National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for harmonics energy range

  1. Josh Harmon | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Josh Harmon About Us Josh Harmon - Intern, EERE International Most Recent Win-Win Opportunities at the Sixth Annual U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Forum October 30

  2. NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Printable Version Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet) Cover of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation factsheet Download the Fact Sheet The U.S. Department of Energy enlisted NREL to review and "harmonize" life cycle assessments (LCA) of electricity generation technologies. Hundreds of assessments have been published, often with considerable variability in results.

  3. Harmon, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Harmon is a village in Lee County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois' 14th congressional district.12...

  4. Front Range Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Logo: Front Range Energy LLC Name: Front Range Energy LLC Address: 31375 Great Western Dr Place: Windsor, Colorado Zip: 80550 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Biofuels...

  5. Range Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Range Resources Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleRangeResources&oldid612320...

  6. Modification of modulated plasma plumes for the quasi-phase-matching of high-order harmonics in different spectral ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Boltaev, G. S.; Sobirov, B.; Reyimbaev, S.; Sherniyozov, H.; Usmanov, T.; Suzuki, M.; Yoneya, S.; Kuroda, H.

    2015-01-15

    We demonstrate the technique allowing the fine tuning of the distance between the laser-produced plasma plumes on the surfaces of different materials, as well as the variation of the sizes of these plumes. The modification of plasma formations is based on the tilting of the multi-slit mask placed between the heating laser beam and target surface, as well as the positioning of this mask in the telescope placed on the path of heating radiation. The modulated plasma plumes with the sizes of single plume ranging between 0.1 and 1 mm were produced on the manganese and silver targets. Modification of the geometrical parameters of plasma plumes proved to be useful for the fine tuning of the quasi-phase-matched high-order harmonics generated in such structures during propagation of the ultrashort laser pulses. We show the enhancement of some groups of harmonics along the plateau range and the tuning of maximally enhanced harmonic by variable modulation of the plasma.

  7. Wind LCA Harmonization (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    NREL recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that provides more exact estimates of GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty. This involved a systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems in order to determine the causes of life cycle greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG estimates.

  8. Property:Wave Period Range(s) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Property:Wave Period Range(s) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Wave Period Range(s) Property Type String Pages using the property "Wave...

  9. Range Fuels Biorefinery Groundbreaking | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and state legislators who exhibit the kind of leadership you've shown in developing America's new energy future. ... Range Fuels are blending science and technology in order to ...

  10. NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Methodolog...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from electricity generation technologies through a ... assumptions specific to the technology under investigation. ... primary source energy mix and LCA method. 3 The ...

  11. Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) You are ...

  12. Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) ...

  13. Help:Range blocks | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    accounts editing from these IP addresses will also be blocked, unless you check the box to only block anonymous editors. Range blocking is enabled on all Wikimedia wikis; to...

  14. Measurement of long-range pseudorapidity correlations and azimuthal harmonics in sNN=5.02  TeV proton-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; et al

    2014-10-09

    We present measurements of two-particle correlation functions and the first five azimuthal harmonics, v1 to v5, using 28 nb₋1 of p+Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of √sNN =5.02 TeV measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Significant long-range “ridgelike” correlations are observed for pairs with small relative azimuthal angle (|ΔΦ|<π/3) and back-to-back pairs (|ΔΦ|>2π/3) over the transverse momentum range 0.4T<12 GeV and in different intervals of event activity. The event activity is defined by either the number of reconstructed tracks or the total transverse energy on the Pb-fragmentation side. The azimuthal structure of such long-range correlations ismore » Fourier decomposed to obtain the harmonics vn as a function of pT and event activity. The extracted vn values for n = 2 to 5 decrease with n. The v2 and v3 values are found to be positive in the measured pT range. The v1 is also measured as a function of pT and is observed to change sign around pT ≈ 1.5–2.0 GeV and then increase to about 0.1 for pT>4 GeV. The v2(pT), v3(pT), and v4(pT) are compared to the vn coefficients in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV with similar event multiplicities. Reasonable agreement is observed after accounting for the difference in the average pT of particles produced in the two collision systems.« less

  15. Communication: Towards the binding energy and vibrational red shift of the simplest organic hydrogen bond: Harmonic constraints for methanol dimer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heger, Matthias; Suhm, Martin A.; Mata, Ricardo A.

    2014-09-14

    The discrepancy between experimental and harmonically predicted shifts of the OH stretching fundamental of methanol upon hydrogen bonding to a second methanol unit is too large to be blamed mostly on diagonal and off-diagonal anharmonicity corrections. It is shown that a decisive contribution comes from post-MP2 electron correlation effects, which appear not to be captured by any of the popular density functionals. We also identify that the major deficiency is in the description of the donor OH bond. Together with estimates for the electronic and harmonically zero-point corrected dimer binding energies, this work provides essential constraints for a quantitative description of this simple hydrogen bond. The spectroscopic dissociation energy is predicted to be larger than 18 kJ/mol and the harmonic OH-stretching fundamental shifts by about ?121 cm{sup ?1} upon dimerization, somewhat more than in the anharmonic experiment (?111 cm{sup ?1})

  16. Experimental Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System for Harmonic, Random, and Sine on Random Vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cryns, Jackson W.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2013-07-01

    Formal journal article Experimental analysis of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system for harmonic, random, and sine on random vibration Abstract: Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random and sine on random (SOR) input vibration scenarios. Additionally, the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. Studies in vibration harvesting have yielded numerous alternatives for harvesting electrical energy from vibrations but piezoceramics arose as the most compact, energy dense means of energy transduction. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. In this manuscript, variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. We characterize the source vibration by its acceleration response for repeatability and transcription to general application. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions for in previous literature that load optimal resistance varies with transducer natural frequency and source type, and the findings demonstrate that significant gains are seen with lower tuned transducer natural frequencies for similar source amplitudes. Going beyond idealized steady state sinusoidal and simplified random vibration input, SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibrational sources significantly alter power generation and power processing

  17. Excitation energies along a range-separated adiabatic connection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebolini, Elisa Toulouse, Julien Savin, Andreas; Teale, Andrew M.; Helgaker, Trygve

    2014-07-28

    We present a study of the variation of total energies and excitation energies along a range-separated adiabatic connection. This connection links the non-interacting Kohn–Sham electronic system to the physical interacting system by progressively switching on the electron–electron interactions whilst simultaneously adjusting a one-electron effective potential so as to keep the ground-state density constant. The interactions are introduced in a range-dependent manner, first introducing predominantly long-range, and then all-range, interactions as the physical system is approached, as opposed to the conventional adiabatic connection where the interactions are introduced by globally scaling the standard Coulomb interaction. Reference data are reported for the He and Be atoms and the H{sub 2} molecule, obtained by calculating the short-range effective potential at the full configuration-interaction level using Lieb's Legendre-transform approach. As the strength of the electron–electron interactions increases, the excitation energies, calculated for the partially interacting systems along the adiabatic connection, offer increasingly accurate approximations to the exact excitation energies. Importantly, the excitation energies calculated at an intermediate point of the adiabatic connection are much better approximations to the exact excitation energies than are the corresponding Kohn–Sham excitation energies. This is particularly evident in situations involving strong static correlation effects and states with multiple excitation character, such as the dissociating H{sub 2} molecule. These results highlight the utility of long-range interacting reference systems as a starting point for the calculation of excitation energies and are of interest for developing and analyzing practical approximate range-separated density-functional methodologies.

  18. Full sky harmonic analysis hints at large ultra-high energy cosmic ray deflections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tinyakov, P. G. Urban, F. R.

    2015-03-15

    The full-sky multipole coefficients of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux have been measured for the first time by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array collaborations using a joint data set with E > 10 EeV. We calculate these harmonic coefficients in the model where UHECR are protons and sources trace the local matter distribution, and compare our results with observations. We find that the expected power for low multipoles (dipole and quadrupole, in particular) is sytematically higher than in the data: the observed flux is too isotropic. We then investigate to which degree our predictions are influenced by UHECR deflections in the regular Galactic magnetic field. It turns out that the UHECR power spectrum coefficients C{sub l} are quite insensitive to the effects of the Galactic magnetic field, so it is unlikely that the discordance can be reconciled by tuning the Galactic magnetic field model. On the contrary, a sizeable fraction of uniformly distributed flux (representing for instance an admixture of heavy nuclei with considerably larger deflections) can bring simulations and observations to an accord.

  19. Hybrid Wide Range Detector Amplifier - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Hybrid Wide Range Detector Amplifier Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (827 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryMany applications require detection of both very small and very large signals. High gain detector amplifiers provide low noise but are easily swamped by large signals. Logarithmic amplifiers

  20. SEVENTH HARMONIC 20 GHz CO-GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2014-04-08

    To satisfy the need for multi-MW rf sources in frequency ranges where commercial sources do not exist, a study was undertaken on a class of devices based on gyro-harmonic frequency multiplication. This mechanism relies upon adding energy in gyrating motion to a linear electron beam that traverses a rotating-mode TE111-mode drive cavity in a dc magnetic field. The beam then drifts along the magnetic field into a second cavity, operating in the TEn11-mode tuned to the nth harmonic of the drive cavity. Studies of this configuration have been carried out for 2 < n < 7. Results are given for multi-MW, efficient operation of a 7th harmonic device operating at 20 GHz, and a 2nd harmonic device operating at 22.4 GHz.

  1. Bonding energies and long-range order in the trialuminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparks, C.J.; Specht, E.D.; Ice, G.E.; Zschack, P.; Schneibel, J.

    1990-01-01

    The degree of long-range order in the trialuminides is determined by X-ray powder diffraction techniques. Long-range order exists to their melting points. For the binary trialuminides Al{sub 3}Ti, Al{sub 73}Ti{sub 27}, and Al{sub 3}Sc, the degree of long-range order is nearly perfect and is a measure of the lack of mixing of the aluminum atoms onto the sublattice occupied by either Ti or Sc. A calculation of the bond energy between neighboring pairs of atoms from the ordering (melting) temperature is made following the Bragg-Williams mean field theory approach. These bond energies compare favorably with more sophisticated calculations. Bond energies are found to be larger than the energy difference between the crystal structure forms DO{sub 22}, Ll{sub 2}, and DO{sub 23}, and therefore, more relevant to understanding the mechanical and chemical behavior of the trialuminides. Ordering or melting temperatures of these intermetallics reflect the strong Al-metal near-neighbor pair potentials and may provide insights to their brittle properties. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-09-01

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  3. Into the Twenty-First Century: Harmonizing energy policy, environment, and sustainable economic growth. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    Economic trade liberalization and the restructuring of the energy industries to promote competition, two trends well underway, have not eliminated the need for thoughtful policy action, although they have significantly transformed the policymaking environment. New policy initiatives must be compatible with the growing competition within energy industries. And while governments are beginning to remove themselves from the natural gas and electricity markets, their policy choices for organizing these industries will shape energy balances and prices in these and other energy markets. The 18th Annual International Conference of the IAEE addresses these and other major policy issues and how energy industries can operate successfully in an era of acute economic, political, and scientific uncertainty. An overarching objective has been to provide the interface between new frontiers in economic and energy analysis and the application of these techniques toward further understanding of policy and industry options. The papers included in this Proceedings volume have not been peer reviewed but were selected by the conference program chairman and committee on the basis of their contribution to the overall conference themes. The conference program committee (see page iii) organized a number of the key sessions on a wide range of important issues. David L. Williams, Jr. was particularly effective in supporting the committee in organizing the program and publishing this volume. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. LCA Harmonization

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References Publications Definitions definitions LCA Harmonization Notice: Results for natural gas (conventional and unconventional) will be updated soon, please check back...

  5. Harmonics suppression of vacuum chamber eddy current induced fields with application to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Low Energy Booster (LEB) Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlueter, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1991-12-04

    This memo presents the formulation of an expression for eddy currents induced in a thin-walled conductor due to a time-dependent electromagnet field excitation. Then follows an analytical development for prediction of vacuum chamber eddy current induced field harmonics in iron-core electromagnets. A passive technique for harmonics suppression is presented with specific application to the design of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Low Energy B (LEB) Magnets.

  6. Long range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) System | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Digestion, - Biofuels, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Landfill Gas, - Waste to Energy, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy...

  7. Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Basin and Range Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Details Areas (51) Power Plants (10)...

  8. Nevada Test And Training Range Geothermal Area | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Test And Training Range Geothermal Area (Redirected from Nevada Test And Training Range Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Nevada Test And...

  9. Nevada Test And Training Range Geothermal Area | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Test And Training Range Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Nevada Test And Training Range Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview...

  10. Fallon Test Ranges Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Test Ranges Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Development Project: Fallon Test Ranges Geothermal Project Project Location Information...

  11. EM Tackles Cleanup at Tonopah Test Range | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tackles Cleanup at Tonopah Test Range EM Tackles Cleanup at Tonopah Test Range September 30, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Field technicians survey a shaker used in past cleanup ...

  12. Seismicity of the Coso Range, California | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the Coso Range, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Seismicity of the Coso Range, California Abstract A 16-station...

  13. Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization: Stockholm Environmental Institute Sector: Climate, Energy Topics: Potentials & Scenarios ComplexityEase of Use: Moderate Website:...

  14. China Lake South Range Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Development Project: China Lake South Range Geothermal Project Project Location Information Coordinates 35.65,...

  15. Harmonic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  16. Long range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) System | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    policy analysis.1It is an integrated modeling tool that can be used to track energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all sectors of an economy. It can be...

  17. NREL to Host Range of Activities for Energy Awareness Month

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Special exhibits will demonstrate energy-efficient home design, a sun-to-electricity power system assembled in the shape of a large giant American flag, and a hybrid-electric ...

  18. Harmonic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  19. Ultrafast harmonic rf kicker design and beam dynamics analysis for an energy recovery linac based electron circulator cooler ring

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan

    2016-08-01

    An ultrafast kicker system is being developed for the energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron circulator cooler ring (CCR) in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, previously named MEIC). In the CCR, the injected electron bunches can be recirculated while performing ion cooling for 10–30 turns before the extraction, thus reducing the recirculation beam current in the ERL to 1/10–1/30 (150mA–50 mA) of the cooling beam current (up to 1.5 A). Assuming a bunch repetition rate of 476.3 MHz and a recirculating factor of 10 in the CCR, the kicker is required to operate at a pulse repetitionmore » rate of 47.63 MHz with pulse width of around 2 ns, so that only every 10th bunch in the CCR will experience a transverse kick while the rest of the bunches will not be disturbed. Such a kicker pulse can be synthesized by ten harmonic modes of the 47.63 MHz kicker pulse repetition frequency, using up to four quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities. In this paper, several methods to synthesize such a kicker waveform will be discussed and a comparison of their beam dynamics performance is made using ELEGANT. Four QWR cavities are envisaged with high transverse shunt impedance requiring less than 100 W of total rf power for a Flat-Top kick pulse. Multipole fields due to the asymmetry of this type of cavity are analyzed. The transverse emittance growth due to the sextupole component is simulated in ELEGANT. In conclusion, off-axis injection and extraction issues and beam optics using a multicavity kick-drift scheme will also be discussed.« less

  20. VEE-0075 - In the Matter of Viking Range Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 - In the Matter of Viking Range Corporation VEE-0075 - In the Matter of Viking Range Corporation This Decision and Order considers an Application for Exception filed by Viking Range Corporation (Viking) seeking exception relief from the provisions of 10 C.F.R. Part 430, Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers and Freezers (Refrigerator Efficiency Standards). In its exception request, Viking asserts that the firm

  1. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-15

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  2. Modeling non-harmonic behavior of materials from experimental inelastic neutron scattering and thermal expansion measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Dipanshu; Aref, Amjad; Dargush, Gary; Delaire, Olivier A.

    2016-07-20

    Based on thermodynamic principles, we derive expressions quantifying the non-harmonic vibrational behavior of materials, which are rigorous yet easily evaluated from experimentally available data for the thermal expansion coefficient and the phonon density of states. These experimentally-derived quantities are valuable to benchmark first-principles theoretical predictions of harmonic and non-harmonic thermal behaviors using perturbation theory, ab initio molecular-dynamics, or Monte-Carlo simulations. In this study, we illustrate this analysis by computing the harmonic, dilational, and anharmonic contributions to the entropy, internal energy, and free energy of elemental aluminum and the ordered compound FeSi over a wide range of temperature. Our results agreemore » well with previous data in the literature and provide an efficient approach to estimate anharmonic effects in materials.« less

  3. Harmonics and Resonance Issues with Wind Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradt, M.; Badrzadeh, Babak; Camm, E H; Castillo, Nestor; Mueller, David; Siebert, T.; Schoene, Jens; Smith, Travis M; Starke, Michael R; Walling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Wind plants are susceptible to lightly-damped resonances which can attract and amplify ambient grid harmonic distortion and magnify wind turbine harmonic generation. Long-accepted harmonic modeling assumptions and practices are not appropriate for wind plants. VSCs are not ideal current sources and grid impedance is important. Attention to modeling detail and thorough evaluation over range of conditions is critical to meaningful analysis. In general, wind turbines are very slight sources of harmonics. Most harmonic issues are a result of resonance, caused by capacitor banks (for reactive power compensation) or from the extensive underground cabling in a collector system. Converter controls instability can be exacerbated by power system resonances. In some cases this has caused severe voltage distorDon and other problems. The IEEE 519 recommended guidelines are very restrictive. I recommend that they are used to resolve serious harmonic issues, and not to create petty problems.

