National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hardware cost reductions

  1. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 1, 2011, DOE announced $42.4 million in funding over three years for the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) funding opportunity. Part of the SunShot Systems...

  2. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) Funding Opportunity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) program, DOE is funding new components and system designs to overcome scientific, technological, and engineering barriers to...

  3. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) Funding...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Systems Solexel, Development and Productization of High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Building-Interated Photovoltaic Shiingles Using Monocrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

  4. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Photovoltaics, 2013-2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.; Seif, D.; Margolis, R.; Morris, J.; Davidson, C.; Truitt, S.; Torbert, R.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this analysis is to roadmap the cost reductions and innovations necessary to achieve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's total soft-cost targets by 2020. The roadmap focuses on advances in four soft-cost areas: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII); (3) installation labor; and (4) financing. Financing cost reductions are in terms of the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) for financing PV system installations, with real-percent targets of 3.0% (residential) and 3.4% (commercial).

  5. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David; Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  6. Low cost electrode development and performance in Ballard advanced stack hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hards, G.A.; Ralph, T.R.; Wilkinson, D.P.; Campbell, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Cost reduction is a critical requirement for the widespread commercial application of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology. Significant stack cost savings are available through materials cost reductions and the development of low cost, high volume, manufacturing processes. This paper summarizes progress made by Ballard Power Systems and Johnson Matthey in the development of lower cost stack component technology. Single cell performance in Ballard Mark V hardware, of membrane electrode assemblies (NEAs) employing volume manufactured electrodes with catalyst loadings below 1.0 mgPtcm{sup -2}, are comparable to current stack MEAs comprising unsupported platinum based catalysts with loadings of 8.0 mgPtcm{sup -2}. In the advanced stack hardware, under development for motive and utility applications, the low cost MEAs exhibit high performance and minimal voltage decays after over 3,000 hours of stack operation. Cell to cell reproducibility is excellent, highlighting the high consistency of product available from the manufacturing processes. The MEAs represent a significant progress in the commercialization of PEMFC systems. Incorporation of the technology in commercial prototype stacks is underway.

  7. Energy Department Announces $19 Million to Drive Down Solar Soft Costs, Increase Hardware Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department today announced $19 million to reduce both hardware and non-hardware costs of solar and to drive greater solar energy deployment in the United States.

  8. Solar Projects to Reduce Non-Hardware Balance of System Costs | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Soft Costs » Solar Projects to Reduce Non-Hardware Balance of System Costs Solar Projects to Reduce Non-Hardware Balance of System Costs -- These projects are inactive -- Seven projects are focused on creating tools and developing methods to reduce the cost of non-hardware components for installed solar energy systems and reducing market barriers. These projects will develop software design tools and databases that can be used by local jurisdictions and installers, and tools to

  9. Analysis of near-term spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Engel, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer model was developed to quantify the transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs associated with shipping spent fuel in the commercial nucler fuel cycle in the near future. Results from this study indicate that alternative spent fuel shipping systems (consolidated or disassembled fuel elements and new casks designed for older fuel) will significantly reduce the transportation hardware requirements and costs for shipping spent fuel in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, if there is no significant change in their operating/handling characteristics. It was also found that a more modest cost reduction results from increasing the fraction of spent fuel shipped by truck from 25% to 50%. Larger transportation cost reductions could be realized with further increases in the truck shipping fraction. Using the given set of assumptions, it was found that the existing spent fuel cask fleet size is generally adequate to perform the needed transportation services until a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) begins to receive fuel (assumed in 1987). Once the FRP opens, up to 7 additional truck systems and 16 additional rail systems are required at the reference truck shipping fraction of 25%. For the 50% truck shipping fraction, 17 additional truck systems and 9 additional rail systems are required. If consolidated fuel only is shipped (25% by truck), 5 additional rail casks are required and the current truck cask fleet is more than adequate until at least 1995. Changes in assumptions could affect the results. Transportation costs for a federal interim storage program could total about $25M if the FRP begins receiving fuel in 1987 or about $95M if the FRP is delayed until 1989. This is due to an increased utilization of federal interim storage facility from 350 MTU for the reference scenario to about 750 MTU if reprocessing is delayed by two years.

  10. Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Energy Systems | Department of Energy Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of Solar Energy Systems Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of Solar Energy Systems November 15, 2011 - 4:52pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative, Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced up to $7 million to reduce the non-hardware costs of residential and commercial solar energy installations. Made available through the

  11. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Document states additional feedback on the worksop received via a request for information issued in ...

  12. Rethinking Standby & Fixed Cost Charges: Regulatory & Rate Design Pathways to Deeper Solar PV Cost Reductions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    While solar PV's impact on utilities has been frequently discussed the past year, little attention has been paid to the potentially impact posed by solar PV-specific rate designs (often informally referred to as solar "fees" or "taxes") upon non-hardware "soft" cost reductions. In fact, applying some rate designs to solar PV customers could potentially have a large impact on the economics of PV systems.

  13. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  14. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report ...

  15. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems, Using a Bottom-Up Approach and Installer Survey - Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, B.; Ardani, K.; Feldman, D.; Citron, R.; Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents results from the second U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs -- for U.S. residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. In service to DOE's SunShot Initiative, annual expenditure and labor-hour-productivity data are analyzed to benchmark 2012 soft costs related to (1) customer acquisition and system design (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII). We also include an in-depth analysis of costs related to financing, overhead, and profit. Soft costs are both a major challenge and a major opportunity for reducing PV system prices and stimulating SunShot-level PV deployment in the United States. The data and analysis in this series of benchmarking reports are a step toward the more detailed understanding of PV soft costs required to track and accelerate these price reductions.

  16. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost ...

  17. Cost reduction in deep water production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beltrao, R.L.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a cost reduction program that Petrobras has conceived for its deep water field. Beginning with the Floating Production Unit, a new concept of FPSO was established where a simple system, designed to long term testing, can be upgraded, on the location, to be the definitive production unit. Regarding to the subsea system, the following projects will be considered. (1) Subsea Manifold: There are two 8-well-diverless manifolds designed for 1,000 meters presently under construction and after a value analysis, a new design was achieved for the next generation. Both projects will be discussed and a cost evaluation will also be provided. (2) Subsea Pipelines: Petrobras has just started a large program aiming to reduce cost on this important item. There are several projects such as hybrid (flexible and rigid) pipes for large diameter in deep water, alternatives laying methods, rigid riser on FPS, new material...etc. The authors intend to provide an overview of each project.

  18. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report | Department of Energy Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Proceedings from the Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop held March 20-21, 2013, at Argonne National Laboratory. 2013_csd_workshop_report.pdf (2.03 MB) More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop

  19. Project Profile: Evaluating the Causes of Photovoltaics Cost Reduction: Why

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is PV different? | Department of Energy Soft Costs » Project Profile: Evaluating the Causes of Photovoltaics Cost Reduction: Why is PV different? Project Profile: Evaluating the Causes of Photovoltaics Cost Reduction: Why is PV different? Logo of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The bar chart below the logo shows the cost reduction in photovoltaics compared to other energy-conversion technologies. PV is performing better than coal, natural gas, nuclear fusion, wind, and solar thermal

  20. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) held a Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop on March 20-21, 2013, in Argonne, Illinois. The workshop featured 36 participants representing industry, government, and national laboratories with expertise in the relevant fields. The

  1. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on...

  2. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate | Department of Energy Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Project objectives: Gather and analyze independently the available technical, cost, financial incentive data on installed GSHP/HGSHP applications in

  3. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  4. Cost reduction in absorption chillers: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1989-02-01

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has addressed the possibility of dramatically lowering the first costs of absorption chillers through lowered material intensity and the use of lower cost materials, primarily in the heat exchangers which make up the bulk of the operating components of these systems. This must be done while retaining the best performance characteristics available today, a gross design point coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.3 and a net design (seasonal) average COP of 1.0 (0.90) in a directly fired, double effect unit. We have investigated several possible routes to these goals, and here report on these findings, focusing on the areas that appear most promising. The candidate technologies include the use of polymer film heat exchangers in several applications, the use of thin strips of new, corrosion resistant alloys to replace thicker, less impervious metals in applications exposed to gas flames, and copper or cupro-nickel foils in contact with system water. The use of such materials is only possible in the context of new heat exchanger and system designs, which are also discussed. To lend focus, we have concentrated on a directly fired double effect system providing capacity only. If successful, these techniques will also find wide applicability in heat pumps, cogeneration systems, solar cooling, heat recovery and chemical process heat transfer. 46 refs., 24 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  6. On the Path to SunShot- Cost Reductions Required

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the On the Path to SunShot report series, the Role of Advancements in Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs report highlights that while we are making major progress toward meeting the SunShot goals, further cost reductions are required to make solar energy cost competitive with conventional sources of energy by 2020. Learn more about the reports in the On the Path to SunShot series and view all of their associated graphics.

  7. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Feldman, D.; Ong, S.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents results from the first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs--often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs--for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems.

  8. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwabe, Ulrich; Fishman, Oleg

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this project was to fully develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a new type of utility scale PV system. Based on patented technology, this includes the development of a truly centralized inverter system with capacities up to 100MW, and a high voltage, distributed harvesting approach. This system promises to greatly impact both the energy yield from large scale PV systems by reducing losses and increasing yield from mismatched arrays, as well as reduce overall system costs through very cost effective conversion and BOS cost reductions enabled by higher voltage operation.

  9. Roadside Hardware Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Roadside Hardware Safety Performance Background Roadside hardware, such as traffic and work zone barriers, bridge railings, and crash cushions, prevent vehicles from leaving the road at dangerous locations. Crash testing of a large variety of vehicles into this hardware, as a means of optimizing the hardware design, is extremely expensive, often costing approximately $500,000 and 10,000 person-hours per test. The increasing diversity of automobiles and trucks, as well as the advent of the next

  10. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results November 2012 Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No.

  11. Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INTEGRATION Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems Alencon Systems, LLC *99.1% Efficient Inverter System *Power Factor Control +/- 0.9 *2,500VDC *Low/Zero Voltage Ride Through *Compact Design *Liquid Cooling *Hot-Swap Capability *Lower Total Cost of Ownership *Large BOS System Savings Designed to be "Made in the USA" * Up to 25kW * String-wise MPPT * 300 to 1,000V DC Input Voltage * 2,500V DC Bi-polar Output Voltage * "Plug and Play" Topology *

  12. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop P a g e | 1 Addendum The Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office received additional feedback on compression, storage, and dispensing needs through a request for information (RFI) issued in June 2013. Compression Among the additional needs identified for compression were research and demonstration (R&D) in the following area:  Proton exchange membrane development to allow for high pressure electrolysis to reduce the

  13. On the Path to SunShot - Cost Reductions Required | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Reductions Required On the Path to SunShot - Cost Reductions Required On the Path to SunShot - Cost Reductions Required In the On the Path to SunShot report series, the Role of Advancements in Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs report highlights that while we are making major progress toward meeting the SunShot goals, further cost reductions are required to make solar energy cost competitive with conventional sources of energy by 2020

  14. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A.; Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  15. Development of pollution reduction strategies for Mexico City: Estimating cost and ozone reduction effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Hardie, R.W.; Barrera-Roldan, A.

    1993-12-31

    This reports on the collection and preparation of data (costs and air quality improvement) for the strategic evaluation portion of the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI). Reports written for the Mexico City government by various international organizations were used to identify proposed options along with estimates of cost and emission reductions. Information from appropriate options identified by SCAQMD for Southem California were also used in the analysis. A linear optimization method was used to select a group of options or a strategy to be evaluated by decision analysis. However, the reduction of ozone levels is not a linear function of the reduction of hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} emissions. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was required for ozone. An equation for a plane on an isopleth calculated with a trajectory model was obtained using two endpoints that bracket the expected total ozone precursor reductions plus the starting concentrations for hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}. The relationship between ozone levels and the hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} concentrations was assumed to lie on this plane. This relationship was used in the linear optimization program to select the options comprising a strategy.

  16. Benzene reduction in RFG, a new low cost route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gildert, R.; Gildert, G.

    1994-12-31

    Benzene has been targeted for reduction in reformulated gasoline because it is the largest single contributor to the toxic emissions group. This presentation describes processes of benzene removal for the petroleum refiner. By making maximum use of existing equipment, the refiner can minimize the changes necessary to produce reformulated gasoline with a reduction in benzene levels.

  17. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree O'Hare, Chicago, IL. 5howellb.pdf (1.24 MB) More Documents & Publications PHEV Battery Cost Assessment ...

  18. Hydrogen Infrastructure Expansion: Consumer Demand and Cost-Reduction Potential (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Expansion: Consumer Demand and Cost-Reduction Potential Hydrogen Infrastructure Investment Forum- Palo Alto, California Dr. Marc Melaina Senior Engineer April 16, 2014 NREL/PR-5400-61966 2 Presentation Overview * How much do consumers value hydrogen station availability? * How much will station costs decline with volume? * What kind of market growth is needed to ensure station cost reductions (and adequate return on investment, or ROI)? How much do consumers value hydrogen station

  19. Reduction in Fabrication Costs of Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Morgan; Donald Connors; Michael Hickner

    2012-07-10

    Ballard Material Products (BMP) performed a pre-design technical and cost analysis of state of the art production technologies feasible for high volume GDL manufacturing. Based upon criteria that also included environmental health and safety, customer quality requirements, and future needs, BMP selected technologies that can be integrated into its current manufacturing process. These selections included Many-At-A-Time (MAAT) coating and continuous mixing technologies, as well as various on-line process control tools. These processes have allowed BMP to produce high performance GDLs at lower cost for near-term markets, as well as to define the inputs needed to develop a conceptual Greenfield facility to meet the cost targets for automotive volumes of 500,000 vehicles per year.

