic ellipsoids whose volume, eccentricity, center and projection of the longest axis are used as indices to build decision trees. The DT performances are tested and compared by considering different sets of PMU locations. The proposed method demonstrates that the characteristic ellipsoid method is a very efficient and promising tool to monitor power system dynamic behaviors.

  9. Subsurface water flow simulated for hill slopes with spatially dependent soil hydraulic characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, M.L.; Luxmoore, R.J.; DeAngelis, R.; Ward, R.C.; Yeh, G.T.

    1987-08-01

    Water flow through hill slopes consisting of five soil layers, with varying spatial dependence in hydraulic characteristics in the lateral plane was simulated by solving Richards' equation in three dimensions under varying rainfall intensities and for two complexities of terrain. By concepts of similar media the variability in soil hydraulic characteristics was expressed by a single dimensionless parameter, the scaling factor ..cap alpha... The moments of log normally distributed ..cap alpha.. were set as: Mean = 1.0 and standard deviation = 1.0. Four cases of spatial dependence of ..cap alpha.. in the lateral plane were selected for simulation, using exponential variogram functions ranging in spatial structure from random (no spatial dependence) to large dependence (large correlation lengths). The simulations showed that the rates of subsurface flow from the 30/sup 0/ hillslope, during and following rainfall, were significantly enhanced with an increase in spatial dependence. Subsurface drainage was also increased with increases in rainfall intensity and slop complexity. For hill slopes the relative effects of spatial dependence in soil hydraulic characteristics was smaller with 30/sup 0/ horizontal pitching than without pitching. Hill slopes with a random distribution of hydraulic characteristics provided greater opportunity for soil units with differing water capacities to interact than in cases with spatially correlated distributions. This greater interaction is associated with a greater lag in subsurface flow generation. These studies illustrate some of the expected effects of spatial dependence of soil hydraulic characteristics of the integrated hydrologic response of land areas.

  10. Experimental study of characteristic curves of centrifugal pumps working as turbines in different specific speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derakhshan, Shahram; Nourbakhsh, Ahmad

    2008-01-15

    Pump manufacturers do not normally provide the characteristic curves of their pumps working as turbines. Therefore, establishing a correlation between the performances of direct (pump) and reverse (turbine) modes is essential in selecting the proper machine. In this paper, several centrifugal pumps (N{sub s} < 60 (m, m{sup 3}/s)) were tested as turbines. Using experimental data, some relations were derived to predict the best efficiency point of a pump working as a turbine, based on pump hydraulic characteristics. Validity of the presented method was shown using some referenced experimental data. Two equations were presented to estimate the complete characteristic curves of centrifugal pumps as turbines based on their best efficiency point. Deviations of suggested method from experimental data were considered and discussed. Finally, a procedure was presented for selecting a suitable pump to work as a turbine in a small hydro-site. (author)

  11. " East North Central",751,"NA",539,650,639,792.21608

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Expenditures per Vehicle, Selected Survey Years (Nominal Dollars) " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",736,722,550,650,668,787 "Household Characteristics"...

  12. " East North Central",198,216,263,296,335,385

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle-Miles Traveled, Selected Survey Years (Billions) " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",1215,1353,1511,1602,1793,2287 "Household Characteristics" "Census...

  13. " East North Central",627,"NA",550,553,574,585.28553

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption per Vehicle, Selected Survey Years (Gallons) " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",621,611,559,548,578,592 "Household Characteristics" "Census...

  14. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Per Household Member Average Square Feet Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC1.2.2 ...

  15. Table HC1.1.4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  16. Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  17. Dynamic voltage-current characteristics for a water jet plasma arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jiaxiang; Lan Sheng; Xu Zuoming

    2008-05-05

    A virtual instrument technology is used to measure arc current, arc voltage, dynamic V-I characteristics, and nonlinear conductance for a cone-shaped water jet plasma arc under ac voltage. Experimental results show that ac arc discharge mainly happens in water vapor evaporated from water when heated. However, due to water's cooling effect and its conductance, arc conductance, reignition voltage, extinguish voltage, and current zero time are very different from those for ac arc discharge in gas work fluid. These can be valuable to further studies on mechanism and characteristics of plasma ac discharge in water, and even in gas work fluid.