  4. Harmonization of Biodiesel Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.

    2008-02-01

    Worldwide biodiesel production has grown dramatically over the last several years. Biodiesel standards vary across countries and regions, and there is a call for harmonization. For harmonization to become a reality, standards have to be adapted to cover all feedstocks. Additionally, all feedstocks cannot meet all specifications, so harmonization will require standards to either tighten or relax. For harmonization to succeed, the biodiesel market must be expanded with the alignment of test methods and specification limits, not contracted.

  5. Long-term operation of surface high-harmonic generation from relativistic oscillating mirrors using a spooling tape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierbach, Jana; Yeung, Mark; Eckner, Erich; Roedel, Christian; Kuschel, Stephan; Zepf, Matt; Paulus, Gerhard G.

    2015-05-01

    Surface high-harmonic generation in the relativistic regime is demonstrated as a source of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) pulses with extended operation time. Relativistic high-harmonic generation is driven by a frequency-doubled high-power Ti:Sapphire laser focused to a peak intensity of 3·1019 W/cm2 onto spooling tapes. We demonstrate continuous operation over up to one hour runtime at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Harmonic spectra ranging from 20 eV to 70 eV (62 nm to 18 nm) were consecutively recorded by an XUV spectrometer. An average XUV pulse energy in the µJ range is measured. With the presented setup, relativistic surface high-harmonic generation becomes a powerful source of coherent XUV pulses that might enable applications in, e.g. attosecond laser physics and the seeding of free-electron lasers, when the laser issues causing 80-% pulse energy fluctuations are overcome.

  6. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  7. Cross sections for electron scattering by propane in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, G. L. C. de; Lee, M.-T.; Sanches, I. P.; Rawat, P.; Iga, I.; Santos, A. S. dos; Machado, L. E.; Sugohara, R. T.; Brescansin, L. M.; Homem, M. G. P.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2010-07-15

    We present a joint theoretical-experimental study on electron scattering by propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer as well as total (elastic + inelastic) and total absorption cross sections are reported for impact energies ranging from 2 to 500 eV. Also, experimental absolute elastic cross sections are reported in the 40- to 500-eV energy range. A complex optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction dynamics. A theoretical method based on the single-center-expansion close-coupling framework and corrected by the Pade approximant is used to solve the scattering equations. The experimental angular distributions of the scattered electrons are converted to absolute cross sections using the relative flow technique. The comparison of our calculated with our measured results, as well as with other experimental and theoretical data available in the literature, is encouraging.

  8. Fast ion energy distribution from third harmonic radio frequency heating measured with a single crystal diamond detector at the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Gorini, G.; Cazzaniga, C.; Tardocchi, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Muraro, A.; Binda, F.; Eriksson, J.; Sharapov, S.; Collaboration:

    2015-10-15

    Neutron spectroscopy measurements with a single crystal diamond detector have been carried out at JET, for the first time in an experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to MeV energies with radio frequency heating at the third harmonic. Data are interpreted by means of the expected response function of the detector and are used to extract parameters of the highly non-Maxwellian distribution function generated in this scenario. A comparison with observations using a time of flight and liquid scintillator neutron spectrometers is also presented. The results demonstrate the capability of diamond detectors to contribute to fast ion physics studies at JET and are of more general relevance in view of the application of such detectors for spectroscopy measurements in the neutron camera of next step tokamak devices.

  9. Electron cyclotron harmonic resonances in high-frequency heating of the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2013-09-15

    Electron acceleration by upper hybrid waves under cyclotron harmonic resonance interaction is studied. Theory is formulated; the analytical solutions in the second and fourth harmonic cyclotron resonance cases are obtained, and in the third harmonic case, a first order differential equation governing the evolution of the electron energy is derived. The theory is applied for explaining the generation of artificial ionization layers observed in high-frequency (HF) ionospheric heating experiments. The upper hybrid waves are assumed to be excited parametrically by the O-mode HF heating wave. As the decay mode is the lower hybrid wave, the excited upper hybrid waves have wavelengths ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 m, which are short enough to effectively incorporate the finite Larmour radius effect for the harmonic cyclotron resonance interactions as well as have a frequency bandwidth of about 20 kHz, which provides an altitude region of about 10 km for continuous harmonic cyclotron resonance interaction between electrons and descending waves in the slightly inhomogeneous geomagnetic field. The numerical results on electron acceleration show that electron fluxes with energies larger than 14 eV are generated in the three harmonic cases. These energetic electrons cause impact ionizations, which are descending to form artificial ionization layers at the bottom of the ionospheric F region.

  10. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A.; Repac, B.; Gonder, J.

    2013-07-01

    This poster presents initial estimates of the net energy impacts of automated vehicles (AVs). Automated vehicle technologies are increasingly recognized as having potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum consumption through mechanisms such as improved efficiency, better routing, lower traffic congestion, and by enabling advanced technologies. However, some effects of AVs could conceivably increase fuel consumption through possible effects such as longer distances traveled, increased use of transportation by underserved groups, and increased travel speeds. The net effect on petroleum use and climate change is still uncertain. To make an aggregate system estimate, we first collect best estimates for the energy impacts of approximately ten effects of AVs. We then use a modified Kaya Identity approach to estimate the range of aggregate effects and avoid double counting. We find that depending on numerous factors, there is a wide range of potential energy impacts. Adoption of automated personal or shared vehicles can lead to significant fuel savings but has potential for backfire.

  11. On the possibility of the generation of high harmonics with photon energies greater than 10 keV upon interaction of intense mid-IR radiation with neutral gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emelina, A S; Emelin, M Yu; Ryabikin, M Yu

    2014-05-30

    Based on the analytical quantum-mechanical description in the framework of the modified strong-field approximation, we have investigated high harmonic generation of mid-IR laser radiation in neutral gases taking into account the depletion of bound atomic levels of the working medium and the electron magnetic drift in a high-intensity laser field. The possibility is shown to generate high-order harmonics with photon energies greater than 10 keV under irradiation of helium atoms by intense femtosecond laser pulses with a centre wavelength of 8 – 10.6 μm. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  12. Low-energy parameters of neutron-neutron interaction in the effective-range approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babenko, V. A.; Petrov, N. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine)

    2013-06-15

    The effect of the mass difference between the charged and neutral pions on the low-energy parameters of nucleon-nucleon interaction in the {sup 1}S{sub 0} state is studied in the effective-range approximation. On the basis of experimental values of the singlet parameters of neutron-proton scattering and the experimental value of the virtual-state energy for the neutron-neutron systemin the {sup 1}S{sub 0} state, the following values were obtained for the neutron-neutron scattering length and effective range: a{sub nn} = -16.59(117) fm and r{sub nn} = 2.83(11) fm. The calculated values agree well with present-day experimental results.

  13. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    GROUP Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Marshall C. Smart B. V. Ratnakumar, F. C. Krause, C. Huang, L. D. Whitcanack , J. Soler , and W. C. West, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology DOE-ABR/BATT Annual Meeting Review Arlington, Virginia May 14, 2013 Project ID = ES026 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 1 ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES GROUP 2

  14. Continuous third harmonic generation in a terahertz driven modulated nanowire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Kathleen E. De, Amrit; Pryadko, Leonid P.; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2015-06-07

    We consider the possibility of observing continuous third-harmonic generation using a strongly driven, single-band one-dimensional metal. In the absence of scattering, the quantum efficiency of frequency tripling for such a system can be as high as 93%. Combining the Floquet quasi-energy spectrum with the Keldysh Green's function technique, we derive a semiclassical master equation for a one-dimensional band of strongly and rapidly driven electrons in the presence of weak scattering by phonons. The power absorbed from the driving field is continuously dissipated by phonon modes, leading to a quasi-equilibrium in the electron distribution. We use the Kronig-Penney model with varying effective mass to establish the growth parameters of an InAs/InP nanowire near optimal for third harmonic generation at terahertz frequency range.

  15. True coincidence summing corrections for an extended energy range HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venegas-Argumedo, Y.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2015-07-23

    True coincidence summing (TCS) effect for natural radioactive families of U-238 and Th-232 represents a problem when an environmental sample with a close source-detector geometry measurement is performed. By using a certified multi-nuclide standard source to calibrate an energy extended range (XtRa) HPGe detector, it is possible to obtain an intensity spectrum slightly affected by the TCS effect with energies from 46 to 1836 keV. In this work, the equations and some other considerations required to calculate the TCS correction factor for isotopes of natural radioactive chains are described. It is projected a validation of the calibration, performed with the IAEA-CU-2006-03 samples (soil and water)

  16. Property:Current Velocity Range(m/s) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Current Velocity Range(ms) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Current Velocity Range(ms) Property Type String Pages using the property "Current Velocity Range(ms)"...

  17. STARS A Two Stage High Gain Harmonic Generation FEL Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Abo-Bakr; W. Anders; J. Bahrdt; P. Budz; K.B. Buerkmann-Gehrlein; O. Dressler; H.A. Duerr; V. Duerr; W. Eberhardt; S. Eisebitt; J. Feikes; R. Follath; A. Gaupp; R. Goergen; K. Goldammer; S.C. Hessler; K. Holldack; E. Jaeschke; Thorsten Kamps; S. Klauke; J. Knobloch; O. Kugeler; B.C. Kuske; P. Kuske; A. Meseck; R. Mitzner; R. Mueller; M. Neeb; A. Neumann; K. Ott; D. Pfluckhahn; T. Quast; M. Scheer; Th. Schroeter; M. Schuster; F. Senf; G. Wuestefeld; D. Kramer; Frank Marhauser

    2007-08-01

    BESSY is proposing a demonstration facility, called STARS, for a two-stage high-gain harmonic generation free electron laser (HGHG FEL). STARS is planned for lasing in the wavelength range 40 to 70 nm, requiring a beam energy of 325 MeV. The facility consists of a normal conducting gun, three superconducting TESLA-type acceleration modules modified for CW operation, a single stage bunch compressor and finally a two-stage HGHG cascaded FEL. This paper describes the faciliy layout and the rationale behind the operation parameters.

  18. Voltage and current transducer harmonic sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domijan, A. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    This work presents the results of a study on the sensitivity of real power as a function of harmonic magnitudes and angles. These transducers are ones that are typical of those used, in combination with metering instruments, to measure the performance of variable-speed drives. Frequency response tests were performed on two different signal transducers (voltage and current) up to the 50th harmonic in accordance with Institute of Electrical and Electronics engineers (IEEE) Standard 519-1992. Results from these tests gave maximum magnitude percentage errors of {minus}2.2% (at 15th harmonic) and maximum phase shifts of +3.3 (at 50th harmonic) for voltage (at 120 V) and maximum percentage error of {minus}1.9% (at 2d harmonic) and maximum phase shift of {minus}4.3 for current (at 5 A). Using the percentage errors at 120 V and 5 A throughout the 60 Hz through 3,000 Hz range, in harmonic magnitudes and harmonic angles exhibited by the transducers, mathematical analysis was done on two sets of distorted signals and a sensitivity analysis was done to determine what would be the impact of the actual transducers` errors on the final calculation of real power. Variations of {minus}1.48% and {minus}1.60% were obtained. Then, assuming a maximum 5% change in current harmonic magnitudes and angles, a maximum real power percent variation of 0.02% and 2.47% were obtained for the same two sets of field-recorded voltage and current waveforms sets.

  19. Harmonization of Federal and International Regulations | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Harmonization of Federal and International Regulations Harmonization of Federal and International Regulations Update of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA). Harmonization of Federal and International Regulations (636.69 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE-STD-5507-2013 Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Activities FAQS Reference Guide - NNSA Package

  20. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  1. Optical harmonic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, M.A.; Eimerl, D.; Boyd, R.D.

    1982-06-10

    A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The extraordinary or e directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90/sup 0/). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude o and e components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has o and e components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 (o:e reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10/sup 0/. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axeses (o).

  2. Optical harmonic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, Mark A.; Eimerl, David; Boyd, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The "extraordinary" or "e" directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90.degree.). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude "o" and "e" components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has "o" and "e" components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 ("o":"e" reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10.degree.. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axes ("o").

  3. Evidence of High Harmonics from Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation for Seeding X-ray Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodle, M.; ,

    2012-02-15

    Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron lasers hold great promise for the generation of fully coherent radiation in x-ray wavelengths. Here we report the first evidence of high harmonics from the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique in the realistic scenario where the laser energy modulation is comparable to the beam slice energy spread. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the seventh harmonic of the second seed laser is generated when the energy modulation amplitude is about 2-3 times the slice energy spread. The experiment confirms the underlying physics of echo-enabled harmonic generation and may have a strong impact on emerging seeded x-ray free electron lasers that are capable of generating laserlike x rays which will advance many areas of science.

  4. Harmonic uniflow engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-03-22

    A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.

  5. G-band harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier with a mode-selective circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, Y. S.; Chen, Chang-Hong; Wang, Z. W.; Kao, B. H.; Chen, Chien-Hsiang; Lin, T. Y.; Guo, Y. W.

    2014-12-15

    Harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWAs) permit for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. A high-order-mode harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA with large circuit dimensions and low ohmic loss can achieve a high average power. By amplifying a fundamental harmonic TE{sub 01} drive wave, the second harmonic component of the beam current initiates a TE{sub 02} wave to be amplified. Wall losses can suppress some competing modes because they act as an effective sink of the energy of the modes. However, such wall losses do not suppress all competing modes as the fields are contracted in the copper section in the gyro-TWA. An improved mode-selective circuit, using circular waveguides with the specified radii, can provide the rejection points within the frequency range to suppress the competing modes. The simulated results reveal that the mode-selective circuit can provide an attenuation of more than 10 dB to suppress the competing modes (TE{sub 21}, TE{sub 51}, TE{sub 22}, and TE{sub 03}). A G-band second harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA with the mode-selective circuit is predicted to yield a peak output power of 50 kW at 198.8 GHz, corresponding to a saturated gain of 55 dB at an interaction efficiency of 10%. The full width at half maximum bandwidth is 5 GHz.

  6. Property:Wind Velocity Range(m/s) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Range(ms) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Wind Velocity Range(ms) Property Type String Pages using the property "Wind Velocity Range(ms)" Showing 10 pages...

  7. Booster double harmonic setup notes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-02-17

    The motivation behind implementing a booster double harmonic include the reduced transverse space charge force from a reduced peak beam current and reduced momentum spread of the beam, both of which can be achieved from flattening the RF bucket. RF capture and acceleration of polarized protons (PP) is first set up in the single harmonic mode with RF harmonic h=1. Once capture and acceleration have been set up in the single harmonic mode, the second harmonic system is brought on and programmed to operate in concert with the single harmonic system.

  8. LCA Harmonization | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: en.openei.orgappsLCA Web Application Link: en.openei.orgappsLCA Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Featured References: Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle...

  9. Quaternionic Harmonic Analysis of Texture

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-10-01

    QHAT uses various functions and data structures native to MATLAB to analyze crystallographic texture information using harmonic functions on the space of rotations represented as normalized quaternions. These harmonic functions generalize the spherical harmonics in three dimensions, and form the basis for the irreducible representations of the four-dimensional rotation group. This allows the basis of harmonic functions to be reduced to linearly independent combinations that satisfy the crystal and sample symmetry point groups.

  10. Heat flow in the northern Basin and Range province | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Heat flow in the northern Basin and Range province Abstract The heat flow in the Basin and Range...

  11. Enhanced Harmonic Up-Conversion Using a Hybrid HGHG-EEHG Scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marksteiner, Quinn R.; Bishofberger, Kip A.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Freund, Henry P.; Yampolsky, Nikolai A.

    2012-04-30

    We introduce a novel harmonic generation scheme which can be used, for a given desired harmonic, to achieve higher bunching factors, weaker chicanes, and/or less final energy spread than can be achieved using Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation. This scheme only requires a single laser with relatively low power, and is a hybrid of High-Gain Harmonic Generation and EEHG. We present a design of this scheme applied to the Next Generation Light Source (NGLS).

  12. Ionization By Impact Electrons in Solids: Electron Mean Free Path Fitted Over A Wide Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziaja, B; London, R A; Hajdu, J

    2005-06-09

    We propose a simple formula for fitting the electron mean free paths in solids both at high and at low electron energies. The free-electron-gas approximation used for predicting electron mean free paths is no longer valid at low energies (E < 50 eV), as the band structure effects become significant at those energies. Therefore we include the results of the band structure calculations in our fit. Finally, we apply the fit to 9 elements and 2 compounds.

  13. Analysis of Long-range Clean Energy Investment Scenarios forEritrea, East Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Buskirk, Robert D.

