Harmonic and interharmonic distortion modeling in multiconverter systems
Carbone, R.; Morrison, R.E.; Testa, A.; Menniti, D.
1995-07-01
The problem of modeling multiconverter systems in presence of harmonic and interharmonic distortion is considered. Specifically, current source rectifiers are considered as distortion sources some supply d.c. motors and the remaining supplying inverters feeding a.c. machines. The classical analogue, frequency domain and time domain models proposed in the literature to study harmonic distortion in a multiconverter system are considered and for each model suitable extension to include the interharmonic distortion are presented and critically analyzed. The results of several experiments are reported to show the usefulness and to compare the accuracy of the different extensions considered.
Uncertainties in compliance with harmonic current distortion limits in electric power systems
Gruzs, T.M. )
1991-07-01
The harmonic distortion of any repetitive voltage or current waveform is typically described by the quantity total harmonic distortion (THD). With the proliferation of nonlinear loads, such as static power converters, there has been increasing concern over the generation of harmonic currents and the effects of these currents on the power system. Proposals have been made to limit harmonic currents in power systems using the total harmonic distortion of the current as the criterion. This criterion, although it may be necessary, can be ambiguous and lead to compliance uncertainties. In this paper a discussion is presented on several of the practical problems by applying total harmonic current distortion limits to industrial and commercial power systems.
Calculation of voltage harmonic distortion caused by small non-linear loads
Hegazy, Y.G.; Salama, M.M.A.
1995-10-01
This paper presents an accurate method to evaluate the harmonic distortion in distribution systems. This method overcomes most of the drawbacks of the traditional methods. The main idea of the proposed method is to represent the harmonic effects of small non-linear loads by an equivalent large load. A case study is presented in the paper to illustrate the proposed method. The total harmonic distortion factor is evaluated at different busses of a distribution system using the proposed method. The results are then compared to those obtained using the traditional methods.
Revenue and harmonics: An evaluation of some proposed rate structures
McEachern, A.; Grady, W.M.; Moncrief, W.A.; Heydt, G.T.; McGranaghan, M.
1995-01-01
IEEE Recommended Practice 519 sets specific limits on harmonic voltages and currents at the ``point of common coupling``, which is usually interpreted as the revenue meter. Although most utilities will employ these limits simply to persuade and encourage their customers to reduce harmonics (and vice versa), it is also possible to construct economic incentives to encourage both the utility and the consumer to remain within the limits described in IEEE 519. 7his paper discusses seven approaches to this challenge, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each. It appears that the ``Harmonic-Adjusted Power Factor`` approach is practical, justifiable, compatible with existing rate structures, and relatively easy to implement.
Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David
2015-04-09
The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? – ? • ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at kmore »relation and nonlinearity are more pronounced for halos, M ? 5 x 10¹²Mh?¹, compared to the dark matter at z – 0 and 1. Nonlinear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean (???) away from the linear theory prediction –fLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k LT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less
Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions
Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David
2015-04-09
The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? – ? • ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at k<0.2hMpc?¹ to 25% at k ~ 0.45hMpc?¹ at z – 0. Both the stochastic relation and nonlinearity are more pronounced for halos, M ? 5 x 10¹²Mh?¹, compared to the dark matter at z – 0 and 1. Nonlinear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean (???) away from the linear theory prediction –f_{LT}?, where f_{LT} is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k < 0.1 hMpc?¹. The stochasticity in the ? – ? relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of f_{LT} from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of f_{LT} extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.
Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David
2015-04-09
The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between Î¸ = âˆ‡ âˆ™ v(x,t)/aH and Î´. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <Î¸|Î´>, together with the fluctuations of Î¸ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at kmoreÂ Â» ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M â‰¤ 5 Ã— 1012 MâŠ™ h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <Î¸|Î´> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTÎ´, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the Î¸ â€“ Î´ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between Î´ and Î¸ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.Â«Â less
High-order harmonic generation using a high-repetition-rate turnkey laser
Lorek, E. Larsen, E. W.; Heyl, C. M.; CarlstrÃ¶m, S.; Mauritsson, J.; PaleÄek, D.; Zigmantas, D.
2014-12-15
We generate high-order harmonics at high pulse repetition rates using a turnkey laser. High-order harmonics at 400 kHz are observed when argon is used as target gas. In neon, we achieve generation of photons with energies exceeding 90 eV (âˆ¼13 nm) at 20 kHz. We measure a photon flux of up to 4.4 Ã— 10{sup 10} photons per second per harmonic in argon at 100 kHz. Many experiments employing high-order harmonics would benefit from higher repetition rates, and the user-friendly operation opens up for applications of coherent extreme ultra-violet pulses in new research areas.
High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz
Lindner, F.; Stremme, W.; Schaetzel, M. G.; Grasbon, F.; Paulus, G. G.; Walther, H.; Hartmann, R.; Strueder, L.
2003-07-01
We report high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in rare gases using a femtosecond laser system with a very high repetition rate (100 kHz) and low pulse energy (7 {mu}J). To our knowledge, this is the highest repetition rate reported to date for HHG. The tight focusing geometry required to reach sufficiently high intensities implies low efficiency of the process. Harmonics up to the 45th order are nevertheless generated and detected. We show evidence of clear separation and selection of quantum trajectories by moving the gas jet with respect to the focus, in agreement with the theoretical predictions of the semiclassical model of HHG.
Layden, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.; Percival, D. J.
2011-02-15
Three-wave interactions in plasmas are described, in the framework of kinetic theory, by the quadratic response tensor (QRT). The cold-plasma QRT is a common approximation for interactions between three fast waves. Here, the first-order thermal correction (FOTC) to the cold-plasma QRT is derived for interactions between three fast waves in a warm unmagnetized collisionless plasma, whose particles have an arbitrary isotropic distribution function. The FOTC to the cold-plasma QRT is shown to depend on the second moment of the distribution function, the phase speeds of the waves, and the interaction geometry. Previous calculations of the rate for second harmonic plasma emission (via Langmuir-wave coalescence) assume the cold-plasma QRT. The FOTC to the cold-plasma QRT is used here to calculate the FOTC to the second harmonic emission rate, and its importance is assessed in various physical situations. The FOTC significantly increases the rate when the ratio of the Langmuir phase speed to the electron thermal speed is less than about 3.
References Publications Definitions definitions LCA Harmonization Notice: Results for natural gas (conventional and unconventional) will be updated soon, please check back...
Harmonics and Resonance Issues with Wind Plants
Bradt, M.; Badrzadeh, Babak; Camm, E H; Castillo, Nestor; Mueller, David; Siebert, T.; Schoene, Jens; Smith, Travis M; Starke, Michael R; Walling, R.
2011-01-01
Wind plants are susceptible to lightly-damped resonances which can attract and amplify ambient grid harmonic distortion and magnify wind turbine harmonic generation. Long-accepted harmonic modeling assumptions and practices are not appropriate for wind plants. VSCs are not ideal current sources and grid impedance is important. Attention to modeling detail and thorough evaluation over range of conditions is critical to meaningful analysis. In general, wind turbines are very slight sources of harmonics. Most harmonic issues are a result of resonance, caused by capacitor banks (for reactive power compensation) or from the extensive underground cabling in a collector system. Converter controls instability can be exacerbated by power system resonances. In some cases this has caused severe voltage distorDon and other problems. The IEEE 519 recommended guidelines are very restrictive. I recommend that they are used to resolve serious harmonic issues, and not to create petty problems.
Spakovszky, Z.S.; Weigl, H.J.; Paduano, J.D.; Schalkwyk, C.M. van; Suder, K.L.; Bright, M.M.
1999-07-01
This paper presents the first attempt to stabilize rotating stall in a single-stage transonic axial flow compressor with inlet distortion using active feedback control. The experiments were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center on a single-stage transonic core compressor inlet stage. An array of 12 jet injectors located upstream of the compressor was used for forced response testing and feedback stabilization. Results for a circumferential total pressure distortion of about one dynamic head and a 120 deg extent (DC(60){equals}0.61) are reported in this paper. Part 1 (Spaskovszky et al., 1999) reports results for radial distortion. Control laws were designed using empirical transfer function estimates determined from forced response results. Distortion introduces coupling between the harmonics of circumferential pressure perturbations, requiring multivariable identification and control design techniques. The compressor response displayed a strong first spatial harmonic, dominated by the well-known incompressible Moore-Greitzer mode. Steady axisymmetric injection of 4 percent of the compressor mass flow resulted in a 6.2 percent reduction of stalling mass flow. Constant gain feedback, using unsteady asymmetric injection, yielded a further range extension of 9 percent. A more sophisticated robust H{sub {infinity}} controller allowed a reduction in stalling mass flow of 10.2 percent relative to steady injection, yielding a total reduction in stalling mass flow of 16.4 percent.
Bennett, Charles L.
2009-10-20
A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.
System and methods for reducing harmonic distortion in electrical converters
Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M
2013-12-03
Systems and methods are provided for delivering energy using an energy conversion module. An exemplary method for delivering energy from an input interface to an output interface using an energy converison module coupled between the input interface and the output interface comprises the steps of determining an input voltage reference for the input interface based on a desired output voltage and a measured voltage and the output interface, determining a duty cycle control value based on a ratio of the input voltage reference and the measured voltage, operating one or more switching elements of the energy conversion module to deliver energy from the input interface to the output interface to the output interface with a duty cycle influenced by the dute cycle control value.
Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl
2014-08-19
An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.
Reduced Switching Frequency Active Harmonic Elimination for Multilevel Converters
Du, Zhong; Tolbert, Leon M; Chiasson, John N; Ozpineci, Burak
2008-01-01
This paper presents a reduced switching-frequency active-harmonic-elimination method (RAHEM) to eliminate any number of specific order harmonics of multilevel converters. First, resultant theory is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate low-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for a fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Next, based on the number of harmonics to be eliminated, Newton climbing method is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate high-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for the fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Third, the magnitudes and phases of the residual lower order harmonics are computed, generated, and subtracted from the original voltage waveform to eliminate these low-order harmonics. Compared to the active-harmonic-elimination method (AHEM), which generates square waves to cancel high-order harmonics, RAHEM has lower switching frequency. The simulation results show that the method can effectively eliminate all the specific harmonics, and a low total harmonic distortion (THD) near sine wave is produced. An experimental 11-level H-bridge multilevel converter with a field-programmable gate-array controller is employed to experimentally validate the method. The experimental results show that RAHEM does effectively eliminate any number of specific harmonics, and the output voltage waveform has low switching frequency and low THD.
Voltage distortion in distribution feeders with nonlinear loads
Emanuel, A.E.; Janczak, J. ); Pileggi, D.J.; Gulachenski, E.M.; Root, C.E.; Breen, M. ); Gentile, T.J. )
1994-01-01
The voltage of three real-life 13.8kV feeders supplying customers with non-linear loads was analyzed by means of computer simulations. Three classes of non-linear loads were considered. Each class is characteristic for different types of ac to dc converters such as the input dc supply used for adjustable-speed-drives, battery chargers, PC's, TV's and electronically ballasted lights. The analysis is based on the determination of the most harmonic susceptible busses and their response to each harmonic frequency. A new expeditive method that takes into account the background harmonic voltage phasor, and an equivalent bus impedance was developed and used to compute the maximum non-linear loads that yields VTHD = 5%, (Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion). The main conclusion of this work is that when mitigation methods are not used, for a 15kV class feeder with a maximum 10MVA installed load, the total non-linear residential load should not exceed 300kW if the ITHD <30% (Current Total Harmonic Distortion), and 100kW if ITHD >100%.
Voltage and current transducer harmonic sensitivity analysis
Domijan, A. Jr.
1998-10-01
This work presents the results of a study on the sensitivity of real power as a function of harmonic magnitudes and angles. These transducers are ones that are typical of those used, in combination with metering instruments, to measure the performance of variable-speed drives. Frequency response tests were performed on two different signal transducers (voltage and current) up to the 50th harmonic in accordance with Institute of Electrical and Electronics engineers (IEEE) Standard 519-1992. Results from these tests gave maximum magnitude percentage errors of {minus}2.2% (at 15th harmonic) and maximum phase shifts of +3.3 (at 50th harmonic) for voltage (at 120 V) and maximum percentage error of {minus}1.9% (at 2d harmonic) and maximum phase shift of {minus}4.3 for current (at 5 A). Using the percentage errors at 120 V and 5 A throughout the 60 Hz through 3,000 Hz range, in harmonic magnitudes and harmonic angles exhibited by the transducers, mathematical analysis was done on two sets of distorted signals and a sensitivity analysis was done to determine what would be the impact of the actual transducers` errors on the final calculation of real power. Variations of {minus}1.48% and {minus}1.60% were obtained. Then, assuming a maximum 5% change in current harmonic magnitudes and angles, a maximum real power percent variation of 0.02% and 2.47% were obtained for the same two sets of field-recorded voltage and current waveforms sets.
Mitigation of harmonic disturbance at pumped storage power station with static frequency converter
Chiang, J.C.; Wu, C.J.; Yen, S.S.
1997-09-01
This paper investigates the harmonic distortion problem and mitigation method at the Mingtan Pumped Storage Power Station in Taiwan, where six 300 MVA synchronous generators/motors are started by a static frequency converter (SFC) before the pumping stage. Since the SFC uses 6-pulse rectifier technique, a large amount of harmonic currents are produced during the starting period. The harmonic distortion level at each bus of the power plant was very high. Especially, the total harmonic distortion (THD) of current at the lighting feeder reached up to 184%, so that power fuses were burned out. At first a 5 mH reactor was inserted in the SFC feeder and a 5th order and high pass filter was installed. However, the harmonic distortion levels were still too high, but there is no space for additional higher-order filters. Finally, the SFC is fed with an individual transformer, and the harmonic disturbance problem is avoided. This paper also gives computer simulations to investigate the harmonic distortion problems and verify the mitigation methods.
Harmonization of Biodiesel Specifications
Alleman, T. L.
2008-02-01
Worldwide biodiesel production has grown dramatically over the last several years. Biodiesel standards vary across countries and regions, and there is a call for harmonization. For harmonization to become a reality, standards have to be adapted to cover all feedstocks. Additionally, all feedstocks cannot meet all specifications, so harmonization will require standards to either tighten or relax. For harmonization to succeed, the biodiesel market must be expanded with the alignment of test methods and specification limits, not contracted.
A multiple deep attenuation frequency window for harmonic analysis in power systems
Daponte, P.; Falcomata, G. . Dept. di Elettronica Informatica e Sistemistica); Testa, A. . Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettrica)
1994-04-01
A novel window is presented and applied in electrical power system harmonic analysis. The goal of increasing the resolvability of low magnitude non-harmonic tones close in frequency to higher magnitude harmonics and the detectability of very low magnitude high frequency harmonics is pursued. The proposed window is derived from the Tseng window; its spectrum can be modeled in the synthesis stage and it is characterized by a narrow width main lobe and by sidelobes which are very low in correspondence to some specified frequencies. Numerical experiments demonstrate the performances and the usefulness of the new window in resolving periodic distorted waveforms in power systems.
Josh Harmon | Department of Energy
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Josh Harmon About Us Josh Harmon - Intern, EERE International Most Recent Win-Win Opportunities at the Sixth Annual U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Forum October 30
High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge
Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.
2010-06-01
A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.
Summers, M.A.; Eimerl, D.; Boyd, R.D.
1982-06-10
A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The extraordinary or e directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90/sup 0/). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude o and e components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has o and e components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 (o:e reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10/sup 0/. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axeses (o).
Summers, Mark A.; Eimerl, David; Boyd, Robert D.
1985-01-01
A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The "extraordinary" or "e" directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90.degree.). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude "o" and "e" components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has "o" and "e" components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 ("o":"e" reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10.degree.. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axes ("o").
Bennett, Charles L.
2016-03-22
A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.
Development of the third harmonic SC cavity at Fermilab
Nikolay Solyak et al.
2004-08-05
The third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting cavity was recently proposed by DESY for a new generation of high brightness photo-injector (TTF photoinjector-2) to compensate nonlinear distortion of the longitudinal phase space due to RF curvature of the 1.3 GHz TESLA cavities [1,2]. Installation of the 3rd harmonic cavity will allow us to generate ultra-short (<50 {micro}m rms) highly charged electron bunches with an extremely small transverse normalized emittance (<1 {micro}m). This is required to support a new generation of linear colliders, free electron lasers and synchrotron radiation sources. In this paper we present the current status of the 3rd harmonic cavity being developed at Fermilab. We discuss the design procedure, the building and testing of the copper and niobium half-cells and components, the design of input and HOM couplers.
Booster double harmonic setup notes
Gardner, C. J.
2015-02-17
The motivation behind implementing a booster double harmonic include the reduced transverse space charge force from a reduced peak beam current and reduced momentum spread of the beam, both of which can be achieved from flattening the RF bucket. RF capture and acceleration of polarized protons (PP) is first set up in the single harmonic mode with RF harmonic h=1. Once capture and acceleration have been set up in the single harmonic mode, the second harmonic system is brought on and programmed to operate in concert with the single harmonic system.
Quaternionic Harmonic Analysis of Texture
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2012-10-01
QHAT uses various functions and data structures native to MATLAB to analyze crystallographic texture information using harmonic functions on the space of rotations represented as normalized quaternions. These harmonic functions generalize the spherical harmonics in three dimensions, and form the basis for the irreducible representations of the four-dimensional rotation group. This allows the basis of harmonic functions to be reduced to linearly independent combinations that satisfy the crystal and sample symmetry point groups.
Superconductivity Distorted by the Coexisting Pseudogap in the...
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Superconductivity Distorted by the Coexisting Pseudogap in the Antinodal Region of ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Superconductivity Distorted by the Coexisting ...
Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion
Albrecht, Georg F.; Comaskey, Brian; Sutton, Steven B.
1994-01-01
The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends.
Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion
Albrecht, G.F.; Comaskey, B.; Sutton, S.B.
1994-04-19
The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends. 11 figures.
Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion
Hudyma, Russell M.
2001-01-01
Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.
Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion
Chapman, Henry N.; Hudyma, Russell M.; Shafer, David R.; Sweeney, Donald W.
1999-01-01
An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.
Dark-matter harmonics beyond annual modulation
Lee, Samuel K.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R. E-mail: mlisanti@princeton.edu
2013-11-01
The count rate at dark-matter direct-detection experiments should modulate annually due to the motion of the Earth around the Sun. We show that higher-frequency modulations, including daily modulation, are also present and in some cases are nearly as strong as the annual modulation. These higher-order modes are particularly relevant if (i) the dark matter is light, O(10) GeV, (ii) the scattering is inelastic, or (iii) velocity substructure is present; for these cases, the higher-frequency modes are potentially observable at current and ton-scale detectors. We derive simple expressions for the harmonic modes as functions of the astrophysical and geophysical parameters describing the Earth's orbit, using an updated expression for the Earth's velocity that corrects a common error in the literature. For an isotropic halo velocity distribution, certain ratios of the modes are approximately constant as a function of nuclear recoil energy. Anisotropic distributions can also leave observable features in the harmonic spectrum. Consequently, the higher-order harmonic modes are a powerful tool for identifying a potential signal from interactions with the Galactic dark-matter halo.
Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation
Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC
2012-06-28
A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.
Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation
Stupakov, Gennady
2010-08-25
A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.
Harmonic analysis of electrical distribution systems
1996-03-01
This report presents data pertaining to research on harmonics of electric power distribution systems. Harmonic data is presented on RMS and average measurements for determination of harmonics in buildings; fluorescent ballast; variable frequency drive; georator geosine harmonic data; uninterruptible power supply; delta-wye transformer; westinghouse suresine; liebert datawave; and active injection mode filter data.