  18. "Table HC11.2 Living Space Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Total Floorspace1" "Fewer than 500",3.2,0.9,0.5,0.4

  19. "Table HC11.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total U.S.",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an

  20. "Table HC12.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"East North Central","West North Central" "Total U.S.",111.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an

  1. "Table HC13.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total U.S.",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use

  2. "Table HC14.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"West Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pacific" "Total U.S.",111.1,24.2,7.6,16.6 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an Oven",109.6,23.7,7.5,16.2

  3. Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphenehexagonal boron nitridegraphene junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Joiner, C. A.; Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Liu, L.; Gu, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, 1520 Middle Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Barrera, S. de la; Feenstra, R. M. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chakrabarti, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Rd., Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate graphenehexagonal boron nitridegraphene symmetric field effect transistors. Gate control of the tunneling characteristics is observed similar to previously reported results for exfoliated graphenehexagonal boron nitridegraphene devices. Density-of-states features are observed in the tunneling characteristics of the devices, although without large resonant peaks that would arise from lateral momentum conservation. The lack of distinct resonant behavior is attributed to disorder in the devices, and a possible source of the disorder is discussed.

  4. Characteristics of irradiation creep in the first wall of a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coghlan, W.A.; Mansur, L.K.

    1981-01-01

    A number of significant differences in the irradiation environment of a fusion reactor are expected with respect to the fission reactor irradiation environment. These differences are expected to affect the characteristics of irradiation creep in the fusion reactor. Special conditions of importance are identified as the (1) large number of defects produced per pka, (2) high helium production rate, (3) cyclic operation, (4) unique stress histories, and (5) low temperature operations. Existing experimental data from the fission reactor environment is analyzed to shed light on irradiation creep under fusion conditions. Theoretical considerations are used to deduce additional characteristics of irradiation creep in the fusion reactor environment for which no experimental data are available.

  5. Similarity criteria in calculations of the energy characteristics of a cw oxygen - iodine laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezhenin, A V; Azyazov, V N

    2012-12-31

    The calculated and experimental data on the energy efficiency of a cw oxygen - iodine laser (OIL) are analysed based on two similarity criteria, namely, on the ratio of the residence time of the gas mixture in the resonator to the characteristic time of extraction of the energy stored in singlet oxygen td and on the gain-to-loss ratio {Pi}. It is shown that the simplified two-level laser model satisfactorily predicts the output characteristics of OILs with a stable resonator at {tau}{sub d} {<=} 7. Efficient energy extraction from the OIL active medium is achieved in the case of {tau}{sub d} = 5 - 7, {Pi} = 4 - 8. (lasers)

  6. Study of the fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN explosive powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Dong; Sun Zhumei

    1996-05-01

    The fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN (pentaerythrite tetranitrate) explosive powders have been studied successfully by means of a spectrum-detecting and recovery technique. The results show that the appropriate particle size and content of aluminium powder in the aluminized PETN explosive powders are 44 {micro}m and 33%, respectively.

  7. Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of boiling water in sub-hundred micron channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhide, R.R.; Singh, S.G.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Duttagupta, S.P.; Agrawal, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2009-09-15

    The current work focuses on the pressure drop, heat transfer and stability in two phase flow in microchannels with hydraulic diameter of less than one hundred microns. Experiments were conducted in smooth microchannels of hydraulic diameter of 45, 65 {mu}m, and a rough microchannel of hydraulic diameter of 70 {mu}m, with deionised water as the working fluid. The local saturation pressure and temperature vary substantially over the length of the channel. In order to correctly predict the local saturation temperature and subsequently the heat transfer characteristics, numerical techniques have been used in conjunction with the conventional two phase pressure drop models. The Lockhart-Martinelli (liquid-laminar, vapour-laminar) model is found to predict the two phase pressure drop data within 20%. The instability in two phase flow is quantified; it is found that microchannels of smaller hydraulic diameter have lesser instabilities as compared to their larger counterparts. The experiments also suggest that surface characteristics strongly affect flow stability in the two phase flow regime. The effect of hydraulic diameter and surface characteristics on the flow characteristics and stability in two phase flow is seldom reported, and is of considerable practical relevance. (author)

  8. Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

    2010-07-18

    In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C1-C4 oxidation and NOx formation kinetics.

  9. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Taniya; Graham, David

    2013-12-08

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  10. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chowdhury, Taniya

    2014-03-24

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  11. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-10-26

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for containers procured for Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP's) Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function.

  12. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chowdhury, Taniya

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  13. Superconductive tunnel junction device with enhanced characteristics and method of manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroger, H.; Jillie, D. W.

    1985-08-20

    A superconductive tunnel junction device comprises first and second superconductive electrodes with a barrier disposed therebetween where the first superconductive electrode and the barrier are formed without interruption in the same vacuum system pump down and with the first superconductive electrode subjected to sputter etching in an argon plasma before the deposition of the barrier for improving the characteristics of the device.