    2004-05-07

    We discuss energy efficiency and renewable energy investments in Eritrea from the strategic long-term economic perspective of meeting Eritrea's sustainable development goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are potentially important contributors to national productive capital accumulation, enhancement of the environment, expansion of energy services, increases in household standard of living, and improvements in health. In this study we develop a spreadsheet model for calculating some of the national benefits and costs of different levels of investment in energy efficiency and renewable energy. We then present the results of the model in terms of investment demand and investment scenario curves. These curves express the contribution that efficiency and renewable energy projects can make in terms of reduced energy sector operating expenses, and reduced carbon emissions. We provide demand and supply curves that show the rate of return, the cost of carbon emissions reductions vs. supply, and the evolution of the marginal carbon emissions per dollar of GDP for different investment levels and different fuel-type subsectors.

  14. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Okatan, M. B.; Rajapaksa, Indrajit; Kim, Yunseok; Marincel, Dan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Jesse, Stephen; Nagarajan, Valanoor; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, decoupling the contributions of competing or co-existing mechanisms to the system response can be achieved through investigation of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a well-known system, a model Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, nanoscale measurements of the second harmonic response with field reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of combining proximal probe techniques with nth harmonic detection methods in exploring and decoupling nonlinear dynamics in a wide variety of nanoscale materials.

  15. Self-assembly of highly ordered conjugated polymer aggregates with long-range energytransfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogelsang, Jan; Adachi, Takuji; Brazard, Johanna; Vanden Bout, David A.; Barbara, Paul F.

    2011-10-09

    Applications of conjugated polymers (CP) in organic electronic devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and solar cells depend on the way of electronic energy conveyance in these materials. Single-molecule spectroscopy has uncovered fundamental properties with molecular detail and current reports propose that energy transport in single CP chains extend over unusually extensive distances up to 75 nm (refs 13,15, 16). An significant question is whether these characteristics occur when CP chains agglomerate into a neat solid. In these experiments, we demonstrate that the electronic energy transport in masses composed of tens of polymer chains takes place on a comparable distance scale as that in single chains. These findings offer a new insight into the ordering of single CP chains and which the progression of their morphological and optoelectronic properties can be observed; this will ultimately enable the design of improved CP-based devices.

  16. Low-energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy using a high-resolution grating spectrometer in the near ultraviolet range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-15

    An inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) apparatus using a Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer is demonstrated. Previous IPES instruments based on grating spectrometers used a concave grating and operated in the vacuum ultraviolet range. The reflectance of such gratings is lower than 20% and the aberration cannot be finely corrected leading to an energy resolution of up to 0.1 eV. In the present study, employing the low energy IPES regime [H. Yoshida, Chem. Phys. Lett. 539–540, 180 (2012)], incident electrons with a kinetic energy below 5 eV are used, while photon emission in the range of between 250 and 370 nm is analyzed with a 10-cm Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer. The signal intensity is at least 30 times higher than the previous apparatus. The resolution of photon detection is set at 0.07 eV though the ultimate resolution is one order of magnitude higher. The experiment is performed both by sweeping the electron energy (isochromat mode) and by simultaneously analyzing the photon of whole wavelength range (tunable photon energy mode)

  17. NREL: Energy Analysis - Key Activities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Key Activities NREL conducts a broad range of energy analysis in support of the laboratory's programs and initiatives, DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), technology transfer, and the greater energy analysis community. NREL's recent analysis activities include: Analysis of Project Finance Electric Sector Integration Energy-Water Nexus Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Manufacturing Analysis Resource Assessment Printable Version Energy Analysis Home Capabilities &

  18. Long-term operation of surface high-harmonic generation from relativistic oscillating mirrors using a spooling tape

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bierbach, Jana; Yeung, Mark; Eckner, Erich; Roedel, Christian; Kuschel, Stephan; Zepf, Matt; Paulus, Gerhard G.

    2015-05-01

    Surface high-harmonic generation in the relativistic regime is demonstrated as a source of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) pulses with extended operation time. Relativistic high-harmonic generation is driven by a frequency-doubled high-power Ti:Sapphire laser focused to a peak intensity of 3·1019 W/cm2 onto spooling tapes. We demonstrate continuous operation over up to one hour runtime at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Harmonic spectra ranging from 20 eV to 70 eV (62 nm to 18 nm) were consecutively recorded by an XUV spectrometer. An average XUV pulse energy in the µJ range is measured. With the presented setup, relativistic surface high-harmonic generationmore » becomes a powerful source of coherent XUV pulses that might enable applications in, e.g. attosecond laser physics and the seeding of free-electron lasers, when the laser issues causing 80-% pulse energy fluctuations are overcome.« less

  19. GaP/Silicon Tandem Solar Cell with Extended Temperature Range - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search GaP/Silicon Tandem Solar Cell with Extended Temperature Range NASA Glenn Research Center (http://www.nasa.gov/centers/glenn/home/index.html) National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contact NASA About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryNASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) innovators have developed unique, tandem photovoltaic cells (or "solar

  20. Study on higher harmonic suppression using edge filter and polished Si wafer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R. K. Singh, Amol Modi, Mohammed H. Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-24

    Higher harmonics contamination is a severe problem in synchrotron beamlines where grating monochromators are used. In these beamlines, absorption edge filters and critical angle mirrors are used to suppress the harmonic contaminations. In the present study, carried out using Indus-1 reflectivity beamline, a harmonic suppression characteristic of Al edge filter and polished silicon wafer are determined. It is found that the Al filter suppresses higher harmonics in 2–7% range whereas the polished silicon wafer can suppress the higher harmonics below 1%. The results of comparative study are discussed.

  1. Long-Range Electric Vehicle Batteries: High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: In a battery, metal ions move between the electrodes through the electrolyte in order to store energy. Envia Systems is developing new silicon-based negative electrode materials for Li-Ion batteries. Using this technology, Envia will be able to produce commercial EV batteries that outperform todays technology by 2-3 times. Many other programs have attempted to make anode materials based on silicon, but have not been able to produce materials that can withstand charge/discharge cycles multiple times. Envia has been able to make this material which can successfully cycle hundreds of times, on a scale that is economically viable. Today, Envias batteries exhibit world-record energy densities.

  2. Impact of Short-Range Forces on Defect Production from High-Energy Collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stoller, R. E.; Tamm, A.; Béland, L. K.; Samolyuk, G. D.; Stocks, G. M.; Caro, A.; Slipchenko, L. V.; Osetsky, Yu. N.; Aabloo, A.; Klintenberg, M.; et al

    2016-04-25

    Primary radiation damage formation in solid materials typically involves collisions between atoms that have up to a few hundred keV of kinetic energy. The distance between two colliding atoms can approach 0.05 nm during these collisions. At such small atomic separations, force fields fitted to equilibrium properties tend to significantly underestimate the potential energy of the colliding dimer. To enable molecular dynamics simulations of high-energy collisions, it is common practice to use a screened Coulomb force field to describe the interactions and to smoothly join this to the equilibrium force field at a suitable interatomic spacing. But, there is nomore » accepted standard method for choosing the parameters used in the joining process, and our results prove that defect production is sensitive to how the force fields are linked. A new procedure is presented that involves the use of ab initio calculations to determine the magnitude and spatial dependence of the pair interactions at intermediate distances, along with systematic criteria for choosing the joining parameters. Results are presented for the case of nickel, which demonstrate the use and validity of the procedure.« less

  3. Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Marshall C. Smart B. V. Ratnakumar, W. C. West, L. D. Whitcanack, C. Huang, J. Soler, and F. C. Krause Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology DOE-BATT Review Meeting Washington, D. C. May 9, 2011 Project ID = ES026 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 1 ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES GROUP 2 Overview * Start Date =

  4. Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Marshall C. Smart B. V. Ratnakumar, W. C. West, L. D. Whitcanack, and F. C. Krause Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology DOE-BATT Review Meeting Washington, D. C. June 7, 2010 Project ID = ES026 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 1 ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES GROUP 2 Overview * Start Date = October 2009 * End Date = October 2014 *

  5. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy 800 MeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sjue, Sky K. L.; Morris, Christopher L.; Merrill, Frank Edward; Mariam, Fesseha Gebre; Saunders, Alexander

    2016-01-14

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the protonimaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane.more » Furthermore, comparison with a series of static calibrationimages demonstrates the model’s accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.« less

  6. Harmonic gyrotrons operating in high-order symmetric modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Kashyn, Dmytro G.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2015-01-05

    It is shown that gyrotrons operating at cyclotron harmonics can be designed for operation in symmetric TE{sub 0,p}-modes. Such operation in fundamental harmonic gyrotrons is possible only at small radial indices (p≤3) because of the severe mode competition with TE{sub 2,p}-modes, which are equally coupled to annular beams as the symmetric modes. At cyclotron harmonics, however, this “degeneracy” of coupling is absent, and there is a region in the parameter space where harmonic gyrotrons can steadily operate in symmetric modes. This fact is especially important for sub-THz and THz-range gyrotrons where ohmic losses limit the power achievable in continuous-wave and high duty cycle regimes.

  7. High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.

    2010-06-01

    A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.

  8. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  9. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stupakov, Gennady

    2010-08-25

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  10. Partial-wave analysis of elastic {sup 4}He{sup 4}He scattering in the energy range 40-50 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubovichenko, S. B.

    2008-01-15

    A partial-wave analysis of elastic {sup 4}He{sup 4}He scattering is performed in the energy range 40-50 MeV.

  11. Dark-matter harmonics beyond annual modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Samuel K.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R. E-mail: mlisanti@princeton.edu

    2013-11-01

    The count rate at dark-matter direct-detection experiments should modulate annually due to the motion of the Earth around the Sun. We show that higher-frequency modulations, including daily modulation, are also present and in some cases are nearly as strong as the annual modulation. These higher-order modes are particularly relevant if (i) the dark matter is light, O(10) GeV, (ii) the scattering is inelastic, or (iii) velocity substructure is present; for these cases, the higher-frequency modes are potentially observable at current and ton-scale detectors. We derive simple expressions for the harmonic modes as functions of the astrophysical and geophysical parameters describing the Earth's orbit, using an updated expression for the Earth's velocity that corrects a common error in the literature. For an isotropic halo velocity distribution, certain ratios of the modes are approximately constant as a function of nuclear recoil energy. Anisotropic distributions can also leave observable features in the harmonic spectrum. Consequently, the higher-order harmonic modes are a powerful tool for identifying a potential signal from interactions with the Galactic dark-matter halo.

  12. U.S. Department of Energy NESHAP Annual Report for CY 2014 Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evelo, Stacie; Miller, Mark L.

    2015-05-01

    This National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Annual Report has been prepared in a format to comply with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 61.94 and the April 5, 1995 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA approved NESHAP Monitoring Plan for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and the MOA, no additional monitoring or measurements are required at TTR in order to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP regulation.

  13. Harmonic analysis of electrical distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data pertaining to research on harmonics of electric power distribution systems. Harmonic data is presented on RMS and average measurements for determination of harmonics in buildings; fluorescent ballast; variable frequency drive; georator geosine harmonic data; uninterruptible power supply; delta-wye transformer; westinghouse suresine; liebert datawave; and active injection mode filter data.

  14. Spatial coherence measurements of non-resonant and resonant high harmonics generated in laser ablation plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Abdelrahman, Z. Frank, F.; Witting, T.; Okell, W. A.; Fabris, D.; Hutchison, C.; Marangos, J. P.; Tisch, J. W. G.

    2014-01-13

    We present measurements of the spatial coherence of the high-order harmonics generated in laser-produced ablation plumes. Harmonics were generated using 4 fs, 775 nm pulses with peak intensity 3 × 10{sup 14} W cm{sup −2}. Double-slit fringe visibilities in the range of ≈0.6–0.75 were measured for non-resonant harmonics in carbon and resonantly enhanced harmonics in zinc and indium. These are somewhat higher than the visibility obtained for harmonics generated in argon gas under similar conditions. This is attributed to lower time-dependent ionization of the plasma ablation targets compared to argon during the high harmonics generation process.

  15. Enhanced α-particle optical potential at low energies, for the mass range A∼45-209

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avrigeanu, V.; Avrigeanu, M.; Mănăilescu, C.

    2015-02-24

    An updated optical potential is thus provided for α-particles on nuclei within the mass number range 45≤A≤209, below the Coulomb barrier (B), on the basis of recent high-precision measurements of α-particle induced reaction data below B that made possible the understanding of actual limits and possible improvement of the α-particle optical-model potentials. The main revision concerns actually only the surface imaginary potential depth at the lowest α-particle energies well below B, and in fact only for the mass range above A∼130. A further regional point is the underestimation of reaction cross sections for the rare-earth nuclei by using the spherical optical potential unless a 7% larger value of the surface imaginary potential radius is taken into account. Involvement of this potential for further description of both the scattering and α-particles induced reactions is moreover discussed in the present work, of equal interest for nuclear astrophysics and nuclear technology for fusion devices.

  16. SYNCHROTRON POLARIZATION AND SYNCHROTRON SELF-ABSORPTION SPECTRA FOR A POWER-LAW PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION WITH FINITE ENERGY RANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouka, M.; Ouichaoui, S. E-mail: souichaoui@usthb.dz

    2011-12-10

    We have derived asymptotic forms for the degree of polarization of the optically thin synchrotron and for synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) spectra assuming a power-law particle distribution of the form N({gamma}) {approx} {gamma}{sup -p} with {gamma}{sub 1} < {gamma} < {gamma}{sub 2}, especially for a finite high-energy limit, {gamma}{sub 2}, in the case of an arbitrary pitch angle. The new results inferred concern more especially the high-frequency range x >> {eta}{sup 2} with parameter {eta} = {gamma}{sub 2}/{gamma}{sub 1}. The calculated SSA spectra concern instantaneous photon emission where cooling effects are not considered. They have been obtained by also ignoring likely effects such as Comptonization, pair creation and annihilation, as well as magnetic photon splitting. To that aim, in addition to the two usual absorption frequencies, a third possible one has been derived and expressed in terms of the Lambert W function based on the analytical asymptotic form of the absorption coefficient, {alpha}{sub {nu}}, for the high-frequency range {nu} >> {nu}{sub 2} (with {nu}{sub 2} the synchrotron frequency corresponding to {gamma}{sub 2}). We have shown that the latter frequency may not have realistic applications in astrophysics, except in the case of an adequate set of parameters allowing one to neglect Comptonization effects. More detailed calculations and discussions are presented.

  17. Experimental study of a fourth-harmonic gyromultiplier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Bratman, V. L.; Savilov, A. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Volkov, A. B.

    2009-07-15

    Simultaneous generation at the second and fourth cyclotron harmonics has been obtained from a single-cavity self-excited gyromultiplier. Output power of the short-wavelength radiation amounts to 100 W at a frequency of 75 GHz. The proposed scheme seems to be promising for the terahertz frequency range.

  18. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX): Instructions for Implementing the Test Procedure, Calibration Test Reference Results, and Example Acceptance-Range Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.

    2011-08-01

    This publication summarizes building energy simulation test for existing homes (BESTEST-EX): instructions for implementing the test procedure, calibration tests reference results, and example acceptance-range criteria.

  19. An overview on incomplete fusion reaction dynamics at energy range ∼ 3-8 MeV/A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Rahbar; Singh, D.; Ansari, M. Afzal; Kumar, Rakesh; Muralithar, S.; Golda, K. S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.; Das, S. K.

    2014-08-14

    The information of ICF reaction has been obtained from the measurement of excitation function (EF) of ERs populated in the interaction of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 16}O on {sup 55}Mn, {sup 159}Tb and {sup 156}Gd targets. Sizable enhancement in the measured cross-sections has been observed in α-emitting channels over theoretical predictions, which has been attributed to ICF of the projectile. In order to confirm the findings of the measurements and analysis of EFs, the forward recoil range distributions of ERs populated in {sup 20}Ne+{sup 159}Tb (E ∼165MeV) and {sup 16}O+{sup 156}Gd (E ∼ 72, 82 and 93MeV) systems, have been measured. It has been observed that peaks appearing at different cumulative thicknesses in the stopping medium are related with different degree of linear momentum transfer from projectile to target nucleus by adopting the break-up fusion model consideration. In order to deduce the angular momentum involved in various CF and / or ICF reaction products, spin distribution and side-feeding intensity profiles of radio-nuclides populated via CF and ICF channels in {sup 16}O+{sup 160}Gd system at energy, E ∼ 5.6 MeV/A, have been studied. Spin distribution of ICF products are found to be distinctly different than that observed from CF products.

  20. Analysis of higher harmonic contamination with a modified approach using a grating analyser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Rajkumar Modi, Mohammed H.; Lodha, G. S.; Kumar, M.; Chakera, J. A.