  20. The Investigation and Development of Low Cost Hardware Components for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George A. Marchetti

    1999-12-15

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components, which would have a low-cost structure in mass production, were fabricated and tested. A fuel cell electrode structure, comprising a thin layer of graphite (50 microns) and a front-loaded platinum catalyst layer (600 angstroms), was shown to produce significant power densities. In addition, a PEM bipolar plate, comprising flexible graphite, carbon cloth flow-fields and an integrated polymer gasket, was fabricated. Power densities of a two-cell unit using this inexpensive bipolar plate architecture were shown to be comparable to state-of-the-art bipolar plates.

  1. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  2. EV Everywhre Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    80-100 150 180 225 Pack Energy Density WhL 200 250 300 425 SOC Window % 50 80 90 90 Tesla * 250 mile electric range * 85 kWh 270 kW battery * Battery Cost: 35,000 3 ...

  3. Hardware Configuration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Configuration Hardware Configuration Interactive (login) Nodes This page describes the interactive (login) nodes at PDSF. Read More » Compute Nodes Information about the PDSF compute (batch) nodes. Read More » Data Transfer Nodes This page describes the grid and data transfer nodes at PDSF. Read More » Eliza File Systems The eliza file systems at PDSF are used for bulk file storage. Read More » Other File Systems This page describes home directories, scratch space, /common and NGF. Read More

  4. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  5. Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of Solar Energy Systems Energy Department Announces 7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of Solar Energy Systems November 15, 2011 - 4:52pm ...

  6. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Hirsch, Brian; Olis, Dan; Anderson, Kate

    2015-08-01

    There are thousands of isolated, diesel-powered microgrids that deliver energy to remote communities around the world at very high energy costs. The Remote Communities Renewable Energy program aims to help these communities reduce their fuel consumption and lower their energy costs through the use of high penetration renewable energy. As part of this program, the REopt modeling platform for energy system integration and optimization was used to analyze cost-optimal pathways toward achieving a combined 75% reduction in diesel fuel and fuel oil consumption in a select Alaskan village. In addition to the existing diesel generator and fuel oil heating technologies, the model was able to select from among wind, battery storage, and dispatchable electric heaters to meet the electrical and thermal loads. The model results indicate that while 75% fuel reduction appears to be technically feasible it may not be economically viable at this time. When the fuel reduction target was relaxed, the results indicate that by installing high-penetration renewable energy, the community could lower their energy costs by 21% while still reducing their fuel consumption by 54%.

  7. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Hirsch, Brian; Olis, Dan; Anderson, Kate

    2015-10-28

    There are thousands of isolated, diesel-powered microgrids that deliver energy to remote communities around the world at very high energy costs. The Remote Communities Renewable Energy program aims to help these communities reduce their fuel consumption and lower their energy costs through the use of high penetration renewable energy. As part of this program, the REopt modeling platform for energy system integration and optimization was used to analyze cost-optimal pathways toward achieving a combined 75% reduction in diesel fuel and fuel oil consumption in a select Alaskan village. In addition to the existing diesel generator and fuel oil heating technologies, the model was able to select from among wind, battery storage, and dispatchable electric heaters to meet the electrical and thermal loads. The model results indicate that while 75% fuel reduction appears to be technically feasible it may not be economically viable at this time. When the fuel reduction target was relaxed, the results indicate that by installing high-penetration renewable energy, the community could lower their energy costs by 21% while still reducing their fuel consumption by 54%.

  8. Microsoft Word - Heliostat_Cost_Reduction_Main_Report_v2 _NEW_ 6-6-07.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3293 Unlimited Release Printed June 2007 Heliostat Cost Reduction Study Gregory J. Kolb, Scott A. Jones, Matthew W. Donnelly, David Gorman, Robert Thomas, Roger Davenport, and Ron Lumia Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract

  9. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages Preprint Travis Simpkins, Dylan Cutler, Brian Hirsch, Dan Olis, and Kate Anderson National Renewable Energy Laboratory Presented at the 2015 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability - Engineering and the Environment (SusTech) Ogden, Utah July 30 - August 1, 2015 © 2015 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media,

  10. Cost analysis for compliance with EPA's regional NOx emissions reductions for fossil-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.; Mann, A.; Ward, J.; Ramezan, M.

    1999-07-01

    To achieve a more stringent ambient-air ozone standard promulgated in 1997, the U.S. EPA has established summer NOx emissions limits for fossil-fired electric power generating units in the Ozone Transport Rulemaking region, consisting of 22 eastern and midwestern states and the District of Columbia. These jurisdictions are required to submit State Implementation Plans by September 1999 in response to EPA's rule, with compliance required by 2007. There are 1757 affected units in this region. In the present study, projected state-by-state growth rates for power production are used to estimate power production and NOx emissions by unit in the year 2007. NOx emissions reductions expected by January 1, 2000 due to Title IV compliance are estimated, leaving a substantial balance of emissions reductions to be achieved by post-combustion NOx control. Cost estimates are developed for achieving these remaining reductions.

  11. Chapter 10 - RIGGING HARDWARE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0.0 - RIGGING HARDWARE April 25, 2016 Rev 1 Page 1 CHAPTER 10.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS 10.0 RIGGING HARDWARE ............................................................................................................... 3 10.1 SCOPE .................................................................................................................................. 3 10.2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................................. 3 10.3

  12. Final cost reduction study for the Geysers Recharge Alternative. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cost reduction opportunities exist for the Geysers Recharge Alternative as defined in the Santa Rosa Subregional Long-Term Wastewater Project EIR/EIS. The City of Santa Rosa has been directed to have a plan for reclaimed water disposal in place by 1999 which will meet future capacity needs under all weather conditions. A Draft EIR/EIS released in July 1996 and a Final EIR certified in June 1997 examine four primary alternatives plus the No Action Alternative. Two of the primary alternatives involve agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water, either in western or southern Sonoma County. Another involves increased discharge of reclaimed water into the Russian River. The fourth involves using reclaimed water to replenish the geothermal reservoir at the Geysers. The addition of this water source would enable the Geysers operators to produce more steam from the geothermal area and thereby prolong the life and economic production level of the steamfield and the geothermal power plants supplied by the steamfield. This study provides additional refined cost estimates for new scenarios which utilize an alternative pipeline alignment and a range of reclaimed water flows, which deliver less water to the Geysers than proposed in the EIR/EIS (by distributing flow to other project components). Also, electrical power rates were revised to reflect the recent changes in costs associated with deregulation of the power industry. In addition, this report provides information on sources of potential public and private funding available and future environmental documentation required if the cost reduction scenarios were to be selected by the City as part of their preferred alternative.

  13. Inspection of the cost reduction incentive program at the Department of Energy`s Idaho Operations Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-07

    The purpose of this inspection was to review the economy and efficiency of Idaho`s Fiscal Year 1992 Cost Reduction Incentive Program, as well as to provide information to Departmental officials regarding any difficulties in administering these types of programs. The report is of the findings and recommendations. According to Idaho officials, their Cost Reduction Incentive Program was designed to motivate and provide incentives to management and operating contractors which would result in cost savings to the Department while increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the contractors` operations. Idaho officials reported that over $22.5 million in costs were saved as a result of the Fiscal Year 1992 Cost Reduction Incentive Program. It was found that: (1) Idaho officials acknowledged that they did not attempt a full accounting records validation of the contractor`s submitted cost savings; (2) cost reduction incentive programs may result in conflicts of interest--contractors may defer work in order to receive an incentive fee; (3) the Department lacks written Department-wide policies and procedures--senior Procurement officials stated that the 1985 memorandum from the then-Assistant Secretary for Management and Administration was not the current policy of the Department; and (4) the Department already has the management and operating contract award fee provisions and value engineering program that can be used to provide financial rewards for contractors that operate cost effectively and efficiently.

  14. Hardware Controller DNA Synthesizer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-27

    The program controls the operation of various hardware components of an automatic 12-channel parrallel oligosynthesizer. This involves accepting information regarding the DNA sequence to be generated and converting this into a series of instructions to I/O ports to actuate the appropriate hardware components. The design and function of the software is specific to a particular hardware platform and has no utility for controlling other configurations.

  15. Power Electronics and Balance of System Hardware Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is targeting solar technology improvements related to power electronics and balance of system (BOS) hardware technologies to reduce the installed cost of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity and...

  16. PROJECT PROFILE: Promotion of PV Soft Cost Reductions in the Southeastern United States (SuNLaMP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project creates a replicable model for solar photovoltaic (PV) soft cost reduction in South Carolina through human capacity-building at the local level and direct efforts to harmonize policy at the inter-county or regional level. This effort will close the gap between South Carolina installed costs of residential rooftop solar and national averages and develop a portable and replicable model that can be applied to other jurisdictions in the future.

  17. 2014 U.S. Offshore Wind Market Report: Industry Trends, Technology Advancement, and Cost Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Aaron; Stehly, Tyler; Walter Musial

    2015-09-29

    2015 has been an exciting year for the U.S. offshore wind market. After more than 15 years of development work, the U.S. has finally hit a crucial milestone; Deepwater Wind began construction on the 30 MW Block Island Wind Farm (BIWF) in April. A number of other promising projects, however, have run into economic, legal, and political headwinds, generating much speculation about the future of the industry. This slow, and somewhat painful, start to the industry is not without precedent; each country in northern Europe began with pilot-scale, proof-of-concept projects before eventually moving to larger commercial scale installations. Now, after more than a decade of commercial experience, the European industry is set to achieve a new deployment record, with more than 4 GW expected to be commissioned in 2015, with demonstrable progress towards industry-wide cost reduction goals. DWW is leveraging 25 years of European deployment experience; the BIWF combines state-of-the-art technologies such as the Alstom 6 MW turbine with U.S. fabrication and installation competencies. The successful deployment of the BIWF will provide a concrete showcase that will illustrate the potential of offshore wind to contribute to state, regional, and federal goals for clean, reliable power and lasting economic development. It is expected that this initial project will launch the U.S. industry into a phase of commercial development that will position offshore wind to contribute significantly to the electric systems in coastal states by 2030.

  18. Specific Group Hardware

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Specific Group Hardware Specific Group Hardware ALICE palicevo1 The Virtual Organization (VO) server. Serves as gatekeeper for ALICE jobs. It's duties include getting assignments from ALICE file catalog (at CERN), submitting jobs to pdsfgrid (via condor) which submits jobs to the compute nodes, monitoring the cluster work load, and uploading job information to ALICE file catalog. It is monitored with MonALISA (the monitoring page is here). It's made up of 2 Intel Xeon E5520 processors each with

  19. GENI: Grid Hardware and Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-09

    GENI Project: The 15 projects in ARPA-E’s GENI program, short for “Green Electricity Network Integration,” aim to modernize the way electricity is transmitted in the U.S. through advances in hardware and software for the electric grid. These advances will improve the efficiency and reliability of electricity transmission, increase the amount of renewable energy the grid can utilize, and provide energy suppliers and consumers with greater control over their power flows in order to better manage peak power demand and cost.

  20. Cost reduction of the Sun Challenger batch solar water heater: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.

    1987-05-01

    A variety of materials and methods were investigated as a means to reduce the cost of the Sun Challenger Solar Collector. Three prototypes were constructed and tested using lower-cost methods. Test results are summarized, including heat gain, heat loss, and collection efficiency. Costs and benefits are also presented and summarized.

  1. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  2. Energy Efficiency as a Low-Cost Resource for Achieving Carbon Emissions Reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    Summarizes the scale and economic value of energy efficiency for reducing carbon emissions and discusses barriers to achieving the potential for cost-effective energy efficiency.

  3. Improved InGaN LED System Efficacy and Cost via Droop Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lumileds, LLC - San Jose, CA Partners: Sandia National Laboratories - Albuquerque, NM DOE Total Funding: 1,495,990 Cost Share: 374,000 Project Term: 912015 - 8312017 Funding ...

  4. Advanced Thermal Control Enabling Cost Reduction for Automotive Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, T.; Kelly, K.; Bennion, K.; Vlahinos, A.

    2008-09-01

    Describes NREL's work on next-generation vehicle cooling technologies (jets, sprays, microchannels) and novel packaging topologies to reduce costs and increase performance and reliability.

  5. Cost reductions in absorption chillers. Final report, June 1984-May 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Absorption chillers have great difficulty competing with the electric-driven compression alternative, due in part to modest operating efficiencies and largely to high first costs. This project is an assessment of the possibility of lowering the costs of absorption chillers dramatically by the use of low material intensity in the design of a new generation of these machines. Breakeven costs for absorption chillers, their heat exchangers and heat exchanger materials were established which will allow commercial success. Polymeric and metallic materials appropriate to particular components and which meet the cost goals were identified. A subset of these materials were tested and ordered by success in tolerating conditions and materials found in absorption chiller applications. Conceptual designs which indicate the practicality of the low material intensity approach were developed. The work reported here indicates that there is a high probability that this apporach will be successful.

  6. Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-02-01

    This report analyzes the status of wind energy technology in 2002 and describes the potential for technology advancements to reduce the cost and increase the performance of wind turbines.

  7. Improved InGaN LED System Efficacy and Cost via Droop Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Lumileds, LLC – San Jose, CAPartners: Sandia National Laboratories – Albuquerque, NMDOE Total Funding: $1,495,990Cost Share: $374,000Project Term: 9/1/2015 - 8/31/2017Funding...

  8. U-AVLIS feed conversion using continuous metallothermic reduction of UF{sub 4}: System description and cost estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a system description and develop baseline capital and operating cost estimates for commercial facilities which produced U-Fe feedstock for AVLIS enrichment plants using the continuous fluoride reduction (CFR) process. These costs can then be used together with appropriate economic assumptions to calculate estimated unit costs to the AVLIS plant owner (or utility customer) for such conversion services. Six cases are being examined. All cases assume that the conversion services are performed by a private company at a commercial site which has an existing NRC license to possess source material and which has existing uranium processing operations. The cases differ in terms of annual production capacity and whether the new process system is installed in a new building or in an existing building on the site. The six cases are summarized here.

