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1

Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Photovoltaics, 2013-2020  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this analysis is to roadmap the cost reductions and innovations necessary to achieve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's total soft-cost targets by 2020. The roadmap focuses on advances in four soft-cost areas: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII); (3) installation labor; and (4) financing. Financing cost reductions are in terms of the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) for financing PV system installations, with real-percent targets of 3.0% (residential) and 3.4% (commercial).

Ardani, K.; Seif, D.; Margolis, R.; Morris, J.; Davidson, C.; Truitt, S.; Torbert, R.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Non-Hardware (SoftŽ) Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Photovoltaics, 2013…2020  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Photovoltaics, 2013-2020 Kristen Ardani 1 , Dan Seif 2 , Robert Margolis 1 , Jesse Morris 2 , Carolyn Davidson 1 , Sarah Truitt 1 , and Roy Torbert 2 1 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2 Rocky Mountain Institute NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Technical Report NREL/TP-7A40-59155 August 2013 Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov

3

SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Non-Hardware Costs to Reducing Non-Hardware Costs to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Systems Integration Balance of Systems Reducing Non-Hardware Costs Lowering Barriers Fostering Growth Reducing Non-Hardware Costs DOE supports efforts to dramatically reduce the non-hardware, balance of systems costs associated with solar energy systems. Representing as much as

4

Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results Title Benchmarking Non-Hardware...

5

SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Non-Hardware Costs Reducing Non-Hardware Costs DOE supports efforts to dramatically reduce the non-hardware, balance of systems costs associated with solar energy systems. Representing as much as 64% of the total installed system price, these "soft costs" include: Customer Acquisition Financing and Contracting Permitting, Interconnection, and Inspection Installation and Performance Operations and Maintenance. To meet SunShot goals, the industry must innovate new ways to automate and speed processes that make it easier for consumers, businesses, utilities, solar companies, and others to install solar projects. For example, novel software solutions now allow solar companies to design systems and provide accurate quotes using satellite images rather than conducting full site visits.

6

Heliostat cost reduction study.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

NETL: Turbine Projects - Cost Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Reduction Cost Reduction Turbine Projects Cost Reduction Single Crystal Turbine Blades Enhancing Gas Turbine Efficiency Data/Fact Sheets Enabling and Information Technologies to Increase RAM of Advanced Powerplants Data/Fact Sheets Development of NDE Technology for Environmental Barrier Coating and Residual Life Estimation Data/Fact Sheets Welding and Weld Repair of Single Crystal Gas Turbine Alloy Data/Fact Sheets Combustion Turbine Hot Section Coating Life Management Data/Fact Sheets On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization Data/Fact Sheets On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating [PDF] Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine/Combined Cycle RAM Data/Fact Sheets Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine [PDF]

8

Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs 7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of Solar Energy Systems Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of Solar Energy Systems November 15, 2011 - 4:52pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative, Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced up to $7 million to reduce the non-hardware costs of residential and commercial solar energy installations. Made available through the SunShot Incubator Program, this funding will support the development of tools and approaches that reduce non-hardware, or "soft" costs, such as installation, permitting, interconnection, and inspection. These expenses can amount to up to half of the cost of residential systems. The Incubator will make the process of

9

Analysis of near-term spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs  

SciTech Connect

A computer model was developed to quantify the transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs associated with shipping spent fuel in the commercial nucler fuel cycle in the near future. Results from this study indicate that alternative spent fuel shipping systems (consolidated or disassembled fuel elements and new casks designed for older fuel) will significantly reduce the transportation hardware requirements and costs for shipping spent fuel in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, if there is no significant change in their operating/handling characteristics. It was also found that a more modest cost reduction results from increasing the fraction of spent fuel shipped by truck from 25% to 50%. Larger transportation cost reductions could be realized with further increases in the truck shipping fraction. Using the given set of assumptions, it was found that the existing spent fuel cask fleet size is generally adequate to perform the needed transportation services until a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) begins to receive fuel (assumed in 1987). Once the FRP opens, up to 7 additional truck systems and 16 additional rail systems are required at the reference truck shipping fraction of 25%. For the 50% truck shipping fraction, 17 additional truck systems and 9 additional rail systems are required. If consolidated fuel only is shipped (25% by truck), 5 additional rail casks are required and the current truck cask fleet is more than adequate until at least 1995. Changes in assumptions could affect the results. Transportation costs for a federal interim storage program could total about $25M if the FRP begins receiving fuel in 1987 or about $95M if the FRP is delayed until 1989. This is due to an increased utilization of federal interim storage facility from 350 MTU for the reference scenario to about 750 MTU if reprocessing is delayed by two years.

Daling, P.M.; Engel, R.L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Equipment; AHP, Analytic Hierarchy Process; AMCM, Advanced Missions Cost Model; ASPE, American SocietyReview of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space Cost estimation Cost model Parametrics Space hardware Early mission phase a b s t r a c t The primary

Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

11

Cost Reduction Strategies for Mixed Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential for generating mixed waste is a reality at all nuclear power plants. The report provides utilities with a means for developing cost reduction strategies to minimize the volume of waste generated, optimize treatment and disposal options, and maximize overall cost savings.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

12

Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems, Using a Bottom-Up Approach and Installer Survey - Second Edition  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from the second U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs -- for U.S. residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. In service to DOE's SunShot Initiative, annual expenditure and labor-hour-productivity data are analyzed to benchmark 2012 soft costs related to (1) customer acquisition and system design (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII). We also include an in-depth analysis of costs related to financing, overhead, and profit. Soft costs are both a major challenge and a major opportunity for reducing PV system prices and stimulating SunShot-level PV deployment in the United States. The data and analysis in this series of benchmarking reports are a step toward the more detailed understanding of PV soft costs required to track and accelerate these price reductions.

Friedman, B.; Ardani, K.; Feldman, D.; Citron, R.; Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Cost Reduction and Materials Optimisation for the Vanadium Redox ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Cost Reduction and Materials Optimisation for the ... already been successfully implemented in renewable energy storage applications Japan,

14

Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Materials. Storage Respondents submitted additional needs for R&D in the area of hydrogen storage: Advanced metal alloys in order to lower the cost of hydrogen...

15

Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used in industry. However, smaller previously unfeasible applications can now be cost effective due to the packaged system approach which has become available in recent years. The availability of this equipment in a packaged system form makes it feasible to replace pressure reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity for $0.01 to $.02 per kWh (based on current costs of gas and oil); system cost is between $200 and $800 per kW of capacity. Simple system paybacks between one and three years are common.

Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Estimate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:58am Addthis YOU ARE HERE: Step 3 After identifying petroleum reduction strategies, a Federal agency should estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential and cost effectiveness of these strategies for vehicles and mobile equipment. The table below provides steps for identifying optimal vehicle acquisition strategies. Table 1. Framework for Identifying Optimal Vehicle Acquisition Strategies Step Summary Purpose PLAN and COLLECT 1 Determine vehicle acquisition requirements Establish a structured Vehicle Allocation Matrix (VAM) to determine the numbers and types of vehicles required to accomplish your fleet's mission

17

Spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel bearing components: characterization, disposal cost estimates, and proposed repository acceptance requirements  

SciTech Connect

There are two categories of waste considered in this report. The first is the spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. This consists of the hardware remaining after the fuel pins have been removed from the fuel assembly. This includes end fittings, spacer grids, water rods (BWR) or guide tubes (PWR) as appropriate, and assorted springs, fasteners, etc. The second category is other non-fuel-bearing (NFB) components the DOE has agreed to accept for disposal, such as control rods, fuel channels, etc., under Appendix E of the standard utiltiy contract (10 CFR 961). It is estimated that there will be approximately 150 kg of SFD and NFB waste per average metric ton of uranium (MTU) of spent uranium. PWR fuel accounts for approximately two-thirds of the average spent-fuel mass but only 50 kg of the SFD and NFB waste, with most of that being spent fuel disassembly hardware. BWR fuel accounts for one-third of the average spent-fuel mass and the remaining 100 kg of the waste. The relatively large contribution of waste hardware in BWR fuel, will be non-fuel-bearing components, primarily consisting of the fuel channels. Chapters are devoted to a description of spent fuel disassembly hardware and non-fuel assembly components, characterization of activated components, disposal considerations (regulatory requirements, economic analysis, and projected annual waste quantities), and proposed acceptance requirements for spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel assembly components at a geologic repository. The economic analysis indicates that there is a large incentive for volume reduction.

Luksic, A.T.; McKee, R.W.; Daling, P.M.; Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Purcell, W.L.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Cost reduction through improved seismic design  

SciTech Connect

During the past decade, many significnt seismic technology developments have been accomplished by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) programs. Both base technology and major projects, such as the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) plant, have contributed to seismic technology development and validation. Improvements have come in the areas of ground motion definitions, soil-structure interaction, and structural analysis methods and criteria for piping, equipment, components, reactor core, and vessels. Examples of some of these lessons learned and technology developments are provided. Then, the highest priority seismic technology needs, achievable through DOE actions and sponsorship are identified and discussed. Satisfaction of these needs are expected to make important contributions toward cost avoidances and reduced capital costs of future liquid metal nuclear plants. 23 references, 12 figures.

Severud, L.K.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Reductions,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Reductions, Technological Breakthroughs Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Reductions, Technological Breakthroughs August 1, 2013 - 2:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - During remarks at the Energy Department's Biomass 2013 annual conference, Secretary Moniz today highlighted the important role biofuels play in the Administration's Climate Action Plan to increase our energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. Secretary Moniz also announced over $22 million in new investments to help develop cost-competitive algae fuels and streamline the biomass feedstock supply chain for advanced biofuels. "By partnering with industry and universities, we can help make clean,

20

Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Reductions,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Reductions, Technological Breakthroughs Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Reductions, Technological Breakthroughs August 1, 2013 - 2:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - During remarks at the Energy Department's Biomass 2013 annual conference, Secretary Moniz today highlighted the important role biofuels play in the Administration's Climate Action Plan to increase our energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. Secretary Moniz also announced over $22 million in new investments to help develop cost-competitive algae fuels and streamline the biomass feedstock supply chain for advanced biofuels. "By partnering with industry and universities, we can help make clean,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Disposal Cost Savings Considerations in Curie Reduction Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1996, the Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Disposal Facility in Barnwell, South Carolina, announced a new fee structure for the disposal of radioactive wastes based on waste density, dose rate, and activity (curies). This report provides a detailed discussion of the current Barnwell Disposal Fee Structure along with its cost impact on various types of wastes generated. The report also evaluates various curie reduction options, their practical application, and their cost savings potential to help LLW ...

