Sample records for harmful ultra violet

  1. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4,000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap is disclosed. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse. 2 figs.

  2. High-peak-power surface high-harmonic generation at extreme ultra-violet wavelengths from a tape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, B. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Applied Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tilborg, J. van; Sokollik, T.; Schroeder, C. B.; McKinney, W. R.; Artemiev, N. A.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Gullikson, E. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-based surface high-harmonic generation from a tape is experimentally studied. By operating at mildly relativistic normalized laser strengths a{sub 0}?0.2, harmonics up to the 17th order are efficiently produced in the coherent wake emission (CWE) regime. CWE pulse properties, such as divergence, energy, conversion efficiency, and spectrum, are investigated for various tape materials and drive laser conditions. A clear correlation between surface roughness and harmonic beam divergence is found. At the measured pulse properties for the 15th harmonic (conversion efficiency ?6.5×10{sup ?7}, divergence ?7?15 mrad), the 100-mJ-level drive laser produces several MWs of extreme ultra-violet pulses. The spooling tape configuration enables multi-Hz operation over thousands of shots, making this source attractive as a seed to the few-Hz laser-plasma-accelerator-driven free-electron laser (FEL). Models indicate that these CWE pulses with MW level powers are sufficient for seed-induced bunching and FEL gain.

  3. Ultra Violet Waterworks (UVW)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The item youThe DiscoveryFuels and Power5727MARC

  4. Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixtures of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols, glycol ethers, and other individual compounds including d-limonene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. This result implies a reaction efficiency of about 30% per irradiated monolith face, which is in agreement with the maximum efficiency for the system predicted with a simulation model. In these and other experiments, the performance of the system for highly reactive VOCs appeared to be limited by mass transport of reactants to the catalyst surface rather than by photocatalytic activity. Increasing the air flow rate through the UVPCO device decreases the residence time of the air in the monoliths and improves mass transfer to the catalyst surface. The effect of gas velocity was examined in four pairs of experiments in which the air flow rate was varied from approximately 175 m{sup 3}/h to either 300 or 600 m{sup 3}/h. Increased gas velocity caused a decrease in reaction efficiency for nearly all reactive VOCs. For all of the more reactive VOCs, the decrease in performance was less, and often substantially less, than predicted based solely on residence time, again likely due to mass transfer limitations at the low flow rate. The results demonstrate that the UVPCO is capable of achieving high conversion efficiencies for reactive VOCs at air flow rates above the base experimental rate of 175 m{sup 3}/h. The effect of UV power was examined in a series of experiments with the building product mixture in which the number of lamps was varied between nine and three. For the most reactive VOCs in the mixture, the effects of UV power were surprisingly small. Thus, even with only one lamp in each section, there appears to be sufficient photocatalytic activity to decompose most of the mass of reactive VOCs that reach the catalyst surface. For some less reactive VOCs, the trend of decreasing efficiency with decreasing UV intensity was in general agreement with simulation model predictions.

  5. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L. [Synchrotron Soleil, l'Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Booth, J. P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

  6. Strong carrier localization and diminished quantum-confined Stark effect in ultra-thin high-indium-content InGaN quantum wells with violet light emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Suk-Min; Kwack, Ho-Sang; Park, Chunghyun; Yoo, Yang-Seok; Cho, Yong-Hoon, E-mail: yhc@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and KI for the NanoCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics and KI for the NanoCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon-Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Jin Kim, Hee; Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Si Dang, Le [Nanophysics and Semiconductors, CEA-CNRS-UJF Group, Institut Néel, CNRS Grenoble, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Nanophysics and Semiconductors, CEA-CNRS-UJF Group, Institut Néel, CNRS Grenoble, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we report on the optical and structural characteristics of violet-light-emitting, ultra-thin, high-Indium-content (UTHI) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), and of conventional low-In-content MQWs, which both emit at similar emission energies though having different well thicknesses and In compositions. The spatial inhomogeneity of In content, and the potential fluctuation in high-efficiency UTHI MQWs were compared to those in the conventional low-In-content MQWs. We conclude that the UTHI InGaN MQWs are a promising structure for achieving better quantum efficiency in the visible and near-ultraviolet spectral range, owing to their strong carrier localization and reduced quantum-confined Stark effect.

  7. Vacuum ultra-violet emission of plasma discharges with high Xe partial pressure using a cathode protective layer with high secondary electron emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Di [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin (China); Song, Le, E-mail: songle@tju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiong [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Kajiyama, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Advanced Science of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the mechanism of the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) emission of plasma discharges, with high Xe partial pressure and high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer, is studied by measuring the VUV light emission directly and comparing it with two-dimensional simulations. From the panel measurement, we find that the high intensity of excimer VUV mainly contributes to the high luminous efficacy of SrCaO-plasma display panels (PDP) at a low sustain voltage. The unchanged Xe excitation efficiency indicates that the electron temperature is not decreased by the high secondary electrons emission protective layer, even though the sustain voltage is much lower. From the two-dimensional simulations, we can find that the ratio of excimer VUV to resonant VUV, which is determined by the collision rate in the discharge, is only significantly affected by the Xe partial pressure, while it is independent of the sustain voltage and the secondary-electrons-emission capability of protective layer. The unchanged average electron energy at the moment when the electric field becomes maximum confirms that the improvement of the VUV production efficiency mainly is attributed to the increase in electron heating efficiency of a PDP with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer. Combining the experimental and the simulation results, we conclude about the mechanism by which the VUV production is improved for the plasma display panel with a high Xe partial pressure and a cold cathode with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission.

  8. Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) forIndoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at LowPart-per-Billion Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient removal of indoor generated airborne particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office buildings and other large buildings may allow for a reduction in outdoor air supply rates with concomitant energy savings while still maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in these buildings. Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners have the potential to achieve the necessary reductions in indoor VOC concentrations at relatively low cost. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted with a scaled, prototype UVPCO device designed for use in a duct system. The experimental UVPCO contained two 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths coated with titanium dioxide and 3% by weight tungsten oxide. The monoliths were irradiated with 12 UVC lamps arranged in four banks. The UVPCO was challenged with four mixtures of VOCs typical of mixtures encountered in indoor air. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A cleaning product mixture contained three cleaning products with high market shares. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. A fourth mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady-state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor section. Concentrations of the mixtures were manipulated, with concentrations of individual VOCs mostly maintained below 10 ppb. Device flow rates were varied between 165 and 580 m{sup 3}/h. Production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid as reaction products was investigated. Conversion efficiency data were generated for 48 individual VOCs or groups of closely related compounds. Alcohols and glycol ethers were the most reactive chemical classes with conversion efficiencies often near or above 70% at the low flow rate and near 40% at the high flow rate. Ketones and terpene hydrocarbons were somewhat less reactive. The relative VOC conversion rates are generally favorable for treatment of indoor air since many contemporary products used in buildings employ oxygenated solvents. A commercial UVPCO device likely would be installed in the supply air stream of a building and operated to treat both outdoor and recirculated air. Assuming a recirculation rate comparable to three times the normal outdoor air supply rate, simple mass-balance modeling suggests that a device with similar characteristics to the study unit has sufficient conversion efficiencies for most VOCs to compensate for a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply without substantially impacting indoor VOC concentrations. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid were produced in these experiments as reaction byproducts. No other significant byproducts were observed. A coupled steady-state mass balance model is presented and applied to VOC data from a study of a single office building. For the operating assumptions described above, the model estimated a three-fold increase in indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The outcome of this limited assessment suggests that evaluation of the potential effects of the operation of a UVPCO device on indoor concentrations of these contaminants is warranted. Other suggested studies include determining VOC conversion efficiencies in actual buildings and evaluating changes in VOC conversion efficiency as monoliths age with long-term operation.

  9. Depth-resolved ultra-violet spectroscopic photo current-voltage measurements for the analysis of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor epilayer deposited on Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozden, Burcu; Yang, Chungman; Tong, Fei; Khanal, Min P.; Mirkhani, Vahid; Sk, Mobbassar Hassan; Ahyi, Ayayi Claude; Park, Minseo, E-mail: park@physics.auburn.edu [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We have demonstrated that the depth-dependent defect distribution of the deep level traps in the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) epi-structures can be analyzed by using the depth-resolved ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopic photo current-voltage (IV) (DR-UV-SPIV). It is of great importance to analyze deep level defects in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure, since it is recognized that deep level defects are the main source for causing current collapse phenomena leading to reduced device reliability. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-layers were grown on a 6 in. Si wafer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The DR-UV-SPIV measurement was performed using a monochromatized UV light illumination from a Xe lamp. The key strength of the DR-UV-SPIV is its ability to provide information on the depth-dependent electrically active defect distribution along the epi-layer growth direction. The DR-UV-SPIV data showed variations in the depth-dependent defect distribution across the wafer. As a result, rapid feedback on the depth-dependent electrical homogeneity of the electrically active defect distribution in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-structure grown on a Si wafer with minimal sample preparation can be elucidated from the DR-UV-SPIV in combination with our previously demonstrated spectroscopic photo-IV measurement with the sub-bandgap excitation.

  10. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C4, supplkment au no 7 , Tome 39, Juillet 1978,page C4-86 VACUUM ULTRA-VIOLET SPECTROSCOPY ON T.F.R. TOKAMAK PLASMAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -VIOLET SPECTROSCOPY ON T.F.R. TOKAMAK PLASMAS T.F.R. GROUP (presented by C. Breton) Association EURATOM-CEA sur la-2 000 A, sur le plasma du Tokamak de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Ce plasma est une source de grand volume. - One of the critical points for the understanding of Tokamak plasmas is the role played by impurities

  11. Instrument Series: Microscopy Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instrument Series: Microscopy Ultra-High Vacuum, Low- Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope EMSL's ultra-high vacuum, low-temperature scanning probe microscope instrument, or UHV LT SPM range of surface analytical techniques at low temperature ­ enables ultra-violet/X-ray photoelectron

  12. The ultra-violet spectrum of formaldehyde vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Sidney Edward

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ons A system 1200 1120 vk~ ?u3 0/1 - 3 l Qfl C ~o c o Cl 0 in c o ww o o O J J ?> sVw o O J > L- uuo Yis... O Jm J9|UI O oon O LLL1. (0 c Oil o c ?U) ~ o CO C iS)COil o c Yis T O s l? 9 k . 3,^d o o cvJ o ?? ? 9 ? Jt s oUJ_J c GO ?

  13. Extreme Ultra-Violet Spectroscopy of the Flaring Solar Chromosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milligan, Ryan O

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The extreme ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum contains a wealth of diagnostic tools for probing the lower solar atmosphere in response to an injection of energy, particularly during the impulsive phase of solar flares. These include temperature and density sensitive line ratios, Doppler shifted emission lines and nonthermal broadening, abundance measurements, differential emission measure profiles, and continuum temperatures and energetics, among others. In this paper I shall review some of the advances made in recent years using these techniques, focusing primarily on studies that have utilized data from Hinode/EIS and SDO/EVE, while also providing some historical background and a summary of future spectroscopic instrumentation.

  14. The Morality of Collective Harm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nefsky, Julia

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Andreou, Chrisoula. “Environmental Damage and the Puzzle ofin. 39 Much environmental damage, and resulting harm tocould be defeated. Environmental damage, and resulting harm

  15. Dichroism and birefringence of natural violet diamond crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konstantinova, A. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)], E-mail: afkonst@ns.crys.ras.ru; Titkov, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry (Russian Federation); Imangazieva, K. B. [Issyk Kul State University (Kyrgyzstan); Evdishchenko, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Sergeev, A. M. [Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Zudin, N. G. [OOO Roni Kerob (Russian Federation); Orekhova, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation of the optical properties of natural violet diamonds from the Yakutian kimberlites is performed. A red shift of the absorption edge is revealed in the absorption spectra of these crystals. This shift is indicative of the presence of a high concentration of nitrogen in the diamonds studied. Along with the strong band at 0.550 {mu}m, weaker bands at 0.390, 0.456 and 0.496 {mu}m are revealed. It is shown that violet diamond crystals have birefringence and dichroism of about 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -6}, respectively. When a light beam propagates perpendicularly to colored lamellas, the dichroism is much larger and the birefringence is smaller than in the case where the beam direction is parallel to lamellas.

  16. An ultrashort pulse ultra-violet radiation undulator source driven by a laser plasma wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anania, M. P. [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Brunetti, E.; Wiggins, S. M.; Grant, D. W.; Welsh, G. H.; Issac, R. C.; Cipiccia, S.; Shanks, R. P.; Manahan, G. G.; Aniculaesei, C.; Jaroszynski, D. A., E-mail: d.a.jaroszynski@strath.ac.uk [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Geer, S. B. van der; Loos, M. J. de [Pulsar Physics, Burghstraat 47, 5614 BC Eindhoven (Netherlands); Poole, M. W.; Shepherd, B. J. A.; Clarke, J. A. [ASTeC, STFC, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Gillespie, W. A. [SUPA, School of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); MacLeod, A. M. [School of Computing and Creative Technologies, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee DD1 1HG (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Narrow band undulator radiation tuneable over the wavelength range of 150–260?nm has been produced by short electron bunches from a 2?mm long laser plasma wakefield accelerator based on a 20?TW femtosecond laser system. The number of photons measured is up to 9?×?10{sup 6} per shot for a 100 period undulator, with a mean peak brilliance of 1?×?10{sup 18} photons/s/mrad{sup 2}/mm{sup 2}/0.1% bandwidth. Simulations estimate that the driving electron bunch r.m.s. duration is as short as 3 fs when the electron beam has energy of 120–130?MeV with the radiation pulse duration in the range of 50–100 fs.

  17. Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation for Indoor AirApplications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Sullivan, D.P.; Fisk, W.J.

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acceptable indoor air quality in office buildings may be achieved with less energy by combining effective air cleaning systems for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with particle filtration then by relying solely on ventilation. For such applications, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) systems are being developed for VOC destruction. An experimental evaluation of a UVPCO system is reported. The evaluation was unique in that it employed complex mixtures of VOCs commonly found in office buildings at realistically low concentrations. VOC conversion efficiencies varied over a broad range, usually exceeded 20%, and were as high as {approx}80%. Conversion efficiency generally diminished with increased air flow rate. Significant amounts of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were produced due to incomplete mineralization. The results indicate that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde production rates may need to be reduced before such UVPCO systems can be deployed safely in occupied buildings.

  18. Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

  19. Compositional changes in red and violet smoke mixes after combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, M.V.; Rubin, I.B.; Moneyhun, J.H.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthraquinone-derived dyes are commonly used in colored dye mixes prepared for signal smoke grenades. Biological studies have shown, however, that a number of these dyes exhibit bacterial mutagenicity. In addition, these dyes are similar in structure to several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are well-known carcinogens. The grenades contain not only anthraquinone-derived dyes, but also a pyrotechnic fuel and cooling and starting mixes consisting primarily of potassium chlorate and nitrate, sodium bicarbonate, and sulfur. These dyes are volatilized at temperatures up to 550/sup 0/C during the detonation of the grenade, which could subject the dyes to oxidative and pyrolytic reactions that could result in a variety of reaction by-products. As part of a program to investigate possible environmental and occupational risks of the colored smoke dyes and in signal grenades, two colored smoke mixes, red and violet, have been studied both before and after detonation to evaluate any differences in composition due to the combustion process. This report focuses primarily on the separation and identification of the components of the original and combusted red and violet smoke mixes. The conditions for the detonation of the smoke grenades and sampling of the combusted smoke mixes are also discussed.

  20. acanthopanax senticosus harms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    value of y is needed at some point Weide, Bruce W. 11 Defenders of Wildlife Climate Change & Harmful Algal Blooms Harmful Algal Blooms CiteSeer Summary: Harmful algal blooms and...

  1. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealedc consensus. Harmful Algae 8:3–13. 2. Sunda WG, Graneli E,of the United States. Harmful Algae 8:39–53. 4. Smayda TJ (

  2. How plants beckon bacteria that do it harm | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plants beckon bacteria that do it harm How plants beckon bacteria that do it harm Released: April 28, 2014 Work on microbial signaling offers better biofuels, human health...

  3. The Health Risks: Seafood Contamination, Harmful Algal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    health products from the sea. What is the central issue? Why should I care? How will OHH researchThe Health Risks: Seafood Contamination, Harmful Algal Blooms and Polluted Beaches Seafood associated public health costs. Announcing a New Interagency Report on Oceans and Human Health Research

  4. DNA synthesis in pigmented and non-pigmented mutants of Serratia marcescens after ultra-violet irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russo, Salvadore William

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DNA SYNTHESIS IN PIGNENTED AND NON-PIGKENTED MUTANTS OF SERRATIA MARCESCENS AFTER ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION A Thesis by SALVADORE NILLIAM RUSSO, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Biochemistry DNA SYNTHESIS IN PIGMENTED AND NON-PIGMENTED MUTANTS OF SERRATIA MARCESCENS AFTER ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION A' Thesis by SALVADORE WILLIAM RUSSO, JR. Approved...

  5. accelerating harm reduction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    users, notably children. Additionally for adults, some contents included in abnormal porn sites can do ordinary peoples mental health harm. In this paper, we propose an...

  6. A violet emission in ZnS:Mn,Eu: Luminescence and applications for radiation detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei, E-mail: weichen@uta.edu [Department of Physics and the SAVANT Center, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019-0059 (United States); Jiang, Ke [Center for Biofrontiers Institute, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Pkwy., Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); Liu, Xiao-tang [Department of Physics and the SAVANT Center, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019-0059 (United States); Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We prepared manganese and europium co-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Mn,Eu) phosphors and used them for radiation detection. In addition to the red fluorescence at 583?nm due to the d-d transition of Mn ions, an intense violet emission at 420?nm is newly observed in ZnS:Mn,Eu phosphors. The emission is related to Eu{sup 2+} doping but only appears at certain Eu{sup 2+} concentrations. It is found that the intensity of the 420?nm violet fluorescence is X-ray does-dependent, while the red fluorescence of 583?nm is not. The ratio of fluorescence intensities at 420?nm and 583?nm has been monitored as a function of X-ray doses that exposed upon the ZnS:Mn,Eu phosphors. Empirical formulas are provided to estimate the doses of applied X-ray irradiation. Finally, possible mechanisms of X-ray irradiation induced fluorescence quenching are discussed. The intense 420?nm emission not only provides a violet light for solid state lighting but also offers a very sensitive method for radiation detection.

  7. IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010 Thirty-nine New Damage Cases of Contamination from Improperly Disposed Coal Combustion Waste, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers

  8. Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Sze-Bi

    Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats Sze-Bi Hsu Feng-Bin Wang Xiao from the dynamics of harmful algae and zooplankton in flowing- water habitats where a main channel. For the system modeling the dynamics of algae and their toxin that contains little limiting nutrient, we

  9. Portugal's Budget Austerity May Do More Harm Than Good

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Portugal's Budget Austerity May Do More Harm Than Good July 02, 2013 4:00 AM by LAUREN FRAYER severe budget austerity does more harm than good. LAUREN FRAYER, BYLINE: Of all the bailed-out countries. Portuguese Finance Minister Vitor Gaspar took it even further - doubling budget cuts and tax hikes. Last year

  10. Method for fabricating an ultra-low expansion mask blank having a crystalline silicon layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardinale, Gregory F. (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fabricating masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) using Ultra-Low Expansion (ULE) substrates and crystalline silicon. ULE substrates are required for the necessary thermal management in EUVL mask blanks, and defect detection and classification have been obtained using crystalline silicon substrate materials. Thus, this method provides the advantages for both the ULE substrate and the crystalline silicon in an Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) mask blank. The method is carried out by bonding a crystalline silicon wafer or member to a ULE wafer or substrate and thinning the silicon to produce a 5-10 .mu.m thick crystalline silicon layer on the surface of the ULE substrate. The thinning of the crystalline silicon may be carried out, for example, by chemical mechanical polishing and if necessary or desired, oxidizing the silicon followed by etching to the desired thickness of the silicon.

  11. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertrand, Erin Marie

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the ...

  12. Molecular insights into the niche of harmful brown tides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurch, Louie L. (Louie Lorne)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recurrent brown tide blooms caused by the harmful alga Alureococcus anophagefferens have decimated coastal ecosystems and shellfisheries along the Eastern U.S and South Africa. The exact mechanisms controlling bloom ...

  13. Harms of Unintentional Leaks during Volume Targeted Pressure Support Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Harms of Unintentional Leaks during Volume Targeted Pressure Support Ventilation Sonia Khirani1 Background: Volume targeted pressure support ventilation (VT-PSV) is a hybrid mode increasingly used. The objective of the study was to determine the ability of home ventilators to maintain the preset minimal VT

  14. Ultra High Energy Behaviour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We reexamine the behaviour of particles at Ultra Highe energies in the context of the fact that the LHC has already touched an energy of $7 TeV$ and is likely to attain $14 TeV$ by 2013/2014.Consequences like a possible new shortlived interaction within the Compton scale are discussed.

  15. Inhalation toxicology of red and violet mixtures. Chamber concentration and particle-size distribution report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higuchi, M.A.; Davies, D.W.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inhalation exposure facility was developed at the U.S. EPA, RTP, NC to conduct inhalation exposures of rodents and guinea pigs to dye mixtures used by the U.S. Army in the manufacture of smoke munitions. Initially, an evaluation of the prototype chamber aerosol homogeneity was conducted to determine the uniformity and reproducibility of the concentration and particle size of dye aerosol throughout the breathing zone of the test animals. The three dyes, DR11, SR1, and DB3, were chemically analyzed for purity and optically examined for size and shape. All pure dyes appeared to be stable at room temperature except DB3, which decomposes if not stored at 4 C. The particle size ranges varied for each pure dye and structures were either amorphous (azo dye) or crystalline (anthraquinone dyes). The bulk red and violet dye mixtures were analyzed for composition. The chemical analysis of the relative composition of each dye mixture, collected by cascade impactor sampling, revealed fractionation of the mixtures into component dyes.

  16. Investigation of laser-driven proton acceleration using ultra-short, ultra-intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marjoribanks, Robin S.

    Investigation of laser-driven proton acceleration using ultra-short, ultra- intense laser pulses S;Investigation of laser-driven proton acceleration using ultra-short, ultra-intense laser pulses S. Fourmaux,1,a metallic foils irradiated by ultra-intense ultra-short laser pulses.8­10 Laser-driven ion beams take

  17. ULTRA-DEEPWATER ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    is aimed at a very broad target (to advance research in any aspect of ultra deepwater petroleum exploration and production) this was an ideal environment to address subjects...

  18. Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus J. Heisler a,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochlan, William P.

    Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus J. Heisler a,3 , P.M. Glibert b between water quality and eutrophication and the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). This meeting in revised form 21 January 2008 Accepted 1 August 2008 Keywords: Eutrophication Harmful algal blooms HABs

  19. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, [+-] UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals. 16 figs.

  20. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, .+-.UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals.

  1. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, {+-}UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals. 21 figs.

  2. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, .+-.UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals.

  3. On the Physical Cause and the Distance of Gamma Ray Bursts and Related Phenomena in the X-Rays and the Ultra-Violet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ernst Karl Kunst

    2000-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The modified Lorentz transformation of a distance-dependent special theory of relativity - which will be briefly summarized - predicts the possibility of superluminal velocity of very distantly moving material bodies to be connected with the generation of Cerencov radiation off the quantum vacuum. It is shown that vacuum Cerencov radiation due to the superluminal propagation of extraterrestrial spaceprobes in the interstellar space would account for all known properties of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and the "afterglow" at lower frequencies. Distances and other parameter prove to be calculable and the theoretical results on these grounds to be in good accord with experiment.

  4. The effective spectral irradiance of ultra-violet radiations from inert-gas-shielded welding processes in relation to the ARC current density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVore, Robin Kent

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTIVE SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATIONS FROM INERT-GAS-SHIELDED MELDING PROCESSES IN RELATION TO THE ARC CURRENT DENSITY A Thesis by ROBIN KENT DEVORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1973 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE EFFECTIVE SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATIONS FROM INERT-GAS-SHIELDED WELDING PROCESSES IN RELATION TO THE ARC CURRENT...

  5. The effective spectral irradiance of ultra-violet radiations from inert-gas-shielded welding processes in relation to the ARC current density 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVore, Robin Kent

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1973 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE EFFECTIVE SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATIONS FROM INERT-GAS-SHIELDED WELDING PROCESSES IN RELATION TO THE ARC CURRENT... DENSITY A Thesis by ROBIN KENT DEVORE Approved as to style and content by: C alarm n of o itte Hea o partment e er Member December 1973 ABSTRACT The Effective Spectral Irradiance of Ultraviolet Radiations from Inert-Gas-Shielded Welding...

  6. Electronic states of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomers: Extreme-ultra violet excited photoelectron spectroscopy observations and density functional theory calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawaguchi, Yoshizo [Research Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Chemistry, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Sasaki, Fumio; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ishitsuka, Tomoaki; Tomie, Toshihisa [Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ootsuka, Teruhisa [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Watanabe, Shuji [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 1-4-12, Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Shimoi, Yukihiro [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu [Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated electronic states in the valence electron bands for the thin films of three thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) compounds, 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)thiophene (BP1T), 1,4-bis(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)benzene (AC5), and 1,4-bis{l_brace}5-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]thiophen-2-yl{r_brace}benzene (AC5-CF{sub 3}), by using extreme-UV excited photoelectron spectroscopy (EUPS). By comparing both EUPS spectra and secondary electron spectra between AC5 and AC5-CF{sub 3}, we confirm that CF{sub 3} substitution to AC5 deepens valence states by 2 eV, and increases the ionization energy by 3 eV. From the cut-off positions of secondary electron spectra, the work functions of AC5, AC5-CF{sub 3}, and BP1T are evaluated to be 3.8 eV, 4.8 eV, and 4.0 eV, respectively. We calculate molecular orbital (MO) energy levels by the density functional theory and compare results of calculations with those of experiments. Densities of states obtained by broadening MO levels well explain the overall features of experimental EUPS spectra of three TPCOs.

  7. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gobler, C J; Grigoriev, I V; Berry, D L; Dyhrman, S T; Wilhelm, S W; Salamov, A; Lobanov, A V; Zhang, Y; Collier, J L; Wurch, L L; Kustka, A B; Dill, B D; Shah, M; VerBerkomes, N C; Kuo, A; Terry, A; Pangilinan, J; Lindquist, E A; Lucas, S; Paulsen, I; Hattenrath-Lehmann, T K; Talmage, S; Walker, E A; Koch, F; Burson, A M; Marcoval, M A; Tang, Y; LeCleir, G R; Coyne, K J; Berg, G M; Bertrand, E M; Saito, M A; Gladyshev, V N

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements demonstrated that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the first HAB genome (A. anophagefferens) and compared its gene complement to those of six competing phytoplankton species identified via metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on the gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 mbp) and more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen utilization, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

  8. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigoriev, Igor; Gobler, Christopher; Salamov, Asaf; Kuo, Alan; Terry, Astrid; Pangillian, Jasmyn; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Berry, Dianna; Dyhrman, Sonya; Wilhelm, Steven; Lobanov, Alexei; Zhang, Yan; Collier, Jackie; Wurch, Louie; Kusta, Adam; Dill, Brian; Shsh, Manesh; VerBerkmoes, Nathan; Paulsen, Ian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa; Talmage, Stephanie; Walker, Elyse; Koch, Florian; Burson, Amanda; Marcoval, Maria; Tang, Yin-Zhong; LeCleir, Gary; Coyne, Kathyrn; Berg, Gry; Bertrand, Erin; Saito, Mak; Gladyshev, Vadim

    2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the genome of A. anophagefferens and compared its gene complement with those of six competing phytoplankton species identified through metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 Mbp) and has more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen use, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species, with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus, has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

  9. Multilayer Platform for Ultra-Low-Loss Waveguide Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1, 2012 Multilayer Platform for Ultra-Low-Loss Waveguidepreviously demonstrated ultra-low-loss technologies. Groupet al. : MULTILAYER PLATFORM FOR ULTRA-LOW-LOSS WAVEGUIDE

  10. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization...

  11. How Perceived Exposure to Environmental Harm Influences Environmental Behavior in Urban China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, M. Nils

    Á Pro-environmental behavior INTRODUCTION Environmental degradation and the impact it has on society attitudes, perceived exposure to environmental harm tends to have more impact on individuals' environmentalREPORT How Perceived Exposure to Environmental Harm Influences Environmental Behavior in Urban

  12. Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications, and Bio-inspired Systems to articulate information-based principles for ultra-low-power design that apply to biology or to electronics of ultra- low-power electronics and bioelectronics is shown in the figure below. Engineering can aid

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIAL ACTION – ARE WE DOING MORE HARM THAN GOOD?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce W. Church

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (1) has stated that interventions i.e., remedial actions should do more good than harm. This paper examines completed cleanup projects to answer the question posed in the title. Various researchers have published that toxins in the environment only cause a small percentage of cancers i.e., 1-3 percent (2,3). Estimates of hypothetical fatal cancers are inflated because primarily it is assumed that people will change their living habits and move onto or near uncontrolled waste sites. An occupancy factor of 100 % is used and by using large populations exposed to miniscule levels of radiation (4) unreal levels of fatal cancers are predicted. What we observe are technically indefensible numbers of cancers being calculated for these hypothetical people. This and other maximizing assumptions inflate the risk. The inflated risk, along with very conservative criteria, drives the removal of large volumes of soil and debris. An unintended consequence of these costly well-intentioned (5) remedial actions is the real fatalities and injuries that occur to workers doing the construction and to members of the public through transportation activities. Even though some analysis include the estimates of worker risk, there is little or no discussion which highlights the fact that real risk is being traded for hypothetical risk. This paper is an attempt to review this situation and through cited literature and case studies, come to a better understanding of what if any good is really being done. Maybe it is time to consider this transfer of risk from hypothetical victims to the real victims in remedial action decision-making.

  14. Ultra High Energy Neutrino Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Berezinsky

    2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The short review of theoretical aspects of ultra high energy (UHE) neutrinos and superGZK neutrinos. The sources and diffuse fluxes of UHE neutrinos are discussed. Much attention is given to comparison of the cascade and cosmic ray upper bounds for diffuse neutrino fluxes. Cosmogenic neutrinos and neutrinos from the mirror mater are considered as superGZK neutrinos.