  9. Hardware Counter Multiplexing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-10-13

    The Hardware Counter Multiplexer works with the built-in counter registers on computer processors. These counters record various low-level events as software runs, but they can not record all possible events at the same time. This software helps work around that limitation by counting a series of different events in sequence over a period of time. This in turn allows programmers to measure interesting combinations of events, rather than single events. The software is designed tomore » work with multithreaded or single-threaded programs.« less

  10. Irrigation Hardware Upgrades

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reduce system pressure, causing a poor sprinkler distribution pattern, reducing system efficiency and increasing costs. As motors have to work harder to make for the loss in...

  11. Line-Focus Solar Power Plant Cost Reduction Plan (Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Glatzmaier, G.; Moss, T.

    2010-12-01

    Line-focus solar collectors, in particular parabolic trough collectors, are the most mature and proven technology available for producing central electricity from concentrated solar energy. Because this technology has over 25 years of successful operational experience, resulting in a low perceived risk, it is likely that it will continue to be a favorite of investors for some time. The concentrating solar power (CSP) industry is developing parabolic trough projects that will cost billions of dollars, and it is supporting these projects with hundreds of millions of dollars of research and development funding. While this technology offers many advantages over conventional electricity generation -- such as utilizing plentiful domestic renewable fuel and having very low emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants -- it provides electricity in the intermediate power market at about twice the cost of its conventional competitor, combined cycle natural gas. The purpose of this document is to define a set of activities from fiscal year 2011 to fiscal year 2016 that will make this technology economically competitive with conventional means.

  12. Cost avoidance techniques through the Fernald controlled area trash segregation program and the RIMIA solid waste reduction program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menche, C.E.

    1997-05-14

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a Department of Energy owned facility that produced high quality uranium metals for military defense. The Fernald mission has changed from one of production to remediation. Remediation is intended to clean up legacy (primary) waste from past practices. Little opportunity is available to reduce the amount of primary waste. However, there is an opportunity to reduce secondary waste generation, primarily through segregation. Two programs which accomplish this are the Controlled Area Trash Segregation Program and the RIMIA Solid Waste Reduction Program. With these two programs now in place at the FEMP, it has been estimated that a 60% reduction has been achieved in unnecessary clean waste being disposed as Low Level Waste at the Nevada Test Site. The cost savings associated with these programs (currently 79,000 cubic feet, $428,000) could easily run into the millions of dollars based on the upcoming restoration activities to be undertaken. The segregation of non-radiological waste in the radiologically Controlled Area not only establishes a firm commitment to send only low-level radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site, but also results in substantial cost avoidance.

  13. Influence of district heating water temperatures on the fuel saving and reduction of ecological cost of the heat generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portacha, J.; Smyk, A.; Zielinski, A.; Misiewicz, L.

    1998-07-01

    Results of examinations carried out on the district heating water temperature influence in the cogeneration plant with respect to both the fuel economy and the ecological cost reduction of heat generation for the purposes of heating and hot service water preparation are presented in this paper. The decrease of water return temperature effectively contributes to the increase of fuel savings in all the examined cases. The quantitative savings depend on the outlet water temperature of the cogeneration plant and on the fuel type combusted at the alternative heat generating plant. A mathematical model and a numerical method for calculations of annual cogeneration plant performance, e.g. annual heat and electrical energy produced in cogeneration mode, and the annual fuel consumption, are also discussed. In the discussed mathematical model, the variable operating conditions of cogeneration plant vs. outside temperature and method of control can be determined. The thermal system of cogeneration plant was decomposed into subsystems so as to set up the mathematical model. The determination of subsystem tasks, including a method of convenient aggregation thereof is an essential element of numerical method for calculations of a specific cogeneration plant thermal system under changing conditions. Costs of heat losses in the environment, resulting from the pollutants emission, being formed in the fuel combustion process in the heat sources, were defined. In addition, the environment quantitative and qualitative pollution characteristics were determined both for the heat generation in a cogeneration plant and for an alternative heat-generating plant. Based on the calculations, a profitable decrease of ecological costs is achieved in the cogeneration economy even if compared with the gas-fired heat generating plant. Ecological costs of coal-fired heat generating plant are almost three time higher than those of the comparable cogeneration plant.

  14. Hardware multiplier processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    A hardware processor is disclosed which in the described embodiment is a memory mapped multiplier processor that can operate in parallel with a 16 bit microcomputer. The multiplier processor decodes the address bus to receive specific instructions so that in one access it can write and automatically perform single or double precision multiplication involving a number written to it with or without addition or subtraction with a previously stored number. It can also, on a single read command automatically round and scale a previously stored number. The multiplier processor includes two concatenated 16 bit multiplier registers, two 16 bit concatenated 16 bit multipliers, and four 16 bit product registers connected to an internal 16 bit data bus. A high level address decoder determines when the multiplier processor is being addressed and first and second low level address decoders generate control signals. In addition, certain low order address lines are used to carry uncoded control signals. First and second control circuits coupled to the decoders generate further control signals and generate a plurality of clocking pulse trains in response to the decoded and address control signals.

  15. Hardware multiplier processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, P.E.

    A hardware processor is disclosed which in the described embodiment is a memory mapped multiplier processor that can operate in parallel with a 16 bit microcomputer. The multiplier processor decodes the address bus to receive specific instructions so that in one access it can write and automatically perform single or double precision multiplication involving a number written to it with or without addition or subtraction with a previously stored number. It can also, on a single read command automatically round and scale a previously stored number. The multiplier processor includes two concatenated 16 bit multiplier registers, two 16 bit concatenated 16 bit multipliers, and four 16 bit product registers connected to an internal 16 bit data bus. A high level address decoder determines when the multiplier processor is being addressed and first and second low level address decoders generate control signals. In addition, certain low order address lines are used to carry uncoded control signals. First and second control circuits coupled to the decoders generate further control signals and generate a plurality of clocking pulse trains in response to the decoded and address control signals.

  16. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  17. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions. Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator M.W. Melaina, D. Steward, and M. Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory S. McQueen Energetics S. Jaffe and C. Talon IDC Energy Insights Technical Report NREL/BK-5600-55961 August 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy,

  18. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions. Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator M.W. Melaina, D. Steward, and M. Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory S. McQueen Energetics S. Jaffe and C. Talon IDC Energy Insights Technical Report NREL/BK-5600-55961 August 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of

  19. PROJECT PROFILE: Towards a Low Cost Solar Future: Tracking and Analyzing Solar Cost, Price, and Market Trends (SuNLaMP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This project consolidates efforts to measure progress towards the SunShot targets and identifies pathways for further cost reductions. The team will build large and varied datasets to track and analyze trends in the cost, performance, and pricing of solar systems through the Tracking the Sun and Utility-Scale Solar reports. This will provide foundational analysis to help address the remaining non-hardware cost and deployment barriers.

  20. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  1. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    costs program works to lower the non-hardware costs of ... data analysis, business innovation, and training. ... for as much as 64% of the total cost of a new solar system. ...

  2. NREL Releases New Roadmap to Reducing Solar PV "Soft Costs" by 2020 -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Releases | NREL Releases New Roadmap to Reducing Solar PV "Soft Costs" by 2020 September 25, 2013 The Energy Department's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently issued a new report, "Non-Hardware ('Soft') Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Photovoltaics, 2013-2020," funded by DOE's SunShot Initiative and written by NREL and Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI). The report builds off NREL's ongoing soft-cost benchmarking

  3. A scoping study on the costs of indoor air quality illnesses:an insurance loss reduction perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allan; Vine, Edward L.

    1998-08-31

    The incidence of commercial buildings with poor indoor air quality (IAQ), and the frequency of litigation over the effects of poor IAQ is increasing. If so, these increases have ramifications for insurance carriers, which pay for many of the costs of health care and general commercial liability. However, little is known about the actual costs to insurance companies from poor IAQ in buildings. This paper reports on the results of a literature search of buildings-related, business and legal databases, and interviews with insurance and risk management representatives aimed at finding information on the direct costs to the insurance industry of poor building IAQ, as well as the costs of litigation. The literature search and discussions with insurance and risk management professionals reported in this paper turned up little specific information about the costs of IAQ-related problems to insurance companies. However, those discussions and certain articles in the insurance industry press indicate that there is a strong awareness and growing concern over the "silent crisis" of IAQ and its potential to cause large industry losses, and that a few companies are taking steps to address this issue. The source of these losses include both direct costs to insurers from paying health insurance and professional liability claims, as weIl as the cost of litigation. In spite of the lack of data on how IAQ-related health problems affect their business, the insurance industry has taken the anecdotal evidence about their reality seriously enough to alter their policies in ways that have lessened their exposure. We conclude by briefly discussing four activities that need to be addressed in the near future: (1) quantifying IAQ-related insurance costs by sector, (2) educating the insurance industry about the importance of IAQ issues, (3) examining IAQ impacts on the insurance industry in the residential sector, and (4) evaluating the relationship between IAQ improvements and their impact on

  4. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    represented, in addition to the extensive data compiled from recent studies on bottom-up representation of efficiency measures for the sector. We also defined various mitigation scenarios including long-term production trends to project country-specific production, energy use, trading, carbon emissions, and costs of mitigation. Such analyses can provide useful information to assist policy-makers when considering and shaping future emissions mitigation strategies and policies. The technical objective is to analyze the costs of production and CO2 emission reduction in the U.S, China, and India’s iron and steel sectors under different emission reduction scenarios, using the ISEEM-IS as a cost optimization model. The scenarios included in this project correspond to various CO2 emission reduction targets for the iron and steel sector under different strategies such as simple CO2 emission caps (e.g., specific reduction goals), emission reduction via commodity trading, and emission reduction via carbon trading.

  5. Workplace Charging Equipment Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Charging stations are available from a variety of manufacturers in a range of models for all charging applications. For a single port charging station, Level 1 hardware costs range from $300-$1,500...

  6. Exascale Hardware Architectures Working Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemmert, S; Ang, J; Chiang, P; Carnes, B; Doerfler, D; Leininger, M; Dosanjh, S; Fields, P; Koch, K; Laros, J; Noe, J; Quinn, T; Torrellas, J; Vetter, J; Wampler, C; White, A

    2011-03-15

    The ASC Exascale Hardware Architecture working group is challenged to provide input on the following areas impacting the future use and usability of potential exascale computer systems: processor, memory, and interconnect architectures, as well as the power and resilience of these systems. Going forward, there are many challenging issues that will need to be addressed. First, power constraints in processor technologies will lead to steady increases in parallelism within a socket. Additionally, all cores may not be fully independent nor fully general purpose. Second, there is a clear trend toward less balanced machines, in terms of compute capability compared to memory and interconnect performance. In order to mitigate the memory issues, memory technologies will introduce 3D stacking, eventually moving on-socket and likely on-die, providing greatly increased bandwidth but unfortunately also likely providing smaller memory capacity per core. Off-socket memory, possibly in the form of non-volatile memory, will create a complex memory hierarchy. Third, communication energy will dominate the energy required to compute, such that interconnect power and bandwidth will have a significant impact. All of the above changes are driven by the need for greatly increased energy efficiency, as current technology will prove unsuitable for exascale, due to unsustainable power requirements of such a system. These changes will have the most significant impact on programming models and algorithms, but they will be felt across all layers of the machine. There is clear need to engage all ASC working groups in planning for how to deal with technological changes of this magnitude. The primary function of the Hardware Architecture Working Group is to facilitate codesign with hardware vendors to ensure future exascale platforms are capable of efficiently supporting the ASC applications, which in turn need to meet the mission needs of the NNSA Stockpile Stewardship Program. This issue is

  7. PAFC Cost Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PAFC Cost Challenges Sridhar Kanuri Manager, PAFC Technology *Sridhar.Kanuri@utcpower.com 2 AGENDA Purecell® 400 cost challenge Cost reduction opportunities Summary 3 PURECELL ® FUEL CELL SYSTEM First cost 2010 cost reduction is being accomplished by incremental changes in technology & low cost sourcing Technology advances are required to reduce further cost and attain UTC Power's commercialization targets 2010 First unit 2010 Last unit Commercialization target Powerplant cost 4

  8. FGD system capital and operating cost reductions based on improved thiosorbic scrubber system design and latest process innovations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Tseng, S.; Babu, M.

    1994-12-31

    Dravo Lime Company has operated the Miami Fort wet scrubber FGD pilot test unit since late 1989 and has continued in-house R&D to improve the economics of the magnesium-enhanced scrubbing process. Areas investigated include the scrubber configuration, flue gas velocity, spray nozzle type, droplet size, mist eliminator design, additives to inhibit oxidation, improved solids dewatering, etc. Also tested was the forced oxidation Thioclear process. The data gathered from the pilot plant and in-house programs were used to evaluate the capital and operating costs for the improved systems. These evaluations were made with eye towards the choices electric utilities will need to make in the near future to meet the Phase II emission limits mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. Some of the process modifications investigated, for example, the dewatering improvements apply to potential beneficial retrofit of existing FGD systems today.