  14. Water Transport Characteristics of Gas Diffusion Layer in a PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damle, Ashok S; Cole, J Vernon

    2008-11-01

    A presentation addressing the following: Water transport in PEM Fuel Cells - a DoE Project 1. Gas Diffusion Layer--Role and Characteristics 2. Capillary Pressure Determinations of GDL Media 3. Gas Permeability Measurements of GDL Media 4. Conclusions and Future Activities

  15. Characteristic operator functions for quantum input-plant-output models and coherent control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, John E.

    2015-01-15

    We introduce the characteristic operator as the generalization of the usual concept of a transfer function of linear input-plant-output systems to arbitrary quantum nonlinear Markovian input-output models. This is intended as a tool in the characterization of quantum feedback control systems that fits in with the general theory of networks. The definition exploits the linearity of noise differentials in both the plant Heisenberg equations of motion and the differential form of the input-output relations. Mathematically, the characteristic operator is a matrix of dimension equal to the number of outputs times the number of inputs (which must coincide), but with entries that are operators of the plant system. In this sense, the characteristic operator retains details of the effective plant dynamical structure and is an essentially quantum object. We illustrate the relevance to model reduction and simplification definition by showing that the convergence of the characteristic operator in adiabatic elimination limit models requires the same conditions and assumptions appearing in the work on limit quantum stochastic differential theorems of Bouten and Silberfarb [Commun. Math. Phys. 283, 491-505 (2008)]. This approach also shows in a natural way that the limit coefficients of the quantum stochastic differential equations in adiabatic elimination problems arise algebraically as Schur complements and amounts to a model reduction where the fast degrees of freedom are decoupled from the slow ones and eliminated.

  16. YAP/TAZ enhance mammalian embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a Tead-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Dasol; Byun, Sung-Hyun; Park, Soojeong; Kim, Juwan; Kim, Inhee; Ha, Soobong; Kwon, Mookwang; Yoon, Keejung

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian brain development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Here we show that YAP/TAZ enhance embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a cell autonomous fashion using diverse experimental approaches. Introduction of retroviral vectors expressing YAP or TAZ into the mouse embryonic brain induced cell localization in the ventricular zone (VZ), which is the embryonic neural stem cell niche. This change in cell distribution in the cortical layer is due to the increased stemness of infected cells; YAP-expressing cells were colabeled with Sox2, a neural stem cell marker, and YAP/TAZ increased the frequency and size of neurospheres, indicating enhanced self-renewal- and proliferative ability of neural stem cells. These effects appear to be TEA domain family transcription factor (Tead)–dependent; a Tead binding-defective YAP mutant lost the ability to promote neural stem cell characteristics. Consistently, in utero gene transfer of a constitutively active form of Tead2 (Tead2-VP16) recapitulated all the features of YAP/TAZ overexpression, and dominant negative Tead2-EnR resulted in marked cell exit from the VZ toward outer cortical layers. Taken together, these results indicate that the Tead-dependent YAP/TAZ signaling pathway plays important roles in neural stem cell maintenance by enhancing stemness of neural stem cells during mammalian brain development. - Highlights: • Roles of YAP and Tead in vivo during mammalian brain development are clarified. • Expression of YAP promotes embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in vivo in a cell autonomous fashion. • Enhancement of neural stem cell characteristics by YAP depends on Tead. • Transcriptionally active form of Tead alone can recapitulate the effects of YAP. • Transcriptionally repressive form of Tead severely reduces stem cell characteristics.

  17. Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Yong H.; Sohn, Myoung S.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)

  18. [Article 6 of 7]: Research on the Characteristics of a Smart Grid by the NETL Modern Grid Strategy Team

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Article 7 of 7]: Research on the Characteristics of a Smart Grid by the NETL Modern Grid Strategy Team Anticipates and Responds to Disturbances (Self Heals) Last month we presented the 6th Principal Characteristic of a Smart Grid, Operates Resiliently Against Attack and Natural Disaster. This month we present the 7th characteristic, Anticipates and Responds to Disturbances (Self Heals). In the context of a modern grid, "self-healing" broadly refers to a design philosophy that supports

  19. Special Topics on Energy Use in Household Transportation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    compare your estimate of your car's mpg to the average of everyone else who takes the test. (Released 04112000; Updated Yearly for Fuel Economies and Weekly for Fuel Prices)...

  20. Competition Helps Kids Learn About Energy and Save Their Households...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    starting up for next school year that challenges students to learn about energy, develop techniques for saving energy, and help their families save money on their energy bills. ...