  15. Confirming Diagnosis of Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use Diagnostic accuracy of a computer assisted diagnostic system compared to conventional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Lambalgen, Michiel

    1 TITLE PAGE Confirming Diagnosis of Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use Diagnostic accuracy for alcoholism have good screening properties for detecting hazardous and harmful alcohol use (HHAU Test (BAT) for confirming the diagnosis of hazardous and harmful alcohol use. Design and Subjects BAT

  16. Confirming Diagnosis of Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use Diagnostic accuracy of a computer assisted diagnostic system compared to conventional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Lambalgen, Michiel

    1 TITLE PAGE Confirming Diagnosis of Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use Diagnostic accuracy for alcoholism have good screening properties for detecting hazardous and harmful alcohol use (HHAU Test (BAT) for confirming the diagnosis of hazardous and harmful alcohol use Design and Subjects BAT

  17. Threat of Bodily Harm Has Opposing Effects on Cognition Kesong Hu, Andrew Bauer, Srikanth Padmala, and Luiz Pessoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pessoa, Luiz

    Emotion Threat of Bodily Harm Has Opposing Effects on Cognition Kesong Hu, Andrew Bauer, Srikanth., Bauer, A., Padmala, S., & Pessoa, L. (2011, June 27). Threat of Bodily Harm Has Opposing Effects on Cognition. Emotion. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0024345 #12;Threat of Bodily Harm Has Opposing

  18. Why Plaintiffs Should Have to Prove Irreparable Harm in Copyright Preliminary Injunction Cases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuelson, Pamela

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    harm that might find support in Sony is applicable to a caseL.J. 829 (2008)(discussing Sony?s legacy for technologyand interesting than they might Sony, 450 U.S. at 451. Sony

  19. Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption In this paper, we present four GaN based polar quantum structures grown on c-plane embedded in p-i-n diode GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for operation in the deep-UV spectral region and the other three

  20. Deep Water Mixing Prevents Harmful Algal Bloom Formation: Implications for Managed Fisheries Refugia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Natanya Jeanne

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    DEEP WATER MIXING PREVENTS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM FORMATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGED FISHERIES REFUGIA A Thesis by NATANYA JEANNE HAYDEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Refugia Copyright 2011 Natanya Jeanne Hayden DEEP WATER MIXING PREVENTS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM FORMATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGED FISHERIES REFUGIA A Thesis by NATANYA JEANNE HAYDEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  1. ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a high current ion source for ultra-low energy ions has beenthe Department of Energy ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT IONedited by A. Anders. ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION

  2. AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results The Vehicle...

  3. Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for CHP - Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011 Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for CHP...

  4. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air...

  5. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  6. Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer Preliminary measured drying time of fabric sample using ultrasonic...

  7. Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  8. Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector This presentation was...

  9. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Catalyst...

  10. ULTRA-DEEPWATER ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015 -Helicopter AccidentSeptember 2009 UDAC MeetingULTRA-DEEPWATER

  11. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken L. Smith; Marc E. Leveque

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report herein is a summary of the work performed on three projects to demonstrate hydrocarbon drilling and production methods applicable to deep and ultra deepwater field developments in the Gulf of Mexico and other like applications around the world. This work advances technology that could lead to more economic development and exploitation of reserves in ultra-deep water or remote areas. The first project is Subsea Processing. Its scope includes a review of the ''state of the art'' in subsea components to enable primary production process functions such as first stage liquids and gas separation, flow boosting, chemical treatment, flow metering, etc. These components are then combined to allow for the elimination of costly surface production facilities at the well site. A number of studies were then performed on proposed field development projects to validate the economic potential of this technology. The second project involved the design and testing of a light weight production riser made of composite material. The proposed design was to meet an actual Gulf of Mexico deepwater development project. The various engineering and testing work is reviewed, including test results. The third project described in this report encompasses the development and testing of a close tolerance liner drilling system, a new technology aimed at reducing deepwater drilling costs. The design and prototype testing in a test well are described in detail.

  12. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend, David W.

    Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of cultural eutrophication linked to the pressures of increasing human population including animal and plant on some aspects of the relationship between eutrophication and HABs (Heisler et al., 2008), recognizing

  13. Best Practices: Energy Savings Efficient energy use reduces Colorado State's total energy demand, decreases harmful

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Best Practices: Energy Savings Efficient energy use reduces Colorado State's total energy demand, decreases harmful emissions, and minimizes the cost of providing energy to the campus. As a result of energy conservation initiatives that have been implemented over the past 20 years, growth in the average demand per

  14. Changes in Acoustic Impedance of Marine Sediment Covered with Liquid Henning Harms, Wlner Matuschek, Volker Mellert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vormann, Matthias

    ) with different densities and sound speeds as a function of grazing angle. The measurements clearly show of the liqui~, TABLE1, Sound speed and density of the chemicals wed in the experiments. substance lChanges in Acoustic Impedance of Marine Sediment Covered with Liquid Pollutants Henning Harms

  15. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todor Stanev

    2004-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss theoretical issues and experimental data that brought the ultra high energy cosmic rays in the list of Nature's greatest puzzles. After many years of research we still do not know how astrophysical acceleration processes can reach energies exceeding 10$^{11}$ GeV. The main alternative {\\em top-down} mechanism postulates the existence of super massive $X$-particles that create a particle spectrum extending down to the observed energy through their decay channels. The propagation of nuclei and photons from their sources to us adds to the puzzle as all particles of these energies interact with the ambient photons, mostly of the microwave background. We also describe briefly the main observational results and give some information on the new experiments that are being built and designed now.

  16. The determination of regionalised wind roses for the UK, for use with the HARM acid depositional model.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalfe Dr. Claire Jarvis & Dr. Jim Nicholson #12;Abstract- The Hull acid rain (HARM) depositional model of Geography) is not permitted. #12;1 INTRODUCTION The Hull acid rain (HARM) Lagrangian receptor depositional, 2002, p1 & 6). Other acid rain models that use the Lagrangian receptor technique such as the original

  17. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan, Nachtigal; Berniard, Tracie; Murray, Bill; Roehrig, Mark; Schubert, Charlene; Spagnola, Joseph; Weigel, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This poster describes the 3M Ultra-Barrier Solar Film and its application; production scale-up and data; reliability and qualification testing; and improvements in the next generation.

  18. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  19. Development of ultra-broadband modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamir, Orit A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical signal modulation is a cornerstone of communication, allowing the transfer of information by electrically encoding data onto an optical carrier. Modulation with ultra-broadband capability enables the generation of ...

  20. Ultra wide-bandwidth micro energy harvester

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajati, Arman

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra wide-bandwidth resonating thin film PZT MEMS energy harvester has been designed, modeled, fabricated and tested. It harvests energy from parasitic ambient vibration at a wide range of amplitude and frequency via ...

  1. Ultra-low field magnetic resonance using optically pumped noble gases and SQUID detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Foy, Annjoe G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancement . . . . Ultra Low Field Xenon NMR ShowingIntroduction.. 4.2 Ultra Low FieldNuclear Polarization 5.10.3 Ultra Low Field Chemical Shift

  2. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks.

  3. Ultra-precision positioning assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montesanti, Richard C. (San Francisco, CA); Locke, Stanley F. (Livermore, CA); Thompson, Samuel L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for ultra-precision positioning. A slide base provides a foundational support. A slide plate moves with respect to the slide base along a first geometric axis. Either a ball-screw or a piezoelectric actuator working separate or in conjunction displaces the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis. A linking device directs a primary force vector into a center-line of the ball-screw. The linking device consists of a first link which directs a first portion of the primary force vector to an apex point, located along the center-line of the ball-screw, and a second link for directing a second portion of the primary force vector to the apex point. A set of rails, oriented substantially parallel to the center-line of the ball-screw, direct movement of the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis and are positioned such that the apex point falls within a geometric plane formed by the rails. The slide base, the slide plate, the ball-screw, and the linking device together form a slide assembly. Multiple slide assemblies can be distributed about a platform. In such a configuration, the platform may be raised and lowered, or tipped and tilted by jointly or independently displacing the slide plates.

  4. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks. 2 figs.

  5. Faculty Position in Ultra High Precision Robotics & Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candea, George

    , manipulation and metrology systems targeting additive manufacturing; · New kinematics, quasi-perfect guidings, actuators, transmission systems, sensors and methods targeting ultra-high precision additive manufacturingFaculty Position in Ultra High Precision Robotics & Manufacturing at the Ecole Polytechnique

  6. SPLAT II: An Aircraft Compatible, Ultra-Sensitive, High Precision...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPLAT II: An Aircraft Compatible, Ultra-Sensitive, High Precision Instrument for In-Situ Characterization of the Size and SPLAT II: An Aircraft Compatible, Ultra-Sensitive, High...

  7. Ultra Energy Efficient Data Center Saves NREL $200,000

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Data Center marks a significant accomplishment in its ultra-efficiency.

  8. An Advanced Ultra-Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Advanced Ultra-Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Joseph); Steven Blankenship, Alan Band (NIST) G O A L To develop an ultra-high vacuum, ultra-low temperature, high of subpicometer stability and can operate in ultra-high vacuum at 10 mK, and in magnetic fields up to 15 T

  9. Ultra-Low Power Time Synchronization Using Passive Radio Receivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir, Yair

    Ultra-Low Power Time Synchronization Using Passive Radio Receivers Yin Chen Qiang Wang Marcus Chang. In this pa- per, we present an inexpensive and ultra-low power ( of elapsed seconds. The universal time sig- nal receiver combines an off-the-shelf radio chip with an ultra-low

  10. Matched Public PUF: Ultra Low Energy Security Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    Matched Public PUF: Ultra Low Energy Security Platform Saro Meguerdichian and Miodrag Potkonjak that cannot be matched with any third such module. Each device enables rapid, low-energy computation of ultra Our strategic objective is to introduce concepts and a hard- ware platform that enable ultra low power

  11. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Ultra Low Emissions Combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzman, Jerry M.

    1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics T Ultra Low Emissions Combustor with Non-premixed modes of combustion with ultra low NOx emissions. The combustor consists of a tube with open and closed low temperatures with ultra low NOx emission in the 1 ppm range and below. It is also shown

  12. Silicon on ultra-low-loss waveguide photonic integration platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauters, Jared; Davenport, Michael; Heck, Martijn; Doylend, Jonathan; Chen, Arnold; Fang, Alexander

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si 3 N 4and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on aspiral is 78 mm long. 3. Ultra-low-loss waveguides with and

  13. Universal Hash Functions for Emerging Ultra-Low-Power Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Universal Hash Functions for Emerging Ultra-Low-Power Networks Kaan Y¨uksel, Jens-Peter Kaps provable security in ultra-low-power applications such as the next generation self-powered sensor networks in ultra-low-power applications such as "Smart Dust" motes and RFIDs. By virtue of their security

  14. Ultra Low Power Electronics for Medicine Rahul Sarpeshkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    Ultra Low Power Electronics for Medicine Rahul Sarpeshkar Analog VLSI and Biological Systems Group on an implanted 100mAh rechargeable battery. Another example includes an ultra low power portable pulse oximeter monitoring. Medical applications in the future are likely to benefit greatly from ultra low power electronics

  15. AERODYNAMICS AND DESIGN FOR ULTRA-LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER FLIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    AERODYNAMICS AND DESIGN FOR ULTRA-LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER FLIGHT A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED at Reynolds numbers below 10,000, here termed ultra-low Reynolds numbers. The effects of airfoil geometry at ultra-low Reynolds numbers. To further explore this design space, the flow solver has been coupled

  16. Ultra-Micro Wave Rotor Investigations Florin Iancu, Janusz Piechna*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Norbert

    Nowowiejska Str., 00-665 Warsaw, Poland Abstract Ultra Micro Gas Turbines (UµGT) are expected to be a next of incorporating a wave rotor to an ultra-micro gas turbine and the advantages of wave rotors, topping gas turbines at about 70%. Keywords: PowerMEMS, wave rotor, ultra micro gas turbine, pressure exchanger, efficiency 1

  17. Construction of an Ultra-Broad Preamplifier of a 100-TW Ultra-short Pulse Laser System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Construction of an Ultra-Broad Preamplifier of a 100-TW Ultra-short Pulse Laser System duration to obtain ultra-short and high peak power laser pulses. The amplified pulse from the output) (laser preamplifier for contrast improvement) Chirped-pulse amplificationCPA (Pulse stretcher

  18. 2013 R&D 100 Award: 'SHIELD' protects NIF optics from harmful pulses

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chou, Jason

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past, it took as long as 12 hours to manually screen 48 critical checkpoints at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for harmful laser pulses. The screening equipment had to be moved from point to point throughout a facility the size of three football fields. Now with a new technology, called Laser SHIELD (Screening at High-throughput to Identify Energetic Laser Distortion), and with the push of a button, the screening can be done in less than one second. Proper screening of pulses is critical for the operation of high-energy lasers to ensure that the laser does not exceed safe operating conditions for optics. The energetic beams of light are so powerful that, when left uncontrolled, they can shatter the extremely valuable glass inside the laser. If a harmful pulse is found, immediate adjustments can be made in order to protect the optics for the facility. Laser SHIELD is a custom-designed high-throughput screening system built from low-cost and commercially available components found in the telecommunications industry. Its all-fiber design makes it amenable to the unique needs of high-energy laser facilities, including routing to intricate pick-off locations, immunity to electromagnetic interference and low-loss transport (up to several kilometers). The technology offers several important benefits for NIF. First, the facility is able to fire more shots in less time-an efficiency that saves the facility millions of dollars each year. Second, high-energy lasers are more flexible to wavelength changes requested by target physicists. Third, by identifying harmful pulses before they damage the laser's optics, the facility potentially saves hundreds of thousands of dollars in maintenance costs each year.

  19. 2013 R&D 100 Award: 'SHIELD' protects NIF optics from harmful pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Jason

    2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past, it took as long as 12 hours to manually screen 48 critical checkpoints at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for harmful laser pulses. The screening equipment had to be moved from point to point throughout a facility the size of three football fields. Now with a new technology, called Laser SHIELD (Screening at High-throughput to Identify Energetic Laser Distortion), and with the push of a button, the screening can be done in less than one second. Proper screening of pulses is critical for the operation of high-energy lasers to ensure that the laser does not exceed safe operating conditions for optics. The energetic beams of light are so powerful that, when left uncontrolled, they can shatter the extremely valuable glass inside the laser. If a harmful pulse is found, immediate adjustments can be made in order to protect the optics for the facility. Laser SHIELD is a custom-designed high-throughput screening system built from low-cost and commercially available components found in the telecommunications industry. Its all-fiber design makes it amenable to the unique needs of high-energy laser facilities, including routing to intricate pick-off locations, immunity to electromagnetic interference and low-loss transport (up to several kilometers). The technology offers several important benefits for NIF. First, the facility is able to fire more shots in less time-an efficiency that saves the facility millions of dollars each year. Second, high-energy lasers are more flexible to wavelength changes requested by target physicists. Third, by identifying harmful pulses before they damage the laser's optics, the facility potentially saves hundreds of thousands of dollars in maintenance costs each year.

  20. Ultra-wideband radar sensors and networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leach, Jr., Richard R; Nekoogar, Faranak; Haugen, Peter C

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra wideband radar motion sensors strategically placed in an area of interest communicate with a wireless ad hoc network to provide remote area surveillance. Swept range impulse radar and a heart and respiration monitor combined with the motion sensor further improves discrimination.

  1. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty

    2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W. This price would open many markets for waste heat recovery applications. By installing Hi-Z's materials in applications in which electricity could be produced from waste heat sources could result in significant energy savings as well as emissions reductions. For example, if QW thermoelectric generators could be introduced commercially in 2015, and assuming they could also capture an additional 0.1%/year of the available waste heat from the aluminum, steel, and iron industries, then by 2020, their use would lead to a 2.53 trillion Btu/year reduction in energy consumption. This translates to a $12.9 million/year energy savings, and 383.6 million lb's of CO2 emissions reduction per year. Additionally, Hi-Z would expect that the use of QW TE devices in the automotive, manufacturing, and energy generation industries would reduce the USA's petroleum and fossil fuel dependence, and thus significantly reduce emissions from CO2 and other polluting gasses such as NOx, SOx, and particulate matter (PM), etc.

  2. Cosmic absorption of ultra high energy particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruffini, R; Xue, S -S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the limits on propagation of ultra high energy particles in the Universe, set up by their interactions with cosmic background of photons and neutrinos. By taking into account cosmic evolution of these backgrounds and considering appropriate interactions we derive the mean free path for ultra high energy photons, protons and neutrinos. For photons the relevant processes are the Breit-Wheeler process as well as the double pair production process. For protons the relevant reactions are the photopion production and the Bethe-Heitler process. We discuss the interplay between the energy loss length and mean free path for the Bethe-Heitler process. Neutrino opacity is determined by its scattering off the cosmic background neutrino. We compute for the first time the high energy neutrino horizon as a function of its energy.

  3. An ultra-bright atom laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Bolpasi; N. K. Efremidis; M. J. Morrissey; P. Condylis; D. Sahagun; M. Baker; W. von Klitzing

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel, ultra-bright atom-laser and ultra-cold thermal atom beam. Using rf-radiation we strongly couple the magnetic hyperfine levels of 87Rb atoms in a magnetically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. At low rf-frequencies gravity opens a small hole in the trapping potenital and a well collimated, extremely bright atom laser emerges from just below the condensate. As opposed to traditional atom lasers based on weak coupling, this technique allows us to outcouple atoms at an arbitrarily large rate. We demonstrate an increase in flux per atom in the BEC by a factor of sixteen compared to the brightest quasi-continuous atom laser. Furthermore, we produce by two orders of magnitude the coldest thermal atom beam to date (200 nK).

  4. Advanced Imaging and Ultra-fast Material Probing With Inverse...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging and Ultra-fast Material Probing With Inverse Compton Scattering A proposal to the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility Gerard Andonian, Alberto Bacci, Ubaldo...

  5. ULTRA-DEEP WATER ADVISORY COMMITTEE FINDINGS AND

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    is aimed at a very broad target (to advance research in any aspect of ultra deepwater petroleum exploration and production) this was an ideal environment to address subjects...

  6. Ultra Large Castings for Lightweight Vehicle Structures ?AMD...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08mccarty6.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra Large Castings...

  7. Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneratio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel Consumption Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel...

  8. LIMITATIONS ON MEASURING A TRANSVERSE PROFILE OF ULTRA- DENSE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LIMITATIONS ON MEASURING A TRANSVERSE PROFILE OF ULTRA- DENSE ELECTRON BEAMS WITH SCINTILLATORS A. Murokh * , J. Rosenzweig, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547,...

  9. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  10. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June...

  11. One-dimensional ordering of ultra-low density ion beams in a storage ring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okamoto, H.; Okabe, K.; Yuri, Y.; Mohl, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One-dimensional ordering of ultra-low density ion beams in ais applicable to an ultra-low density beam where collectiveabout 10 cm. In such an ultra-low density regime, no collec-

  12. Ultra-Low-Power Adder Stage Design for Exascale Floating Point Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Barrio, AA; Bagherzadeh, N; Hermida, R

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    date: March 2014. Ultra-Low-Power Adder Stage Design fordate: March 2014. Ultra-Low-Power Adder Stage Design fordate: March 2014. Ultra-Low-Power Adder Stage Design for

  13. Development of a combustion technology for ultra-low emission (< 5 ppm nox) industrial burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlejohn, D.; Majeski, A.J.; Cheng, R.K.; Castaldini, C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation of an Ultra-Low NO x Premixed CombustionInvestigation of an Ultra-Low NO x Premixed Combustioncombustion concept to achieve ultra-low emissions (NO x ? 2

  14. Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si3N4 wavequides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. Gao, and A. Garito, “Ultra-Low-Loss Polymer Waveguides,”Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si 3 N 4 waveguides Jaredan approach to make ultra-low-loss waveguides using stable

  15. Ultra-low field MRI of prostate cancer using SQUID detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busch, Sarah Elizabeth

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coil. Chapter 3 3 Ultra low field MRI 3.1 Polarization TheUltra-low field MRI of prostate cancer using SQUID detectionSteven Conolly Spring 2011 Ultra-low field MRI of prostate

  16. Quadrature Rotating-Frame Gradient Fields for Ultra-Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchard, Louis-Serge

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Frame Gradient Fields For Ultra-Low Field Nuclear Magneticslow, as in the limit of ultra-low ?elds. In the ?rst case,B. Slice selection in ultra-low ?elds We ?rst examine the

  17. Electrical activation and spin coherence of ultra low dose antimony implants in silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and spin coherence of ultra low dose antimony implants inClara, CA 95054 We implanted ultra low doses (0.2 to 2×10 11100 nm, corresponding to ultra low ion implantation doses of

  18. Ultra-high-contrast laser acceleration of relativistic electrons in solid targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higginson, Drew Pitney

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. Higginson, et al. , Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Rise-TimeTHE DISSERTATION Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration ofCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration

  19. Increased European biofuel cultivation could harm human health1 by James Morgan for www.scienceomega.com2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    South Bohemia, University of

    Increased European biofuel cultivation could harm human health1 by James Morgan for www that the large-scale production of biofuels in4 Europe could result in increased human mortality and crop losses that many biofuel plant species, including poplar and willow, release more isoprene ­ an6 ozone precursor

  20. Guidance Document Fume hoods are used when handling toxic or hazardous chemicals. Harmful gases, vapors and fumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidance Document FumeHoods Fume hoods are used when handling toxic or hazardous chemicals. Harmful the maximum safe mark (provided by Facilities Management during annual test) Use secondary containment (a hood without permission from EHS. Call EHS or Facilities Management if a hood is not functioning

  1. Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery Technology (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery Technology (October 2012) East Penn...

  2. Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery Technology (August 2013) Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery Technology (August 2013)...

  3. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angela V. Olinto

    1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The surprising lack of a high energy cutoff in the cosmic ray spectrum at the highest energies together with an apparently isotropic distribution of arrival directions have strongly challenged most models proposed for the acceleration of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Young neutron star winds may be able to explain the mystery. We discuss this recent proposal after summarizing the observational challenge and plausible acceleration sites. Young neutrons star winds differ from alternative models in the predictions for composition, spectrum, and angular distribution which will be tested in future experiments.

  4. Astronomy with ultra high-energy particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joerg R. Hoerandel

    2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent measurements of the properties of cosmic rays above 10^17 eV are summarized and implications on our contemporary understanding of their origin are discussed. Cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10^20 eV have been measured, they are the highest-energy particles in the Universe. Particles at highest energies are expected to be only marginally deflected by magnetic fields and they should point towards their sources on the sky. Recent results of the Pierre Auger Observatory have opened a new window to the Universe - astronomy with ultra high-energy particles.

  5. Materials development for ultra-supercritical boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on a US Department of Energy project to develop high temperature, corrosion resistant alloys for use in ultra-supercritical steam cycles. The aim is to achieve boiler operation at 1,400{sup o}F/5,000 psi steam conditions with 47% net cycle efficiency. Most ferritic steel tested such as T92 and Save 12 showed severe corrosion. Nickel-based alloys, especially IN 740 and CCA 617, showed greatest resistance to oxidation with no evidence of exfoliation. Laboratory and in-plant tests have begun. 2 figs.

  6. Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.

  7. Accelerating Protons to Therapeutic Energies with Ultra-Intense Ultra-Clean and Ultra-Short Laser Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulanov, Stepan S; Bychenkov, Valery Yu; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalinchenko, Galina; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Rousseau, Pascal; Reed, Stephen; Yanovsky, Victor; Krushelnick, Karl; Litzenberg, Dale William; Maksimchuk, Anatoly

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton acceleration by high-intensity laser pulses from ultra-thin foils for hadron therapy is discussed. With the improvement of the laser intensity contrast ratio to 10-11 achieved on Hercules laser at the University of Michigan, it became possible to attain laser-solid interactions at intensities up to 1022 W/cm2 that allows an efficient regime of laser-driven ion acceleration from submicron foils. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) computer simulations of proton acceleration in the Directed Coulomb explosion regime from ultra-thin double-layer (heavy ions / light ions) foils of different thicknesses were performed under the anticipated experimental conditions for Hercules laser with pulse energies from 3 to 15 J, pulse duration of 30 fs at full width half maximum (FWHM), focused to a spot size of 0.8 microns (FWHM). In this regime heavy ions expand predominantly in the direction of laser pulse propagation enhancing the longitudinal charge separation electric field that accelerates light ions. The dependence of the ma...

  8. An ultra miniature pinch-focus discharge Leopoldo Soto1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abstract As a way to investigate the minimum energy to produce a pinch plasma focus discharge, an ultra optimized plasma foci. It is interesting note that plasma parameters practically constant in plasma focusAn ultra miniature pinch-focus discharge Leopoldo Soto1 , Cristian Pavez1, 2 , Mario Barbaglia3

  9. Digital Bimodal Function: An Ultra-Low Energy Security Primitive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    Digital Bimodal Function: An Ultra-Low Energy Security Primitive Teng Xu, James B. Wendt function (DBF) that enables ultra low energy security protocols. DBF allows the computation of legitimate and energy expense. Our new approach is competitive with the energy efficiency of traditional security key

  10. Probing the quantum vacuum with ultra intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Manuel Hegelich; Gerard Mourou; Johann Rafelski

    2014-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents: 1) The theoretical background of strong field physics and vacuum structure and stability; 2) The instrumental developments in the area of pulse lasers and considers the physics case for ultra intense laser facilities; and 3) Discussion of the applied and fundamental uses of ultra-intense lasers.

  11. Probing the quantum vacuum with ultra intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hegelich, B Manuel; Rafelski, Johann

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents: 1) The theoretical background of strong field physics and vacuum structure and stability; 2) The instrumental developments in the area of pulse lasers and considers the physics case for ultra intense laser facilities; and 3) Discussion of the applied and fundamental uses of ultra-intense lasers.

  12. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  13. Electronic and structural response of InSb to ultra-short and ultra-intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burzo, Andrea Mihaela

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the behavior of InSb following application of ultra-short and ultra-intense laser pulses. Motivated directly by these experiments, we have performed simulations of the electron-ion dynamics of InSb subjected to femtosecond-scale laser pulses. These simulations...

  14. Ultra-low velocities and Superplumes Garnero, Thorne, McNamara, Rost [2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnero, Ed

    Ultra-low velocities and Superplumes Garnero, Thorne, McNamara, Rost [2005] - 1- Fine-scale ultra-low, Arizona 85287-1404 USA Abstract. Ultra-low velocity layering at Earth's core-mantle boundary has now been in the overlying few hundred km of the mantle. Ultra-low velocity zones contain properties consistent with partial

  15. An Ultra-Low-Power Analog Memory System with an Adaptive Sampling Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, David W.

    An Ultra-Low-Power Analog Memory System with an Adaptive Sampling Rate Brandon M. Kelly, Brandon normally associated with sleep states in WSNs, we introduce an ultra-low-power analog memory buffer in which ultra- low-power operation is a necessity. In this paper, we propose an ultra-low-power analog mem

  16. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  17. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, Charlene

    2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This slideshow presents work intended to: Scale-up the Generation -1 UBT to 1+meter width full-scale manufacturing; Develop a Generation-2 UBT on the pilot line, targeting improved performance, longer lifetime and lower cost; Transfer Generation-2 UBT from the pilot line to the full-scale manufacturing line in 2014; and Validate service life of Generation-1 UBT for the 25+ year lifetime. 3M has scaled up UBT for production at 1.2 meter width. 3M is conducting extensive lifetime studies including: –Evaluation of customer processing and installation conditions; –Indoor accelerated testing of UBT film and full CIGS modules; –Outdoor testing of UBT film and CIGS modules. Results have been used to improve ultra barrier film performance for flex module applications.

  18. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  19. Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Bingham, Carl (Lakewood, CO); Goggin, Rita (Englewood, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO); Netter, Judy C. (Westminster, CO)

    2000-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Process and apparatus for providing ultra accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing of samples under controlled weathering without introducing unrealistic failure mechanisms in exposed materials and without breaking reciprocity relationships between flux exposure levels and cumulative dose that includes multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity at high levels of natural sunlight comprising: a) concentrating solar flux uniformly; b) directing the controlled uniform sunlight onto sample materials in a chamber enclosing multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity to allow the sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a sufficient period of time in days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth of representative weathering of the sample materials.

  20. Multilayer ultra-high-temperature ceramic coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loehman, Ronald E. (Albuquerque, NM); Corral, Erica L. (Tucson, AZ)

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A coated carbon-carbon composite material with multiple ceramic layers to provide oxidation protection from ultra-high-temperatures, where if the carbon-carbon composite material is uninhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then the first layer on the composite material is selected from ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2, onto which is coated a layer of SiC coated and if the carbon-carbon composite material is inhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then protection can be achieved with a layer of SiC and a layer of either ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2 in any order.

  1. Ultra-stripped supernovae: progenitors and fate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tauris, Thomas M; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The explosion of ultra-stripped stars in close binaries can lead to ejecta masses supernovae (SNe). In particular, we examine the binary parameter space leading to electron-capture (EC SNe) and iron core-collapse SNe (Fe CCSNe), respectively, and determine the amount of helium ejected with applications to their observational classification as Type Ib or Type Ic. We mainly evolve systems where the SN progenitors are helium star donors of initial mass M_He = 2.5 - 3.5 M_sun in tight binaries with orbital periods of P_orb = 0.06 - 2.0 days, and hosting an accreting NS, but we also discuss the evolution of wide...

  2. Ultra-thin microporous/hybrid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing (Albuquerque, NM); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-thin hybrid and/or microporous materials and methods for their fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, the exemplary hybrid membranes can be formed including successive surface activation and reaction steps on a porous support that is patterned or non-patterned. The surface activation can be performed using remote plasma exposure to locally activate the exterior surfaces of porous support. Organic/inorganic hybrid precursors such as organometallic silane precursors can be condensed on the locally activated exterior surfaces, whereby ALD reactions can then take place between the condensed hybrid precursors and a reactant. Various embodiments can also include an intermittent replacement of ALD precursors during the membrane formation so as to enhance the hybrid molecular network of the membranes.

  3. EU promises new biofuel rules won't harm the environment http://www.pr-inside.com/eu-promises-new-biofuel-rules-won-t-r385258.htm 1 of 2 1/16/2008 12:32 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EU promises new biofuel rules won't harm the environment http://www.pr-inside.com/eu-promises-new-biofuel promises new biofuel rules won't harm the environment © AP 2008-01-14 16:21:49 - BRUSSELS, Belgium (AP) - The European Union promised Monday that its new push to promote biofuels will try to prevent harming

  4. Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyle Allison; Christopher T. Hill; Graham G. Ross

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field $\\sigma$ which has a very large VEV $f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $\\zeta_i$, where $\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $\\sigma$ in the $\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$ limit. The singlet field $\\sigma$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.

  5. UltraLight Technical Report 28 February 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    Light Annual Report for 2004 ­ 2005 The UltraLight Collaboration NSF Grant 0427110 Director: Harvey Newman ...........................................................................................................11 2.5 Year 3 and 4 outlook .................................................................................................................13 3 High Energy Physics Application Services

  6. Design of wind turbines with Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jammes, François-Xavier

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) has proven an asset for bridge design as it significantly reduces costs. However, UHPC has not been applied yet to wind turbine technology. Design codes do not propose any recommendations ...

  7. Studying coherence in ultra-cold atomic gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis will discuss the study of coherence properties of ultra-cold atomic gases. The atomic systems investigated include a thermal cloud of atoms, a Bose-Einstein condensate and a fermion pair condensate. In each ...