Redshift distortions of galaxy correlation functions
Fry, J.N. Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL . Dept. of Physics); Gaztanaga, E. Oxford Univ. . Dept. of Physics)
1993-05-12
To examine how peculiar velocities can affect the 2-, 3-, and 4-point correlation functions, we evaluate volume-average correlations for configurations that emphasize and minimize distortions for four different volume-limited samples from each of the CfA, SSRS, and IRAS redshift catalogs. We present the results as the correlation length r[sub 0] and power index [gamma] of the 2-point correlation, [anti [Xi
Metal-induced charge transfer, structural distortion, and orbital...
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Potential-well distortion in barrier Rf
King Ng
2004-04-29
Head-tail asymmetry has been observed in the longitudinal beam profiles in the Fermilab Recycler Ring where protons or antiprotons are stored in rf barrier buckets. The asymmetry is caused by the distortion of the rf potential well in the presence of resistive impedance. Gaussian energy distribution can fit the observed asymmetric beam profile but not without discrepancy. It can also fit the measured energy distribution. On the other hand, generalized elliptic distribution gives a better fit to the beam profile. However, it fails to reproduce the observed energy distribution.
Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting
R. Allen Miller
2005-03-30
The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.
Third harmonic stimulated Raman backscattering of laser in a magnetized plasma
Paknezhad, Alireza; Dorranian, Davoud
2013-09-15
This article studies the nonlinear Raman shifted third harmonic backscattering of an intense extraordinary laser wave through a homogenous transversely magnetized cold plasma. Due to the relativistic nonlinearity, the plasma dynamic is modified in the presence of transversely magnetic field, and this can generate the third harmonic scattered wave and an electrostatic upper hybrid wave via the Raman scattering process. Using the nonlinear wave equation, the mechanism of nonlinear third harmonic Raman scattering is discussed in detail to obtain the maximum growth rate of instability in the mildly relativistic regime. The growth rate decreases as the static magnetic field increases. It also increases with the pump wave amplitude.
Testing cosmic geometry without dynamic distortions using voids
Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, P.M.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D. E-mail: sutter@iap.fr E-mail: wandelt@iap.fr
2014-12-01
We propose a novel technique to probe the expansion history of the Universe based on the clustering statistics of cosmic voids. In particular, we compute their two-point statistics in redshift space on the basis of realistic mock galaxy catalogs and apply the Alcock-Paczynski test. In contrast to galaxies, we find void auto-correlations to be marginally affected by peculiar motions, providing a model-independent measure of cosmological parameters without systematics from redshift-space distortions. Because only galaxy-galaxy and void-galaxy correlations have been considered in these types of studies before, the presented method improves both statistical and systematic uncertainties on the product of angular diameter distance and Hubble rate, furnishing the potentially cleanest probe of cosmic geometry available to date.
Redshift-space distortions in massive neutrino and evolving dark...
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Redshift-space distortions in massive neutrino and evolving dark energy cosmologies ... This content will become publicly available on March 16, 2017 Title: Redshift-space ...
Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During Heat Treatment of Steel ... Available experimental steel casting heat treatment data was determined to be of ...
Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
in the production of aluminum alloy satellite boxes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the production of ...
Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories
Groeger, Josua
2014-09-15
The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.
Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential (Journal Article...
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Journal Article: Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential Authors: Luu, T ; ...
Half-harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy with transfer function...
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Using linear and half-harmonic BE enables quantitative correction of the cantilever transfer function. Half-harmonic band excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy (HBE KPFM) thus ...
Generation of even harmonics in coupled quantum dots (Journal...
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Generation of even harmonics in coupled quantum dots Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of even harmonics in coupled quantum dots Using the spatial-temporal...
A high-fidelity harmonic drive model.
Preissner, C.; Royston, T. J.; Shu, D.
2012-01-01
In this paper, a new model of the harmonic drive transmission is presented. The purpose of this work is to better understand the transmission hysteresis behavior while constructing a new type of comprehensive harmonic drive model. The four dominant aspects of harmonic drive behavior - nonlinear viscous friction, nonlinear stiffness, hysteresis, and kinematic error - are all included in the model. The harmonic drive is taken to be a black box, and a dynamometer is used to observe the input/output relations of the transmission. This phenomenological approach does not require any specific knowledge of the internal kinematics. In a novel application, the Maxwell resistive-capacitor hysteresis model is applied to the harmonic drive. In this model, sets of linear stiffness elements in series with Coulomb friction elements are arranged in parallel to capture the hysteresis behavior of the transmission. The causal hysteresis model is combined with nonlinear viscous friction and spectral kinematic error models to accurately represent the harmonic drive behavior. Empirical measurements are presented to quantify all four aspects of the transmission behavior. These measurements motivate the formulation of the complete model. Simulation results are then compared to additional measurements of the harmonic drive performance.
Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During Heat Treatment of Steel Castings
Beckermann, Christoph; Carlson, Kent
2011-07-22
the Navy-C ring (a classical test shape for heat treatment experiments) for several carbon and low alloy steels in order to generate data necessary to validate the code. The predicted distortions were in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured values. However, the final distortions in the castings were small, making it difficult to determine how accurate the predictions truly are. It is recommended that further validation of the software be performed with the aid of additional experiments with large production steel castings that experience significant heat treatment distortions. It is apparent from this research that the mechanical properties of the bonded sand used for cores and sand molds are key in producing accurate stress simulation results. Because of this, experiments were performed to determine the temperature-dependent elastic modulus of a resin-bonded sand commonly utilized in the steel casting industry. The elastic modulus was seen to vary significantly with heating and cooling rates. Also, the retained room temperature elastic modulus after heating was seen to degrade significantly when the sand was heated above 125Â°C. The elastic modulus curves developed in this work can readily be utilized in casting simulation software. Additional experiments with higher heating rates are recommended to determine the behavior of the elastic modulus in the sand close to the mold-metal interface. The commercial heat treatment residual stress and distortion code, once fully validated, is expected to result in an estimated energy savings of 2.15 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology.
Impact of Distortions on Fiber Position Location in the dark...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
The mapping of the sky to the focal plane, needed to position the fibers accurately, is described in detail. A major challenge is dealing with the large amount of distortion ...
Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint
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... At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented ...
Harmon, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information
Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Harmon is a village in Lee County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois' 14th congressional district.12...
SEVENTH HARMONIC 20 GHz CO-GENERATOR
Hirshfield, Jay L
2014-04-08
To satisfy the need for multi-MW rf sources in frequency ranges where commercial sources do not exist, a study was undertaken on a class of devices based on gyro-harmonic frequency multiplication. This mechanism relies upon adding energy in gyrating motion to a linear electron beam that traverses a rotating-mode TE111-mode drive cavity in a dc magnetic field. The beam then drifts along the magnetic field into a second cavity, operating in the TEn11-mode tuned to the nth harmonic of the drive cavity. Studies of this configuration have been carried out for 2 < n < 7. Results are given for multi-MW, efficient operation of a 7th harmonic device operating at 20 GHz, and a 2nd harmonic device operating at 22.4 GHz.
NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization
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Energy Analysis Printable Version Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet) Cover of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation factsheet Download the Fact Sheet The U.S. Department of Energy enlisted NREL to review and "harmonize" life cycle assessments (LCA) of electricity generation technologies. Hundreds of assessments have been published, often with considerable variability in results.
Quantum harmonic oscillator with superoscillating initial datum
Buniy, R. V.; Struppa, D. C.; Colombo, F.; Sabadini, I.
2014-11-15
In this paper, we study the evolution of superoscillating initial data for the quantum driven harmonic oscillator. Our main result shows that superoscillations are amplified by the harmonic potential and that the analytic solution develops a singularity in finite time. We also show that for a large class of solutions of the SchrÃ¶dinger equation, superoscillating behavior at any given time implies superoscillating behavior at any other time.
HARMONIC CAVITY PERFORMANCE FOR NSLS-II
BLEDNYKH, A.; KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; ROSE, J.; TOWNE, N.; WANG, J.M.
2005-05-15
NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-high brightness storage ring planned to succeed the present NSLS rings at BNL. Ultralow emittance combined with short bunch length means that it is critical to minimize the effects of Touschek scattering and coherent instabilities. Improved lifetime and stability can be achieved by including a third-harmonic RF cavity in the baseline design. This paper describes the required harmonic RF parameters and the expected system performance.
Microsoft Word - Global Harmonization Classifications.docx
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Harmonization Classifications: The following is prepared for your understanding of the new Global Harmonization System Physical hazards ï‚· H200: Unstable explosive ï‚· H201: Explosive; mass explosion hazard ï‚· H202: Explosive; severe projection hazard ï‚· H203: Explosive; fire, blast or projection hazard ï‚· H204: Fire or projection hazard ï‚· H205: May mass explode in fire ï‚· H220: Extremely flammable gas ï‚· H221: Flammable gas ï‚· H222: Extremely flammable aerosol ï‚· H223: Flammable
Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component
Praeg, W.F.
1983-08-31
An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.
Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component
Praeg, Walter F.
1985-01-01
An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.
PULSAR PAIR CASCADES IN A DISTORTED MAGNETIC DIPOLE FIELD
Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.
2011-01-01
We investigate the effect of a distorted neutron star dipole magnetic field on pulsar pair cascade multiplicity and pair death lines. Using a simple model for a distorted dipole field that produces an offset polar cap (PC), we derive the accelerating electric field above the PC in space-charge-limited flow. We find that even a modest azimuthally asymmetric distortion can significantly increase the accelerating electric field on one side of the PC and, combined with a smaller field line radius of curvature, leads to larger pair multiplicity. The death line for producing pairs by curvature radiation moves downward in the P- P-dot diagram, allowing high pair multiplicities in a larger percentage of the radio pulsar population. These results could have important implications for the radio pulsar population, high energy pulsed emission, and the pulsar contribution to cosmic ray positrons.
A hydrodynamical approach to CMB ?-distortion from primordial perturbations
Pajer, Enrico; Zaldarriaga, Matias E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu
2013-02-01
Spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background provides a unique opportunity to probe primordial perturbations on very small scales by performing large-scale measurements. We discuss in a systematic and pedagogic way all the relevant physical phenomena involved in the production and evolution of the ?-type spectral distortion. Our main results agree with previous estimates (in particular we show that a recently found factor of 3/4 arises from relativistic corrections to the wave energy). We also discuss several subleading corrections such as adiabatic cooling and the effects of bulk viscosity, baryon loading and photon heat conduction. Finally we provide formulae for the spatial dependence of ?-distortions and its transfer function between the end of the ?-era and now.
High harmonic phase in molecular nitrogen
McFarland, Brian K.
2009-10-17
Electronic structure in atoms and molecules modulates the amplitude and phase of high harmonic generation (HHG). We report measurements of the high harmonic spectral amplitude and phase in N{sub 2}. The phase is measured interferometrically by beating the N{sub 2} harmonics with those of an Ar reference oscillator in a gas mixture. A rapid phase shift of 0.2{pi} is observed in the vicinity of the HHG spectral minimum, where a shift of {pi} had been presumed [J. Itatani et al., Nature 432, 867 (2004)]. We compare the phase measurements to a simulation of the HHG recombination step in N{sub 2} that is based on a simple interference model. The results of the simulation suggest that modifications beyond the simple interference model are needed to explain HHG spectra in molecules.
Low thermal distortion extreme-UV lithography reticle
Gianoulakis, Steven E.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.
2001-01-01
Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.
Low thermal distortion extreme-UV lithography reticle
Gianoulakis, Steven E.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.
2002-01-01
Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.
Low thermal distortion Extreme-UV lithography reticle and method
Gianoulakis, Steven E.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.
2002-01-01
Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.
Quantum stochastic thermodynamic on harmonic networks
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Deffner, Sebastian
2016-01-04
Fluctuation theorems are symmetry relations for the probability to observe an amount of entropy production in a finite-time process. In a recent paper Pigeon et al (2016 New. J. Phys. 18 013009) derived fluctuation theorems for harmonic networks by means of the large deviation theory. Furthermore, their novel approach is illustrated with various examples of experimentally relevant systems. As a main result, however, Pigeon et al provide new insight how to consistently formulate quantum stochastic thermodynamics, and provide new and robust tools for the study of the thermodynamics of quantum harmonic networks.
System for interferometric distortion measurements that define an optical path
Bokor, Jeffrey; Naulleau, Patrick
2003-05-06
An improved phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer can measure both distortion and wavefront aberration. In the preferred embodiment, the interferometer employs an object-plane pinhole array comprising a plurality of object pinholes located between the test optic and the source of electromagnetic radiation and an image-plane mask array that is positioned in the image plane of the test optic. The image-plane mask array comprises a plurality of test windows and corresponding reference pinholes, wherein the positions of the plurality of pinholes in the object-plane pinhole array register with those of the plurality of test windows in image-plane mask array. Electromagnetic radiation that is directed into a first pinhole of object-plane pinhole array thereby creating a first corresponding test beam image on the image-plane mask array. Where distortion is relatively small, it can be directly measured interferometrically by measuring the separation distance between and the orientation of the test beam and reference-beam pinhole and repeating this process for at least one other pinhole of the plurality of pinholes of the object-plane pinhole array. Where the distortion is relative large, it can be measured by using interferometry to direct the stage motion, of a stage supporting the image-plane mask array, and then use the final stage motion as a measure of the distortion.
Harmonic generation with multiple wiggler schemes
Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.; Pierini, P.
1995-02-01
In this paper the authors give a simple theoretical description of the basic physics of the single pass high gain free electron laser (FEL), describing in some detail the FEL bunching properties and the harmonic generation technique with a multiple-wiggler scheme or a high gain optical klystron configuration.
Strong Second Harmonic Generation from the Tantalum Thioarsenates...
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Strong Second Harmonic Generation from the Tantalum Thioarsenates A3Ta2AsS11 (A K and ... and exhibit strong nonlinear optical (NLO) second harmonic generation (SHG) response. ...
Strongly Dispersive Transient Bragg Grating for High Harmonics
Farrell, J.; Spector, L.S.; Gaarde, M.B.; McFarland, B.K.; Bucksbaum, P.H.; Guhr, Markus; /SLAC, PULSE /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.
2010-06-04
We create a transient Bragg grating in a high harmonic generation medium using two counterpropagating pulses. The Bragg grating disperses the harmonics in angle and can diffract a large bandwidth with temporal resolution limited only by the source size.
Bierbach, Jana; Yeung, Mark; Eckner, Erich; Roedel, Christian; Kuschel, Stephan; Zepf, Matt; Paulus, Gerhard G.
2015-05-01
Surface high-harmonic generation in the relativistic regime is demonstrated as a source of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) pulses with extended operation time. Relativistic high-harmonic generation is driven by a frequency-doubled high-power Ti:Sapphire laser focused to a peak intensity of 3Â·1019 W/cm2 onto spooling tapes. We demonstrate continuous operation over up to one hour runtime at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Harmonic spectra ranging from 20 eV to 70 eV (62 nm to 18 nm) were consecutively recorded by an XUV spectrometer. An average XUV pulse energy in the ÂµJ range is measured. With the presented setup, relativistic surface high-harmonic generation becomes a powerful source of coherent XUV pulses that might enable applications in, e.g. attosecond laser physics and the seeding of free-electron lasers, when the laser issues causing 80-% pulse energy fluctuations are overcome.
Breast tissue decomposition with spectral distortion correction: A postmortem study
Ding, Huanjun; Zhao, Bo; Baturin, Pavlo; Behroozi, Farnaz; Molloi, Sabee
2014-10-15
Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of an accurate measurement of water, lipid, and protein composition of breast tissue using a photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT) with spectral distortion corrections. Methods: Thirty-eight postmortem breasts were imaged with a cadmium-zinc-telluride-based photon-counting spectral CT system at 100 kV. The energy-resolving capability of the photon-counting detector was used to separate photons into low and high energy bins with a splitting energy of 42 keV. The estimated mean glandular dose for each breast ranged from 1.8 to 2.2 mGy. Two spectral distortion correction techniques were implemented, respectively, on the raw images to correct the nonlinear detector response due to pulse pileup and charge-sharing artifacts. Dual energy decomposition was then used to characterize each breast in terms of water, lipid, and protein content. In the meantime, the breasts were chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein components to provide a gold standard for comparison with dual energy decomposition results. Results: The accuracy of the tissue compositional measurement with spectral CT was determined by comparing to the reference standard from chemical analysis. The averaged root-mean-square error in percentage composition was reduced from 15.5% to 2.8% after spectral distortion corrections. Conclusions: The results indicate that spectral CT can be used to quantify the water, lipid, and protein content in breast tissue. The accuracy of the compositional analysis depends on the applied spectral distortion correction technique.
Harmonic generation by circularly polarized laser beams propagating in plasma
Agrawal, Ekta; Hemlata,; Jha, Pallavi
2015-04-15
An analytical theory is developed for studying the phenomenon of generation of harmonics by the propagation of an obliquely incident, circularly polarized laser beam in homogeneous, underdense plasma. The amplitudes of second and third harmonic radiation as well as detuning distance have been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. The amplitude of harmonic radiation increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning distance decreases, for a given plasma electron density. It is observed that the generated second and third harmonic radiation is linearly and elliptically polarized, respectively. The harmonic radiation vanishes at normal incidence of the circularly polarized laser beam.
Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint
Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.
2015-04-02
Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.
Prolate spheroidal harmonic expansion of gravitational field
Fukushima, Toshio
2014-06-01
As a modification of the oblate spheroidal case, a recursive method is developed to compute the point value and a few low-order derivatives of the prolate spheroidal harmonics of the second kind, Q{sub nm} (y), namely the unnormalized associated Legendre function (ALF) of the second kind with its argument in the domain, 1 < y < âˆž. They are required in evaluating the prolate spheroidal harmonic expansion of the gravitational field in addition to the point value and the low-order derivatives of P-bar {sub nm}(t), the 4Ï€ fully normalized ALF of the first kind with its argument in the domain, |t| â‰¤ 1. The new method will be useful in the gravitational field computation of elongated celestial objects.
Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W; Turner, A E; Whitney, R R
1982-09-01
Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.
Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides
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Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print Wednesday, 28 February 2007 00:00 "Ferroelectricity," by analogy to ferromagnetism, is defined as the presence of spontaneous electrical polarization in a material, often arising from distortions in the material's crystal structure. In oxides of the metals lead and bismuth, such distortions were for many years attributed to the existence of
J. F. Wallace; D. Schwam
1998-10-01
The ultimate goal of this project is to increase die casting die life by using fast enough quenching rates to obtain good toughness and fatigue resistance in premium grade H-13 steel dies. The main tasks of the project were to compile a database on physical and mechanical properties of H-13; conduct gas quenching experiments to determine cooling rates of dies in difference vacuum furnaces; measure the as-quenched distortion of dies and the residual stresses; generate finite element analysis models to predict cooling rates, distortion, and residual stress of gas quenched dies; and establish rules and create PC-based expert system for prediction of cooling rates, distortion, and residual stress in vacuum/gas quenched H-13 dies. Cooling curves during gas quenching of H-13 blocks and die shapes have been measured under a variety of gas pressure. Dimensional changes caused by the gas quenching processes have been determined by accurate mapping of all surfaces with coordinate measuring machines before and after the quench. Residual stresses were determined by the ASTM E837 hole-drilling strain gage method. To facilitate the computer modeling work, a comprehensive database of H-13 mechanical and physical properties has been compiled. Finite element analysis of the heat treated shapes has been conducted using the TRAST/ABAQUS codes. There is a good fit between the predicted and measured distortion contours. However, the magnitude of the predicted distortion and residual stresses does not match well the measured values. Further fine tuning of the model is required before it can be used to predict distortion and residual stress in a quantitative manner. This last step is a prerequisite to generating rules for a reliable expert system.
One dimensional wavefront distortion sensor comprising a lens array system
Neal, D.R.; Michie, R.B.