  9. Ultra-Deep Drilling Cost Reduction; Design and Fabrication of an Ultra-Deep Drilling Simulator (UDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, Jason

    2010-01-31

    Ultra-deep drilling, below about 20,000 ft (6,096 m), is extremely expensive and limits the recovery of hydrocarbons at these depths. Unfortunately, rock breakage and cuttings removal under these conditions is not understood. To better understand and thus reduce cost at these conditions an ultra-deep single cutter drilling simulator (UDS) capable of drill cutter and mud tests to sustained pressure and temperature of 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and 482 °F (250 °C), respectively, was designed and manufactured at TerraTek, a Schlumberger company, in cooperation with the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. UDS testing under ultra-deep drilling conditions offers an economical alternative to high day rates and can prove or disprove the viability of a particular drilling technique or fluid to provide opportunity for future domestic energy needs.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of controlling emissions for various alternative-fuel vehicle types, with vehicle and fuel price subsidies estimated on the basis of monetary values of emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1993-12-31

    Emission-control cost-effectiveness is estimated for ten alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV) types (i.e., vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline, M85 flexible-fuel vehicles [FFVs], M100 FFVs, dedicated M85 vehicles, dedicated M100 vehicles, E85 FFVS, dual-fuel liquefied petroleum gas vehicles, dual-fuel compressed natural gas vehicles [CNGVs], dedicated CNGVs, and electric vehicles [EVs]). Given the assumptions made, CNGVs are found to be most cost-effective in controlling emissions and E85 FFVs to be least cost-effective, with the other vehicle types falling between these two. AFV cost-effectiveness is further calculated for various cases representing changes in costs of vehicles and fuels, AFV emission reductions, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions, among other factors. Changes in these parameters can change cost-effectiveness dramatically. However, the rank of the ten AFV types according to their cost-effectiveness remains essentially unchanged. Based on assumed dollars-per-ton emission values and estimated AFV emission reductions, the per-vehicle monetary value of emission reductions is calculated for each AFV type. Calculated emission reduction values ranged from as little as $500 to as much as $40,000 per vehicle, depending on AFV type, dollar-per-ton emission values, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions. Among the ten vehicle types, vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline have the lowest per-vehicle value, while EVs have the highest per-vehicle value, reflecting the magnitude of emission reductions by these vehicle types. To translate the calculated per-vehicle emission reduction values to individual AFV users, AFV fuel or vehicle price subsidies are designed to be equal to AFV emission reduction values. The subsidies designed in this way are substantial. In fact, providing the subsidies to AFVs would change most AFV types from net cost increases to net cost decreases, relative to conventional gasoline vehicles.

  11. hardware-in-the-loop system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hardware-in-the-loop system - Sandia Energy Energy Search ... Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ... Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs ...

  12. Constructing Hardware in a Scale Embedded Language

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-08-21

    Chisel is a new open-source hardware construction language developed at UC Berkeley that supports advanced hardware design using highly parameterized generators and layered domain-specific hardware languages. Chisel is embedded in the Scala programming language, which raises the level of hardware design abstraction by providing concepts including object orientation, functional programming, parameterized types, and type inference. From the same source, Chisel can generate a high-speed C++-based cycle-accurate software simulator, or low-level Verilog designed to pass onmore » to standard ASIC or FPGA tools for synthesis and place and route.« less

  13. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Costs » Soft Costs Soft Costs The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's soft costs program works to lower the non-hardware costs of solar and accelerate the adoption of solar energy technologies throughout the United States. In support of the SunShot Initiative goals, the soft costs program works in the following strategic areas: networking and technical assistance, data analysis, business innovation, and training. Soft Costs Activity Areas, Business Innovation, Networking

  14. Corrosion Testing of Stainless Steel Fuel Cell Hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1998-11-01

    Metal hardware is gaining increasing interest in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) development as a possible alternative to machined graphite hardware because of its potential for low-cost manufacturing combined with its intrinsic high conductivity, minimal permeability and advantageous mechanical properties. A major barrier to more widespread use of metal hardware has been the susceptibility of various metals to corrosion. Few pure metals can withstand the relatively aggressive environment of a fuel cell and thus the choices for hardware are quite limited. Precious metals such as platinum or gold are prohibitively expensive and so tend to be utilized as coatings on inexpensive substrates such as aluminum or stainless steel. The main challenge with coatings has been to achieve pin-hole free surfaces that will remain so after years of use. Titanium has been used to some extent and though it is very corrosion-resistant, it is also relatively expensive and often still requires some manner of surface coating to prevent the formation of a poorly conducting oxide layer. In contrast, metal alloys may hold promise as potentially low-cost, corrosion-resistant materials for bipolar plates. The dozens of commercially available stainless steel and nickel based alloys have been specifically formulated to offer a particular advantage depending upon their application. In the case of austenitic stainless steels, for example, 316 SS contains molybdenum and a higher chromium content than its more common counterpart, 304 SS, that makes it more noble and increases its corrosion resistance. Likewise, 316L SS contains less carbon than 316 SS to make it easier to weld. A number of promising corrosion-resistant, highly noble alloys such as Hastelloy{trademark} or Duplex{trademark} (a stainless steel developed for seawater service) are available commercially, but are expensive and difficult to obtain in various forms (i.e. wire screen, foil, etc.) or in small amounts for R and D

  15. Hardware design document for the Infrasound Prototype for a CTBT IMS station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breding, D.R.; Kromer, R.P.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandoval, T.

    1997-11-01

    The Hardware Design Document (HDD) describes the various hardware components used in the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Infrasound Prototype and their interrelationships. It divides the infrasound prototype into hardware configurations items (HWCIs). The HDD uses techniques such as block diagrams and parts lists to present this information. The level of detail provided in the following sections should be sufficient to allow potential users to procure and install the infrasound system. Infrasonic monitoring is a low cost, robust, and effective technology for detecting atmospheric explosions. Low frequencies from explosion signals propagate to long ranges (few thousand kilometers) where they can be detected with an array of sensors.

  16. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  17. CO2 Reduction by Dry Methane Reforming Over Hexaluminates: A Promising Technology for Decreasing Global Warming in a Cost Effective Manner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar-Villalpando, M.D.; Gardner, T.H.

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of CO2 can help to decrease global warming. Methane reforming using carbon dioxide has been of interest for many years, but recently that interest has experienced a rapid increase for both environmental and commercial reasons. The use of CO2 provides a source of clean oxygen, which eliminates the need for costly oxygen separation plants. The product of dry reforming is useful syn-gas, which can be used to generate electrical power in a SOFC or in the production of synthetic fuels (hydrocarbons and alcohols). Hexaaluminate catalysts prepared at NETL may represent a product that can be utilized for the conversion of CO2 to syn-gas. In this work, transition metals dispersed in barium hexaaluminate have shown to be promising new catalysts for dry methane reforming. In this investigation, a series of BaNixAl12-yO19-? catalysts with varying Ni content were prepared by co-precipitation followed by calcination at 1400C. CO2 reduction by dry methane reforming was carried out to determine catalyst performance as a function of temperature and carbon formation was also quantified after the reforming tests. Results of catalysts characterization, dispersion and surface area, were correlated to catalytic performance.

  18. Transition metal nitride coated with atomic layers of Pt as a low-cost, highly stable electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Xinlong; Adzic, Radoslav R.; Luo, Junming; Nan, Haoxiong; Zou, Haobin; Chen, Rong; Shu, Ting; Li, Xiuhua; Li, Yingwei; Song, Huiyi; et al

    2016-01-21

    Here, the main challenges to the commercial viability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are (i) the high cost associated with using large amounts of Pt in fuel cell cathodes to compensate for the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction, (ii) catalyst degradation, and (iii) carbon-support corrosion. To address these obstacles, our group has focused on robust, carbon-free transition metal nitride materials with low Pt content that exhibit tunable physical and catalytic properties. Here, we report on the high performance of a novel catalyst with low Pt content, prepared by placing several layers of Pt atoms on nanoparticles ofmore » titanium nickel binary nitride. For the ORR, the catalyst exhibited a more than 400% and 200% increase in mass activity and specific activity, respectively, compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. It also showed excellent stability/durability, experiencing only a slight performance loss after 10,000 potential cycles, while TEM results showed its structure had remained intact. The catalyst’s outstanding performance may have resulted from the ultrahigh dispersion of Pt (several atomic layers coated on the nitride nanoparticles), and the excellent stability/durability may have been due to the good stability of nitride and synergetic effects between ultrathin Pt layer and the robust TiNiN support.« less

  19. Hardware-Accelerated Simulated Radiography (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hardware-Accelerated Simulated Radiography We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the ...

  20. Unique Hardware and Software Data Acquisition and Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hardware and Software Data Acquisition and Processing Solutions in a Small Engine Test Cell for Enhanced Kinetic Engine Modeling Accuracy Unique Hardware and Software Data ...

  1. Effect of Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability, Emission and Performance Effect of Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability, Emission and Performance ...

  2. LTUG09_HardwareLessonsLearned.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tape Users Group Sun StorageTek Tape Hardware Migration Experiences Jason Hick 9940B & T10KA to T10KB Serial 9310s to TCP/IP SL8500 Large Tape Users Group Replacing Old Hardware  8ea 9310s containing 40,000+ cartridges (91% occupied) - 16,130 x 9940B tape cartridges - 17,700 x 9840A tape cartridges - 6,859 x T10KA tape cartridges - 34 x 9940B tape drives (3-way & 1-way) - 18 x T10KA tape drives (3-way & 1-way)  Some reasons Sun provided us: - 9940B availability of replacement

  3. Cost reduction of the Sun Challenger (trade mark) batch solar water heater. Final report, 31 March 1986-30 April 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.

    1987-05-01

    A variety of materials and methods were investigated as a means to reduce the cost of the Sun Challenger Solar Collector. Three prototypes were constructed and tested using lower-cost methods. Test results are summarized, including heat gain, heat loss, and collection efficiency. Costs and benefits are also presented and summarized.

  4. DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to make solar energy cost-competitive with fossil fuels ... to the costs of installing solar systems not associated with the solar panels, mounting hardware, electronics, etc. ...

  5. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Gengfu; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2011-03-29

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of LSC (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2CoO.sub.3) and lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1).

  6. One-Axis Trackers -- Improved Reliability, Durability, Performance, and Cost Reduction; Final Subcontract Technical Status Report, 2 May 2006 - 31 August 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shingleton, J.

    2008-02-01

    The overall objective of this subcontract is to reduce the total cost of electricity generated by single-axis tracking solar energy systems for utility and other large-scale commercial applications by improving performance and reliability and by reducing installation time, cost, and environmental impact.

  7. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE STATUS OF QCDOC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOYLE,P.A.; CHEN,D.; CHRIST,N.H.; PETROV.K.; ET AL.

    2003-07-15

    QCDOC is a massively parallel supercomputer whose processing nodes are based on an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). This ASIC was custom-designed so that crucial lattice QCD kernels achieve an overall sustained performance of 50% on machines with several 10,000 nodes. This strong scalability, together with low power consumption and a price/performance ratio of $1 per sustained MFlops, enable QCDOC to attack the most demanding lattice QCD problems. The first ASICs became available in June of 2003, and the testing performed so far has shown all systems functioning according to specification. We review the hardware and software status of QCDOC and present performance figures obtained in real hardware as well as in simulation.

  8. Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J.; Schweizer, T.; Laxson, A.; Butterfield, S.; Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Veers, P.; Ashwill, T.

    2008-02-01

    This report analyzes the status of wind energy technology in 2002 and describes the potential for technology advancements to reduce the cost and increase the performance of wind turbines.

  9. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamdan, Monjid

    2013-08-29

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified hydrogen production by electrolysis of water at forecourt stations as a critical technology for transition to the hydrogen economy; however, the cost of hydrogen produced by present commercially available electrolysis systems is considerably higher than the DOE 2015 and 2020 cost targets. Analyses of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer systems indicate that reductions in electricity consumption and electrolyzer stack and system capital cost are required to meet the DOE cost targets. The primary objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective energy-based system for electrolytic generation of hydrogen. The goal is to increase PEM electrolyzer efficiency and to reduce electrolyzer stack and system capital cost to meet the DOE cost targets for distributed electrolysis. To accomplish this objective, work was conducted by a team consisting of Giner, Inc. (Giner), Virginia Polytechnic Institute & University (VT), and domnick hunter group, a subsidiary of Parker Hannifin (Parker). The project focused on four (4) key areas: (1) development of a high-efficiency, high-strength membrane; (2) development of a long-life cell-separator; (3) scale-up of cell active area to 290 cm2 (from 160 cm²); and (4) development of a prototype commercial electrolyzer system. In each of the key stack development areas Giner and our team members conducted focused development in laboratory-scale hardware, with analytical support as necessary, followed by life-testing of the most promising candidate materials. Selected components were then scaled up and incorporated into low-cost scaled-up stack hardware. The project culminated in the fabrication and testing of a highly efficient electrolyzer system for production of 0.5 kg/hr hydrogen and validation of the stack and system in testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  10. Breakout Session: Getting in the Loop: PV Hardware Recycling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Getting in the Loop: PV Hardware Recycling and Sustainability Breakout Session: Getting in the Loop: PV Hardware Recycling and Sustainability May 21, 2014 6:30PM to 7:30PM PDT ...

  11. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Gengfu; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2011-04-05

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of Perovskite AMeO.sub.3, wherein A is at least one of lanthanum and a combination of lanthanum and strontium and Me is one or more of transition metals, lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1) and X-doped LiMeO.sub.2, wherein X is one of Mg, Ca, and Co.

  12. Hardware Counter Multiplexing V1.2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-10-13

    The Hardware Counter Multiplexer works with the built-in counter registers on computer processors. These counters record varius low-level events as software runs, but they can cannot record all possible events at the same time. This software helps work around that limitation by counting a series of different events in sequence over a period of time. This in turn allows programmers to measure interesting combinations of events, rather than single events. The software is designed tomore » work with multithreaded or single-threaded programs.« less

  13. Enhancing the Performance of Assisted Execution Runtime Systems through Hardware/Software Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kestor, Gokcen; Gioiosa, Roberto; Unsal, Osman; Cristal, Adrian; Valero, Mateo

    2012-06-01

    To meet the expected performance, future exascale systems will require programmers to increase the level of parallelism of their applications. Novel programming models simplify parallel programming at the cost of increasing runtime overheard. Assisted execution models have the potential of reducing this overhead but they generally also reduce processor utilization. We propose an integrated hardware/software solution that automatically partition hardware resources between application and auxiliary threads. Each system level performs well-defined tasks efficiently: 1) the runtime system is enriched with a mechanism that automatically detects computing power requirements of running threads and drives the hardware actuators; 2) the hardware enforces dynamic resource partitioning; 3) the operating system provides an efficient interface between the runtime system and the hardware resource allocation mechanism. As a test case, we apply this adaptive approach to STM2, an software transactional memory system that implements the assisted execution model. We evaluate the proposed adaptive solution on an IBMPOWER7 system using Eigenbench and STAMP benchmark suite. Results show that our approach performs equal or better than the original STM2 and achieves up to 65% and 86% performance improvement for Eigenbench and STAMP applications, respectively.