  8. Tube Waves in Ultra-deep Waters: Preliminary Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Satyan

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    waves on borehole seismic data in ultra-deep waters. Finite-difference modeling technique was used for this study. Finite-difference modeling allowed us to model refractions, reflections, diffractions and scattering; actually all events in surface...

  9. Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Ultra-Low-Temperature...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ultra-low temperature laboratory freezers (ULTs) are some of the most energy-intensive pieces of equipment in a scientific research laboratory, yet there are several barriers to...

  10. Charge pumping techniques in ultra-low current transconductor design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker-Gomez, Adriana

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis is to introduce the use of interface-trap charge pumping devices (ITCP) in an analog application based in ultra-low-current transconductors. This application naturally exploits the continuous nature of the current...

  11. assay ultra sensitive: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (UGT) are expected to be a next of incorporating a wave rotor to an ultra-micro gas turbine and the advantages of wave rotors, topping gas turbines at about 70%. Keywords:...

  12. A Combined Electrochemical and Ultra-High Vacuum Approach to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Combined Electrochemical and Ultra-High Vacuum Approach to Heterogeneous Electrocatalysis Friday, February 24, 2012 - 11:00am SSRL Bldg. 137-322, 3rd floor Conference Room...

  13. Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, Kyle [University of Oxford; Hill, Christopher T. [FNAL; Ross, Graham G. [University of Oxford

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field $\\sigma$ which has a very large VEV $f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $\\zeta_i$, where $\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $\\sigma$ in the $\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$ limit. The singlet field $\\sigma$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.

  14. Ultra-short ion and neutron pulse production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Barletta, William A.; Kwan, Joe W.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion source has an extraction system configured to produce ultra-short ion pulses, i.e. pulses with pulse width of about 1 .mu.s or less, and a neutron source based on the ion source produces correspondingly ultra-short neutron pulses. To form a neutron source, a neutron generating target is positioned to receive an accelerated extracted ion beam from the ion source. To produce the ultra-short ion or neutron pulses, the apertures in the extraction system of the ion source are suitably sized to prevent ion leakage, the electrodes are suitably spaced, and the extraction voltage is controlled. The ion beam current leaving the source is regulated by applying ultra-short voltage pulses of a suitable voltage on the extraction electrode.

  15. Analysis of ultra-narrow ferromagnetic domain walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, Catherine; Paul, David

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    New materials with high magnetic anisotropy will have domains separated by ultra-narrow ferromagnetic walls with widths on the order of a few unit cells, approaching the limit where the elastic continuum approximation often used in micromagnetic simulations is accurate. The limits of this approximation are explored, and the static and dynamic interactions with intrinsic crystalline defects and external driving #12;elds are modeled. The results developed here will be important when considering the stability of ultra-high-density storage media.

  16. Precipitation kinetics in ultra-high lime softening 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peacock, Edward Dale

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PRECIPITATION KINETICS IN ULTRA-HIGH LIME SOFTENING A Thesis EDWARD DALE PEACOCK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August l986 Major... Subject: Civil Engineering PRECIPITATION KINETICS IN ULTRA-HIGH LIME SOFTENING A Thesis by EDWARD DALE PEACOCK Approved as to style and content by: Bill Batchelor (Chair of Commi e) T D. eynol s (Member) Michael T. Lo necker (Member) Donald Mc...

  17. 208 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 11, NO. 5, MAY 2001 Novel Low-Cost Ultra-Wideband, Ultra-Short-Pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arslan, Hüseyin

    208 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 11, NO. 5, MAY 2001 Novel Low-Cost Ultra communications applica- tions. An UWB, ultra-short-pulse radar has spectrum extending from very low to very high-Wideband, Ultra-Short-Pulse Transmitter with MESFET Impulse-Shaping Circuitry for Reduced Distortion and Improved

  18. Low-voltage ultra-low-poweranalog IC design -djmamic translinearcircuits 1.3.1 1.3 Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serdijn, Wouter A.

    Low-voltage ultra-low-poweranalog IC design -djmamic translinearcircuits 1.3.1 1.3 Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design -dynamic translinear circuits 0 (rg G x m .- E . . . . . a r, a" P, 44' s" +N m - _ c o3 #12;Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design -dynamic translinear circuits I

  19. Making Up Self Harmers: an investigation of the concept over time and from the perspective of two different self harm groups 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattingley, Helena

    2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis aims to illustrate the processes involves in ‘making up’ the human kind of self harmers. Psychiatric attempts at defining, explaining, and controlling self harm behaviours are shaped by the people who they diagnose as much as they shape...

  20. Ultra-Low NOx Advanced Vortex Combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, R.G. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Steele, R.C. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Williams, J.T. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Straub, D.L.; Casleton, K.H.; Bining, Avtar (California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA)

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra lean-premixed Advanced Vortex Combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE NETL) test facility in Morgantown (WV). All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx/CO/UHC emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions are at 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated tremendous acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean premixed combustion approaches. In addition, a pressure drop of 1.75% was measured which is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors. Potentially, this lower pressure drop characteristic of the AVC concept translates into overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvements of up to one full percentage point. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drops achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

  1. ULTRA-LOW NOX ADVANCED VORTEX COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan G. Edmonds; Robert C. Steele; Joseph T. Williams; Douglas L. Straub; Kent H. Casleton; Avtar Bining

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra lean-premixed Advanced Vortex Combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE NETL) test facility in Morgantown (WV). All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx/CO/UHC emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions are at 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated tremendous acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean premixed combustion approaches. In addition, a pressure drop of 1.75% was measured which is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors. Potentially, this lower pressure drop characteristic of the AVC concept translates into overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvements of up to one full percentage point. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drops achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

  2. ?-Decay in Ultra-Intense Laser Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serban Misicu; Margarit Rizea

    2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the \\alpha-decay of a spherical nucleus under the influence of an ultra-intense laser field for the case when the radius vector joining the center-of-masses of the \\alpha-particle and the daughter is aligned with the direction of the external field. The time-independent part of the \\alpha-daughter interaction is taken from elastic scattering compilations whereas the time-varying part describes the interaction between the decaying system with the laser field. The time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation is solved numerically by appealing to a modified scheme of the Crank-Nicolson type where an additional first-order time derivative appears compared to the field-free case. The tunneling probability of the \\alpha-cluster, and derived quantities (decay rate, total flux) is determined for various laser intensities and frequencies for either continous waves or few-cycle pulses of envelope function F(t)=1. We show that in the latter case pulse sequences containing an odd number of half-cycles determine an enhancement of the tunneling probability compared to the field-free case and the continuous wave case. The present study is carried out taking as example the alpha decaying nucleus $^{106}$Te.

  3. Space-charge effects in ultra-high current electron bunches generated by laser-plasma accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grinner, F. J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    regime of laser-plasma-accelerated ultra-compact electronin ultra-high current electron bunches generated by laser-by laser-plasma accelerators due to their ultra-high peak

  4. Simulation and optimization of ultra thin photovoltaics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducts pioneering research and development in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and solar cell research. This dissertation project combines these two areas to create ultra-thin small-form-factor crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. These miniature solar cells create a new class of photovoltaics with potentially novel applications and benefits such as dramatic reductions in cost, weight and material usage. At the beginning of the project, unusually low efficiencies were obtained in the research group. The intention of this research was thus to investigate the main causes of the low efficiencies through simulation, design, fabrication, and characterization. Commercial simulation tools were used to find the main causes of low efficiency. Once the causes were identified, the results were used to create improved designs and build new devices. In the simulations, parameters were varied to see the effect on the performance. The researched parameters were: resistance, wafer lifetime, contact separation, implant characteristics (size, dosage, energy, ratio between the species), contact size, substrate thickness, surface recombination, and light concentration. Out of these parameters, it was revealed that a high quality surface passivation was the most important for obtaining higher performing cells. Therefore, several approaches for enhancing the passivation were tried, characterized, and tested on cells. In addition, a methodology to contact and test the performance of all the cells presented in the dissertation under calibrated light was created. Also, next generation cells that could incorporate all the optimized layers including the passivation was designed, built, and tested. In conclusion, through this investigation, solar cells that incorporate optimized designs and passivation schemes for ultrathin solar cells were created for the first time. Through the application of the methods discussed in this document, the efficiency of the solar cells increased from below 1% to 15% in Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaic (MEPV) devices.

  5. High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel...

  6. Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines Presentation given at DEER...

  7. 2008 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    8 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program 2008 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and...

  8. The Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope in EMSL's Quiet Wing The Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope in EMSL's Quiet Wing This is...

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - 15.1130_Jeff Baker_Final Ultra-High Efficiency...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    130Jeff BakerFinal Ultra-High Efficiency Commercial Buildings Microsoft PowerPoint - 15.1130Jeff BakerFinal Ultra-High Efficiency Commercial Buildings Microsoft PowerPoint -...

  10. Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions Advanced...

  11. Dramatically Improved Yields in Molecular Scale Electronic Devices Using Ultra-smooth Platinum Electrodes Prepared By

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, M. Saif

    Dramatically Improved Yields in Molecular Scale Electronic Devices Using Ultra-smooth Platinum scale electronic devices by using ultra- smooth platinum (Pt) electrodes made with chemical mechanically Terms -- Molecular electronics, CMP, SAM, Langmuir-Blodgett, Device yields. I. INTRODUCTION Molecular

  12. 2007 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    07 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program 2007 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and...

  13. Investigation of laser-driven proton acceleration using ultra-short, ultra-intense laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fourmaux, S.; Gnedyuk, S.; Lassonde, P.; Payeur, S.; Pepin, H.; Kieffer, J. C. [INRS-EMT, Universite du Quebec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Buffechoux, S.; Albertazzi, B. [INRS-EMT, Universite du Quebec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); LULI, UMR 7605, CNRS - CEA - Universite Paris 6 - Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Capelli, D.; Antici, P. [LULI, UMR 7605, CNRS - CEA - Universite Paris 6 - Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Dipartimento SBAI, Sapienza, Universita di Roma, Via Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Levy, A.; Fuchs, J. [LULI, UMR 7605, CNRS - CEA - Universite Paris 6 - Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Lecherbourg, L.; Marjoribanks, R. S. [Department of Physics and Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report optimization of laser-driven proton acceleration, for a range of experimental parameters available from a single ultrafast Ti:sapphire laser system. We have characterized laser-generated protons produced at the rear and front target surfaces of thin solid targets (15 nm to 90 {mu}m thicknesses) irradiated with an ultra-intense laser pulse (up to 10{sup 20} W Dot-Operator cm{sup -2}, pulse duration 30 to 500 fs, and pulse energy 0.1 to 1.8 J). We find an almost symmetric behaviour for protons accelerated from rear and front sides, and a linear scaling of proton energy cut-off with increasing pulse energy. At constant laser intensity, we observe that the proton cut-off energy increases with increasing laser pulse duration, then roughly constant for pulses longer than 300 fs. Finally, we demonstrate that there is an optimum target thickness and pulse duration.

  14. Method for laser welding ultra-thin metal foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, J.C.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for simultaneously cutting and welding ultra-thin foils having a thickness of less than 0.002 inches wherein two ultra-thin films are stacked and clamped together. A pulsed laser such as of the Neodymium: YAG type is provided and the beam of the laser is directed onto the stacked films to cut a channel through the films. The laser is moved relative to the stacked foils to cut the stacked foils at successive locations and to form a plurality of connected weld beads to form a continuous weld. 5 figs.

  15. Method for laser welding ultra-thin metal foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, John C. (Fort Collins, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for simultaneously cutting and welding ultra-thin foils having a thickness of less than 0.002 inches wherein two ultra-thin films are stacked and clamped together. A pulsed laser such as of the Neodymium: YAG type is provided and the beam of the laser is directed onto the stacked films to cut a channel through the films. The laser is moved relative to the stacked foils to cut the stacked foils at successive locations and to form a plurality of connected weld beads to form a continuous weld.

  16. Spintronic switches for ultra low energy global interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharad, Mrigank, E-mail: msharad@purdue.edu; Roy, Kaushik [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ultra-low energy interconnect design using nano-scale spin-torque (ST) switches for global data-links. Emerging spin-torque phenomena can lead to ultra-low-voltage, high-speed current-mode magnetic-switches. ST-switches can simultaneously provide large trans-impedance gain by employing magnetic tunnel junctions, to convert current-mode signals into large-swing voltage levels. Such device-characteristics can be used in the design of energy-efficient current-mode global interconnects.

  17. Tracking deep mantle reservoirs with ultra-low velocity zones Allen K. McNamara a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    Tracking deep mantle reservoirs with ultra-low velocity zones Allen K. McNamara a, , Edward J, that directly overlies the core-mantle boundary (CMB). These regions have been dubbed Ultra-Low Velocity Zones. Introduction For over 15 yrs seismologists have mapped regions of ultra-low P- and S-wave velocities

  18. SAFETY EFFECTIVENESS OF STOP CONTROL AT ULTRA-LOW VOLUME UNPAVED INTERSECTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    SAFETY EFFECTIVENESS OF STOP CONTROL AT ULTRA-LOW VOLUME UNPAVED INTERSECTIONS Corresponding Author,494 #12;Souleyrette, Tenges, McDonald, Maze, Carriquiry 1 SAFETY EFFECTIVENESS OF STOP CONTROL AT ULTRA-LOW regression and hierarchical Poisson estimation. For ultra-low volume intersections, under 150 vehicles per

  19. Centralized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle to Achieve Maximum Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    Centralized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle to Achieve performance because most of them are designed without considering a ultra low duty cycled environment to improve a network lifetime and a routing maintenance cost. We explain the issues of a ultra low duty

  20. Challenge: Ultra-Low-Power Energy-Harvesting Active Networked Tags (EnHANTs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zussman, Gil

    Challenge: Ultra-Low-Power Energy-Harvesting Active Networked Tags (EnHANTs) Maria Gorlatova, Peter posed by a new class of ultra-low-power devices referred to as Energy-Harvesting Ac- tive Networked Tags), and determining locations of disaster sur- vivors. Recent advances in ultra-low-power wireless communica- tions

  1. ULTRA LOW PRESSURE-DROP HELIUM-COOLED POROUS-TUNGSTEN PFC S. Sharafat1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    ULTRA LOW PRESSURE-DROP HELIUM-COOLED POROUS-TUNGSTEN PFC S. Sharafat1 , A. Mills1 , D. Youchison2/s. Based on these impressive performance results, a unique and scalable heat exchanger channel with ultra-low and ultra low-pressure drop short flow-path (SOFIT) concept was designed. Typical pressure drops through

  2. Integrated Ultra-Low-Loss 4-Bit Tunable Delay for Broadband Phased Array Antenna Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. Bauters, et al. , “Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si3N4JUNE 15, 2013 Integrated Ultra-Low-Loss 4-Bit Tunable Delaya 4-bit tunable delay in an ultra-low-loss Si 3 N 4 planar

  3. LP3853/LP3856 3A Fast Response Ultra Low Dropout Linear Regulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    LP3853/LP3856 3A Fast Response Ultra Low Dropout Linear Regulators General Description The LP3853/LP3856 series of fast ultra low-dropout linear regulators operate from a +2.5V to +7.0V input supply. Wide range of preset output voltage options are available. These ultra low dropout linear regulators

  4. Suppressing Multi-Channel Ultra-Low-Field MRI Measurement Noise Using Data Consistency and Image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suppressing Multi-Channel Ultra-Low-Field MRI Measurement Noise Using Data Consistency and Image of Mathematics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 4 Elekta Oy, Helsinki, Finland Abstract Ultra-low. (2013) Suppressing Multi-Channel Ultra-Low-Field MRI Measurement Noise Using Data Consistency and Image

  5. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Airfoils in Ultra-Low Reynolds Number Flow using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Airfoils in Ultra-Low Reynolds Number Flow using Simultaneous;Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Airfoils in Ultra-Low Reynolds Number Flow using Simultaneous Pseudo Abstract. The paper presents numerical results of optimized airfoils at ultra-low Reynolds numbers

  6. Fluctuation-induced dynamics of multiphase liquid jets with ultra-low interfacial tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fluctuation-induced dynamics of multiphase liquid jets with ultra-low interfacial tension Alban with an ultra-low interfacial tension presents new opportunities to the control of flow morphologies perturbation; this demonstrates the importance of the inertial effects in flow control at ultra-low interfacial

  7. Molecular Caulk: A Pore Sealing Technology for Ultra-low k Dielectrics Jay J. Senkevich1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Molecular Caulk: A Pore Sealing Technology for Ultra-low k Dielectrics Jay J. Senkevich1 Washington Ave., Albany, NY 12222 Abstract Much effort has been undertaken to develop high performance ultra-low k ( 2.2) (ULK) dielectrics to improve the interconnect speed of ultra-large scale integrated devices

  8. Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle Wooguil of high energy consumption mainly caused by the clock drift in ultra low duty cycled environments because most of them are designed without considering ultra low duty cycled environments. To achieve

  9. An Ultra Low Power SIMD Processor for Wireless Devices , Sangwon Seo1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    An Ultra Low Power SIMD Processor for Wireless Devices Mark Woh1 , Sangwon Seo1 , Chaitali, Tempe, AZ {mwoh,swseo,mahlke,tnm}@umich.edu chaitali@asu.edu ABSTRACT This paper presents an ultra low executed. For ultra low power operation, we advocate operating the processor at near threshold volt- age

  10. Pipeline Strategy for Improving Optimal Energy Efficiency in Ultra-Low Voltage Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    Pipeline Strategy for Improving Optimal Energy Efficiency in Ultra-Low Voltage Design Mingoo Seok for the ultra low voltage regime. Based on an analytical model and simulations, we propose a pipelining technique that provides higher energy effi- ciency and performance than conventional approaches to ultra low

  11. Effectiveness of Ultra-Low Volume Nighttime Applications of an Adulticide against Diurnal Aedes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effectiveness of Ultra-Low Volume Nighttime Applications of an Adulticide against Diurnal Aedes and dengue. Vector control programs rarely attempt to suppress this diurnal species with an ultra-low volume, Gaugler R, Fonseca DM (2012) Effectiveness of Ultra-Low Volume Nighttime Applications of an Adulticide

  12. Invited Paper Ultra-low-power Electronics for Non-invasive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    Invited Paper Ultra-low-power Electronics for Non-invasive Medical Monitoring L. Turicchia1 , S on the monitoring of the heart--because of its importance--and we describe a micropower electrocardiograph, an ultra-low-power pulse oximeter, an ultra-low-power phonocardiograph, an integrated- circuit switched-capacitor model

  13. An Ultra Low Power CMOS pA/V Transconductor and its Application to Wavelet Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serdijn, Wouter A.

    An Ultra Low Power CMOS pA/V Transconductor and its Application to Wavelet Filters Peterson R topologies of ultra low-power CMOS triode transconductor are proposed. Its input transistors are kept with an extremely small transconductance gm is needed. This paper presents two topologies of ultra low

  14. Telos: Enabling Ultra-Low Power Wireless Research Joseph Polastre, Robert Szewczyk, and David Culler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culler, David E.

    Telos: Enabling Ultra-Low Power Wireless Research Joseph Polastre, Robert Szewczyk, and David,szewczyk,culler}@cs.berkeley.edu Abstract-- We present Telos, an ultra low power wireless sensor module ("mote") for research and 128kB of flash), extensive sensor interfaces (8 analog lines, several digital IO Fig. 1. Telos ultra-low

  15. Ultra-Low Power DLMS Adaptive Filter For Hearing Aid Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chris H.

    Ultra-Low Power DLMS Adaptive Filter For Hearing Aid Applications Hyung-il Kim Purdue University, USA +1-765-494-2361 kaushik@ecn.purdue.edu ABSTRACT We present an ultra-low power DLMS (delayed least suitable application areas for sub-threshold logic since ultra-low power consumption takes first priority

  16. An ultra-low voltage high gain operational transconductance amplifier for biomedical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An ultra-low voltage high gain operational transconductance amplifier for biomedical applications that work at ultra low voltage power supply. Moreover, low power dissipation is essential in these systems dissipation is also proposed in [5]. Differential pairs are commonly used as input stages, in an ultra-low

  17. An Ultra-Low-Power Human Body Motion Sensor Using Static Electric Field Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    An Ultra-Low-Power Human Body Motion Sensor Using Static Electric Field Sensing Gabe Cohn1 an ultra-low-power method for pas- sively sensing body motion using static electric fields by measuring to infer the amount and type of body motion anywhere on the body and demonstrate an ultra-low-power motion

  18. Performance of plasma sputtered Fuel Cell electrodes with ultra-low Pt M. Cavarroca

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Performance of plasma sputtered Fuel Cell electrodes with ultra-low Pt loadings M. Cavarroca , A. Abstract Ultra-low Pt content PEMFC electrodes have been manufactured using magnetron co- sputtering cell; Plasma sputtering deposition; ultra low platinum loading * Corresponding author: Fax: +33 2 38 41

  19. Variation-aware Clock Network Design Methodology for Ultra-Low Voltage (ULV) Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    Variation-aware Clock Network Design Methodology for Ultra-Low Voltage (ULV) Circuits Xin Zhao networks for ultra-low voltage (ULV) circuits. We show that both clock slew and skew play important roles) at comparable or even higher Fmax compared with the existing methods. Keywords--clock network design, ultra-low

  20. Efficient Concomitant and Remanence Field Artifact Reduction in Ultra-Low-Field MRI Using a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient Concomitant and Remanence Field Artifact Reduction in Ultra-Low-Field MRI Using: For ultra-low-field MRI, the spatial-encoding mag- netic fields generated by gradient coils can have strong to pre-polarize magnetization can improve the signal-to-noise ratio of ultra- low-field MRI. Yet

  1. Ultra-Low Wearing Nanocomposites-How Low Can We Go? Angela Pitenis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    Ultra-Low Wearing Nanocomposites- How Low Can We Go? Angela Pitenis You know more about tribology), this new material, a nanocomposite, is able to achieve ultra-low wear (k~7x10-8 mm3 /(Nm)). This means limits of this ultra-low wearing nanocomposite. Our most recent experiments were conducted in a broad

  2. Bulk CMOS Device Optimization for High-Speed and Ultra-Low Power Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyathi, Jabulani

    Bulk CMOS Device Optimization for High-Speed and Ultra-Low Power Operations Brent Bero and Jabulani- Interest in subthreshold design has increased due to the emergence of systems that require ultra-low power creating a clear divide between designing for high speed and ultra-low power. It might be beneficial

  3. A Hybrid Adiabatic Content Addressable Memory for Ultra Low-Power Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tessier, Russell

    A Hybrid Adiabatic Content Addressable Memory for Ultra Low-Power Applications Aiyappan Natarajan/write operation. The adiabatic CAM is suitable for ultra low-power, low per- formance applications such as smart, Performance Keywords Ultra-low power, Energy recovery, adiabatic switching 1. INTRODUCTION Content Addressable

  4. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Robert K. D.

    Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito T S No model can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied with ultra-low-volume technology of insecticides. We develop a validated model to predict the deposition of insecticides after ultra-low

  5. Cryptography for Ultra-Low Power Devices Jens-Peter Kaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cryptography for Ultra-Low Power Devices by Jens-Peter Kaps A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty classify them as ultra-low power devices. Early sensor nodes used simple 8-bit microprocessors to implement of cryptographic algorithms tailored for ultra-low power applications. The goal of this dissertation is to de

  6. Heat capacity of adsorbed Helium-3 at ultra-low temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Heat capacity of adsorbed Helium-3 at ultra-low temperatures J. Elbs, C. Winkelmann, Yu. M. Bunkov of monolayers of 3He adsorbed on the surface of a cell filled with superfluid 3He. We found that at ultra low in the limit of ultra low temperatures. 1. INTRODUCTION A closed cell with a small orifice, immersed

  7. An atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) system for measuring ultra-low contamination by krypton in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelevinsky, Tanya

    An atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) system for measuring ultra-low contamination by krypton in xenon ultra-low contamination by krypton in xenon dark matter detectors Tae Hyun Yoon The XENON dark matter analysis (ATTA) device to detect the ultra-low kryp- ton concentration in the xenon target. This project

  8. Analysis, Design, and Testing of Airfoils for Use at Ultra-Low Reynolds Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Analysis, Design, and Testing of Airfoils for Use at Ultra- Low Reynolds Numbers Peter J. Kunz Ilan M. Kroo Abstract: Advances in technology have begun to make ultra-low Reynolds number flight a real of the relevant aerodynamics. A reasonable starting point is the study of airfoil section aerodynamics at ultra-low

  9. Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Ursula

    Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation A. COUAIRON 27 February 2005; in final form 2 June 2005) Theoretical studies of filamentation of ultra-short near. This suggests a very simple design for the generation of ultra-short, sub-femtosecond XUV optical pulses. 1

  10. Controlled nanostructrures formation by ultra fast laser pulses for color marking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Controlled nanostructrures formation by ultra fast laser pulses for color marking B. Dusser1, 2 of surface and the subsequent upgrades in material properties is a strong outcome of ultra fast laser. We demonstrate in this work, the possibility of achieving material modifications using ultra short

  11. Optical properties and modulation characteristics of ultra-strong injection-locked distributed feedback lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Hyuk-Kee; Lau, Erwin K.; Wu, Ming C.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Ultra-Strong Injection-Locked Distributed Feedback LasersUltra-high, 72 GHz resonance fre- quency and 44 GHz bandwidth of injection-locked 1.55-µm DFB lasers,”ultra-strong optical injection. The dynamic response of the slave laser

  12. Ultra high energy neutrinos: absorption, thermal effects and signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunardini, Cecilia; Sabancilar, Eray; Yang, Lili, E-mail: Cecilia.Lunardini@asu.edu, E-mail: Eray.Sabancilar@asu.edu, E-mail: lyang54@asu.edu [Physics Department, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study absorption of ultra high energy neutrinos by the cosmic neutrino background, with full inclusion of the effect of the thermal distribution of the background on the resonant annihilation channel. For a hierarchical neutrino mass spectrum (with at least one neutrino with mass below ? 10{sup ?2} eV), thermal effects are important for ultra high energy neutrino sources at z?>16. The neutrino transmission probability shows no more than two separate suppression dips since the two lightest mass eigenstates contribute as a single species when thermal effects are included. Results are applied to a number of models of ultra high energy neutrino emission. Suppression effects are strong for sources that extend beyond z ? 10, which can be realized for certain top down scenarios, such as superheavy dark matter decays, cosmic strings and cosmic necklaces. For these, a broad suppression valley should affect the neutrino spectrum at least in the energy interval 10{sup 12}?10{sup 13} GeV — which therefore is disfavored for ultra high energy neutrino searches — with only a mild dependence on the neutrino mass spectrum and hierarchy. The observation of absorption effects would indicate a population of sources beyond z ? 10, and favor top-down mechanisms; it would also be an interesting probe of the physics of the relic neutrino background in the unexplored redshift interval z ? 10–100.

  13. ULTRA-THIN QUARTZ COMBUSTORS FOR TPV POWER GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    ULTRA-THIN QUARTZ COMBUSTORS FOR TPV POWER GENERATION Yong Fan, Yuji Suzuki, and Nobuhide Kasagi in planar quartz combustors with channel height of 0.7/1.0/1.5 mm have been investigated for micro on the wall temperature. Keywords: Quenching distance, Micro combustor, Wall/flame temperature, PLIF 1

  14. The Composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Through Hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    nuclei originating outside the Solar System "Ultra High Energy" E > 1017eV First discovered by interact high in the Earth's atmosphere EASs result in billions of secondary particles Fluorescence) Image produced by 16x16 PMT "Cluster Box" 3.3 m diameter mirrors collect light and focus

  15. AMRIS Update Ultra High Sensitivity NMR: 1-mm HTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    , although they are difficult or impossible to fabricate like standard copper wire, HTS materials can provideAMRIS Update Ultra High Sensitivity NMR: 1-mm HTS Triple Resonance Probe W.W. Brey, NHMFL A and Rich Withers) and others at Conductus developed the first HTS (high temperature superconducting

  16. Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions Dana S. Balser D. Anish Roshi (Raman (Agnes Scott College) #12;Carbon RRLs Carbon Radio Recombination Lines (RRLs) NGC 2024 (Orion B) IC 1795 (W3) Palmer et al. (1967) #12;Carbon RRLs Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) Hollenbach & Tielens (1997

  17. Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics Thesis by Emily Cathryn Warmann, who reminds me that this is fun and interesting. iv #12;Abstract While concentrator photovoltaic cells, the over all module efficiency drops to only 34 to 36%. T

  18. Device for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser. As the laser medium flows past the optical excitation source and the fluid warms its index of refraction changes creating an optical wedge. A system is provided for correcting the thermally induced optical phase errors.

  19. PPPL3161 Preprint Date: February 1996, UC420, 426, 427 Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak, Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak, Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak, Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak, Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak, ULART ULART ULART ULART ULART M

  20. 2566 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 55, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2008 Virtual Colonoscopy Screening With Ultra Low-Dose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Screening With Ultra Low-Dose CT and Less-Stressful Bowel Preparation: A Computer Simulation Study Jing Wang a simulation study to demonstrate a possible ultra low-dose CT technique for VC. The ultra low-dose abdominal by a filtered backprojection algorithm for the ultra low-dose CT im- ages. The patient-specific virtual colon

  1. Ge interface engineering using ultra-thin La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films: A study into the effect of deposition temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitrovic, I. Z., E-mail: ivona@liverpool.ac.uk; Weerakkody, A. D.; Sedghi, N.; Hall, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Althobaiti, M.; Dhanak, V. R.; Linhart, W. M.; Veal, T. D. [Department of Physics and Stephenson Institute for Renewable Energy, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZF (United Kingdom); Chalker, P. R. [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Tsoutsou, D.; Dimoulas, A. [NCSR Demokritos, MBE Laboratory, Institute of Materials Science, 153 10 Athens (Greece)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A study into the optimal deposition temperature for ultra-thin La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge gate stacks has been conducted in this paper with the aim to tailor the interfacial layer for effective passivation of the Ge interface. A detailed comparison between the two lanthanide oxides (La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in terms of band line-up, interfacial features, and reactivity to Ge using medium energy ion scattering, vacuum ultra-violet variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VUV-VASE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction is shown. La{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been found to be more reactive to Ge than Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, forming LaGeO{sub x} and a Ge sub-oxide at the interface for all deposition temperature studied, in the range from 44?°C to 400?°C. In contrast, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge deposited at 400?°C allows for an ultra-thin GeO{sub 2} layer at the interface, which can be eliminated during annealing at temperatures higher than 525?°C leaving a pristine YGeO{sub x}/Ge interface. The Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge gate stack deposited at lower temperature shows a sub-band gap absorption feature fitted to an Urbach tail of energy 1.1?eV. The latter correlates to a sub-stoichiometric germanium oxide layer at the interface. The optical band gap for the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge stacks has been estimated to be 5.7?±?0.1?eV from Tauc-Lorentz modelling of VUV-VASE experimental data. For the optimal deposition temperature (400?°C), the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge stack exhibits a higher conduction band offset (>2.3?eV) than the La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge (?2?eV), has a larger band gap (by about 0.3?eV), a germanium sub-oxide free interface, and leakage current (?10{sup ?7}?A/cm{sup 2} at 1?V) five orders of magnitude lower than the respective La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge stack. Our study strongly points to the superiority of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge system for germanium interface engineering to achieve high performance Ge Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor technology.