1996-02-20
A 1-dimensional sensor for measuring wavefront distortion of a light beam as a function of time and spatial position includes a lens system which incorporates a linear array of lenses, and a detector system which incorporates a linear array of light detectors positioned from the lens system so that light passing through any of the lenses is focused on at least one of the light detectors. The 1-dimensional sensor determines the slope of the wavefront by location of the detectors illuminated by the light. The 1 dimensional sensor has much greater bandwidth that 2 dimensional systems. 8 figs.
One dimensional wavefront distortion sensor comprising a lens array system
Neal, Daniel R.; Michie, Robert B.
1996-01-01
A 1-dimensional sensor for measuring wavefront distortion of a light beam as a function of time and spatial position includes a lens system which incorporates a linear array of lenses, and a detector system which incorporates a linear array of light detectors positioned from the lens system so that light passing through any of the lenses is focused on at least one of the light detectors. The 1-dimensional sensor determines the slope of the wavefront by location of the detectors illuminated by the light. The 1 dimensional sensor has much greater bandwidth that 2 dimensional systems.
Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using Î¼-distortion
Ganc, Jonathan; Sloth, Martin S. E-mail: sloth@cp3.dias.sdu.dk
2014-08-01
The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called Î¼-distortion. We can calculate the correlation (Î¼Â T) of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy T of the CMB to search for a correlation (Â B{sup 2}Î¶) between the magnetic field B and the curvature perturbation Î¶; knowing the (Â B{sup 2}Î¶) correlation would help us distinguish between different models of magnetogenesis. Since the perturbations which produce the Î¼-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of (Â B{sup 2}Î¶), which is naturally parameterized by b{sub NL} (a parameter defined analogously to f{sub NL}). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise S/Nâ‰ˆÂ 1.0Â Ã—Â b{sub NL}Â ( B-tilde {sub Î¼}/10nG){sup 2}, where B-tilde {sub Î¼} is the magnetic field's strength on Î¼-distortion scales normalized to today's redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with b{sub NL}=O(1). However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum (Î¶{sup 3}) induced by the magnetic field. For sufficiently small magnetic fields, the signal (Â B{sup 2}Â Î¶) will dominate, but for B-tilde {sub Î¼}âˆ¼>Â 1 nG, one would have to consider the specifics of the inflationary magnetogenesis model. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a (Â B{sup 2}Î¶) correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.
Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version
Abodeely, Jared; Stevens, Daniel; Ray, Allison; Newby, Deborah; Schaller, Kastli
2013-03-01
The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.
Separation of High Order Harmonics with Fluoride Windows
Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Wright, Travis; Hertlein, Marcus; Falcone, Roger; Belkacem, Ali
2010-08-02
The lower orders produced in high order harmonic generation can be effciently temporally separated into monochromatic pulses by propagation in a Fluoride window while still preserving their femtosecond pulse duration. We present calculations for MgF2, CaF2, and LiF windows for the third, fifth, and seventh harmonics of 800 nm. We demonstrate the use of this simple and inexpensive technique in a femtosecond pump/probe experiment using the fifth harmonic.
Harmonization of Federal and International Regulations | Department of
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Energy Harmonization of Federal and International Regulations Harmonization of Federal and International Regulations Update of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA). Harmonization of Federal and International Regulations (636.69 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE-STD-5507-2013 Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Activities FAQS Reference Guide - NNSA Package
Numerical Verification of Bounce Harmonic Resonances in Neoclassical
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Toroidal Viscosity for Tokamaks (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Numerical Verification of Bounce Harmonic Resonances in Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity for Tokamaks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical Verification of Bounce Harmonic Resonances in Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity for Tokamaks This Letter presents the rst numerical veri cation for the bounce-harmonic (BH) resonance phenomena of the neoclassical transport in a tokamak perturbed by non-axisymmetric magnetic
Cammin, Jochen E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Taguchi, Katsuyuki E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Xu, Jennifer; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Hartsough, Neal E.
2014-04-15
Purpose: Energy discriminating, photon-counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology for computed tomography (CT) with various potential benefits for clinical CT. The photon energies measured by PCDs can be distorted due to the interactions of a photon with the detector and the interaction of multiple coincident photons. These effects result in distorted recorded x-ray spectra which may lead to artifacts in reconstructed CT images and inaccuracies in tissue identification. Model-based compensation techniques have the potential to account for the distortion effects. This approach requires only a small number of parameters and is applicable to a wide range of spectra and count rates, but it needs an accurate model of the spectral distortions occurring in PCDs. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of those spectral distortions and to evaluate the model using a PCD (model DXMCT-1; DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA) and various x-ray spectra in a wide range of count rates. Methods: The authors hypothesize that the complex phenomena of spectral distortions can be modeled by: (1) separating them into count-rate independent factors that we call the spectral response effects (SRE), and count-rate dependent factors that we call the pulse pileup effects (PPE), (2) developing separate models for SRE and PPE, and (3) cascading the SRE and PPE models into a combined SRE+PPE model that describes PCD distortions at both low and high count rates. The SRE model describes the probability distribution of the recorded spectrum, with a photo peak and a continuum tail, given the incident photon energy. Model parameters were obtained from calibration measurements with three radioisotopes and then interpolated linearly for other energies. The PPE model used was developed in the authors’ previous work [K. Taguchi et al., “Modeling the performance of a photon counting x-ray detector for CT: Energy response and pulse pileup effects,” Med. Phys. 38(2), 1089–1102 (2011)]. The
Generation of even harmonics in coupled quantum dots
Guo Shifang; Duan Suqing; Yang Ning; Chu Weidong; Zhang Wei
2011-07-15
Using the spatial-temporal symmetry principle we developed recently, we propose an effective scheme for even-harmonics generation in coupled quantum dots. The relative intensity of odd and even harmonic components in the emission spectrum can be controlled by tuning the dipole couplings among the dots, which can be realized in experiments by careful design of the nanostructures. In particular, pure 2nth harmonics and (2n+1)th harmonics (where n is an integer) can be generated simultaneously with polarizations in two mutual perpendicular directions in our systems. An experimental design of the coupled dots system is presented.
Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene (Journal Article...
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Published Article: Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene Title: Optical ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud ...
A Simple Harmonic Universe (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect
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RELATIVITY THEORY; HARMONICS; PARTICLE PRODUCTION; UNIVERSE Theory-HEP,HEPPH, HEPTH, ASTRO, GRQC Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text...
Limitations and improvements for harmonic generation measurements
Best, Steven; Croxford, Anthony; Neild, Simon
2014-02-18
A typical acoustic harmonic generation measurement comes with certain limitations. Firstly, the use of the plane wave-based analysis used to extract the nonlinear parameter, Î², ignores the effects of diffraction, attenuation and receiver averaging which are common to most experiments, and may therefore limit the accuracy of a measurement. Secondly, the method usually requires data obtained from a through-transmission type setup, which may not be practical in a field measurement scenario where access to the component is limited. Thirdly, the technique lacks a means of pinpointing areas of damage in a component, as the measured nonlinearity represents an average over the length of signal propagation. Here we describe a three-dimensional model of harmonic generation in a sound beam, which is intended to provide a more realistic representation of a typical experiment. The presence of a reflecting boundary is then incorporated into the model to assess the feasibility of performing single-sided measurements. Experimental validation is provided where possible. Finally, a focusing acoustic source is modelled to provide a theoretical indication of the afforded advantages when the nonlinearity is localized.
Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions
Vasudevan, Rama K; Okatan, M. B.; Rajapaksa, Indrajit; Kim, Yunseok; Marincel, Dan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Jesse, Stephen; Nagarajan, Valanoor; Kalinin, Sergei V
2013-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, decoupling the contributions of competing or co-existing mechanisms to the system response can be achieved through investigation of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a well-known system, a model Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, nanoscale measurements of the second harmonic response with field reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of combining proximal probe techniques with nth harmonic detection methods in exploring and decoupling nonlinear dynamics in a wide variety of nanoscale materials.
Basic principles of the surface harmonics method: Flat geometry
Kovalishin, A. A.
2011-12-15
The basic principles of the surface harmonics method are described. A one-dimensional problem is used to exemplify the specific features of the method and the algorithms for construction of finite-difference equations. The objective of this study is to popularize the surface harmonics method among specialists.
Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides
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Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print "Ferroelectricity," by analogy to ferromagnetism, is defined as the presence of spontaneous electrical polarization in a material, often arising from distortions in the material's crystal structure. In oxides of the metals lead and bismuth, such distortions were for many years attributed to the existence of "lone pair" electrons: pairs of chemically inert, nonbonding valence electrons in hybrid orbitals
Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print "Ferroelectricity," by analogy to ferromagnetism, is defined as the presence of spontaneous electrical polarization in a material, often arising from distortions in the material's crystal structure. In oxides of the metals lead and bismuth, such distortions were for many years attributed to the existence of "lone pair" electrons: pairs of chemically inert, nonbonding valence electrons in hybrid orbitals
STAR FORMATION AND DUST OBSCURATION IN THE TIDALLY DISTORTED GALAXY NGC 2442
Pancoast, Anna; Sajina, Anna; Lacy, Mark; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Rho, Jeonghee
2010-11-01
We present a detailed investigation of the morphological distribution and level of star formation and dust obscuration in the nearby tidally distorted galaxy NGC 2442. Spitzer images in the IR at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 {mu}m and GALEX images at 1500 A and 2300 A allow us to resolve the galaxy on scales between {approx}240 and 600 pc. We supplement these with archival data in the B, J, H, and K bands. We use the 8 {mu}m, 24 {mu}m, and FUV (1500 A) emission to study the star formation rate (SFR). We find that, globally, these tracers of star formation give a range of results of {approx}6-11 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, with the dust-corrected FUV giving the highest value of SFR. We can reconcile the UV- and IR-based estimates by adopting a steeper UV extinction curve that lies in between the starburst (Calzetti) and Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curves. However, the regions of the highest SFR intensity along the spiral arms are consistent with a starburst-like extinction. Overall, the level of star formation we find is higher than previously published for this galaxy, by about a factor of 2, which, contrary to previous conclusions, implies that the interaction that caused the distorted morphology of NGC 2442 likely also triggered increased levels of star formation activity. We also find marked asymmetry in that the north spiral arm has a noticeably higher SFR than the southern arm. The tip of the southern spiral arm shows a likely tidally distorted peculiar morphology. It is UV bright and shows unusual IRAC colors, consistent with other published tidal features IRAC data. Outside of the spiral arms, we discover what appears to be a superbubble, {approx}1.7 kpc across, which is seen most clearly in the IRAC images. Significant H{alpha}, UV, and IR emission in the area also suggest vigorous ongoing star formation. A known, recent supernova (SN 1999ga) is located at the edge of this superbubble. Although speculative at this stage, this area suggests a large star
Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodle, M.; ,
2012-02-15
Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron lasers hold great promise for the generation of fully coherent radiation in x-ray wavelengths. Here we report the first evidence of high harmonics from the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique in the realistic scenario where the laser energy modulation is comparable to the beam slice energy spread. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the seventh harmonic of the second seed laser is generated when the energy modulation amplitude is about 2-3 times the slice energy spread. The experiment confirms the underlying physics of echo-enabled harmonic generation and may have a strong impact on emerging seeded x-ray free electron lasers that are capable of generating laserlike x rays which will advance many areas of science.
Interaction between O{sub 2} and ZnO films probed by time-dependent second-harmonic generation
Andersen, S. V.; Vandalon, V.; Bosch, R. H. E. C.; Loo, B. W. H. van de; Kessels, W. M. M.; Pedersen, K.
2014-02-03
The interaction between O{sub 2} and ZnO thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition has been investigated by time-dependent second-harmonic generation, by probing the electric field induced by adsorbed oxygen molecules on the surface. The second-harmonic generated signal decays upon laser exposure due to two-photon assisted desorption of O{sub 2}. Blocking and unblocking the laser beam for different time intervals reveals the adsorption rate of O{sub 2} onto ZnO. The results demonstrate that electric field induced second-harmonic generation provides a versatile non-contact probe of the adsorption kinetics of molecules on ZnO thin films.
Roles of poloidal rotation in the q = 1 high-order harmonic tearing modes in a tokamak plasma
Wei Lai; Wang Zhengxiong
2013-01-15
Roles of poloidal rotation in stabilizing the m/n=1/1 kink-tearing mode and exciting its high-order harmonic tearing modes are numerically investigated by using a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. It is found that the high-order harmonic tearing modes, such as m/n=2/2, m/n=3/3, or even much higher-m harmonics, can be destabilized so significantly by rotation shear as to be more unstable than or comparable to the m/n=1/1 mode. Moreover, the short wave-length Kelvin- Helmholtz (KH) instabilities can be excited in the large rotation shear regime. The scaling power laws of the linear growth rate for each harmonic mode in different rotation shear regimes are verified by the previous relevant theoretical results based on the non-constant-{psi} and constant-{psi} behavior categories in tearing modes. During the nonlinear evolution, the m/n=2/2 mode dominated phase first appears and then is followed by the m/n=1/1 mode dominated nonlinear phase instead. Afterward, some smaller sub-islands due to the high-order harmonics are produced in the large irregular m=1 crescent-shaped island, and then a coalescence process of turbulent island chains occurs before the decay phase.
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High-harmonic generation in a dense medium
Strelkov, V.V.; Platonenko, V.T.; Becker, A.
2005-05-15
The high-harmonic generation in a plasma or gas under conditions when the single-atom response is affected by neighboring ions or atoms of the medium is studied theoretically. We solve numerically the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a single-electron atom in the combined fields of the neighboring particles and the laser, and average the results over different random positions of the particles using the Monte Carlo method. Harmonic spectra are calculated for different medium densities and laser intensities. We observe a change of the harmonic properties due to a random variation of the harmonic phase induced by the field of the medium, when the medium density exceeds a certain transition density. The transition density is found to depend on the harmonic order, but it is almost independent of the fundamental intensity. It also differs for the two (shorter and longer) quantum paths. The latter effect leads for ionic densities in the transition regime to a narrowing of the harmonic lines and a shortening of the attosecond pulses generated using a group of harmonics.
Relativistic high harmonic generation in gas jet targets
Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; and others
2012-07-11
We experimentally demonstrate a new regime of high-order harmonic generation by relativistic-irradiance lasers in gas jet targets. Bright harmonics with both odd and even orders, generated by linearly as well as circularly polarized pulses, are emitted in the forward direction, while the base harmonic frequency is downshifted. A 9 TW laser generates harmonics up to 360 eV, within the 'water window' spectral region. With a 120 TW laser producing 40 uJ/sr per harmonic at 120 eV, we demonstrate the photon number scalability. The observed harmonics cannot be explained by previously suggested scenarios. A novel high-order harmonics generation mechanism [T. Zh. Esirkepov et al., AIP Proceedings, this volume], which explains our experimental findings, is based on the phenomena inherent in the relativistic laser - underdense plasma interactions (self-focusing, cavity evacuation, and bow wave generation), mathematical catastrophe theory which explains formation of electron density singularities (cusps), and collective radiation due to nonlinear oscillations of a compact charge.
High order harmonic generation in dual gas multi-jets
Tosa, Valer E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro; Hojbota, Calin E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro
2013-11-13
High order harmonic generation (HHG) in gas media suffers from a low conversion efficiency that has its origins in the interaction of the atom/molecule with the laser field. Phase matching is the main way to enhance the harmonic flux and several solutions have been designed to achieve it. Here we present numerical results modeling HHG in a system of multi-jets in which two gases alternate: the first gas jet (for example Ne) generates harmonics and the second one which ionizes easier, recover the phase matching condition. We obtain configurations which are experimentally feasible with respect to pressures and dimensions of the jets.
Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography
Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.
1993-01-05
Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position.
Investigation of plasma diagnostics using a dual frequency harmonic technique
Kim, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Young-Do; Cho, Sung-Won; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook
2014-09-07
Plasma diagnostic methods using harmonic currents analysis of electrostatic probes were experimentally investigated to understand the differences in their measurement of the plasma parameters. When dual frequency voltage (Ï‰{sub 1},Ï‰{sub 2}) was applied to a probe, various harmonic currents (Ï‰{sub 1},â€‰2Ï‰{sub 1},Ï‰{sub 2},â€‰2Ï‰{sub 2},Ï‰{sub 2}Â±Ï‰{sub 1},Ï‰{sub 2}Â±2Ï‰{sub 1}) were generated due to the non-linearity of the probe sheath. The electron temperature can be obtained from the ratio of the two harmonics of the probe currents. According to the combinations of the two harmonics, the sensitivities in the measurement of the electron temperature differed, and this results in a difference of the electron temperature. From experiments and simulation, it is shown that this difference is caused by the systematic and random noise.
Harmonic gyrotrons operating in high-order symmetric modes
Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Kashyn, Dmytro G.; Antonsen, T. M.
2015-01-05
It is shown that gyrotrons operating at cyclotron harmonics can be designed for operation in symmetric TE{sub 0,p}-modes. Such operation in fundamental harmonic gyrotrons is possible only at small radial indices (pâ‰¤3) because of the severe mode competition with TE{sub 2,p}-modes, which are equally coupled to annular beams as the symmetric modes. At cyclotron harmonics, however, this â€œdegeneracyâ€ of coupling is absent, and there is a region in the parameter space where harmonic gyrotrons can steadily operate in symmetric modes. This fact is especially important for sub-THz and THz-range gyrotrons where ohmic losses limit the power achievable in continuous-wave and high duty cycle regimes.
Reconstruction of local neutron physical functionals in surface harmonics method
Boyarinov, V. F. Nevinitsa, V. A.
2010-12-15
Formulas for reconstruction of local neutron physical functionals for a three-stage calculation of a 2D VVER-1000 core using the surface harmonics method are obtained, implemented in the SUHAM code, and verified.
Harmonic mode competition in a terahertz gyrotron backward-wave...
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The viability of a harmonic gyro-BWO is assessed on the basis of the results obtained. Authors: Kao, S. H. ; Chiu, C. C. ; Chang, P. C. ; Wu, K. L. ; Chu, K. R. 1 + Show Author ...
A Massively Parallel Solver for the Mechanical Harmonic Analysis...
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Details In-Document Search Title: A Massively Parallel Solver for the Mechanical Harmonic Analysis of Accelerator Cavities ACE3P is a 3D massively parallel simulation suite that...
Quantum efficiency harmonic analysis of exciton annihilation in organic light emitting diodes
Price, J. S.; Giebink, N. C.
2015-06-29
Various exciton annihilation processes are known to impact the efficiency roll-off of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs); however, isolating and quantifying their contribution in the presence of other factors such as changing charge balance continue to be a challenge for routine device characterization. Here, we analyze OLED electroluminescence resulting from a sinusoidal dither superimposed on the device bias and show that nonlinearity between recombination current and light output arising from annihilation mixes the quantum efficiency measured at different dither harmonics in a manner that depends uniquely on the type and magnitude of the annihilation process. We derive a series of analytical relations involving the DC and first harmonic external quantum efficiency that enable annihilation rates to be quantified through linear regression independent of changing charge balance and evaluate them for prototypical fluorescent and phosphorescent OLEDs based on the emitters 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran and platinum octaethylporphyrin, respectively. We go on to show that, in most cases, it is sufficient to calculate the needed quantum efficiency harmonics directly from derivatives of the DC light versus current curve, thus enabling this analysis to be conducted solely from standard light-current-voltage measurement data.
Nonlinearly driven harmonics of AlfvÃ©n modes
Zhang, B. Breizman, B. N.; Zheng, L. J.; Berk, H. L.
2014-01-15
In order to study the leading order nonlinear magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) harmonic response of a plasma in realistic geometry, the AEGIS code has been generalized to account for inhomogeneous source terms. These source terms are expressed in terms of the quadratic corrections that depend on the functional form of a linear MHD eigenmode, such as the Toroidal AlfvÃ©n Eigenmode. The solution of the resultant equation gives the second order harmonic response. Preliminary results are presented here.