  14. NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar Installation Total Cost

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar Installation Total Cost December 2, 2013 Two detailed reports from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) find that solar financing and other non-hardware costs - often referred to as "soft costs" - now comprise up to 64% of the total price of residential solar energy systems, reflecting how soft costs are becoming an increasingly larger fraction of the cost of installing solar.

  15. Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-04-13

    Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer, including defining within a tree network of the parallel computer two or more sets of non-overlapping test levels of compute nodes of the network that together include all the data communications links of the network, each non-overlapping test level comprising two or more adjacent tiers of the tree; defining test cells within each non-overlapping test level, each test cell comprising a subtree of the tree including a subtree root compute node and all descendant compute nodes of the subtree root compute node within a non-overlapping test level; performing, separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, an uplink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels; and performing, separately from the uplink tests and separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, a downlink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels.

  16. Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Reductions, Technological Breakthroughs Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Reductions, Technological Breakthroughs ...

  17. (OECD Expert Group meeting on reduction of capital costs of nuclear power plants, Paris, France, July 21--26, 1989): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1989-08-09

    The OECD initiated a study of means to reduce the capital costs of nuclear power plants in the latter part of 1988. To accomplish the study, an Expert Group consisting of representatives of OECD member countries was formed. The initial meeting of the Expert Group was held in November 1988. A second meeting, documented in an ORNL trip report by this author, was held in May 1989. This meeting represents the third follow-on meeting with the primary goal of reviewing the draft report written by members of the Expert Group.

  18. Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Generators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Generators Ryan Schkoda, Curtiss Fox, and Ramtin Hadidi Clemson University Vahan Gevorgian, Robb Wallen, and Scott Lambert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5000-64787 January 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable

  19. Cost reduction performance enhancements of multiple site cooling water systems, enabled by remote system monitoring/control and multifaceted data management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, B.; Young, D.; Tari, K.

    1998-12-31

    An outsourced cooling water treatment automated control and data acquisition package, has been designed, installed, and commissioned in over 70 sites in North America and offshore. The standard package consists of a controller, sensors, human-machine interface software, data acquisition and management software, communications, and reporting. Significant challenges to applying this standard package in multiple sites arose from variations in cooling system design and makeup water quality as well as operations, environmental considerations, metrics, and language. A standard approach has met these challenges and overcome effects of downsizing through significant reduction in non-value-added, manual activities. Overall system reliability has been improved by migration to best practice throughout the organizations involved and immediate proactive response to out-of-specification conditions. This paper documents the evolution of a standard cooling water automation and data management package from its inception to current practice.

  20. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong X. Tao; Yimin Zhu

    2012-04-26

    It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher initial costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches. From scientific and technical point of view, the potential for wide applications of GSHP especially HGSHP in hot and humid climate is significant, especially towards building zero energy homes where the combined energy efficient GSHP and abundant solar energy production in hot climate can be an optimal solution. To address these challenges, this report presents gathering and analyzing data on the costs and benefits of GSHP/HGSHP systems utilized in southern states using a representative sample of building applications. The report outlines the detailed analysis to conclude that the application of GSHP in Florida (and hot and humid climate in general) shows a good potential.

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report," collects the cost and quality of fossil fuel purchases made by electric ... a reduction of approximately 9 percent of natural gas purchases, cost, and quality data. ...

  2. PDF Study of Round Turbulent Condensing Jet using GPU Hardware...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: PDF Study of Round Turbulent Condensing Jet using GPU Hardware. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PDF Study of Round Turbulent Condensing Jet using GPU ...

  3. Soft Costs Team | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Costs Team Soft Costs Team Elaine Ulrich Headshot Elaine-Ulrich.jpg Dr. Elaine Ulrich is a program manager at the Department of Energy where she leads the SunShot balance of systems/soft costs team. Her team works to reduce the non-hardware (soft costs) of solar, lower barriers to solar adoption, and foster market growth through: support for state and local development and technical assistance programs; information & data assets; finance & business model development; workforce &

  4. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  5. Hardware packet pacing using a DMA in a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Phillip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-08-13

    Method and system for hardware packet pacing using a direct memory access controller in a parallel computer which, in one aspect, keeps track of a total number of bytes put on the network as a result of a remote get operation, using a hardware token counter.

  6. Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Wiser, R.

    2012-08-01

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions.

  7. New Hardware to be Integrated by Jan 7, 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Hardware to be Integrated by Jan 7, 2013 New Hardware to be Integrated by Jan 7, 2013 December 27, 2012 by Kirsten Fagnan The new hardware that has been tested through phoebe will be available on Genepool no later than January 7, 2013. The following compute power will be added to Genepool: 220 nodes with 16 physical cores and 120G of memory; 5 nodes with 32 physical cores and 500GB of memory; 2 nodes with 32 physical cores and 1000GB of memory. Subscribe via RSS Subscribe Browse by Date

  8. Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory, in one aspect, may include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A first storage element may be operable to store an address of a memory location. A second storage element may be operable to store a value indicating whether the hardware should begin copying. A state machine may be operable to detect the value in the second storage element and trigger hardware copying of data in selected one or more of the plurality of performance counters to the memory location whose address is stored in the first storage element.

  9. Comparison of leading parallel NAS file systems on commodity hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedges, R; Fitzgerald, K; Gary, M; Stearman, D M

    2010-11-08

    High performance computing has experienced tremendous gains in system performance over the past 20 years. Unfortunately other system capabilities, such as file I/O, have not grown commensurately. In this activity, we present the results of our tests of two leading file systems (GPFS and Lustre) on the same physical hardware. This hardware is the standard commodity storage solution in use at LLNL and, while much smaller in size, is intended to enable us to learn about differences between the two systems in terms of performance, ease of use and resilience. This work represents the first hardware consistent study of the two leading file systems that the authors are aware of.

  10. Hardware device to physical structure binding and authentication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Stein, David J.; Bauer, Todd M.

    2013-08-20

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a binding of the hardware device and a physical structure. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generate an internal PUF value. Binding logic is coupled to receive the internal PUF value, as well as an external PUF value associated with the physical structure, and generates a binding PUF value, which represents the binding of the hardware device and the physical structure. The cryptographic fingerprint unit also includes a cryptographic unit that uses the binding PUF value to allow a challenger to authenticate the binding.

  11. Microsoft Word - Attachment J-2 Hardware and Software System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J-2-1 ATTACHMENT J.2 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS a. The Contractor shall provide a DOD 5015.x compliant individual electronic file system for each open claim in ...

  12. Breakout Session: The New Science of Soft Costs: Tutorials in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakout Session: The New Science of Soft Costs: Tutorials in Big Data, Social Physics, and Randomized Pilots May 21, 2014 5:15PM to 6:15PM PDT Laguna A & B Solar non-hardware ...

  13. Challenge Accepted: Reducing the Soft Costs of Going Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Every year, it becomes even more affordable to go solar. However, one thing remains consistent: the non-hardware, or soft costs related to permitting, installation, and maintenance account for...

  14. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports | Department of Energy Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 adzic_bnl_kickoff.pdf (4.62 MB) More Documents & Publications Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

  15. Scaling Retro-Commissioning to Small Commercial Buildings: A Turnkey Automated Hardware-Software Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Guanjing; Granderson, J.; Brambley, Michael R.

    2015-07-01

    In the United States, small commercial buildings represent 51% of total floor space of all commercial buildings and consume nearly 3 quadrillion Btu (3.2 quintillion joule) of site energy annually, presenting an enormous opportunity for energy savings. Retro-commissioning (RCx), the process through which professional energy service providers identify and correct operational problems, has proven to be a cost-effective means to achieve median energy savings of 16%. However, retro-commissioning is not typically conducted at scale throughout the commercial stock. Very few small commercial buildings are retro-commissioned because utility expenses are relatively modest, margins are tighter, and capital for improvements is limited. In addition, small buildings do not have in-house staff with the expertise to identify improvement opportunities. In response, a turnkey hardware-software solution was developed to enable cost-effective, monitoring-based RCx of small commercial buildings. This highly tailored solution enables non-commissioning providers to identify energy and comfort problems, as well as associated cost impacts and remedies. It also facilitates scale by offering energy service providers the means to streamline their existing processes and reduce costs by more than half. The turnkey RCx sensor suitcase consists of two primary components: a suitcase of sensors for short-term building data collection that guides users through the process of deploying and retrieving their data and a software application that automates analysis of sensor data, identifies problems and generates recommendations. This paper presents the design and testing of prototype models, including descriptions of the hardware design, analysis algorithms, performance testing, and plans for dissemination.

  16. Demand Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  17. Tomographic image reconstruction and rendering with texture-mapping hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Cabral, B.K.; Foran, J.

    1994-07-01

    The image reconstruction problem, also known as the inverse Radon transform, for x-ray computed tomography (CT) is found in numerous applications in medicine and industry. The most common algorithm used in these cases is filtered backprojection (FBP), which, while a simple procedure, is time-consuming for large images on any type of computational engine. Specially-designed, dedicated parallel processors are commonly used in medical CT scanners, whose results are then passed to graphics workstation for rendering and analysis. However, a fast direct FBP algorithm can be implemented on modern texture-mapping hardware in current high-end workstation platforms. This is done by casting the FBP algorithm as an image warping operation with summing. Texture-mapping hardware, such as that on the Silicon Graphics Reality Engine (TM), shows around 600 times speedup of backprojection over a CPU-based implementation (a 100 Mhz R4400 in this case). This technique has the further advantages of flexibility and rapid programming. In addition, the same hardware can be used for both image reconstruction and for volumetric rendering. The techniques can also be used to accelerate iterative reconstruction algorithms. The hardware architecture also allows more complex operations than straight-ray backprojection if they are required, including fan-beam, cone-beam, and curved ray paths, with little or no speed penalties.

  18. Corrosion investigation of coatings for surface protection of military hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsey, N.; Vasanth, K.L.

    1996-10-01

    A product improvement program (PIP) for the surface finish of some steel military hardware has been recently initiated by the Navy. Presently the metal cleaning methods, interior and exterior surface finishes and corrosion protection requirements for such hardware are specified in MIL-P-18948. The coated hardware are stored in a warehouse structure for long durations. Because these storage places are not environmentally controlled (that is, no temperature or humidity control) the corrosion protection has not been adequate. The exterior surfaces of the hardware are coated with a corrosion inhibiting alkyd primer coating (TT-P-664) or a rust inhibiting lacquer primer coating (MIL-P-11414) to a thickness of 0.4 to 0.6 mils. The exterior color paint, (MIL-E-52891 or MIL-P11195), is applied to a thickness of 1.5 mils. The investigation of various coatings to replace the present system is an ongoing effort. The coatings have been examined from a corrosion protection vantage point and results have been correlated. The coatings were evaluated by exposing them to natural marine atmosphere and seawater wetdown tests. The coatings were also exposed to a 5.0% sodium chloride solution in a laboratory environmental salt fog chamber for 500 hours. Selected coatings were examined using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results obtained from field tests, salt fog, and EIS measurements are discussed.

  19. Towards automated construction of dependable software/hardware systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakhnis, A.; Yakhnis, V.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the automated construction of dependable computer architecture systems. The outline of this report is: examples of software/hardware systems; dependable systems; partial delivery of dependability; proposed approach; removing obstacles; advantages of the approach; criteria for success; current progress of the approach; and references.

  20. Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk Reduction in Geothermal Exploration Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk ...

  1. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  2. Web tools to monitor and debug DAQ hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene Desavouret; Jerzy M. Nogiec

    2003-06-04

    A web-based toolkit to monitor and diagnose data acquisition hardware has been developed. It allows for remote testing, monitoring, and control of VxWorks data acquisition computers and associated instrumentation using the HTTP protocol and a web browser. This solution provides concurrent and platform independent access, supplementary to the standard single-user rlogin mechanism. The toolkit is based on a specialized web server, and allows remote access and execution of select system commands and tasks, execution of test procedures, and provides remote monitoring of computer system resources and connected hardware. Various DAQ components such as multiplexers, digital I/O boards, analog to digital converters, or current sources can be accessed and diagnosed remotely in a uniform and well-organized manner. Additionally, the toolkit application supports user authentication and is able to enforce specified access restrictions.

  3. Summary of multi-core hardware and programming model investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes our investigations into multi-core processors and programming models for parallel scientific applications. The motivation for this study was to better understand the landscape of multi-core hardware, future trends, and the implications on system software for capability supercomputers. The results of this study are being used as input into the design of a new open-source light-weight kernel operating system being targeted at future capability supercomputers made up of multi-core processors. A goal of this effort is to create an agile system that is able to adapt to and efficiently support whatever multi-core hardware and programming models gain acceptance by the community.

  4. Suppression of quantum chaos in a quantum computer hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lages, J.; Shepelyansky, D. L. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, UMR 5152 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2006-08-15

    We present numerical and analytical studies of a quantum computer proposed by the Yamamoto group in Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017901 (2002). The stable and quantum chaos regimes in the quantum computer hardware are identified as a function of magnetic field gradient and dipole-dipole couplings between qubits on a square lattice. It is shown that a strong magnetic field gradient leads to suppression of quantum chaos.