1998-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

22

Cost and schedule reduction for next-generation Candu  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AECL has developed a suite of technologies for Candu{sup R} reactors that enable the next step in the evolution of the Candu family of heavy-water-moderated fuel-channel reactors. These technologies have been combined in the design for the Advanced Candu Reactor TM1 (ACRTM), AECL's next generation Candu power plant. The ACR design builds extensively on the existing Candu experience base, but includes innovations, in design and in delivery technology, that provide very substantial reductions in capital cost and in project schedules. In this paper, main features of next generation design and delivery are summarized, to provide the background basis for the cost and schedule reductions that have been achieved. In particular the paper outlines the impact of the innovative design steps for ACR: - Selection of slightly enriched fuel bundle design; - Use of light water coolant in place of traditional Candu heavy water coolant; - Compact core design with unique reactor physics benefits; - Optimized coolant and turbine system conditions. In addition to the direct cost benefits arising from efficiency improvement, and from the reduction in heavy water, the next generation Candu configuration results in numerous additional indirect cost benefits, including: - Reduction in number and complexity of reactivity mechanisms; - Reduction in number of heavy water auxiliary systems; - Simplification in heat transport and its support systems; - Simplified human-machine interface. The paper also describes the ACR approach to design for constructability. The application of module assembly and open-top construction techniques, based on Candu and other worldwide experience, has been proven to generate savings in both schedule durations and overall project cost, by reducing premium on-site activities, and by improving efficiency of system and subsystem assembly. AECL's up-to-date experience in the use of 3-D CADDS and related engineering tools has also been proven to reduce both engineering and construction costs through more efficient work planning and use of materials, through reduced re-work and through more precise configuration management. Full-scale exploitation of AECL's electronic engineering and project management tools enables further reductions in cost. The Candu fuel-channel reactor type offers inherent manufacturing and construction advantages through the application of a simple, low-pressure low-temperature reactor vessel along with modular fuel channel technology. This leads to cost benefits and total project schedule benefits. As a result, the targets which AECL has set for replication units - overnight capital cost of $1000 US/kW and total project schedule (engineering/manufacturing/construction/commissioning) of 48 months, have been shown to be achievable for the reference NG Candu design. (authors)

Hopwood, J.M.; Yu, S.; Pakan, M.; Soulard, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 (Canada)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

LBNL-52559 Learning and Cost Reductions for Generating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) incorporates endogenous learning into its cost calculations for power plants. The parameters that affect reductions due to learning for each of 21 power plants types. Technological learning is represented two ways, solar thermal, and photovoltaic plants. The initial TOFs are shown in Table 3. In NEMS, the first plant

24

Energy cost reduction in the fabricare industry. [Handbook  

SciTech Connect

This handbook shows what major cost reduction opportunities are available, why these recommendations need immediate attention, and how these measures can begin to save money. The study consisted of detailed energy usage analyses of laundry and dry cleaning plants located throughout the U.S. Cost to implement, payback period, first-year energy cost reduction, and 10-year savings are discussed for 16 measures--relamp entire plant, set back night temperature, insulate pipes and tanks, maintain boiler efficiency, let boiler coast down, test steam traps, install steam valves, relocate air compressor intake, repair steam and condensate leaks, repair water and air leaks, reduce hot water temperature (15 F), lower water level once inch, substitute extract for rinse, recover dryer heat, and shorten coin-operated dryer run time. (MCW)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from the first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs--often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs--for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems.

Ardani, K.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Feldman, D.; Ong, S.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 2: Data Gathering and Analysis Project Description It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher first costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches.

27

PV Inverter Products Manufacturing and Design Improvements for Cost Reduction and Performance Enhancements: Final Subcontract Report, November 2003 (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

The specific objectives of this subcontracted development work by Xantrex Technology Inc. were to: (1) Capture the newest digital signal processor (DSP) technology to create high-impact,''next generation'' power conversion equipment for the PV industry; (2) Create a common resource base for three PV product lines. This standardized approach to both hardware and software control platforms will provide significant market advantage over foreign competition; (3) Achieve cost reductions through increased volume of common components, reduced assembly labor, and the higher efficiency of producing more products with fewer design, manufacturing, and production test variations; (4) Increase PV inverter product reliability. Reduce inverter size, weight and conversion losses. The contract goals were to achieve an overall cost reduction of 10% to 20% for the three inverters and with no compromise in performance. The cost of the 10-kW inverter was reduced by 56%, and the cost of the 25-kW inverter was reduced by 53%. The 2.5-kW inverter has no basis for comparison, but should benefit equally from this design approach. Not only were the contract cost reduction goals exceeded by a wide margin, but the performance and reliability of the products were also enhanced. The conversion efficiency improvement, as reflected in the 50% conversion loss reduction, adds significant value in renewable energy applications. The size and weight reductions also add value by providing less cumbersome product solutions for system designers.

West, R.

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

SunShot Initiative: Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are actively working under this effort: Cascade Engineering: Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar Photovoltaic Racking System Dow Chemical Company: Transformational...

29

Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A. (U.S. Department of Energy); Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Energy Cost Reduction Measures Identified for Texas State Agencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According t o energy auditors, state-owned facilities in Texas on the average consume over twice the energy of comparable facilities in the private sector. In 1984 and 1986 as part of the Texas Energy Cost Containment Program, two extensive energy audit programs examined a total of 35.3 million square feet of state-owned space. Energy cost reduction measures with paybacks of four years or less were identified. The purpose of this paper is to present the projects identified in 1986. Most relate to lighting, HVAC, and energy management systems. The type of facilities audited include colleges and universities, health science centers, state schools and centers, hospitals, and office buildings. The relation between the facility type and the energy cost reduction measures identified is discussed. In addition, the energy and dollar savings derived from the identified measures at the different facilities are presented. The total savings of the projects identified in both energy audit programs amount to $23.7 million annually.

Grigg, T. J.; Verdict, M. E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Non-Hardware Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results November 2012 Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 LBNL's work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot program under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 Technical Report DOE/GO-10212-3834 * November 2012 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway

32

Battery-level material cost model facilitates high-power li-ion battery cost reductions.  

SciTech Connect

Under the FreedomCAR Partnership, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously enhancing the calendar life and inherent safety of high-power Li-Ion batteries. Material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in batteries designed to meet the requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In order to quantify the material costs, relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared to the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. The most recent freedomCAR cost goals for 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries are $500 and $800, respectively, which is $20/kW in both cases. In 2001, ANL developed a high-power cell chemistry that was incorporated into high-power 18650 cells for use in extensive accelerated aging and thermal abuse characterization studies. This cell chemistry serves as a baseline for this material cost study. It incorporates a LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode, a synthetic graphite anode, and a LiPF6 in EC:EMC electrolyte. Based on volume production cost estimates for these materials-as well as those for binders/solvents, cathode conductive additives, separator, and current collectors--the total cell winding material cost for a 25-kW power-assist HEV battery is estimated to be $399 (based on a 48- cell battery design, each cell having a capacity of 15.4 Ah). This corresponds to {approx}$16/kW. Our goal is to reduce the cell winding material cost to <$10/kW, in order to allow >$10/kW for the cell and battery manufacturing costs, as well as profit for the industrial manufacturer. The material cost information is obtained directly from the industrial material suppliers, based on supplying the material quantities necessary to support an introductory market of 100,000 HEV batteries/year. Using its battery design model, ANL provides the material suppliers with estimates of the material quantities needed to meet this market, for both 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries. Also, ANL has funded a few volume-production material cost analyses, with industrial material suppliers, to obtain needed cost information. In a related project, ANL evaluates and develops low-cost advanced materials for use in high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries. [This work is the subject of one or more separate papers at this conference.] Cell chemistries are developed from the most promising low-cost materials. The performance characteristics of test cells that employ these cell chemistries are used as input to the cost model. Batteries, employing these cell chemistries, are designed to meet the FreedomCAR power, energy, weight, and volume requirements. The cost model then provides a battery-level material cost and material cost breakdown for each battery design. Two of these advanced cell chemistries show promise for significantly reducing the battery-level material costs (see Table 1), as well as enhancing calendar life and inherent safety. It is projected that these two advanced cell chemistries (A and B) could reduce the battery-level material costs by an estimated 24% and 43%, respectively. An additional cost advantage is realized with advanced chemistry B, due to the high rate capability of the 3-dimensional LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel cathode. This means that a greater percentage of the total Ah capacity of the cell is usable and cells with reduced Ah capacity can be used. This allows for a reduction in the quantity of the anode, electrolyte, separator, and current collector materials needed f

Henriksen, G.; Chemical Engineering

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

other than distributed generation. The cost reductionsWind Solar Thermal Photovoltaic Distributed Generation-Base Distributed Generation-Peak D Vintage PLANT TYPE C

Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Cost Analysis and Reduction of Power Quality Mitigation Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many power quality mitigation systems have been planned, designed, produced, and operated with very little concern for their cumulative life-cycle cost. This report describes how to conduct a life-cycle cost analysis to determine the financial implications of a chosen power quality mitigation technology versus other competing technologies.

2000-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

35

Strategies for cost reduction in procuring trucking services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis analyzed truckload shipment transactions from 2006 to 2008 in order to compare planned procurement activity to actual procurement activity. The research specifically focused on three costs: Primary, Actual and ...

Castro Izaguirre, Carlo Gustavo

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

The cost of noise reduction in commercial tilt rotor aircraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relationship between direct operating cost and departure noise annoyance was developed for commercial tilt rotor aircraft. This was accomplished by generating a series of tilt rotor aircraft designs to meet various ...

Faulkner, Henry B.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Identifying cost reduction and performance improvement opportunities through simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During difficult economic times, companies have few positive cost reducing options that simultaneously improve operational performance. This paper addresses how Deloitte Consulting partnered with Simio LLC to model multiple process improvement opportunities ...

J. Ethan Brown; David Sturrock

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Reduction in Fabrication Costs of Gas Diffusion Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ballard Material Products (BMP) performed a pre-design technical and cost analysis of state of the art production technologies feasible for high volume GDL manufacturing. Based upon criteria that also included environmental health and safety, customer quality requirements, and future needs, BMP selected technologies that can be integrated into its current manufacturing process. These selections included Many-At-A-Time (MAAT) coating and continuous mixing technologies, as well as various on-line process control tools. These processes have allowed BMP to produce high performance GDLs at lower cost for near-term markets, as well as to define the inputs needed to develop a conceptual Greenfield facility to meet the cost targets for automotive volumes of 500,000 vehicles per year.

Jason Morgan; Donald Connors; Michael Hickner

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

39

Comments on MHK Cost Reduction Pathway White Papers | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Comments on MHK Cost Reduction Pathway White Papers Comments on MHK Cost Reduction Pathway White Papers Home > Groups > Water Power Forum Feedback Welcome: The Water Power Program welcomes comments on MHK Cost Reduction Pathway white paper products from the MHK community. Comments will be used for the Program's internal purposes and DOE is not obligated to provide a response to comments. Please provide your feedback regarding the content of the white papers via this Forum. Cost Reduction Pathways White Papers: The U.S. Department of Energy's Water Power Program is seeking to demonstrate the technical and economic opportunity of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies. As part of this process, Sandia National Laboratories, in partnership with the Water Power Program, developed four white papers to identify and address critical cost drivers, and

40

Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Web data indexing in the cloud: efficiency and cost reductions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An increasing part of the world's data is either shared through the Web or directly produced through and for Web platforms, in particular using structured formats like XML or JSON. Cloud platforms are interesting candidates to handle large data repositories, ... Keywords: cloud computing, monetary cost, query processing, web data management

Jess Camacho-Rodrguez; Dario Colazzo; Ioana Manolescu

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Cost reduction possibilities for a heavy-ion accelerator for inertial confinement fusion  

SciTech Connect

A design was produced for a single module in a cost-optimized accelerator appropriate for a commercial heavy-ion power plant. The goal of the study was to determine if the cost of the accelerator module could be reduced through design options, selection of materials, and manufacturing techniques. Independent cost estimates were obtained for the three main components of the module, and cost reductions of 20% from the cost calculated by the heavy-ion accelerator design/cost-minimization computer code LIACEP were identified. 3 refs., 23 figs.