Wind LCA Harmonization (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
Not Available
2013-06-01
NREL recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that provides more exact estimates of GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty. This involved a systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems in order to determine the causes of life cycle greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG estimates.
Williams, Brian G.; Schultz, Richard R.; McEligot, Don M.; McCreery, Glenn
2015-08-31
A reference design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is to use General Atomics Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR). For such a configuration in normal operation, the helium coolant flow proceeds from the upper plenum to the lower plenum principally through the core coolant channels and the interstitial gaps (bypass flow) that separate the prismatic blocks from one another. Only the core prismatic blocks have coolant channels. The interstitial gaps are present throughout the core, the inner reflector region, and the out reflector region. The bypass flows in a prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) are of potential concern because they reduce the desired flow rates in the coolant channels and, thereby, can increase outlet gas temperatures and maximum fuel temperatures. Consequently, it is appropriate to account for bypass flows in reactor thermal gas dynamic analyses. The objectives of this project include the following: fundamentally understand bypass flow and heat transfer at scaled, undistorted conditions and with geometry distortions; develop improved estimates of associated loss coefficients, surface friction and heat transfer for systems and network codes; and obtain related data for validation of CFD (computational fluid dynamic) or system (e.g., RELAP5) codes which can be employed in predictions for a GCR for normal power, reduced power, and residual heat removal operations.
OBTAINING POTENTIAL FIELD SOLUTIONS WITH SPHERICAL HARMONICS AND FINITE DIFFERENCES
Toth, Gabor; Van der Holst, Bart; Huang Zhenguang
2011-05-10
Potential magnetic field solutions can be obtained based on the synoptic magnetograms of the Sun. Traditionally, a spherical harmonics decomposition of the magnetogram is used to construct the current- and divergence-free magnetic field solution. This method works reasonably well when the order of spherical harmonics is limited to be small relative to the resolution of the magnetogram, although some artifacts, such as ringing, can arise around sharp features. When the number of spherical harmonics is increased, however, using the raw magnetogram data given on a grid that is uniform in the sine of the latitude coordinate can result in inaccurate and unreliable results, especially in the polar regions close to the Sun. We discuss here two approaches that can mitigate or completely avoid these problems: (1) remeshing the magnetogram onto a grid with uniform resolution in latitude and limiting the highest order of the spherical harmonics to the anti-alias limit; (2) using an iterative finite difference algorithm to solve for the potential field. The naive and the improved numerical solutions are compared for actual magnetograms and the differences are found to be rather dramatic. We made our new Finite Difference Iterative Potential-field Solver (FDIPS) a publicly available code so that other researchers can also use it as an alternative to the spherical harmonics approach.
Efficiency enhancement of a harmonic lasing free-electron laser
Salehi, E.; Maraghechi, B.; Mirian, N. S.
2015-03-15
The harmonic lasing free-electron laser amplifier, in which two wigglers is employed in order for the fundamental resonance of the second wiggler to coincide with the third harmonic of the first wiggler to generate ultraviolet radiation, is studied. A set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equations describing the nonlinear evolution of the system, for a long electron bunch, is solved numerically by CYRUS code. Solutions for the non-averaged and averaged equations are compared. Remarkable agreement is found between the averaged and non-averaged simulations for the evolution of the third harmonic. Thermal effects in the form of longitudinal velocity spread are also investigated. For efficiency enhancement, the second wiggler field is set to decrease linearly and nonlinearly at the point where the radiation of the third harmonic saturates. The optimum starting point and the slope of the tapering of the amplitude of the wiggler are found by a successive run of the code. It is found that tapering can increase the saturated power of the third harmonic considerably. In order to reduce the length of the wiggler, the prebunched electron beam is considered.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Bierbach, Jana; Yeung, Mark; Eckner, Erich; Roedel, Christian; Kuschel, Stephan; Zepf, Matt; Paulus, Gerhard G.
2015-05-01
Surface high-harmonic generation in the relativistic regime is demonstrated as a source of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) pulses with extended operation time. Relativistic high-harmonic generation is driven by a frequency-doubled high-power Ti:Sapphire laser focused to a peak intensity of 3Â·1019 W/cm2 onto spooling tapes. We demonstrate continuous operation over up to one hour runtime at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Harmonic spectra ranging from 20 eV to 70 eV (62 nm to 18 nm) were consecutively recorded by an XUV spectrometer. An average XUV pulse energy in the ÂµJ range is measured. With the presented setup, relativistic surface high-harmonic generationmoreÂ Â» becomes a powerful source of coherent XUV pulses that might enable applications in, e.g. attosecond laser physics and the seeding of free-electron lasers, when the laser issues causing 80-% pulse energy fluctuations are overcome.Â«Â less
A restoration model of distorted electron density in wave-cutoff probe measurement
Jun, Hyun-Su Lee, Yun-Seong
2014-02-15
This study investigates the problem of electron density distortion and how the density can be restored in a wave-cutoff probe. Despite recent plasma diagnostics research using a wave-cutoff probe, the problem of electron density distortion caused by plasma conditions has not been resolved. Experimental results indicate that electron density measured using the wave-cutoff method is highly susceptible to variations in the probe tip gap. This electron density distortion is caused by the bulk plasma disturbance between probe tips, and it must be removed for calculating the absolute electron density. To do this, a detailed analytic model was developed using the power balance equation near probe tips. This model demonstrates the characteristics of plasma distortion in wave-cutoff probe measurement and successfully restored the absolute value of electron density with varying probe tip gaps.
Disentangling Redshift-Space Distortions and Nonlinear Bias using the 2D Power Spectrum
Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.
2015-08-07
We present the nonlinear 2D galaxy power spectrum, P(k, Âµ), in redshift space, measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using galaxy catalogs constructed with both halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual Âµ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of nonlinear growth and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the Âµ < 0.2 simulation data, which we show is not impacted by RSD effects, we can successfully measure the nonlinear bias to an accuracy of ~ 5% at k < 0.6hMpc-1 . This use of individual Âµ bins to extract the nonlinear bias successfully removes a large parameter degeneracy when constraining the linear growth rate of structure. We carry out a joint parameter estimation, using the low Âµ simulation data to constrain the nonlinear bias, and Âµ > 0.2 to constrain the growth rate and show that f can be constrained to ~ 26(22)% to a kmax < 0.4(0.6)hMpc-1 from clustering alone using a simple dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual Âµ bins also reveals interesting physical effects which arise simply from different methods of populating halos with galaxies. We also find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater then the nonlinear growth, which differs not only for each Âµ bin but also for each galaxy model. These features may provide unique signatures which could be used to shed light on the galaxyâ€“dark matter connection. Furthermore, the idea of separating nonlinear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.
Efficient Forward Second-Harmonic Generation from Planar Archimedean Nanospirals
Davidson, Roderick B.; Ziegler, Jed I.; Vargas, Guillermo; Avanesyan, Sergey M.; Gong, Yu; Hess, Wayne P.; Haglund Jr., Richard F.
2015-01-21
The enhanced electric field at plasmonic resonances in nanoscale antennas can lead to efficient harmonic generation, especially when the plasmonic geometry is asymmetric on either inter-particle or intra-particle levels. The planar Archimedean nanospiral offers a unique geometrical asymmetry for second-harmonic generation (SHG) because the SHG results neither from arranging centrosymmetric nanoparticles in asymmetric groupings, nor from noncentrosymmetric nanoparticles that retain a local axis of symmetry. Here we report forward SHG from planar arrays of Archimedean nanospirals using 15 fs pulse from a Ti:sapphire oscillator tuned to 800 nm wavelength. The measured harmonic-generation efficiencies are 2.6â€¢10-9, 8â€¢10-9 and 1.3â€¢10-8 for left-handed circular, linear, and right-handed circular polarizations, respectively.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...
Propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic stripes
Rousseau, O.; Yamada, M.; Miura, K.; Ogawa, S.; Otani, Y.
2014-02-07
We report on the experimental study of the propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic CoFeB stripes. Using an all electrical technique with coplanar waveguides, we find that two kinds of spin waves can be generated by nonlinear frequency multiplication. One has a non-uniform spatial geometry and thus requires appropriate detector geometry to be identified. The other corresponds to the resonant fundamental propagative spin waves and can be efficiently excited by double- or triple-frequency harmonics with any geometry. Nonlinear excited spin waves are particularly efficient in providing an electrical signal arising from spin wave propagation.
Nonlinear Trivelpiece--Gould waves: Recurrence, harmonic cascade, and sidebands
Cabral, J.A.C.; Lapao, L.M.; Mendonca, J.T. )
1993-03-01
A theoretical and experimental study of Trivelpiece--Gould waves propagating in a magnetized plasma column is presented in this paper. In the experiments, these waves are excited by a radio frequency (rf) source, which also serves to create the plasma. Observation of nonlinear effects includes space and time recurrence effects, a wave spectrum containing a large number (up to 25) harmonics, and low-frequency sidebands. The theoretical model explains the recurrence effects as a consequence of multiple nonlinear interactions between the fundamental wave and its harmonics. A good agreement is found between theory and the experiments.
Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ... Spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz ...
Opportunities for regional harmonization of appliance standards and l abeling program
McNeil, Michael A.
2003-09-01
the region are discussed in some detail. The section that follows covers the harmonization of efficiency test procedures. Special attention is given to this component of an EES&L program because it is the most critical element in terms of harmonization--having incompatible test procedures between trade partners can greatly impact the effectiveness of a program, and it can also unduly impact trade. Currently, policymakers in India and Sri Lanka are collaborating with the goal of aligning refrigerator test procedures used in their respective programs. For this reason, the section on test procedures of refrigerators goes into a significant amount of technical detail, in order to provide the clearest possible articulation of issues to be resolved in bringing the procedures into alignment. Following the discussion of test procedures, the report contains a section each on harmonization of efficiency rating levels, development of label designs, and enforcement issues. The report is organized such that the sections covering current programs and test procedures are subdivided by target appliance. These sections are further divided by country, where applicable. Each section is concluded with recommendations.
Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A.
2014-04-15
This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.
WAVEMOTH-FAST SPHERICAL HARMONIC TRANSFORMS BY BUTTERFLY MATRIX COMPRESSION
Seljebotn, D. S.
2012-03-01
We present Wavemoth, an experimental open source code for computing scalar spherical harmonic transforms (SHTs). Such transforms are ubiquitous in astronomical data analysis. Our code performs substantially better than existing publicly available codes owing to improvements on two fronts. First, the computational core is made more efficient by using small amounts of pre-computed data, as well as paying attention to CPU instruction pipelining and cache usage. Second, Wavemoth makes use of a fast and numerically stable algorithm based on compressing a set of linear operators in a pre-computation step. The resulting SHT scales as O(L{sup 2}log{sup 2} L) for the resolution range of practical interest, where L denotes the spherical harmonic truncation degree. For low- and medium-range resolutions, Wavemoth tends to be twice as fast as libpsht, which is the current state-of-the-art implementation for the HEALPix grid. At the resolution of the Planck experiment, L {approx} 4000, Wavemoth is between three and six times faster than libpsht, depending on the computer architecture and the required precision. Because of the experimental nature of the project, only spherical harmonic synthesis is currently supported, although adding support for spherical harmonic analysis should be trivial.
Excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics in the solar atmosphere
Fomichev, V. V.; Fainshtein, S. M.; Chernov, G. P.
2013-05-15
An alternative mechanism for the excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics as a result of the development of explosive instability in a weakly relativistic beam-plasma system in the solar atmosphere is proposed. The efficiency of the new mechanism as compared to the previously discussed ones is analyzed.
Experimental study of a fourth-harmonic gyromultiplier
Bandurkin, I. V.; Bratman, V. L.; Savilov, A. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Volkov, A. B.
2009-07-15
Simultaneous generation at the second and fourth cyclotron harmonics has been obtained from a single-cavity self-excited gyromultiplier. Output power of the short-wavelength radiation amounts to 100 W at a frequency of 75 GHz. The proposed scheme seems to be promising for the terahertz frequency range.
Wave kernels for the Dirac, Euler operators and the harmonic oscillator
Mohameden, Ahmedou Yahya Ould Moustapha, Mohamed Vall Ould
2014-03-15
Explicit solutions for the wave equations associated to the Dirac, Euler operators and the harmonic oscillator are given.
Enhanced Harmonic Up-Conversion Using a Hybrid HGHG-EEHG Scheme
Marksteiner, Quinn R.; Bishofberger, Kip A.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Freund, Henry P.; Yampolsky, Nikolai A.
2012-04-30
We introduce a novel harmonic generation scheme which can be used, for a given desired harmonic, to achieve higher bunching factors, weaker chicanes, and/or less final energy spread than can be achieved using Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation. This scheme only requires a single laser with relatively low power, and is a hybrid of High-Gain Harmonic Generation and EEHG. We present a design of this scheme applied to the Next Generation Light Source (NGLS).
Impact of the MLC on the MRI field distortion of a prototype MRI-linac
Kolling, Stefan; Keall, Paul; Oborn, Brad
2013-12-15
Purpose: To cope with intrafraction tumor motion, integrated MRI-linac systems for real-time image guidance are currently under development. The multileaf collimator (MLC) is a key component in every state-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment system, allowing for accurate field shaping and tumor tracking. This work quantifies the magnetic impact of a widely used MLC on the MRI field homogeneity for such a modality.Methods: The finite element method was employed to model a MRI-linac assembly comprised of a 1.0?T split-bore MRI magnet and the key ferromagnetic components of a Varian Millennium 120 MLC, namely, the leaves and motors. Full 3D magnetic field maps of the system were generated. From these field maps, the peak-to-peak distortion within the MRI imaging volume was evaluated over a 30?cm diameter sphere volume (DSV) around the isocenter and compared to a maximum preshim inhomogeneity of 300??T. Five parametric studies were performed: (1) The source-to-isocenter distance (SID) was varied from 100 to 200?cm, to span the range of a compact system to that with lower magnetic coupling. (2) The MLC model was changed from leaves only to leaves with motors, to determine the contribution to the total distortion caused by MLC leaves and motors separately. (3) The system was configured in the inline or perpendicular orientation, i.e., the linac treatment beam was oriented parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. (4) The treatment field size was varied from 0 × 0 to 20×20?cm{sup 2}, to span the range of clinical treatment fields. (5) The coil currents were scaled linearly to produce magnetic field strengths B{sub 0} of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5?T, to estimate how the MLC impact changes with B{sub 0}.Results: (1) The MLC-induced MRI field distortion fell continuously with increasing SID. (2) MLC leaves and motors were found to contribute to the distortion in approximately equal measure. (3) Due to faster falloff of the fringe field, the field distortion was
Disentangling Redshift-Space Distortions and Nonlinear Bias using the 2D Power Spectrum
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.
2015-08-07
We present the nonlinear 2D galaxy power spectrum, P(k, Âµ), in redshift space, measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using galaxy catalogs constructed with both halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual Âµ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of nonlinear growth and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the Âµ < 0.2 simulation data, which we show ismoreÂ Â» not impacted by RSD effects, we can successfully measure the nonlinear bias to an accuracy of ~ 5% at k < 0.6hMpc-1 . This use of individual Âµ bins to extract the nonlinear bias successfully removes a large parameter degeneracy when constraining the linear growth rate of structure. We carry out a joint parameter estimation, using the low Âµ simulation data to constrain the nonlinear bias, and Âµ > 0.2 to constrain the growth rate and show that f can be constrained to ~ 26(22)% to a kmax < 0.4(0.6)hMpc-1 from clustering alone using a simple dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual Âµ bins also reveals interesting physical effects which arise simply from different methods of populating halos with galaxies. We also find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater then the nonlinear growth, which differs not only for each Âµ bin but also for each galaxy model. These features may provide unique signatures which could be used to shed light on the galaxyâ€“dark matter connection. Furthermore, the idea of separating nonlinear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.Â«Â less
Study on higher harmonic suppression using edge filter and polished Si wafer
Gupta, R. K. Singh, Amol Modi, Mohammed H. Lodha, G. S.
2014-04-24
Higher harmonics contamination is a severe problem in synchrotron beamlines where grating monochromators are used. In these beamlines, absorption edge filters and critical angle mirrors are used to suppress the harmonic contaminations. In the present study, carried out using Indus-1 reflectivity beamline, a harmonic suppression characteristic of Al edge filter and polished silicon wafer are determined. It is found that the Al filter suppresses higher harmonics in 2â€“7% range whereas the polished silicon wafer can suppress the higher harmonics below 1%. The results of comparative study are discussed.
Kaur, Sukhdeep; Sharma, A. K.; Salih, Hyder A.
2009-04-15
Second harmonic generation of a right circularly polarized Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a magnetized plasma is investigated. The beam causes Ohmic heating of electrons and subsequent redistribution of the plasma, leading to self-defocusing. The radial density gradient, in conjunction with the oscillatory electron velocity, produces density oscillation at the wave frequency. The density oscillation beats with the oscillatory velocity to produce second harmonic current density, giving rise to resonant second harmonic radiation when the wave frequency is one-third of electron cyclotron frequency. The second harmonic field has azimuthal dependence as exp(i{theta}). The self-defocusing causes a reduction in the efficiency of harmonic generation.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
all of its costs in the rates it charges customers for wholesale electricity and transmission services. The agency is committed to careful cost management consistent with its...
Continuous third harmonic generation in a terahertz driven modulated nanowire
Hamilton, Kathleen E. De, Amrit; Pryadko, Leonid P.; Kovalev, Alexey A.
2015-06-07
We consider the possibility of observing continuous third-harmonic generation using a strongly driven, single-band one-dimensional metal. In the absence of scattering, the quantum efficiency of frequency tripling for such a system can be as high as 93%. Combining the Floquet quasi-energy spectrum with the Keldysh Green's function technique, we derive a semiclassical master equation for a one-dimensional band of strongly and rapidly driven electrons in the presence of weak scattering by phonons. The power absorbed from the driving field is continuously dissipated by phonon modes, leading to a quasi-equilibrium in the electron distribution. We use the Kronig-Penney model with varying effective mass to establish the growth parameters of an InAs/InP nanowire near optimal for third harmonic generation at terahertz frequency range.
Monitoring microstructural evolution in irradiated steel with second harmonic generation
Matlack, Kathryn H.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Wall, James J.; Qu, Jianmin
2015-03-31
Material damage in structural components is driven by microstructural evolution that occurs at low length scales and begins early in component life. In metals, these microstructural features are known to cause measurable changes in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter. Physically, the interaction of a monochromatic ultrasonic wave with microstructural features such as dislocations, precipitates, and vacancies, generates a second harmonic wave that is proportional to the acoustic nonlinearity parameter. These nonlinear ultrasonic techniques thus have the capability to evaluate initial material damage, particularly before crack initiation and propagation occur. This paper discusses how the nonlinear ultrasonic technique of second harmonic generation can be used as a nondestructive evaluation tool to monitor microstructural changes in steel, focusing on characterizing neutron radiation embrittlement in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels. Current experimental evidence and analytical models linking microstructural evolution with changes in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter are summarized.
Echo-enabled Harmonic Generation Free Electron Laser
Xiang, D; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC
2008-12-18
In this paper, we systematically study the echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) free electron laser (FEL). The EEHG FEL uses two modulators in combination with two dispersion sections that allow to generate in the beam a high harmonic density modulation starting with a relatively small initial energy modulation of the beam. After presenting analytical theory of the phenomenon, we address several practically important issues, such as the effect of incoherent synchrotron radiation in the dispersion sections, and the beam transverse size effect in the modulator. Using a representative realistic set of beam parameters, we show how the EEHG scheme enhances the FEL performance and allows to generate a fully (both longitudinally and transversely) coherent radiation. As an example, we demonstrate that 5 nm coherent soft x-rays with GW peak power can be generated directly from the 240 nm seeding laser using the proposed EEHG scheme.