    2014-04-15

    Soft x-ray spectra of the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source are analyzed for higher harmonic contribution. A diffraction grating of central line spacing 1200 l/mm is used to disperse the monochromatic beam received from TGM to quantify the harmonic contents in the 50–360 Å wavelength range. In order to calculate the harmonic contamination, conventionally the intensity of higher order peak is divided by first order peak intensity of the desired wavelength. This approach is found to give wrong estimate as first order peak itself is overlapped by higher order peaks. In the present study, a modified approach has been proposed to calculate harmonic contamination where the intensity contributions of overlapping orders have been removed from the first order diffraction peak of the desired wavelength. It is found that the order contamination in the TGM spectra is less than 15% in the wavelength range of 90–180 Å. The total harmonic contribution increases from 6%–60% in the wavelength range of 150–260 Å. The critical wavelength of Indus-1 is 61 Å hence the harmonic contamination below 90 Å is significantly low. The results obtained with modified approach match well with those obtained by quantitative analysis of multilayer reflectivity data. The obtained higher harmonics data are used to fit the transmission of aluminum edge filter in the 120–360 Å wavelength range.

  1. WAVEMOTH-FAST SPHERICAL HARMONIC TRANSFORMS BY BUTTERFLY MATRIX COMPRESSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seljebotn, D. S.

    2012-03-01

    We present Wavemoth, an experimental open source code for computing scalar spherical harmonic transforms (SHTs). Such transforms are ubiquitous in astronomical data analysis. Our code performs substantially better than existing publicly available codes owing to improvements on two fronts. First, the computational core is made more efficient by using small amounts of pre-computed data, as well as paying attention to CPU instruction pipelining and cache usage. Second, Wavemoth makes use of a fast and numerically stable algorithm based on compressing a set of linear operators in a pre-computation step. The resulting SHT scales as O(L{sup 2}log{sup 2} L) for the resolution range of practical interest, where L denotes the spherical harmonic truncation degree. For low- and medium-range resolutions, Wavemoth tends to be twice as fast as libpsht, which is the current state-of-the-art implementation for the HEALPix grid. At the resolution of the Planck experiment, L {approx} 4000, Wavemoth is between three and six times faster than libpsht, depending on the computer architecture and the required precision. Because of the experimental nature of the project, only spherical harmonic synthesis is currently supported, although adding support for spherical harmonic analysis should be trivial.

  2. Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2012-06-01

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

  3. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

  4. Improvement of nonlinear harmonics in free electron laser with planar wiggler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazouband, F.; Maraghechi, B.

    2012-11-15

    Spontaneous emission of free electron laser with planar wiggler and ion-channel guiding is calculated analytically and possibility of emission at up-shifted wiggler or ion-channel betatron frequency and their harmonics has been found. To investigate the nonlinear odd harmonics, a set of self-consistent nonlinear differential equations that governs the evolution of radiation and electron beam are derived and solved numerically by Runge-Kutta method. Using the simulation code, gain improvement of third harmonic is studied in the range of microwave frequency by applying ion-channel guiding for a cold beam. It is shown that the combination of the ion-channel and a prebunched electron beam increases the amplitude of the third harmonic of the radiation and decreases its saturation length. The relation between the linear and nonlinear harmonics is discussed.

  5. Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Y.; Roland, I.; Checoury, X.; Han, Z.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Boucaud, P.; Gayral, B.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Mexis, M.; Semond, F.

    2015-02-23

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride photonic crystal cavity embedded in a two-dimensional free-standing photonic crystal platform on silicon. The photonic crystal nanocavity is optically pumped with a continuous-wave laser at telecom wavelengths in the transparency window of the nitride material. The harmonic generation is evidenced by the spectral range of the emitted signal, the quadratic power dependence vs. input power, and the spectral dependence of second harmonic signal. The harmonic emission pattern is correlated to the harmonic polarization generated by the second-order nonlinear susceptibilities χ{sub zxx}{sup (2)}, χ{sub zyy}{sup (2)} and the electric fields of the fundamental cavity mode.

  6. Alternating lags of QPO harmonics: A generic model and its application to the 67 mHz QPO of GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Ranjeev; Mandal, Soma E-mail: soma@iucaa.ernet.in

    2013-12-10

    A generic model for alternating lags in quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) harmonics is presented where variations in the photon spectrum are caused by oscillations in two parameters that characterize the spectrum. It is further assumed that variations in one of the parameters are linearly driven by variations in the other after a time delay t{sub d} . It is shown that alternating lags will be observed for a range of t{sub d} values. A phenomenological model based on this generic one is developed that can explain the amplitude and phase lag variation with energy of the fundamental and the next three harmonics of the 67 mHz QPO observed in GRS 1915+105. The phenomenological model also predicts the variation of the Bicoherence phase with energy, which can be checked by further analysis of the observational data.

  7. NREL: Energy Analysis: Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technologies, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature and reducing uncertainty. Highlights of Recent Studies Chart that compares published...

  8. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nieset, R.T.

    1961-05-16

    A radio ranging device is described. It utilizes a super regenerative detector-oscillator in which echoes of transmitted pulses are received in proper phase to reduce noise energy at a selected range and also at multiples of the selected range.

  9. Using Coupled Harmonic Oscillators to Model Some Greenhouse Gas Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Go, Clark Kendrick C.; Maquiling, Joel T.

    2010-07-28

    Common greenhouse gas molecules SF{sub 6}, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} are modeled as harmonic oscillators whose potential and kinetic energies are derived. Using the Euler-Lagrange equation, their equations of motion are derived and their phase portraits are plotted. The authors use these data to attempt to explain the lifespan of these gases in the atmosphere.

  10. Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Despite the ever-growing body of life cycle assessment literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization Project in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights.

  11. The sup 252 Cf(sf) neutron spectrum in the 5- to 20-MeV energy range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marten, H.; Richter, D.; Seeliger, D. ); Fromm, W.D. ); Bottger, R.; Klein, H. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on the {sup 252}Cf neutron spectrum measured at high energies with a miniature ionization chamber and two different NE-213 neutron detectors. The gamma-ray background and the main cosmic background caused by muons were suppressed by applying efficient pulse-shape discrimination. On the basis of two-dimensional spectroscopy of the neutron time-of-flight and scintillation pulse height, the sliding bias method is used to minimize experimental uncertainties. The experimental data, corrected for several systematic influences, confirm earlier results that show negative deviations from a reference Maxwellian distribution with a 1.42-MeV spectrum temperature for neutron energies above 6 MeV. Experimental results of this work are compared with various statistical model approaches to the {sup 252}Cf(sf) neutron spectrum.

  12. Enhanced High Harmonic Generation from Multiply Ionized Argon above 500 eV through Laser Pulse Self-Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arpin, P.; Popmintchev, T.; Kapteyn, H. C.; Murnane, M. M.; Wagner, N. L.; Cohen, O.

    2009-10-02

    By combining laser pulse self-compression and high harmonic generation within a single waveguide, we demonstrate high harmonic emission from multiply charged ions for the first time. This approach enhances the laser intensity and counteracts ionization-induced defocusing, extending the cutoff photon energy in argon above 500 eV for the first time, with higher spectral intensity and cutoff energy than He for the same input laser parameters. This Letter demonstrates a pathway for extending high harmonic emission to very high photon energies using large, multiply charged, ions with high ionization potentials.

  13. HELIOS—A laboratory based on high-order harmonic generation of extreme ultraviolet photons for time-resolved spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plogmaker, S. E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se Terschlüsen, J. A. E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se Krebs, N.; Svanqvist, M.; Forsberg, J.; Cappel, U. B.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Siegbahn, H.; Söderström, J. E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we present the HELIOS (High Energy Laser Induced Overtone Source) laboratory, an in-house high-order harmonic generation facility which generates extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photon pulses in the range of 15-70 eV with monochromatized XUV pulse lengths below 35 fs. HELIOS is a source for time-resolved pump-probe/two-color spectroscopy in the sub-50 fs range, which can be operated at 5 kHz or 10 kHz. An optical parametric amplifier is available for pump-probe experiments with wavelengths ranging from 240 nm to 20 000 nm. The produced XUV radiation is monochromatized by a grating in the so-called off-plane mount. Together with overall design parameters, first monochromatized spectra are shown with an intensity of 2 ⋅ 10{sup 10} photons/s (at 5 kHz) in the 29th harmonic, after the monochromator. The XUV pulse duration is measured to be <25 fs after monochromatization.

  14. Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential Authors: Luu, T ; ...

  15. Generation of even harmonics in coupled quantum dots (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generation of even harmonics in coupled quantum dots Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of even harmonics in coupled quantum dots Using the spatial-temporal...

  16. Half-harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy with transfer function...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using linear and half-harmonic BE enables quantitative correction of the cantilever transfer function. Half-harmonic band excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy (HBE KPFM) thus ...

  17. Low- and high-order harmonic generation in the extended plasmas produced by laser ablation of zinc and manganese targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Baba, M.; Suzuki, M.; Yoneya, S.; Kuroda, H.

    2014-12-28

    The systematic studies of the harmonic generation of ultrashort laser pulses in the 5-mm-long Zn and Mn plasmas (i.e., application of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond pulses for ablation, comparison of harmonic generation from atomic, ionic, and cluster-contained species of plasma, variation of plasma length, two-color pump of plasmas, etc.) are presented. The conversion efficiency of the 11th–19th harmonics generated in the Zn plasma was ∼5 × 10{sup −5}. The role of the ionic resonances of Zn near the 9th and 10th harmonics on the enhancement of harmonics is discussed. The enhancement of harmonics was also analyzed using the two-color pump of extended plasmas, which showed similar intensities of the odd and even harmonics along the whole range of generation. The harmonics up to the 107th order were demonstrated in the case of manganese plasma. The comparison of harmonic generation in the 5-mm-long and commonly used short (≤0.5 mm) plasma plumes showed the advanced properties of extended media.

  18. Echo-enabled Harmonic Generation Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, D; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2008-12-18

    In this paper, we systematically study the echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) free electron laser (FEL). The EEHG FEL uses two modulators in combination with two dispersion sections that allow to generate in the beam a high harmonic density modulation starting with a relatively small initial energy modulation of the beam. After presenting analytical theory of the phenomenon, we address several practically important issues, such as the effect of incoherent synchrotron radiation in the dispersion sections, and the beam transverse size effect in the modulator. Using a representative realistic set of beam parameters, we show how the EEHG scheme enhances the FEL performance and allows to generate a fully (both longitudinally and transversely) coherent radiation. As an example, we demonstrate that 5 nm coherent soft x-rays with GW peak power can be generated directly from the 240 nm seeding laser using the proposed EEHG scheme.

  19. A high-fidelity harmonic drive model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preissner, C.; Royston, T. J.; Shu, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new model of the harmonic drive transmission is presented. The purpose of this work is to better understand the transmission hysteresis behavior while constructing a new type of comprehensive harmonic drive model. The four dominant aspects of harmonic drive behavior - nonlinear viscous friction, nonlinear stiffness, hysteresis, and kinematic error - are all included in the model. The harmonic drive is taken to be a black box, and a dynamometer is used to observe the input/output relations of the transmission. This phenomenological approach does not require any specific knowledge of the internal kinematics. In a novel application, the Maxwell resistive-capacitor hysteresis model is applied to the harmonic drive. In this model, sets of linear stiffness elements in series with Coulomb friction elements are arranged in parallel to capture the hysteresis behavior of the transmission. The causal hysteresis model is combined with nonlinear viscous friction and spectral kinematic error models to accurately represent the harmonic drive behavior. Empirical measurements are presented to quantify all four aspects of the transmission behavior. These measurements motivate the formulation of the complete model. Simulation results are then compared to additional measurements of the harmonic drive performance.

  20. A Multigroup Library of Neutron and Gamma Cross Sections and Response Functions in the Energy Range up to 800 MeV.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1987-05-20

    Version 00 The energy range of the library, from thermal to 800 MeV is relevant to the solution of shielding, nuclear heating, and other radiation protection problems connected with the accelerator neutron sources e.g. spallation target. The data contains 10 elements of shielding and biological importance. They can be easily implemented to the neutron transport codes like ANISN and DOT by using the activity option.

  1. Learning to Apply Metrology Principles to the Measurement of X-ray Intensities in the 500 eV to 110 keV Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugh, M. J.; Pond, T.; Silbernagel, C.; Torres, P.; Marlett, K.; Goldin, F.; Cyr, S.

    2011-02-08

    National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Livermore Operations, has two optical radiation calibration laboratories accredited by “the National Voluntary Laboratories Accreditation Program (NVLAP) which is the accrediting body of” the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and is now working towards accreditation for its X-ray laboratories. NSTec operates several laboratories with X-ray sources that generate X-rays in the energy range from 50 eV to 115 keV. These X-ray sources are used to characterize and calibrate diagnostics and diagnostic components used by the various national laboratories, particularly for plasma analysis on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF). Because X-ray photon flux measurement methods that can be accredited, i.e., traceable to NIST, have not been developed for sources operating in these energy ranges, NSTec, NIST, and the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP) together have defined a path toward the development and validation of accredited metrology methods for X-ray energies. The methodology developed for the high energy X-ray (HEX) Laboratory was NSTec’s starting point for X-ray metrology accreditation and will be the basis for the accredited processes in the other X-ray laboratories. This paper will serve as a teaching tool, by way of this example using the NSTec X-ray sources, for the process and methods used in developing an accredited traceable metrology.

  2. Wide-Band KB Optics for Spectro-Microscopy Imaging Applications in the 6-13 keV X-ray Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziegler, E.; De Panfilis, S.; Peverini, L.; Vaerenbergh, P. van; Rocca, F.

    2007-01-19

    We present a Kirkpatrick-Baez optics (KB) system specially optimized to operate in the 6-13 keV X-ray range, where valuable characteristic lines are present. The mirrors are coated with aperiodic laterally graded (Ru/B4C)35 multilayers to define a 15% energy bandpass and to gain flux as compared to total reflection mirrors. For any X-ray energy selected the shape of each mirror can be optimized with a dynamical bending system so as to concentrate the X-ray beam into a micrometer-size spot. Once the KB mirrors are aligned at the X-ray energy corresponding to the barycenter of the XAS spectrum to be performed they remain in a steady state during the micro-XAS scans to minimize beam displacements. Results regarding the performance of the wideband KB optics and of the spectro-microscopy setup are presented, including beam stability issues.

  3. High harmonic generation in underdense plasmas by intense laser pulses with orbital angular momentum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Vieira, J.

    2015-12-15

    We study high harmonic generation produced by twisted laser pulses, with orbital angular momentum in the relativistic regime, for pulse propagation in underdense plasma. We consider fast time scale processes associated with an ultra-short pulse, where the ion motion can be neglected. We use both analytical models and numerical simulations using a relativistic particle-in-cell code. The present description is valid for relativistic laser intensities, when the normalized field amplitude is much larger than one, a ≫ 1. We also discuss two distinct processes associated with linear and circular polarization. Using both analytical solutions and particle-in-cell simulations, we are able to show that, for laser pulses in a well defined Laguerre-Gauss mode, angular momentum conservation is observed during the process of harmonic generation. Intensity modulation of the harmonic spectrum is also verified, as imposed by the nonlinear time-scale for energy transfer between different harmonics.

  4. High-order harmonic generation using a high-repetition-rate turnkey laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorek, E. Larsen, E. W.; Heyl, C. M.; Carlström, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Paleček, D.; Zigmantas, D.

    2014-12-15

    We generate high-order harmonics at high pulse repetition rates using a turnkey laser. High-order harmonics at 400 kHz are observed when argon is used as target gas. In neon, we achieve generation of photons with energies exceeding 90 eV (∼13 nm) at 20 kHz. We measure a photon flux of up to 4.4 × 10{sup 10} photons per second per harmonic in argon at 100 kHz. Many experiments employing high-order harmonics would benefit from higher repetition rates, and the user-friendly operation opens up for applications of coherent extreme ultra-violet pulses in new research areas.

  5. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented ...

  6. Quantum harmonic oscillator with superoscillating initial datum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buniy, R. V.; Struppa, D. C.; Colombo, F.; Sabadini, I.

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we study the evolution of superoscillating initial data for the quantum driven harmonic oscillator. Our main result shows that superoscillations are amplified by the harmonic potential and that the analytic solution develops a singularity in finite time. We also show that for a large class of solutions of the Schrödinger equation, superoscillating behavior at any given time implies superoscillating behavior at any other time.

  7. HARMONIC CAVITY PERFORMANCE FOR NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BLEDNYKH, A.; KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; ROSE, J.; TOWNE, N.; WANG, J.M.

    2005-05-15

    NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-high brightness storage ring planned to succeed the present NSLS rings at BNL. Ultralow emittance combined with short bunch length means that it is critical to minimize the effects of Touschek scattering and coherent instabilities. Improved lifetime and stability can be achieved by including a third-harmonic RF cavity in the baseline design. This paper describes the required harmonic RF parameters and the expected system performance.