Thayer, G.R.; Sims, J.R.; Henke, M.D.; Harris, D.B.; Dudziak, D.J.; Phillips, N.R.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Report Tunneling Cost Reduction Study prepared for Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratories has a need to review the costs of constructing the very long tunnels which would be required for housing the equipment for the proposed Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) project. Current tunneling costs are high, and the identification of potential means of significantly reducing them, and thereby helping to keep overall project costs within an acceptable budget, has assumed great importance. Fermilab has contracted with The Robbins Company to provide an up-to-date appraisal of tunneling technology, and to review the potential for substantially improving currently the state-of-practice performance and construction costs in particular. The Robbins Company was chosen for this task because of its long and successful experience in hard rock mechanical tunnel boring. In the past 40 years, Robbins has manufactured over 250 tunneling machines, the vast majority for hard rock applications. In addition to also supplying back-up equipment, Robbins has recently established a division dedicated to the manufacture of continuous conveying equipment for the efficient support of tunneling operations. The study extends beyond the tunnel boring machine (TBM) itself, and into the critical area of the logistics of the support of the machine as it advances, including manpower. It is restricted to proven methods using conventional technology, and its potential for incremental but meaningful improvement, rather than examining exotic and undeveloped means of rock excavation that have been proposed from time to time by the technical community. This is the first phase of what is expected to be a number of studies in increasing depth of technical detail, and as such has been restricted to the issues connected with the initial 34 kilometer circumference booster tunnel, and not the proposed 500 kilometer circumference tunnel housing the VLHC itself. The booster tunnel is entirely sited within low to medium strength limestone and dolomite formations, typical of the Chicago area. The rock is generally competent with widely spaced jointing, and slowdown of the operation for the installation of rock support is expected to be minimal. The tunneling system will have to be equipped with the necessary equipment for an efficient response to poor rock conditions however. Because the ground conditions are expected to be very favorable, a state-of-the-art TBM should have no difficulty in excavating at a high penetration rate of 10 meters per hour or more in rock of the average of the range of strengths stated to exist. Disc cutter changes will be few as the rock has very low abrasivity. However, experience has shown that overall tunneling rates are a relatively low percentage of the machine's penetration rate capability. Therefore the main focus of improvement is guaranteeing that the support systems, including mucking and advance of the utilities do not impede the operation. Improved mechanization of the support systems, along with automation where practicable to reduce manpower, is seen as the best means of raising the overall speed of the operation, and reducing its cost. The first phase of the study is mainly involved with establishing the baseline for current performance, and in identifying areas of improvement. It contains information on existing machine design concepts and provides data on many aspects of the mechanical tunneling process, including costs and labor requirements. While it contains suggestions for technical improvements of the various system, the time limitations of this phase have not permitted any detailed concept development. This should be a major part of the next phase.

1999-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

44

Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.  

SciTech Connect

This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the energy consumption increase and the greenhouse effect becomes more and more serious, the energy saving has become the focus in the whole world. At the same time, as the network traffic largely growing, the size and the cost of network equipments ... Keywords: Cost reduction, Energy saving, Green optical networks, Multi-granularity, Multi-granularity grooming

Xingwei Wang; Weigang Hou; Lei Guo; Jiannong Cao; Dingde Jiang

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Investigations into Cost Reductions of X-band Instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The prohibitive costs of commercial test equipment for making fast and accurate pulsed phase and amplitude measurements at X-Band result in decreased productivity due to shortages of shared equipment across the test laboratory. In addition, most current set-ups rely on the use of pulsed power heads which do not allow for the measurement of phase thereby limiting the flexibility of available measurements. In this paper, we investigate less expensive in-house designed instrumentation based upon commercial satellite down converters and widely available logarithmic detector amplifiers and phase detectors. The techniques are used to measure X-Band pulses with widths of 50 ns to 10's of usec. We expect a dynamic range of 30-40 dB with accuracies of better than +/- 0.1 dB and +/- 1 degree of phase. We show preliminary results of the built and tested modules. Block diagrams of the down conversion scheme, and the architecture of a multi-signal X-band RF monitor and measurement system is illustrated. Measured results, and possible modifications and upgrades are presented.

Van Winkle, D.; Dolgashev, V.A.; Fox, J.D.; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Solar cost reduction through technical improvements: the concepts of learning and experience  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The concepts of learning and experience are reviewed and their usefulness for predicting the future costs of solar technologies are evaluated. The literature review indicated that the cost estimates for solar energy technologies are typically made assuming a fixed production process, characterized by standard capacity factors, overhead, and labor costs. The learning curve is suggested as a generalization of the costs of potential solar energy systems. The concept of experience is too ambiguous to be useful for cost estimation. There is no logical reason to believe that costs will decline purely as a function of cumulative production, and experience curves do not allow the analyst to identify logical sources of cost reduction directly. The procedures for using learning and aggregated cost curves to estimate the costs of solar technologies are outlined. It is recommended that production histories of analogous products and processes are analyzed and the learning and cost curves for these surrogates are estimated. These curves, if judged applicable, can be used to predict the cost reductions in manufacturing solar energy technologies.

Krawiec, F.; Flaim, T.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes how Learning-by-Doing (LBD) is implemented endogenously in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for generating plants. LBD is experiential learning that correlates to a generating technology's capacity growth. The annual amount of Learning-by-Doing affects the annual overnight cost reduction. Currently, there is no straightforward way to integrate and make sense of all the diffuse information related to the endogenous learning calculation in NEMS. This paper organizes the relevant information from the NEMS documentation, source code, input files, and output files, in order to make the model's logic more accessible. The end results are shown in three ways: in a simple spreadsheet containing all the parameters related to endogenous learning; by an algorithm that traces how the parameters lead to cost reductions; and by examples showing how AEO 2004 forecasts the reduction of overnight costs for generating technologies over time.

Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

49

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Co-PIs: Jia Wang, Miomir Vukmirovic, Kotaro Sasaki, Brookhaven National Laboratory Yang Shao-Horn Massachusetts Institute of Technology Rachel O'Malley, David Thompsett, Sarah Ball, Graham Hard Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Radoslav Adzic Brookhaven National Laboratory DOE Projects Kickoff Meeting September 30 , 2009 2 Project Overview Project Overview 1. Objectives: Objectives: Developing high performance fuel cell electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) comprising contiguous Pt monolayer Pt monolayer on stable, inexpensive metal or alloy nanorods, nanowires, nanobars and

50

Case Study: Sustained Utility Cost Reduction in a Large Manufacturing Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This case study presents results of a systematic utility cost reduction plan implemented at a 450,000 sq. ft. manufacturing facility in a hot and humid climate. Electricity, natural gas, and water usage were all reduced on an absolute basis in both 2002 a

Fiorino, D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

A low-cost 3 projector display system for pain reduction and improved patient recovery times  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Medical procedures are often associated with discomfort, pain and anxiety. Previous studies have shown that one way to reduce pain during treatment is to watch nature scenes and listen to nature sounds or escape into immersive virtual environments. This ... Keywords: head-mounted displays, immersive virtual environments, low-cost 3 projector display system, pain reduction, restorative virtual environments

Eric Fassbender; Paulo de Souza

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Instrumentation and Control Strategies for Plant-Wide and Fleet-Wide Cost Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A more recent product is now available that contains this report, along with additional presentation materials to facilitate its use. See Product 1018109. This report provides guidance arising from the EPRI initiative on IC Strategies for Plant-Wide and Fleet-Wide Cost Reduction. The document describes a wide range of options while emphasizing integrated modernization across the plant or fleet. Coordinated improvements to shared communications and computing infrastructure, plant processes, and organizat...

2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

53

Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

2004-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

54

Final cost reduction study for the Geysers Recharge Alternative. Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cost reduction opportunities exist for the Geysers Recharge Alternative as defined in the Santa Rosa Subregional Long-Term Wastewater Project EIR/EIS. The City of Santa Rosa has been directed to have a plan for reclaimed water disposal in place by 1999 which will meet future capacity needs under all weather conditions. A Draft EIR/EIS released in July 1996 and a Final EIR certified in June 1997 examine four primary alternatives plus the No Action Alternative. Two of the primary alternatives involve agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water, either in western or southern Sonoma County. Another involves increased discharge of reclaimed water into the Russian River. The fourth involves using reclaimed water to replenish the geothermal reservoir at the Geysers. The addition of this water source would enable the Geysers operators to produce more steam from the geothermal area and thereby prolong the life and economic production level of the steamfield and the geothermal power plants supplied by the steamfield. This study provides additional refined cost estimates for new scenarios which utilize an alternative pipeline alignment and a range of reclaimed water flows, which deliver less water to the Geysers than proposed in the EIR/EIS (by distributing flow to other project components). Also, electrical power rates were revised to reflect the recent changes in costs associated with deregulation of the power industry. In addition, this report provides information on sources of potential public and private funding available and future environmental documentation required if the cost reduction scenarios were to be selected by the City as part of their preferred alternative.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

REACH: Reduced Emissions and Advanced Combustion Hardware: A Low-Cost, Retrofit Approach to Reducing Stack Emissions and Enhancing t he Performance of Oil-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improved oil combustion technology, based upon optimization of oil atomizer and flame stabilizer design, has been developed for retrofit to oil-fired utility boilers. This technology is referred to as Reduced Emissions and Advanced Combustion Hardware, or REACH. REACH is commercially available for retrofit to oil-fired boilers to simultaneously reduce NOx, PM, and opacity, as well as provide operational and performance benefits.

1995-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

56

Instrumentation and Control Strategies for Plant-Wide and Fleet-Wide Cost Reduction: Utility Application Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This CD provides guidance from the EPRI initiative on IC Strategies for Plant-Wide and Fleet-Wide Cost Reduction. Included on the CD are EPRI Technical Report 1015087, Instrumentation and Control Strategies for Plant-Wide and Fleet-Wide Cost Reduction: Utility Application Guideline, published October 2007, and two multimedia briefings. The report and briefings describe a wide range of options while emphasizing integrated modernization across the plant or fleet. Coordinated improvements to shared communi...

2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

57

Inspection of the cost reduction incentive program at the Department of Energy`s Idaho Operations Office  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this inspection was to review the economy and efficiency of Idaho`s Fiscal Year 1992 Cost Reduction Incentive Program, as well as to provide information to Departmental officials regarding any difficulties in administering these types of programs. The report is of the findings and recommendations. According to Idaho officials, their Cost Reduction Incentive Program was designed to motivate and provide incentives to management and operating contractors which would result in cost savings to the Department while increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the contractors` operations. Idaho officials reported that over $22.5 million in costs were saved as a result of the Fiscal Year 1992 Cost Reduction Incentive Program. It was found that: (1) Idaho officials acknowledged that they did not attempt a full accounting records validation of the contractor`s submitted cost savings; (2) cost reduction incentive programs may result in conflicts of interest--contractors may defer work in order to receive an incentive fee; (3) the Department lacks written Department-wide policies and procedures--senior Procurement officials stated that the 1985 memorandum from the then-Assistant Secretary for Management and Administration was not the current policy of the Department; and (4) the Department already has the management and operating contract award fee provisions and value engineering program that can be used to provide financial rewards for contractors that operate cost effectively and efficiently.

Not Available

1994-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

58

Marginal Abatement Costs and Marginal Welfare Costs for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: Results from the EPPA Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves, relationships between tons of emissions abated and the CO2 (or GHG) price, have been widely used as pedagogic devices to illustrate simple economic concepts such as the benefits of ...

Morris, Jennifer

59

Cost Reduction and Manufacture of the SunSine{reg_sign} ac Module: Final Subcontract Report, 11 June 2001  

SciTech Connect

This project was a two-phase effort consisting of technical research and manufacturing development to improve and reduce the costs of the SunSine{reg_sign} inverter. Research addressed packaging, soft switching, circuit optimization, manufacturing process improvements, and pilot production manufacturing. Significant cost reductions were achieved. The main goal of this project was to reduce cost and improve the manufacturability and reliability of the SunSine{reg_sign} ac module, which consists of a SunSine{reg_sign} inverter mounted on an ASE Americas PV laminate. This work has also boosted the performance and enhanced marketability by adding customer-valued features. Ascension Technology has accomplished these advancements by cost reductions or design modifications in the following areas: Die-cast aluminum enclosure and base plate; soft switching for cost reduction and efficiency gains; circuit board and component optimization for performance gains and size reduction; streamlined inverter assembly and production testing; and streamlined inverter/module assembly. As a result of the effort in these areas, Ascension Technology's objectives were to achieve the following: 40%-50% reduction in inverter manufacturing costs; 40% reduction in inverter size from 169 to 100 square inches; 4% increase in peak inverter efficiency from 87% to 91% at full power; UL listing, FCC certification; establish a production capability of 5000 SunSine{reg_sign} inverters/year through manufacturing improvements and production-line design improvements; less than 1 failure per 1000 units at time of installation/turn-on; a 5-year warranty; and a rating of 250 Wac at PTC for the SunSine{reg_sign} ac Module. Accomplishments during this project include: Inverter production costs were reduced 32% in the pilot production run; inverter production costs anticipated to be reduced a total of 36% in future production runs; 45% reduction in inverter footprint (in contact with module) from 169 to 93 square inches; and a 2.3% increase in inverter efficiency from 85.7% to 88.0% at full power. In addition, the SunSine{reg_sign} ac module is UL listed, meets IEEE Std. 929-2000, IEEE-C62.41-1991, IEEE-C62.45-1992, and NY State SIR requirements, and was verified to comply with FCC Class B EMI limits. There were 4 failures per 214 units at time of installation/turn-on; a 5-year inverter warranty is offered; and a rating of 235 Wac at PTC for the SunSine{reg_sign} ac module was achieved.