Higher harmonics generation in relativistic electron beam with virtual cathode
Kurkin, S. A. Badarin, A. A.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Hramov, A. E.
2014-09-15
The study of the microwave generation regimes with intense higher harmonics taking place in a high-power vircator consisting of a relativistic electron beam with a virtual cathode has been made. The characteristics of these regimes, in particular, the typical spectra and their variations with the change of the system parameters (beam current, the induction of external magnetic field) as well as physical processes occurring in the system have been analyzed by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation. It has been shown that the system under study demonstrates the tendency to the sufficient growth of the amplitudes of higher harmonics in the spectrum of current oscillations in the VC region with the increase of beam current. The obtained results allow us to consider virtual cathode oscillators as promising high power mmw-to-THz sources.
Discrete quadratic solitons with competing second-harmonic components
Setzpfandt, Frank; Pertsch, Thomas; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.
2011-11-15
We describe families of discrete solitons in quadratic waveguide arrays supported by competing cascaded nonlinear interactions between one fundamental and two second-harmonic modes. We characterize the existence, stability, and excitation dynamics of these solitons and show that their features may resemble those of solitons in saturable media. Our results also demonstrate that a power threshold may appear for soliton formation, leading to a suppression of beam self-focusing which explains recent experimental observations.
Using Coupled Harmonic Oscillators to Model Some Greenhouse Gas Molecules
Go, Clark Kendrick C.; Maquiling, Joel T.
2010-07-28
Common greenhouse gas molecules SF{sub 6}, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} are modeled as harmonic oscillators whose potential and kinetic energies are derived. Using the Euler-Lagrange equation, their equations of motion are derived and their phase portraits are plotted. The authors use these data to attempt to explain the lifespan of these gases in the atmosphere.
On the moment of inertia of a quantum harmonic oscillator
Khamzin, A. A. Sitdikov, A. S.; Nikitin, A. S.; Roganov, D. A.
2013-04-15
An original method for calculating the moment of inertia of the collective rotation of a nucleus on the basis of the cranking model with the harmonic-oscillator Hamiltonian at arbitrary frequencies of rotation and finite temperature is proposed. In the adiabatic limit, an oscillating chemical-potential dependence of the moment of inertia is obtained by means of analytic calculations. The oscillations of the moment of inertia become more pronounced as deformations approach the spherical limit and decrease exponentially with increasing temperature.
Radar transponder operation with compensation for distortion due to amplitude modulation
Ormesher, Richard C.; Tise, Bertice L.; Axline, Jr., Robert M.
2011-01-04
In radar transponder operation, a variably delayed gating signal is used to gate a received radar pulse and thereby produce a corresponding gated radar pulse for transmission back to the source of the received radar pulse. This compensates for signal distortion due to amplitude modulation on the retransmitted pulse.
Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Project
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Despite the ever-growing body of life cycle assessment literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization Project in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights.
STARS A Two Stage High Gain Harmonic Generation FEL Demonstrator
M. Abo-Bakr; W. Anders; J. Bahrdt; P. Budz; K.B. Buerkmann-Gehrlein; O. Dressler; H.A. Duerr; V. Duerr; W. Eberhardt; S. Eisebitt; J. Feikes; R. Follath; A. Gaupp; R. Goergen; K. Goldammer; S.C. Hessler; K. Holldack; E. Jaeschke; Thorsten Kamps; S. Klauke; J. Knobloch; O. Kugeler; B.C. Kuske; P. Kuske; A. Meseck; R. Mitzner; R. Mueller; M. Neeb; A. Neumann; K. Ott; D. Pfluckhahn; T. Quast; M. Scheer; Th. Schroeter; M. Schuster; F. Senf; G. Wuestefeld; D. Kramer; Frank Marhauser
2007-08-01
BESSY is proposing a demonstration facility, called STARS, for a two-stage high-gain harmonic generation free electron laser (HGHG FEL). STARS is planned for lasing in the wavelength range 40 to 70 nm, requiring a beam energy of 325 MeV. The facility consists of a normal conducting gun, three superconducting TESLA-type acceleration modules modified for CW operation, a single stage bunch compressor and finally a two-stage HGHG cascaded FEL. This paper describes the faciliy layout and the rationale behind the operation parameters.
A non-conforming 3D spherical harmonic transport solver
Van Criekingen, S.
2006-07-01
A new 3D transport solver for the time-independent Boltzmann transport equation has been developed. This solver is based on the second-order even-parity form of the transport equation. The angular discretization is performed through the expansion of the angular neutron flux in spherical harmonics (PN method). The novelty of this solver is the use of non-conforming finite elements for the spatial discretization. Such elements lead to a discontinuous flux approximation. This interface continuity requirement relaxation property is shared with mixed-dual formulations such as the ones based on Raviart-Thomas finite elements. Encouraging numerical results are presented. (authors)
Temperature-insensitive phase-matched optical harmonic conversion crystal
Barker, C.E.; Eimerl, D.; Velsko, S.P.; Roberts, D.
1993-11-23
Temperature-insensitive, phase-matched harmonic frequency conversion of laser light at a preferred wavelength of 1.064 microns can be achieved by use of a crystal of deuterated l-arginine phosphate. The crystal is cut and oriented so that the laser light propagates inside the crystal along one of several required directions, which correspond to a temperature-insensitive, phase-matching locus. The method of measuring and calculating the temperature-insensitive, phase-matching angles can be extended to other fundamental wavelengths and other crystal compositions. 12 figures.
Ganeev, R. A.; Abdelrahman, Z. Frank, F.; Witting, T.; Okell, W. A.; Fabris, D.; Hutchison, C.; Marangos, J. P.; Tisch, J. W. G.
2014-01-13
We present measurements of the spatial coherence of the high-order harmonics generated in laser-produced ablation plumes. Harmonics were generated using 4 fs, 775â€‰nm pulses with peak intensity 3â€‰Ã—â€‰10{sup 14}â€‰Wâ€‰cm{sup âˆ’2}. Double-slit fringe visibilities in the range of â‰ˆ0.6â€“0.75 were measured for non-resonant harmonics in carbon and resonantly enhanced harmonics in zinc and indium. These are somewhat higher than the visibility obtained for harmonics generated in argon gas under similar conditions. This is attributed to lower time-dependent ionization of the plasma ablation targets compared to argon during the high harmonics generation process.
Braenzel, J.; SchnÃ¼rer, M.; Steinke, S.; Priebe, G.; Sandner, W.; Andreev, A.; Vavilov State Optical Institute, Birzhevaya line 4, 199034 St. Petersburg ; Platonov, K.
2013-08-15
Theoretical and experimental investigations of the dynamics of a relativistically oscillating plasma slab reveal spectral line splitting in laser driven harmonic spectra, leading to double harmonic series. Both series are well characterized with harmonics arising by two fundamental frequencies. While a relativistic oscillation of the critical density drives the harmonic emission, the splitting is a result of an additional acceleration during the laser pulse duration. In comparison with the oscillatory movement, this acceleration is rather weak and can be described by a plasma shock wave driven by the pressure of light. We introduce particle in cell simulations and an analytical model explaining the harmonic line splitting. The derived analytical formula gives direct access between the splitting in the harmonic spectrum and the acceleration of the plasma surface.
Gilbert, Dustin A.; Ye, Li; Varea, AÃ¯da; Agramunt-Puig, SebastiÃ ; del Valle, Nuria; Navau, Carles; LÃ³pez-Barbera, JosÃ© Francisco; Buchanan, Kristen S.; Hoffmann, Axel; SÃ¡nchez, Alvar; Sort, Jordi; Liu, Kai; NoguÃ©s, Josep
2015-04-28
Magnetic vortices have generated intense interest in recent years due to their unique reversal mechanisms, fascinating topological properties, and exciting potential applications. In addition, the exchange coupling of magnetic vortices to antiferromagnets has also been shown to lead to a range of novel phenomena and functionalities. Here we report a new magnetization reversal mode of magnetic vortices in exchange coupled Ir20Mn80/Fe20Ni80 microdots: distorted viscous vortex reversal. In contrast to the previously known or proposed reversal modes, the vortex is distorted close to the interface and viscously dragged due to the uncompensated spins of a thin antiferromagnet, which leads to unexpected asymmetries in the annihilation and nucleation fields. These results provide a deeper understanding of the physics of exchange coupled vortices and may also have important implications for applications involving exchange coupled nanostructures.
dgtoexo2: A Distorted Grid Output File to Exodus II Finite Element Database Conversion Utility
Moffat, H.K.
1998-12-01
This report describes how to obtain publication-quality graphics from distorted grid electronic structure codes using the combination of the conversion utility, dgtoexo2, and mustafa, an AVS Express application. dgtoexo2 converts scalar function results from a format applicable to distorted grid codes into the Exodus II unstructured finite element data representation. nmstafa can read Exodus II files and use the AVS Express engine to visualize data on unix and Windows NT platforms. Though not designed for the purpose, the dgtoexo2/EXOdUS II/mustafa combination is sufficiently versatile to provide for the specialized graphics needs of electronic structure codes. The combination also scales well, producing robust performance for problems involving millions of grid points.
Structural distortions in 5-10 nm silver nanoparticles under high pressure
Koski, Kristie J.; Kamp, Noelle M.; Kunz, Martin; Knight, Jason K.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Smith, R.K.
2008-10-13
We present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles in the size range of 5-10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. We have used x-ray diffraction with a synchrotron light source to investigate pressure-dependent and size-dependent trends in the crystal structure of silver nanoparticles in a hydrostatic medium compressed in a diamond-anvil cell. Results suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. We propose a mechanism for this transition that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. To further support this hypothesis, we also show that similar measurements of single-crystal platinum nanoparticles reveal no such distortions.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Gilbert, Dustin A.; Ye, Li; Varea, AÃ¯da; Agramunt-Puig, SebastiÃ ; del Valle, Nuria; Navau, Carles; LÃ³pez-Barbera, JosÃ© Francisco; Buchanan, Kristen S.; Hoffmann, Axel; SÃ¡nchez, Alvar; et al
2015-04-28
Magnetic vortices have generated intense interest in recent years due to their unique reversal mechanisms, fascinating topological properties, and exciting potential applications. In addition, the exchange coupling of magnetic vortices to antiferromagnets has also been shown to lead to a range of novel phenomena and functionalities. Here we report a new magnetization reversal mode of magnetic vortices in exchange coupled Ir20Mn80/Fe20Ni80 microdots: distorted viscous vortex reversal. In contrast to the previously known or proposed reversal modes, the vortex is distorted close to the interface and viscously dragged due to the uncompensated spins of a thin antiferromagnet, which leads to unexpectedmoreÂ Â» asymmetries in the annihilation and nucleation fields. These results provide a deeper understanding of the physics of exchange coupled vortices and may also have important implications for applications involving exchange coupled nanostructures.Â«Â less
Lattice distortions and oxygen vacancies produced in Au+ irradiated nano-crystalline cubic zirconia
Edmondson, Philip D; Weber, William J; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen
2011-01-01
The structural impact of oxygen vacancies in nanocrystalline cubic zirconia is investigated. A non-equilibrium number of oxygen vacancies in introduced to the lattice by ion irradiation. The lattice is observed to be initially compressed, undergoes a relaxation at 0.7 displacements per atom (dpa), and experiences a contraction before reaching a temperature dependent steady state value at above 7 dpa. The level of lattice distortion is related to the charge state of the accumulating oxygen vacancies.
Malakhovskii, A. V.; Gnatchenko, S. L.; Kachur, I. S.; Piryatinskaya, V. G.; Sukhachev, A. L.; Sokolov, A. E.; Strokova, A. Ya.; Kartashev, A. V.; Temerov, V. L.
2013-01-15
Optical absorption spectra of YbAl{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4}, TmAl{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} and TbFe{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} trigonal crystals have been studied in temperature range 2-300 K. Temperature behavior of absorption lines parameters has shown, that during some f-f transitions the local environment of rare earth ions undergo distortions, which are absent in the ground state.
Tracing the structure of asymmetric molecules from high-order harmonic generation
Chen Yanjun; Zhang, Bing
2011-11-15
We investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from asymmetric molecules exposed to intense laser fields. We show that the emissions of odd and even harmonics depend differently on the orientation angle, the internuclear distance, as well as the effective charge. This difference mainly comes from different roles of intramolecular interference in the HHG of odd and even harmonics. These roles map the structure of the asymmetric molecule to the odd vs even HHG spectra.
Optic for industrial endoscope/borescope with narrow field of view and low distortion
Stone, Gary F.; Trebes, James E.
2005-08-16
An optic for the imaging optics on the distal end of a flexible fiberoptic endoscope or rigid borescope inspection tool. The image coverage is over a narrow (<20 degrees) field of view with very low optical distortion (<5% pin cushion or barrel distortion), compared to the typical <20% distortion. The optic will permit non-contact surface roughness measurements using optical techniques. This optic will permit simultaneous collection of selected image plane data, which data can then be subsequently optically processed. The image analysis will yield non-contact surface topology data for inspection where access to the surface does not permit a mechanical styles profilometer verification of surface topology. The optic allows a very broad spectral band or range of optical inspection. It is capable of spectroscopic imaging and fluorescence induced imaging when a scanning illumination source is used. The total viewing angle for this optic is 10 degrees for the full field of view of 10 degrees, compared to 40-70 degrees full angle field of view of the conventional gradient index or GRIN's lens systems.
N = 4 supersymmetric mechanics: Harmonic superspace as a universal tool of model-building
Ivanov, E. A.
2013-08-15
We overview applications of the harmonic superspace approach in models of N = 4supersymmetric mechanics, with emphasis on some recent results.
Numerical studies of third-harmonic generation in laser filament in air perturbed by plasma spot
Feng Liubin; Lu Xin; Liu Xiaolong; Li Yutong; Chen Liming; Ma Jinglong; Dong Quanli; Wang Weimin; Xi Tingting; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; He Duanwei
2012-07-15
Third-harmonic emission from laser filament intercepted by plasma spot is studied by numerical simulations. Significant enhancement of the third-harmonic generation is obtained due to the disturbance of the additional plasma. The contribution of the pure plasma effect and the possible plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility on the third-harmonic generation enhancement are compared. It is shown that the plasma induced cancellation of destructive interference [Y. Liu et al., Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011)] of two-colored filament is the dominant mechanism of the enhancement of third-harmonic generation.
Reconsidering harmonic and anharmonic coherent states: Partial differential equations approach
Toutounji, Mohamad
2015-02-15
This article presents a new approach to dealing with time dependent quantities such as autocorrelation function of harmonic and anharmonic systems using coherent states and partial differential equations. The approach that is normally used to evaluate dynamical quantities involves formidable operator algebra. That operator algebra becomes insurmountable when employing Morse oscillator coherent states. This problem becomes even more complicated in case of Morse oscillator as it tends to exhibit divergent dynamics. This approach employs linear partial differential equations, some of which may be solved exactly and analytically, thereby avoiding the cumbersome noncommutative algebra required to manipulate coherent states of Morse oscillator. Additionally, the arising integrals while using the herein presented method feature stability and high numerical efficiency. The correctness, applicability, and utility of the above approach are tested by reproducing the partition and optical autocorrelation function of the harmonic oscillator. A closed-form expression for the equilibrium canonical partition function of the Morse oscillator is derived using its coherent states and partial differential equations. Also, a nonequilibrium autocorrelation function expression for weak electronâ€“phonon coupling in condensed systems is derived for displaced Morse oscillator in electronic state. Finally, the utility of the method is demonstrated through further simplifying the Morse oscillator partition function or autocorrelation function expressions reported by other researchers in unevaluated form of second-order derivative exponential. Comparison with exact dynamics shows identical results.
Structural characterization of particle systems using spherical harmonics
Feinauer, Julian; Spettl, Aaron; Manke, Ingo; Strege, Stefan; Kwade, Arno; Pott, Andres; Schmidt, Volker
2015-08-15
Many important properties of particulate materials are heavily influenced by the size and shape of the constituent particles. Thus, in order to control and improve product quality, it is important to develop a good understanding of the shape and size of the particles that make up a given particulate material. In this paper, we show how the spherical harmonics expansion can be used to approximate particles obtained from tomographic 3D images. This yields an analytic representation of the particles which can be used to calculate structural characteristics. We present an estimation method for the optimal length of expansion depending on individual particle shapes, based on statistical hypothesis testing. A suitable choice of this parameter leads to a smooth approximation that preserves the main shape features of the original particle. To show the wide applicability of this procedure, we use it to approximate particles obtained from two different tomographic 3D datasets of particulate materials. The first one describes an anode material from lithium-ion cells that consists of sphere-like particles with different sizes. The second dataset describes a powder of highly non-spherical titanium dioxide particles. - Highlights: â€¢ Complex particle shapes are described analytically by spherical harmonics expansion. â€¢ The optimal length of the expansion is estimated for each particle individually. â€¢ Characteristics like, e.g., particle surface areas can be calculated efficiently. â€¢ The method is applied to two tomographic datasets of particulate materials.
Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Rate Case Workshops Other Power Rates-Related Workshops July 1, 2004 - Rates and Finances Workshop (updated June 25, 2004) (financial and rate forecasts and scenarios for FY...
Wang, Gaozhong; Zhang, Saifeng E-mail: jwang@siom.ac.cn; Cheng, Xin; Dong, Ningning; Zhang, Long; Wang, Jun E-mail: jwang@siom.ac.cn; Umran, Fadhil A.; Coghlan, Darragh; Blau, Werner J.; Cheng, Ya
2014-04-07
Spatial self-phase modulation (SSPM) was observed directly when a focused He-Ne laser beam at 633â€‰nm went through liquid-phase-exfoliated graphene dispersions. The diffraction pattern of SSPM was found to be distorted rapidly right after the incident beam horizontally passing through the dispersions, while no distortion for the vertically incident geometry. We show that the distortion is originated mainly from the non-axis-symmetrical thermal convections of the graphene nanosheets induced by laser heating, and the relative change of nonlinear refractive index can be determined by the ratio of the distortion angle to the half-cone angle. Therefore, the effective nonlinear refractive index of graphene dispersions can be tuned by changing the incident intensity and the temperature of the dispersions.
Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.
1993-01-12
Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position. Particle beams, including electrons, ions and neutral particles, may be used as well as electromagnetic radiation.
Longitudinal instabilities with a non-harmonic rf potential
Krinsky, S.; Wang, J.M.
1983-01-01
We consider the longitudinal instabilities of a bunched beam subject to a non-harmonic rf potential. Assuming the unperturbed bunch to be described by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, our treatment is based upon the linearized Vlasov equation. The formalism developed is exact, and in particular, correctly describes the effect of the dependence on amplitude of the synchrotron oscillation frequency. We discuss the fast blowup limit, and extend Wang and Pellegrini's treatment of the microwave instability to include the case of a non-Gaussian bunch. Next, within the short bunch approximation, we derive the dispersion relation describing the Landau damping of the coupled bunch modes, resulting from the use of a Landau cavity.
Cai, Jiandong; Zhang, Li; Wang, Michael Yu
2015-12-15
In multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM), probeâ€™s characteristic of assigning resonance frequencies to integer harmonics results in a remarkable improvement of detection sensitivity at specific harmonic components. The selection criterion of harmonic order is based on its amplitudeâ€™s sensitivity on material properties, e.g., elasticity. Previous studies on designing harmonic probe are unable to provide a large design capability along with maintaining the structural integrity. Herein, we propose a harmonic probe with step cross section, in which it has variable width in top and bottom steps, while the middle step in cross section is kept constant. Higher order resonance frequencies are tailored to be integer times of fundamental resonance frequency. The probe design is implemented within a structural optimization framework. The optimally designed probe is micromachined using focused ion beam milling technique, and then measured with an AFM. The measurement results agree well with our resonance frequency assignment requirement.
Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon
Zeng, Y.; Roland, I.; Checoury, X.; Han, Z.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Boucaud, P.; Gayral, B.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Mexis, M.; Semond, F.