  2. PPPL-3161 -Preprint Date: February 1996, UC-420, 426, 427 Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stabili

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak, ULARTULARTULARTULARTULART M. Yamada1, A. Morita2, N

  3. CDC Response to Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Recommendations in "Low Level Lead Exposure Harms Children: A Renewed Call of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CDC Response to Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Recommendations in "Low Level Lead Exposure Harms Children: A Renewed Call of Primary Prevention" BACKGROUND In late 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Advisory Committee for Childhood Lead Poisoning

  4. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

    2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also applicable to coal-derived FT liquid fuels. After different gas clean up processes steps, the coal-derived syngas will produce FT liquid fuels that have similar properties to natural gas derived FT liquids.

  5. Ultraviolet-B Radiation Harms Aquatic Life -Current Results http://www.currentresults.com/Water/Water-Pollution/ultraviolet.php 1 of 2 8/7/2007 1:45 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaustein, Andrew R.

    Ultraviolet-B Radiation Harms Aquatic Life - Current Results http://www.currentresults.com/Water/Water-Pollution/ultraviolet.php 1 of 2 8/7/2007 1:45 PM Ultraviolet-B Radiation Harms Aquatic Life The first quantitative analysis of published studies on ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation and water-borne life reveals that UVB causes widespread

  6. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays from Decaying Superheavy Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Berezinsky

    1998-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Decaying superheavy particles can be produced by Topological Defects or, in case they are quasi-stable, as relics from the early Universe. The decays of these particles can be the sources of observed Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays ($E \\sim 10^{10} - 10^{12} GeV$). The Topological Defects as the UHE CR sources are critically reviewed and cosmic necklaces and monopole-antiminopole pairs are identified as most plausible sources. The relic superheavy particles are shown to be clustering in the halo and their decays produce UHE CR without GZK cutoff. The Lightest Supersymmetric Particles with Ultra High Energies are naturally produced in the cascades accompanying the decays of superheavy particles. These particles are discussed as UHE carriers in the Universe.

  7. HemUltraSonicSensor Version 1.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    beaucoup plus t^ot. 1.1 Comment utiliser ce manuel Ce manuel introduit le module HemUltraSonicSensor destin´e au robot He- misson. Si ce manuel ne r´epond pas `a l'un des probl`emes auquel vous ^etes confront dom- mages `a un tiers. ­ Ne branchez pas le module pendant que le robot est allum´e. Pour ´eviter

  8. ULTRACAM - an ultra-fast, triple-beam CCD camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vik Dhillon; Tom Marsh; the ULTRACAM team

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ULTRACAM is an ultra-fast, triple-beam CCD camera which has been designed to study one of the few remaining unexplored regions of observational parameter space - high temporal resolution. The camera will see first light in Spring 2002, at a total cost of GBP 300 k, and will be used on 2-m, 4-m and 8-m class telescopes to study astrophysics on the fastest timescales.

  9. Ultra-fast outflows (aka UFOs) from AGNs and QSOs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappi, M; Giustini, M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last decade, strong observational evidence has been accumulated for the existence of massive, high velocity winds/outflows (aka Ultra Fast Outflows, UFOs) in nearby AGNs and in more distant quasars. Here we briefly review some of the most recent developments in this field and discuss the relevance of UFOs for both understanding the physics of accretion disk winds in AGNs, and for quantifying the global amount of AGN feedback on the surrounding medium.

  10. Particle acceleration by ultra-relativistic shocks: theory and simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham Achterberg; Yves A. Gallant; John G. Kirk; Axel W. Guthmann

    2001-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the acceleration of charged particles near ultra-relativistic shocks, with Lorentz factor Gamma_s >> 1. We present simulations of the acceleration process and compare these with results from semi-analytical calculations. We show that the spectrum that results from acceleration near ultra-relativistic shocks is a power law, N(E) \\propto E^{-s}, with a nearly universal value s \\approx 2.2 - 2.3 for the slope of this power law. We confirm that the ultra-relativistic equivalent of Fermi acceleration at a shock differs from its non-relativistic counterpart by the occurence of large anisotropies in the distribution of the accelerated particles near the shock. In the rest frame of the upstream fluid, particles can only outrun the shock when their direction of motion lies within a small loss cone of opening angle theta_c \\approx 1/Gamma_s around the shock normal. We also show that all physically plausible deflection or scattering mechanisms can change the upstream flight direction of relativistic particles originating from downstream by only a small amount: Delta theta ~ 1/Gamma_s. This limits the energy change per shock crossing cycle to Delta E ~ E, except for the first cycle where particles originate upstream. In that case the upstream energy is boosted by a factor ~ Gamma_s^2 for those particles that are scattered back across the shock into the upstream region.

  11. Manufacturing Ultra-Precision Meso-scale Products by Coining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seugling, R M; Davis, P J; Rickens, K; Osmer, J; Brinksmeier, E

    2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for replicating ultra-precision, meso-scale features onto a near-net-shape metallic blank has been demonstrated. The 'coining' technology can be used to imprint a wide range of features and/or profiles into two opposing surfaces. The instrumented system provides the ability to measure and control the product thickness and total thickness variation (TTV). The coining mechanism relies on kinematic principles to accurately and efficiently produce ultra-precision work pieces without the production of by products such as machining chips, or grinding swarf while preserving surface finish, material structure and overall form. Coining has been developed as a niche process for manufacturing difficult to machine, millimeter size components made from materials that may present hazardous conditions. In the case described in this paper a refractory metal part, tantalum (Ta) was produced with 4 {micro}m peak to valley 50 {micro}m special wavelength sine wave coined into the surface of 50 {micro}m blank. This technique shows promise for use on ductile materials that cannot be precision machined with conventional single crystal diamond tooling and/or has strict requirements on subsurface damage, surface impurities and grain structure. As a production process, it can be used to reduce manufacturing costs where large numbers of ultra-precision, repetitive designs are required and produce parts out of hazardous materials without generating added waste.

  12. Ultra-bright, ultra-broadband hard x-ray driven by laser-produced energetic electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Yin; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Wenpeng; Ji, Liangliang; Zhang, Lingang; Xu, Jiancai; Yu, Yahong; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yi, Longqing; Xu, Tongjun; Xu, Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new method of obtaining a compact ultra-bright, ultra-broadband hard X-ray source. This X-ray source has a high peak brightness in the order of 10{sup 22} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1\\%BW), an ultrashort duration (10 fs), and a broadband spectrum (flat distribution from 0.1 MeV to 4 MeV), and thus has wide-ranging potential applications, such as in ultrafast Laue diffraction experiments. In our scheme, laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) provide driven electron beams. A foil target is placed oblique to the beam direction so that the target normal sheath field (TNSF) is used to provide a bending force. Using this TNSF-kick scheme, we can fully utilize the advantages of current LPAs, including their high charge, high energy, and low emittance.

  13. anti-disease protective effect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and is also the first such evaluation for Arab countries. The main findings were: Egypt has declared Nottingham, University of 2 On UltraViolet effects in protected...

  14. Catalyst becomes more selective | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An image from EMSL's scanning tunneling microscope shows the surface of titanium dioxide after ultra-violet irradiation. Using EMSL's microscopy and computing...

  15. Photovoltaic performance of ultra-small PbSe quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Wanli

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic performance of ultra-small PbSe quantum dotssize on the photovoltaic performance of simple Schottky-typeconfinement on the photovoltaic performance, we adopted

  16. Thermodynamics of Quantum Ultra-cold Neutron Gas under Gravity of The Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiromi Kaneko; Akihiro Tohsaki; Atsushi Hosaka

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The stored ultra-cold neutrons have been developed. A high density ultra-cold neutron gas has been recently produced by using the nuclear spallation method. We investigate the thermodynamic properties of the quantum ultra-cold neutron gas in the Earth's gravitational field. We find that the quantum effects increase temperature dependence of the chemical potential and the internal energy in the low temperature region. The density distribution of quantum ultra-cold neutron gas is modified by the Earth's gravitational field.

  17. Photovoltaic performance of ultra-small PbSe quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Wanli

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y; Alivisatos, AP, Photovoltaic Devices Employing TernaryPhotovoltaic performance of ultra-small PbSe quantum dotsquantum dot, solar cell, photovoltaic, quantum size effect

  18. High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control Rolf D. Reitz, Reed Hanson, Derek Splitter, Sage Kokjohn Engine Research Center...

  19. Life-Cycle Energy Demand of Computational Logic: From High-Performance 32nm CPU to Ultra-Low-Power 130nm MCU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bol, David; Boyd, Sarah; Dornfeld, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance 32 nm CPU to Ultra-Low-Power 130 nm MCU Davidboxes and smart phones to ultra-low-power 130 nm MCUs forthe energy demand for ultra-low-power MCUs is completely

  20. Analgesia, enhancement of spinal morphine antinociception, and inhibition of tolerance by ultra-low dose of the ?2A-adrenoceptor selective antagonist BRL44408

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shen, K.F. , 1995. Ultra-low concentrations of naloxoneCahill, C.M. , 2010. Ultra-low dose naltrexone attenuatesand hyperalgesia by an ultra-low dose of the alpha-2-

  1. Life-Cycle Energy Demand of Computational Logic: From High-Performance 32nm CPU to Ultra-Low-Power 130nm MCU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bol, David; Boyd, Sarah; Dornfeld, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance 32 nm CPU to Ultra-Low-Power 130 nm MCU Davidboxes and smart phones to ultra-low-power 130 nm MCUs forthe energy demand for ultra-low-power MCUs is completely

  2. Self-relevant disgust and self-harm urges in patients with borderline personality disorder and depression: a pilot study with a newly designed psychological challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdul-Hamid, Sawsan; Denman, Chess; Dudas, Robert B.

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    the task’s potential to be developed into an experimental model of self-harming for treatment trials. Methods: 17 BPD patients, 27 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, and 25 healthy volunteers performed the SRT. Emotion labels were extracted from task... ] to establish the diagnoses required for inclusion and exclude volunteers who did not meet criteria. BPD patients were outpatients recruited via the Complex Cases Service (CCS), a specialized personality disorders unit, participants with unipolar depression...

  3. Ultra-low rare earth element content in accreted ice from sub-glacial Lake Vostok, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Ultra-low rare earth element content in accreted ice from sub-glacial Lake Vostok, Antarctica Paolo. We suggest that such ultra-low concentrations are unlikely to be representative of the real REE

  4. Active and Passive Elec. Comp., September 2003, Vol. 26, pp. 151166 ULTRA-LOW TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Active and Passive Elec. Comp., September 2003, Vol. 26, pp. 151­166 ULTRA-LOW TEMPERATURE that this material system possessed low dielectric constant and ultra-low temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC

  5. Relativistic Positron Creation Using Ultra-Intense Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S; Bonlie, J; Liang, E; Myatt, J; Price, D; Meyerhofer, D; Beiersdorfer, P

    2008-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure up to 2 x 10{sup 10} positrons per steradian ejected out the back of {approx}mm thick gold targets when illuminated with short ({approx} 1 ps) ultra-intense ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses. Positrons produced predominately by the Bethe-Heitler process and have an effective temperature of 2-4 MeV, with the distribution peaking at 4-7 MeV. The angular distribution of the positrons is anisotropic. The measurements indicate the laser produced, relativistic positron densities ({approx} 10{sup 16} positrons/cm{sup 3}) are the highest ever created in the laboratory.

  6. POWERWALL: International Workshop on Interactive, Ultra-High-Resolution Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rooney, Chris; Endert, Alexander; Fekete, Jean-Daniel; Hornbaek, Kasper; North, Chris

    2013-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-high-resolution (Powerwall) displays are becoming increasingly popular due to the ever decreasing cost of hardware. As a result they are appearing more frequently in research institutes, and making the jump out of the lab and into industry. Due to the amount of work in this research area that has been published in CHI over the last few years, we felt that this confernece would be the ideal host for the first opportunity for both academics and practitioners in this field to get together.

  7. Entanglement generation in the ultra-strongly coupled Rabi model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteo Bina; Stefano Maffezzoli Felis; Stefano Olivares

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the dynamics of the quantum Rabi model for two qubits interacting through a common bosonic field mode (resonator), focusing on the generation and detection of maximally entangled Bell states. We obtain analytical results for the unitary dynamics of this system in the slow-qubit (or degenerate) regime, considering ultra-strong coupling between qubits and resonator mode, for which the rotating wave approximation is no longer applicable. We also numerically investigate the dynamics beyond the slow-qubit condition in order to study the validity of the model in the presence of less strict conditions.

  8. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campisi, Isidoro E. (Newport News, VA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An absorber wave guide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the wave guide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the wave guide.

  9. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet (Seaford, VA); Dylla, III, Henry Frederick (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  10. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campisi, I.E.

    1992-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An absorber waveguide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the waveguide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the waveguide. 11 figs.

  11. Chemical surface deposition of ultra-thin semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCandless, Brian E. (243 W. Main St., Elkton, MD 21921); Shafarman, William N. (1905 N. Van Buren St., Wilmington, DE 19802)

    2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical surface deposition process for forming an ultra-thin semiconducting film of Group IIB-VIA compounds onto a substrate. This process eliminates particulates formed by homogeneous reactions in bath, dramatically increases the utilization of Group IIB species, and results in the formation of a dense, adherent film for thin film solar cells. The process involves applying a pre-mixed liquid coating composition containing Group IIB and Group VIA ionic species onto a preheated substrate. Heat from the substrate causes a heterogeneous reaction between the Group IIB and VIA ionic species of the liquid coating composition, thus forming a solid reaction product film on the substrate surface.

  12. Production of Ultra-Cold-Neutrons in Solid ?-Oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Gutsmiedl; A. Frei; F. Boehle; A. Maier; S. Paul; H. Schober; A. Orecchini

    2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Our recent neutron scattering measurements of phonons and magnons in solid \\alpha-oxygen have led us to a new understanding of the production mechanismen of ultra-cold-neutrons (UCN) in this super-thermal converter. The UCN production in solid \\alpha-oxygen is dominated by the excitation of phonons. The contribution of magnons to UCN production becomes only slightly important above E >10 meV and at E >4 meV. Solid \\alpha-oxygen is in comparison to solid deuterium less effcient in the down-scattering of thermal or cold neutrons into the UCN energy regime.

  13. Precipitation kinetics in ultra-high lime softening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peacock, Edward Dale

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was provided by two more tubing pumps. Fluid surfaces were protected from COE contamination by a constant pressure nftrogen blanket. The reactor was operated for a period of time greater than or equal to lD hydraulic retentfon times or 7 times the ratio..., the ultra-high lime process has been proposed as a method to eliminate the constituents of chemical scale which reduce the recycle capacity of water in cooling systems. Reported herein are the results of a bench scale reactor study designed to evaluate...

  14. Ultra High-Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Modeling Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to develop a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector that can provide both the high resolution typical of germanium and high signal throughput. Such detectors may be beneficial for a variety of potential applications ranging from safeguards measurements of used fuel to material detection and verification using active interrogation techniques. This report describes some of the initial radiation transport modeling efforts that have been conducted to help guide the design of the detector as well as a description of the process used to generate the source spectrum for the used fuel application evaluation.

  15. Ultra-low-loss tapered optical fibers with minimal lengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryutaro Nagai; Takao Aoki

    2014-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We design and fabricate ultra-low-loss tapered optical fibers (TOFs) with minimal lengths. We first optimize variations of the torch scan length using the flame-brush method for fabricating TOFs with taper angles that satisfy the adiabaticity criteria. We accordingly fabricate TOFs with optimal shapes and compare their transmission to TOFs with a constant taper angle and TOFs with an exponential shape. The highest transmission measured for TOFs with an optimal shape is in excess of 99.7 % with a total TOF length of only 23 mm, whereas TOFs with a constant taper angle of 2 mrad reach 99.6 % transmission for a 63 mm TOF length.

  16. Cryostat for Ultra-low-energy Threshold Germanium Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Fast, James E.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Cory T.; VanDevender, Brent A.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: This paper presents progress on the development of a cryostat intended to improve upon the low-energy threshold (below 0.5 keV) of p-type point contact germanium gamma-ray spectrometers. Ultra-low energy thresholds are important in the detection of low-energy nuclear recoils, an event class relevant to both dark matter direct detection and measurement of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. The cryostat design, including a thermal and electrical-field model, is presented. A prototype cryostat has been assembled and data acquired to evaluate its vacuum and thermal performance.

  17. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  18. Cryostat for Ultra-low-energy Threshold Germanium Spectrometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig E. Aalseth; Ricco M. Bonicalzi; James E. Fast; Todd W. Hossbach; John L. Orrell; Cory T. Overman; Brent A. Vandevender

    2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents progress on the development of a cryostat intended to improve upon the low-energy threshold (below 0.5 keV) of p-type point contact germanium gamma-ray spectrometers. Ultra-low energy thresholds are important in the detection of low-energy nuclear recoils, an event class relevant to both dark matter direct detection and measurement of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. The cryostat design, including a thermal and electrical-field model, is given. A prototype cryostat has been assembled and data acquired to evaluate its vacuum and thermal performance.

  19. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution relied heavily on computational fluid dynamic predictions of design alternatives. The final design features modular separate radiant cells, each with one and two-side fired vertical tubes. The convection section configuration is vertical tube banks enclosed in the radiant channels. Commercial modular plate air preheaters are used. The predicted performance for the integrated advanced heater and Callidus burner is 95 percent efficiency with 9 ppm NOx emissions firing natural gas, and 12 ppm firing refinery gas. The total erected cost is less than a conventional heater with combustion air preheat.

  20. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

  1. Signatures of Radiation Reaction in Ultra-Intense Laser Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Harvey; T. Heinzl; M. Marklund

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss radiation reaction effects on charges propagating in ultra-intense laser fields. Our analysis is based on an analytic solution of the Landau-Lifshitz equation. We suggest to measure radiation reaction in terms of a symmetry breaking parameter associated with the violation of null translation invariance in the direction opposite to the laser beam. As the Landau-Lifshitz equation is nonlinear the energy transfer within the pulse is rather sensitive to initial conditions. This is elucidated by comparing colliding and fixed target modes in electron laser collisions.

  2. Deuterated polyethylene coatings for ultra-cold neutron applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altarev, I; Fierlinger, P; Geltenbort, P; Gutsmiedl, E; Kuchler, F; Lauer, T; Lins, T; Marino, M G; Niessen, B; Petzoldt, G; Ruhstorfer, D; Seeman, K M; Soltwedel, O; Stuiber, St; Taubenheim, B; Windmayer, D; Zechlau, T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the fabrication and use of deuterated polyethylene (dPE) as a coating material for ultra-cold neutron (UCN) storage and transport. The Fermi potential has been determined to be 214 neV and the wall loss coefficient $\\eta$ is 2$\\cdot$10$^4$ per wall collision. The coating technique allows for a wide range of applications and new possibilities in this field of physics. In particular, flexible and quasi-massless UCN guides with slit-less shutters and slit-less UCN storage volumes become possible. These properties enable the use in next-generation measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  3. Hurricane Wind Field Estimation from SeaWinds at Ultra High Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Hurricane Wind Field Estimation from SeaWinds at Ultra High Resolution Brent A. Williams and David) are inherently noisier than the standard 25km products and the high rain rates often associated with hurricanes. This paper develops a new procedure for hurricane wind field estimation from the SeaWinds instrument at ultra

  4. Flame Stability Analysis in an Ultra Compact Combustor Using Large-Eddy Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Venkat

    Flame Stability Analysis in an Ultra Compact Combustor Using Large-Eddy Simulation C. Lietz , C Base, Ohio 45433 Large eddy simulation (LES) of an experimental ultra-compact combustor (UCC as a conven- tional combustor path. In order to reduce the penalty due to increased weight of these burners

  5. Energy Measurement and Strategy for a Trigger of Ultra High Energy Cosmic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdmann, Martin

    Energy Measurement and Strategy for a Trigger of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Measured with Radio Ray induced Air Showers 3 2.1 Physics of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1.1 Energy Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1.2 Composition

  6. Eigenvalue bounds in one dimensional Schrodinger's equation with ultra-short potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriel Gonzalez

    2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of a particle localized in a ultra-short potential in one dimension is considered. By proposing a general solution to Schrodinger;s equation we show that the energy spectra and the probability of the particle have definite bounds for an arbitrary ultra-short potential. These results are relevant for the confinement of particles in nanodevices.

  7. 9 Ultra Low Temperature ADI 2 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Contents 9 Ultra Low Temperature ADI 2 9.1 Introduction;Chapter 9 Ultra Low Temperature ADI 9.1 Introduction It has been indicated that a family of austempered]. These steels contain high carbon silicon and manganese, and they are isothermally heat treated at very low

  8. Low Carbon Footprint and Ultra Low NOx Boilers through Efficiency Gain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, R,; Staedter, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low Carbon Footprint and Ultra Low NOx Boilers through Efficiency Gain Robert Benz Marcel Staedter... Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 6-9, 2008. M. Staedter, R. Benz / Low Carbon, Ultra Low NOx through Efficiency Gain where y denotes the mole fraction of excess...

  9. Engineering Time-Reversal Invariant Topological Insulators With Ultra-Cold Atoms N. Goldman,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satija, Indu

    Engineering Time-Reversal Invariant Topological Insulators With Ultra-Cold Atoms N. Goldman,1 I: February 1, 2010) Topological insulators are a broad class of unconven- tional phases of matter-reversal violations. Here, we lay out an experiment to realize time-reversal invariant topological insulators in ultra

  10. The Ultra-micro Wave Rotor Research at Michigan State University Florin Iancu, Janusz Piechna*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Norbert

    University of Technology 24 Nowowiejska Str., 00-665 Warsaw, Poland ABSTRACT Ultra Micro Gas Turbines (Uµ concepts of incorporating a wave rotor to an ultra-micro gas turbine and the advantages of wave rotors be estimated at about 70%. 1. INTRODUCTION Starting in 1995, with the MIT "Micro Gas Turbine" project

  11. ASC2014-4EPo2G-04 1 Aging of Ultra-Thin Niobium Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prober, Daniel E.

    ASC2014-4EPo2G-04 1 Aging of Ultra-Thin Niobium Films Daniel F. Santavicca and Daniel E. Prober Abstract-- We characterize the evolution of the electrical properties of ultra-thin niobium films stored. Index Terms--Niobium, superconducting thin films, superconducting devices, nanofabrication I

  12. Experimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , steam, burning velocity, chemiluminescence, OH Introduction In ultra-wet gas turbines, the heatExperimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures Eric Abstract Global burning velocities of methane-air-steam mixtures are measured on prismatic laminar Bunsen

  13. (pulsed laser deposition, PLD) (ultra-short pulsed laser deposition, uPLD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (ultra-short pulsed laser deposition, uPLD) PLD (Yttrium barium copper oxide , YBa2Cu3O7-, YBCO) YBCO-2-1 YBCO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ybco002.svg #12;3 1-3 (ultra-short pulsed laser #12;i #12;ii #12;iii #12;iv (pulsed laser deposition, PLD) PLD

  14. Ultra-low repetition rate mode-locked fiber laser with high-energy pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobtsev, Sergei M.

    to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators," Phys. Lett. A 372, 3124­3128 (2008). 5Ultra-low repetition rate mode-locked fiber laser with high-energy pulses Sergey Kobtsev* , Sergey Kukarin, Yurii Fedotov Laser Systems Laboratory, Novosibirsk State University,Pirigova 2, Novosibirsk

  15. Shock-wave generation in transparent media from ultra-fast lasers R. Bernath*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Shock-wave generation in transparent media from ultra-fast lasers R. Bernath*a , C. G. Browna , J a harmonic of the pump laser frequency. Experiments also include burst-mode operation, where a train of ultra. Aspiotisa , M. Fishera , & M. Richardsona a Laser Plasma Laboratory, College of Optics & Photonics: CREOL

  16. Secure key generation using an ultra-long fiber laser: transient analysis and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zadok, Avinoam

    Secure key generation using an ultra-long fiber laser: transient analysis and experiment Avi Zadok-optic components. In our Ultra-long Fiber Laser (UFL) system, each user places a randomly chosen, spectrally, based on establishing laser oscillation between two parties, which is realized using standard fiber

  17. Numerical modeling of fiber lasers with long and ultra-long ring cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    Numerical modeling of fiber lasers with long and ultra-long ring cavity I.A. Yarutkina,1,2, O. S. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, and Y. Fedotov, "Ultra-low repetition rate mode-locked fiber laser with high highlight two important aspects related to a mathematical modeling of pulsed fiber lasers with long

  18. Technical Reports Ultra-low Dose Lung CT Perfusion Regularized by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Technical Reports Ultra-low Dose Lung CT Perfusion Regularized by a Previous Scan1 Hengyong Yu, Ph­regularized reconstruction (PSRR) method was proposed to reduce radiation dose and applied to lung perfusion studies. Normal and ultra-low-dose lung computed tomographic perfusion studies were compared in terms of the estimation

  19. New application of the superthermal Ultra-Cold Neutron source. The search for the neutron electric dipole moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-321 New application of the superthermal Ultra-Cold Neutron source. I 2014 The search causes. Abstract. 2014 A superthermal Ultra-Cold Neutron source containing a dilute solution of polarized~'ments [1-3] have confirmed the principles of the superthermal source of Ultra- Cold Neutrons j4-6] it now

  20. A Novel Si-Tunnel FET based SRAM Design for Ultra Low-Power 0.3V VDD Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    A Novel Si-Tunnel FET based SRAM Design for Ultra Low-Power 0.3V VDD Applications J. Singh, K-Band Tunnel Field Effect Transistors (TFETs) in SRAMs at ultra low supply voltages. The uni design using Si- TFETs for reliable operation with low leakage at ultra low voltages. We also demonstrate

  1. Characterization of oxygen and nitrogen rapid thermal annealing processes for ultra-low-k SiCOH films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    Characterization of oxygen and nitrogen rapid thermal annealing processes for ultra-low-k Si is suggested and characterized in this work for improvement of SiCOH ultra-low-k (k 2.4) film properties. Low is decreased, and the ultra-low-k films (k

  2. Chair for Computer Networks and Internet -Universitt Tbingen 1 ffor an open source, ultra low delay audio coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carle, Georg

    an open source, ultra low delay audio coding Extending the packet loss concealment algorithm ITU G 711 A di 1 t f ll b d idthITU G.711 Appendix 1 to full bandwidth Comparing ultra low delay audio codecs SSummary Chair for Computer Networks and Internet - Universität Tübingen 2 #12;From speech to ultra-low

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 54, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2005 1623 An Ultra-Wideband Transceiver Architecture for Low

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Terms--Digital radio, impulse radio, low power, transceiver, ultra-wideband. I. INTRODUCTION.2005.854021 ultra-wideband signaling suitable for low power operation uses short pulses, on the orderIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 54, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2005 1623 An Ultra

  4. MAC Design for Supporting Ultra Low Duty Cycle in Wireless Sensor Networks1 *Wooguil PakO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    MAC Design for Supporting Ultra Low Duty Cycle in Wireless Sensor Networks1 *Wooguil PakO , *Hyuk.1%). Our proposed U-MAC (Ultra low duty cycle MAC) protocol targets achieving low energy consumption under. In this paper, we propose a new MAC algorithm called U-MAC (Ultra low duty cycle MAC) that works effectively

  5. Trading off Reliability and Power-Consumption in Ultra-Low Power Systems Atul Maheshwari, Wayne Burleson and Russell Tessier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tessier, Russell

    Trading off Reliability and Power-Consumption in Ultra-Low Power Systems Atul Maheshwari, Wayne but also for ultra-low power consumption due to limited battery life. This paper explores architecture (Binary and Gray) we show that temporal re- dundancy is best suited for these ultra-low power and low

  6. Modeling the ratios of SKKS and SKS amplitudes with ultra-low velocity zones at the core-mantle boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritsema, Jeroen

    Modeling the ratios of SKKS and SKS amplitudes with ultra-low velocity zones at the core of earthquakes in Indonesia. Modeling of SKKS/SKS indicate that Ultra-Low Velocity Zones (ULVZs), layers, and M. S. Thorne (2009), Modeling the ratios of SKKS and SKS amplitudes with ultra-low velocity zones

  7. Centralized route recovery based on multi-hop wakeup time estimation for wireless sensor networks with ultra low duty cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    with ultra low duty cycles Wooguil Pak, Saewoong Bahk Department of EECS & INMC, Seoul National University Keywords: Wireless sensor network Routing protocol Ultra low duty cycle Network lifetime Multi-hop wakeup time estimation to maximize the network lifetime of WSNs under ultra low duty cycles. It does not use

  8. Seismic structure and ultra-low velocity zones at the base of the Earth's mantle beneath Southeast Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Lianxing

    Seismic structure and ultra-low velocity zones at the base of the Earth's mantle beneath Southeast t We constrain seismic structure and ultra-low velocity zones near the Earth's core-mantle boundary that the strong scatterers represent ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs). We suggest that the seismic structure

  9. Ultra low resistance, non-alloyed ohmic contacts to n-InGaAs Ashish K. Baraskar1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    Ultra low resistance, non-alloyed ohmic contacts to n-InGaAs Ashish K. Baraskar1 , Mark A. Wistey1 and fmax [1], [2]. Here we report the ultra-low specific contact resistivity (c) of non-alloyed in duration. These data indicate that the in-situ Mo gives ultra low Ohmic contacts, probably due

  10. Title: The recollision model in ultra-short light fields Prof. H.W. van der Hart Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    advances in laser technology have enabled scientists to create ultra-short light pulses with a durationTitle: The recollision model in ultra-short light fields Prof. H.W. van der Hart Description Recent of the current questions in attosecond physics is the question of how ultra-short light pulses can be shaped

  11. Ultra-wide-tunable fibre source of femto-and picosecond pulses based on intracavity Raman conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobtsev, Sergei M.

    oscillator. However for ultra-short pulses fiber lasers it's a challenge due to following two reasons: - wavelength tuning of ultra-short pulses fiber lasers requires broad-band reflectors which was exotic until and investigation of a method for spectral tuning of ultra-short pulses Yb- based fiber laser as well as Raman

  12. Making Relativistic Positrons Using Ultra-Intense Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S; Bonlie, J; Chen, C; Chen, S; Cone, K; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Liang, E; Price, D; Van Maren, R; Meyerhofer, D D; Mithen, J; Murphy, C V; Myatt, J; Schneider, M; Shepherd, R; Stafford, D; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorfer, P

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a new positron source produced using ultra-intense short pulse lasers. Although it has been studied in theory since as early as the 1970s, the use of lasers as a valuable new positron source was not demonstrated experimentally until recent years, when the petawatt-class short pulse lasers were developed. In 2008 and 2009, in a series of experiments performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a large number of positrons were observed after shooting a millimeter thick solid gold target. Up to 2 x 10{sup 10} positrons per steradian ejected out the back of {approx}mm thick gold targets were detected. The targets were illuminated with short ({approx}1 ps) ultra-intense ({approx}1 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses. These positrons are produced predominantly by the Bethe-Heitler process, and have an effective temperature of 2-4 MeV, with the distribution peaking at 4-7 MeV. The angular distribution of the positrons is anisotropic. For a wide range of applications, this new laser based positron source with its unique characteristics may complements the existing sources using radioactive isotopes and accelerators.