  8. Microsoft Word - Global Harmonization Classifications.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Harmonization Classifications: The following is prepared for your understanding of the new Global Harmonization System Physical hazards  H200: Unstable explosive  H201: Explosive; mass explosion hazard  H202: Explosive; severe projection hazard  H203: Explosive; fire, blast or projection hazard  H204: Fire or projection hazard  H205: May mass explode in fire  H220: Extremely flammable gas  H221: Flammable gas  H222: Extremely flammable aerosol  H223: Flammable

  9. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, W.F.

    1983-08-31

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  10. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1985-01-01

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  11. R-matrix analysis of {sup 235}U neutron transmission and cross sections in the energy range 0 to 2.25 keV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leal, L.C.; Derrien, H.; Larson, N.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1997-11-01

    This document describes a new R-matrix analysis of {sup 235}U cross section data in the energy range from 0 to 2,250 eV. The analysis was performed with the computer code SAMMY, that has recently been updated to permit, for the first time, inclusion of both differential and integral data within the analysis process. Fourteen differential data sets and six integral quantities were used in this evaluation: two measurements of fission plus capture, one of fission plus absorption, six of fission alone, two of transmission, and one of eta, plus standard values of thermal cross sections for fission, capture, and scattering, and of K1 and the Westcott g-factors for both fission and absorption. An excellent representation was obtained for the high-resolution transmission, fission, and capture cross-section data as well as for the integral quantities. The result is a single set of resonance parameters spanning the entire range up to 2,250 eV, a decided improvement over the present ENDF/VI evaluation, in which eleven discrete resonance parameter sets are required to cover that same energy range. This new evaluation is expected to greatly improve predictability of the criticality safety margins for nuclear systems in which {sup 235}U is present.

  12. Evidence of the 2s2p({sup 1}P) doubly excited state in the harmonic generation spectrum of helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngoko Djiokap, J. M.; Starace, Anthony F.

    2011-07-15

    By solving the two-active-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation in an intense, ultrashort laser field, we investigate evidence of electron correlations in the high-order harmonic generation spectrum of helium. As the frequency of the driving laser pulse varies from 4.6 to 6.6 eV, the 13th, 11th, and 9th harmonics sequentially become resonant with the transition between the ground state and the isolated 2s2p({sup 1}P) autoionizing state of helium, which dramatically enhances these harmonics and changes their profiles. When each of the 9th and 13th harmonics are in resonance with this autoionizing state, there is also a low-order multiphoton resonance with a Rydberg state, resulting in a particularly large enhancement of these harmonics relative to neighboring harmonics. When the 11th harmonic is in resonance with the 2s2p({sup 1}P) autoionizing state, the 13th harmonic is simultaneously in resonance with numerous higher-energy autoionizing states, resulting in a competition between these two harmonics for intensity. These results demonstrate that even electron correlations occurring over a narrow energy interval can have a significant effect on strong-field processes such as harmonic generation.

  13. Elastic Scattering of {sup 7}Li+{sup 27}Al at Backward Angles in the 7-11 MeV Energy Range for Application in RBS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Arazi, A.; Cardona, M. A.; Figueira, J. M.; Hojman, D.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.; Abriola, D.; Capurro, O. A.; Fimiani, L.; Grinberg, P.; Marti, G. V.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.

    2010-08-04

    We have measured elastic excitation functions for the {sup 7}Li+{sup 27}Al system, in an energy range close to its Coulomb barrier (E{sub lab} = 8.4 MeV) in steps of 0.25 MeV. For this purpose, an array of eight surface-barrier detectors was used. To get an insight on the background composition (mainly {alpha} particles), a telescope-detector was used for atomic-number identification. Identical measurements for the {sup 6}Li+{sup 27}Al system are planned for the near future.

  14. Range Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Zip: 80021 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Biomass Product: Uses a thermochemical process to turn biomass into synthetic gas and then fuel Website: www.rangefuels.com...

  15. High harmonic phase in molecular nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, Brian K.

    2009-10-17

    Electronic structure in atoms and molecules modulates the amplitude and phase of high harmonic generation (HHG). We report measurements of the high harmonic spectral amplitude and phase in N{sub 2}. The phase is measured interferometrically by beating the N{sub 2} harmonics with those of an Ar reference oscillator in a gas mixture. A rapid phase shift of 0.2{pi} is observed in the vicinity of the HHG spectral minimum, where a shift of {pi} had been presumed [J. Itatani et al., Nature 432, 867 (2004)]. We compare the phase measurements to a simulation of the HHG recombination step in N{sub 2} that is based on a simple interference model. The results of the simulation suggest that modifications beyond the simple interference model are needed to explain HHG spectra in molecules.

  16. Quantum stochastic thermodynamic on harmonic networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deffner, Sebastian

    2016-01-04

    Fluctuation theorems are symmetry relations for the probability to observe an amount of entropy production in a finite-time process. In a recent paper Pigeon et al (2016 New. J. Phys. 18 013009) derived fluctuation theorems for harmonic networks by means of the large deviation theory. Furthermore, their novel approach is illustrated with various examples of experimentally relevant systems. As a main result, however, Pigeon et al provide new insight how to consistently formulate quantum stochastic thermodynamics, and provide new and robust tools for the study of the thermodynamics of quantum harmonic networks.

  17. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bogle, R.W.

    1960-11-22

    A description is given of a super-regenerative oscillator ranging device provided with radiating and receiving means and being capable of indicating the occurrence of that distance between itself and a reflecting object which so phases the received echo of energy of a preceding emitted oscillation that the intervals between oscillations become uniform.

  18. R-matrix analysis of the {sup 240}Pu neutron cross sections in the thermal to 5700 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H.; Bouland, O.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.

    1997-08-01

    Resonance analysis of high resolution neutron transmission data and of fission cross sections were performed in the neutron energy range from the thermal regions to 5,700 eV by using the Reich-Moore Bayesian code SAMMY. The experimental data base is described and the method of analysis is given. The experimental data were carefully examined in order to identify more resonances than those found in the current evaluated data files. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are given. A new set of the average values of the parameters is proposed, which could be used for calculation of the average cross sections in the unresolved resonance region. The resonance parameters are available IN ENDF-6 format at the national or international data centers.

  19. Absolute Calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS Film Response to X Rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, F.J.; Knauer, J.P.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B.L.

    2006-09-28

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory e-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si(Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this technique to previously published calibrations.

  20. Harmonic generation with multiple wiggler schemes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.; Pierini, P.

    1995-02-01

    In this paper the authors give a simple theoretical description of the basic physics of the single pass high gain free electron laser (FEL), describing in some detail the FEL bunching properties and the harmonic generation technique with a multiple-wiggler scheme or a high gain optical klystron configuration.

  1. Beam test of a grid-less multi-harmonic buncher.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Aseev, V. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Clifft, B.; Pardo, R.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Sengupta, M.; Physics

    2008-01-01

    The Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) is the first superconducting heavy-ion linac in the world. Currently ATLAS is being upgraded with the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU). The latter is a funded project to expand the range of shortlived, neutron-rich rare isotope beams available for nuclear physics research at ATLAS. To avoid beam losses associated with the existing gridded multi-harmonic buncher (MHB), we have developed and built a grid-less four-harmonic buncher with fundamental frequency of 12.125 MHz. In this paper, we report the results of the MHB commissioning and ATLAS beam performance with the new buncher.

  2. The (3He,tf) as a surrogate reaction to determine (n,f) cross sections in the 10 to 20 MeV energy range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basunia, M. S.; Clark, R. M.; Goldblum, B. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Phair, L.; Burke, J. T.; Beausang, C. W.; Bleuel, D. L.; Darakchieva, B.; Dietrich, F. S.; Evtimova, M.; Fallon, P.; Gibelin, J.; Hatarik, R.; Jewett, C. C.; Lesher, S. R.; McMahan, M. A.; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E.; Wiedeking, M.

    2009-02-25

    The surrogate reaction 238U(3He,tf) is used to determine the 237Np(n,f) cross section indirectly over an equivalent neutron energy range from 10 to 20 MeV. A self-supporting ~;;761 mu g/cm2 metallic 238U foil was bombarded with a 42 MeV 3He2+ beam from the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Outgoing charged particles and fission fragments were identified using the Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies (STARS), consists of two 140 mu m and one 1000 mu m Micron S2 type silicon detectors. The 237Np(n,f) cross sections, determined indirectly, were compared with the 237Np(n,f) cross section data from direct measurements, the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B-VII.0), and the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL 3.3) and found to closely follow those datasets. Use of the (3He,tf) reaction as a surrogate to extract (n,f) cross section in the 10 to 20 MeV equivalent neutron energy is found to be suitable.

  3. Absolute calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS film response to x rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV energy range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, F. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B. L

    2006-10-15

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory electron-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si(Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this technique to previously published calibrations. The Biomax-MS results have been fitted to a semiempirical mathematical model (Knauer et al., these proceedings). Users of the model can infer absolute fluences from observed exposure levels at either interpolated or extrapolated energies. To summarize the results: Biomax MS has comparable sensitivity to DEF film below 3 keV but has reduced sensitivity above 3 keV ({approx}50%). The lower exposure results from thinner emulsion layers, designed for use with phosphor screens. The ease with which Biomax-MS can be used in place of DEF (same format film, same developing process, and comparable sensitivity) makes it a good replacement.

  4. Improved low-lying energy levels determined from solar coronal forbidden and spin-forbidden lines in the 500-1500 A range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G.A. . E-mail: george.doschek@nrl.navy.mil

    2007-09-15

    We list observed parity-forbidden and spin-forbidden lines in the 500-1600 A range emitted by solar coronal plasmas and derive improved energy levels from their wavelengths. The lines, emitted by astrophysical abundant elements, belong to transitions within the ground configurations of the type ns{sup 2} np {sup k}, for n = 2, 3 and k = 0-5, and between the lowest term of the first excited configuration 2s2p {sup k+1} and the 2s{sup 2}2p {sup k} ground configurations for k = 0, 1, 2. For each line we give the newly measured wavelength, and the measured or predicted wavelength from the NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (which except for a few cases includes the previously reported compilation of Kaufman and Sugar [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 15 (1986) 321]), and the values of the transition probability taken from the ASD and CHIANTI database. The list contains measured wavelengths of 136 lines of which over 100 were not available for the Kaufman and Sugar compilation. In addition we provide energy levels that were derived from the reported lines.

  5. Space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy free of high-energy neutral particle noise in wavelength range of 10–130 Å on the large helical device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianli; Morita, Shigeru; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 Gifu ; Dong, Chunfeng

    2014-04-15

    A flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer system working in wavelength range of 10–130 Å has been constructed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for profile measurements of bremsstrahlung continuum and line emissions of heavy impurities in the central column of plasmas, which are aimed at studies on Z{sub eff} and impurity transport, respectively. Until now, a large amount of spike noise caused by neutral particles with high energies (≤180 keV) originating in neutral beam injection has been observed in EUV spectroscopy on LHD. The new system has been developed with an aim to delete such a spike noise from the signal by installing a thin filter which can block the high-energy neutral particles entering the EUV spectrometer. Three filters of 11 μm thick beryllium (Be), 3.3 μm thick polypropylene (PP), and 0.5 μm thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET: polyester) have been examined to eliminate the spike noise. Although the 11 μm Be and 3.3 μm PP filters can fully delete the spike noise in wavelength range of λ ≤ 20 Å, the signal intensity is also reduced. The 0.5 μm PET filter, on the other hand, can maintain sufficient signal intensity for the measurement and the spike noise remained in the signal is acceptable. As a result, the bremsstrahlung profile is successfully measured without noise at 20 Å even in low-density discharges, e.g., 2.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}, when the 0.5 μm PET filter is used. The iron n = 3–2 Lα transition array consisting of FeXVII to FeXXIV is also excellently observed with their radial profiles in wavelength range of 10–18 Å. Each transition in the Lα array can be accurately identified with its radial profile. As a typical example of the method a spectral line at 17.62 Å is identified as FeXVIII transition. Results on absolute intensity calibration of the spectrometer system, pulse height and noise count analyses of the spike noise between holographic and ruled gratings and wavelength

  6. Strongly Dispersive Transient Bragg Grating for High Harmonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, J.; Spector, L.S.; Gaarde, M.B.; McFarland, B.K.; Bucksbaum, P.H.; Guhr, Markus; /SLAC, PULSE /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2010-06-04

    We create a transient Bragg grating in a high harmonic generation medium using two counterpropagating pulses. The Bragg grating disperses the harmonics in angle and can diffract a large bandwidth with temporal resolution limited only by the source size.

  7. Strong Second Harmonic Generation from the Tantalum Thioarsenates...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Strong Second Harmonic Generation from the Tantalum Thioarsenates A3Ta2AsS11 (A K and ... and exhibit strong nonlinear optical (NLO) second harmonic generation (SHG) response. ...

  8. Low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier in G band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, Y. S.; Guo, Y. W.; Kao, B. H.; Chen, C. H.; Wang, Z. W.; Hung, C. L.; Chang, T. H.

    2015-12-15

    Harmonic multiplying operation in a gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) permits for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. Lowering a beam voltage is an important step toward miniaturization of a harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA. However, the additional degree of freedom that is provided by the multitude cyclotron harmonics in a low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA still easily generates various competing modes. An improved mode-selective circuit, using circular waveguides with various radii, can provide the rejection points within the frequency range to suppress competing modes. Simulated results reveal that the mode-selective circuit can provide an attenuation of more than 14 dB to suppress the competing modes. Furthermore, the performance of the gyro-TWA is analyzed for studying the sensitivity of the saturated output power and full width at half maximum bandwidth of the gyro-TWA to the beam voltage and the magnetic field. A stable low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA with the mode-selective circuit is predicted to yield a peak output power of 24 kW at 200.4 GHz, corresponding to a saturated gain of 56 dB at an interaction efficiency of 20%. The full width at half maximum bandwidth is 3.0 GHz.

  9. High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindner, F.; Stremme, W.; Schaetzel, M. G.; Grasbon, F.; Paulus, G. G.; Walther, H.; Hartmann, R.; Strueder, L.

    2003-07-01

    We report high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in rare gases using a femtosecond laser system with a very high repetition rate (100 kHz) and low pulse energy (7 {mu}J). To our knowledge, this is the highest repetition rate reported to date for HHG. The tight focusing geometry required to reach sufficiently high intensities implies low efficiency of the process. Harmonics up to the 45th order are nevertheless generated and detected. We show evidence of clear separation and selection of quantum trajectories by moving the gas jet with respect to the focus, in agreement with the theoretical predictions of the semiclassical model of HHG.

  10. Reduced Switching Frequency Active Harmonic Elimination for Multilevel Converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Zhong; Tolbert, Leon M; Chiasson, John N; Ozpineci, Burak

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a reduced switching-frequency active-harmonic-elimination method (RAHEM) to eliminate any number of specific order harmonics of multilevel converters. First, resultant theory is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate low-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for a fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Next, based on the number of harmonics to be eliminated, Newton climbing method is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate high-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for the fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Third, the magnitudes and phases of the residual lower order harmonics are computed, generated, and subtracted from the original voltage waveform to eliminate these low-order harmonics. Compared to the active-harmonic-elimination method (AHEM), which generates square waves to cancel high-order harmonics, RAHEM has lower switching frequency. The simulation results show that the method can effectively eliminate all the specific harmonics, and a low total harmonic distortion (THD) near sine wave is produced. An experimental 11-level H-bridge multilevel converter with a field-programmable gate-array controller is employed to experimentally validate the method. The experimental results show that RAHEM does effectively eliminate any number of specific harmonics, and the output voltage waveform has low switching frequency and low THD.

  11. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  12. Pressure-induced phase matching in high-order harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazamias, S.; Daboussi, S.; Guilbaud, O.; Cassou, K.; Ros, D.; Cros, B.; Maynard, G.

    2011-06-15

    We present an alternative explanation of the high-order-harmonic-generation experimental results published recently by Seres et al. [Nature Phys. 6, 455 (2010)]. We show that the physical interpretation can be comprehensively done in the frame of classical theory of high-order harmonic generation without referring to a parametric effect in the XUV domain. The experimental conditions explored by Seres et al. indeed correspond to the case of long-pulse, low-infrared-energy laser beams for which tight focusing is necessary to reach the minimum intensity required for high atomic response. The positive atomic dispersion can compensate for the Gouy phase and explains the behavior of the experimental variation of the harmonic signal presented. We will show that our interpretation explains not only the global behavior of the curves but also the second-order variation of the signal as a function of experimental parameters.

  13. NREL: Energy Analysis - Sustainability Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Sustainable Biomass Resource Development and Use Renewable Energy on Contaminated Lands Technology Systems Analysis Geospatial Analysis Key ...