2015-02-23
We demonstrate second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride photonic crystal cavity embedded in a two-dimensional free-standing photonic crystal platform on silicon. The photonic crystal nanocavity is optically pumped with a continuous-wave laser at telecom wavelengths in the transparency window of the nitride material. The harmonic generation is evidenced by the spectral range of the emitted signal, the quadratic power dependence vs. input power, and the spectral dependence of second harmonic signal. The harmonic emission pattern is correlated to the harmonic polarization generated by the second-order nonlinear susceptibilities Ï‡{sub zxx}{sup (2)},â€‰Ï‡{sub zyy}{sup (2)} and the electric fields of the fundamental cavity mode.
Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N.; Suk, H.
2015-06-15
We propose an idea to enhance the efficiency of second- and third-harmonic generation by considering the amplitude-modulation of the fundamental laser pulse. A short-pulse laser of finite spot size is modeled as amplitude modulated in time. Amplitude-modulation of fundamental laser contributes in quiver velocity of the plasma electrons and produces the strong plasma-density perturbations, thereby increase in current density at second- and third-harmonic frequency. In a result, the conversion efficiency of harmonic generation increases significantly. Power conversion efficiency of harmonic generation process is the increasing function of the amplitude-modulation parameter of the fundamental laser beam. Harmonic power generated by an amplitude modulated laser is many folds higher than the power obtained in an ordinary case.
Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma
Singh, Ravi Pratap Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K.
2015-12-15
We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06â€‰Î¼m) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C{sub 2} and CN in the ablated plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals.
Improvement of nonlinear harmonics in free electron laser with planar wiggler
Bazouband, F.; Maraghechi, B.
2012-11-15
Spontaneous emission of free electron laser with planar wiggler and ion-channel guiding is calculated analytically and possibility of emission at up-shifted wiggler or ion-channel betatron frequency and their harmonics has been found. To investigate the nonlinear odd harmonics, a set of self-consistent nonlinear differential equations that governs the evolution of radiation and electron beam are derived and solved numerically by Runge-Kutta method. Using the simulation code, gain improvement of third harmonic is studied in the range of microwave frequency by applying ion-channel guiding for a cold beam. It is shown that the combination of the ion-channel and a prebunched electron beam increases the amplitude of the third harmonic of the radiation and decreases its saturation length. The relation between the linear and nonlinear harmonics is discussed.
Controlling harmonic instability of HVDC links connected to weak ac systems
Bodger, P.S. ); Irwin, G.D.; Woodford, D.A. )
1990-10-01
Time domain digital simulation of HVDC transmission enables harmonic stability of a system to be studied. This paper reports two alternative measures of controlling harmonic instability were investigated; the use of C-type ac filters and a simple addition of a harmonic damping circuit in the rectifier converter control. The design of a C-type filter is described and its effectiveness presented. Harmonic damping by controls consists of taking the output from a fast response dc current transducer, passing it through a filter and a gain and adding the output to the firing angle order. Both methods result in stable recovery from faults at both rectifier and inverter terminal busbars for a dc system inherently harmonically unstable.
Guo, Qixum; Zhao, Yusheng; Zin, Zhijun; Wang, Zhongwu; Skrabalak, Sara E; Xia, Younan
2008-01-01
Silver micro- and nanocrystals with sizes of {approx}2--3.5 {mu}m and {approx}50--100 nm were uniaxially compressed under nonhydrostatic pressures (strong deviatoric stress) up to {approx}30 GPa at room temperature in a symmetric diamond-anvil cell and studied in situ using angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A cubic to trigonal structural distortion along a 3-fold rotational axis was discovered by careful and comprehensive analysis of the apparent lattice parameter and full width at half-maximum, which are strongly dependent upon the Miller index and crystal size.
Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.
2005-07-05
A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.
Welding Induced Alignment Distortion in Dual-in-Line LD Packages
Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Shi, Frank G.
2007-11-11
The tolerance for the movement of a single mode fiber relative to the laser is extremely tight, a submicron movement can often lead to a significant misalignment and thus the reduction in the power coupled into the fiber. Among various fiber pigtailing assembly technologies, pulsed laser welding is the method with submicron accuracy and is most conducive to automation. However, the melting-solidification process during laser welding can often distort the pre-achieved fiber-optic alignment. This Welding-Induced-Alignment-Distortion (WIAD) is a serious concern and significantly affects the yield for single mode fiber pigtailing to a semiconductor laser. In this paper, effect of laser welding sequence on WIAD in a dual-in-line packager is numerically investigated by means of Finite Element Method (FEM). Optimal welding sequence may minimize WIAD in dual-in-line package. Additionally, unsymmetrical space between fiber and U-channel induced by laser welding of U-channel–to-plate in DIP LD packages is found to have obvious effect on WIAD.
Harmonization - Two Years' of Transportation Regulation Lessons Learned
Colborn, K.
2007-07-01
The U.S. Department of Transportation issued modifications to the Hazardous Materials Regulations in October, 2004 as part of an ongoing effort to 'harmonize' U.S. regulations with those of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The harmonization effort had several predictable effects on low level radioactive materials shipment that were anticipated even prior to their implementation. However, after two years' experience with the new regulations, transporters have identified several effects on transportation which were not entirely apparent when the regulations were first implemented. This paper presents several case studies in the transportation of low level radioactive materials since the harmonization rules took effect. In each case, an analysis of the challenge posed by the regulatory revision is provided. In some cases, more than one strategy for compliance was considered, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. In several cases, regulatory interpretations were sought and obtained, and these are presented to clarify the legitimacy of the compliance approach. The presentation of interpretations will be accompanied by reports of clarifying discussions with the U.S. DOT about the interpretation and scope of the regulatory change. Specific transportation issues raised by the revised hazardous materials regulations are reviewed, including: The new definition of radioactive material in accordance with isotope-specific concentration and total activity limits. The new hazardous materials regulations (HMR) created a new definition for radioactive material. A case study is presented for soils contaminated with low levels of Th-230. These soils had been being shipped for years as exempt material under the old 2,000 pCi/g concentration limit. Under the new HMR, these same soils were radioactive material. Further, in rail-car quantities their activity exceeded an A2 value, so shipment of the material in gondolas appeared to require an IP-2 package
Madsen, C. B.; Madsen, L. B.
2007-10-15
Using a quantum-mechanical three-step model, we present numerical calculations of the high-order harmonic generation from four polyatomic molecules. Ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) serves as an example where orbital symmetry directly affects the harmonic yield. We treat the case of methane (CH{sub 4}) to address the high-order harmonic generation resulting from a molecule with degenerate orbitals. To this end we illustrate how the single-orbital contributions show up in the total high-order harmonic signal. This example illustrates the importance of adding coherently the amplitude contributions from the individual degenerate orbitals. Finally, we study the high-order harmonic generation from propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) and butane (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}). These two molecules, being extended and far from spherical in structure, produce harmonics with nontrivial orientational dependencies. In particular, propane can be oriented so that very high-frequency harmonics are favored, and thus the molecule contains prospects for the generation of uv attosecond pulses.
Analysis of higher harmonic contamination with a modified approach using a grating analyser
Gupta, Rajkumar Modi, Mohammed H.; Lodha, G. S.; Kumar, M.; Chakera, J. A.
2014-04-15
Soft x-ray spectra of the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source are analyzed for higher harmonic contribution. A diffraction grating of central line spacing 1200 l/mm is used to disperse the monochromatic beam received from TGM to quantify the harmonic contents in the 50â€“360 Ã… wavelength range. In order to calculate the harmonic contamination, conventionally the intensity of higher order peak is divided by first order peak intensity of the desired wavelength. This approach is found to give wrong estimate as first order peak itself is overlapped by higher order peaks. In the present study, a modified approach has been proposed to calculate harmonic contamination where the intensity contributions of overlapping orders have been removed from the first order diffraction peak of the desired wavelength. It is found that the order contamination in the TGM spectra is less than 15% in the wavelength range of 90â€“180 Ã…. The total harmonic contribution increases from 6%â€“60% in the wavelength range of 150â€“260 Ã…. The critical wavelength of Indus-1 is 61 Ã… hence the harmonic contamination below 90 Ã… is significantly low. The results obtained with modified approach match well with those obtained by quantitative analysis of multilayer reflectivity data. The obtained higher harmonics data are used to fit the transmission of aluminum edge filter in the 120â€“360 Ã… wavelength range.
RF physics of ICWC discharge at high cyclotron harmonics
Lyssoivan, A.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Vervier, M.; Van Schoor, M.; Bobkov, V.; Rohde, V.; Schneider, P.; Douai, D.; Kogut, D.; Kreter, A.; MÃ¶ller, S.; Philipps, V.; Sergienko, G.; Moiseenko, V.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Collaboration: TEXTOR Team; ASDEX Upgrade Team
2014-02-12
Recent experiments on Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) performed in tokamaks TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade with standard ICRF antennas operated at fixed frequencies but variable toroidal magnetic field demonstrated rather contrasting parameters of ICWC discharge in scenarios with on-axis fundamental ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) for protons,Ï‰=Ï‰{sub H+}, and with its high cyclotron harmonics (HCH), Ï‰=10Ï‰{sub cH+}â‹… HCH scenario: very high antenna coupling to low density RF plasmas (P{sub pl}â‰ˆ0.9P{sub RF-G}) and low energy Maxwellian distribution of CX hydrogen atoms with temperature T{sub H}â‰ˆ350 eV. Fundamental ICR: lower antenna-plasma coupling efficiency (by factor of about 1.5 times) and generation of high energy non-Maxwellian CX hydrogen atoms (with local energy E{sub âŠ¥H} â‰¥1.0 keV). In the present paper, we analyze the obtained experimental results numerically using (i) newly developed 0-D transport code describing the process of plasma production with electron and ion collisional ionization in helium-hydrogen gas mixture and (ii) earlier developed 1-D Dispersion Relation Solver accounting for finite temperature effects and collision absorption mechanisms for all plasma species in addition to conventionally examined Landau/TTPM damping for electrons and cyclotron absorption for ions. The numerical study of plasma production in helium with minor hydrogen content in low and high toroidal magnetic fields is presented. The investigation of the excitation, conversion and absorption of plasma waves as function of B{sub T}-field suggests that only fast waves (FW) may give a crucial impact on antenna coupling and characteristics of the ICWC discharge using standard poloidally polarized ICRF antennas designed to couple RF power mainly to FW. The collisional (non-resonant) absorption by electrons and ions and IC absorption by resonant ions of minor concentration in low T{sub e} plasmas is studied at fundamental ICR and its high harmonics.
Current BPA Power Rates (pbl/rates)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
and Workshops WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...
Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power...
Surface plasma wave assisted second harmonic generation of laser over a metal film
Chauhan, Santosh; Parashar, J.
2015-01-15
Second harmonic generation of laser mode converted surface plasma wave (SPW) over a corrugated metal film is studied. The laser, impinged on the metal film, under attenuated total reflection configuration, excites SPW over the metalâ€“vacuum interface. The excited SPW extends over a much wider surface area than the laser spot cross-section. It exerts a second harmonic ponderomotive force on metal electrons, imparting them velocity that beats with the surface ripple to produce a nonlinear current, driving resonant second harmonic surface plasma wave.
Li, Dongsheng; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Garmestani, Hamid
2010-03-01
Statistical correlation function, including two-point function, is one of the popular methods to digitize microstructure quantitatively. This paper investigated how to represent statistical correlations using layered fast spherical harmonics expansion. A set of spherical harmonics coefficients may be used to represent the corresponding microstructures. It is applied to represent carbon nanotube composite microstructures to demonstrate how efficiently and precisely the harmonics coefficients will characterize the microstructure. This microstructure representation methodology will dramatically improve the computational efficiencies for future works in microstructure reconstruction and property prediction.
Approach of spherical harmonics to the representation of the deformed su(1,1) algebra
Fakhri, H.; Ghaneh, T.
2008-11-15
The m-shifting generators of su(2) algebra together with a pair of l-shifting ladder symmetry operators have been used in the space of all spherical harmonics Y{sub l}{sup m}({theta},{phi}) in order to introduce a new set of operators, expressing the transitions between them. It is shown that the space of spherical harmonics whose l+2m or l-2m is given presents negative and positive irreducible representations of a deformed su(1,1) algebra, respectively. These internal symmetries also suggest new algebraic methods to construct the spherical harmonics in the framework of the spectrum-generating algebras.
Boyarinov, V. F.; Kondrushin, A. E.; Fomichenko, P. A.
2012-07-01
Finite-difference time-dependent equations of Surface Harmonics method have been obtained for plane geometry. Verification of these equations has been carried out by calculations of tasks from 'Benchmark Problem Book ANL-7416'. The capacity and efficiency of the Surface Harmonics method have been demonstrated by solution of the time-dependent neutron transport equation in diffusion approximation. The results of studies showed that implementation of Surface Harmonics method for full-scale calculations will lead to a significant progress in the efficient solution of the time-dependent neutron transport problems in nuclear reactors. (authors)
Effect of the resonant growth of harmonics on the electron density in capacitively coupled plasma
Yamazawa, Yohei
2009-11-09
The growth of harmonics is known to occur under the condition of plasma series resonance (PSR). In an actual plasma process chamber, the external circuit also affects the PSR. We experimentally demonstrated the resonant growth of the third and fourth harmonics by tuning a variable capacitor attached to the electrode, and investigated the influence of the growth on the electron density. We observed significant increases in electron density as the amplitude of harmonics grows. The result clearly shows that nonlinear electron resonance heating actually takes place.
Electro-optic harmonic conversion to switch a laser beam out of a cavity
Haas, Roger A.; Henesian, Mark A.
1987-01-01
The invention is a switch to permit a laser beam to escape a laser cavity through the use of an externally applied electric field across a harmonic conversion crystal. Amplification takes place in the laser cavity, and then the laser beam is switched out by the laser light being harmonically converted with dichroic or polarization sensitive elements present to alter the optical path of the harmonically converted laser light. Modulation of the laser beam can also be accomplished by varying the external electric field.
A new frequency domain arc furnace model for iterative harmonic analysis
Mayordomo, J.G.; Beites, L.F.; Asensi, R.; Izzeddine, M.; Zabala, L.; Amantegui, J.
1997-10-01
This paper presents a new frequency domain Arc Furnace model for Iterative Harmonic Analysis (IHA) by means of a Newton method. Powerful analytical expressions for harmonic currents and their derivatives are obtained under the balanced conditions of the system. The model offers a three phase configuration where there is no path for homopolar currents. Moreover, it contemplates continuous and discontinuous evolution of the arc current. The solution obtained is validated by means of time domain simulations. Finally, the model was integrated in a harmonic power flow where studies have been performed in a network with more than 700 busbars and 7 actual Arc Furnace Loads.
Third-harmonic performance of the Beamlet prototype laser
Wegner, P.J.; Barker, C.E.; Caird, J.A.; Dixit, S.N.; Henesian, M.A.; Seppala, L.G.; Thompson, C.E.; Van Wonterghem, B.V.
1997-01-31
The Beamlet laser is a nearly full-scale, single-aperture prototype of the driver design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As part of a test and validation plan for the NIF design, Beamlet was recently equipped with final focusing optics and diagnostics for the purpose of evaluating integrated component performance and equivalent target-plane irradiance conditions at the 0.351-{mu}m output wavelength specified for NIF targets. A 37-cm aperture two-crystal converter scheme generates the third harmonic of the Nd:glass 1.053-{mu}m wavelength with high efficiency. The efficiency of the converter has been characterized and is reported, along with detailed measurements of the near-field and far-field UV irradiance distributions at operating conditions up to and exceeding red-line levels for the NIF. Dependences of observed beam quality on critical laser parameters including output power, B-integral, and spatial filtering are discussed and compared with numerical simulations.
All-sky interferometry with spherical harmonic transit telescopes
Shaw, J. Richard; Pen, Ue-Li; Sigurdson, Kris; Sitwell, Michael; Stebbins, Albert
2014-02-01
In this paper, we describe the spherical harmonic transit telescope through the use of a novel formalism for the analysis of transit radio telescopes. This all-sky approach bypasses the curved-sky complications of traditional interferometry and so is particularly well-suited to the analysis of wide-field radio interferometers. It enables compact and computationally efficient representations of the data and its statistics, which allow new ways of approaching important problems like map-making and foreground removal. In particular, we show how it enables the use of the Karhunen-LoÃ¨ve transform as a highly effective foreground filter, suppressing realistic foreground residuals for our fiducial example by at least a factor 20 below the 21 cm signal, even in highly contaminated regions of the sky. This is despite the presence of the mode-mixing inherent in real-world instruments with frequency-dependent beams. We show, using Fisher forecasting, that foreground cleaning has little effect on power spectrum constraints compared to hypothetical foreground-free measurements. Beyond providing a natural real-world data analysis framework for 21 cm telescopes now under construction and future experiments, this formalism allows accurate power spectrum forecasts to be made that include the interplay of design constraints and realistic experimental systematics with 21st century 21 cm science.
Fermi surface distortion induced by interaction between Rashba and Zeeman effects
Choi, Won Young; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Chang, Joonyeon; Kim, Hyung-jun; Lee, Kyung-Jin
2015-05-07
To evaluate Fermi surface distortion induced by interaction between Rashba and Zeeman effects, the channel resistance in an InAs quantum well layer is investigated with an in-plane magnetic field transverse to the current direction. In the magnetoresistance curve, the critical point occurs at âˆ¼3.5â€‰T, which is approximately half of the independently measured Rashba field. To get an insight into the correlation between the critical point in magnetoresistance curve and the Rashba strength, the channel conductivity is calculated using a two-dimensional free-electron model with relaxation time approximation. The critical point obtained from the model calculation is in agreement with the experiment, suggesting that the observation of critical point can be an alternative method to experimentally determine the Rashba parameter.
Photon-axion conversion as a mechanism for supernova dimming: Limits from CMB spectral distortion
Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg G.; Serpico, Pasquale D.
2005-07-15
Axion-photon conversion induced by intergalactic magnetic fields has been proposed as an explanation for the dimming of distant supernovae of type Ia (SNe Ia) without cosmic acceleration. The effect depends on the intergalactic electron density n{sub e} as well as the B-field strength and domain size. We show that for n{sub e} < or approx. 10{sup -9} cm{sup -3} the same mechanism would cause excessive spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This small-n{sub e} parameter region had been left open by the most restrictive previous constraints based on the dispersion of quasar (QSO) spectra. The combination of CMB and QSO limits suggests that the photon-axion conversion mechanism can only play a subleading role for SN Ia dimming. A combined analysis of all the observables affected by the photon-axion oscillations would be required to give a final verdict on the viability of this model.
Rapid distortion analysis of high speed homogeneous turbulence subject to periodic shear
Bertsch, Rebecca L. Girimaji, Sharath S.
2015-12-15
The effect of unsteady shear forcing on small perturbation growth in compressible flow is investigated. In particular, flow-thermodynamic field interaction and the resulting effect on the phase-lag between applied shear and Reynolds stress are examined. Simplified linear analysis of the perturbation pressure equation reveals crucial differences between steady and unsteady shear effects. The analytical findings are validated with numerical simulations of inviscid rapid distortion theory (RDT) equations. In contrast to steadily sheared compressible flows, perturbations in the unsteady (periodic) forcing case do not experience an asymptotic growth phase. Further, the resonance growth phenomenon found in incompressible unsteady shear turbulence is absent in the compressible case. Overall, the stabilizing influence of both unsteadiness and compressibility is compounded leading to suppression of all small perturbations. The underlying mechanisms are explained.