Kern, G.; Russell, M.

2001-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

60

The role of R and D in geothermal drilling cost reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The role that drilling technology development can play in reducing the cost of geothermal power is examined. Factors contributing to the relatively high cost of geothermal drilling are discussed, and potential technology improvements that could reduce those costs are identified. Projects under way at Sandia National Laboratories to address these technology needs are summarized, and estimates are made of the potential drilling cost savings resulting from these projects.

Glowka, D.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geothermal Research Dept.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Cost reduction of the Sun Challenger batch solar water heater: Final report  

SciTech Connect

A variety of materials and methods were investigated as a means to reduce the cost of the Sun Challenger Solar Collector. Three prototypes were constructed and tested using lower-cost methods. Test results are summarized, including heat gain, heat loss, and collection efficiency. Costs and benefits are also presented and summarized.

Stickney, B.L.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Advanced Thermal Control Enabling Cost Reduction for Automotive Power Electronics (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Describes NREL's work on next-generation vehicle cooling technologies (jets, sprays, microchannels) and novel packaging topologies to reduce costs and increase performance and reliability.

Abraham, T.; Kelly, K.; Bennion, K.; Vlahinos, A.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

GENI: Grid Hardware and Software  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

GENI Project: The 15 projects in ARPA-Es GENI program, short for Green Electricity Network Integration, aim to modernize the way electricity is transmitted in the U.S. through advances in hardware and software for the electric grid. These advances will improve the efficiency and reliability of electricity transmission, increase the amount of renewable energy the grid can utilize, and provide energy suppliers and consumers with greater control over their power flows in order to better manage peak power demand and cost.

None

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

64

Request for Reduction/Waiver of F&A Principal Investigators /Project Directors must budget Facilities and Administrative (F&A) costs in all grant, contract, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Allowed By Sponsor (if known) Project Budget: Reason for Reduction/Waiver Request: Direct Costs (MTDC BaseRequest for Reduction/Waiver of F&A Principal Investigators /Project Directors must budget Facilities and Administrative (F&A) costs in all grant, contract, and cooperative agreement proposals using

Guenther, Frank

65

Compressed Air Energy Storage: Proven US CAES Plant Cost Achievements and Potential Engineering, Design & Project Management Based C ost Reductions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a market ready technology that can play a valuable role in enhancing grid flexibility for variable generation integration. Relative to combustion turbines, CAES provides additional benefits and value streams, such as potential classification as a transmission asset, lower emissions, superior regulation service, reduction of wind spillage and in other ways improving wind plant economics. Although high cost estimates for CAES circulate in the industry, the first ...

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

66

U-AVLIS feed conversion using continuous metallothermic reduction of UF{sub 4}: System description and cost estimate  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to present a system description and develop baseline capital and operating cost estimates for commercial facilities which produced U-Fe feedstock for AVLIS enrichment plants using the continuous fluoride reduction (CFR) process. These costs can then be used together with appropriate economic assumptions to calculate estimated unit costs to the AVLIS plant owner (or utility customer) for such conversion services. Six cases are being examined. All cases assume that the conversion services are performed by a private company at a commercial site which has an existing NRC license to possess source material and which has existing uranium processing operations. The cases differ in terms of annual production capacity and whether the new process system is installed in a new building or in an existing building on the site. The six cases are summarized here.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

The cost of noise reduction for departure and arrival operations of commercial tilt rotor aircraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relationship between direct operating cost (DOC) and noise annoyance due to a departure and an arrival operation was developed for commercial tilt rotor aircraft. This was accomplished by generating a series of tilt ...

Faulkner, Henry B.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

T: a data-centric cooling energy costs reduction approach for big data analytics cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Explosion in Big Data has led to a surge in extremely large-scale Big Data analytics platforms, resulting in burgeoning energy costs. Big Data compute model mandates strong data-locality for computational performance, and moves computations to data. ...

Rini T. Kaushik; Klara Nahrstedt

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

PDSF Hardware Configuration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Configuration Configuration Hardware Configuration Interactive (login) Nodes This page describes the interactive (login) nodes at PDSF. Read More » Compute Nodes Information about the PDSF compute (batch) nodes. Read More » Data Transfer Nodes This page describes the grid and data transfer nodes at PDSF. Read More » Eliza File Systems The eliza file systems at PDSF are used for bulk file storage. Read More » Other File Systems This page describes home directories, scratch space, /common and NGF. Read More » Specific Group Hardware This page describes the extra hardware used by the various scientific groups that use PDSF. Read More » PDSF at a Glance Interactive Nodes 4 pdsf.nersc.gov pdsf[1-4].nersc.gov Compute Nodes 232 2632 Cores GPFS Filesystems 835TB Eliza[1-18] Local Disk

70

Specific Group Hardware  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Specific Group Hardware Specific Group Hardware Specific Group Hardware ALICE palicevo1 The Virtual Organization (VO) server. Serves as gatekeeper for ALICE jobs. It's duties include getting assignments from ALICE file catalog (at CERN), submitting jobs to pdsfgrid (via condor) which submits jobs to the compute nodes, monitoring the cluster work load, and uploading job information to ALICE file catalog. It is monitored with MonALISA (the monitoring page is here). It's made up of 2 Intel Xeon E5520 processors each with 4 cores (16 virtual cores with hyperthreading). The total local disk space is 1.9 TB. It is running Scientific Linux SL release 5.5 (Boron) and is disk booted. It is in rack 17. palicevo2 The Virtual Organization (VO) server testbed. It's a Dell PowerEdge R410 with 2 Intel Xeon E5520 processors, each with 4 cores (16 virtual cores

71

www.cbs.dk/smg LEARNING PATHS TO OFFSHORE OUTSOURCING- FROM COST REDUCTION TO KNOWLEDGE SEEKING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A corporations offshore outsourcing may be seen as the result of a discrete, strategic decision taken in response to an increasing pressure from worldwide competition. However, empirical evidence of a representative cross-sector sample of international Danish firms indicates that offshore sourcing in lowcost countries is best described as a learning-by-doing process in which the offshore outsourcing of a corporation goes through a sequence of stages towards sourcing for innovation. Initially, a corporations outsourcing is driven by a desire for cost minimization. Over a period of time the outsourcing experience lessens the cognitive limitations of decision-makers as to the advantages that can be achieved through outsourcing in low-cost countries: the insourcer/vendor may not only offer cost advantages, but also quality improvement and innovation. The quality improvements that offshore outsourcing may bring about evoke a realization in the corporation that even innovative processes can be outsourced.

Peter Maskell; Torben Pedersen; Bent Petersen; Jens Dick-nielsen; Peter Maskell; Torben Pedersen; Bent Petersen; Jens Dick-nielsen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Computer hardware fault administration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

Archer, Charles J. (Rochester, MN); Megerian, Mark G. (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian E. (Rochester, MN)

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

73

Unsupervised Markovian Segmentation on Graphics Hardware  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

when implemented on graphics hardware equipped with a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). Our strat- egy) or estimated in a first step of processing. In the latter case, estimation algorithms such as Expectation- rithms commonly used to optimize global Markovian cost functions can be efficiently implemented

Mignotte, Max

74

A multipurpose hardware shader  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the last few years the state of the art in producing three-dimensional Gouraud shaded graphics has been the use of Gouraud shading hardware. Combined with z-buffering it enables graphic workstations to provide real time display. The disadvantages ...

Josef Ppsel; Eckard Tikwinski

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Cost Savings and Energy Reduction: Bi-Level Lighting Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Community Environmental Center implements Bi- Level Lighting fixtures as a component of cost-effective multifamily retrofits. These systems achieve substantial energy savings by automatically reducing lighting levels when common areas are unoccupied. Because there is a lack of empirical evidence documenting the performance of these systems, this paper uses electric consumption data collected from buildings before and after retrofits were performed, and analyzes the cost and consumption savings achieved through installation of Bi-Level Lighting systems. The results of this report demonstrate that common areas that are currently not making use of Bi-Level lighting systems would achieve significant financial and environmental benefits from Bi-Level focused retrofits. This project concludes that building codes should be updated to reflect improvements in Bi-Level Lighting technologies, and that government-sponsored energy efficiency programs should explicitly encourage or mandate Bi-Level Lighting installation components of subsidized retrofit projects.

Ackley, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report  

SciTech Connect

OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

2002-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

78

Using Electronic Adjustable Speed Drives for Efficiency Improvement and Cost Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. industry and utilities have been using ac adjustable speed drives (ASDs) for more than 50 years. ASDs utilize power electronics technology to control the flow of power to an ac motor, thereby controlling the motors speed and rate of energy consumption while modulating process flow through the fan or pump driven by the motor. Industrial ASD applications have typically been those requiring extremely precise speed control, such as in fiber spinning operations with multiple motors. However, controlling process flow by varying the speed in many systems does not require the fast-responding, precise wide speed range regenerative drives frequently needed for traditional variable speed applications. Often the required speed range is small and there is limited or no requirement for speed of response and speed control precision. Electronic ASDs have come a long way since their introduction some ten years ago. These drives, which match motor speed to the job with the help of semiconductor devices and switching circuits, have become progressively more efficient and versatile. The cost of electronic ASDs has declined rapidly over the last three years. Pending technology advances promise to make the drives even more attractive in the future, both from a performance as well as a cost standpoint.

Friedman, N. R.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Line-Focus Solar Power Plant Cost Reduction Plan (Milestone Report)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Line-focus solar collectors, in particular parabolic trough collectors, are the most mature and proven technology available for producing central electricity from concentrated solar energy. Because this technology has over 25 years of successful operational experience, resulting in a low perceived risk, it is likely that it will continue to be a favorite of investors for some time. The concentrating solar power (CSP) industry is developing parabolic trough projects that will cost billions of dollars, and it is supporting these projects with hundreds of millions of dollars of research and development funding. While this technology offers many advantages over conventional electricity generation -- such as utilizing plentiful domestic renewable fuel and having very low emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants -- it provides electricity in the intermediate power market at about twice the cost of its conventional competitor, combined cycle natural gas. The purpose of this document is to define a set of activities from fiscal year 2011 to fiscal year 2016 that will make this technology economically competitive with conventional means.

Kutscher, C.; Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Glatzmaier, G.; Moss, T.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

announced up to 7 million to reduce the non-hardware costs of residential and commercial solar energy installations. Made available through the SunShot Incubator Program, this...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Embedding a middleware for networked hardware and software objects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present a novel approach to the design of ubiquitous computing environments based on an ultra low-cost implementation of standard distributed object middlewares suitable for networked hardware and software components of the system. We ...

David Villa; Felix Jess Villanueva; Francisco Moya; Fernando Rincn; Jess Barba; Juan Carlos Lpez

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Hardware multiplier processor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hardware processor is disclosed which in the described embodiment is a memory mapped multiplier processor that can operate in parallel with a 16 bit microcomputer. The multiplier processor decodes the address bus to receive specific instructions so that in one access it can write and automatically perform single or double precision multiplication involving a number written to it with or without addition or subtraction with a previously stored number. It can also, on a single read command automatically round and scale a previously stored number. The multiplier processor includes two concatenated 16 bit multiplier registers, two 16 bit concatenated 16 bit multipliers, and four 16 bit product registers connected to an internal 16 bit data bus. A high level address decoder determines when the multiplier processor is being addressed and first and second low level address decoders generate control signals. In addition, certain low order address lines are used to carry uncoded control signals. First and second control circuits coupled to the decoders generate further control signals and generate a plurality of clocking pulse trains in response to the decoded and address control signals.

Pierce, Paul E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

85

Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Water Heating Systems: Life-Cycle Analyses and Opportunities for Cost Reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conference paper regarding research in potential cost-savings measures for cold-climate solar domestic water hearing systems.

Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

PAFC Cost Challenges  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PAFC Cost Challenges Sridhar Kanuri Manager, PAFC Technology *Sridhar.Kanuri@utcpower.com 2 AGENDA Purecell 400 cost challenge Cost reduction opportunities Summary 3 PURECELL ...

87

Cost reduction and manufacture of the SunSine{reg_sign} AC module: Phase I Annual Report : 21 April 1998 -- 31 October 1999  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress made by Ascension Technology in Phase 1 of the cost reduction and manufacturing improvements of the SunSine{reg_sign} AC Module. This work, conducted under NREL subcontract, is a two-phase effort consisting of investigations into improving inverter packaging, soft switching, circuit optimization, design for manufacturing, manufacturing processes, and pilot production manufacturing. The objective of this subcontract is to significantly reduce the cost of the SunSine{reg_sign} inverter, enhance its performance, and streamline and expand the manufacturing process. During Phase 1, the soft-switching topology was designed, then refined to meet stringent cost and performance goals. This design resulted in improved performance, smaller overall footprint, and reduced costs. The aluminum inverter housing was redesigned, and the decision was made to conformal coat the circuit boards, which was verified through the HAST (Highly Accelerated Stress Testing) method. Potential international markets were identified, and the inverter is designed to be easily modified to meet the requirements of other countries. Significant cost reduction and performance improvements have been achieved in Phase I, and accomplishments during Phase I include: (1) SunSine{reg_sign} AC Module costs have been reduced enough to be able to reduce the suggested list price; (2) successful implementation of soft-switching; (3) power circuit-board size reduced 53{percent}; (4) power circuit-board component count reduced 34{percent}; (5) total inverter parts count reduced 49{percent}; (6) anticipated inverter manufacturing cost reduced 57{percent} on a $/Wp rating; (7) transformer efficiency improved 1.4{percent}; and (8) inverter efficiency improved 4.7{percent} to 91.0{percent} at 275 Wac.

Kern, E.; Kern, G.

2000-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

88

Cost effective energy strategies for the reduction of CO[sub 2] emissions in the United States: Country report for ETSAP Annex IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy system of the United States of America was analyzed using MARKAL. The time period of the study was 1990--2030. Projected energy demands over this period for a Reference Scenario were largely modeled after the US Energy Information Administration's 1992 Annual Energy Outlook for 1990--2010 and from the National Energy Strategy for the period 2010--2030. Expectations of maximum growth rates of conservation and renewable energy technologies were based on the same sources. Reductions in CO[sub 2] emissions were achieved by setting absolute constraints on total emissions levels by year and by carbon taxes. A 10% reduction in CO[sub 2] emissions was near the limit of technical feasibility for this scenario. This resulted in an overall cost increase of $1.1 trillion present value, but marginal costs on CO[sub 2] emissions reductions ranged up to $3300/ton. Over 70% of the CO[sub 2] emissions reduction occurred in electrical generation, partly resulting from decreases in demand for electricity. Additional scenarios were run for conditions of low economic growth and with the addition of carbon sequestering technologies.

Morris, S.C.; Marcuse, J.L.W.; Goldstein, G.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Cost effective energy strategies for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in the United States: Country report for ETSAP Annex IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy system of the United States of America was analyzed using MARKAL. The time period of the study was 1990--2030. Projected energy demands over this period for a Reference Scenario were largely modeled after the US Energy Information Administration`s 1992 Annual Energy Outlook for 1990--2010 and from the National Energy Strategy for the period 2010--2030. Expectations of maximum growth rates of conservation and renewable energy technologies were based on the same sources. Reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions were achieved by setting absolute constraints on total emissions levels by year and by carbon taxes. A 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions was near the limit of technical feasibility for this scenario. This resulted in an overall cost increase of $1.1 trillion present value, but marginal costs on CO{sub 2} emissions reductions ranged up to $3300/ton. Over 70% of the CO{sub 2} emissions reduction occurred in electrical generation, partly resulting from decreases in demand for electricity. Additional scenarios were run for conditions of low economic growth and with the addition of carbon sequestering technologies.

Morris, S.C.; Marcuse, J.L.W.; Goldstein, G.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Session 5: Hardware performance measurement [breaker page  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Start of the "Session 5: Hardware performance measurement" section of the conference proceedings record.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Fast DRR splat rendering using common consumer graphics hardware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) are a vital part of various medical image processing applications such as 2D/3D registration for patient pose determination in image-guided radiotherapy procedures. This paper presents a technique to accelerate DRR creation by using conventional graphics hardware for the rendering process. DRR computation itself is done by an efficient volume rendering method named wobbled splatting. For programming the graphics hardware, NVIDIAs C for Graphics (Cg) is used. The description of an algorithm used for rendering DRRs on the graphics hardware is presented, together with a benchmark comparing this technique to a CPU-based wobbled splatting program. Results show a reduction of rendering time by about 70%-90% depending on the amount of data. For instance, rendering a volume of 2x10{sup 6} voxels is feasible at an update rate of 38 Hz compared to 6 Hz on a common Intel-based PC using the graphics processing unit (GPU) of a conventional graphics adapter. In addition, wobbled splatting using graphics hardware for DRR computation provides higher resolution DRRs with comparable image quality due to special processing characteristics of the GPU. We conclude that DRR generation on common graphics hardware using the freely available Cg environment is a major step toward 2D/3D registration in clinical routine.

Spoerk, Jakob; Bergmann, Helmar; Wanschitz, Felix; Dong, Shuo; Birkfellner, Wolfgang [University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien, Vienna (Austria) and Center for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Center for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); School of Biomedical Engineering, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China) and Center for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Center for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

Model Reuse through Hardware Design Patterns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing reuse opportunities is a well-known problem for software designers as well as for hardware designers. Nonetheless, current software and hardware engineering practices have embraced different approaches to this problem. Software designs are ...

Fernando Rincon; Francisco Moya; Jesus Barba; Juan Carlos Lopez

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

PVMaT Cost Reductions in the EFG High-Volume PV Manufacturing Line: Annual Report, August 1998-December 2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The PVMaT 5A2 program at ASE Americas is a three-year program that addresses topics in the development of manufacturing systems, low-cost processing approaches, and flexible manufacturing methods. The three-year objectives are as follows: (1) implementation of computer-aided manufacturing systems, including Statistical Process Control, to aid in electrical and mechanical yield improvements of 10%, (2) development and implementation of ISO 9000 and ISO 14000, (3) deployment of wafer production from large-diameter (up to 1 m) EFG cylinders and wafer thicknesses down to 95 microns, (4) development of low-damage, high-yield laser-cutting methods for thin wafers, (5) cell designs for >15% cell efficiencies on 100-micron-thick EFG wafers, (6) development of Rapid Thermal Anneal processing for thin high-efficiency EFG cells, and (7) deployment of flexible manufacturing methods for diversification in wafer size and module design. In the second year of this program, the significant accomplishments in each of three tasks that cover these areas are as follows: Task 4-Manufacturing systems, Task 5-Low-cost processes, and Task 6-Flexible manufacturing.

Bathey, B.; Brown, B.; Cao, J.; Ebers, S.; Gonsiorawski, R.; Heath, B.; Kalejs, J., Mackintosh, B.; Ouellette, M.; Piwczyk, B., Rosenblum, M.; Southimath, B. (ASE Americas, Inc.)

2001-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

94

Cost-effectiveness of controlling emissions for various alternative-fuel vehicle types, with vehicle and fuel price subsidies estimated on the basis of monetary values of emission reductions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Emission-control cost-effectiveness is estimated for ten alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV) types (i.e., vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline, M85 flexible-fuel vehicles [FFVs], M100 FFVs, dedicated M85 vehicles, dedicated M100 vehicles, E85 FFVS, dual-fuel liquefied petroleum gas vehicles, dual-fuel compressed natural gas vehicles [CNGVs], dedicated CNGVs, and electric vehicles [EVs]). Given the assumptions made, CNGVs are found to be most cost-effective in controlling emissions and E85 FFVs to be least cost-effective, with the other vehicle types falling between these two. AFV cost-effectiveness is further calculated for various cases representing changes in costs of vehicles and fuels, AFV emission reductions, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions, among other factors. Changes in these parameters can change cost-effectiveness dramatically. However, the rank of the ten AFV types according to their cost-effectiveness remains essentially unchanged. Based on assumed dollars-per-ton emission values and estimated AFV emission reductions, the per-vehicle monetary value of emission reductions is calculated for each AFV type. Calculated emission reduction values ranged from as little as $500 to as much as $40,000 per vehicle, depending on AFV type, dollar-per-ton emission values, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions. Among the ten vehicle types, vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline have the lowest per-vehicle value, while EVs have the highest per-vehicle value, reflecting the magnitude of emission reductions by these vehicle types. To translate the calculated per-vehicle emission reduction values to individual AFV users, AFV fuel or vehicle price subsidies are designed to be equal to AFV emission reduction values. The subsidies designed in this way are substantial. In fact, providing the subsidies to AFVs would change most AFV types from net cost increases to net cost decreases, relative to conventional gasoline vehicles.

Wang, M.Q.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Robust Passive Hardware Metering Ani Nahapetian  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Robust Passive Hardware Metering Sheng Wei Ani Nahapetian ,* Miodrag Potkonjak Computer Science}@cs.ucla.edu ABSTRACT Current hardware metering techniques, which use manifestational properties of gates for ID, and thus the ID used for hardware metering can not be valid over time. Additionally, the previous

Potkonjak, Miodrag

96

Hardware/Software Solution Unifying DALI, IBECS,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hardware/Software Solution Unifying DALI, IBECS, Hardware/Software Solution Unifying DALI, IBECS, and BACnet Final Report Contributors: Ed Koch (Akua Controls) Francis Rubinstein Sila Kiliccote Report on Hardware/Software Solution Unifying DALI, IBECS, and BACnet 1 Table of Contents Executive Summary................................................................................................................................3 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................4 Context....................................................................................................................................................4 Control Strategies ..............................................................................................................................................

97

Exascale Hardware Architectures Working Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ASC Exascale Hardware Architecture working group is challenged to provide input on the following areas impacting the future use and usability of potential exascale computer systems: processor, memory, and interconnect architectures, as well as the power and resilience of these systems. Going forward, there are many challenging issues that will need to be addressed. First, power constraints in processor technologies will lead to steady increases in parallelism within a socket. Additionally, all cores may not be fully independent nor fully general purpose. Second, there is a clear trend toward less balanced machines, in terms of compute capability compared to memory and interconnect performance. In order to mitigate the memory issues, memory technologies will introduce 3D stacking, eventually moving on-socket and likely on-die, providing greatly increased bandwidth but unfortunately also likely providing smaller memory capacity per core. Off-socket memory, possibly in the form of non-volatile memory, will create a complex memory hierarchy. Third, communication energy will dominate the energy required to compute, such that interconnect power and bandwidth will have a significant impact. All of the above changes are driven by the need for greatly increased energy efficiency, as current technology will prove unsuitable for exascale, due to unsustainable power requirements of such a system. These changes will have the most significant impact on programming models and algorithms, but they will be felt across all layers of the machine. There is clear need to engage all ASC working groups in planning for how to deal with technological changes of this magnitude. The primary function of the Hardware Architecture Working Group is to facilitate codesign with hardware vendors to ensure future exascale platforms are capable of efficiently supporting the ASC applications, which in turn need to meet the mission needs of the NNSA Stockpile Stewardship Program. This issue is relatively immediate, as there is only a small window of opportunity to influence hardware design for 2018 machines. Given the short timeline a firm co-design methodology with vendors is of prime importance.

Hemmert, S; Ang, J; Chiang, P; Carnes, B; Doerfler, D; Leininger, M; Dosanjh, S; Fields, P; Koch, K; Laros, J; Noe, J; Quinn, T; Torrellas, J; Vetter, J; Wampler, C; White, A

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

PRISM 2.0: Regional Energy and Economic Model Development and Initial Application: Phase 2: Electric Sector CO2 Reduction Options to 2050: Dimensions of Technology, Energy Costs, and Environmental Scenarios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI conducted an analysis of electric sector CO2 reduction options to 2050 across a range of scenarios covering dimensions of technology costs and availability, energy costs, and CO2 constraints. Using its U.S. Regional Economy, Greenhouse Gas, and Energy (US-REGEN) model, EPRI calculated the impact of changes in generation portfolio, generation capacity, expenditures, and electricity prices on power sector costs. This analysis estimates different levels of ...