  5. Collaboration Topics - Acceleration Hardware and APIs | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Acceleration Hardware and APIs This work explores areas of common interest in programming models for the coming exascale era. Initially, the intent was to aggregate NNSA and CEA lab's work in this area into a common repository. Early work will focus on low-level application programming interfaces (APIs), micro-benchmarks, and mini-applications. Work in the out-years will include APIs and languages that provide higher levels of abstraction. Accomplishments 1)

  6. Efficient Execution of Recursive Programs on Commodity Vector Hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Bin; Jo, Youngjoon; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Kunal; Kulkarni, Milind

    2015-06-13

    The pursuit of computational efficiency has led to the proliferation of throughput-oriented hardware, from GPUs to increasingly-wide vector units on commodity processors and accelerators. This hardware is designed to efficiently execute data-parallel computations in a vectorized manner. However, many algorithms are more naturally expressed as divide-and-conquer, recursive, task-parallel computations; in the absence of data parallelism, it seems that such algorithms are not well-suited to throughput-oriented architectures. This paper presents a set of novel code transformations that expose the data-parallelism latent in recursive, task-parallel programs. These transformations facilitate straightforward vectorization of task-parallel programs on commodity hardware. We also present scheduling policies that maintain high utilization of vector resources while limiting space usage. Across several task-parallel benchmarks, we demonstrate both efficient vector resource utilization and substantial speedup on chips using Intel's SSE4.2 vector units as well as accelerators using Intel's AVX512 units.

  7. Hardware/Software Solution Unifying DALI, IBECS, and BACnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis; Sila, Kiliccote

    2004-12-01

    with off-the-shelf components and wireless routers that are common today for computer applications do not have significantly lower capabilities than the $1000 product and are now available at $100-$200. If it is configured so that it caters to commissioning, maintenance and energy monitoring, its benefit from a mere energy saving equipment can be extended to reduction in installation and maintenance costs.

  8. Tactical encirclement reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutwald, R.

    1986-12-05

    This monograph discusses the intricacies of liquidating tactical encirclements and bypassed pockets of enemy resistance. Operational employment of U.S. Army doctrine will lead to tactical encirclements in most instances. Contemporary doctrine, however, fails to acknowledge the probability of encirclement. Additionally, doctrine fails to address methods of dealing with enemy pockets. History argues that encircled enemy units often refuse to capitulate and usually require reduction by force. Furthermore, four brief examples of encirclement from the Russo-German front of World War II demonstrate that reduction operations are often difficult and complex. An encircling commander must foresee the consequences of encirclements and attempt to create the most favorable conditions for the reduction of encircled enemy forces. He must select a method and technique of reduction. He must base his selection of the situation, the threat posed by the enemy, the requirement for speed, the available resources, and the likely costs. Regardless of the method and technique chosen, the encircling commander must also consider the following: pausing to organize, establishing maneuver and fire control measures, isolating the enemy, nuclear weapon employment, and psychological operations. This paper concludes that the Army must acknowledge its doctrinal void, research and develop a reduction methodology, and amend its doctrine.

  9. BPA's Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  10. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for

  11. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL,; Wiser, Ryan; Lantz, Eric; Hand, Maureen

    2012-03-26

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions. Our findings indicate that steady cost reductions were interrupted between 2004 and 2010, but falling turbine prices and improved turbine performance are expected to drive a historically low LCOE for current installations. In addition, the majority of studies indicate continued cost reductions on the order of 20%-30% through 2030. Moreover, useful cost projections are likely to benefit from stronger consideration of the interactions between capital cost and performance as well as trends in the quality of the wind resource where projects are located, transmission, grid integration, and other cost variables.

  12. Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (Poster) Lundstrom, B.; Shirazi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HARDWARE; LOOP; POSTER; Buildings; Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems; Solar Energy - Thermal ELECTRICITY; GRID; ICS; INTERCONNECTION; SYSTEM; EVALUATOR;...

  13. DOE Science Showcase - Quantum Computer Hardware | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information Computer Hardware Building the Quantum Computer In the amazing world of quantum physics, DOE researchers and their partners are designing hardware for quantum computers that function by storing and using data on atoms and the subatomic particles inside of them. Major advances in this hardware development could ultimately accelerate the design of practical, full-scale quantum computers. Learn more about this hardware development in From "1

  14. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-09-24

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  15. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  16. Resolution-independent surface rendering using programmable graphics hardware

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loop, Charles T.; Blinn, James Frederick

    2008-12-16

    Surfaces defined by a Bezier tetrahedron, and in particular quadric surfaces, are rendered on programmable graphics hardware. Pixels are rendered through triangular sides of the tetrahedra and locations on the shapes, as well as surface normals for lighting evaluations, are computed using pixel shader computations. Additionally, vertex shaders are used to aid interpolation over a small number of values as input to the pixel shaders. Through this, rendering of the surfaces is performed independently of viewing resolution, allowing for advanced level-of-detail management. By individually rendering tetrahedrally-defined surfaces which together form complex shapes, the complex shapes can be rendered in their entirety.

  17. Development of Hardware-in-the-loop Microgrid Testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Bailu; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Starke, Michael R; Liu, Guodong; Dowling, Kevin; Ollis, T Ben; Irminger, Philip; Xu, Yan; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D

    2015-01-01

    A hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) microgrid testbed for the evaluation and assessment of microgrid operation and control system has been presented in this paper. The HIL testbed is composed of a real-time digital simulator (RTDS) for modeling of the microgrid, multiple NI CompactRIOs for device level control, a prototype microgrid energy management system (MicroEMS), and a relay protection system. The applied communication-assisted hybrid control system has been also discussed. Results of function testing of HIL controller, communication, and the relay protection system are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed HIL microgrid testbed.

  18. Table C. Dispenser, Hanging Hardware, Shear Valve, and Submersible Turbine

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    C. Dispenser, Hanging Hardware, Shear Valve, and Submersible Turbine Pump Manufacturer Compatibility Manufacturers introduce and discontinue models over time. If you do not see your equipment on this list please contact the manufacturer. Manufacturer Product Model Ethanol Compatibility UL E25 and E85 Listed Equipment Gilbarco Dispenser An option on remote control dispenser Models NA0, NA1, NA2, NA3, NG1, NG6, NL0, NL1, NL2, and NL3. Models NG1, NG6, and NL0-NL3 are X+1 configurations where X is

  19. System for processing an encrypted instruction stream in hardware

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griswold, Richard L.; Nickless, William K.; Conrad, Ryan C.

    2016-04-12

    A system and method of processing an encrypted instruction stream in hardware is disclosed. Main memory stores the encrypted instruction stream and unencrypted data. A central processing unit (CPU) is operatively coupled to the main memory. A decryptor is operatively coupled to the main memory and located within the CPU. The decryptor decrypts the encrypted instruction stream upon receipt of an instruction fetch signal from a CPU core. Unencrypted data is passed through to the CPU core without decryption upon receipt of a data fetch signal.

  20. Nitrate reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  1. Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction in Geothermal Exploration | Department of Energy Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk Reduction in Geothermal Exploration Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk Reduction in Geothermal Exploration Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk Reduction in Geothermal Exploration presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. fast_cap_sys_peer2013.pdf (1.51 MB) More

  2. PROJECT PROFILE: Towards a Low Cost Solar Future: Baselines, Trajectories, and Impacts (SuNLaMP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This project quantifies the soft and hard costs of solar in order to target research and development activities that increase market transparency, guide accelerated solar deployment strategies, and identify opportunities to reduce solar costs. This foundational analysis will address the remaining non-hardware costs and identify deployment barriers to achieving ubiquitous solar.

  3. Soft Costs 101: The Key to Achieving our Clean Energy Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When buying a solar power system, hardware is not the only expense. There are also "soft costs": permits, financing, installation costs, and more. EERE's SunShot Initiative is working to address those, so that solar power can be even more cost-competitive.

  4. Demonstration of Datacenter Automation Software and Hardware (DASH) at the California Franchise Tax Board

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-12-18

    Control software and wireless sensors designed for closed-loop, monitoring and control of IT equipment's inlet air temperatures in datacenters were evaluated and tested while other datacenter cooling best practices were implemented. The controls software and hardware along with each best practice were installed sequentially and evaluated using a measurement and verification procedure between each measure. The results show that the overall project eliminates 475,239 kWh per year, which is 21.3percent of the baseline energy consumption of the data center. The total project, including the best practices will save $42,772 per year and cost $134,057 yielding a simple payback of 3.1 years. However, the control system alone eliminates 59.6percent of the baseline energy used to move air in the datacenter and 13.6percent of the baseline cooling energy, which is 15.2percent of the baseline energy consumption (see Project Approach, Task 1, below, for additional information) while keeping temperatures substantially within the limits recommended by ASHRAE. Savings attributed to the control system are $30,564 per year with a cost $56,824 for a simple payback of 1.9 years.

  5. Tuple spaces in hardware for accelerated implicit routing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Zachary Kent; Tripp, Justin

    2010-12-01

    Organizing and optimizing data objects on networks with support for data migration and failing nodes is a complicated problem to handle as systems grow. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that high levels of speedup can be achieved by moving responsibility for finding, fetching, and staging data into an FPGA-based network card. We present a system for implicit routing of data via FPGA-based network cards. In this system, data structures are requested by name, and the network of FPGAs finds the data within the network and relays the structure to the requester. This is acheived through successive examination of hardware hash tables implemented in the FPGA. By avoiding software stacks between nodes, the data is quickly fetched entirely through FPGA-FPGA interaction. The performance of this system is orders of magnitude faster than software implementations due to the improved speed of the hash tables and lowered latency between the network nodes.

  6. Factory Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-17

    The Factory Cost Model (FCM) is an economic analysis tool intended to provide flat panel display (FPD) and other similar discrete component manufacturers with the ability to make first-order estimates of the cost of unit production. This software has several intended uses. Primary among these is the ability to provide first-order economic analysis for future factories. Consequently, the model requires a minimal level of input detail, and accomodates situations where actual production data are notmore » available. This software is designed to be activity based such that most of the calculated direct costs are associated with the steps of a manufacturibg process. The FCM architecture has the ability to accomodate the analysis of existing manufacturing facilities. The FCM can provide assistance with strategic economic decisions surrounding production related matters. For instance, the program can project the effect on costs and resources of a new product''s introduction, or it can assess the potential cost reduction produced by step yield improvements in the manufacturing process.« less

  7. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  8. Life Improvement of Pot Hardware in Continuous Hot Dipping Processes Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xingbo Liu

    2006-01-18

    The process of continuous galvanizing of rolled sheet steel includes immersion into a bath of molten zinc/aluminum alloy. The steel strip is dipped in the molten bath through a series of driving motors and rollers which control the speed and tension of the strip, with the ability to modify both the amount of coating applied to the steel as well as the thickness and width of the sheet being galvanized. There are three rolls used to guide the steel strip through the molten metal bath. The rolls that operate in the molten Zn/Al are subject to a severely corrosive environment and require frequent changing. The performance of this equipment, the metallic hardware submerged in the molten Zn/Al bath, is the focus of this research. The primary objective of this research is to extend the performance life of the metallic hardware components of molten Zn/Al pot hardware by an order of magnitude. Typical galvanizing operations experience downtimes on the order of every two weeks to change the metallic hardware submerged in the molten metal bath. This is an expensive process for industry which takes upwards of 3 days for a complete turn around to resume normal operation. Each roll bridle consists of a sink, stabilizer, and corrector roll with accompanying bearing components. The cost of the bridle rig with all components is as much as $25,000 dollars just for materials. These inefficiencies are of concern to the steel coating companies and serve as a potential market for many materials suppliers. This research effort served as a bridge between the market potential and industry need to provide an objective analytical and mechanistic approach to the problem of wear and corrosion of molten metal bath hardware in a continuous sheet galvanizing line. The approach of the investigators was to provide a means of testing and analysis that was both expeditious and cost effective. The consortium of researchers from West Virginia University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed

  9. Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.M.

    1981-07-01

    This study evaluates the economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic waste by comparing the costs of reduction of the waste with the savings possible in transportation and disposal of the waste. The report develops a general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings, establishes an initial set of cost data, and develops conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled newly generated, and retrievably stored DOE transuranic waste. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal, and transportation savings with volume reduction and the volume reduction techniques and savings.

  10. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es111_gallagher_2012_o.pdf (1.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Promises and Challenges of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition-Metal Layered-Oxide Cathodes PHEV Battery Cost Assessment EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects

  11. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed . Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam )

    2009-07-01

    transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

  12. Generating clock signals for a cycle accurate, cycle reproducible FPGA based hardware accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asaad, Sameth W.; Kapur, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for generating clock signals for a cycle accurate FPGA based hardware accelerator used to simulate operations of a device-under-test (DUT). In one embodiment, the DUT includes multiple device clocks generating multiple device clock signals at multiple frequencies and at a defined frequency ratio; and the FPG hardware accelerator includes multiple accelerator clocks generating multiple accelerator clock signals to operate the FPGA hardware accelerator to simulate the operations of the DUT. In one embodiment, operations of the DUT are mapped to the FPGA hardware accelerator, and the accelerator clock signals are generated at multiple frequencies and at the defined frequency ratio of the frequencies of the multiple device clocks, to maintain cycle accuracy between the DUT and the FPGA hardware accelerator. In an embodiment, the FPGA hardware accelerator may be used to control the frequencies of the multiple device clocks.

  13. Hardware based redundant multi-threading inside a GPU for improved reliability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-05-05

    A system and method for verifying computation output using computer hardware are provided. Instances of computation are generated and processed on hardware-based processors. As instances of computation are processed, each instance of computation receives a load accessible to other instances of computation. Instances of output are generated by processing the instances of computation. The instances of output are verified against each other in a hardware based processor to ensure accuracy of the output.

  14. levelized costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    levelized costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  15. W-026 acceptance test plan plant control system hardware (submittal {number_sign} 216)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, T.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    Acceptance Testing of the WRAP 1 Plant Control System Hardware will be conducted throughout the construction of WRAP I with the final testing on the Process Area hardware being completed in November 1996. The hardware tests will be broken out by the following functional areas; Local Control Units, Operator Control Stations in the WRAP Control Room, DMS Server, PCS Server, Operator Interface Units, printers, DNS terminals, WRAP Local Area Network/Communications, and bar code equipment. This document will contain completed copies of each of the hardware tests along with the applicable test logs and completed test exception reports.

  16. Steady-state and transient thermal performance of subsea hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabaras, G.J.; Zhang, J.