Oxygen octahedral distortions in LaMO3/SrTiO3 superlattices
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Sanchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Cabero, Mariona; Varela, Maria; Garcia-Barriocanal, Javier; Leon, Carlos; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Santamaria, Jacobo
2014-04-24
Here we study the interfaces between the Mott insulator LaMnO3 (LMO) and the band insulator SrTiO3 (STO) in epitaxially grown superlattices with different thickness ratios and different transport and magnetic behaviors. Using atomic resolution electron energy-loss spectrum imaging, we analyze simultaneously the structural and chemical properties of these interfaces. We find changes in the oxygen octahedral tilts within the LaMnO3 layers when the thickness ratio between the manganite and the titanate layers is varied. Superlattices with thick LMO and ultrathin STO layers present unexpected octahedral tilts in the STO, along with a small amount of oxygen vacancies. On the othermoreÂ Â» hand, thick STO layers exhibit undistorted octahedra while the LMO layers present reduced O octahedral distortions near the interfaces. In conclusion, these findings will be discussed in view of the transport and magnetic differences found in previous studies.Â«Â less
Popov, Y.F.; Levitin, R.Z.; Zeleny, M.; Deryagin, A.V.; Andreev, A.V.
1980-06-01
We investigate the temperature dependences of the crystal-lattice parameters, of the anisotropy, and of the Young's modulus of the intermetallide compound UFe/sub 2/. The contribution of the uranium ions to the magnetic moment of this compound is negligible (..mu../sub U/=0.06..mu../sub B/), owing to the almoft complete delocalization of the uranium 5f electrons. The measured magnetic anisotropy is relatively small (K/sub 1/approx. =-10/sup 6/ erg/cm/sup 3/ at 0 K). However, the transition to the magnetically ordered state (T/sub c/=170 K) is accompanied by large rhombohedral distortions of the UFe/sub 2/ crystal structure and by a considerable anomaly of the Young's modulus, thus attesting to a large value of the magnetoelastic interaction in this compound (..delta..K/sub 1/ /sup m/eapprox. =-8 x 10/sup 6/ erg/cm/sup 3/).
Experimental and Numerical Analysis on the Distortion of Parts Made of 20MnCr5 by Hot Metal Forming
Rentsch, Ruediger; Brinksmeier, Ekkard [Stiftung Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik, Badgasteiner Strasse 3, 28359 Bremen (Germany)
2011-05-04
For high performance applications, shafts and gears made of 20MnCr5 (AISI 5120) are manufactured in large numbers every year. Inhomogeneities in the material properties, process perturbations and asymmetries in shape and operation setups provide a potential for the distortion of parts, often released by heat treatment. In this contribution experimental results on the distortion of shafts and the dishing of disk-like gear wheel blanks are presented. The numerical analysis of the hot-rolling process allowed to trace a peculiar segregation distribution at the cross-section of the bars back to the casting process, and to identify an asymmetric strain distribution which may be the main cause for shaft distortion. For the dishing of the disks a correlation to the resulting distribution of the material flow was found and, a process perturbation parameter identified which is assumed to be responsible for the observed material flow variation.
Resonant third harmonic generation of KrF laser in Ar gas
Rakowski, R.; Barna, A.; Suta, T.; FÃ¶ldes, I. B.; Bohus, J.; SzatmÃ¡ri, S.; MikoÅ‚ajczyk, J.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.; Margarone, D.; Nowak, T.; and others
2014-12-15
Investigations of emission of harmonics from argon gas jet irradiated by 700 fs, 5 mJ pulses from a KrF laser are presented. Harmonics conversion was optimized by varying the experimental geometry and the nozzle size. For the collection of the harmonic radiation silicon and solar-blind diamond semiconductor detectors equipped with charge preamplifiers were applied. The possibility of using a single-crystal CVD diamond detector for separate measurement of the 3rd harmonic in the presence of a strong pumping radiation was explored. Our experiments show that the earlier suggested 0.7% conversion efficiency can really be obtained, but only in the case when phase matching is optimized with an elongated gas target length corresponding to the length of coherence.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Bansal, Dipanshu; Aref, Amjad; Dargush, Gary; Delaire, Olivier A.
2016-07-20
Based on thermodynamic principles, we derive expressions quantifying the non-harmonic vibrational behavior of materials, which are rigorous yet easily evaluated from experimentally available data for the thermal expansion coefficient and the phonon density of states. These experimentally-derived quantities are valuable to benchmark first-principles theoretical predictions of harmonic and non-harmonic thermal behaviors using perturbation theory, ab initio molecular-dynamics, or Monte-Carlo simulations. In this study, we illustrate this analysis by computing the harmonic, dilational, and anharmonic contributions to the entropy, internal energy, and free energy of elemental aluminum and the ordered compound FeSi over a wide range of temperature. Our results agreemoreÂ Â» well with previous data in the literature and provide an efficient approach to estimate anharmonic effects in materials.Â«Â less
de Rooij, Michael Andrew; Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Delgado, Eladio Clemente
2008-12-16
Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.
Compensation for phase mismatch of high harmonics by the group-velocity mismatch
Kulagin, I A; Kim, V V; Usmanov, T
2011-09-30
A mechanism providing an essential enhancement of the conversion efficiency of a single high harmonic in gaseous media is first proposed using an appropriate change in the phase mismatch and group-velocity mismatch in the vicinity of resonance.
Heath, G.
2012-06-01
This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.
A Proof-of-Principle Echo-enabled Harmonic Generation Free Electron...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
ThesisDissertation: A Proof-of-Principle Echo-enabled Harmonic Generation Free Electron Laser Experiment at SLAC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Proof-of-Principle...
Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene Hong, Sung-Young...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene Hong, Sung-Young; Dadap, Jerry I.; Petrone, Nicholas; Yeh, Po-Chun; Hone, James; Osgood, Richard M. American Physical Society None USDOE...
Second-harmonic generation of upper-hybrid radiation in a plasma
Tewari, D.P.; Tripathi, V.K.
1980-05-01
Employing the fluid model for the nonlinear response of electrons, we have studied the phenomenon of second-harmonic generation of upper-hybrid electromagnetic radiation in an inhomogeneous plasma. In the case of laser-pallet fusion, the maximum contribution for harmonic generation comes from the vicinity of the upper-hybrid layer, and the harmonic conversion efficiency turns out to be approx.0.1% at the power densities approx.10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/ (CO/sub 2/ laser), the same order as observed experimentally. In the case of electron cyclotron heating experiments of tokamak, a strong second harmonic must be generated at the cyclotron resonance layer. The wave-number-matching condition could be satisfied in a tokamak, which adds to the conversion efficiency.
High harmonic generation in underdense plasmas by intense laser pulses with orbital angular momentum
MendonÃ§a, J. T.; Vieira, J.
2015-12-15
We study high harmonic generation produced by twisted laser pulses, with orbital angular momentum in the relativistic regime, for pulse propagation in underdense plasma. We consider fast time scale processes associated with an ultra-short pulse, where the ion motion can be neglected. We use both analytical models and numerical simulations using a relativistic particle-in-cell code. The present description is valid for relativistic laser intensities, when the normalized field amplitude is much larger than one, a â‰« 1. We also discuss two distinct processes associated with linear and circular polarization. Using both analytical solutions and particle-in-cell simulations, we are able to show that, for laser pulses in a well defined Laguerre-Gauss mode, angular momentum conservation is observed during the process of harmonic generation. Intensity modulation of the harmonic spectrum is also verified, as imposed by the nonlinear time-scale for energy transfer between different harmonics.
Hagmann, Mark J.; Stenger, Frank S.; Yarotski, Dmitry A.
2013-12-14
Previous analyses suggest that microwave frequency combs (MFCs) with harmonics having extremely narrow linewidths could be produced by photodetection with a mode-locked ultrafast laser. In the MFC generated by focusing a passively mode-locked ultrafast laser on a tunneling junction, 200 harmonics from 74.254â€‰MHz to 14.85â€‰GHz have reproducible measured linewidths approximating the 1â€‰Hz resolution bandwidth (RBW) of the spectrum analyzer. However, in new measurements at a RBW of 0.1â€‰Hz, the linewidths are distributed from 0.12 to 1.17â€‰Hz. Measurements and analysis suggest that, because the laser is not stabilized, the stochastic drift in the pulse repetition rate is the cause for the distribution in measured linewidths. It appears that there are three cases in which the RBW is (1) greater than, (2) less than, or (3) comparable with the intrinsic linewidth. The measured spectra in the third class are stochastic and may show two or more peaks at a single harmonic.
Second harmonic generation from direct band gap quantum dots pumped by femtosecond laser pulses
Liu, Liwei Wang, Yue; Hu, Siyi; Ren, Yu; Huang, Chen
2014-02-21
We report on nonlinear optical experiments performed on Cu{sub 2}S quantum dots (QDs) pumped by femtosecond laser pulses. We conduct a theoretical simulation and experiments to determine their second harmonic generation characteristics. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the QDs have a second harmonic generation conversion efficiency of up to 76%. Our studies suggest that these Cu{sub 2}S QDs can be used for solar cells, bioimaging, biosensing, and electric detection.
Attachment of second harmonic-active moiety to molecules for detection of molecules at interfaces
Salafsky, Joshua S.; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.
2005-10-11
This invention provides methods of detecting molecules at an interface, which comprise labeling the molecules with a second harmonic-active moiety and detecting the labeled molecules at the interface using a surface selective technique. The invention also provides methods for detecting a molecule in a medium and for determining the orientation of a molecular species within a planar surface using a second harmonic-active moiety and a surface selective technique.
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links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...
Fluid simulations of frequency effects on nonlinear harmonics in inductively coupled plasma
Si Xuejiao; Xu Xiang; Wang Younian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Shuxia [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, BE-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Bogaerts, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, BE-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium)
2011-03-15
A fluid model is self-consistently established to investigate the harmonic effects in an inductively coupled plasma, where the electromagnetic field is solved by the finite difference time domain technique. The spatiotemporal distribution of harmonic current density, harmonic potential, and other plasma quantities, such as radio frequency power deposition, plasma density, and electron temperature, have been investigated. Distinct differences in current density have been observed when calculated with and without Lorentz force, which indicates that the nonlinear Lorentz force plays an important role in the harmonic effects, especially at low frequencies. Moreover, the even harmonics are larger than the odd harmonics both in the current density and the potential. Finally, the dependence of various plasma quantities with and without the Lorentz force on various driving frequencies is also examined. It is shown that the deposited power density decreases and the depth of penetration increases slightly because of the Lorentz force. The electron density increases distinctly while the electron temperature remains almost the same when the Lorentz force is taken into account.
Harmonic mode competition in a terahertz gyrotron backward-wave oscillator
Kao, S. H.; Chiu, C. C.; Chang, P. C.; Wu, K. L.; Chu, K. R.
2012-10-15
Electron cyclotron maser interactions at terahertz (THz) frequencies require a high-order-mode structure to reduce the wall loss to a tolerable level. To generate THz radiation, it is also essential to employ cyclotron harmonic resonances to reduce the required magnetic field strength to a value within the capability of the superconducting magnets. However, much weaker harmonic interactions in a high-order-mode structure lead to serious mode competition problems. The current paper addresses harmonic mode competition in the gyrotron backward wave oscillator (gyro-BWO). We begin with a comparative study of the mode formation and oscillation thresholds in the gyro-BWO and gyromonotron. Differences in linear features result in far fewer 'windows' for harmonic operation of the gyro-BWO. Nonlinear consequences of these differences are examined in particle simulations of the multimode competition processes in the gyro-BWO, which shed light on the competition criteria between modes of different as well as the same cyclotron harmonic numbers. The viability of a harmonic gyro-BWO is assessed on the basis of the results obtained.
Electron cyclotron harmonic resonances in high-frequency heating of the ionosphere
Kuo, Spencer P.
2013-09-15
Electron acceleration by upper hybrid waves under cyclotron harmonic resonance interaction is studied. Theory is formulated; the analytical solutions in the second and fourth harmonic cyclotron resonance cases are obtained, and in the third harmonic case, a first order differential equation governing the evolution of the electron energy is derived. The theory is applied for explaining the generation of artificial ionization layers observed in high-frequency (HF) ionospheric heating experiments. The upper hybrid waves are assumed to be excited parametrically by the O-mode HF heating wave. As the decay mode is the lower hybrid wave, the excited upper hybrid waves have wavelengths ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 m, which are short enough to effectively incorporate the finite Larmour radius effect for the harmonic cyclotron resonance interactions as well as have a frequency bandwidth of about 20 kHz, which provides an altitude region of about 10 km for continuous harmonic cyclotron resonance interaction between electrons and descending waves in the slightly inhomogeneous geomagnetic field. The numerical results on electron acceleration show that electron fluxes with energies larger than 14 eV are generated in the three harmonic cases. These energetic electrons cause impact ionizations, which are descending to form artificial ionization layers at the bottom of the ionospheric F region.
Hanif, M.; Salik, M.; Arif, F.
2015-03-15
In this research work, spectroscopic studies of carbon (C) plasma by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are presented. The plasma was produced by the first (1064 nm) and second (532 nm) harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG (Quantel Brilliant) pulsed laser having a pulse duration of 5 ns and 10-Hz repetition rate, which is capable of delivering 400 mJ at 1064 nm and 200 mJ at 532 nm. The laser beam was focused on the target material (100% carbon) by placing it in air at atmospheric pressure. The experimentally observed line profiles of five neutral carbon (C I) lines at 247.85, 394.22, 396.14, 588.95, and 591.25 nm were used to extract the electron temperature T{sub e} by using the Boltzmann plot method and determine its value, 9880 and 9400 K, respectively, for the fundamental and second harmonics of the laser, whereas the electron density N{sub e} was determined from the Stark broadening profile of neutral carbon line at 247.85 nm. The values of N{sub e} at a distance of 0.05 mm from the target surface for the fundamental-harmonic laser with a pulse energy of 130 mJ and the second-harmonic laser with a pulse energy of 72 mJ are 4.68 Ã— 10{sup 17} and 5.98 Ã— 10{sup 17} cm{sup âˆ’3}, respectively. This extracted information on T{sub e} and N{sub e} is useful for the deposition of carbon thin films by using the pulsed laser deposition technique. Moreover, both plasma parameters (T{sub e} and N{sub e}) were also calculated by varying the distance from the target surface along the line of propagation of the plasma plume and also by varying the laser irradiance.
PNCA-02 Rate Case (rates/ratecases)
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Proposed Adjustment to the Rate for Interchange Energy Imbalances Under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA-02 Rate Case) (updated on April 26, 2002) BPA has issued...
SU-E-J-209: Geometric Distortion at 3T in a Commercial 4D MRI-Compatible Phantom
Fatemi-Ardekani, A; Wronski, M; Kim, A; Stanisz, G; Sarfehnia, A; Keller, B
2015-06-15
Purpose: There are very few commercial 4D phantoms that are marketed as MRI compatible. We are evaluating one such commercial phantom, made to be used with an MRI-Linear accelerator. The focus of this work is to characterize the geometric distortions produced in this phantom at 3T using 3 clinical MR pulse sequences. Methods: The CIRS MRI-Linac Dynamic Phantom (CIRSTM) under investigation in this study consists of a softwaredriven moving tumour volume within a thorax phantom body and enables dose accumulation by placing a dosimeter within the tumour volume. Our initial investigation is to evaluate the phantom in static mode prior to examining its 4D capability. The water-filled thorax phantom was scanned using a wide-bore Philips 3T Achieva MRI scanner employing a Thoracic xl coil and clinical 2D T1W FFE, 2D T1W TSE and 3D T1W TFE pulse sequences. Each of the MR image sets was rigidly fused with a reference CT image of the phantom employing a rigid registration with 6 degrees of freedom. Geometric distortions between the MR and CT image sets were measured in 3 dimensions at selected points along the periphery of the distortion grid embedded within the phantom body (11.5, 7.5 and 3 cm laterally, ant/post and sup/inf of magnetic isocenter respectively). Results: The maximal measured geometric distortions between the MR and reference CT points of interest were 0.9, 1.8 and 1.3 mm in the lateral, anteriorposterior and cranio-caudal directions, respectively. For all 3 spatial dimensions, the maximal distortions occurred for the FFE pulse sequence. Maximal distortions for the 2D FFE, 2D TSE and 3D TFE sequences were 1, 0.7 and 1.8 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Our initial static investigation of this phantom shows minimal geometric distortions at 3T along the periphery of the embedded grid. CIRS has provided us with a phantom at no charge for evaluation at 3 Tesla.
Global Harmonization of Quality Assurance Naming Conventions in Radiation Therapy Clinical Trials
Melidis, Christos; Bosch, Walther R.; Izewska, Joanna; Fidarova, Elena; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Ulin, Kenneth; Ishikura, Satoshi; Followill, David; Galvin, James; Haworth, Annette; Besuijen, Deidre; Clark, Clark H.; Miles, Elizabeth; Aird, Edwin; and others
2014-12-01
Purpose: ToÂ review the various radiation therapy quality assurance (RTQA) procedures used by the Global Clinical Trials RTQA Harmonization Group (GHG) steering committee members and present the harmonized RTQA naming conventions by amalgamating procedures with similar objectives. Methods and Materials: A survey of the GHG steering committee members' RTQA procedures, their goals, and naming conventions was conducted. The RTQA procedures were classified as baseline, preaccrual, and prospective/retrospective data capture and analysis. After all the procedures were accumulated and described, extensive discussions took place to come to harmonized RTQA procedures and names. Results: The RTQA procedures implemented within a trial by the GHG steering committee members vary in quantity, timing, name, and compliance criteria. The procedures of each member are based on perceived chances of noncompliance, so that the quality of radiation therapy planning and treatment does not negatively influence the trial measured outcomes. A comparison of these procedures demonstrated similarities among the goals of the various methods, but the naming given to each differed. After thorough discussions, the GHG steering committee members amalgamated the 27 RTQA procedures to 10 harmonized ones with corresponding names: facilityÂ questionnaire, beam output audit, benchmark case, dummy run, complex treatment dosimetry check, virtual phantom, individual case review, review of patients' treatment records, and protocol compliance and dosimetry site visit. Conclusions: Harmonized RTQA harmonized naming conventions, which can be used in all future clinical trials involving radiation therapy, have been established. Harmonized procedures will facilitate future intergroup trial collaboration and help to ensure comparable RTQA between international trials, which enables meta-analyses and reduces RTQA workload for intergroup studies.
Krause, Jens C.; Ekiert, Damian C.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Smith, Patricia B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Crowe, Jr., James E.
2011-09-02
The structural and functional significance of somatic insertions and deletions in antibody chains is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a naturally occurring three-amino-acid insertion within the influenza virus-specific human monoclonal antibody 2D1 heavy-chain variable region reconfigures the antibody-combining site and contributes to its high potency against the 1918 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses. The insertion arose through a series of events, including a somatic point mutation in a predicted hot-spot motif, introduction of a new hot-spot motif, a molecular duplication due to polymerase slippage, a deletion due to misalignment, and additional somatic point mutations. Atomic resolution structures of the wild-type antibody and a variant in which the insertion was removed revealed that the three-amino-acid insertion near the base of heavy-chain complementarity-determining region (CDR) H2 resulted in a bulge in that loop. This enlarged CDR H2 loop impinges on adjacent regions, causing distortion of the CDR H1 architecture and its displacement away from the antigen-combining site. Removal of the insertion restores the canonical structure of CDR H1 and CDR H2, but binding, neutralization activity, and in vivo activity were reduced markedly because of steric conflict of CDR H1 with the hemagglutinin antigen.
Distorting general relativity: gravity's rainbow and f(R) theories at work
Garattini, Remo
2013-06-01
We compute the Zero Point Energy in a spherically symmetric background combining the high energy distortion of Gravity's Rainbow with the modification induced by a f(R) theory. Here f(R) is a generic analytic function of the Ricci curvature scalar R in 4D and in 3D. The explicit calculation is performed for a Schwarzschild metric. Due to the spherically symmetric property of the Schwarzschild metric we can compare the effects of the modification induced by a f(R) theory in 4D and in 3D. We find that the final effect of the combined theory is to have finite quantities that shift the Zero Point Energy. In this context we setup a Sturm-Liouville problem with the cosmological constant considered as the associated eigenvalue. The eigenvalue equation is a reformulation of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which is analyzed by means of a variational approach based on gaussian trial functionals. With the help of a canonical decomposition, we find that the relevant contribution to one loop is given by the graviton quantum fluctuations around the given background. A final discussion on the connection of our result with the observed cosmological constant is also reported.