  13. Ultra-Compact High-Efficiency Luminaire for General Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Lowes

    2012-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Cree has developed a new ultra-compact light emitting diode (LED) luminaire capable of providing high efficacy with excellent color quality that can lead to significant energy savings in todayâ??s commercial and retail applications. This success was based on an integrated development effort tailoring the LED component characteristics, optics, thermal management and driver design for the small footprint to achieve an overall system efficiency of â?¥ 70%. A new LED component was designed to provide high brightness and efficacy in a form factor that allowed for a small directional beam with a luminaire housing design able to dissipate the heat effectively using a small physical envelope. A very compact, 90% efficient driver was developed to meet the system performance while not taking away any thermal mass from the heat sink. A 91% efficient secondary optics was designed to maximize efficiency while providing a smooth beam. The reliability of the new LED component was robust under accelerated testing conditions. Luminaires were assembled integrating the novel LED component, secondary optics, heat sink and driver technology to demonstrate the system improvement. Cree has successfully completed this project by developing an ultra-compact LED luminaire that provided 380 lumens at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2822 K and color rendering index (CRI) of 94 with an efficacy of 94 lumens per watt (LPW) when operating at 4 W input power (steady state) with an overall system efficiency of 81%. At a higher input power of 9 Watts, the lamp provided 658 lumens at 71 LPW.

  14. Ultra High Energy Neutrino Signature in Top-Down Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Aloisio

    2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrinos are the best candidates to test the extreme Universe and ideas beyond the Standard Model of particle Physics. Once produced, neutrinos do not suffer any kind of attenuation by intervening radiation fields like the Cosmic Microwave Background and are not affected by magnetic fields. In this sense neutrinos are useful messengers from the far and young Universe. In the present paper we will discuss a particular class of sources of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays introduced to explain the possible excess of events with energy larger than the Graisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off. These sources, collectively called top-down, share a common feature: UHE particles are produced in the decay or annihilation of superheavy, exotic, particles. As we will review in the present paper, the largest fraction of Ultra High Energy particles produced in the top-down scenario are neutrinos. The study of these radiation offers us a unique opportunity to test the exotic mechanisms of the top-down scenario.

  15. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

  16. Progress in ultra high energy neutrino experiments using radio techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Jiali [Physics department, Kunming University, Kunming, 650214 (China); Tiedt, Douglas [Physics department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD, 57701-3995 (United States)

    2013-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Studying the source of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) can provide important clues on the understanding of UHE particle physics, astrophysics, and other extremely energetic phenomena in the universe. However, charged CR particles are deflected by magnetic fields and can not point back to the source. Furthermore, UHECR charged particles above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff (about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV) suffer severe energy loss due to the interaction with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR). Consequently almost all the information carried by CR particles about their origin is lost. Neutrinos, which are neutral particles and have extremely weak interactions with other materials can arrive at the earth without deflection and absorption. Therefore UHE neutrinos can be traced back to the place where they are produced. Due to their weak interaction and ultra high energies (thus extremely low flux) the detection of UHE neutrinos requires a large collecting area and massive amounts of material. Cherenkov detection at radio frequency, which has long attenuation lengths and can travel freely in natural dense medium (ice, rock and salt et al), can fulfill the detection requirement. Many UHE neutrino experiments are being performed by radio techniques using natural ice, lunar, and salt as detection mediums. These experiments have obtained much data about radio production, propagation and detection, and the upper limit of UHE neutrino flux.

  17. Ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goerz, David A. (Brentwood, CA); Wilson, Michael J. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator includes individual high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. In one embodiment, a repetitively-switched, ultra-compact Marx generator includes low-profile, annular-shaped, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors with contoured edges and coplanar extended electrodes used for primary energy storage; low-profile, low-inductance, high-voltage, pressurized gas switches with compact gas envelopes suitably designed to be integrated with the annular capacitors; feed-forward, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors attached across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to couple the necessary energy forward to sufficiently overvoltage the spark gap of the next in-line switch; optimally shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces to reduce electric field stresses in the weakest regions where dissimilar materials meet, and to spread the fields more evenly throughout the dielectric materials, allowing them to operate closer to their intrinsic breakdown levels; and uses manufacturing and assembly methods to integrate the capacitors and switches into stages that can be arranged into a low-profile Marx generator.

  18. Design Considerations for Large Mass Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary The objective of this document is to present the designers of the next generation of large-mass, ultra-low background experiments with lessons learned and design strategies from previous experimental work. Design issues divided by topic into mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements are addressed. Large mass low-background experiments have been recognized by the scientific community as appropriate tools to aid in the refinement of the standard model. The design of these experiments is very costly and a rigorous engineering review is required for their success. The extreme conditions that the components of the experiment must withstand (heavy shielding, vacuum/pressure and temperature gradients), in combination with unprecedented noise levels, necessitate engineering guidance to support quality construction and safe operating conditions. Physical properties and analytical results of typical construction materials are presented. Design considerations for achieving ultra-low-noise data acquisition systems are addressed. Five large-mass, low-background conceptual designs for the one-tonne scale germanium experiment are proposed and analyzed. The result is a series of recommendations for future experiments engineering and for the Majorana simulation task group to evaluate the different design approaches.

  19. Non-filamentated ultra-intense and ultra-short pulse fronts in three-dimensional Raman seed amplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses may be generated up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime due to parametric processes in plasmas. The minimization of unwanted plasma processes leads to operational limits which are discussed here with respect to filamentation. Transverse filamentation, which originally was derived for plane waves, is being investigated for seed pulse propagation in the so called ?-pulse limit. A three-dimensional (3D) three-wave-interaction model is the basis of the present investigation. To demonstrate the applicability of the three-wave-interaction model, the 1D pulse forms are compared with those obtained from 1D particle in cell and Vlasov simulations. Although wave-breaking may occur, the kinetic simulations show that the leading pumped pulse develops a form similar to that obtained from the three-wave-interaction model. In the main part, 2D and 3D filamentation processes of (localized) pulses are investigated with the three-wave-interaction model. It is shown that the leading pulse front can stay filamentation-free, whereas the rear parts show transverse modulations.

  20. CRYOGENIC 1.5-4.5 GHz ULTRA LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER Niklas Wadefalk*, Anders Mellberg, Iltcho Angelov, Emmanuil Choumas**, Erik Kollberg,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CRYOGENIC 1.5-4.5 GHz ULTRA LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER Niklas Wadefalk*, Anders Mellberg, Iltcho Angelov amplifiers with ultra-low noise and very low DC power dissipation. Amplifiers with ultra- low noise and low.5-4.5 GHz ULTRA LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER Niklas Wadefalk, Anders Mellberg, Iltcho Angelov, Emmanuil Choumas, Erik

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 51, NO. 6, JUNE 2003 1705 Cryogenic Wide-Band Ultra-Low-Noise IF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Band Ultra-Low-Noise IF Amplifiers Operating at Ultra-Low DC Power Niklas Wadefalk, Anders Mellberg, Iltcho Identifier 10.1109/TMTT.2003.812570 ultra-low-noise and ultra-low dc power dissipation are of interest--This paper describes cryogenic broad-band ampli- fiers with very low power consumption and very low noise

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--II: EXPRESS BRIEFS, VOL. 59, NO. 4, APRIL 2012 193 Universal Principles for Ultra Low Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    Universal Principles for Ultra Low Power and Energy Efficient Design Rahul Sarpeshkar, Senior Member, IEEE

  3. March 10, 2011 / Vol. 9, No. 3 / CHINESE OPTICS LETTERS 033201-1 Analysis of ultra-short pulse shaping with programmable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavehrad, Mohsen

    .033201. Ultra-short pulsed lasers have recently been considered for optical wireless communications and ultra a train of ultra-short pulses at a repetition rate, fr, which is determined by the laser cavity lengthMarch 10, 2011 / Vol. 9, No. 3 / CHINESE OPTICS LETTERS 033201-1 Analysis of ultra-short pulse

  4. Calibrated Ultra Fast Image Simulations for the Dark Energy Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruderer, Claudio; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam; Berge, Joel; Gamper, Lukas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Weak lensing by large-scale structure is a powerful technique to probe the dark components of the universe. To understand the measurement process of weak lensing and the associated systematic effects, image simulations are becoming increasingly important. For this purpose we present a first implementation of the $\\textit{Monte Carlo Control Loops}$ ($\\textit{MCCL}$; Refregier & Amara 2014), a coherent framework for studying systematic effects in weak lensing. It allows us to model and calibrate the shear measurement process using image simulations from the Ultra Fast Image Generator (UFig; Berge et al. 2013). We apply this framework to a subset of the data taken during the Science Verification period (SV) of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We calibrate the UFig simulations to be statistically consistent with DES images. We then perform tolerance analyses by perturbing the simulation parameters and study their impact on the shear measurement at the one-point level. This allows us to determine the relative im...

  5. Plans for an Ultra Cold Neutron source at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seestrom, S.J.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Greene, G.L.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) can be produced at spallation sources using a variety of techniques. To date the technique used has been to Bragg scatter and Doppler shift cold neutrons into UCN from a moving crystal. This is particularly applicable to short-pulse spallation sources. We are presently constructing a UCN source at LANSCE using this method. In addition, large gains in UCN density should be possible using cryogenic UCN sources. Research is under way at Gatchina to demonstrate technical feasibility of a frozen deuterium source. If successful, a source of this type could be implemented at future spallation source, such as the long pulse source being planned at Los Alamos, with a UCN density that may be two orders of magnitude higher than that presently available at reactors.

  6. Development of an ultra cold neutron source at MLNSC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seestrom, S.J.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Greene, G.L.; Morris, C.L.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) can be produced at spallation sources using a variety of techniques. To date the technique used has been to Bragg scatter and Doppler shift cold neutrons into UCN from a moving crystal. This is particularly applicable to short-pulse spallation sources. We are presently constructing a UCN source at LANSCE using this method. In addition, large gains in UCN density should be possible using cryogenic UCN sources. Research is under way at Gatchina to demonstrate technical feasibility of a frozen deuterium source. If successful, a source of this type could be implemented at future spallation sources, such as the long pulse source being planned at Los Alamos, with a UCN density that may be two orders of magnitude higher than that presently available at reactors.

  7. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Husky{trademark} is an ultra high pressure waterjet cutting tool system. The pump is mounted on a steel tube frame which includes slots for transport by a forklift. The Husky{trademark} features an automatic shutdown for several conditions such as low oil pressure and high oil temperature. Placement of the Husky{trademark} must allow for a three foot clearance on all sides for operation and service access. At maximum continuous operation, the output volume is 7.2 gallons per minute with an output pressure of 40,000 psi. A diesel engine provides power for the system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  8. Ultra high energy cosmic rays from cosmological relics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Berezinsky

    1998-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) can be a signal from very early (post-inflationary) Universe. At this cosmological epoch Topological Defects (TD) and long-lived suprheavy (SH) particles are expected to be naturally and effectively produced. Both of these relics can produce now the particles, such as protons and photons, with energies in a great excess of what is observed in UHECR, $E \\sim 10^{10} - 10^{11} GeV$. The Topological Defects as the UHECR sources are critically reviewed and cosmic necklaces and monopolonia are identified as most plausible sources. The relic superheavy particles and monopolonia are shown to be clustering in the halo of our Galaxy and their decays produce UHECR without the GZK cutoff. The observational signature of both models are discussed.

  9. Ultra-low density microcellular polymer foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.

    1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-low density, microcellular open-celled polymer foam and a method for making such foam are disclosed. A polymer is dissolved in a heated solution consisting essentially of at least one solvent for the dissolution of the polymer in the heated solution and the phase inversion of the dissolved polymer to a liquid gel upon sufficient cooling of the heated solution. The heated solution is contained in a containment means provided with a nucleating promoting means having a relatively rough surface formed of fixed nucleating sites. The heated solution is cooled for a period of time sufficient to form a liquid gel of the polymer by phase inversion. From the gel, a porous foam having a density of less than about 12.0 mg/cm{sup 3} and open porosity provided by well interconnected strut morphology is formed.

  10. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna.

  11. Ultra-Low Amplitude Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Robert Buchler; Peter R. Wood; Stefan Keller; Igor Soszynski

    2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The MACHO variables of LMC Field 77 that lie in the vicinity of the Cepheid instability strip are reexamined. Among the 144 variables that we identify as Cepheids we find 14 that have Fourier amplitudes ultra-low amplitude (ULA) Cepheids. The variability of these objects is verified by a comparison of the MACHO red with the MACHO blue lightcurves and with those of the corresponding OGLE LMC stars. The occurrence of ULA Cepheids is in agreement with theory. We have also discovered 2 low amplitude variables whose periods are about a factor of 5--6 smaller than those of F Cepheids of equal apparent magnitude. We suggest that these objects are Cepheids undergoing pulsations in a surface mode and that they belong to a novel class of Strange Cepheids (or Surface Mode Cepheids) whose existence was predicted by Buchler et al. (1997).

  12. Demonstration of Ultra Low Dissipation Optomechanical Resonators on a Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Anetsberger; R. Rivière; A. Schliesser; O. Arcizet; T. J. Kippenberg

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Cavity-enhanced radiation-pressure coupling of optical and mechanical degrees of freedom gives rise to a range of optomechanical phenomena, in particular providing a route to the quantum regime of mesoscopic mechanical oscillators. A prime challenge in cavity optomechanics has however been to realize systems which simultaneously maximize optical finesse and mechanical quality. Here we demonstrate for the first time independent control over both mechanical and optical degree of freedom within one and the same on-chip resonator. The first direct observation of mechanical normal mode coupling in a micromechanical system allows for a quantitative understanding of mechanical dissipation. Subsequent optimization of the resonator geometry enables intrinsic material loss limited mechanical Q-factors, rivalling the best values reported in the high MHz frequency range, while simultaneously preserving the resonators' ultra-high optical finesse. Besides manifesting a complete understanding of mechanical dissipation in microresonator based optomechanical systems, our results provide an ideal setting for cavity optomechanics.

  13. Ultra-low density microcellular polymer foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-low density, microcellular open-celled polymer foam and a method for making such foam. A polymer is dissolved in a heated solution consisting essentially of at least one solvent for the dissolution of the polymer in the heated solution and the phase inversion of the dissolved polymer to a liquid gel upon sufficient cooling of the heated solution. The heated solution is contained in a containment means provided with a nucleating promoting means having a relatively rough surface formed of fixed nucleating sites. The heated solution is cooled for a period of time sufficient to form a liquid gel of the polymer by phase inversion. From the gel, a porous foam having a density of less than about 12.0 mg/cm.sup.3 and open porosity provided by well interconnected strut morphology is formed.

  14. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna. 8 figs.

  15. Propagation of ultra-short solitons in stochastic Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt, Levent, E-mail: LKurt@gc.cuny.edu [Department of Science, Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, New York, New York 10007 (United States)] [Department of Science, Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, New York, New York 10007 (United States); Schäfer, Tobias [Department of Mathematics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, New York 10314 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, New York 10314 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the propagation of ultra-short short solitons in a cubic nonlinear medium modeled by nonlinear Maxwell's equations with stochastic variations of media. We consider three cases: variations of (a) the dispersion, (b) the phase velocity, (c) the nonlinear coefficient. Using a modified multi-scale expansion for stochastic systems, we derive new stochastic generalizations of the short pulse equation that approximate the solutions of stochastic nonlinear Maxwell's equations. Numerical simulations show that soliton solutions of the short pulse equation propagate stably in stochastic nonlinear Maxwell's equations and that the generalized stochastic short pulse equations approximate the solutions to the stochastic Maxwell's equations over the distances under consideration. This holds for both a pathwise comparison of the stochastic equations as well as for a comparison of the resulting probability densities.

  16. Vacuum fluctuation forces between ultra-thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Benassi; Carlo Calandra

    2008-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the role of the quantum size effects in the evaluation of the force caused by electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations between ultra-thin films, using the dielectric tensor derived from the particle in a box model. Comparison with the results obtained by adopting a continuum dielectric model shows that, for film thicknesses of 1-10 nm, the electron confinement causes changes in the force intensity with respect to the isotropic plasma model which range from 40% to few percent depending upon the film electron density and the film separation. The calculated force shows quantum size oscillations, which can be significant for film separation distances of several nanometers. The role of electron confinement in reducing the large distance Casimir force is discussed.

  17. Ultra-Accelerated Natural Sunlight Exposure Testing Facilities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO)

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS onto a secondary reflector that delivers a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in a chamber that provide concurrent levels of temperature and/or relative humidity at high levels of up to 100.times. of natural sunlight that allow sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a significant period of time of about 3 to 10 days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth representative weathering of sample materials.

  18. Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing facilities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewandowski, Allan A.; Jorgensen, Gary J.

    2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS to deliver a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in chamber means that provide concurrent levels of temperature and/or relative humidity at high levels of up to 100.times. of natural sunlight that allow sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a significant period of time of about 3 to 10 days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth representative weathering of sample materials.

  19. Ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate and identify materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraus, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Matlashov, Andrei N. (Los Alamos, NM); Espy, Michelle A. (Los Alamos, NM); Volegov, Petr L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-low magnetic field NMR system can non-invasively examine containers. Database matching techniques can then identify hazardous materials within the containers. Ultra-low field NMR systems are ideal for this purpose because they do not require large powerful magnets and because they can examine materials enclosed in conductive shells such as lead shells. The NMR examination technique can be combined with ultra-low field NMR imaging, where an NMR image is obtained and analyzed to identify target volumes. Spatial sensitivity encoding can also be used to identify target volumes. After the target volumes are identified the NMR measurement technique can be used to identify their contents.

  20. Abstract--A silicon-based photodiode technology has been successfully implemented by using surface reaction doping from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    -quality p+ surface active layers for radiation detection in deep/extreme-ultra-violet (DUV/EUV) spectral-of-the-art detector technology, these devices are suitable candidates for radiation detection in next. INTRODUCTION N recent years, a growing interest in ultra-violet (UV) radiation detection at wavelengths between

  1. Photothermal nano-cavities for ultra-sensitive chem-bio detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Juejun

    Nano-cavity photothermal spectroscopy is a novel technique for ultra-sensitive chem-bio detection. We illustrate that through simultaneous localization of optical and thermal interactions in a planar nano-cavity, detection ...

  2. Bimodal solar system based on a ultra-high-temperature TEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogloblin, B.G.; Kirillov, E.Y.; Klimov, A.V.; Shalaev, A.I.; Shumov, D.P. [Central Design Bureau of Machine Building, Krasnogvardeyskaya Square 3, St. Petersburg, (Russia) 195272; Ender, A.Y.; Kuznetsov, V.I.; Sitnov, V.I. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya St. 26, St. Petersburg, (Russia) 194021

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper considers an ecological, solar, bimodal system with ultra-high temperature thermionic energy converter (TEC). The solar bimodal Space Electric Propulsion System (SEPS) characteristics are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Nuclear astrophysics studies with ultra-peripheral heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Bertulani

    2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    I describe in very simple terms the theoretical tools needed to investigate ultra-peripheral nuclear reactions for nuclear astrophysics purposes. For a more detailed account, see arXiv:0908.4307.

  4. An ultra-compact and efficient Li-ion battery charger circuit for biomedical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do Valle, Bruno Guimaraes

    This paper describes an ultra-compact analog lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery charger for wirelessly powered implantable medical devices. The charger presented here takes advantage of the tanh output current profile of an ...

  5. Ultra-Shallow Imaging Using 2D & 3D Seismic Reflection Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Steven D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the survey design, acquisition, processing, and interpretation of ultra-shallow seismic reflection (USR) data in two and three dimensions. The application of 3D USR ...

  6. Multiscale Metrology and Optimization of Ultra-Scaled InAs Quantum Well FETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharche, Neerav

    A simulation methodology for ultra-scaled InAs quantum well field-effect transistors (QWFETs) is presented and used to provide design guidelines and a path to improve device performance. A multiscale modeling approach is ...

  7. Infrastructure to support ultra high throughput biodosimetry screening after a radiological event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    GUY GARTY1 , ANDREW KARAM2 , & DAVID J. BRENNER3 1 Radiological Research Accelerator Facility, Radiological Research Accelerator Facility, Nevis Laboratories, Columbia UniverInfrastructure to support ultra high throughput biodosimetry screening after a radiological event

  8. Low-Cycle Fatigue of Ultra-Fine-Grained Cryomilled 5083 Aluminum Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walley, J. L.; Lavernia, E. J.; Gibeling, J. C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an Ultra-Fine Grained Aluminum Alloy, Poster Session, TMS,with other MA aluminum alloys and is attributed to theGrained Cryomilled 5083 Aluminum Alloy J.L. WALLEY, E.J.

  9. Press and Dryer Roll Surgaces and Web Transfer Systems for Ultra High Paper Maching Speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. F. Patterson

    2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project was to provide fundamental knowledge and diagnostic tools needed to design new technologies that will allow ultra high speed web transfer from press rolls and dryer cylinders.

  10. Electromagnetically-driven ultra-fast tool servos for diamond turning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaodong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the design, implementation, and control of a new class of fast tool servos (FTS). The primary thesis contributions include the design and experimental demonstration of: novel ultra-fast electromagnetic ...

  11. Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery Technology (October 2012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    East Penn Manufacturing, through its subsidary Ecoult, has designed and constructed an energy storage facility consisting of an array of UltraBattery modules integrated in a turnkey battery energy...

  12. Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-ray Inelastic Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voronov, Dmitry L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    16. Yu. Shvyd’ko, X-Ray Optics, Berlin: Springer-Verlag,Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-rayspectral resolution soft x-ray optics. Conventionally in the

  13. Development of an electronically tunable ultra-wideband radar imaging sensor and its components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jeongwoo

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel microwave transmitter and receiver circuits have been developed for implementing UWB (Ultra-Wideband) impulse radar imaging sensor operating in frequency band 0.2 to 4 GHz. with tunable operating frequency band. The fundamental system design...

  14. Practical limitations of single-span ultra-high performance concrete beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrams, Daniel Scott

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its development in the early 1970's, researchers have continued to push the limits of concrete mixtures through the creation of ultra-high performance concretes. The use of this class of materials has allowed designers ...

  15. Laboratory Test Report for ThermaStor Ultra-Aire XT150H Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, D.; Winkler, J.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the performance of the ThermaStor Ultra-Aire XT150H Dehumidifier. Its performance was measured across a wide range of inlet air conditions and fit to a numerical model.

  16. Well Performance Analysis for Low to Ultra-low Permeability Reservoir Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilk, Dilhan

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    to evaluate well performance in unconventional (i.e., low to ultra-low permeability) reservoir systems. The specific tasks achieved in this work include the following: ? Integrated Diagnostics and Analysis of Production Data in Unconventional Reservoirs: We...

  17. Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation demonstrates how nano-array catalysts have excellent robustness, use ultra-low amounts of PGM, and can be tuned for optimum performance. deer12guo.pdf More...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Next-generation Ultra-Lean Burn Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by MAHLE Powertrain LLC at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about next-generation ultra...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Next-Generation Ultra Lean Burn Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by MAHLE Powertrain, LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about next-generation ultra...

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of ultra-low sulfur jet fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, Stephen (Stephen Richard)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of aviation has spurred increased study of its environmental impacts and the possible mitigation thereof. One emissions reduction option is the introduction of an Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) jet fuel standard for ...

  1. Robust range-based localization and motion planning under uncertainty using ultra-wideband radio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentice, Samuel J. (Samuel James)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work presented in this thesis addresses two problems: accurately localizing a mobile robot using ultra-wideband (UWB) radio signals in GPS-denied environments; and planning robot trajectories that incorporate belief ...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Ultra Efficient Light Duty Powertrain with Gasoline Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Delphi Powertrain at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about ultra efficient light duty...

  3. PEM fuel cellstack development based on membrane-electrode assemblies of ultra-low platinum loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attempt is made to scale-up single cell technology, based on ultra-low platinum loadings, to develop a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack for stationary power generation.

  4. An energy efficient sub-threshold baseband processor architecture for pulsed ultra-wideband communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sze, Vivienne

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) communications is currently being explored as a medium for high-data-rate last-meter wireless links. Accordingly, there has been much interest in integrating UWB radios onto battery-operated devices, ...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Thermally Stable Ultra-Low Temperature Oxidation Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by [company name] at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermally stable ultra-low...

  6. ORNL/TM-2000/191 ULTRA-CLEAN DIESEL FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORNL/TM-2000/191 ULTRA-CLEAN DIESEL FUEL: U.S. PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION CAPABILITY G.R. Hadder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. CURRENT DIESEL FUEL MARKET STRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. SMALL MARKET: LIGHT DUTY DIESEL FUEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3

  7. Quantum Cattaneo wave equation for ultra-short laser pulses interaction with electron and nucleon gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marciak-Kozlowska, J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the quantum Cattaneo wave equation for ultra-short laser pulses interaction with medium is obtained . The explicit formulae for electron and nucleon gases are presented

  8. Ultra-rapid laser protein micropatterning: screening for directed polarization of single neurons{{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    Ultra-rapid laser protein micropatterning: screening for directed polarization of single neurons the effects of extracellular signals on cell development and regeneration. Laser micropatterning of proteins gradients. Despite these advantages, laser micropatterning remains prohibitively slow for most applications

  9. Quantum Cattaneo wave equation for ultra-short laser pulses interaction with electron and nucleon gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J Marciak-Kozlowska; Miroslaw Kozlowski

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the quantum Cattaneo wave equation for ultra-short laser pulses interaction with medium is obtained . The explicit formulae for electron and nucleon gases are presented

  10. Low-Cycle Fatigue of Ultra-Fine-Grained Cryomilled 5083 Aluminum Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walley, J. L.; Lavernia, E. J.; Gibeling, J. C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of an Ultra-Fine Grained Aluminum Alloy, Poster Session,Grained Cryomilled 5083 Aluminum Alloy J.L. WALLEY, E.J.consistent with other MA aluminum alloys and is attributed

  11. Mechanical Flow Response and Anisotropy of Ultra-Fine Grained Magnesium and Zinc Alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Maharbi, Majid H.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    MECHANICAL FLOW RESPONSE AND ANISOTROPY IN ULTRA-FINE GRAINED MAGNESIUM AND ZINC ALLOYS A Dissertation by MAJID AL MAHARBI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2009 Major Subject: Materials Science and Engineering MECHANICAL FLOW RESPONSE AND ANISOTROPY IN ULTRA-FINE GRAINED MAGNESIUM AND ZINC ALLOYS A Dissertation by MAJID AL...

  12. Ultra-low power, Zeno effect based optical modulation in a degenerate V-system with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahriar, Selim

    Ultra-low power, Zeno effect based optical modulation in a degenerate V-system with a tapered nano@northwestern.edu Abstract: We demonstrate an ultra-low light level optical modulator using a tapered nano fiber embedded. For a control power of 40 nW and a signal power of 100 pW, we observe near 100% modulation. The ultra-low power

  13. Ultra-high-energy debris from the collisional Penrose process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emanuele Berti; Richard Brito; Vitor Cardoso

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Soon after the discovery of the Kerr metric, Penrose realized that superradiance can be exploited to extract energy from black holes. The original idea (involving the breakup of a single particle) yields only modest energy gains. A variant of the Penrose process consists of particle collisions in the ergoregion. The collisional Penrose process has been explored recently in the context of dark matter searches, with the conclusion that the ratio $\\eta$ between the energy of post-collision particles detected at infinity and the energy of the colliding particles should be modest ($\\eta \\lesssim 1.5$). Schnittman has shown that these studies underestimated the maximum efficiency by about one order of magnitude (i.e., $\\eta \\lesssim 15$). In this work we reach an even more striking conclusion: particle collisions in the vicinity of rapidly rotating black holes can result in arbitrarily high efficiencies. The astrophysical likelihood of these events deserves further scrutiny, but our study hints at the tantalizing possibility that the collisional Penrose process may power gamma rays and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  14. Method and system for ultra-precision positioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Locke, Stanley F.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for ultra-precision positioning. A slide base provides a foundational support. A slide plate moves with respect to the slide base along a first geometric axis. Either a ball-screw or a piezoelectric actuator working separate or in conjunction displaces the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis. A linking device directs a primary force vector into a center-line of the ball-screw. The linking device consists of a first link which directs a first portion of the primary force vector to an apex point, located along the center-line of the ball-screw, and a second link for directing a second portion of the primary force vector to the apex point. A set of rails, oriented substantially parallel to the center-line of the ball-screw, direct movement of the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis and are positioned such that the apex point falls within a geometric plane formed by the rails. The slide base, the slide plate, the ball-screw, and the linking device together form a slide assembly. Multiple slide assemblies can be distributed about a platform. In such a configuration, the platform may be raised and lowered, or tipped and tilted by jointly or independently displacing the slide plates.

  15. Coupling of (ultra-) relativistic atomic nuclei with photons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apostol, M. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele-Bucharest 077125, MG-6, POBox MG-35 (Romania)] [Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele-Bucharest 077125, MG-6, POBox MG-35 (Romania); Ganciu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele-Bucharest 077125, POBox MG-36 (Romania)] [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele-Bucharest 077125, POBox MG-36 (Romania)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The coupling of photons with (ultra-) relativistic atomic nuclei is presented in two particular circumstances: very high electromagnetic fields and very short photon pulses. We consider a typical situation where the (bare) nuclei (fully stripped of electrons) are accelerated to energies ? 1 TeV per nucleon (according to the state of the art at LHC, for instance) and photon sources like petawatt lasers ? 1 eV-radiation (envisaged by ELI-NP project, for instance), or free-electron laser ? 10 keV-radiation, or synchrotron sources, etc. In these circumstances the nuclear scale energy can be attained, with very high field intensities. In particular, we analyze the nuclear transitions induced by the radiation, including both one- and two-photon proceses, as well as the polarization-driven transitions which may lead to giant dipole resonances. The nuclear (electrical) polarization concept is introduced. It is shown that the perturbation theory for photo-nuclear reactions is applicable, although the field intensity is high, since the corresponding interaction energy is low and the interaction time (pulse duration) is short. It is also shown that the description of the giant nuclear dipole resonance requires the dynamics of the nuclear electrical polarization degrees of freedom.