    1998-06-01

    The thermal performance of subsea hardware is of ultimate importance to the economic development and reliable operation of deepwater subsea oil and gas systems because of the potential for hydrate formation. Results of numerical calculations are presented on the thermal performance of subsea equipment such as wellheads, tubing and flowline jumpers, and flowline field joints. In contrast to previous published studies on the thermal performance of insulated subsea wellbores and flowlines, this paper addresses the thermal performance of the subsea equipment that can provide weak thermal links for the subsea system. A two-dimensional (2D), general-purpose, finite-element, partial-differential equation solver was used to analyze the steady-state and transient thermal behavior at different cross sections of the subsea tree. This paper presents a new method for predicting pressure profiles in oil and gas wells. The method combines mechanistic flow-pattern transition criteria with physical models for pressure-loss and liquid-holdup calculations for each of the flow patterns considered. Past published methods relied heavily on empirical fit of limited field data. As a result, they are inaccurate when used outside the range of data upon which they are based. In contrast, the new method is universally applicable to all types of wells under all operating scenarios because it is based on fundamental physics rather than the curve-fit of field data. Its prediction performance has been demonstrated by extensive comparison to field data from a variety of wells.

  17. Manufacturing Facility Opened Using EERE-Supported Low-Cost Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To accomplish this cost reduction, BASF developed a higher throughput coating process, ... Catalyst Licensed for Use in Fuel Cell Hybrid Advanced Vehicles Low-Cost Production of ...

  18. Survey Results and Analysis of the Cost and Efficiency of Various Operating Hydrogen Fueling Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornish, John

    2011-03-05

    Existing Hydrogen Fueling Stations were surveyed to determine capital and operational costs. Recommendations for cost reduction in future stations and for research were developed.

  19. NREL and General Motors Announce R&D Partnership to Reduce Cost...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Announce R&D Partnership to Reduce Cost of Automotive Fuel Cells June 25, 2014 The Energy ... the reduction of automotive fuel cell stack costs through fuel cell ...

  20. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  1. Breakout Session: The New Science of Soft Costs: Tutorials in Big Data, Social Physics, and Randomized Pilots

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar non-hardware costs – the aggregation of all the time, effort, and fees expended while dealing with myriad people and processes – are now the greatest barrier to achieving national SunShot...

  2. Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Identification of component-wise cost reduction targets for parity with coal and natural gas - Assessment of market economics for potential new entrants - Forecasts of technology...

  3. Project Profile: Evaluating the Causes of Photovoltaics Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motivation Photovoltaic technologies, including silicon and thin film solar cells, have experienced unprecedented cost reductions among electricity-conversion technologies. A ...

  4. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  5. Soft Costs 101: The Key to Achieving Cheaper Solar Energy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Soft Costs 101: The Key to Achieving Cheaper Solar Energy Soft Costs 101: The Key to Achieving Cheaper Solar Energy February 25, 2016 - 10:00am Addthis Soft Costs 101: The Key to Achieving Cheaper Solar Energy Dr. Elaine Ulrich Dr. Elaine Ulrich Balance of Systems/Soft Costs Program Manager What are "soft costs"? Soft costs are those not related to hardware, including installation, buying permits and financing. By lowering these costs, solar power becomes more affordable.

  6. Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    - Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles Idling your vehicle-running your engine when you're not driving it-truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does. Researchers estimate that idling from heavy-duty and light- duty vehicles combined wastes about 6 billion gallons of

  7. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Technology (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

    2006-10-01

    Presents a cost-benefit of analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology, including potential petroleum use reduction.

  8. Cost Study Manual

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Cost Study Manual Executive Summary This Cost Study Manual documents the procedures for preparing a Cost Study to compare the cost of a contractor's employee benefits to the industry average from a broad-based national benefit cost survey. The annual Employee Benefits Cost Study Comparison (Cost Study) assists with the analysis of contractors' employee benefits costs. The Contracting Officer (CO) may require corrective action when the average benefit per capita cost or the benefit cost as a

  9. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) Testing Facility for Distributed Energy Storage (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer.J.; Lundstrom, B.; Simpson, M.; Pratt, A.

    2014-06-01

    The growing deployment of distributed, variable generation and evolving end-user load profiles presents a unique set of challenges to grid operators responsible for providing reliable and high quality electrical service. Mass deployment of distributed energy storage systems (DESS) has the potential to solve many of the associated integration issues while offering reliability and energy security benefits other solutions cannot. However, tools to develop, optimize, and validate DESS control strategies and hardware are in short supply. To fill this gap, NREL has constructed a power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) test facility that connects DESS, grid simulator, and load bank hardware to a distribution feeder simulation.

  10. Merging photovoltaic hardware development with hybrid applications in the USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bower, W.

    1993-11-01

    The use of multi-source power systems, ``hybrids,`` is one of the fastest growing, potentially significant markets for photovoltaic (PV) system technology today. Cost-effective applications today include remote facility power, remote area power supplies, remote home and village power, and power for dedicated electrical loads such as communications systems. This market sector is anticipated to be one of the most important growth opportunities for PV over the next five years. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are currently engaged in an effort to accelerate the adoption of market-driven PV hybrid power systems and to effectively integrate PV with other energy sources. This paper provides details of this development and the ongoing hybrid activities in the United States. Hybrid systems are the primary focus of this paper.

  11. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitz, Rolf D.; Thiel, Matthew P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  12. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  13. Unique Hardware and Software Data Acquisition and Processing Solutions in a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small Engine Test Cell for Enhanced Kinetic Engine Modeling Accuracy | Department of Energy Hardware and Software Data Acquisition and Processing Solutions in a Small Engine Test Cell for Enhanced Kinetic Engine Modeling Accuracy Unique Hardware and Software Data Acquisition and Processing Solutions in a Small Engine Test Cell for Enhanced Kinetic Engine Modeling Accuracy Novel use of AVL data acquisition/processing units provides simultaneous real-time acquisition, processing, and storage

  14. Process and Hardware for Deposition of Complex Thin-film Alloys over Large

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Areas - Energy Innovation Portal Process and Hardware for Deposition of Complex Thin-film Alloys over Large Areas Colorado State University Contact CSU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary An instrument and method for depositing thin film alloys over large areas under vacuum. The key features stem from the use of close-space sublimation sources with independent valve and temperature control. Description This innovation is a process and hardware by which deposition of large-area

  15. Benchmarking Soft Costs for PV Systems in the United States (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents results from the first U.S. based data collection effort to quantify non-hardware, business process costs for PV systems at the residential and commercial scales, using a bottom-up approach. Annual expenditure and labor hour productivity data are analyzed to benchmark business process costs in the specific areas of: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection; (3) labor costs of third party financing; and (4) installation labor.

  16. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge- Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by technology manager David Howell at the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree O'Hare, Chicago, IL.

  17. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Document states additional feedback on the worksop received via a request for information issued in June, 2013.

  18. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    electronic technology to utility-scale PV systems based on novel, patent-pending ideas. ... approach to utility-scale PV systems based on novel, patent-pending ideas. ...

  19. Pollution Prevention, Waste Reduction, and Recycling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pollution Prevention, Waste Reduction, and Recycling Pollution Prevention, Waste Reduction, and Recycling The purpose of pollution prevention and waste reduction as stated in the Departments Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan is to "prevent or reduce pollution at the source whenever feasible. Pollutants and wastes that cannot be prevented through source reduction will be diverted from entering the waste stream through environmentally safe and cost-effective reuse or recycling to the

  20. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-25

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GENSIM) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration ofmore » a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emission trade-offs. The base case results using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax

  1. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  2. Shifting the cost curve for subsea developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solheim, B.J.; Hestad, E.

    1995-12-31

    A steadily increasing challenge in offshore oil and gas field developments in the Norwegian part of the North Sea is to design, construct, and install offshore installations that give an acceptable return of investment Deeper water, limited reservoirs and a low, fluctuating oil price make the task even more demanding. Saga Petroleum has recently faced this challenge with its last field development project. Attention in this paper is focused on the Vigdis subsea production system. However, the considerations and cost reduction elements are valid for offshore field developments in general. The main cost reductions are obtained by: Maximum use of industry capability; Application of new organization principles; Focus on functional requirements; Shortened project execution time; Technological development. In addition this paper presents thoughts on further cost reduction possibilities for future subsea field developments.

  3. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  4. Oxygen reduction reaction: A framework for success

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Allendorf, Mark D.

    2016-05-06

    Oxygen reduction at the cathode of fuel cells typically requires a platinum-based material to catalyse the reaction, but lower-cost, more stable catalysts are sought. Here, an intrinsically conductive metal–organic framework based on cheaper elements is shown to be a durable, structurally well-defined catalyst for this reaction.

  5. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  6. Drag reduction in coal log pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H.

    1996-12-31

    It is well-known that solutions of dissolved long-chain macromolecules produce lower friction or drag losses than with the solvent alone. In coal log pipeline (CLP), water is the conveying medium. Synthetic polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) have been dissolved in water and tested for their extent of drag reduction as a function of concentration and other variables. Lab-scale experimental results for CLP indicate substantial drag reduction at low concentration levels of polymer. But, the macromolecules exhibit degradation under mechanical shear stresses. The large molecules break into smaller units. This degradation effect causes a loss of drag reduction. However, high levels of drag reduction can be maintained as follows: (1) by injecting polymer into the CLP at several locations along the pipeline, (2) by injecting polymer of different particle sizes, (3) by using more robust types of polymers, or (4) by using polymer-fiber mixtures. This report presents the value of drag-reducing agents in terms of pumping power net cost savings. In addition, this report outlines the environmental impact of drag reduction polymers, and end-of-pipeline water treatment processes. For an operating CLP, hundreds of miles in length, the use of poly(ethylene oxide) as a drag reducing agent provides significant pumping power cost savings at a minimal materials cost.

  7. Cellulosic Ethanol Cost Target

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plenary Talk May 21, 2013 Cellulosic Ethanol Cost Target 2 | Biomass Program ... "Our goal is to make cellulosic ethanol practical and cost competitive within 6 ...

  8. Deterrence of device counterfeiting, cloning, and subversion by substitution using hardware fingerprinting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamlet, Jason R; Bauer, Todd M; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-09-30

    Deterrence of device subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a computing device for authenticating a hardware platform of the computing device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware platform. The PUF circuit is used to generate a PUF value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the PUF value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the computing device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  9. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Quality Hardware and Machine Co - IL

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    11 Quality Hardware and Machine Co - IL 11 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: QUALITY HARDWARE AND MACHINE CO. (IL.11) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Ravenswood Venture Marden Manufacturing Co. IL.11-1 IL.11-2 Location: 5823/5849 North Ravenswood Avenue , Chicago , Illinois IL.11-3 Evaluation Year: 1990 IL.11-4 IL.11-5 Site Operations: From 1944 to 1945, entered into subcontracts with the University of Chicago to furnish personnel,

  10. 3-Port Single-Stage PV & Battery Converter Improves Efficiency and Cost in Combined PV/Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundschuh, Paul

    2013-03-23

    Due to impressive cost reductions in recent years, photovoltaic (PV) generation is now able to produce electricity at highly competitive prices, but PV’s inherent intermittency reduces the potential value of this energy. The integration of battery storage with PV will be transformational by increasing the value of solar. Utility scale systems will benefit by firming intermittency including PV ramp smoothing, grid support and load shifting, allowing PV to compete directly with conventional generation. For distributed grid-tied PV adding storage will reduce peak demand utility charges, as well as providing backup power during power grid failures. The largest long term impact of combined PV and battery systems may be for delivering reliable off-grid power to the billions of individuals globally without access to conventional power grids, or for billions more that suffer from daily power outages. PV module costs no longer dominate installed PV system costs. Balance-of-System (BOS) costs including the PV inverter and installation now contribute the majority of installed system costs. Battery costs are also dropping faster than installation and battery power converter systems. In each of these separate systems power converters have become a bottleneck for efficiency, cost and reliability. These bottlenecks are compounded in hybrid power conversion systems that combine separate PV and battery converters. Hybrid power conversion systems have required multiple power converters hardware units and multiple power conversion steps adding to efficiency losses, product and installation costs, and reliability issues. Ideal Power Converters has developed and patented a completely new theory of operation for electronic power converters using its indirect EnergyPacket Switching™ topology. It has established successful power converter products for both PV and battery systems, and its 3-Port Hybrid Converter is the first product to exploit the topology’s capability for the

  11. The Role of Advancements in Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy The Role of Advancements in Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs The Role of Advancements in Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs The Role of Advancements in Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs Although tremendous progress has been made in reducing the cost of PV systems, additional LCOE reductions of 40%-50% between 2015 and 2020 will be required to reach the SunShot Initiative's targets (see Woodhouse et al. 2016). Understanding the

  12. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage and NOx reduction over a commercial Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst to understand catalyst behaviors at low temperatures and improve NOx reduction performance and reduce system cost

  13. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-07-01

    Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NOX emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on final preparations for testing pre-combustion chambers with different characteristics and using mid-to-high-pressure fuel valves and initial runs of these tests. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and changes to the first planned field test are presented. Although changes have been made to the previous plan, it is expected that several new sites will be selected soon. Field tests will begin in the next quarter.

  14. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  15. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  16. A chronicle of costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elioff, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains the history of all estimated costs associated with the superconducting super collider.

  17. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J.

    1993-06-14

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  18. Clearing, Sanitization, and Destruction of Information System Storage Media, Memory Devices, and Related Hardware Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-06-21

    The manual establishes the DOE requirements and responsibilities for clearing, sanitizing, and destroying DOE information system storage media, memory devices, and related hardware to ensure that no unauthorized information can be retrieved. Canceled by DOE N 205.17. Cancels DOE N 205.12

  19. ESIF Plugs Utility-Scale Hardware into Simulated Grids to Assess Integration Effects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    At NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), integrated, megawatt-scale power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) capability allows researchers and manufacturers to test new energy technologies at full power in real-time simulations - safely evaluating component and system performance and reliability before going to market.