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

99

Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Improvement Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006 J. Cohen and T. Schweizer Princeton Energy Resources International (PERI) Rockville, Maryland A. Laxson, S. Butterfield, S. Schreck, and L. Fingersh National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado P. Veers and T. Ashwill Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico Technical Report NREL/TP-500-41036 February 2008 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

100

Energy Efficiency, Cost-Effectiveness, and Air Pollutant Reduction Analysis From Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Projects in Texas Public Schools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide the preliminary results from an analysis of the potential energy savings, and resultant air pollution reductions associated with the energy savings from the application of cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) projects applied to new and existing Texas Independent School Districts (ISDs). The final report from this analysis would be used in a marketing outreach program to school districts through the Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas Association of School Boards (TASB), and others. This outreach program would be designed in concert with State agencies such as the State Energy Conservation Office (SECO), Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT), and Texas General Land Office (GLO); NGOs, and other federal agencies as appropriate.

Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Kim, H.; Liu, Z.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Do, S.; Kim, K.; Baltazar, J. C.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The hardware/software environment - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 30, 1998 ... The hardware/software environment. As the school was relatively poorly equipped to begin with, it purchased and installed an entirely new...

102

Hardware Metering: A Survey Farinaz Koushanfar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1 Hardware Metering: A Survey Farinaz Koushanfar Abstract This chapter provides the first comprehensive overview of hard- ware integrated circuits (IC) protection by metering. Hardware metering, or IC metering refers to mechanisms, methods, and protocols that enable track- ing of the ICs post

103

An Effective EMS Hardware and Software Interface- The Trained Operator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A computerized Energy Management System (EMS) is a tool that allows the user to monitor and control building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment (HVAC). All computerized tools require three main components to function effectively: hardware, software, and an interface between the two - the operator. EMS owners recognize the importance of proper system design, installation and program application. The importance of having a trained EMS operator is less recognized. The purpose of this paper is to focus on structured training programs and how they can improve the EMS operator's system knowledge and skills. Structured training programs, in contrast to the "school of hard knocks" approach, have clearly defined objectives. These objectives can be related to understanding and applying complex EMS strategies and translated into greater energy cost savings. An effective EMS program requires a trained operator in addition to proper hardware and software.

Cherry, C. L.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Corrosion Testing of Stainless Steel Fuel Cell Hardware  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metal hardware is gaining increasing interest in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) development as a possible alternative to machined graphite hardware because of its potential for low-cost manufacturing combined with its intrinsic high conductivity, minimal permeability and advantageous mechanical properties. A major barrier to more widespread use of metal hardware has been the susceptibility of various metals to corrosion. Few pure metals can withstand the relatively aggressive environment of a fuel cell and thus the choices for hardware are quite limited. Precious metals such as platinum or gold are prohibitively expensive and so tend to be utilized as coatings on inexpensive substrates such as aluminum or stainless steel. The main challenge with coatings has been to achieve pin-hole free surfaces that will remain so after years of use. Titanium has been used to some extent and though it is very corrosion-resistant, it is also relatively expensive and often still requires some manner of surface coating to prevent the formation of a poorly conducting oxide layer. In contrast, metal alloys may hold promise as potentially low-cost, corrosion-resistant materials for bipolar plates. The dozens of commercially available stainless steel and nickel based alloys have been specifically formulated to offer a particular advantage depending upon their application. In the case of austenitic stainless steels, for example, 316 SS contains molybdenum and a higher chromium content than its more common counterpart, 304 SS, that makes it more noble and increases its corrosion resistance. Likewise, 316L SS contains less carbon than 316 SS to make it easier to weld. A number of promising corrosion-resistant, highly noble alloys such as Hastelloy{trademark} or Duplex{trademark} (a stainless steel developed for seawater service) are available commercially, but are expensive and difficult to obtain in various forms (i.e. wire screen, foil, etc.) or in small amounts for R and D purposes.

Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Hardware implementation of wireless bit rate adaptation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a hardware implementation of the SoftRate bit-rate adaptation protocol. SoftRate is a new bit-rate adaptation protocol, which uses per-bit confidence hints generated by the convolutional decoder to ...

Gross, Samuel A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Hardware model of a shipboard generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A hardware model of the Gas Turbine Generator (GTG) in use on the US Navy's DDG-51 Class Destroyer is constructed for use as a lab apparatus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Laboratory for Electromagnetic and ...

Elkins, Gregory L. (Gregory Lewis)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

10G QCN Implementation on Hardware  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Delay (by Delay-Line) = 0 usec or 200 usec Switch Max Queue Size= 150KBytes Quantized_Fb: 6 bits Q Result (Hardware) (4-RPs, QCN, Delay Line: 200usec roundtrip delay) 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000

Prabhakar, Balaji

108

Cost reduction of the Sun Challenger (trade mark) batch solar water heater. Final report, 31 March 1986-30 April 1987  

SciTech Connect

A variety of materials and methods were investigated as a means to reduce the cost of the Sun Challenger Solar Collector. Three prototypes were constructed and tested using lower-cost methods. Test results are summarized, including heat gain, heat loss, and collection efficiency. Costs and benefits are also presented and summarized.

Stickney, B.L.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Overlapped checkpointing with hardware assist  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new approach to handling the demanding I/O workload incurred during checkpoint writes encountered in High Performance Computing. Prior efforts to improve performance have been primarily bound by mechanical limitations of the hard drive. Our research surpasses this limitation by providing a method to: (1) write checkpoint data to a high-speed, non-volatile buffer, and (2) asynchronously write this data to permanent storage while resuming computation. This removes the hard drive from the critical data path because our I/O node based buffers isolate the compute nodes from the storage servers. This solution is feasible because of industry declines in cost for high-capacity, non-volatile storage technologies. Testing was conducted on a small-scale cluster to prove the design, and then scaled at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results show a definitive speedup factor for select workloads over writing directly to a typical global parallel file system; the Panasas ActiveScale File System.

Mitchell, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nunez, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Jun [U. OF CENTRAL FLORIDA (UCF)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Co-scheduling hardware and software pipelines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we propose CO-Scheduling, a framework for simultaneous design of hardware pipelines struc-tures and software-pipelined schedules. Two important components of the Co-Scheduling framework are: (1) An extension to the analysis of hardware pipeline design that meets the needs of periodic (or software pipelined) schedules. Reservation tables, forbidden la-tencies, collision vectors, and state diagrams from classical pipeline theory are revisited and extended to solve the new problems. (2) An efficient method, based on the above extension of pipeline analysis, to perform (a) software pipeline scheduling and (b) hardware pipeline reconfiguration which are mutually compatible . The proposed method has been implemented and pre-liminary experimental results for 1008 kernel loops are reported. Co-scheduling successfully obtains a sched-ule for 95 % of these loops. The median time to obtain these schedules is 0.25 seconds on a Sparc-20. Keywords:

R. Govindarajan; Erik R. Altman; Guang R. Gao

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

One-Axis Trackers -- Improved Reliability, Durability, Performance, and Cost Reduction; Final Subcontract Technical Status Report, 2 May 2006 - 31 August 2007  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this subcontract is to reduce the total cost of electricity generated by single-axis tracking solar energy systems for utility and other large-scale commercial applications by improving performance and reliability and by reducing installation time, cost, and environmental impact.

Shingleton, J.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A space-efficient and hardware-friendly implementation of Ptex  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce a method to pack Ptex per-face texture data that is both space-efficient and hardware-friendly. Recently presented real-time implementations of Ptex have been wasteful with space and required a storage cost many times higher than the size ... Keywords: real-time graphics, texturing

Sujeong Kim; Karl Hillesland; Justin Hensley

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Technology Improvement Opportunities for Low Wind Speed Turbines and Implications for Cost of Energy Reduction: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report analyzes the status of wind energy technology in 2002 and describes the potential for technology advancements to reduce the cost and increase the performance of wind turbines.

Cohen, J.; Schweizer, T.; Laxson, A.; Butterfield, S.; Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Veers, P.; Ashwill, T.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Hardware Security Device Facilitated Trusted Energy Services  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on our experiences in developing a hardware based security solution for a novel, smart-grid enabled energy services system. In this paper, we first give a background to a new energy services model and then describe how we incorporated a CSIRO ... Keywords: accountability, authentication, energy services, privacy, security, trusted computing, trustworthy systems

John J. Zic; Martin Groot; Dongxi Liu; Julian Jang; Chen Wang

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Embedded Linux: hardware, software, and interfacing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book includes serial, parallel, memory I/O, USB, and interrupt-driven hardware designs using x86-, StrongARM-, and PowerPC-based target boards. In addition, you will find simple device driver module code that connects external devices to the kernel, ...

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Efficient Hardware Looping Units for FPGAs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Looping operations impose a significant bottleneck to achieving better computational efficiency for embedded applications. To confront this problem in embedded computation either in the form of programmable processors or FSMD (Finite-State Machine with ... Keywords: FPGA, embedded system, high-level synthesis, hardware looping, control unit

Nikolaos Kavvadias; Konstantinos Masselos

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Runtime Assignment of Reconfigurable Hardware Components for Image Processing Pipelines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The combination of hardware acceleration and flexibility make FPGAs important to image processing applications. There is also a need for efficient, flexible hardware/software codesign environments that can balance the benefits and costs of using FPGAs. Image processing applications often consist of a pipeline of components where each component applies a different processing algorithm. Components can be implemented for FPGAs or software. Such systems enable an image analyst to work with either FPGA or software implementations of image processing algorithms for a given problem. The pipeline assignment problem chooses from alternative implementations of pipeline components to yield the fastest pipeline. Our codesign system solves the pipeline assignment problem to provide the most effective implementation automatically, so the image analyst can focus solely on choosing components which make up the pipeline. However, the pipeline assignment problem is NP complete. An efficient, dynamic solution to the pipeline assignment problem is a desirable enabler of codesign systems which use both FPGA and software implementations. This paper is concerned with solving pipeline assignment in this context. Consequently, we focus on optimal and heuristic methods for fast (fixed time limit) runtime pipeline assignment. Exhaustive search, integer linear programming and local search methods for pipeline assignment are investigated. We present experimental findings for pipelines of 20 or fewer components which show that in our environment, optimal runtime solutions are possible for smaller pipelines and nearly optimal heuristic solutions are possible for larger pipelines.

Heather Quinn; L. A. Smith King; Miriam Leeser; W. Meleis; Waleed Meleis

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

978-3-901882-46-3 c 2012 IFIP Optimizing the Use of Request Distribution and Stored Energy for Cost Reduction in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distribution for multi-site Internet services) and temporal price variability (via energy storage), ours to reduce energy costs. Temporal price variability occurs at a single site when electricity providers charge-hour energy prices. Since electricity is not directly storable, prices are much more likely to be driven

Martonosi, Margaret

119

LTUG09_HardwareLessonsLearned.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tape Users Group Tape Users Group Sun StorageTek Tape Hardware Migration Experiences Jason Hick 9940B & T10KA to T10KB Serial 9310s to TCP/IP SL8500 Large Tape Users Group Replacing Old Hardware  8ea 9310s containing 40,000+ cartridges (91% occupied) - 16,130 x 9940B tape cartridges - 17,700 x 9840A tape cartridges - 6,859 x T10KA tape cartridges - 34 x 9940B tape drives (3-way & 1-way) - 18 x T10KA tape drives (3-way & 1-way)  Some reasons Sun provided us: - 9940B availability of replacement parts/drives (several weeks on 2-3 occasions) - T10KA sensitive to unavailability of drives and couldn't repair fast enough - 9310s going end-of-life  Some temporary solutions for above: - Buy local spare parts cache - Support for 9310s from 3rd party

120

Hardware Fault Insertion Techniques and Tools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The concept of dependability validation becomes more and more important regarding big public telecom systems. This is why fault insertion has been widely accepted as a means of testing the fault handling mechanisms of the systems. This master thesis classifies and compares fault insertion techniques used within the industry. It also looks into internal fault insertion techniques used by the people at Ericsson Telecom working with the AXD301 ATM switch. Hardware Fault Insertion Techniques and Tools 2 Acknowledgements The following people at Ericsson has contributed to this thesis in one way or another: Roger Nordmark Mattias Rimbark Bengt Kvist Anders strm Kenny Ohlsson Johan Jeppson Johan Eklv Also a thank you to my supervisor at KTH: Axel Jantsch A special thanks also to my good friend and colleague: Robert Thorhuus Hardware Fault Insertion Techniques and Tools 3 Abbreviations ASIC - Application Specific Integrated Circuit ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode BSDL - Boundary Scan De...