  16. Extension - Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for cost effective technologies for upgrading coal mine methane to pipeline quality natural gas is becoming ever greater. The current work presents and investigates a new approach to reduce the impact of the most costly step in the conventional technology, nitrogen rejection. The proposed approach is based on the Velocys microchannel platform, which is being developed to commercialize compact and cost efficient chemical processing technology. For this separation, ultra fast thermal swing sorption is enabled by the very high rates of heat and mass transfer inherent in microchannel processing. In a first phase of the project solid adsorbents were explored. Feasibility of ultrafast thermal swing was demonstrated but the available adsorbents had insufficient differential methane capacity to achieve the required commercial economics. In a second phase, ionic liquids were adopted as absorbents of choice, and experimental work and economic analyses, performed to gauge their potential, showed promise for this novel alternative. Final conclusions suggest that a combination of a required cost target for ionic liquids or a methane capacity increase or a combination of both is required for commercialization.

  17. Ultra-wideband VHF SAR -- Design and measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellsten, H.; Froelind, P.O.; Gustavsson, A.; Jonsson, T.; Larsson, B.; Stenstroem, G. [National Defense Research Establishment, Linkoeping (Sweden); Binder, B.T.; Mirkin, M.; Ayasli, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    CARABAS, an acronym for ``Coherent All Radio Band Sensing``, is an airborne, horizontal-polarization SAR operating across the frequency band 20--90 MHz, conceived, designed and built by FOA in Sweden. The original motivation for designing such a low frequency system was that a large relative or fractional bandwidth could be achieved at low frequencies. For reasons to be explained, a large fractional bandwidth was considered to be of potential benefit for radar detection in severe clutter environments. A feasibility study of a short wave ultra-wideband radar started at FOA in 1985. Actual construction of the CARABAS system commenced 1987, aircraft integration took place during 1991 and the first radar tests were conducted in early 1992. From the fall of 1992 onwards, field campaigns and evaluation studies have been conducted as a joint effort between FOA and MIT Lincoln Laboratory in the US. This article will focus on experiences concerning foliage penetration with the system. First the authors touch upon the CARABAS system characteristics, outline the arguments behind a large-fractional-bandwidth VHF-band SAR approach to foliage penetration, and finally present some early experimental results. The authors refer to other papers, for a fuller explanation of the system, for more details of image calibration and for results concerning underground imaging.

  18. Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk,

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  19. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories and Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems, Unmanned Systems (NGIS UMS) collaborated to further ultra-persistence technologies for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The greatest shortfalls in UAV capabilities have been repeatedly identified as (1) insufficient flight persistence or 'hang time,' (2) marginal electrical power for running higher power avionics and payload systems, and (3) inadequate communications bandwidth and reach. NGIS UMS requested support from Sandia to develop an ultra-persistent propulsion and power system (UP3S) for potential incorporation into next generation UAV systems. The team members tried to determine which energy storage and power generation concepts could most effectively push UAV propulsion and electrical power capabilities to increase UAV sortie duration from days to months while increasing available electrical power at least two-fold. Primary research and development areas that were pursued included these goals: perform general system engineering and integration analyses; develop initial thermal and electrical power estimates; provide mass, volume, dimensional, and balance estimates; conduct preliminary safety assessments; assess logistics support requirements; perform, preliminary assessments of any security and safeguards; evaluate options for removal, replacement, and disposition of materials; generally advance the potential of the UP3S concept. The effort contrasted and compared eight heat sources technologies, three power conversion, two dual cycle propulsion system configurations, and a single electrical power generation scheme. Overall performance, specific power parameters, technical complexities, security, safety, and other operational features were successfully investigated. Large and medium sized UAV systems were envisioned and operational flight profiles were developed for each concept. Heat source creation and support challenges for domestic and expeditionary operations were considered. Fundamental cost driver analysis was also performed. System development plans were drafted in order to determine where the technological and programmatic critical paths lay. As a result of this effort, UAVs were to be able to provide far more surveillance time and intelligence information per mission while reducing the high cost of support activities. This technology was intended to create unmatched global capabilities to observe and preempt terrorist and weapon of mass destruction (WMD) activities. Various DOE laboratory and contractor personnel and facilities could have been used to perform detailed engineering, fabrication, assembly and test operations including follow-on operational support. Unfortunately, none of the results will be used in the near-term or mid-term future. NGIS UMS and SNL felt that the technical goals for the project were accomplished. NGIS UMS was quite pleased with the results of analysis and design although it was disappointing to all that the political realities would not allow use of the results. Technology and system designs evaluated under this CRADA had previously never been applied to unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Based upon logistic support cost predictions, because the UAVs would not have had to refuel as often, forward basing support costs could have been reduced due to a decrease in the number and extent of support systems and personnel being required to operate UAVs in remote areas. Basic application of the advanced propulsion and power approach is well understood and industry now understands the technical, safety, and political issues surrounding implementation of these strategies. However, the overall economic impact was not investigated. The results will not be applied/implemented. No near-term benefit to industry or the taxpayer will be encountered as a result of these studies.

  20. Advanced Ultra-High Speed Motor for Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Impact Technologies LLC; University of Texas at Arlington

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three (3) designs have been made for two sizes, 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) and 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) outer diameters, of a patented inverted configured Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) electric motor specifically for drilling at ultra-high rotational speeds (10,000 rpm) and that can utilize advanced drilling methods. Benefits of these motors are stackable power sections, full control (speed and direction) of downhole motors, flow hydraulics independent of motor operation, application of advanced drilling methods (water jetting and abrasive slurry jetting), and the ability of signal/power electric wires through motor(s). Key features of the final designed motors are: fixed non-rotating shaft with stator coils attached; rotating housing with permanent magnet (PM) rotor attached; bit attached to rotating housing; internal channel(s) in a nonrotating shaft; electric components that are hydrostatically isolated from high internal pressure circulating fluids ('muds') by static metal to metal seals; liquid filled motor with smoothed features for minimized turbulence in the motor during operation; and new inverted coated metal-metal hydrodynamic bearings and seals. PMSM, Induction and Switched Reluctance Machines (SRM), all pulse modulated, were considered, but PMSM were determined to provide the highest power density for the shortest motors. Both radial and axial electric PMSM driven motors were designed with axial designs deemed more rugged for ultra-high speed, drilling applications. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD axial inverted motor can generate 4.18KW (5.61 Hp) power at 10,000 rpm with a 4 Nm (2.95 ft-lbs) of torque for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 5.03 KW (6.74 Hp) with 4.8 Nm (3.54 ft-lb) torque at 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 2.56 KW (3.43 Hp) power with 2.44 Nm (1.8 ft-lb) torque at full speed 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. Operating conditions are 300 voltage AC at the motor leads. Power voltage losses in the cables/wirelines to the motor(s) are expected to be about 10% for 5000 feet carrying 2 amperes. Higher voltages and better insulators can lower these losses and carry more amperes. Cutting elements for such high tip velocities are currently not available, consequently these motors will not be built at this time. However, 7.62 cm (3 inch) OD, low speed, PMSM radial electric motors based on this project design are being built under a 2006 Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology 'proof of concept' grant.

  1. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  2. Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

  3. Ultra-high speed vacuum pump system with first stage turbofan and second stage turbomolecular pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jostlein, Hans

    2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-high speed vacuum pump evacuation system includes a first stage ultra-high speed turbofan and a second stage conventional turbomolecular pump. The turbofan is either connected in series to a chamber to be evacuated, or is optionally disposed entirely within the chamber. The turbofan employs large diameter rotor blades operating at high linear blade velocity to impart an ultra-high pumping speed to a fluid. The second stage turbomolecular pump is fluidly connected downstream from the first stage turbofan. In operation, the first stage turbofan operates in a pre-existing vacuum, with the fluid asserting only small axial forces upon the rotor blades. The turbofan imparts a velocity to fluid particles towards an outlet at a high volume rate, but moderate compression ratio. The second stage conventional turbomolecular pump then compresses the fluid to pressures for evacuation by a roughing pump.

  4. Proton radiography of magnetic field produced by ultra-intense laser irradiating capacity-coil target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, W W; Chen, J; Cai, H B; He, S K; Zhou, W M; Shan, L Q; Lu, F; Wu, Y C; Hong, W; Liu, D X; Bi, B; Zhang, F; Xue, F B; Li, B Y; Zhang, B; He, Y L; He, W; Jiao, J L; Dong, K G; Zhang, F Q; Deng, Z G; Zhang, Z M; Cui, B; Han, D; Zhou, K N; Wang, X D; Zhao, Z Q; Cao, L F; Zhang, B H; He, X T; Gu, Y Q

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-intense ultra-short laser is firstly used to irradiate the capacity-coil target to generate magnetic field. The spatial structure and temporal evolution of huge magnetic fields were studied with time-gated proton radiography method. A magnetic flux density of 40T was measured by comparing the proton deflection and particle track simulations. Although the laser pulse duration is only 30fs, the generated magnetic field can last for over 100 picoseconds. The energy conversion efficiency from laser to magnetic field can reach as high as ~20%. The results indicate that tens of tesla (T) magnetic field could be produced in many ultra intense laser facilities around the world, and higher magnetic field could be produced by picosecond lasers.

  5. 9/2/08 9:42 AMRice professor: Granite countertops may cause you harm | Chron.com -Houston Chronicle Page 1 of 3http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/moms/5908630.html

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llope, William J.

    9/2/08 9:42 AMRice professor: Granite countertops may cause you harm | Chron.com - Houston Be wary of granite that glows Rice professor says countertops may be tainted with uranium By ALLAN TURNER. Some granite countertops, he says, contain high levels of uranium, which, by generating gamma radiation

  6. Hierarchical object-based classification of ultra-high-resolution digital mapping camera (DMC) imagery for rangeland mapping and assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and is in the process of changing from film to digital aerial image acquisition. Cur- rently, only broad land useHierarchical object-based classification of ultra-high-resolution digital mapping camera (DMC, MSC3JER, NMSU, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8003, USA Ultra-high-resolution digital aerial imagery has great

  7. Evidence of universality in the dynamical response of nanomechanical ultra-nanocrystalline diamond resonators at millikelvin temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    independent theory. In particular, polycrystalline diamond is an exciting material for nanomechanical devicesEvidence of universality in the dynamical response of nanomechanical ultra-nanocrystalline diamond fabricated from ultra-nanocrystalline diamond. Frequency shift f/f0 and dissipa- tion Q-1 demonstrate

  8. Ultra-High Performance Concrete with Tailored Properties Cementitious materials comprise a large portion of domestic structures and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Ultra-High Performance Concrete with Tailored Properties Cementitious materials comprise a large portion of domestic structures and infrastructure. The development of ultra-high performance concrete of buildings or structures to dynamic loading and fire. Overview of research program on UHPC or CEP (concrete

  9. LOW-COMPLEXITY MULTIUSER DETECTION AND REDUCED-RANK WIENER FILTERS FOR ULTRA-WIDEBAND MULTIPLE ACCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Zhi "Gerry"

    LOW-COMPLEXITY MULTIUSER DETECTION AND REDUCED-RANK WIENER FILTERS FOR ULTRA-WIDEBAND MULTIPLE the large user capacity planned for ultra- wideband (UWB) systems motivates multiuser detection (MUD of chip-rate samples. This model enables low-complexity MUD, of which we ex- amine a reduced-rank Wiener

  10. Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy C th d C t l t f PEM F l C ll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy C th d C t l t f PEM F l C ll Cathode Catalyst for PEM Objectives · Ultra-low loading Pt catalyysts for oxygen reduction reaction with higgh activityyand ggoodg yg Definition ­ In Developing Low Loading Platinum Catalysts · C l PCatalyst Perfformance ¾ Platinum

  11. EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND HUMAN HEALTH RISK OF AERIAL ULTRA-LOW VOLUME APPLICATIONS OF PYRETHRINS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Robert K. D.

    EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND HUMAN HEALTH RISK OF AERIAL ULTRA-LOW VOLUME APPLICATIONS OF PYRETHRINS). A human health risk assessment conducted by Peterson et al. (2006) for truck-mounted ultra-low volume (ULV to epidemic levels and dispersed to all 58 counties in the state, and was associated with low

  12. A 65nm CMOS Ultra Low Power and Low Noise 131M Front-End Transimpedance Amplifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Joseph

    A 65nm CMOS Ultra Low Power and Low Noise 131M Front-End Transimpedance Amplifier Jiaping Hu and simulation of a high-transimpedance gain, ultra low-power dissipation and low-noise CMOS front- end control [3]. However, it introduces design challenges in the form of trade-offs between noise, power

  13. Ultra-thin Titanium Oxide Films on Accession #s 00936, 00937,00938 Mo(112), Measured by XPS Technique: XPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Ultra-thin Titanium Oxide Films on Accession #s 00936, 00937,00938 Mo(112), Measured by XPS preparation methods were employed to grow a well-ordered ultra-thin titanium oxide film on Mo(J (2), The tirst: photoemission; titanium oxide; tllin film PACS: 81.15.Gh. 79,60.Dp SPECIMEN DESCRIPTION (Accession #00936) Host

  14. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT AMORPHOUS SILICON SOLAR CELLS DEPOSITED OIN 7.5pn-1 THICK STAINLESS STEEL SUBSTRATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT AMORPHOUS SILICON SOLAR CELLS DEPOSITED OIN 7.5pn-1 THICK STAINLESS STEEL specific power for space application, we deposited a-Si thin film solar cells on ultra-thin stainless steel-thin stainless steel (SS) substrates (down to 7.5 pm) for space power applications. In this paper, we report our

  15. 78.1: Ultra Compact Polarization Recycling System for White Light LED based Pico-Projection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    78.1: Ultra Compact Polarization Recycling System for White Light LED based Pico-Projection System polarization recycling system, for white light LED based projectors, is proposed. White light LED is applied. In this paper, we propose an ultra compact polarization recycling system for white light LED based projection

  16. An Interferometric Analysis Method for Radio Impulses from Ultra-high Energy Particle Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero-Wolf, A; Vieregg, A; Gorham, P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an interferometric technique for the reconstruction of ultra-wide band impulsive signals from point sources. This highly sensitive method was developed for the search for ultra-high energy neutrinos with the ANITA experiment but is fully generalizable to any antenna array detecting radio impulsive events. Applications of the interferometric method include event reconstruction, thermal noise and anthropogenic background rejection, and solar imaging for calibrations. We illustrate this technique with applications from the analysis of the ANITA-I and ANITA-II data in the 200-1200 MHz band.

  17. Laser scattering by density fluctuations of ultra-cold atoms in a magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. T. Mendonça; H. Terças

    2011-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the spectrum of density fluctuations in the ultra-cold gas of neutral atoms, confined in a magneto-optical trap. We determine the corresponding amplitude and spectra of laser light scattered by this medium. We derive an expression for the dynamical structure function, by using a test particle method. We propose to use the collective laser scattering as a diagnostic method for the microscopic properties of the ultra-cold matter. This will also allow us to check on the atomic correlations which are mediated by the collective mean field inside the gas.

  18. Sterling Technology ultra-pure filtered diesel fuel. Final report, April 1984-April 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, E.C.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details testing done on ultra-pure filtered diesel fuel and unfiltered diesel fuel. Several barrels of filtered fuel, shipped from the manufacturer--Sterling Technology, Inc., Jacksonville, Florida--were tested using the 690-in. Deutz F-8L-413A Air Cooled V8 Engine. No significant difference was found, but due to a delay in starting the tests, it was suspected that some deterioration might have occurred in the fuel. The objective was to investigate the possible benefits of the ultra-pure filtered diesel fuel in power improvement and reduction of exhaust smoke.

  19. Multi-Gate Modulation Doped In0.7Ga0.3As Quantum Well FET for Ultra Low Power Digital Logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    Multi-Gate Modulation Doped In0.7Ga0.3As Quantum Well FET for Ultra Low Power Digital Logic L. LiuQFET is promising device architecture for future ultra low power information processing applications. Introduction for reconfigurable and ultra-low-power binary decision diagram (BDD) logic ECS Transactions, 35 (3) 311-317 (2011) 10

  20. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 114, Nos. 3/4. 1999 Diffusion and Localization of Ultra-Cold Particles on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyerovich, Alex

    Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 114, Nos. 3/4. 1999 Diffusion and Localization of Ultra, 1998) Diffusion and localization of ultra-cold particles moving along randomly corrugated substrates numerically for Gaussian correlation of inhomogeneities. The results are applied to ultra-cold neutrons

  1. A Baseband Ultra-Low Noise SiGe:C BiCMOS 0.25 m Amplifier And Its Application For

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Baseband Ultra-Low Noise SiGe:C BiCMOS 0.25 µm Amplifier And Its Application For An On-Chip Phase of an ultra-low noise operational amplifier is presented. Its applications are integrated low-frequency noise and ultra low input noise to achieve the required signal to noise ratio. In these instrumentation

  2. Ion acceleration with ultra-thin foils using elliptically polarized laser pulses This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ion acceleration with ultra-thin foils using elliptically polarized laser pulses This article has of Physics Ion acceleration with ultra-thin foils using elliptically polarized laser pulses S G Rykovanov1 of ions with ultra-high intensity laser pulses has attracted broad interest over the last decade. The high

  3. Fuel Cell/Turbine Ultra High Efficiency Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein, Ghezel-Ayagh

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    FuelCell Energy, INC. (FCE) is currently involved in the design of ultra high efficiency power plants under a cooperative agreement (DE-FC26-00NT40) managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as part of the DOE's Vision 21 program. Under this project, FCE is developing a fuel cell/turbine hybrid system that integrates the atmospheric pressure Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) with an unfired Brayton cycle utilizing indirect heat recovery from the power plant. Features of the DFC/T{trademark} system include: high efficiency, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, no pressurization of the fuel cell, independent operating pressure of the fuel cell and turbine, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants at much smaller sizes. Objectives of the Vision 21 Program include developing power plants that will generate electricity with net efficiencies approaching 75 percent (with natural gas), while producing sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions of less than 0.01 lb/million BTU. These goals are significant improvements over conventional power plants, which are 35-60 percent efficient and produce emissions of 0.07 to 0.3 lb/million BTU of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The nitrogen oxide and sulfur emissions from the DFC/T system are anticipated to be better than the Vision 21 goals due to the non-combustion features of the DFC/T power plant. The expected high efficiency of the DFC/T will also result in a 40-50 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional power plants. To date, the R&D efforts have resulted in significant progress including proof-of-concept tests of a sub-scale power plant built around a state-of-the-art DFC stack integrated with a modified Capstone Model 330 Microturbine. The objectives of this effort are to investigate the integration aspects of the fuel cell and turbine and to obtain design information and operational data that will be utilized in the design of a 40-MW high efficiency Vision 21 power plant. Additionally, these tests are providing the valuable insight for DFC/Turbine power plant potential for load following, increased reliability, and enhanced operability.

  4. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability in conventional coal-fired fossil power plants is most often caused by fireside corrosion of boiler waterwalls. Industry-wide, the rate of wall thickness corrosion wastage of fireside waterwalls in fossil-fired boilers has been of concern for many years. It is significant that the introduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls with staged burners systems has increased reported waterwall wastage rates to as much as 120 mils (3 mm) per year. Moreover, the reducing environment produced by the low-NOx combustion process is the primary cause of accelerated corrosion rates of waterwall tubes made of carbon and low alloy steels. Improved coatings, such as the MCrAl nanocoatings evaluated here (where M is Fe, Ni, and Co), are needed to reduce/eliminate waterwall damage in subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The first two tasks of this six-task project-jointly sponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)-have focused on computational modeling of an advanced MCrAl nanocoating system and evaluation of two nanocrystalline (iron and nickel base) coatings, which will significantly improve the corrosion and erosion performance of tubing used in USC boilers. The computational model results showed that about 40 wt.% is required in Fe based nanocrystalline coatings for long-term durability, leading to a coating composition of Fe-25Cr-40Ni-10 wt.% Al. In addition, the long term thermal exposure test results further showed accelerated inward diffusion of Al from the nanocrystalline coatings into the substrate. In order to enhance the durability of these coatings, it is necessary to develop a diffusion barrier interlayer coating such TiN and/or AlN. The third task 'Process Advanced MCrAl Nanocoating Systems' of the six-task project jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)- has focused on processing of advanced nanocrystalline coating systems and development of diffusion barrier interlayer coatings. Among the diffusion interlayer coatings evaluated, the TiN interlayer coating was found to be the optimum one. This report describes the research conducted under the Task 3 workscope.

  5. Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the technical feasibility and cost of upgrading low-BTU methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys modular microchannel process technology. The objective of Phase II is to demonstrate the process at the bench scale. The project is on schedule and on budget. A technical and economic feasibility assessment was completed in Task 3. The proposed Velocys technology appears feasible for the methane upgrading market. Evaluated categories include adsorbent selection, rapid-cycle valve selection, microchannel manufacturability assessment, and system design and cost. The selected adsorbent, granular microporous carbon from either Barnaby-Sutcliffe or Calgon, experimentally demonstrated sufficient methane capacity under differential temperature at 100 pounds per square inch gauge. Several valve options were identified, including candidates that can operate millions of cycles between refurbishment. The microchannel adsorber and desorber designs were made using internal Velocys manufacturability standards, and the associated costs are acceptable as included with the complete nitrogen rejection unit (NRU) cost projection. A system design and cost estimate was completed for the NRU section of the methane upgrading system. As integrated into the complete system, the cost is in line with the market requirement. The system has six main unit operations: feed compressor, dehydration unit, nitrogen rejection unit, deoxygenator, carbon dioxide scrubber, and a sales compressor. The NRU is the focus of the development program, and a bench-scale demonstration will be initiated in the next fiscal year. The Velocys NRU system targets producing methane with greater than 96% purity and at least 90% recovery for final commercial operation. A preliminary cost analysis of the methane upgrading system, including the Velocys NRU, suggests that costs below $2.00 per million (MM) BTU methane may be achieved. The cost for a conventional methane upgrading system is well above $2.30 per MM BTU, as benchmarked in an Environmental Protection Agency study.

  6. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

  7. HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION INDUCED BY ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY PHOTONS AS A PROBE OF ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATORS EMBEDDED IN THE COSMIC WEB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murase, Kohta [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The photomeson production in ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) accelerators such as {gamma}-ray bursts and active galaxies may lead to ultra-high-energy (UHE) {gamma}-ray emission. We show that the generation of UHE pairs in magnetized structured regions where the sources are embedded is inevitable, and accompanying {approx}> 0.1 TeV synchrotron emission provides an important probe of UHECR acceleration. It would especially be relevant for powerful transient sources, and synchrotron pair echoes may be detected by future CTA via coordinated search for transients of duration {approx}0.1-1 yr for the structured regions of {approx}Mpc. Detections will be useful for knowing structured extragalactic magnetic fields as well as properties of the sources.

  8. Growth of Nanoscale Nickel Ferrite on Carbonaceous Matrix- A Novel Method of Turning Harmful Particulates into a Functional Nanocomposite: An XAFS Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattanaik, S.; Huggins, F; Huffman, G

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particulate matter (PM) emission from residual oil combustion typically consists of carbonaceous material accompanied by inorganic matter notably transition metal sulfates. Often a minor sulfide form is found in the coarse fraction while an oxide form is more common in the fine and ultrafine fractions. A composite comprising of nanoscale nickel ferrite dispersed on carbonaceous matrix has been obtained following liberation of metal sulfates from the fine PM - a novel method of turning harmful particulates into a functional nanocomposite without the need for elaborate preparation using expensive precursors. The nickel ferrite content in the composite varies with the Fe/Ni ratio in particulate, fuel type, and combustion condition. Such variation may lead to the composite exhibiting diverse physical behaviors. Detailed structure and cation distribution in dispersed ferrite have been studied using Fe and Ni K-edges XAFS spectroscopy. Peaks are identified in the radial structure function with specific atom pair correlations within the spinel ferrite from which the relative occupancy of the cations in the octahedral and tetrahedral sites can be discerned. The results show that Ni(II) has strong preference for the octahedral site, while Fe(III) prefers both sites which is consistent with that of an inverted spinel ferrite.

  9. Sensitivity of an underwater acoustic array to ultra-high energy neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckingham, Michael

    -high energies appears in fireball models of gamma-ray bursts [6­8], active galactic nuclei [9­ 14] and of UHECR production [2, 17,18]. Weakly interacting neutrinos could, unlike UHE gamma rays and protons the possibility of searching for ultra high energy neutrinos in cosmic rays using acoustic techniques in ocean

  10. A Comparison of Hurricane Eye Determination Using Standard and Ultra-High Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    A Comparison of Hurricane Eye Determination Using Standard and Ultra-High Resolution QuikSCAT Winds of hurricanes. I. INTRODUCTION Space-borne scatterometers such as SeaWinds on QuikSCAT are instruments designed these is the observation and tracking of tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Several fea- tures of interest

  11. Time Reversal with MISO for Ultra-Wideband Communications: Experimental Results (invited paper)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Robert Caiming

    TH2B-1 Time Reversal with MISO for Ultra-Wideband Communications: Experimental Results (invited Output (MISO) is enabled by the use of the TR scheme. Two basic problems are investigated experimentally for the first time in electromagnetics. Index Terms -- TR, MISO, UWB, channel reciprocity. I. INTRODUCTION UWB

  12. Characterization of a liquid-crystal ultrafast pulse shaper for ultra-broadband applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization of a liquid-crystal ultrafast pulse shaper for ultra-broadband applications pulse shaping Spatial light modulators Ultrafast optics Femtosecond pulses a b s t r a c t By combining in revised form 22 January 2014 Accepted 28 January 2014 Available online 6 February 2014 Keywords: Ultrafast

  13. LITHIUM PLASMA SOURCES FOR ACCELERATION AND FOCUSING OF ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAMSi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LITHIUM PLASMA SOURCES FOR ACCELERATION AND FOCUSING OF ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAMSi P beam focusing (plasma lens). The Li vapor with a density in the 2Ã?1015 cm-3 range is produced in a heat to a focusing strength in excess of 6Ã?105 G/cm. A shorter section of plasma (L25 cm) can be used as an effective

  14. Ultra-Fast Absorption of Amorphous Pure Drug Aerosols Via Deep Lung Inhalation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    Ultra-Fast Absorption of Amorphous Pure Drug Aerosols Via Deep Lung Inhalation JOSHUA D. RABINOWITZ inhalation. The speed of pulmonary drug absorption depends on the site of aerosol deposition within the lung incorporating this thermal aerosol technology, and its application to the delivery of alprazolam, an anti

  15. Thermal Analysis of Ultra-Thin Body Device Scaling Eric Pop, Robert Dutton and Kenneth Goodson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutton, Robert W.

    geometries on the self-heating of ultra-thin body SOI and FinFET devices. A compact thermal model that of silicon, SOI devices have been associated with self-heating problems [3]. This is somewhat alleviated still lead to significant self- heating. This paper estimates such trends in single-gate (SG) UTB

  16. Roadmap for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Physics and Astronomy (whitepaper for Snowmass 2013)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anchordoqui, Luis A; Krizmanic, John F; Matthews, Jim; Mitchell, John W; Olinto, Angela V; Paul, Thomas C; Sokolsky, Pierre; Thomson, Gordon B; Weiler, Thomas J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarize the remarkable recent progress in ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics and astronomy enabled by the current generation of cosmic ray observatories. We discuss the primary objectives for future measurements and describe the plans for near-term enhancements of existing experiments as well as the next generation of observatories.

  17. High Performance Plasma Sputtered Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low catalytic metal Loadings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to be reached between 2010 and 2015 are clear: the catalyst of a fuel cell can cost no more than 4 per kilowatt1 High Performance Plasma Sputtered Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low catalytic metal Loadings C in plasma fuel cell deposition devices. Pt loadings lower than 0.01 mg cm-2 have been realized. The Pt

  18. High Performance Plasma Sputtered PdPt Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : the catalyst of a fuel cell can cost no more than 5/3 per kilowatt [1]. If the catalyst is platinum (~40 g-1High Performance Plasma Sputtered PdPt Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low Loading M. Mougenot1, 2 potential for the fuel cell technology to overcome the upcoming energy and resources issues in our society

  19. Numerical study of the thermoelectric power factor in ultra-thin Si nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Numerical study of the thermoelectric power factor in ultra-thin Si nanowires Neophytos Neophytou thermoelectric (TE) performance because of a drastic reduction in their thermal conductivity, l. This has been observed for a variety of materials, even for traditionally poor thermoelectrics such as silicon. Other

  20. Atomistic calculations of the electronic, thermal, and thermoelectric properties of ultra-thin Si layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Atomistic calculations of the electronic, thermal, and thermoelectric properties of ultra-thin Si are considered promising candidates for thermoelectric applications with enhanced performance because. This is also the case for traditionally poor thermoelectric materials such as silicon. This work presents

  1. Synchronous Ultra-Wide Band Wireless Sensors Networks for oil and gas exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savazzi, Stefano

    Synchronous Ultra-Wide Band Wireless Sensors Networks for oil and gas exploration Stefano Savazzi1 of new oil and gas reservoir. Seismic exploration requires a large number (500 ÷ 2000 nodes, MAC and network layer to develop wireless sensors networks tailored for oil (and gas) exploration

  2. PNNL-SA-XXXXX Ultra Large-Scale Power System Control and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    PNNL-SA-XXXXX Ultra Large-Scale Power System Control and Coordination Architecture A Strategic Institute of Technology Rick Geiger Utilities and Smart Grid Cisco Systems #12;#12;PNNL-SA-XXXXX #12;PNNL Richland, Washington 99352 #12;PNNL-SA-XXXXX #12;#12;PNNL-SA-XXXXX 1.0 Introduction Electric power grids

  3. Combining the Ultra-Weak Variational Formulation and the Multilevel Fast Multipole Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Combining the Ultra-Weak Variational Formulation and the Multilevel Fast Multipole Method Eric fast multipole method we obtain an efficient volume based solver with an exact auxiliary boundary ­ Integral Representation ­ Multilevel Fast Multipole Method 1 Introduction At progressively higher

  4. Opportunities for Decay Counting of Environmental Radioisotopes Using Ultra-low-background Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Moran, James J.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary We present results from a scoping study whose intent was to define challenge measurements to be pursued on the Ultra-Sensitive Nuclear Measurements Initiative. Potential challenge measurements using new radiation detection technology in the shallow underground laboratory that would have substantial impact in environmental science were the focus of this study.

  5. CASCADES: An Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keillor, M. E.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Erikson, L. E.; Fast, J. E.; Glasgow, B. D.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hossbach, T. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Miley, H. S.; Myers, A. W.; Seifert, A.; Stavenger, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    State-of-the-art treaty verification techniques, environmental surveillance, and physics experiments require increased sensitivity for detecting and quantifying radionuclides of interest. This can be accomplished with new detector designs that establish high detection efficiency and reduced instrument backgrounds. Current research is producing an intrinsic germanium (HPGe) array designed for high detection efficiency, ultra-low-background performance, and sensitive {gamma}--{gamma} coincidence detection. The system design is optimized to accommodate filter paper samples, e.g. samples collected by the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer. The system will provide high sensitivity for weak collections on atmospheric filter samples (e.g.<10{sup 5} fissions) as well as offering the potential to gather additional information from higher activity filters using gamma cascade coincidence detection. The first of two HPGe crystal arrays in ultra-low-background vacuum cryostats has been assembled, with the second in progress. Traditional methods for constructing ultra-low-background detectors were followed, including use of materials known to be low in radioactive contaminants, use of ultra-pure reagents, and clean room assembly. The cryostat is constructed mainly from copper electroformed into near-final geometry at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Details of the detector assembly and initial background and spectroscopic measurement results are presented; also a description of the custom analysis package used by this project is given.