Epitaxial growth of NiTiO3 with a distorted ilmenite structure
Varga, Tamas; Droubay, Timothy C.; Bowden, Mark E.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Shutthanandan, V.; Bolin, Trudy B.; Shelton, William A.; Chambers, Scott A.
2012-06-30
MTiO3 (M = Fe, Mn, Ni) compounds have received recent attention as possible candidates for new multiferroic materials capable of magnetization switching by application of an electric field. Epitaxial Ni1-xTi1-yO3 films of different thickness and composition were deposited on Al2O3(0001) by pulsed laser deposition, and characterized using several techniques. Structural parameters for the metastable LiNbO3-type NiTiO3 structure with the space group R3c were predicted using density functional theory calculations, and compared with the experimental results. Our structural data from x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy indicate that epitaxial ilmenite-type NiTiO3 films were successfully grown. Furthermore, lattice strain exerted by the sapphire substrate results in a distorted ilmenite structure similar to the LiNbO3-type one. Our results demonstrate the potential of oxide heteroepitaxy to stabilize metastable multiferroic phases that may be difficult to prepare or are inaccessible in the bulk.
Analysis of the orbit distortion by the use of the wavelet transform
Matsushita, T.; Takao, M.; Aoyagi, H.; Takeuchi, M.; Tanaka, H.; Agui, A.; Yoshigoe, A.; Nakatani, T.
2004-05-12
We have adopted matching pursuit algorithm of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for the analysis of the beam position shift correlated with the motion of insertion device (ID). The beam position data measured by the rf beam position monitors have included high-frequency 'noises' and fluctuation of background level. Precise evaluation of the electron beam position shift correlated with the motion of the ID is required for estimation of the steering magnet currents in order to suppress the closed orbit distortion (COD). The DWT is a powerful tool for frequency analysis and data processing. The analysis of DWT was applied to the beam position shift correlated with the phase motion of APPLE-2 type undulator (ID23) in SPring-8. The result of the analysis indicated that 'noises' are mainly composed of the components of 50 {approx} 6.25Hz and < 0.1Hz. We carried out the data processing to remove the 'noises' by the matching pursuit algorithm. Then we have succeeded in suppressing the COD within 2 {mu}m by the use of the steering magnet currents calculated from the processed data.
Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ? 20
Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy
2015-03-01
The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ? 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily for
G-band harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier with a mode-selective circuit
Yeh, Y. S.; Chen, Chang-Hong; Wang, Z. W.; Kao, B. H.; Chen, Chien-Hsiang; Lin, T. Y.; Guo, Y. W.
2014-12-15
Harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWAs) permit for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. A high-order-mode harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA with large circuit dimensions and low ohmic loss can achieve a high average power. By amplifying a fundamental harmonic TE{sub 01} drive wave, the second harmonic component of the beam current initiates a TE{sub 02} wave to be amplified. Wall losses can suppress some competing modes because they act as an effective sink of the energy of the modes. However, such wall losses do not suppress all competing modes as the fields are contracted in the copper section in the gyro-TWA. An improved mode-selective circuit, using circular waveguides with the specified radii, can provide the rejection points within the frequency range to suppress the competing modes. The simulated results reveal that the mode-selective circuit can provide an attenuation of more than 10â€‰dB to suppress the competing modes (TE{sub 21}, TE{sub 51}, TE{sub 22}, and TE{sub 03}). A G-band second harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA with the mode-selective circuit is predicted to yield a peak output power of 50â€‰kW at 198.8â€‰GHz, corresponding to a saturated gain of 55â€‰dB at an interaction efficiency of 10%. The full width at half maximum bandwidth is 5â€‰GHz.
Control of high-order harmonics for attoscience using a static-electric-field pattern
Serrat, Carles
2011-12-15
Quantum control in high-order-harmonic generation is considered theoretically by using a spatial distribution of static electric fields along the propagation direction of the driving field. It is shown that the trajectories of the electrons during its acceleration by the laser field in the high-harmonics-generation process can be controlled by periodically distributed static electric fields, which conveniently shape the driving laser field during propagation. Applying this mechanism, a quasi-phase-matching scheme that leads to filtered enhanced high harmonics is achieved. The harmonics in the plateau region are enhanced due to periodical phase variations in the long quantum trajectories as a consequence of the faster change experienced by the intensity-dependent phase along the longer electron trajectories. This effect should be observed in all quasi-phase-matching schemes based on perturbation of the microscopic quantum phase. The richness of adding a static-electric-field spatial pattern in the interaction region suggests a general scheme for feedback loop control in high-order-harmonic generation.
Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l â‰¤ 20
Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy
2015-03-01
The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l â‰¤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily for
Kolakoski sequence as an element to radiate giant forward and backward second harmonic signals
Parvini, T. S.; Tehranchi, M. M. E-mail: teranchi@sbu.ac.ir; Hamidi, S. M. E-mail: teranchi@sbu.ac.ir; Sarkarati, S.
2015-11-14
We propose a novel type of aperiodic one-dimensional photonic crystal structures which can be used for generating giant forward and backward second harmonic signals. The studied structure is formed by stacking together the air and nonlinear layers according to the Kolakoski self-generation scheme in which each nonlinear layer contains a pair of antiparallel 180Â° poled LiNbO{sub 3} crystal layers. For different generation stages of the structure, conversion efficiencies of forward and backward second harmonic waves have been calculated by nonlinear transfer matrix method. Numerical simulations show that conversion efficiencies in the Kolakoski-based multilayer are larger than the perfect ones for at least one order of magnitude. Especially for 33rd and 39th generation stages, forward second harmonic wave are 42 and 19 times larger, respectively. In this paper, we validate the strong fundamental field enhancement and localization within Kolakoski-based multilayer due to periodicity breaking which consequently leads to very strong radiation of backward and forward second harmonic signals. Following the applications of analogous aperiodic structures, we expect that Kolakosi-based multilayer can play a role in optical parametric devices such as multicolor second harmonic generators with high efficiency.
Experimental investigation of a phased-locked harmonic multiplying inverted gyrotwystron
Guo, H.; Rodgers, J.; Chen, S.; Walter, M.; Granatstein, V.L.
1996-12-31
The University of Maryland is investigating harmonic multiplication as a means of generating high frequency, large bandwidth, high power microwaves with reduced magnetic field and high subharmonic injection gain. The current experimental efforts are concentrated don two-stage devices. One of them is the phase-locked, harmonic-multiplying inverted gyrotwystron (phigtron) which uses a MIG produced electron beam (60 kV, 10 A), a combined mode launcher/input coupler, a Ku band fundamental gyro-TWT prebunching section, a radiation-free drift section, and a Ka band special complex cavity as output section. The bandwidth of this phigtron is expected to be improved over that of a gyroklystron since the input cavity is replaced by a traveling wave interaction structure. The second harmonic content of the beam may develop within both the input section and the drift space, and this allows the use of a smaller input signal. For a proof-of-principle experiment, a hot test tube was built. Initial experimental data will be provided in this presentation and will be compared with theoretical predictions. Finally, the feasibility of using a phigtron configuration with second harmonic prebunching and fourth harmonic output to realize a compact, high performance MMW power source at 94 GHz is discussed.
Experimental investigation of a phase-locked harmonic multiplying inverted gyrotwystron
Guo, H.; Rodgers, J.; Chen, S.; Walter, M.; Granatstein, V.L.
1996-12-31
The University of Maryland is investigating harmonic multiplication as a means of generating high frequency, large bandwidth, high power microwaves with reduced magnetic fields and high subharmonic injection gain. The current experimental efforts are concentrated on two-stage devices. One of them is the phase-locked, harmonic-multiplying inverted gyrotwystron (phigtron) which uses a MIG produced electron beam (60 kV, 10 A), a combined mode launcher/input coupler, a Ku band fundamental gyro-TWT prebunching section, a radiation-free drift section, and a Ka band special complex cavity as output section. The bandwidth of this phigtron is expected to be improved over that of a gyroklystron since the input cavity is replaced by a traveling wave interaction structure. The second harmonic content of the beam may develop within both the input section and the drift space, and this allows the use of a smaller input signal. For a proof-of-principle experiment, a hot test tube was built. Initial experimental data will be provided in this presentation and will be compared with theoretical predictions. Finally, the feasibility of sing a phigtron configuration with second harmonic prebunching and fourth harmonic output to realize a compact, high performance MMW power source at 94 GHz will be discussed.
Low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier in G band
Yeh, Y. S.; Guo, Y. W.; Kao, B. H.; Chen, C. H.; Wang, Z. W.; Hung, C. L.; Chang, T. H.
2015-12-15
Harmonic multiplying operation in a gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) permits for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. Lowering a beam voltage is an important step toward miniaturization of a harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA. However, the additional degree of freedom that is provided by the multitude cyclotron harmonics in a low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA still easily generates various competing modes. An improved mode-selective circuit, using circular waveguides with various radii, can provide the rejection points within the frequency range to suppress competing modes. Simulated results reveal that the mode-selective circuit can provide an attenuation of more than 14â€‰dB to suppress the competing modes. Furthermore, the performance of the gyro-TWA is analyzed for studying the sensitivity of the saturated output power and full width at half maximum bandwidth of the gyro-TWA to the beam voltage and the magnetic field. A stable low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA with the mode-selective circuit is predicted to yield a peak output power of 24â€‰kW at 200.4â€‰GHz, corresponding to a saturated gain of 56â€‰dB at an interaction efficiency of 20%. The full width at half maximum bandwidth is 3.0â€‰GHz.
Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l â‰¤ 20
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy
2015-03-01
The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l â‰¤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily forl â‰¤ 4. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l â‰¤ 7.moreÂ Â» In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturleâ€“Coppens method in the Wolfram Mathematicasoftware to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l â‰¤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.Â«Â less
Harmonic superspace geometry of (4,4) supersymmetric {sigma} models with torsion
Ivanov, E.A.
1996-02-01
Starting from the dual action of (4,4) two-dimensional (2D) twisted multiplets in the harmonic superspace with two independent sets of SU(2) harmonic variables, we present its generalization which hopefully provides an off-shell description of general (4,4) supersymmetric {sigma} models with torsion. Like the action of the torsionless (4,4) hyper-K{umlt a}hler {sigma} models in the standard harmonic superspace, it is characterized by a number of superfield potentials. They depend on {ital n} copies of a triple of analytic harmonic (4,4) superfields. As distinct from the hyper-K{umlt a}hler case, the potentials prove to be severely constrained by the self-consistency condition which stems from the commutativity of the left and right harmonic derivatives. We show that for {ital n}=1 these constraints reduce the general action to that of the (4,4) twisted multiplet, while for {ital n}{ge}2 there exists a wide class of new actions which cannot be written only via twisted multiplets. Their most strikng feature is the non-Abelian and in general nonlinear gauge invariance which substitutes the Abelian gauge symmetry of the dual action of twisted multiplets and ensures the correct number of physical degrees of freedom. We show, on a simple example, that these actions describe {sigma} models with noncommuting left and right complex structures on the bosonic target. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
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Proceeding Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Rate Case Elements BPA's rate cases are decided "on the record." That is, in making a decision...
Jha, Pallavi; Agrawal, Ekta
2014-05-15
An analytical study of second harmonic generation due to interaction an intense, p-polarized laser beam propagating obliquely in homogeneous underdense plasma, in the mildly relativistic regime, has been presented. The efficiency of the second harmonic radiation as well as its detuning length has been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. It is shown that, for a given plasma electron density, the second harmonic efficiency increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning length decreases. The second harmonic amplitude vanishes at normal incidence of the laser beam.
Ganeev, R. A.; Baba, M.; Suzuki, M.; Yoneya, S.; Kuroda, H.
2014-12-28
The systematic studies of the harmonic generation of ultrashort laser pulses in the 5-mm-long Zn and Mn plasmas (i.e., application of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond pulses for ablation, comparison of harmonic generation from atomic, ionic, and cluster-contained species of plasma, variation of plasma length, two-color pump of plasmas, etc.) are presented. The conversion efficiency of the 11thâ€“19th harmonics generated in the Zn plasma was âˆ¼5â€‰Ã—â€‰10{sup âˆ’5}. The role of the ionic resonances of Zn near the 9th and 10th harmonics on the enhancement of harmonics is discussed. The enhancement of harmonics was also analyzed using the two-color pump of extended plasmas, which showed similar intensities of the odd and even harmonics along the whole range of generation. The harmonics up to the 107th order were demonstrated in the case of manganese plasma. The comparison of harmonic generation in the 5-mm-long and commonly used short (â‰¤0.5â€‰mm) plasma plumes showed the advanced properties of extended media.
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Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov Power Rate Cases BPA's wholesale power rates are set to recover its costs and repay the U.S. Treasury for the Federal...
Nonlinear absorption and harmonic generation of laser in a gas with anharmonic clusters
Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, V. K.
2013-02-15
The nonlinear absorption and harmonic generation of intense short pulse laser in a gas embedded with anharmonic clusters are investigated theoretically. When the laser induced excursion of cluster electrons becomes comparable to cluster radius, the restoration force on electrons no longer remains linearly proportional to the excursion. As a consequence, the plasmon resonance is broadened, leading to broadband laser absorption. It also leads to second and third harmonic generations, at much higher level than the one due to ponderomotive nonlinearity. The harmonic yield is resonantly enhanced at the plasmon resonance {omega}={omega}{sub pe}/{radical}(3), where {omega} is the frequency of the laser and {omega}{sub pe} is the plasma frequency of cluster electrons.
Pressure-induced phase matching in high-order harmonic generation
Kazamias, S.; Daboussi, S.; Guilbaud, O.; Cassou, K.; Ros, D.; Cros, B.; Maynard, G.
2011-06-15
We present an alternative explanation of the high-order-harmonic-generation experimental results published recently by Seres et al. [Nature Phys. 6, 455 (2010)]. We show that the physical interpretation can be comprehensively done in the frame of classical theory of high-order harmonic generation without referring to a parametric effect in the XUV domain. The experimental conditions explored by Seres et al. indeed correspond to the case of long-pulse, low-infrared-energy laser beams for which tight focusing is necessary to reach the minimum intensity required for high atomic response. The positive atomic dispersion can compensate for the Gouy phase and explains the behavior of the experimental variation of the harmonic signal presented. We will show that our interpretation explains not only the global behavior of the curves but also the second-order variation of the signal as a function of experimental parameters.
Cho, Suwon; Kwak, Jong-Gu
2014-04-15
The propagation and absorption of high harmonic fast waves is of interest for non-inductive current drives in fusion experiments. The fast wave can be coupled with the ion Bernstein wave that propagates in the high magnetic field side of an ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layer. This coupling and the absorption are analyzed using the hot plasma dispersion relation and a wave equation that was converted from an approximate dispersion relation for the case where Î»{sub i}=k{sub âŠ¥}{sup 2}Ï{sub i}{sup 2}/2â‰³1 (where k{sub âŠ¥} is the perpendicular wave number and Ï{sub i} is the ion Larmor radius). It is found that both reflection and conversion may occur near the harmonic resonance layer but that they decrease rapidly, giving rise to a sharp increase in the absorption as the parallel wave number increases.
Influence of gas pressure on high-order-harmonic generation of Ar and Ne
Wang Guoli; Jin Cheng; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C. D.
2011-11-15
We study the effect of gas pressure on the generation of high-order harmonics where harmonics due to individual atoms are calculated using the recently developed quantitative rescattering theory, and the propagation of the laser and harmonics in the medium is calculated by solving the Maxwell's wave equation. We illustrate that the simulated spectra are very sensitive to the laser focusing conditions at high laser intensity and high pressure since the fundamental laser field is severely reshaped during the propagation. By comparing the simulated results with several experiments we show that the pressure dependence can be qualitatively explained. The lack of quantitative agreement is tentatively attributed to the failure of the complete knowledge of the experimental conditions.
Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Wang; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht
2014-01-14
We derive via the interaction â€œrepresentationâ€ the many-body wave function for harmonically confined electrons in the presence of a magnetostatic field and perturbed by a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric fieldâ€”the Generalized Kohn Theorem (GKT) wave function. In the absence of the harmonic confinement â€“ the uniform electron gas â€“ the GKT wave function reduces to the Kohn Theorem wave function. Without the magnetostatic field, the GKT wave function is the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function. We further prove the validity of the connection between the GKT wave function derived and the system in an accelerated frame of reference. Finally, we provide examples of the application of the GKT wave function.
Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Parker, R. G.
2012-06-01
The dynamics of wind turbine planetary gears with gravity effects are investigated using an extended harmonic balance method that extends established harmonic balance formulations to include simultaneous internal and external excitations. The extended harmonic balance method with arc-length continuation and Floquet theory is applied to a lumped-parameter planetary gear model including gravity, fluctuating mesh stiffness, bearing clearance, and nonlinear tooth contact to obtain the planetary gear dynamic response. The calculated responses compare well with time domain integrated mathematical models and experimental results. Gravity is a fundamental vibration source in wind turbine planetary gears and plays an important role in system dynamics, causing hardening effects induced by tooth wedging and bearing-raceway contacts. Bearing clearance significantly reduces the lowest resonant frequencies of translational modes. Gravity and bearing clearance together lowers the speed at which tooth wedging occurs lower than the resonant frequency.
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Carroll, Susan
Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Carroll, Susan
2013-07-01
Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Britto, Sylvia; Leskes, Michal; Hua, Xiao; HÃ©bert, Claire-Alice; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Clarke, Simon; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Chapman, Karena W.; Seshadri, Ram; Cho, Jaephil; et al
2015-06-08
Vanadium sulfide VS4 in the patronite mineral structure, is a linear chain compound comprising vanadium atoms coordinated by disulfide anions [S2]2â€“. 51V NMR shows that the material, despite having V formally in the d1 configuration, is diamagnetic, suggesting potential dimerization through metal-metal bonding associated with a Peierls distortion of the linear chains. This is supported by density functional calculations, and is also consistent with the observed alternation in V-V distances of 2.8 Ã… and 3.2 Ã… along the chains. Partial lithiation results in reduction of the disulfide ions to sulfide S2â€“, including via an internal redox process whereby an electronmoreÂ Â» from V4+ is transferred to [S2]2â€“ resulting in oxidation of V4+ to V5+ and reduction of the [S2]2â€“ to S2- to form Li3VS4 containing tetrahedral [VS4]3â€“ anions. On further lithiation this is followed by reduction of the V5+ in Li3VS4 to form Li3+xVS4 (x=0.5-1), a mixed valent V4+/V5+ compound. Eventually reduction to Li2S plus elemental V occurs. Despite the complex redox processes involving both the cation and the anion occurring in this material, the system is found to be partially reversible between 0 and 3 V. In conclusion, the unusual redox processes in this system are elucidated using a suite of short range characterization tools including 51V Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), S Kedge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) and Pair Distribution Function (PDF) Analysis of X-ray data.Â«Â less
Trull, J.; Wang, B.; Parra, A.; Vilaseca, R.; Cojocaru, C.; Sola, I.; Sheng, Y.
2015-06-01
Pulse compression in dispersive strontium barium niobate crystal with a random size and distribution of the anti-parallel orientated nonlinear domains is observed via transverse second harmonic generation. The dependence of the transverse width of the second harmonic trace along the propagation direction allows for the determination of the initial chirp and duration of pulses in the femtosecond regime. This technique permits a real-time analysis of the pulse evolution and facilitates fast in-situ correction of pulse chirp acquired in the propagation through an optical system.