  14. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Aaron K.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-07-15

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  15. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX): Instructions for Implementing the Test Procedure, Calibration Test Reference Results, and Example Acceptance-Range Criteria

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Energy Codes Program Building Energy Codes Program An estimated 75% of U.S. buildings will be new or renovated by 2035. Building energy codes ensure they use energy efficiently over the life of the building. An estimated 75% of U.S. buildings will be new or renovated by 2035. Building energy codes ensure they use energy efficiently over the life of the building. The Building Technologies Office (BTO) supports the development and implementation of residential and commercial building

  16. Harmonic generation by circularly polarized laser beams propagating in plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Ekta; Hemlata,; Jha, Pallavi

    2015-04-15

    An analytical theory is developed for studying the phenomenon of generation of harmonics by the propagation of an obliquely incident, circularly polarized laser beam in homogeneous, underdense plasma. The amplitudes of second and third harmonic radiation as well as detuning distance have been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. The amplitude of harmonic radiation increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning distance decreases, for a given plasma electron density. It is observed that the generated second and third harmonic radiation is linearly and elliptically polarized, respectively. The harmonic radiation vanishes at normal incidence of the circularly polarized laser beam.

  17. Prolate spheroidal harmonic expansion of gravitational field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2014-06-01

    As a modification of the oblate spheroidal case, a recursive method is developed to compute the point value and a few low-order derivatives of the prolate spheroidal harmonics of the second kind, Q{sub nm} (y), namely the unnormalized associated Legendre function (ALF) of the second kind with its argument in the domain, 1 < y < ∞. They are required in evaluating the prolate spheroidal harmonic expansion of the gravitational field in addition to the point value and the low-order derivatives of P-bar {sub nm}(t), the 4π fully normalized ALF of the first kind with its argument in the domain, |t| ≤ 1. The new method will be useful in the gravitational field computation of elongated celestial objects.

  18. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2015-04-02

    Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.

  19. Tunable coherent soft X-ray source based on the generation of high-order harmonic of femtosecond laser radiation in gas-filled capillaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkov, Yu A; Yashunin, D A; Kiselev, A M; Stepanov, A N; Andreev, N E

    2014-05-30

    We have carried out experimental and theoretical investigations of a tunable coherent soft X-ray radiation source in the 30 – 52 nm wavelength range based on the generation of high-order harmonics of femtosecond laser radiation propagating in a dielectric xenon-filled capillary. The long path of laser pulse propagation through the capillary permits tuning the generated harmonic wavelengths to almost completely span the range under consideration. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  20. HVDC-AC system interaction from AC harmonics. Volume 1. Harmonic impedance calculations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W; Turner, A E; Whitney, R R

    1982-09-01

    Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.

  1. Nonlinear excitation of low-n harmonics in reduced magnetohydrodynamic simulations of edge-localized modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krebs, I.; Hölzl, M.; Lackner, K.; Günter, S.

    2013-08-15

    Nonlinear simulations of the early edge-localized mode (ELM) phase based on a typical type-I ELMy ASDEX Upgrade discharge have been carried out using the reduced MHD code JOREK. The analysis is focused on the evolution of the toroidal Fourier spectrum. It is found that during the nonlinear evolution, linearly subdominant low-n Fourier components, in particular the n = 1, grow to energies comparable with linearly dominant harmonics. A simple model is developed, based on the idea that energy is transferred among the toroidal harmonics via second order nonlinear interaction. The simple model reproduces and explains very well the early nonlinear evolution of the toroidal spectrum in the JOREK simulations. Furthermore, it is shown for the n = 1 harmonic, that its spatial structure changes significantly during the transition from linear to nonlinearly driven growth. The rigidly growing structure of the linearly barely unstable n = 1 reaches far into the plasma core. In contrast, the nonlinearly driven n= 1 has a rigidly growing structure localized at the plasma edge, where the dominant toroidal harmonics driving the n = 1 are maximal and in phase. The presented quadratic coupling model might explain the recent experimental observation of strong low-n components in magnetic measurements [Wenninger et al., “Non-linear magnetic perturbations during edge localized modes in TCV dominated by low n mode components,” Nucl. Fusion (submitted)].

  2. Centrality dependence of dihadron correlations and azimuthal anisotropy harmonics in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2012-05-01

    Measurements from the CMS experiment at the LHC of dihadron correlations for charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV are presented. The results are reported as a function of the particle transverse momenta (pt) and collision centrality over a broad range in relative pseudorapidity [Delta(eta)] and the full range of relative azimuthal angle [Delta(phi)]. The observed two-dimensional correlation structure in Delta(eta) and Delta(phi) is characterised by a narrow peak at (Delta(eta), Delta(phi)) approximately (0, 0) from jet-like correlations and a long-range structure that persists up to at least |Delta(eta)| = 4. An enhancement of the magnitude of the short-range jet peak is observed with increasing centrality, especially for particles of pt around 1-2 GeV/c. The long-range azimuthal dihadron correlations are extensively studied using a Fourier decomposition analysis. The extracted Fourier coefficients are found to factorise into a product of single-particle azimuthal anisotropies up to pt approximately 3-3.5 GeV/c for at least one particle from each pair, except for the second-order harmonics in the most central PbPb events. Various orders of the single-particle azimuthal anisotropy harmonics are extracted for associated particle pt of 1-3 GeV/c, as a function of the trigger particle pt up to 20 GeV/c and over the full centrality range.

  3. From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to High-Altitude-Pilot Protection Suits— Mound Science and Energy Museum Programs Cover a Wide Range of Topics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Mound Science and Energy Museum (MSEM) is an active, volunteer-led organization located at the former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mound site in Miamisburg, Ohio. MSEM keeps the 60-year...

  4. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abodeely, Jared; Stevens, Daniel; Ray, Allison; Newby, Deborah; Schaller, Kastli

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  5. Neutron Total Cross Sections of {sup 235}U From Transmission Measurements in the Energy Range 2 keV to 300 keV and Statistical Model Analysis of the Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H.; Harvey, J.A.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    2000-05-01

    The average {sup 235}U neutron total cross sections were obtained in the energy range 2 keV to 330 keV from high-resolution transmission measurements of a 0.033 atom/b sample.1 The experimental data were corrected for the contribution of isotope impurities and for resonance self-shielding effects in the sample. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data of Poenitz et al.4 in the energy range 40 keV to 330 keV and are the only available accurate experimental data in the energy range 2 keV to 40 keV. ENDF/B-VI evaluated data are 1.7% larger. The SAMMY/FITACS code 2 was used for a statistical model analysis of the total cross section, selected fission cross sections and data in the energy range 2 keV to 200 keV. SAMMY/FITACS is an extended version of SAMMY which allows consistent analysis of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The Reich-Moore resonance parameters were obtained 3 from a SAMMY Bayesian fits of high resolution experimental neutron transmission and partial cross section data below 2.25 keV, and the corresponding average parameters and covariance data were used in the present work as input for the statistical model analysis of the high energy range of the experimental data. The result of the analysis shows that the average resonance parameters obtained from the analysis of the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those obtained in the resolved energy region. Another important result is that ENDF/B-VI capture cross section could be too small by more than 10% in the energy range 10 keV to 200 keV.

  6. Separation of High Order Harmonics with Fluoride Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Wright, Travis; Hertlein, Marcus; Falcone, Roger; Belkacem, Ali

    2010-08-02

    The lower orders produced in high order harmonic generation can be effciently temporally separated into monochromatic pulses by propagation in a Fluoride window while still preserving their femtosecond pulse duration. We present calculations for MgF2, CaF2, and LiF windows for the third, fifth, and seventh harmonics of 800 nm. We demonstrate the use of this simple and inexpensive technique in a femtosecond pump/probe experiment using the fifth harmonic.

  7. Numerical Verification of Bounce Harmonic Resonances in Neoclassical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Toroidal Viscosity for Tokamaks (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Numerical Verification of Bounce Harmonic Resonances in Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity for Tokamaks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical Verification of Bounce Harmonic Resonances in Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity for Tokamaks This Letter presents the rst numerical veri cation for the bounce-harmonic (BH) resonance phenomena of the neoclassical transport in a tokamak perturbed by non-axisymmetric magnetic

  8. Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherratt, Paul A. J.; Ramakrishna, S.; Seideman, Tamar

    2011-05-15

    We explore the information content of the polarization of high-order harmonics emitted from aligned molecules driven by a linearly polarized field. The study builds upon our previous work [Ramakrishna et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010)], which illustrated that the phase of the continuum electronic wave function, and hence the underlying molecular potential, is responsible, at least in part, for the ellipticity observed in harmonic spectra. We use a simple model potential and systematically vary the potential parameters to investigate the sense in which, and the degree to which, the shape of the molecular potential is imprinted onto the polarization of the emitted harmonics. Strong ellipticity is observed over a wide range of potential parameters, suggesting that the emission of elliptically polarized harmonics is a general phenomenon, yet qualitatively determined by the molecular properties. The sensitivity of the ellipticity to the model parameters invites the use of ellipticity measurements as a probe of the continuum wave function and the underlying molecular potential.

  9. Generation of even harmonics in coupled quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Shifang; Duan Suqing; Yang Ning; Chu Weidong; Zhang Wei

    2011-07-15

    Using the spatial-temporal symmetry principle we developed recently, we propose an effective scheme for even-harmonics generation in coupled quantum dots. The relative intensity of odd and even harmonic components in the emission spectrum can be controlled by tuning the dipole couplings among the dots, which can be realized in experiments by careful design of the nanostructures. In particular, pure 2nth harmonics and (2n+1)th harmonics (where n is an integer) can be generated simultaneously with polarizations in two mutual perpendicular directions in our systems. An experimental design of the coupled dots system is presented.

  10. Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene Title: Optical ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud ...

  11. A Simple Harmonic Universe (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    RELATIVITY THEORY; HARMONICS; PARTICLE PRODUCTION; UNIVERSE Theory-HEP,HEPPH, HEPTH, ASTRO, GRQC Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text...

  12. Limitations and improvements for harmonic generation measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, Steven; Croxford, Anthony; Neild, Simon

    2014-02-18

    A typical acoustic harmonic generation measurement comes with certain limitations. Firstly, the use of the plane wave-based analysis used to extract the nonlinear parameter, β, ignores the effects of diffraction, attenuation and receiver averaging which are common to most experiments, and may therefore limit the accuracy of a measurement. Secondly, the method usually requires data obtained from a through-transmission type setup, which may not be practical in a field measurement scenario where access to the component is limited. Thirdly, the technique lacks a means of pinpointing areas of damage in a component, as the measured nonlinearity represents an average over the length of signal propagation. Here we describe a three-dimensional model of harmonic generation in a sound beam, which is intended to provide a more realistic representation of a typical experiment. The presence of a reflecting boundary is then incorporated into the model to assess the feasibility of performing single-sided measurements. Experimental validation is provided where possible. Finally, a focusing acoustic source is modelled to provide a theoretical indication of the afforded advantages when the nonlinearity is localized.

  13. X-ray FEL based on harmonics generation and electron beam outcoupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Burnham, B.

    1995-12-31

    Electron beam outcoupling was suggested by N. A. Vinokurov as a method of optics independent outcoupling for high power FELs. The bunching of the electron beam is provided in a master oscillator. The prebunched electron beam then radiates coherently into an additional wiggler called the radiator. The electron beam is turned by an achromatic bend into this wiggler and its radiation propagates with a small angle with respect to the OK-4 optical axis. Thus, the radiation will pass around the mirror of the master oscillator optical cavity and can then be utilized. This scheme is perfectly suited for harmonic generation if the radiator wiggler is tuned on one of the master oscillator wavelength harmonics. This system is reminiscent of a klystron operating on a harmonic of the reference frequency. In this paper we present the theory of this device, its spectral and spatial characteristics of radiation, the optimization of the master oscillator, the achromatic bend and bunching for harmonic generation, and influence of beam parameters (energy spread, emittance, etc.) on generated power. Examples of possible storage ring and linac driven systems are discussed.

  14. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  15. Transmission level instrument transformers and transient event recorders characterization for harmonic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S.; Zhang, Fan ); Cokkinides, G.J. ); Coffeen, L.; Burnett, R.; McBride, J. ); Zelingher, S.; Stillman, G.

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents a technique for laboratory characterization of instrument transformers designed for transmission level voltage and current measurements. The technique is also extended to Transient Event Recorders (TERs). The objective of the method is to determine the suitability of existing substation instrument transformers for harmonic measurements, particularly in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz covering the first 25 harmonics. Specifically, the following characteristics are of interest in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz: transfer function magnitude and phase, linearity, and sensitivity of the frequency response to burdens. The measurement technique is based on exciting the instrument transformer primary with an impulsive waveform. Both input and output waveforms are recorded using laboratory grade probes and digitizers. Subsequently, digital signal processing techniques are used to compute the instrument transformer frequency response. Several voltage transformers (both PTs and CCVTs) and current transformers in the 230kV-765kV voltage range were tested. The results of these tests are described in the paper. Conclusions are presented regarding the suitability of the instrument transformers and transient event recorders for harmonic measurement and the requirements for such a system. A quantitative analysis of the measurement accuracy and software based methods to enhance the measurement accuracy is also presented.

  16. Phase diagram of harmonically confined one-dimensional fermions with attractive and repulsive interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campo, V. L. Jr.; Capelle, K.

    2005-12-15

    We construct the complete U-{mu} phase diagram for harmonically confined ultracold fermionic atoms with repulsive and attractive interactions({mu} is the chemical potential and U the interaction strength). Our approach is based on density-functional theory, and employs analytical expressions for the kinetic and correlation energy functionals, permitting us to obtain closed expressions for all phase boundaries and characteristic lines of the phase diagram, both for repulsive and attractive interactions.

  17. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Thin-film Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  18. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  19. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  20. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  1. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  2. RF physics of ICWC discharge at high cyclotron harmonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyssoivan, A.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Vervier, M.; Van Schoor, M.; Bobkov, V.; Rohde, V.; Schneider, P.; Douai, D.; Kogut, D.; Kreter, A.; Möller, S.; Philipps, V.; Sergienko, G.; Moiseenko, V.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Collaboration: TEXTOR Team; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-02-12

    Recent experiments on Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) performed in tokamaks TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade with standard ICRF antennas operated at fixed frequencies but variable toroidal magnetic field demonstrated rather contrasting parameters of ICWC discharge in scenarios with on-axis fundamental ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) for protons,ω=ω{sub H+}, and with its high cyclotron harmonics (HCH), ω=10ω{sub cH+}⋅ HCH scenario: very high antenna coupling to low density RF plasmas (P{sub pl}≈0.9P{sub RF-G}) and low energy Maxwellian distribution of CX hydrogen atoms with temperature T{sub H}≈350 eV. Fundamental ICR: lower antenna-plasma coupling efficiency (by factor of about 1.5 times) and generation of high energy non-Maxwellian CX hydrogen atoms (with local energy E{sub ⊥H} ≥1.0 keV). In the present paper, we analyze the obtained experimental results numerically using (i) newly developed 0-D transport code describing the process of plasma production with electron and ion collisional ionization in helium-hydrogen gas mixture and (ii) earlier developed 1-D Dispersion Relation Solver accounting for finite temperature effects and collision absorption mechanisms for all plasma species in addition to conventionally examined Landau/TTPM damping for electrons and cyclotron absorption for ions. The numerical study of plasma production in helium with minor hydrogen content in low and high toroidal magnetic fields is presented. The investigation of the excitation, conversion and absorption of plasma waves as function of B{sub T}-field suggests that only fast waves (FW) may give a crucial impact on antenna coupling and characteristics of the ICWC discharge using standard poloidally polarized ICRF antennas designed to couple RF power mainly to FW. The collisional (non-resonant) absorption by electrons and ions and IC absorption by resonant ions of minor concentration in low T{sub e} plasmas is studied at fundamental ICR and its high harmonics.

  3. Basic principles of the surface harmonics method: Flat geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovalishin, A. A.

    2011-12-15

    The basic principles of the surface harmonics method are described. A one-dimensional problem is used to exemplify the specific features of the method and the algorithms for construction of finite-difference equations. The objective of this study is to popularize the surface harmonics method among specialists.

  4. Bound state solution of Dirac equation for 3D harmonics oscillator plus trigonometric scarf noncentral potential using SUSY QM approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cari, C. Suparmi, A.

    2014-09-30

    Dirac equation of 3D harmonics oscillator plus trigonometric Scarf non-central potential for spin symmetric case is solved using supersymmetric quantum mechanics approach. The Dirac equation for exact spin symmetry reduces to Schrodinger like equation. The relativistic energy and wave function for spin symmetric case are simply obtained using SUSY quantum mechanics method and idea of shape invariance.

  5. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  6. NREL Uses Fuel Cells to Increase the Range of Battery Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL analysis identifies potential cost-effective scenarios for using small fuel cell power units to increase the range of medium-duty battery electric vehicles. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Charac- terized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations such as parcel delivery are well

  7. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final report, August 1, 1978-February 28, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlin, J.M.; Cunniff, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O'Dea, P.

    1981-01-01

    The work accomplished from August 1978 to February 1980 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program are described. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams and special analyses in support of several federal agencies.

  8. Advanced properties of extended plasmas for efficient high-order harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Physics Department, Voronezh State University, Voronezh 394006 ; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.