  6. Delayed Linear Expansion of Two Ultra-low Expansion Dental Stones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oppedisano, Michael

    2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to measure the linear setting expansion of two ultra-low expansion dental stones used in definitive cast/ prosthesis fabrication which claim to have very low to no setting expansion. Five specimens of each material...

  7. High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250km of ultra low loss fibres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Stucki; N. Walenta; F. Vannel; R. T. Thew; N. Gisin; H. Zbinden; S. Gray; C. R. Towery; S. Ten

    2009-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a fully automated quantum key distribution prototype running at 625 MHz clock rate. Taking advantage of ultra low loss fibres and low-noise superconducting detectors, we can distribute 6,000 secret bits per second over 100 km and 15 bits per second over 250km.

  8. Analysis of the Ultra-fast Switching Dynamics in a Hybrid MOSFET/Driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, T.; Burkhart, C.; /SLAC

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The turn-on dynamics of a power MOSFET during ultra-fast, {approx} ns, switching are discussed in this paper. The testing was performed using a custom hybrid MOSFET/Driver module, which was fabricated by directly assembling die-form components, power MOSFET and drivers, on a printed circuit board. By using die-form components, the hybrid approach substantially reduces parasitic inductance, which facilitates ultra-fast switching. The measured turn on time of the hybrid module with a resistive load is 1.2 ns with an applied voltage of 1000 V and drain current of 33 A. Detailed analysis of the switching waveforms reveals that switching behavior must be interpreted differently in the ultra-fast regime. For example, the gate threshold voltage to turn on the device is observed to increase as the switching time decreases. Further analysis and simulation of MOSFET switching behavior shows that the minimum turn on time scales with the product of the drain-source on resistance and drain-source capacitance, R{sub DS(on)}C{sub OSS}. This information will be useful in power MOSFET selection and gate driver design for ultra-fast switching applications.

  9. CASCADES: An Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keillor, Martin E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Erikson, Luke E.; Fast, James E.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Seifert, Allen; Stavenger, Timothy J.

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    State-of-the-art treaty verification techniques, environmental surveillance, and physics experiments require increased sensitivity for detecting and quantifying radionuclides of interest. This can be accomplished with new detector designs that establish high detection efficiency and reduced instrument backgrounds. Current research is producing an intrinsic germanium (HPGe) array designed for high detection efficiency, ultra-low-background performance, and sensitive {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence detection. The system design is optimized to accommodate filter paper samples, e.g., samples collected by the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer. The system will provide high sensitivity for weak collections on atmospheric filter samples (e.g., < 10{sup 5} fissions), as well as offering the potential to gather additional information from higher activity filters using gamma cascade coincidence detection. The first of two HPGe crystal arrays in ultra-low-background vacuum cryostats has been assembled, with the second in progress. Traditional methods for constructing ultra-low-background detectors were followed, including use of materials known to be low in radioactive contaminants, use of ultra-pure reagents, and clean room assembly. The cryostat is constructed mainly from copper electroformed into near-final geometry at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Details of the detector assembly and initial background and spectroscopic measurement results are presented; also a description of the custom analysis package used by this project is given.

  10. A low power, high dynamic-range, broadband variable gain amplifier for an ultra wideband receiver 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Lin

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    is designed for high frequency and low power communication applications, such as an Ultra Wideband (UWB) receiver system. The gain can be programmed from 0dB to 42dB in 2dB increments with -3dB bandwidth greater than 425MHz for the entire range of gain. The 3...

  11. Low Energy Nuclear Structure from Ultra-relativistic Heavy-Light Ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrique Ruiz Arriola; Wojciech Broniowski

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The search for specific signals in ultra-relativistic heavy-light ion collisions addressing intrinsic geometric features of nuclei may open a new window to low energy nuclear structure. We discuss specifically the phenomenon of {\\alpha}-clustering in $^{12}$C when colliding with $^{208}$Pb at almost the speed of light.

  12. Ultra-wideband Multichannel Receiver Test Bed James Pogge, Yu Song, Terry Guo and Robert Qiu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Robert Caiming

    presents an engineering design of low noise amplifier (LNA) with ultra wide bandwidth, large variable gain that is capable of processing data in real time. Index Terms-- MIMO, UWB, Low Noise Design. I. INTRODUCTION real- time processing capability, followed by section VI to conclude the paper. II. LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER

  13. The effect of hydrogen addition on flammability limit and NOx emission in ultra-lean counterflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, �mer L.

    . They indicated that the addition of hydrogen to natural gas or methane resulted in an increase in NOx for most increases, and then decreases with the increase in the fraction of hydrogen. Overall, hydrogen enrichment rights reserved. Keywords: Hydrogen enrichment; NOx; Extinction limit; Ultra-lean premixed flame. 1

  14. ITER UltraScaleScientific Joint Dark Energy Mission ComputingCapability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;ITER UltraScaleScientific Joint Dark Energy Mission ComputingCapability Linac Coherent Light eRHIC Fusion Energy Contingency Source Upgrade HFIR Second Cold Source Integrated Beam Experiment IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction 8 Prioritization Process 9 A Benchmark

  15. Delayed Linear Expansion of Two Ultra-low Expansion Dental Stones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oppedisano, Michael

    2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to measure the linear setting expansion of two ultra-low expansion dental stones used in definitive cast/ prosthesis fabrication which claim to have very low to no setting expansion. Five specimens of each material...

  16. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Numerical Solutions for Ultra-Micro Wave Rotors (UWR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Norbert

    , 48824 Starting in 1995, with the MIT "Micro Gas Turbine" project, the mechanical engineering research to an ultra-micro gas turbine. It discusses the advantages of wave rotor as topping units for gas turbines. Introduction ltra Micro Gas Turbines (UµGT) are expected to be the next generation of power source for any

  17. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Karner

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UltraBattery retrofit project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs).

  18. The ultra-thin solar cells that could generate power through windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    international companies are making thin-film solar cells, but they are typically less efficient at convertingThe ultra-thin solar cells that could generate power through windows By Claire Bates Last updated at 11:11 AM on 06th October 2008 Solar cells that are transparent enough to be used to tint windows

  19. MICROFABRICATED, ULTRA-DENSE, THREE-DIMENSIONAL METAL COILS F. Herrault1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to form a three-dimensional coil device. The MEMS- fabricated, ultra-dense coils exhibited a 62% improvement in packing density over conventional wire-wound coils. KEYWORDS Micro-coils, chemical vapor of these microstructures to form a three-dimensional coil device. The polymer material provides electrical insulation

  20. Surface Science Letters Synthesis of well-ordered ultra-thin titanium oxide films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Surface Science Letters Synthesis of well-ordered ultra-thin titanium oxide films on Mo(112) M microscopy (STM); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); Titanium oxide; Surface structure, morphology oxide systems, titanium dioxide has served as the prototypical reducible 0039-6028/$ - see front matter

  1. Power line communications (PLC) using impulse ultra wideband (UWB) in a microprocessor had been

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ha, Dong S.

    Abstract Power line communications (PLC) using impulse ultra wideband (UWB) in a microprocessor had data to sensors and for on-line testing. Power line communications (PLC), patented in the early 1920's]. As noted in [1]-[2], PLC in a microprocessor faces a totally different set of technical challenges from

  2. Recovery and utilization of waste liquids in ultra-clean coal preparation by chemical leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zesheng; Shi Zhimin; Yang Qiaowen; Wang Xinguo [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal with ash lower than 1%, being called an ultra-clean coal, has many potential applications, such as a substitute for diesel fuel, production of carbon electrodes, superior activated carbon and other chemical materials. It is difficult to reduce coal ash to such a level by conventional coal preparation technology. By means of chemical leaching with the proper concentration of alkali and acid solutions, any coal can be deeply deashed to 1% ash level. However, the cost of chemical methods is higher than that of physical ones, additionally, the waste liquids would give rise to environmental pollution if used on a large scale. If the waste liquids from chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal can be recovered and utilized, so as to produce salable by-products, the cost of chemical leaching will be reduced. This processing will also solve the pollution problem of these waste liquids. This paper describes recovery and utilization methods for these liquids used in chemical leaching, including the recoveries of alkali, silica, sodium-salt and aluminium-salt. A preliminary estimate was made regarding its economic benefits. It shows that this research solves the two problems in the chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal. One is the high-cost and the other is environmental pollution. This research demonstrates good potential for the production of ultra-clean coal on an industrial scale.

  3. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF AUTOGENOUS HEALING AND RECOVERY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES IN ULTRA-HIGH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in the cementitious matrix can react with carbon dioxide dissolved in the water filling the crack. Autogenous healingNUMERICAL MODELLING OF AUTOGENOUS HEALING AND RECOVERY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES IN ULTRA into the crack and leads to a partial recovery of mechanical properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength

  4. Formation of nanoparticles by short and ultra-short laser pulses K. Gouriet*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Formation of nanoparticles by short and ultra-short laser pulses K. Gouriet*a , T. E. Itinaa , S. Noëla , J. Hermanna , M. Sentisa , and L. Zhigileib a Laboratory of Lasers, Plasmas and Photonics simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) computational study of laser ablation plume evolution. The first process

  5. THz generation by ultra-short laser pulses propagating in nonuniform plasma channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    THz generation by ultra-short laser pulses propagating in nonuniform plasma channels T. Antonsen Jr Conventional sources using short pulse lasers rely on pulse generation in a solid and are generally limited in excess of 100 µJ/pulse have been generated as transition radiation by a laser generated and accelerated

  6. Mechanisms of small clusters production by short and ultra-short laser ablation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Mechanisms of small clusters production by short and ultra-short laser ablation Tatiana E. Itina a Lasers, Plasmas et Proce´de´s Photoniques (LP3 UMR 6182 CNRS), Faculte´ des Sciences de Luminy, Case 917 The mechanisms involved into the formation of clusters by pulsed laser ablation are studied both numerically

  7. Light-matter excitations in the ultra-strong coupling regime Aji A. Anappara,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -polariton splitting in solid-state sys- tems [2]. This regime is actively investigated in many research fields-field interaction. The energy of the excitations is affected and a new squeezed ground state is defined containingLight-matter excitations in the ultra-strong coupling regime Aji A. Anappara,1 Simone De Liberato,2

  8. Ultra-Low Voltage VCO Design Using Schmitt Trigger on SOI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Joseph

    , and self-heating effect. In order to reduce this disadvantage, several techniques for body-contact haveUltra-Low Voltage VCO Design Using Schmitt Trigger on SOI Kyung Ki Kim Department of Electrical of Electrical and Computer Engineering Northeastern University Boston, U.S.A ybk@ece.neu.edu Young Jun Lee Next

  9. Feedback control of ultra-high-Q microcavities: application to micro-Raman lasers and micro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feedback control of ultra-high-Q microcavities: application to micro-Raman lasers and micro-cavity to a pump laser using two, distinct methods: coupled power stabilization and wavelength locking of pump laser to the microcavity. In addition to improvements in operation of previously demonstrated micro

  10. Brief Communication Ultra fine carbon nitride nanocrystals synthesized by laser ablation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    Brief Communication Ultra fine carbon nitride nanocrystals synthesized by laser ablation in liquid form 15 October 2006 Key words: carbon nitride, laser ablation, liquid-solid interface, nanoparticle synthesized at room tem- perature and pressure using the novel technique of pulsed laser ablation

  11. Electric field and temperature measurement using ultra wide bandwidth pigtailed electro-optic probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    .1364/AO.47.002470 #12;2 Introduction In the field of high power microwave (HPM) measurements, ultra wideHz-GHz frequency range) and allowing getting simultaneously one specific component of the HPM E field and the probe determining the energy of a single shot HPM signal by measuring the temperature increase of an EO probe

  12. Approaches for Ultra-High Efficiency Solar Cells C.B. Honsberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    Approaches for Ultra-High Efficiency Solar Cells C.B. Honsberg School of Electrical and Computer and to identify the critical physical phenomena important for solar energy conversion. 2. Technical Approach The largest loss mechanism in photovoltaic energy conversion arises from the mismatch between the wavelengths

  13. Graphene nanoribbon based negative resistance device for ultra-low voltage digital logic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The complementary logic is used in design of an ultra-compact bi-stable switching static memory cell. Due to its compactness and high drive current, the proposed memory cell can outperform the conventional static random- cations such as oscillators, mixers, frequency converters, and impedance cancellation circuits. The Esaki

  14. Computation Modeling and Assessment of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Shingledecker; D. Gandy; N. Cheruvu; R. Wei; K. Chan

    2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability of coal-fired fossil plants is most often caused by fire-side corrosion of boiler waterwalls and tubing. Reliable coatings are required for Ultrasupercritical (USC) application to mitigate corrosion since these boilers will operate at a much higher temperatures and pressures than in supercritical (565 C {at} 24 MPa) boilers. Computational modeling efforts have been undertaken to design and assess potential Fe-Cr-Ni-Al systems to produce stable nanocrystalline coatings that form a protective, continuous scale of either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The computational modeling results identified a new series of Fe-25Cr-40Ni with or without 10 wt.% Al nanocrystalline coatings that maintain long-term stability by forming a diffusion barrier layer at the coating/substrate interface. The computational modeling predictions of microstructure, formation of continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. Advanced coatings, such as MCrAl (where M is Fe, Ni, or Co) nanocrystalline coatings, have been processed using different magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. Several coating trials were performed and among the processing methods evaluated, the DC pulsed magnetron sputtering technique produced the best quality coating with a minimum number of shallow defects and the results of multiple deposition trials showed that the process is repeatable. scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. The cyclic oxidation test results revealed that the nanocrystalline coatings offer better oxidation resistance, in terms of weight loss, localized oxidation, and formation of mixed oxides in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, than widely used MCrAlY coatings. However, the ultra-fine grain structure in these coatings, consistent with the computational model predictions, resulted in accelerated Al diffusion from the coating into the substrate. An effective diffusion barrier interlayer coating was developed to prevent inward Al diffusion. The fire-side corrosion test results showed that the nanocrystalline coatings with a minimum number of defects have a great potential in providing corrosion protection. The coating tested in the most aggressive environment showed no evidence of coating spallation and/or corrosion attack after 1050 hours exposure. In contrast, evidence of coating spallation in isolated areas and corrosion attack of the base metal in the spalled areas were observed after 500 hours. These contrasting results after 500 and 1050 hours exposure suggest that the premature coating spallation in isolated areas may be related to the variation of defects in the coating between the samples. It is suspected that the cauliflower-type defects in the coating were presumably responsible for coating spallation in isolated areas. Thus, a defect free good quality coating is the key for the long-term durability of nanocrystalline coatings in corrosive environments. Thus, additional process optimization work is required to produce defect-free coatings prior to development of a coating application method for production parts.

  15. Advanced Power Ultra-Uprates of Existing Plants (APPU) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubiolo, Pablo R.; Conway, Lawarence E.; Oriani, Luca; Lahoda, Edward J.; DeSilva, Greg (Westinghouse Science and Technology Department); Hu, Min H.; Hartz, Josh; Bachrach, Uriel; Smith, Larry; Dudek, Daniel F. (Westinghouse Nuclear Services Division); Toman, Gary J, (Electric Power Research Institute); Feng, Dandong; Hejzlar, Pavel; Kazimi, Mujid S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project assessed the feasibility of a Power Ultra-Uprate on an existing nuclear plant. The study determined the technical and design limitations of the current components, both inside and outside the containment. Based on the identified plant bottlenecks, the design changes for major pieces of equipment required to meet the Power Ultra-Uprate throughput were determined. Costs for modified pieces of equipment and for change-out and disposal of the replaced equipment were evaluated. These costs were then used to develop capital, fuel and operating and maintenance cost estimates for the Power Ultra-Uprate plant. The cost evaluation indicates that the largest cost components are the replacement of power (during the outage required for the uprate) and the new fuel loading. Based on these results, the study concluded that, for a ?standard? 4-loop plant, the proposed Power Ultra-Uprate is technically feasible. However, the power uprate is likely to be more expensive than the cost (per Kw electric installed) of a new plant when large capacity uprates are considered (>25%). Nevertheless, the concept of the Power Ultra-Uprate may be an attractive option for specific nuclear power plants where a large margin exists in the steam and power conversion system or where medium power increases (~600 MWe) are needed. The results of the study suggest that development efforts on fuel technologies for current nuclear power plants should be oriented towards improving the fuel performance (fretting-wear, corrosion, uranium load, manufacturing, safety) required to achieve higher burnup rather focusing on potential increases in the fuel thermal output.

  16. The Morality of Collective Harm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nefsky, Julia

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    global warming poses a serious threat; so we all ought to conserve electricity,electricity. That is all wonderful, but it does little or nothing to stop global warming,

  17. A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    411–422. [9] I. Glassman, Combustion, 3rd Edition, AcademicB. Lewis, G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames and Explosions ofin Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion Joseph F. Grcar a a

  18. Low-temperature germanium ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition for back-end photonic integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimerling, Lionel C.

    Polycrystalline germanium (poly-Ge) grown on amorphous Si (a-Si) by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD) over oxide barriers at low temperatures (Tles450degC) exhibits a larger grain size and lower defect ...

  19. Microwave and millimeter-wave rectifying circuit arrays and ultra-wideband antennas for wireless power transmission and communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Yu-Jiun

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . .......................................................................................... 67 33. The retrodirective rectenna system...................................................................... 69 34. Geometry of the broadband ring antenna: (a) two-layer structure, (b) outer ring, (c) inner ring, and (d) dual-ring (with outer... be used to diminish the reradiated harmonics. With the demand for the high-speed data rates and high capacity, broadband and ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas have already received much attention in wireless 5 communications. With an ultra...

  20. A novel ultra-fast parallel algorithm for image compression using semi-orthogonal spline boundary wavelets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Deepam

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A NOVEL ULTRA-FAST PARALLEL ALGORITHM FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION USING SEMI-ORTHOGONAL SPLINE BOUNDARY WAVELETS A Thesis by DEEPAM MISHRA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... Yurt tps (Member) A. D. P tton (Head of D artment) December 1995 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering 111 ABSTRACT A Novel Ultra-Fast Parallel Image Compression Algorithm Using Spline Boundary Wavelets. (December 1995) Deepam Mishra, B. Tech...

  1. Solid oxygen as converter for the production of ultra-cold neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frei, A; Bozhanova, R; Gutsmiedl, E; Huber, T; Klenke, J; Paul, S; Wlokka, S

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated solid oxygen as a converter material for the production of ultra-cold neutrons. In a first series of experiments the crystal preparation was examined. An optically semi-transparent solid alpha-oxygen crystal has been prepared. In a second series of experiments this crystal has been exposed to the cold neutron flux of the MEPHISTO beam line of the FRM II. Ultra-cold neutrons produced inside the oxygen crystal have been extracted and the count rates have been measured at different converter temperatures. The results of these measurements give a clear signal of the superthermal production mechanism due to antiferromagnetic lattice excitations in alpha-oxygen. The mean free loss length of UCN inside the crystal was determined to be approximately 30cm.

  2. Precision optical slit for high heat load or ultra high vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, Nord C. (Hayward, CA); DiGennaro, Richard S. (Albany, CA); Swain, Thomas L. (Richmond, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to slits used in optics that must be precisely aligned and adjusted. The optical slits of the present invention are useful in x-ray optics, x-ray beam lines, optical systems in which the entrance slit is critical for high wavelength resolution. The invention is particularly useful in ultra high vacuum systems where lubricants are difficult to use and designs which avoid the movement of metal parts against one another are important, such as monochrometers for high wavelength resolution with ultra high vacuum systems. The invention further relates to optical systems in which temperature characteristics of the slit materials is important. The present invention yet additionally relates to precision slits wherein the opposing edges of the slit must be precisely moved relative to a center line between the edges with each edge retaining its parallel orientation with respect to the other edge and/or the center line.

  3. An ultra-weak sector, the strong CP problem and the pseudo-Goldstone dilaton

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of a Coleman–Weinberg mechanism for the Higgs boson mass, we address the strong CP problem. We show that a DFSZ-like invisible axion model with a gauge-singlet complex scalar field S, whose couplings to the Standard Model are naturally ultra-weak, can solve the strong CP problem and simultaneously generate acceptable electroweak symmetry breaking. The ultra-weak couplings of the singlet S are associated with underlying approximate shift symmetries that act as custodial symmetries and maintain technical naturalness. The model also contains a very light pseudo-Goldstone dilaton that is consistent with cosmological Polonyi bounds, and the axion can be themore »dark matter of the universe. We further outline how a SUSY version of this model, which may be required in the context of Grand Unification, can avoid introducing a hierarchy problem.« less

  4. Cavity resonance absorption in ultra-high bandwidth CRT deflection structure by a resistive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunham, M.E.; Hudson, C.L.

    1993-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved ultra-high bandwidth helical coil deflection structure for a cathode ray tube is described comprising a first metal member having a bore therein, the metal walls of which form a first ground plane; a second metal member coaxially mounted in the bore of the first metal member and forming a second ground plane; a helical deflection coil coaxially mounted within the bore between the two ground planes; and a resistive load disposed in one end of the bore and electrically connected to the first and second ground planes, the resistive load having an impedance substantially equal to the characteristic impedance of the coaxial line formed by the two coaxial ground planes to inhibit cavity resonance in the structure within the ultra-high bandwidth of operation. Preferably, the resistive load comprises a carbon film on a surface of an end plug in one end of the bore.

  5. Shape and flow fluctuations in ultra-central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Chun; Heinz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In ultra-central heavy-ion collisions, anisotropic hydrodynamic flow is generated by density fluctuations in the initial state rather than by geometric overlap effects. For a given centrality class, the initial fluctuation spectrum is sensitive to the method chosen for binning the events into centrality classes. We show that sorting events by total initial entropy or by total final multiplicity yields event classes with equivalent statistical fluctuation properties, in spite of viscous entropy production during the fireball evolution. With this initial entropy-based centrality definition we generate several classes of ultra-central Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies and evolve the events using viscous hydrodynamics with non-zero shear but vanishing bulk viscosity. Comparing the predicted anisotropic flow coefficients for charged hadrons with CMS data we find that both the Monte Carlo Glauber (MC-Glb) and Monte Carlo Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi (MC-KLN) models produce initial fluctuation spectra that are incompatible w...

  6. Ultra low-mass star and substellar formation in sigma Orionis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. Caballero

    2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The nearby young sigma Orionis cluster (~360 pc, ~3 Ma) is becoming one of the most important regions for the study of ultra low-mass star formation and its extension down to the mass regimes of the brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects. Here, I introduce the sigma Orionis cluster and present three studies that the JOVIAN group is developing: a pilot programme of near-infrared adaptive-optics imaging, intermediate-resolution optical spectroscopy of a large sample of stars of the cluster and a study of the mass function down to the planetary-mass domain. This paper is a summary of the content of four posters that I presented in the Ultra low-mass star formation and evolution Workshop, as single author or on behalf of different collaborations.

  7. Diffuse Surface Scattering in the Plasmonic Resonances of Ultra-Low Electron Density Nanospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monreal, R Carmina; Apell, S Peter

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) have recently been identified in extremely diluted electron systems obtained by doping semiconductor quantum dots. Here we investigate the role that different surface effects, namely electronic spill-out and diffuse surface scattering, play in the optical properties of these ultra-low electron density nanosystems. Diffuse scattering originates from imperfections or roughness at a microscopic scale on the surface. Using an electromagnetic theory that describes this mechanism in conjunction with a dielectric function including the quantum size effect, we find that the LSPRs show an oscillatory behavior both in position and width for large particles and a strong blueshift in energy and an increased width for smaller radii, consistent with recent experimental results for photodoped ZnO nanocrystals. We thus show that the commonly ignored process of diffuse surface scattering is a more important mechanism affecting the plasmonic properties of ultra-low electron density ...

  8. Precision optical slit for high heat load or ultra high vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, N.C.; DiGennaro, R.S.; Swain, T.L.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to slits used in optics that must be precisely aligned and adjusted. The optical slits of the present invention are useful in x-ray optics, x-ray beam lines, optical systems in which the entrance slit is critical for high wavelength resolution. The invention is particularly useful in ultra high vacuum systems where lubricants are difficult to use and designs which avoid the movement of metal parts against one another are important, such as monochromators for high wavelength resolution with ultra high vacuum systems. The invention further relates to optical systems in which temperature characteristics of the slit materials is important. The present invention yet additionally relates to precision slits wherein the opposing edges of the slit must be precisely moved relative to a center line between the edges with each edge retaining its parallel orientation with respect to the other edge and/or the center line. 21 figures.

  9. Solid oxygen as converter for the production of ultra-cold neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Frei; F. Böhle; R. Bozhanova; E. Gutsmiedl; T. Huber; J. Klenke; S. Paul; S. Wlokka

    2011-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated solid oxygen as a converter material for the production of ultra-cold neutrons. In a first series of experiments the crystal preparation was examined. An optically semi-transparent solid $\\alpha$-oxygen crystal has been prepared. In a second series of experiments such a crystal prepared indentically as in the first series of experiments has been exposed to the cold neutron flux of the MEPHISTO beam line of the FRM II. Ultra-cold neutrons produced inside the oxygen crystal have been extracted and the count rates have been measured at different converter temperatures. The results of these measurements give a clear signal of the superthermal UCN production mechanism in $\\alpha$-oxygen. The mean free loss length of UCN inside the crystal at a temperature of 5\\,K was determined to be in the order of $20\\,\\mathrm{cm}$.

  10. Microfluidic pumping through miniaturized channels driven by ultra-high frequency surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shilton, Richie J., E-mail: richard.shilton@iit.it [Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @ NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Travagliati, Marco [Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @ NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Beltram, Fabio [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @ NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Cecchini, Marco, E-mail: marco.cecchini@nano.cnr.it [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are an effective means to pump fluids through microchannel arrays within fully portable systems. The SAW-driven acoustic counterflow pumping process relies on a cascade phenomenon consisting of SAW transmission through the microchannel, SAW-driven fluid atomization, and subsequent coalescence. Here, we investigate miniaturization of device design, and study both SAW transmission through microchannels and the onset of SAW-driven atomization up to the ultra-high-frequency regime. Within the frequency range from 47.8 MHz to 754?MHz, we show that the acoustic power required to initiate SAW atomization remains constant, while transmission through microchannels is most effective when the channel widths w???10??, where ? is the SAW wavelength. By exploiting the enhanced SAW transmission through narrower channels at ultra-high frequencies, we discuss the relevant frequency-dependent length scales and demonstrate the scaling down of internal flow patterns and discuss their impact on device miniaturization strategies.

  11. Laser-driven high-power X- and gamma-ray ultra-short pulse source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Zhidkov, Alexei G; Pirozhkov, Alexander S; Kando, Masaki

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel ultra-bright high-intensity source of X-ray and gamma radiation is suggested. It is based on the double Doppler effect, where a relativistic flying mirror reflects a counter-propagating electromagnetic radiation causing its frequency multiplication and intensification, and on the inverse double Doppler effect, where the mirror acquires energy from an ultra-intense co-propagating electromagnetic wave. The role of the flying mirror is played by a high-density thin plasma slab accelerating in the radiation pressure dominant regime. Frequencies of high harmonics generated at the flying mirror by a relativistically strong counter-propagating radiation undergo multiplication with the same factor as the fundamental frequency of the reflected radiation, approximately equal to the quadruple of the square of the mirror Lorentz factor.

  12. Propagation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays and the Production of Cosmogenic Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aloisio, R; di Matteo, A; Grillo, A F; Petrera, S; Salamida, F

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an updated version of the {\\it SimProp} Monte Carlo code to study the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic rays in astrophysical backgrounds computing the cosmogenic neutrino fluxes expected on earth. The study of secondary neutrinos provides a powerful tool to constrain the source models of these extremely energetic particles. We will show how the newly detected IceCube neutrino events at PeV energies together with the the latest experimental results of the Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array experiment are almost at the level of excluding several hypothesis on the astrophysical sources of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Results presented here can be also used to evaluate the discovery capabilities of future high energy cosmic rays and neutrino detectors.

  13. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, C.W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

  14. Ultra-low phase noise all-optical microwave generation setup based on commercial devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Didier, A; Grop, S; Dubois, B; Bigler, E; Rubiola, E; Lacroûte, C; Kersalé, Y

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present a very simple design based on commercial devices for the all-optical generation of ultra-low phase noise microwave signals. A commercial, fibered femtosecond laser is locked to a laser that is stabilized to a commercial ULE Fabry-Perot cavity. The 10 GHz microwave signal extracted from the femtosecond laser output exhibits a single sideband phase noise $\\mathcal{L}(f)=-104 \\ \\mathrm{dBc}/\\mathrm{Hz}$ at 1 Hz Fourier frequency, at the level of the best value obtained with such "microwave photonics" laboratory experiments \\cite{Fortier2011}. Close-to-the-carrier ultra-low phase noise microwave signals will now be available in laboratories outside the frequency metrology field, opening up new possibilities in various domains.

  15. Standoff detection of hidden objects using backscattered ultra-intense laser-produced x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuwabara, H. [IHI Corporation, 1, Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan)] [IHI Corporation, 1, Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan); Mori, Y.; Kitagawa, Y. [The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsucho, Nishiku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)] [The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsucho, Nishiku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-intense laser-produced sub-ps X-ray pulses can detect backscattered signals from objects hidden in aluminium containers. Coincident measurements using primary X-rays enable differentiation among acrylic, copper, and lead blocks inside the container. Backscattering reveals the shapes of the objects, while their material composition can be identified from the modification methods of the energy spectra of backscattered X-ray beams. This achievement is an important step toward more effective homeland security.

  16. Ultra-High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry on Drop-on-Demand Jetting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castrejon-Pita, J.R.; Hoath, S.D.; Castrejon-Pita, A.A.; Morrison, N.F.; Hsiao, W.-K.; Hutchings, I.M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Applied Mathematics Hsiao, Wen-Kai; University of Cambridge, Engineering Hutchings, Ian; University of Cambridge, Engineering Ultra-High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry on Drop-on- Demand Jetting José R. Castrejón-Pita, Stephen D. Hoath... ). The velocity response extracted from this point is shown in Fig. 3. Figure 3. Time variation of the fluid velocity as measured by PIV. See Figure 2. Numerical method The simulations were performed using computational methods similar to those reported...

  17. Layered ultra-thin coherent structures used as electrical resistors having low temperature coefficient of resistivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, Thomas R. (Argonne, IL); Falco, Charles M. (Tucson, AZ); Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film resistor having a controlled temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) ranging from negative to positive degrees kelvin and having relatively high resistivity. The resistor is a multilayer superlattice crystal containing a plurality of alternating, ultra-thin layers of two different metals. TCR is varied by controlling the thickness of the individual layers. The resistor can be readily prepared by methods compatible with thin film circuitry manufacturing techniques.