  20. Hardware-in-the-loop testing of wireless systems in realistic environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory); Schniter, P. (Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    This document describes an approach for testing of wireless systems in realistic environments that include intentional as well as unintentional radio frequency interference. In the approach, signal generators along with radio channel simulators are used to carry out hardware-in-the-loop testing. The channel parameters are obtained independently via channel sounding measurements and/or EM simulations.

  1. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing

  2. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric

  3. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  4. Pollution prevention cost savings potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celeste, J.

    1994-12-01

    The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

  5. COE Reductions through Active Aerodynamic Control of Rotor Aerodynamics and Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, D. A.; McCoy, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates potential cost of energy reductions that might be achieved by designing active systems to mitigate loads throughout the wind turbine system.

  6. Driving Down HB-LED Costs. Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods of High Yield MOCVD Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, William

    2012-04-30

    . Programmatically, improvements made in Phase I are applied to developments of Phase II when applicable. Phase three is the culmination of the individual tasks from both phases one and two applied to proposed production platforms. We selectively combine previously demonstrated tasks and other options to develop a high-volume production-worthy MOCVD system demonstrating >3x throughput, 1.3x capital efficiency, and 0.7x cost of ownership. In a parallel demonstration we validate the concept of an improved, larger deposition system which utilizes the predictive modeling of chemistry-based flow analysis and extensions of the improvements demonstrated on the current platforms. This validation includes the build and testing of a prototype version of the hardware and demonstration of 69% reduction in the cost of ownership. Also, in this phase we present a stand-alone project to develop a high-temperature system which improves source efficiency by 30% while concurrently increasing growth rate by 1.3x. The material quality is held to the same material quality specifications of our existing baseline processes. The merits of other line item tasks in phase three are discussed for inclusion on next-generation platforms.

  7. ASPEN costing manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwint, K.J.

    1986-07-25

    The ASPEN program contains within it a Cost Estimation System (CES) which estimates the purchase cost and utility consumption rates for major pieces of equipment in a process flowsheet as well as installed equipment costs. These estimates are ''preliminary-study grade'' with an accuracy of plus or minus 30%. The ASPEN program also contains within it an Economic Evaluation System (EES) which estimates overall capital investment costs, annual operating expenses and profitability indices for a chemical plant. This ASPEN costing manual has been written as a guide for those inexperienced in the use of ASPEN and unfamiliar with standard cost estimating techniques who want to use the ASPEN CES and EES. The ASPEN Costing Manual is comprised of the following sections: (1) Introduction, (2) ASPEN Input Language, (3) ASPEN Cost Estimation System (CES), (4) ASPEN Cost Blocks; and (5) ASPEN Economic Evaluation System (EES).

  8. enVerid Systems - HVAC Load Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    enVerid Systems - HVAC Load Reduction enVerid Systems - HVAC Load Reduction Credit: Enverid Systems Credit: Enverid Systems Lead Performer: enVerid Systems Inc. - Houston, TX DOE Funding: $2,400,000 Cost Share: $2,400,000 Project Term: October 1, 2014 - September 30, 2017 Funding Opportunity: DE-FOA-0001084 PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective is to install and operate modular HVAC Load Reduction (HLR) retrofits in multiple and diverse buildings, monitor their performance, analyze the energy savings

  9. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  10. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  11. Continuous reduction of uranium tetrafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMint, A.L.; Maxey, A.W.

    1993-10-21

    Operation of a pilot-scale system for continuous metallothermic reduction of uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4} or green salt) has been initiated. This activity is in support of the development of a cost- effective process to produce uranium-iron (U-Fe) alloy feed for the Uranium-Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) program. To date, five runs have been made to reduce green salt (UF{sub 4}) with magnesium. During this quarter, three runs were made to perfect the feeding system, examine feed rates, and determine the need for a crust breaker/stirrer. No material was drawn off in any of the runs; both product metal and by-product salt were allowed to accumulate in the reactor.

  12. A Manufacturing Cost Analysis Relevant to Single-and Dual-Junction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Improvement Opportunities for Further Reductions in Manufacturing Costs." (2013). Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 114; pp. 110-135. The Model MOVPE Reactor Today's ...

  13. FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials- 7. Low-Cost Carbon Fiber

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The primary Lightweight Materials activity goal is to validate a cost-effective weight reduction in total vehicle weight while maintaining safety, performance, and reliability.

  14. FY 1995 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue

  15. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Annual Fuel Cost gal Annual GHG Emissions (lbs of CO2) Vehicle Cost Calculator See Assumptions and Methodology Back Next U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and ...

  16. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  17. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  18. Exploring Infiniband Hardware Virtualization in OpenNebula towards Efficient High-Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pais Pitta de Lacerda Ruivo, Tiago; Bernabeu Altayo, Gerard; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Timm, Steven; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Noh, Seo-Young; Raicu, Ioan

    2014-11-11

    has been widely accepted that software virtualization has a big negative impact on high-performance computing (HPC) application performance. This work explores the potential use of Infiniband hardware virtualization in an OpenNebula cloud towards the efficient support of MPI-based workloads. We have implemented, deployed, and tested an Infiniband network on the FermiCloud private Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud. To avoid software virtualization towards minimizing the virtualization overhead, we employed a technique called Single Root Input/Output Virtualization (SRIOV). Our solution spanned modifications to the Linux’s Hypervisor as well as the OpenNebula manager. We evaluated the performance of the hardware virtualization on up to 56 virtual machines connected by up to 8 DDR Infiniband network links, with micro-benchmarks (latency and bandwidth) as well as w a MPI-intensive application (the HPL Linpack benchmark).

  19. Locating hardware faults in a data communications network of a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-01-12

    Hardware faults location in a data communications network of a parallel computer. Such a parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes and a data communications network that couples the compute nodes for data communications and organizes the compute node as a tree. Locating hardware faults includes identifying a next compute node as a parent node and a root of a parent test tree, identifying for each child compute node of the parent node a child test tree having the child compute node as root, running a same test suite on the parent test tree and each child test tree, and identifying the parent compute node as having a defective link connected from the parent compute node to a child compute node if the test suite fails on the parent test tree and succeeds on all the child test trees.

  20. The NUCLARR databank: Human reliability and hardware failure data for the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reece, W.J.

    1993-05-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) was developed to provide human reliability and hardware failure data to analysts in the nuclear power industry. This IBM-compatible databank is contained on a set of floppy diskettes which include data files and a menu-driven system for locating, reviewing, sorting, and retrieving the data. NUCLARR contains over 2500 individual data records, drawn from more, than 60 sources. The system is upgraded annually, to include additional human error and hardware component failure data and programming enhancements (i.e., increased user-friendliness). NUCLARR is available from the NRC through project staff at the INEL.

  1. Hardware concepts for a large low-energetics LMFBR core. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutter, E.; Batch, R.V.

    1980-12-01

    A design study was made to identify a practical set of hardware configurations that would embody the requirements developed in the numerical study of a low-energetics core and blanket for a prototype large breeder reactor. Dimensioned drawings are presented for fuel, blanket, reflector/shield, and control rod subassemblies. A horizontal cross section drawing shows how these subassemblies are arranged in the total core/blanket assembly. A core support is illustrated showing a dual plenums arrangement.

  2. Clearing, Sanitizing, and Destroying Information System Storage Media, Memory Devices, and Other Related Hardware

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-02-19

    This Notice establishes Department of Energy policy requirements and responsibilities for clearing, sanitizing, and destroying DOE information system storage media, memory devices, and other related hardware to ensure no unauthorized information can be retrieved and provides instructions for the same. DOE N 205.15, dated 3-18-05, extends this directive until 3-18-06. No cancellations. Canceled by DOE M 205.1-2.

  3. A Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform with Remote Distribution Circuit Cosimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmintier, Bryan; Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Williams, Tess L.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Chassin, David P.

    2015-04-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of a novel cosimulation architecture that integrates hardware testing using Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) with larger-scale electric grid models using off-the-shelf, non-PHIL software tools. This architecture enables utilities to study the impacts of emerging energy technologies on their system and manufacturers to explore the interactions of new devices with existing and emerging devices on the power system, both without the need to convert existing grid models to a new platform or to conduct in-field trials. The paper describes an implementation of this architecture for testing two residential-scale advanced solar inverters at separate points of common coupling. The same hardware setup is tested with two different distribution feeders (IEEE 123 and 8500 node test systems) modeled using GridLAB-D. In addition to simplifying testing with multiple feeders, the architecture demonstrates additional flexibility with hardware testing in one location linked via the Internet to software modeling in a remote location. In testing, inverter current, real and reactive power, and PCC voltage are well captured by the co-simulation platform. Testing of the inverter advanced control features is currently somewhat limited by the software model time step (1 sec) and tested communication latency (24 msec). Overshoot induced oscillations are observed with volt/VAR control delays of 0 and 1.5 sec, while 3.4 sec and 5.5 sec delays produced little or no oscillation. These limitations could be overcome using faster modeling and communication within the same co-simulation architecture.

  4. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E & P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-09-30

    Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub X} emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work tests non-production, prototype, mid-pressure fuel valves and begins analysis of these tests. This analysis reveals questions which must be answered before coming to any firm conclusions about the use of the180 psig fuel valve. The research team plans to continue with the remaining pre-combustion chamber tests in the coming quarter. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and a change in strategy is suggested. Although field engines are available to test, it is suggested that the final field testing be put on hold due to information from outside publications during this last quarter. Instead, KSU would focus on related field-testing and characterization in an outside project that will close an apparent technology gap. The results of this characterization will give a more solid footing to the field testing that will complete this project.

  5. A Principled Kernel Testbed for Hardware/Software Co-Design Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, Alex; Williams, Samuel; Madduri, Kamesh; Ibrahim, Khaled; Bailey, David; Demmel, James; Strohmaier, Erich

    2010-04-01

    Recently, advances in processor architecture have become the driving force for new programming models in the computing industry, as ever newer multicore processor designs with increasing number of cores are introduced on schedules regimented by marketing demands. As a result, collaborative parallel (rather than simply concurrent) implementations of important applications, programming languages, models, and even algorithms have been forced to adapt to these architectures to exploit the available raw performance. We believe that this optimization regime is flawed. In this paper, we present an alternate approach that, rather than starting with an existing hardware/software solution laced with hidden assumptions, defines the computational problems of interest and invites architects, researchers and programmers to implement novel hardware/software co-designed solutions. Our work builds on the previous ideas of computational dwarfs, motifs, and parallel patterns by selecting a representative set of essential problems for which we provide: An algorithmic description; scalable problem definition; illustrative reference implementations; verification schemes. This testbed will enable comparative research in areas such as parallel programming models, languages, auto-tuning, and hardware/software codesign. For simplicity, we focus initially on the computational problems of interest to the scientific computing community but proclaim the methodology (and perhaps a subset of the problems) as applicable to other communities. We intend to broaden the coverage of this problem space through stronger community involvement.

  6. Reduction-in-Force

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reduction in force (RIF) is a set of regulations and procedures that are used to determine whether an employee keeps his or her present position, or whether the employee has a right to another...

  7. Paperwork Reduction Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Paperwork Reduction Act requires that all federal websites request permission from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) before collecting information from 10 or more members of the public....

  8. NREL Funding Reductions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Funding Reductions to Further Impact Lab's Work Force For more information contact: Robert Noun 303-275-3062 Golden, Colo., December 22, 1995 -- The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) announced today that it will further reduce its work force as a result of continuing reductions of its fiscal year 1996 federal funding for renewable energy research and development. On November 2, the laboratory announced plans to reduce its 900 person regular work force

  9. Economic Competitiveness of U.S. Utility-Scale Photovoltaics Systems in 2015: Regional Cost Modeling of Installed Cost ($/W) and LCOE ($/kWh)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Ran; James, Ted L.; Chung, Donald; Gagne, Douglas; Lopez, Anthony; Dobos, Aron

    2015-06-14

    Utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) system growth is largely driven by the economic metrics of total installed costs and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), which differ by region. This study details regional cost factors, including environment (wind speed and snow loads), labor costs, material costs, sales taxes, and permitting costs using a new system-level bottom-up cost modeling approach. We use this model to identify regional all-in PV installed costs for fixed-tilt and one-axis tracker systems in the United States with consideration of union and non-union labor costs in 2015. LCOEs using those regional installed costs are then modeled and spatially presented. Finally, we assess the cost reduction opportunities of increasing module conversion efficiencies on PV system costs in order to indicate the possible economic impacts of module technology advancements and help future research and development (R&D) effects in the context of U.S. SunShot targets.

  10. Efficiency Improvement through Reduction in Friction and Wear in Powertrain Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Killian

    2009-09-30

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of truck drivelines through reduction of friction and parasitic losses in transmission and drive axles. Known efficiencies for these products exceeded 97 percent, so the task was not trivial. The project relied on a working relationship between modeling and hardware testing. Modeling was to shorten the development cycle by guiding the selection of materials, processes and strategies. Bench top and fixture tests were to validate the models. Modeling was performed at a world class, high academic level, but in the end, modeling did not impact the hardware development as much as intended. Insights leading to the most significant accomplishments came from bench top and fixture tests and full scale dynamometer tests. A key development in the project was the formulation of the implementation strategy. Five technical elements with potential to minimize friction and parasitic losses were identified. These elements included churning, lubrication, surface roughness, coatings and textures. An interesting fact is that both Caterpillar and Eaton independently converged on the same set of technical elements in formulating their implementation strategies. Exploiting technical elements of the implementation strategy had a positive impact on transmission and drive axle efficiencies. During one dynamometer test of an Eaton Best Tech 1 transmission, all three gear ranges tested: Under drive, direct drive and over drive, showed efficiencies greater than 99 percent. Technology boosts to efficiency for transmissions reached 1 percent, while efficiency improvements to drive axle pushed 2 percent. These advancements seem small, but the accomplishment is large considering that these products normally run at greater than 97 percent efficiency. Barriers and risks to implementing these technology elements are clear. Schemes using a low fill sump and spray tubes endanger the gears and bearings by lubricant starvation. Gear coatings have