    2014-05-15

    We demonstrate the advanced properties of extended plasma plumes (5 mm) for efficient harmonic generation of laser radiation compared with the short lengths of plasmas (∼0.3–0.5 mm) used in previous studies. The harmonic conversion efficiency quadratically increased with the growth of plasma length. The studies of this process along the whole extreme ultraviolet range using the long plasma jets produced on various metal surfaces, particularly including the resonance-enhanced laser frequency conversion and two-color pump, are presented. Such plasmas could be used for the quasi-phase matching experiments by proper modulation of the spatial characteristics of extended ablating area and formation of separated plasma jets.

  9. Proposed changes to generating capacity 1980-1989 for the contiguous United States: as projected by the Regional Electric Reliability Councils in their April 1, 1980 long-range coordinated planning reports to the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-12-01

    The changes in generating capacity projected for 1980 to 1989 are summarized. Tabulated data provide summaries to the information on projected generating unit construction, retirements, and changes, in several different categories and groupings. The new generating units to be completed by the end of 1989 total 699, representing 259,490 megawatts. This total includes 10 wind power and one fuel cell installations totaling 48.5 MW to be completed by the end of 1989. There are 321 units totaling 13,222 MW to be retired. There are capacity changes due to upratings and deratings. Summary data are presented for: total requirement for electric energy generation for 1985; hydroelectric energy production for 1985; nuclear energy production for 1985; geothermal and other energy production for 1985; approximate non-fossil generation for 1985; range of fossil energy requirements for 1985; actual fossil energy sources 1974 to 1979; estimated range of fossil fuel requirements for 1985; coal capacity available in 1985; and computation of fuel use in 1985. Power plant capacity factors are presented. Extensive data on proposed generating capacity changes by individual units in the 9 Regional Electric Reliability Councils are presented.

  10. Efficiency enhancement of nonlinear odd harmonics in thermal free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazouband, F.; Maraghechi, B.

    2013-05-07

    The effect of axial energy spread on the radiation of third harmonic is studied in the free electron laser with planar wiggler and ion-channel guiding. Spread in the longitudinal momentum and so in the initial energy of electron beam, without any spread in the transverse velocity, is assumed in the form of Gaussian distribution function. The technique that is employed is a one-dimensional and steady-state simulation. A set of self consistent nonlinear differential equations that describes the system is solved numerically by Runge-Kutta method. Due to the sensitivity of harmonics to thermal effects, gain improvement of third harmonic radiation is achieved by using ion-channel guiding technique and efficiency enhancement is applied by tapering the magnetic field of wiggler to optimize radiation. The bunching parameter of the electron beam is also studied. It is found that the growth of the magnitude of the bunching parameter that is caused by the ponderomotive wave stops before the saturation point of the radiation. This means that ponderomotive wave saturates at a shorter distance compared to the radiation.

  11. High-harmonic generation in a dense medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strelkov, V.V.; Platonenko, V.T.; Becker, A.

    2005-05-15

    The high-harmonic generation in a plasma or gas under conditions when the single-atom response is affected by neighboring ions or atoms of the medium is studied theoretically. We solve numerically the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a single-electron atom in the combined fields of the neighboring particles and the laser, and average the results over different random positions of the particles using the Monte Carlo method. Harmonic spectra are calculated for different medium densities and laser intensities. We observe a change of the harmonic properties due to a random variation of the harmonic phase induced by the field of the medium, when the medium density exceeds a certain transition density. The transition density is found to depend on the harmonic order, but it is almost independent of the fundamental intensity. It also differs for the two (shorter and longer) quantum paths. The latter effect leads for ionic densities in the transition regime to a narrowing of the harmonic lines and a shortening of the attosecond pulses generated using a group of harmonics.

  12. Relativistic high harmonic generation in gas jet targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; and others

    2012-07-11

    We experimentally demonstrate a new regime of high-order harmonic generation by relativistic-irradiance lasers in gas jet targets. Bright harmonics with both odd and even orders, generated by linearly as well as circularly polarized pulses, are emitted in the forward direction, while the base harmonic frequency is downshifted. A 9 TW laser generates harmonics up to 360 eV, within the 'water window' spectral region. With a 120 TW laser producing 40 uJ/sr per harmonic at 120 eV, we demonstrate the photon number scalability. The observed harmonics cannot be explained by previously suggested scenarios. A novel high-order harmonics generation mechanism [T. Zh. Esirkepov et al., AIP Proceedings, this volume], which explains our experimental findings, is based on the phenomena inherent in the relativistic laser - underdense plasma interactions (self-focusing, cavity evacuation, and bow wave generation), mathematical catastrophe theory which explains formation of electron density singularities (cusps), and collective radiation due to nonlinear oscillations of a compact charge.

  13. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  14. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  15. Revenue and harmonics: An evaluation of some proposed rate structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEachern, A.; Grady, W.M.; Moncrief, W.A.; Heydt, G.T.; McGranaghan, M.

    1995-01-01

    IEEE Recommended Practice 519 sets specific limits on harmonic voltages and currents at the ``point of common coupling``, which is usually interpreted as the revenue meter. Although most utilities will employ these limits simply to persuade and encourage their customers to reduce harmonics (and vice versa), it is also possible to construct economic incentives to encourage both the utility and the consumer to remain within the limits described in IEEE 519. 7his paper discusses seven approaches to this challenge, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each. It appears that the ``Harmonic-Adjusted Power Factor`` approach is practical, justifiable, compatible with existing rate structures, and relatively easy to implement.

  16. High order harmonic generation in dual gas multi-jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tosa, Valer E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro; Hojbota, Calin E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro

    2013-11-13

    High order harmonic generation (HHG) in gas media suffers from a low conversion efficiency that has its origins in the interaction of the atom/molecule with the laser field. Phase matching is the main way to enhance the harmonic flux and several solutions have been designed to achieve it. Here we present numerical results modeling HHG in a system of multi-jets in which two gases alternate: the first gas jet (for example Ne) generates harmonics and the second one which ionizes easier, recover the phase matching condition. We obtain configurations which are experimentally feasible with respect to pressures and dimensions of the jets.

  17. Microionization chamber air-kerma calibration coefficients as a function of photon energy for x-ray spectra in the range of 20-250 kVp relative to {sup 60}Co

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, J. R.; Micka, J. A.; DeWerd, L. A.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of a wide range of microionization chambers for reference dosimetry measurements in low- and medium-energy x-ray beams. Methods: Measurements were performed with six cylindrical microchamber models, as well as one scanning chamber and two Farmer-type chambers for comparison purposes. Air-kerma calibration coefficients were determined at the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory for each chamber for a range of low- and medium-energy x-ray beams (20-250 kVp), with effective energies ranging from 11.5 keV to 145 keV, and a {sup 60}Co beam. A low-Z proof-of-concept microchamber was developed and calibrated with and without a high-Z silver epoxy on the collecting electrode. Results: All chambers composed of low-Z materials (Z{<=} 13), including the Farmer-type chambers, the scanning chamber, and the PTW TN31014 and the proof-of-concept microchambers, exhibited air-kerma calibration coefficients with little dependence on the quality of the beam. These chambers typically exhibited variations in calibration coefficients of less than 3% with the beam quality, for medium energy beams. However, variations in air-kerma calibration coefficients of greater than 50% were measured over the range of medium-energy x-ray beams for each of the microchambers containing high-Z collecting electrodes (Z > 13). For these high-Z chambers, which include the Exradin A14SL and A16 chambers, the PTW TN31006 chamber, the IBA CC01 chamber, and the proof-of-concept chamber containing silver, the average variation in air-kerma calibration coefficients between any two calibration beams was nearly 25% over the entire range of beam qualities investigated. Conclusions: Due to the strong energy dependence observed with microchambers containing high-Z components, these chambers may not be suitable dosimeters for kilovoltage x-ray applications, as they do not meet the TG-61 requirements. It is recommended that only microchambers

  18. Harmonized Emissions Analysis Tool (HEAT) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to support local governments in planning, implementing and monitoring greenhouse gas and air pollution emission reduction programs. LEDSGP green logo.png This tool is included in...

  19. NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Results...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The published life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) estimates for hydropower, ocean, geothermal, biopower, solar (crystalline silicon photovoltaic, thin film photovoltaic, and ...

  20. Viking Range: Order (2014-CE-23014)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Viking Range, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Viking Range had failed to certify that certain models of cooking products comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  1. American Range: Order (2014-CE-23006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered American Range Corporation to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding American Range had failed to certify that certain models of cooking products comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  2. Harmonization - Two Years' of Transportation Regulation Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colborn, K.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation issued modifications to the Hazardous Materials Regulations in October, 2004 as part of an ongoing effort to 'harmonize' U.S. regulations with those of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The harmonization effort had several predictable effects on low level radioactive materials shipment that were anticipated even prior to their implementation. However, after two years' experience with the new regulations, transporters have identified several effects on transportation which were not entirely apparent when the regulations were first implemented. This paper presents several case studies in the transportation of low level radioactive materials since the harmonization rules took effect. In each case, an analysis of the challenge posed by the regulatory revision is provided. In some cases, more than one strategy for compliance was considered, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. In several cases, regulatory interpretations were sought and obtained, and these are presented to clarify the legitimacy of the compliance approach. The presentation of interpretations will be accompanied by reports of clarifying discussions with the U.S. DOT about the interpretation and scope of the regulatory change. Specific transportation issues raised by the revised hazardous materials regulations are reviewed, including: The new definition of radioactive material in accordance with isotope-specific concentration and total activity limits. The new hazardous materials regulations (HMR) created a new definition for radioactive material. A case study is presented for soils contaminated with low levels of Th-230. These soils had been being shipped for years as exempt material under the old 2,000 pCi/g concentration limit. Under the new HMR, these same soils were radioactive material. Further, in rail-car quantities their activity exceeded an A2 value, so shipment of the material in gondolas appeared to require an IP-2 package

  3. American Range: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-23006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that American Range Corporation failed to certify cooking products as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. Viking Range: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-23014)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Viking Range, LLC failed to certify cooking products as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  5. Reconstruction of local neutron physical functionals in surface harmonics method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarinov, V. F. Nevinitsa, V. A.

    2010-12-15

    Formulas for reconstruction of local neutron physical functionals for a three-stage calculation of a 2D VVER-1000 core using the surface harmonics method are obtained, implemented in the SUHAM code, and verified.

  6. Investigation of plasma diagnostics using a dual frequency harmonic technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Young-Do; Cho, Sung-Won; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2014-09-07

    Plasma diagnostic methods using harmonic currents analysis of electrostatic probes were experimentally investigated to understand the differences in their measurement of the plasma parameters. When dual frequency voltage (ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}) was applied to a probe, various harmonic currents (ω{sub 1}, 2ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}, 2ω{sub 2},ω{sub 2}±ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}±2ω{sub 1}) were generated due to the non-linearity of the probe sheath. The electron temperature can be obtained from the ratio of the two harmonics of the probe currents. According to the combinations of the two harmonics, the sensitivities in the measurement of the electron temperature differed, and this results in a difference of the electron temperature. From experiments and simulation, it is shown that this difference is caused by the systematic and random noise.

  7. Harmonic mode competition in a terahertz gyrotron backward-wave...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The viability of a harmonic gyro-BWO is assessed on the basis of the results obtained. Authors: Kao, S. H. ; Chiu, C. C. ; Chang, P. C. ; Wu, K. L. ; Chu, K. R. 1 + Show Author ...

  8. A Massively Parallel Solver for the Mechanical Harmonic Analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Details In-Document Search Title: A Massively Parallel Solver for the Mechanical Harmonic Analysis of Accelerator Cavities ACE3P is a 3D massively parallel simulation suite that...

  9. Nonlinearly driven harmonics of Alfvén modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, B. Breizman, B. N.; Zheng, L. J.; Berk, H. L.

    2014-01-15

    In order to study the leading order nonlinear magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) harmonic response of a plasma in realistic geometry, the AEGIS code has been generalized to account for inhomogeneous source terms. These source terms are expressed in terms of the quadratic corrections that depend on the functional form of a linear MHD eigenmode, such as the Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmode. The solution of the resultant equation gives the second order harmonic response. Preliminary results are presented here.

  10. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  11. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  12. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2015-12-04

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching—the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms—favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth–limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.

  13. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; et al

    2015-12-04

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching—the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms—favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams inmore » the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth–limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.« less

  14. SAR ambiguous range suppression.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Pulsed Radar systems suffer range ambiguities, that is, echoes from pulses transmitted at different times arrive at the receiver simultaneously. Conventional mitigation techniques are not always adequate. However, pulse modulation schemes exist that allow separation of ambiguous ranges in Doppler space, allowing easy filtering of problematic ambiguous ranges.

  15. Opportunities for regional harmonization of appliance standards and l abeling program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2003-09-01

    The South Asian Regional Initiative for Energy (SARI/Energy) calls for a series of activities to promote Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) of end use appliances in the region. In pursuit of this goal, the project supports several seminars and meetings that bring together policymakers and stakeholders from throughout the region. The purpose of these gatherings is to encourage a dialogue among participants as to the benefits and barriers associated with EES&L programs. In addition, it is the role of the program organizers to provide participants with the technical details necessary to make progress towards effective efficiency programs. One component of the initiative is to encourage the harmonization (alignment) of existing program components, and the pursuit of new programs coordinated at the regional level. In support of this goal, the report provides information aimed at motivating and enabling cooperative activities which will provide concrete benefits to programs in each country, whether well developed, or still in the initial planning stage. It should be emphasized that the underlying objective of the harmonization component of the SARI/Energy project is to increase the potential for success of EES&L programs of all countries involved, and to reduce burdens on manufacturers, exporters and importers in each country. Harmonization ''for it's own sake'' is not desirable, nor is it suggested that policymakers should bring their programs in line with international norms if doing so would present a disadvantage to their own efficiency programs, or to commercial interests within their country. If there is no such disadvantage, however, the program encourages alignment of policies and provides a forum at which this alignment can be pursued. The report covers several main topics, with varying emphasis. First, a general discussion of the motivation for an explicit policy of regional harmonization is given. Next, the current status of existing programs in

  16. RHIC low energy tests and initial operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satogata,T.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Jappe, W.; Lee, R.C.; Mackay, W.W.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Michnoff, R.; Oerter, B.; Pozdeyev, E.; Roser, T.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-05-04

    Future Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) runs, including a portion of FY10 heavy ion operations, will explore collisions at center of mass energies of 5-50 GeV/n (GeV/nucleon). Operations at these energies is motivated by a search for the QCD phase transition critical point. The lowest end of this energy range is nearly a factor of four below the nominal RHIC injection center of mass energy of {radical} s = 20.8 GeV/n. There are several operational challenges in the RHIC low-energy regime, including harmonic number changes, small longitudinal acceptance, lowered magnet field quality, nonlinear orbit control, and luminosity monitoring. We report on the experience with some of these challenges during beam tests with gold in March 2008, including first RHIC operations at {radical}s = 9.18 GeV/n and first beam experience at {radical}s = 5 GeV/n.

  17. Wide tracking range, auto ranging, low jitter phase lock loop for swept and fixed frequency systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerner, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a wide tracking range phase locked loop (PLL) circuit that achieves minimal jitter in a recovered clock signal, regardless of the source of the jitter (i.e. whether it is in the source or the transmission media). The present invention PLL has automatic harmonic lockout detection circuitry via a novel lock and seek control logic in electrical communication with a programmable frequency discriminator and a code balance detector. (The frequency discriminator enables preset of a frequency window of upper and lower frequency limits to derive a programmable range within which signal acquisition is effected. The discriminator works in combination with the code balance detector circuit to minimize the sensitivity of the PLL circuit to random data in the data stream). In addition, the combination of a differential loop integrator with the lock and seek control logic obviates a code preamble and guarantees signal acquisition without harmonic lockup. An adaptive cable equalizer is desirably used in combination with the present invention PLL to recover encoded transmissions containing a clock and/or data. The equalizer automatically adapts to equalize short haul cable lengths of coaxial and twisted pair cables or wires and provides superior jitter performance itself. The combination of the equalizer with the present invention PLL is desirable in that such combination permits the use of short haul wires without significant jitter.

  18. Two-wave regime of operation of the high-harmonic gyrotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savilov, A. V.; Denisov, G. G.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Osharin, I. V.

    2015-04-15

    The use of the two-wave co-generation is proposed as a way to decrease the effective Q-factor of the operating near-cutoff wave of the gyrotron. In this two-wave regime, the operating wave represents a “hot” wave mode formed by two partial “cold” modes (near-cutoff and far-from-cutoff ones) coupled on the electron beam. It is shown that the use of this regime can provide a significant decrease of the Ohmic losses in low-relativistic high-harmonic gyrotrons operating in the THz frequency range.

  19. Automatic range selector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  20. Modulation compression for short wavelength harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, J.

    2010-01-11

    Laser modulator is used to seed free electron lasers. In this paper, we propose a scheme to compress the initial laser modulation in the longitudinal phase space by using two opposite sign bunch compressors and two opposite sign energy chirpers. This scheme could potentially reduce the initial modulation wavelength by a factor of C and increase the energy modulation amplitude by a factor of C, where C is the compression factor of the first bunch compressor. Such a compressed energy modulation can be directly used to generate short wavelength current modulation with a large bunching factor.