  18. Impact of picolitre droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces with ultra-low spreading ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, P.S.; Berson, A.; Talbot, E.L.; Wood, T.J.; Schofield, W.C.E.; Bain, C.D.; Badyal, J.P.S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    :24 1 IMPACT OF PICOLITRE DROPLETS ON SUPERHYDROPHOBIC SURFACES WITH ULTRA-LOW SPREADING RATIOS P. S. Brown, A. Berson, E. L. Talbot, T. J. Wood, W. C. E. Schofield, C. D. Bain†, and J. P. S. Badyal†* Department of Chemistry Science... the dynamics of wetting to be precisely controlled. Final spreading ratios as low as 0.63 can be achieved. Comparison of the maximum spreading ratio and droplet oscillation frequencies with models described in the literature shows that both are found...

  19. Ablation experiment and threshold calculation of titanium alloy irradiated by ultra-fast pulse laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Buxiang; Jiang, Gedong; Wang, Wenjun, E-mail: wenjunwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Kedian; Mei, Xuesong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning Westroad, Xi'an 710049 (China) [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning Westroad, Xi'an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710054 (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction between an ultra-fast pulse laser and a material's surface has become a research hotspot in recent years. Micromachining of titanium alloy with an ultra-fast pulse laser is a very important research direction, and it has very important theoretical significance and application value in investigating the ablation threshold of titanium alloy irradiated by ultra-fast pulse lasers. Irradiated by a picosecond pulse laser with wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm, the surface morphology and feature sizes, including ablation crater width (i.e. diameter), ablation depth, ablation area, ablation volume, single pulse ablation rate, and so forth, of the titanium alloy were studied, and their ablation distributions were obtained. The experimental results show that titanium alloy irradiated by a picosecond pulse infrared laser with a 1064 nm wavelength has better ablation morphology than that of the green picosecond pulse laser with a 532 nm wavelength. The feature sizes are approximately linearly dependent on the laser pulse energy density at low energy density and the monotonic increase in laser pulse energy density. With the increase in energy density, the ablation feature sizes are increased. The rate of increase in the feature sizes slows down gradually once the energy density reaches a certain value, and gradually saturated trends occur at a relatively high energy density. Based on the linear relation between the laser pulse energy density and the crater area of the titanium alloy surface, and the Gaussian distribution of the laser intensity on the cross section, the ablation threshold of titanium alloy irradiated by an ultra-fast pulse laser was calculated to be about 0.109 J/cm{sup 2}.

  20. The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    THE ULTRA-HIGH LIME WITH ALUMINUM PROCESS FOR REMOVING CHLORIDE FROM RECIRCULATING COOLING WATER A Dissertation by AHMED IBRAHEEM ALI ABDEL-WAHAB Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...-WAHAB Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved as to style and content by: Bill Batchelor (Chair of Committee) Robin L. Autenrieth (Member...

  1. Main effects of the Earth's rotation on the stationary states of ultra-cold neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayeul Arminjon

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The relativistic corrections in the Hamiltonian for a particle in a uniformly rotating frame are discussed. They are shown to be negligible in the case of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) in the Earth's gravity. The effect, on the energy levels of UCN, of the main term due to the Earth's rotation, i.e. the angular-momentum term, is calculated. The energy shift is found proportional to the energy level itself.

  2. Ultra-Clean Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Bergin

    2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: Dynamometer Durability Testing, the Denali Bus Fleet Demonstration, Bus Fleet Demonstrations Emissions Analysis, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Emissions Analysis, Feasibility Study of SFPs for Rural Alaska, and Cold Weather Testing of Ultra Clean Fuel.

  3. Self-guided wakefield experiments driven by petawatt class ultra-short laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangles, S P D; Bellei, C; Dangor, A E; Kamperidis, C; Kneip, S; Nagel, S R; Willingale, L; Najmudin, Z

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the extension of self-injecting laser wakefield experiments to the regime that will be accessible with the next generation of petawatt class ultra-short pulse laser systems. Using linear scalings, current experimental trends and numerical simulations we determine the optimal laser and target parameters, i.e. focusing geometry, plasma density and target length, that are required to increase the electron beam energy (to > 1 GeV) without the use of external guiding structures.

  4. Self-assembled ultra small ZnO nanocrystals for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patra, Astam K.; Dutta, Arghya; Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a facile chemical approach to produce self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous zinc oxide nanocrystals using sodium salicylate (SS) as a template under hydrothermal conditions. These ZnO nanomaterials have been successfully fabricated as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in the presence of N719 dye and iodine–triiodide electrolyte. The structural features, crystallinity, purity, mesophase and morphology of the nanostructure ZnO are investigated by several characterization tools. N{sub 2} sorption analysis revealed high surface areas (203 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}) and narrow pore size distributions (5.1–5.4 nm) for different samples. The mesoporous structure and strong photoluminescence facilitates the high dye loading at the mesoscopic void spaces and light harvesting in DSSC. By utilizing this ultra-small ZnO photoelectrode with film thickness of about 7 ?m in the DSSC with an open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.74 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 3.83 mA cm{sup ?2} and an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved. - Graphical abstract: Ultra-small ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized with sodium salicylate as a template and using it as a photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell 1.12% power conversion efficiency has been observed. - Highlights: • Synthesis of self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous ZnO nanocrystals by using sodium salicylate as a template. • Mesoporous ZnO materials have high BET surface areas and void space. • ZnO nanoparticles serve as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). • Using ZnO nanocrystals as photoelectrode power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved.

  5. Decomposition of Harmonic and Jet Contributions to Particle-pair Correlations at Ultra-relativistic Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. N. Ajitanand; J. M. Alexander; P. Chung; W. G. Holzmann; M. Issah; Roy A. Lacey; A. Shevel; A. Taranenko; P. Danielewicz

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Methodology is presented for analysis of two-particle azimuthal angle correlation functions obtained in collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. We show that harmonic and di-jet contributions to these correlation functions can be reliably decomposed by two techniques to give an accurate measurement of the jet-pair distribution. Results from detailed Monte Carlo simulations are used to demonstrate the efficacy of these techniques in the study of possible modifications to jet topologies in heavy ion reactions.

  6. Boundary Effects on Bose-Einstein Condensation in Ultra-Static Space-Times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Akant; E. Ertugrul; Y. Gul; O. T. Turgut

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The boundary effects on the Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal Bose gas on an ultra-static space-time are studied by a Mellin-Barnes type asymptotic analysis of the harmonic sum representing the depletion coefficient. Small $\\beta m$ regime, which is the relevant regime for the relativistic gas, is studied through the heat kernel expansion for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The analysis is made for both charged bosons and neutral bosons.

  7. Boundary Effects on Bose-Einstein Condensation in Ultra-Static Space-Times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akant, L; Gul, Y; Turgut, O T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The boundary effects on the Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal Bose gas on an ultra-static space-time are studied by a Mellin-Barnes type asymptotic analysis of the harmonic sum representing the depletion coefficient. Small $\\beta m$ regime, which is the relevant regime for the relativistic gas, is studied through the heat kernel expansion for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The analysis is made for both charged bosons and neutral bosons.

  8. Asymptotic analysis of spatially inhomogeneous stiff and ultra-stiff cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Coley; W. C. Lim

    2005-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate analytically the past asymptotic decay rates close to an initial singularity in general G_0 spatially inhomogeneous perfect fluid models with an effective equation of state which is stiff or ultra-stiff (i.e., $\\gamma \\ge 2$). These results are then supported by numerical simulations in a special class of G_2 cosmological models. Our analysis confirms and extends the BKL conjectures and lends support to recent isotropization results in cosmological models of current interest (with $\\gamma > 2$).

  9. Development of an ultra-safe, ultra-low-emissions natural gas-fueled school bus: Phase 2, prototype hardware development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubesh, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work done on Phase 2, ``Prototype Hardware Development`` of Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Project No. 03-6871, ``Development of an Ultra-Safe, Ultra-Low-Emissions Alternative-Fueled School Bus``. A prototype school bus was designed and constructed. This bus incorporated many new technologies to increase the safety of the bus passengers as well as pedestrians boarding and leaving the bus. These technologies emphasized increased visibility between the bus driver and pedestrians or vehicles, and included the use of high intensity discharge lighting, pedestrian and vehicle detection systems, and remote-mounted cameras. Passenger safety was also stressed, with the application of seat belts and improved emergency exits and lighting. A natural gas-fueled engine was developed for powering the bus. The development process focused primarily on improvements to the lean operation of the engine and control system advancements. The control system development included investigations into alternative control algorithms for steady-state and transient operation, various fuel metering devices, as well as new methods for wastegate control, knock and misfire detection, and catalyst monitoring. Both the vehicle and engine systems represent state-of-the-art technologies. Integration of the vehicle and engine is planned for the next phase of the project, followed by a demonstration test of the overall vehicle system.

  10. Thermal up-scattering of very cold and ultra-cold neutrons in solid deuterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasprzak, M

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work presented in this thesis forms part of a program at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) to construct a high intensity superthermal ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source based on solid deuterium as UCN production medium. We carried out a set of experiments to gain a better understanding of the properties and the behaviour of solid deuterium as a cold neutron moderator and ultra-cold neutron converter. We present the measurements of the total neutron cross section as obtained by transmission studies with very cold neutrons and ultra-cold neutrons in solid deuterium. The experimental set-up and the methods of data analysis are described and also the procedure of preparing the solid deuterium samples is given. The neutron transmission studies are supported by optical investigation of the crystal and by Raman spectroscopy. We have thus characterised the temperature dependence of the neutron transmission through solid deuterium and we have been able to identify the role that coherent neutron scattering plays for t...

  11. Beryllium in the Ultra-Lithium-Deficient,Metal-Poor Halo Dwarf, G186-26

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ann Merchant Boesgaard; Megan C. Novicki

    2005-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The vast majority of low-metal halo dwarfs show a similar amount of Li; this has been attributed to the Li that was produced in the Big Bang. However, there are nine known halo stars with T $>$ 5900 K and [Fe/H] $<$ $-$1.0 that are ultra-Li-deficient. We have looked for Be in the very low metallicity star, G 186-26 at [Fe/H] = $-$2.71, which is one of the ultra-Li-deficient stars. This star is also ultra-Be deficient. Relative to Be in the Li-normal stars at [Fe/H] = $-$2.7, G 182-26 is down in Be by more than 0.8 dex. Of two potential causes for the Li-deficiency -- mass-transfer in a pre-blue straggler or extra rotationally-induced mixing in a star that was initially a very rapid rotator -- the absence of Be favors the blue-straggler hypothesis, but the rotation model cannot be ruled-out completely.

  12. Calibration of an ultra-low-background proportional counter for measuring {sup 37}Ar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seifert, A.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R. M.; Bowyer, T. W.; Day, A. R.; Fuller, E. S.; Haas, D. A.; Hayes, J. C.; Hoppe, E. W.; Humble, P. H.; Keillor, M. E.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Mace, E. K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Merriman, J. H.; Miley, H. S.; Myers, A. W.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); and others

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-low-background proportional counter design has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using clean materials, primarily electro-chemically-purified copper. This detector, along with an ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS), was developed to complement a new shallow underground laboratory (30 meters water-equivalent) at PNNL. The ULBCS design includes passive neutron and gamma shielding, along with an active cosmic-veto system. This system provides a capability for making ultra-sensitive measurements to support applications like age-dating soil hydrocarbons with {sup 14}C/{sup 3}H, age-dating of groundwater with {sup 39}Ar, and soil-gas assay for {sup 37}Ar to support On-Site Inspection (OSI). On-Site Inspection is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclides created by an underground nuclear explosion are valuable signatures of a Treaty violation. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of {sup 37}Ar, produced from neutron interactions with calcium in soil, provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This work describes the calibration techniques and analysis methods developed to enable quantitative measurements of {sup 37}Ar samples over a broad range of proportional counter operating pressures. These efforts, along with parallel work in progress on gas chemistry separation, are expected to provide a significant new capability for {sup 37}Ar soil gas background studies.

  13. Measurement of Untruncated Nuclear Spin Interactions via Zero- to Ultra-Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John W. Blanchard; Tobias F. Sjolander; Jonathan P. King; Micah P. Ledbetter; Emma H. Levine; Vikram S. Bajaj; Dmitry Budker; Alexander Pines

    2015-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Zero- to ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (ZULF NMR) provides a new regime for the measurement of nuclear spin-spin interactions free from effects of large magnetic fields, such as truncation of terms that do not commute with the Zeeman Hamiltonian. One such interaction, the magnetic dipole-dipole coupling, is a valuable source of spatial information in NMR, though many terms are unobservable in high-field NMR, and the coupling averages to zero under isotropic molecular tumbling. Under partial alignment, this information is retained in the form of so-called residual dipolar couplings. We report zero- to ultra-low-field NMR measurements of residual dipolar couplings in acetonitrile-2-$^{13}$C aligned in stretched polyvinyl acetate gels. This represents the first investigation of dipolar couplings as a perturbation on the indirect spin-spin $J$-coupling in the absence of an applied magnetic field. As a consequence of working at zero magnetic field, we observe terms of the dipole-dipole coupling Hamiltonian that are invisible in conventional high-field NMR. This technique expands the capabilities of zero- to ultra-low-field NMR and may have applications in precision measurement of subtle physical interactions, chemical analysis, and characterization of local mesoscale structure in materials.

  14. Thermal up-scattering of very cold and ultra-cold neutrons in solid deuterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malgorzata Kasprzak

    2004-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The work presented in this thesis forms part of a program at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) to construct a high intensity superthermal ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source based on solid deuterium as UCN production medium. We carried out a set of experiments to gain a better understanding of the properties and the behaviour of solid deuterium as a cold neutron moderator and ultra-cold neutron converter. We present the measurements of the total neutron cross section as obtained by transmission studies with very cold neutrons and ultra-cold neutrons in solid deuterium. The experimental set-up and the methods of data analysis are described and also the procedure of preparing the solid deuterium samples is given. The neutron transmission studies are supported by optical investigation of the crystal and by Raman spectroscopy. We have thus characterised the temperature dependence of the neutron transmission through solid deuterium and we have been able to identify the role that coherent neutron scattering plays for the investigated deuterium samples.

  15. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Parallel Analysis Tools and New Visualization Techniques for Ultra-Large Climate Data Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    middleton, Don [Co-PI; Haley, Mary

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ParVis was a project funded under LAB 10-05: “Earth System Modeling: Advanced Scientific Visualization of Ultra-Large Climate Data Sets”. Argonne was the lead lab with partners at PNNL, SNL, NCAR and UC-Davis. This report covers progress from January 1st, 2013 through Dec 1st, 2014. Two previous reports covered the period from Summer, 2010, through September 2011 and October 2011 through December 2012, respectively. While the project was originally planned to end on April 30, 2013, personnel and priority changes allowed many of the institutions to continue work through FY14 using existing funds. A primary focus of ParVis was introducing parallelism to climate model analysis to greatly reduce the time-to-visualization for ultra-large climate data sets. Work in the first two years was conducted on two tracks with different time horizons: one track to provide immediate help to climate scientists already struggling to apply their analysis to existing large data sets and another focused on building a new data-parallel library and tool for climate analysis and visualization that will give the field a platform for performing analysis and visualization on ultra-large datasets for the foreseeable future. In the final 2 years of the project, we focused mostly on the new data-parallel library and associated tools for climate analysis and visualization.

  16. The unusual radio afterglow of the ultra-long gamma-ray burst GRB 130925A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horesh, Assaf; Perley, Daniel A; Kulkarni, S R; Hallinan, Gregg; Bellm, Eric

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRB 130925A is one of the recent additions to the growing family of ultra-long GRBs (T90$ \\gtrsim 1000$ s). While the X-ray emission of ultra-long GRBs have been studied extensively in the past, no comprehensive radio dataset has been obtained so far. We report here the early discovery of an unusual radio afterglow associated with the ultra-long GRB 130925A. The radio emission peaks at low-frequencies ($\\sim 7$ GHz) at early times, only $2.2$ days after the burst occurred. More notably, the radio spectrum at frequencies above $10$ GHz exhibits a rather steep cut-off, compared to other long GRB radio afterglows. This cut-off can be explained if the emitting electrons are either mono-energetic or originate from a rather steep, $dN/dE \\propto E^{-4}$, power-law energy distribution. An alternative electron acceleration mechanism may be required to produce such an electron energy distribution. Furthermore, the radio spectrum exhibits a secondary underlying and slowly varying component. This may hint that the radio...

  17. Optimization of the Perimeter Doping of Ultrashallow p+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    -Violet (UV) radiation. Surface damage can give rise to degradation of various electrical and optical photodiode structures is degraded by damage at the silicon/oxide interface after EUV radiation exposure for detection of Deep Ultra Violet (DUV) radiation due to the nanometer deep pn-junctions. The dark current

  18. 156 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 14, NO. 4, APRIL 2004 An Ultra-Low Power InAs/AlSb HEMT Ka-Band

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    156 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 14, NO. 4, APRIL 2004 An Ultra-Low Power dc power dissipation of the ABCS LNA was an ultra-low 1.5 mW per stage, or 4.5 mW total. This is less amplifier, mil- limeter-waves. I. INTRODUCTION ULTRA-LOW power millimeter-wave low-noise am- plifiers (LP

  19. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sally (Xiaolei) Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the standard lead-acid unit experienced significant degradation after only 6,273 cycles. The high-carbon, ALABC battery manufactured in Project C3 also was tested under the advanced HEV schedule. Its performance was significantly better than the standard lead-acid unit, but was still inferior compared with the UltraBattery. The batteries supplied by Exide as part of the C3 Project performed well under the HEV screening test, especially at high temperatures. The results suggest that higher operating temperatures may improve the performance of lead-acid-based technologies operated under HEV conditions—it is recommended that life studies be conducted on these technologies under such conditions.

  20. advanced light source: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detectors. A 2.5 m diameter light source illuminated by an ultra--violet light emitting diode is calibrated with an overall uncertainty of 2.1 % at a wavelength of 365 nm....

  1. absolute source activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detectors. A 2.5 m diameter light source illuminated by an ultra--violet light emitting diode is calibrated with an overall uncertainty of 2.1 % at a wavelength of 365 nm....

  2. Published: February 1, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 2938 dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp108336a |J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 29382947

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    ultra- violet light because of the wide bandgap, which limits the practical use for solar-energy Pt/CdS/TiO2 was not as marked, as compared to the best colloidal ternary systems reported

  3. CURRICULUM VITEA NAME : HISHAM A.G GHALAYINI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -conditioning, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, Internal combustions and jet propulsions, solar water collectors, station pack 2050. f- Infra-red solar radiation model 3020 station pack 2060. g- Ultra-violet solar

  4. JLF Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    security for users and staff. The Target Areas contain a variety of potentially hazardous ultra-violet, visible and infrared lasers. Due to the complexity and scale of the laser...

  5. Beryllium in Ultra-Lithium-Deficient Halo Stars - The Blue Straggler Connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ann Merchant Boesgaard

    2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    There are nine metal-deficient stars that have Li abundances well below the Li plateau that is defined by over 100 unevolved stars with temperatures above 5800 K and values of [Fe/H] $<$ $-$1.0. Abundances of Be have been determined for most of these ultra-Li-deficient stars in order to investigate the cause of the Li deficiencies. High-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra have been obtained in the Be II spectral region near 3130 \\AA for six ultra-Li-deficient stars with the Keck I telescope and its new uv-sensitive CCD on the upgraded HIRES. The spectrum synthesis technique has been used to determine Be abundances. All six stars are found to have Be deficiencies also. Two have measurable - but reduced - Be and four have only upper limits on Be. These results are consistent with the idea that these Li- and Be-deficient stars are analogous to blue stragglers. The stars have undergone mass transfer events (or mergers) which destroy or dilute both Li and Be. The findings cannot be matched by the models that predict that the deficiencies are due to extra-mixing in a subset of halo stars that were initially rapid rotators, with the possible exception of one star, G 139-8. Because the ultra-Li-deficient stars are also Be-deficient, they appear to be genuine outliers in population of halo stars used to determine the value of primordial Li; they no longer have the Li in their atmospheres that was produced in the Big Bang.

  6. Shape and flow fluctuations in ultra-central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun Shen; Zhi Qiu; Ulrich Heinz

    2015-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In ultra-central heavy-ion collisions, anisotropic hydrodynamic flow is generated by density fluctuations in the initial state rather than by geometric overlap effects. For a given centrality class, the initial fluctuation spectrum is sensitive to the method chosen for binning the events into centrality classes. We show that sorting events by total initial entropy or by total final multiplicity yields event classes with equivalent statistical fluctuation properties, in spite of viscous entropy production during the fireball evolution. With this initial entropy-based centrality definition we generate several classes of ultra-central Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies and evolve the events using viscous hydrodynamics with non-zero shear but vanishing bulk viscosity. Comparing the predicted anisotropic flow coefficients for charged hadrons with CMS data we find that both the Monte Carlo Glauber (MC-Glb) and Monte Carlo Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi (MC-KLN) models produce initial fluctuation spectra that are incompatible with the measured final anisotropic flow power spectrum, for any choice of the specific shear viscosity. In spite of this failure, we show that the hydrodynamic model can qualitatively explain, in terms of event-by-event fluctuations of the anisotropic flow coefficients and flow angles, the breaking of flow factorization for elliptic, triangular and quadrangular flow measured by the CMS experiment. For elliptic flow, this factorization breaking is large in ultra-central collisions. We conclude that the bulk of the experimentally observed flow factorization breaking effects are qualitatively explained by hydrodynamic evolution of initial-state fluctuations, but that their quantitative description requires a better understanding of the initial fluctuation spectrum.

  7. Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Dean

    2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

  8. Shape and flow fluctuations in ultra-central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun Shen; Zhi Qiu; Ulrich Heinz

    2015-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In ultra-central heavy-ion collisions, anisotropic hydrodynamic flow is generated by density fluctuations in the initial state rather than by geometric overlap effects. For a given centrality class, the initial fluctuation spectrum is sensitive to the method chosen for binning the events into centrality classes. We show that sorting events by total initial entropy or by total final multiplicity yields event classes with equivalent statistical fluctuation properties, in spite of viscous entropy production during the fireball evolution. With this initial entropy-based centrality definition we generate several classes of ultra-central Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies and evolve the events using viscous hydrodynamics with non-zero shear but vanishing bulk viscosity. Comparing the predicted anisotropic flow coefficients for charged hadrons with CMS data we find that both the Monte Carlo Glauber (MC-Glb) and Monte Carlo Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi (MC-KLN) models produce initial fluctuation spectra that are incompatible with the measured final anisotropic flow power spectrum, for any choice of the specific shear viscosity. In spite of this failure, we show that the hydrodynamic model can qualitatively explain, in terms of event-by-event fluctuations of the anisotropic flow coefficients and flow angles, the breaking of flow factorization for elliptic, triangular and quadrangular flow measured by the CMS experiment. For elliptic flow, this factorization breaking is large in ultra-central collisions. We conclude that the bulk of the experimentally observed flow factorization breaking effects are qualitatively explained by hydrodynamic evolution of initial-state fluctuations, but that their quantitative description requires a better understanding of the initial fluctuation spectrum.

  9. Surface Cleaning Techniques: Ultra-Trace ICP-MS Sample Preparation and Assay of HDPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world’s most sensitive radiation detection and assay systems depend upon ultra-low background (ULB) materials to reduce unwanted radiological backgrounds. Herein, we evaluate methods to clean HDPE, a material of interest to ULB systems and the means to provide rapid assay of surface and bulk contamination. ULB level material and ultra-trace level detection of actinide elements is difficult to attain, due to the introduction of contamination from sample preparation equipment such as pipette tips, sample vials, forceps, etc. and airborne particulate. To date, literature available on the cleaning of such polymeric materials and equipment for ULB applications and ultra-trace analyses is limited. For these reasons, a study has been performed to identify an effective way to remove surface contamination from polymers in an effort to provide improved instrumental detection limits. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was utilized to assess the effectiveness of a variety of leachate solutions for removal of inorganic uranium and thorium surface contamination from polymers, specifically high density polyethylene (HDPE). HDPE leaching procedures were tested to optimize contaminant removal of thorium and uranium. Calibration curves for thorium and uranium ranged from 15 ppq (fg/mL) to 1 ppt (pg/mL). Detection limits were calculated at 6 ppq for uranium and 7 ppq for thorium. Results showed the most effective leaching reagent to be clean 6 M nitric acid for 72 hour exposures. Contamination levels for uranium and thorium found in the leachate solutions were significant for ultralow level radiation detection applications.

  10. Ultra-cold Neutron Production in Anti-ferromagnetic Oxygen Solid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, C Y

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spin waves, or magnons, in the anti-ferromagnetic $\\alpha$ phase of solid oxygen provide a novel mechanism for ultra-cold neutron (UCN) production. Magnons dominate the energy exchange mechanisms for cold neutrons and UCN in solid $\\alpha$-oxygen, much in the same way as do phonons in solid deuterium superthermal UCN sources. We present calculations of UCN production and upscattering rates in S-O$_2$. The results indicate that S-O$_2$ is potentially a much more efficient UCN source material than solid deuterium.

  11. Ultra-cold Neutron Production in Anti-ferromagnetic Oxygen Solid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. -Y. Liu; A. R. Young

    2004-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Spin waves, or magnons, in the anti-ferromagnetic $\\alpha$ phase of solid oxygen provide a novel mechanism for ultra-cold neutron (UCN) production. Magnons dominate the energy exchange mechanisms for cold neutrons and UCN in solid $\\alpha$-oxygen, much in the same way as do phonons in solid deuterium superthermal UCN sources. We present calculations of UCN production and upscattering rates in S-O$_2$. The results indicate that S-O$_2$ is potentially a much more efficient UCN source material than solid deuterium.

  12. A focusable, convergent fast-electron beam from ultra-high-intensity laser-solid interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, R H H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel scheme for the creation of a convergent, or focussing, fast-electron beam generated from ultra-high-intensity laser-solid interactions is described. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are used to demonstrate the efficacy of this scheme in two dimensions. It is shown that a beam of fast-electrons of energy 500 keV - 3 MeV propagates within a solid-density plasma, focussing at depth. The depth of focus of the fast-electron beam is controlled via the target dimensions and focussing optics.

  13. Automatic deployment of a 2-D geophone array for efficient ultra-shallow seismic imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsoflias, Georgios P.; Steeples, Don W.; Czarnecki, Gerard P.; Sloan, Steven D.; Eslick, Robert C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Data acquisition and preliminary processing strate- 324gies, Geophysics, 63, 1434?1450. 325Burridge, R., J. Graham, K. Shillcutt, R. Hirsh, and D. Kortenkamp (2003), 326Experiments with an EVA assistant Robot, paper presented at 7th Inter- 327national.... Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union. 0094-8276/06/2006GL025902$05.00 LXXXXX 1of4 103 acquire conventional ultra-shallow 3-D seismic data. The 104 method could be adapted to allow robotic shallow seismic 105 surveys in areas where people cannot...

  14. Gamma-radiation as a Signature of Ultra Peripheral Ion Collisions at LHC energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. V. Kharlov; V. L. Korotkikh

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the peripheral ion collisions at LHC energies in which a nucleus is excited to the discrete state and then emits $\\gamma$-rays. Large nuclear Lorenz factor allows to observe the high energy photons up to a few ten GeV and in the region of angles of a few hundred micro-radians around the beam direction. These photons can be used for tagging the events with particle production in the central rapidity region in the ultra-peripheral collisions. For that it is necessary to have an electromagnetic detector in front of the zero degree calorimeter in the LHC experiments.

  15. Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell E. Fray

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    RPSEA is currently in its first year of performance under contract DE-AC26-07NT42677, Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Program Administration. Progress continues to be made in establishing the program administration policies, procedures, and strategic foundation for future research awards. Significant progress was made in development of the draft program solicitations. In addition, RPSEA personnel continued an aggressive program of outreach to engage the industry and ensure wide industry participation in the research award solicitation process.

  16. Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell E. Fray

    2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    RPSEA is currently in its first year of performance under contract DE-AC26-07NT42677, Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Program Administration. Significant progress has been made in establishing the program administration policies, procedures, and strategic foundation for future research awards. RPSEA has concluded an industry-wide collaborative effort to identify focus areas for research awards under this program. This effort is summarized in the RPSEA Draft Annual Plan, which is currently under review by committees established by the Secretary of Energy.

  17. A source of ultra-cold neutrons for the gravitational spectrometer GRANIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Plonka, C; Soldner, T; Vezzu, F; Zimmer, O

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the status of the development of a dedicated high density ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source dedicated to the gravitational spectrometer GRANIT. The source employs superthermal conversion of cold neutrons to UCN in superfluid helium. Tests have shown that UCN produced inside the liquid can be extracted into vacuum. Furthermore a dedicated neutron selection channel was tested to maintain high initial density and extract only neutrons with a vertical velocity component 20 cm/s for the spectrometer. This new source would have a phase-space density of 0.18 cm-3(m/s)-3 for the spectrometer.

  18. A source of ultra-cold neutrons for the gravitational spectrometer GRANIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Schmidt-Wellenburg; P. Geltenbort; V. V. Nesvizhevsky; C. Plonka; T. Soldner; F. Vezzu; O. Zimmer

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the status of the development of a dedicated high density ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source dedicated to the gravitational spectrometer GRANIT. The source employs superthermal conversion of cold neutrons to UCN in superfluid helium. Tests have shown that UCN produced inside the liquid can be extracted into vacuum. Furthermore a dedicated neutron selection channel was tested to maintain high initial density and extract only neutrons with a vertical velocity component 20 cm/s for the spectrometer. This new source would have a phase-space density of 0.18 cm-3(m/s)-3 for the spectrometer.

  19. Cherenkov light Extrapolation at Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays in Extensive Air Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Al-Rubaiee

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Simulation of Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (LDF) from particles of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) with ultra high energy cosmic rays (E>=10^16 eV) was simulated for primary protons by the computer code CORSIKA. The parameterization, that constructed on the basis of this simulation have allowed us to reconstruct the events, that is, to reconstruct the type and energy of the particle that generated EAS from signal amplitudes of Cherenkov light registered with the Tunka-25 facility. The extrapolation of the Cherenkov light LDF approximation at the energy range (10^16-2.10^18 eV) was taken into account.

  20. Ultra-wideband short-pulse radar with range accuracy for short range detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T; Pankonin, Jeffrey; Heintzleman, Richard E; Kinzie, Nicola Jean; Popovic, Zorana P

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) radar transmitter apparatus comprises a pulse generator configured to produce from a sinusoidal input signal a pulsed output signal having a series of baseband pulses with a first pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The pulse generator includes a plurality of components that each have a nonlinear electrical reactance. A signal converter is coupled to the pulse generator and configured to convert the pulsed output signal into a pulsed radar transmit signal having a series of radar transmit pulses with a second PRF that is less than the first PRF.