  1. Molecular Solid EOS based on Quasi-Harmonic Oscillator approximation for phonons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-09-02

    A complete equation of state (EOS) for a molecular solid is derived utilizing a Helmholtz free energy. Assuming that the solid is nonconducting, phonon excitations dominate the specific heat. Phonons are approximated as independent quasi-harmonic oscillators with vibrational frequencies depending on the specific volume. The model is suitable for calibrating an EOS based on isothermal compression data and infrared/Raman spectroscopy data from high pressure measurements utilizing a diamond anvil cell. In contrast to a Mie-Gr ̈uneisen EOS developed for an atomic solid, the specific heat and Gr ̈uneisen coefficient depend on both density and temperature.

  2. OBTAINING POTENTIAL FIELD SOLUTIONS WITH SPHERICAL HARMONICS AND FINITE DIFFERENCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toth, Gabor; Van der Holst, Bart; Huang Zhenguang

    2011-05-10

    Potential magnetic field solutions can be obtained based on the synoptic magnetograms of the Sun. Traditionally, a spherical harmonics decomposition of the magnetogram is used to construct the current- and divergence-free magnetic field solution. This method works reasonably well when the order of spherical harmonics is limited to be small relative to the resolution of the magnetogram, although some artifacts, such as ringing, can arise around sharp features. When the number of spherical harmonics is increased, however, using the raw magnetogram data given on a grid that is uniform in the sine of the latitude coordinate can result in inaccurate and unreliable results, especially in the polar regions close to the Sun. We discuss here two approaches that can mitigate or completely avoid these problems: (1) remeshing the magnetogram onto a grid with uniform resolution in latitude and limiting the highest order of the spherical harmonics to the anti-alias limit; (2) using an iterative finite difference algorithm to solve for the potential field. The naive and the improved numerical solutions are compared for actual magnetograms and the differences are found to be rather dramatic. We made our new Finite Difference Iterative Potential-field Solver (FDIPS) a publicly available code so that other researchers can also use it as an alternative to the spherical harmonics approach.

  3. Efficiency enhancement of a harmonic lasing free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salehi, E.; Maraghechi, B.; Mirian, N. S.

    2015-03-15

    The harmonic lasing free-electron laser amplifier, in which two wigglers is employed in order for the fundamental resonance of the second wiggler to coincide with the third harmonic of the first wiggler to generate ultraviolet radiation, is studied. A set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equations describing the nonlinear evolution of the system, for a long electron bunch, is solved numerically by CYRUS code. Solutions for the non-averaged and averaged equations are compared. Remarkable agreement is found between the averaged and non-averaged simulations for the evolution of the third harmonic. Thermal effects in the form of longitudinal velocity spread are also investigated. For efficiency enhancement, the second wiggler field is set to decrease linearly and nonlinearly at the point where the radiation of the third harmonic saturates. The optimum starting point and the slope of the tapering of the amplitude of the wiggler are found by a successive run of the code. It is found that tapering can increase the saturated power of the third harmonic considerably. In order to reduce the length of the wiggler, the prebunched electron beam is considered.

  4. RangeTables.xls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MeVcm²/mg) LET vs. Range in Si for 25 MeV SEE Beams (low LET) 4 He 14 N 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4 He 14 N 22 Ne 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 LET (MeVcm²/mg) Range in Silicon (µm) LET vs. Range in Si for 25 MeV SEE Beams (low LET) After aramica window and 30 mm of air 4 He 14 N 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 Range in Silicon (µm) 129 Xe 30 40 50 60 (MeVcm²/mg) LET vs. Range in Si for 25 MeV SEE Beams After aramica

  5. Increased efficiency of ion acceleration by using femtosecond laser pulses at higher harmonic frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Psikal, J.; Klimo, O.; Weber, S.; Margarone, D.

    2014-07-15

    The influence of laser frequency on laser-driven ion acceleration is investigated by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When ultrashort intense laser pulse at higher harmonic frequency irradiates a thin solid foil, the target may become re lativistically transparent for significantly lower laser pulse intensity compared with irradiation at fundamental laser frequency. The relativistically induced transparency results in an enhanced heating of hot electrons as well as increased maximum energies of accelerated ions and their numbers. Our simulation results have shown the increase in maximum proton energy and increase in the number of high-energy protons by a factor of 2 after the interaction of an ultrashort laser pulse of maximum intensity 7 × 10{sup 21 }W/cm{sup 2} with a fully ionized plastic foil of realistic density and of optimal thickness between 100 nm and 200 nm when switching from the fundamental frequency to the third harmonics.

  6. Harmonic Resonant Kicker Design for the MEIC Electron Circular Cooler Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2015-09-01

    Bunched-beam electron cooling of the high-energy ion beam emittance may be a crucial technology for the proposed Medium energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) to achieve its design luminosity. A critical component is a fast kicker system in the Circular Ring (CR) that periodically switches electron bunches in and out of the ring from and to the driver Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Compared to a conventional strip-line type kicker, a quarter wave resonator (QWR) based deflecting structure has a much higher shunt impedance and so requires much less RF power. The cavity has been designed to resonate simultaneously at many harmonic modes that are integer multiples of the fundamental mode. In this way the resulting waveform will kick only a subset of the circulating bunches. In this paper, analytical shunt impedance optimization, the electromagnetic simulations of this type of cavity, as well as tuner and coupler concept designs to produce 5 odd and 5 even harmonics of 47.63MHz will be presented, in order to kick every 10th bunch in a 476.3 MHz bunch train.

  7. Fourier harmonics of high-p{sub T} particles probing the fluctuating initial condition geometries in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betz, Barbara; Gyulassy, Miklos; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2011-08-15

    Second Fourier harmonics of jet quenching have been thoroughly explored in the literature and shown to be sensitive to the underlying jet path-length dependence of energy loss and the differences between the mean eccentricity predicted by Glauber and color glass condensate (CGC)/Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi (KLN) models of initial conditions. We compute the jet path-length dependence of energy-loss for higher azimuthal harmonics of jet-fragments in a generalized model of energy-loss for Relativistc Heavy Ion Collider energies and find, however, that even the high-p{sub T} second moment is most sensitive to the poorly known early time evolution during the first fm/c. Moreover, we demonstrate that higher-jet harmonics are remarkably insensitive to the initial conditions, while the different v{sub n}(N{sub part}) vs v{sub n}{sup I{sub AA}}(N{sub part}) correlations between the moments of monojet and dijet nuclear modifications factors remain a most sensitive probe to differentiate between Glauber and CGC/KLN initial state geometries of the strongly-coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma.

  8. Rangely Oilfield Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and Infrastructure...

  9. Rangely Oilfield Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  10. Radio Ranging Device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gratian, J. W.; Gratian, A. C.; Crane, H. R.; Bourns, M. E.; Nieset, R. T.

    1961-04-18

    A super-generative radar system is described as having alternate phases of transmission and reception and is adapted to transmit for unequal durations in the absence of receiving energy and for equal and longer durations when energy of proper phase is received. (AEC)

  11. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crane, H.R.; Bourne, M.E.; Nieset, R.T.; Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-04-18

    A super-generative radar system is described having alternate phases of transmission and reception and being adapted to transmit for unequal durations in the absence of receiving energy and to transmit for equal and longer durations when energy of proper phase is received.

  12. Efficient Forward Second-Harmonic Generation from Planar Archimedean Nanospirals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Roderick B.; Ziegler, Jed I.; Vargas, Guillermo; Avanesyan, Sergey M.; Gong, Yu; Hess, Wayne P.; Haglund Jr., Richard F.

    2015-01-21

    The enhanced electric field at plasmonic resonances in nanoscale antennas can lead to efficient harmonic generation, especially when the plasmonic geometry is asymmetric on either inter-particle or intra-particle levels. The planar Archimedean nanospiral offers a unique geometrical asymmetry for second-harmonic generation (SHG) because the SHG results neither from arranging centrosymmetric nanoparticles in asymmetric groupings, nor from noncentrosymmetric nanoparticles that retain a local axis of symmetry. Here we report forward SHG from planar arrays of Archimedean nanospirals using 15 fs pulse from a Ti:sapphire oscillator tuned to 800 nm wavelength. The measured harmonic-generation efficiencies are 2.6•10-9, 8•10-9 and 1.3•10-8 for left-handed circular, linear, and right-handed circular polarizations, respectively.

  13. Development of the third harmonic SC cavity at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolay Solyak et al.

    2004-08-05

    The third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting cavity was recently proposed by DESY for a new generation of high brightness photo-injector (TTF photoinjector-2) to compensate nonlinear distortion of the longitudinal phase space due to RF curvature of the 1.3 GHz TESLA cavities [1,2]. Installation of the 3rd harmonic cavity will allow us to generate ultra-short (<50 {micro}m rms) highly charged electron bunches with an extremely small transverse normalized emittance (<1 {micro}m). This is required to support a new generation of linear colliders, free electron lasers and synchrotron radiation sources. In this paper we present the current status of the 3rd harmonic cavity being developed at Fermilab. We discuss the design procedure, the building and testing of the copper and niobium half-cells and components, the design of input and HOM couplers.

  14. RangeTables.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vcm²/mg) LET vs. Range in Si for 15 MeV SEE Beams (low LET) 4 He 14 N 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Range in Silicon (µm) 4 He 14 N 20 Ne 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 LET (MeV Range in Silicon (µm) After aramica window and 30 mm of air 141 Pr 165 Ho 181 Ta 197 Au 50 60 70 80 90 100 Vcm²/mg) LET vs. Range in Si for 15 MeV SEE Beams After aramica window and 30 mm of air 40 Ar 84 Kr 129 Xe 63 Cu 109 Ag 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250

  15. Nonlinear Trivelpiece--Gould waves: Recurrence, harmonic cascade, and sidebands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, J.A.C.; Lapao, L.M.; Mendonca, J.T. )

    1993-03-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of Trivelpiece--Gould waves propagating in a magnetized plasma column is presented in this paper. In the experiments, these waves are excited by a radio frequency (rf) source, which also serves to create the plasma. Observation of nonlinear effects includes space and time recurrence effects, a wave spectrum containing a large number (up to 25) harmonics, and low-frequency sidebands. The theoretical model explains the recurrence effects as a consequence of multiple nonlinear interactions between the fundamental wave and its harmonics. A good agreement is found between theory and the experiments.

  16. Propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic stripes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousseau, O.; Yamada, M.; Miura, K.; Ogawa, S.; Otani, Y.

    2014-02-07

    We report on the experimental study of the propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic CoFeB stripes. Using an all electrical technique with coplanar waveguides, we find that two kinds of spin waves can be generated by nonlinear frequency multiplication. One has a non-uniform spatial geometry and thus requires appropriate detector geometry to be identified. The other corresponds to the resonant fundamental propagative spin waves and can be efficiently excited by double- or triple-frequency harmonics with any geometry. Nonlinear excited spin waves are particularly efficient in providing an electrical signal arising from spin wave propagation.

  17. Harmonic and interharmonic distortion modeling in multiconverter systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbone, R.; Morrison, R.E.; Testa, A.; Menniti, D.

    1995-07-01

    The problem of modeling multiconverter systems in presence of harmonic and interharmonic distortion is considered. Specifically, current source rectifiers are considered as distortion sources some supply d.c. motors and the remaining supplying inverters feeding a.c. machines. The classical analogue, frequency domain and time domain models proposed in the literature to study harmonic distortion in a multiconverter system are considered and for each model suitable extension to include the interharmonic distortion are presented and critically analyzed. The results of several experiments are reported to show the usefulness and to compare the accuracy of the different extensions considered.

  18. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy

  19. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  20. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A.

    2014-04-15

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  1. Combining harmonic generation and laser chirping to achieve high spectral density in Compton sources

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Terzić, Balša; Reeves, Cody; Krafft, Geoffrey A.

    2016-04-25

    Recently various laser-chirping schemes have been investigated with the goal of reducing or eliminating ponderomotive line broadening in Compton or Thomson scattering occurring at high laser intensities. Moreover, as a next level of detail in the spectrum calculations, we have calculated the line smoothing and broadening expected due to incident beam energy spread within a one-dimensional plane wave model for the incident laser pulse, both for compensated (chirped) and unchirped cases. The scattered compensated distributions are treatable analytically within three models for the envelope of the incident laser pulses: Gaussian, Lorentzian, or hyperbolic secant. We use the new results tomore » demonstrate that the laser chirping in Compton sources at high laser intensities: (i) enables the use of higher order harmonics, thereby reducing the required electron beam energies; and (ii) increases the photon yield in a small frequency band beyond that possible with the fundamental without chirping. We found that this combination of chirping and higher harmonics can lead to substantial savings in the design, construction and operational costs of the new Compton sources. This is of particular importance to the widely popular laser-plasma accelerator based Compton sources, as the improvement in their beam quality enters the regime where chirping is most effective.« less

  2. RangeTables.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    30 35 40 45 eVcm²/mg) LET vs. Range in Si for 40 MeV SEE Beams 14 N 20 Ne 40 Ar 0 3 6 9 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 1 H 0 0.1 0.2 40 Ar 78 Kr 0 5 10 15 20 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 LET (Me Range in Silicon (µm) After aramica window and 30 mm of air 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

  3. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  4. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  5. Role of phase matching in pulsed second-harmonic generation: Walk-off and phase-locked twin pulses in negative-index media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roppo, Vito; Centini, Marco; Sibilia, Concita; Bertolotti, Mario; De Ceglia, Domenico; Scalora, Michael; Akozbek, Neset; Bloemer, Mark J.; Haus, Joseph W.; Kosareva, Olga G.; Kandidov, Valery P.

    2007-09-15

    The present investigation is concerned with the study of pulsed second-harmonic generation under conditions of phase and group velocity mismatch, and generally low conversion efficiencies and pump intensities. In positive-index, nonmetallic materials, we generally find qualitative agreement with previous reports regarding the presence of a double-peaked second harmonic signal, which comprises a pulse that walks off and propagates at the nominal group velocity one expects at the second-harmonic frequency, and a second pulse that is 'captured' and propagates under the pump pulse. We find that the origin of the double-peaked structure resides in a phase-locking mechanism that characterizes not only second-harmonic generation, but also {chi}{sup (3)} processes and third-harmonic generation. The phase-locking mechanism that we describe occurs for arbitrarily small pump intensities, and so it is not a soliton effect, which usually relies on a threshold mechanism, although multicolor solitons display similar phase locking characteristics. Thus, in second harmonic generation a phase-matched component is always generated, even under conditions of material phase mismatch: This component is anomalous, because the material does not allow energy exchange between the pump and the second-harmonic beam. On the other hand, if the material is phase matched, phase locking and phase matching are indistinguishable, and the conversion process becomes efficient. We also report a similar phase-locking phenomenon in negative index materials. A spectral analysis of the pump and the generated signals reveals that the phase-locking phenomenon causes the forward moving, phase-locked second-harmonic pulse to experience the same negative index as the pump pulse, even though the index of refraction at the second-harmonic frequency is positive. Our analysis further shows that the reflected second-harmonic pulse generated at the interface and the forward-moving, phase-locked pulse appear to be part

  6. Excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fomichev, V. V.; Fainshtein, S. M.; Chernov, G. P.

    2013-05-15

    An alternative mechanism for the excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics as a result of the development of explosive instability in a weakly relativistic beam-plasma system in the solar atmosphere is proposed. The efficiency of the new mechanism as compared to the previously discussed ones is analyzed.

  7. Modeling of high harmonic fast wave current drive on EAST tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J. C.; Gong, X. Y. Li, F. Y.; Dong, J. Q.; Gao, Q. D.; Zhang, N.

    2015-10-15

    High harmonic fast waves (HHFW) are among the candidates for non-inductive current drive (CD), which is essential for long-pulse or steady-state operation of tokamaks. Current driven with HHFW in EAST tokamak plasmas is numerically studied. The HHFW CD efficiency is found to increase non-monotonically with the wave frequency, and this phenomenon is attributed to the multi-pass absorption of HHFW. The sensitivity of CD efficiency to the value of the parallel refraction index of the launched wave is confirmed. The quasilinear effects, assessed as significant in HHFW current drive with the GENRAY/CQL3D package, cause a significant increase in CD efficiency as RF power is increased, which is very different from helicon current drive. Simulations for a range of toroidal dc electric fields, in combination with a range of fast wave powers, are also presented and indicate that the presence of the DC field can also enhance the CD efficiency.

  8. Wave kernels for the Dirac, Euler operators and the harmonic oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohameden, Ahmedou Yahya Ould Moustapha, Mohamed Vall Ould

    2014-03-15

    Explicit solutions for the wave equations associated to the Dirac, Euler operators and the harmonic oscillator are given.

  9. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  10. Light beam range finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A "laser tape measure" for measuring distance which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%.