Emil Savqvist; Roger Nordmark; Mattias Rimbark; Bengt Kvist; Anders strm; Kenny Ohlsson; Johan Eklv; Axel Jantsch; Robert Thorhuus; Hw Hard Ware

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Study of Potential Cost Reductions Resulting from Super-Large-Scale Manufacturing of PV Modules: Final Subcontract Report, 7 August 2003--30 September 2004  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hewlett Packard has created a design for a ''Solar City'' factory that will process 30 million sq. meters of glass panels per year and produce 2.1-3.6 GW of solar panels per year-100x the volume of a typical, thin-film, solar panel manufacturer in 2004. We have shown that with a reasonable selection of materials, and conservative assumptions, this ''Solar City'' can produce solar panels and hit the price target of $1.00 per peak watt (6.5x-8.5x lower than prices in 2004) as the total price for a complete and installed rooftop (or ground mounted) solar energy system. This breakthrough in the price of solar energy comes without the need for any significant new invention. It comes entirely from the manufacturing scale of a large plant and the cost savings inherent in operating at such a large manufacturing scale. We expect that further optimizations from these simple designs will lead to further improvements in cost. The manufacturing process and cost depend on the choice for the active layer that converts sunlight into electricity. The efficiency by which sunlight is converted into electricity can range from 7% to 15%. This parameter has a large effect on the overall price per watt. There are other impacts, as well, and we have attempted to capture them without creating undue distractions. Our primary purpose is to demonstrate the impact of large-scale manufacturing. This impact is largely independent of the choice of active layer. It is not our purpose to compare the pro's and con's for various types of active layers. Significant improvements in cost per watt can also come from scientific advances in active layers that lead to higher efficiency. But, again, our focus is on manufacturing gains and not on the potential advances in the basic technology.

Keshner, M. S.; Arya, R.

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

PVMaT Cost Reductions in the EFG High Volume PV Manufacturing Line: Final Subcontract Report, 5 August 1998 -- 4 February 2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the three major task areas: manufacturing systems development, low-cost processing technology, and flexible manufacturing methods. In Manufacturing Systems, we have worked on implementing and utilizing SPC on a larger scale by developing support systems for computer-aided data bases and equipment and process-tracking methodology; developing and implementing new diagnostic techniques; reducing acid use and waste products by introducing a new dry-etch process; and formalizing documentation and training procedures for manufacturing processes (ISO 9000) and for waste product and safety management (ISO 14000) to assist in handling the larger manufacturing organization. Low-Cost Processes, we report on progress in demonstrating low-damage, high-throughput laser technology; studies on Rapid Thermal Processing approaches to improving cell efficiency; evaluating new thin-wafer technology using EFG cylinders; and developing a large EFG octagon and laser-cutting technology for producing 12.5 cm x 12.5 cm wafers. For Flexible Manufacturing, we completed introduction of manufacturing data bases for wafer and cell manufacturing; process modifications to accommodate manufacture of 10 cm x 15 cm wafers; and module field-performance studies and defect tracking to be used to improve manufacturing processes, new encapsulant qualification and introduction into manufacturing, and progress in developing designs for low-cost modules.

Kalejs, J.; Bathey, B.; Brown, B.; Cao, J.; Doedderlein, J.; Ebers, S.; Gonsiorawski, R.; Heath, B.; Kardauskas, M.; Mackintosh, B.; Ouellette, M.; Piwczyk, B.; Rosenblum, M.; Southimath, B.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Security challenges and opportunities in adaptive and reconfigurable hardware  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a novel approach to building hardware support for providing strong security guarantees for computations running in the cloud (shared hardware in massive data centers), while maintaining the high performance and ...

Costan, Victor Marius

124

A computational approach to custom data representation for hardware accelerators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This thesis details the application of computational methods to the problem of determining custom data representations when building hardware accelerators for numerical computations. A majority of scientific applications which require hardware ...

Adam B. Kinsman

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Energy Department Invests to Drive Down Costs of Carbon Capture...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to Drive Down Costs of Carbon Capture, Support Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Pollution Energy Department Invests to Drive Down Costs of Carbon Capture, Support Reductions in...

126

Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Reductions, Technological Breakthroughs Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost Reductions, Technological...

127

Position paper: Sapper -- a language for provable hardware policy enforcement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe Sapper, a language for creating critical hardware components that have provably secure information flow. Most systems that enforce information flow policies place the hardware microarchitecture within the trusted computing base, and also ... Keywords: hardware description language, information flow, non-interference

Xun Li, Vineeth Kashyap, Jason K. Oberg, Mohit Tiwari, Vasanth Ram Rajarathinam, Ryan Kastner, Timothy Sherwood, Ben Hardekopf, Frederic T. Chong

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Operator strength reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operator strength reduction is a technique that improves compiler-generated code by reformulating certain costly computations in terms of less expensive ones. A common case arises in array addressing expressions used in loops. The compiler can replace ... Keywords: loops, static single assignment form, strength reduction

Keith D. Cooper; L. Taylor Simpson; Christopher A. Vick

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

High Performance Metallic Materials for Cost Sensitive Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost Effective Synthesis, Processing and Applications of Light-Weight. Metallic Materials . ... Prospects for Cost Reduction of Titanium Via Electrolysis .

130

MFL tool hardware for pipeline inspection  

SciTech Connect

The intelligent pig based on the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) is frequently used for inline inspection of gas and liquid transportation pipelines. The tool is capable of reliably detecting and characterizing several commonly occurring pipeline defects including metal loss due to corrosion and gouges, dents, and buckles, which tend to threaten the structural integrity of the pipeline. The defect detection and characterization capabilities of the tool are directly dependent upon the type of critical hardware components and systems selected for the tool assembly. This article discusses the key components of an advanced or high resolution MFL tool.

Tandon, K.K. [Engineers India Ltd., Haryana (India). Research and Development Complex

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability Low-Cost Supports - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Radoslav Adzic (Primary Contact), Miomir Vukmirovic, Kotaro Sasaki, Jia Wang, Yang Shao-Horn 1 , Rachel O'Malley 2 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Bldg. 555 Upton, NY 11973-5000 Phone: (631) 344-4522 Email: adzic@bnl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov Subcontractors: 1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge MA 2 Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells (JMFC), London, England Project Start Date: July 1, 2009 Project End Date: September 30, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Developing high-performance fuel cell electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) comprising contiguous Pt monolayer (ML) on stable, inexpensive metal

132

Development of hardware simulators for tests of solar cooling/heating subsystems and systems. Phase 1. Residential subsystem hardware simulator and steady state simulation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The proposed hardware simulator has been successfully built at the Solar Technology Group Laboratory of BNL, and it has been operational since its construction. The hardware simulator has the following unique features: it has been incorporated with a measurement-double-checking system, it is a totally closed-loop system, it employs three separate energy storage tanks, and it has been automated to perform instantaneous data collection and reduction. With the external energy storage, all the external test conditions can be easily set up for any steady state or transient run. The simulator is described in detail with schematics and actual photographs. The steady state testing of Arkla's Solaire 36 absorption chiller has been performed. The test dealt primarily with chiller capacity or coefficient-of-performance (COP) as a function of generator hot water inlet temperature (1) with condenser cooling water inlet temperature as parameter, and (2) with evaporator chilled water outlet temperature as parameter.

Auh, P.C.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher initial costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches. From scientific and technical point of view, the potential for wide applications of GSHP especially HGSHP in hot and humid climate is significant, especially towards building zero energy homes where the combined energy efficient GSHP and abundant solar energy production in hot climate can be an optimal solution. To address these challenges, this report presents gathering and analyzing data on the costs and benefits of GSHP/HGSHP systems utilized in southern states using a representative sample of building applications. The report outlines the detailed analysis to conclude that the application of GSHP in Florida (and hot and humid climate in general) shows a good potential.

Yong X. Tao; Yimin Zhu

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

134

ITS Hardware Maintenance Management Systems: White Paper for MORIP Pooled Fund Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of an ITS hardware maintenance management system. It can aidBERKELEY ITS Hardware Maintenance Management Systems: WhiteHIGHWAYS ITS HARDWARE MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS WHITE

Kuhn, Beverly T.; Durkop, Brooke R.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Scaling of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain Components for Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation enables experimental study of prototype hardware systems or control algorithms via real-time interaction between physical hardware and virtual simulations. (more)

Petersheim, Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

ITS Hardware Maintenance Management Systems: White Paper for MORIP Pooled Fund Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an ITS hardware maintenance management system. It can aid inITS Hardware Maintenance Management Systems: White Paper forITS HARDWARE MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS WHITE PAPER For

Kuhn, Beverly T.; Durkop, Brooke R.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Costs Drop for Photovoltaic Power Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 23, 2009 ... The cost reduction over time was largest for smaller PV systems, such as those used to power individual households. Also, installed costs show...

138

Battery Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

optimized for PHEV operation, while also meeting the market expectations for cost and battery life. Objective Engineers in Argonne National Laboratory's Center for Transportation...

139

Hardware Security Strategies Exploiting Nanoelectronic Circuits Abstract -Hardware security has emerged as an  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the security relevant capabilities of nanoelectronic devices. Specifically, we explain why the nonlinear manufacturing process could potentially reverse engineer, overproduce, or insert trojans into ICs designed devices and circuits provide an opportunity to develop robust hardware security primitives (e.g. PUFs

Potkonjak, Miodrag

140

A Marriage of Hardware and Hard Work  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shaken but Not Stirred Shaken but Not Stirred 2008 Rosalind Franklin Young Investigator Award The 2008 3-Way Meeting In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed A Marriage of Hardware and Hard Work MAY 5, 2008 Bookmark and Share The first assembled production girder for the LCLS sits atop the coordinate measuring machine. From "SLAC Today," http://today.slac.stanford.edu/ The first undulator support girder assembly for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) made its way from the Collider Hall, where technicians are piecing them together, to the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

EPICS: Allen-Bradley hardware reference manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual covers the following hardware: Allen-Bradley 6008 -- SV VMEbus I/O scanner; Allen-Bradley universal I/O chassis 1771-A1B, -A2B, -A3B, and -A4B; Allen-Bradley power supply module 1771-P4S; Allen-Bradley 1771-ASB remote I/O adapter module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IFE analog input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OFE analog output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IG(D) TTL input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OG(d) TTL output; Allen-Bradley 1771-IQ DC selectable input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OW contact output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IBD DC (10--30V) input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OBD DC (10--60V) output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IXE thermocouple/millivolt input module; and the Allen-Bradley 2705 RediPANEL push button module.

Nawrocki, G.

1993-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

142

Hardware Materials in Carbonate Fuel Cell - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metallic materials are extensively utilized in fuel-cell module hardware (current ... A Study on the Hot Corrosion Resistance of Metal-cemet-glass Coating on...

143

Sandia upgrades hardware for NNSA training course | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

upgrades hardware for NNSA training course | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

144

Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions.

Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Wiser, R.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

A verified development of hardware using CSP B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A verified development of hardware using CSP B Alistair McEwan Department of Computing University show how a combination of the process algebra CSP and the state-based formalism B, combined into a single notation called CSP B can be used in the formal development of hardware. The use of CSP B

Schneider, Steve

146

Software and Hardware Techniques for SEU Detection in IP Processors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the recent years both software and hardware techniques have been adopted to carry out reliable designs, aimed at autonomously detecting the occurrence of faults, to allow discarding erroneous data and possibly performing the recovery of the system. ... Keywords: Fault injection, Hardware/software techniques, Reliability, Single-event upset faults

C. Bolchini; A. Miele; M. Rebaudengo; F. Salice; D. Sciuto; L. Sterpone; M. Violante

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Brook for GPUs: stream computing on graphics hardware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present Brook for GPUs, a system for general-purpose computation on programmable graphics hardware. Brook extends C to include simple data-parallel constructs, enabling the use of the GPU as a streaming co-processor. We present a compiler ... Keywords: Data Parallel Computing, GPU Computing, Brook, Programmable Graphics Hardware, Stream Computing

Ian Buck; Tim Foley; Daniel Horn; Jeremy Sugerman; Kayvon Fatahalian; Mike Houston; Pat Hanrahan

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Active Hardware Metering for Intellectual Property Protection and Security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Active Hardware Metering for Intellectual Property Protection and Security Farinaz Koushanfar $$$ #12;3 Hardware Metering · HW Metering is a system of security protocols that enable the design house active HW metering · Emerging applications · Metering can facilitate new business models Why

Mellor-Crummey, John

149

Hardware packet pacing using a DMA in a parallel computer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and system for hardware packet pacing using a direct memory access controller in a parallel computer which, in one aspect, keeps track of a total number of bytes put on the network as a result of a remote get operation, using a hardware token counter.

Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Phillip; Vranas, Pavlos

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

150

Measuring cycling kinematics using a low-cost, flashing LED, multi-camera approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis a low cost motion capture approach is presented and applied to measure cyclists' kinematics. The motion capture system consists of low cost hardware and custom developed software. Based on still-frame, ...

Gilbertson, Matthew (Matthew W.)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Acceleration of Meshfree Radial Point Interpolation Method on Graphics Hardware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes a parallel computational technique to accelerate radial point interpolation method (RPIM)-based meshfree method using graphics hardware. RPIM is one of the meshfree partial differential equation solvers that do not require the mesh structure of the analysis targets. In this paper, a technique for accelerating RPIM using graphics hardware is presented. In the method, the computation process is divided into small processes suitable for processing on the parallel architecture of the graphics hardware in a single instruction multiple data manner.

Nakata, Susumu [College of Information Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University (Japan)

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Formal hardware specification languages for protocol compliance verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The advent of the system-on-chip and intellectual property hardware design paradigms makes protocol compliance verification increasingly important to the success of a project. One of the central tools in any verification project is the modeling language, ... Keywords: Esterel, Heterogeneous Hardware Logic, Hierarchical Annotated Action Diagrams, Java, Lava, Live Sequence Charts, Message Sequence Charts, Objective VHDL, OpenVera, Property Specification Language, SpecC, Specification and Description Language, Statecharts, SystemC, SystemVerilog, The Unified Modeling Language, e, hardware monitors, timing diagrams

Annette Bunker; Ganesh Gopalakrishnan; Sally A. Mckee

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Teaching digital hardware by using complex lab projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indiana University's Department of Computer Science teaches digital hardware organization and design as a two-semester course sequence at the senior/graduate level. The courses are four credit hours each and have classroom and laboratory components. ...

Franklin Prosser; David Winkel

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Guided region prefetching: a cooperative hardware/software approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite large caches, main-memory access latencies still cause significant performance losses in many applications. Numerous hardware and software prefetching schemes have been proposed to tolerate these latencies. Software prefetching typically provides ...

Zhenlin Wang; Doug Burger; Kathryn S. McKinley; Steven K. Reinhardt; Charles C. Weems

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Quantitative measures of MIS quality assurance during hardware conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The management information systems (MIS) department of Medtronic converted their applications from running on the computer of one hardware vendor to another. A quality assurance (QA) program was instituted to monitor, validate, and assist in the conversion ...

John W. Center

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Early experience with a commercial hardware transactional memory implementation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on our experience with the hardware transactional memory (HTM) feature of two revisions of a prototype multicore processor. Our experience includes a number of promising results using HTM to improve performance in a variety of contexts, and ...

Dave Dice; Yossi Lev; Mark Moir; Dan Nussbaum; Marek Olszewski

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

A timeshared, runtime reconfigurable hardware co-processing architecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The constant desire for increased performance in microprocessor systems has led to the need for specialized hardware cores to accelerate specific computational tasks. In this thesis, we explore the potential of using FPGA ...

Gelb, Benjamin S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Efficient partitioning of fragment shaders for multiple-output hardware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Partitioning fragment shaders into multiple rendering passes is an effective technique for virtualizing shading resource limits in graphics hardware. The Recursive Dominator Split (RDS) algorithm is a polynomial-time algorithm for partitioning fragment ...

Tim Foley; Mike Houston; Pat Hanrahan

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Hardware device to physical structure binding and authentication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a binding of the hardware device and a physical structure. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generate an internal PUF value. Binding logic is coupled to receive the internal PUF value, as well as an external PUF value associated with the physical structure, and generates a binding PUF value, which represents the binding of the hardware device and the physical structure. The cryptographic fingerprint unit also includes a cryptographic unit that uses the binding PUF value to allow a challenger to authenticate the binding.

Hamlet, Jason R.; Stein, David J.; Bauer, Todd M.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

160

An integrated debugging environment for reprogrammble hardware systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reprogrammable hardware systems are traditionally very difficult to debug due to their high level of parallelism. In our solution to this problem, features are inserted into the user's design which allow the system to be monitored and updated at runtime. ...

Kevin Camera; Hayden Kwok-Hay So; Robert W. Brodersen

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Member Survey of Industry Issues for Hardware and Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a survey to obtain information on atmospheric corrosion issues associated with overhead transmission line hardware and conductors exposed to the environment. Atmospheric corrosion is a natural and unavoidable phenomenon that can lead to the premature failure of conductors, shield wires, hardware or components and result in momentary or even sustained outages. Survey results will help support research and development activities to extend the capabilities of ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

162

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop May 8 th , 2011, Arlington, VA Shimshon Gottesfeld, CTO The Fuel Cell Cost Challenge 2 CellEra's goal - achieve price parity with incumbents earlier on in market entry process ! Mainstream Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEM) Cost Barriers 3 Graphite / stainless steel hardware Acidic membrane Platinum based electrodes Cost barriers deeply embedded in core tech materials BOM-based cost barriers - 90% of stack cost Cost volatility - Platinum $500/Oz - $2,500/Oz The possibility of an OH - ion conducting membrane 4 Non-acidic membrane CellEra Took Advantage of this Opportunity A new type of membrane component with potential for strong fuel cell cost cuts was revealed in 2006, but was accompanied by general industry skepticism

163

ESNETPKI-007 Helm & Muruganantham ESnet Hardware Security Module Evaluation September 2002  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ESNETPKI-007 Helm & Muruganantham ESnet Hardware Security Module Evaluation September 2002 . Public Key Infrastructure ESnet Hardware Security Module Evaluation September 2002 Overview The Certificate ESnet Hardware Security Module Evaluation Table of Contents OVERVIEW

164

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Reducing the Costs of Manufacturing Flow...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and power generation. * Design and material cost reductions are a means to reducing battery costs. * Is it possible to accelerate the knowledge building that comes from...

165

Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

customer needs. Renewable energy cost reductions, combinedthe likely cost of renewable energy in the longer term.Renewable Energy Credits (RECs)38 5.2 Geothermal Cost

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

SunShot Initiative: Evaluating the Causes of Photovoltaics Cost...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Causes of Photovoltaics Cost Reduction: Why is PV different? to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Evaluating the Causes of Photovoltaics Cost Reduction: Why is PV...

167

Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

168

Carbonate fuel cell endurance: Hardware corrosion and electrolyte management status  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Endurance tests of carbonate fuel cell stacks (up to 10,000 hours) have shown that hardware corrosion and electrolyte losses can be reasonably controlled by proper material selection and cell design. Corrosion of stainless steel current collector hardware, nickel clad bipolar plate and aluminized wet seal show rates within acceptable limits. Electrolyte loss rate to current collector surface has been minimized by reducing exposed current collector surface area. Electrolyte evaporation loss appears tolerable. Electrolyte redistribution has been restrained by proper design of manifold seals.

Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Farooque, M.; Maru, H.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Carbonate fuel cell endurance: Hardware corrosion and electrolyte management status  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Endurance tests of carbonate fuel cell stacks (up to 10,000 hours) have shown that hardware corrosion and electrolyte losses can be reasonably controlled by proper material selection and cell design. Corrosion of stainless steel current collector hardware, nickel clad bipolar plate and aluminized wet seal show rates within acceptable limits. Electrolyte loss rate to current collector surface has been minimized by reducing exposed current collector surface area. Electrolyte evaporation loss appears tolerable. Electrolyte redistribution has been restrained by proper design of manifold seals.

Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Farooque, M.; Maru, H.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Development of a Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to facilitate control strategy development and performance test of hybrid electric vehicle, a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system is developed. The system is constructed with LabVIEW and PXI hardware. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation test ... Keywords: hybrid electric vehicle, hardware-in-the-loop simulation, fuel economy, exhaust emission

Yanyi Zhang, Zhenhua Jin, Haoduan Wang, Qingchun Lu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

IQ-Station: a low cost portable immersive environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emergence of inexpensive 3D-TVs, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive systems. A low cost system (here dubbed an IQ-station), fashioned from commercial ...

William R. Sherman; Patrick O'Leary; Eric T. Whiting; Shane Grover; Eric A. Wernert

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Parallelizing sequential applications on commodity hardware using a low-cost software transactional memory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multicore designs have emerged as the mainstream design paradigm for the microprocessor industry. Unfortunately, providing multiple cores does not directly translate into performance for most applications. The industry has already fallen short of the ... Keywords: automatic parallelization, loop level parallelism, profile-guided optimization, software transactional memory, thread-level speculation

Mojtaba Mehrara; Jeff Hao; Po-Chun Hsu; Scott Mahlke

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Cost-Effective Concurrent Test Hardware Design for Linear Analog Circuits Sule Ozev and Alex Orailoglu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

overhead by reduc- ing the number of internal circuit nodes that need to be tapped. Parameter tolerances, electronic circuits are ever more susceptible to external up- sets, such as electron migration and radiation likely to be placed on system boundaries, heightening their exposure to environ- mental effects. Whereas

Orailoglu, Alex

174

A hardware Memetic accelerator for VLSI circuit partitioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the last decade, the complexity and size of circuits have been rapidly increasing, placing a stressing demand on industry for faster and more efficient CAD tools for VLSI circuit layout. One major problem is the computational requirements for ... Keywords: Circuit partitioning, FPGA, Genetic algorithms, Handel-C, Hardware accelerator, Memetic algorithms

Stephen Coe; Shawki Areibi; Medhat Moussa

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Software-based Empirical Extraction of Hardware Energy Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

schemes transition hardware devices (disk, network, display, CPU etc) to lower power (sleep) states and performance overhead in transitioning to/from those states. e.g.power consumed by the disk in the standby management and/or setting the timeout for transitioning to a low power state to a large value, both of which

Chiueh, Tzi-cker

176

Flexible Hardware Acceleration for Instruction-Grain Program Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Instruction-grain program monitoring tools, which check and analyze executing programs at the granularity of individual instructions, are invaluable for quickly detecting bugs and security attacks and then limiting their damage (via containment and/or ... Keywords: Log-Based Architectures, LBA, Instruction-grain Program Monitoring, Hardware Acceleration, Inheritance Tracking, Idempotent Filter, Metadata-TLB, Lifeguards

Shimin Chen; Michael Kozuch; Theodoros Strigkos; Babak Falsafi; Phillip B. Gibbons; Todd C. Mowry; Vijaya Ramachandran; Olatunji Ruwase; Michael Ryan; Evangelos Vlachos

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

A compiled-code hardware accelerator for circuit simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Describes the application of compiled-code techniques to the design of a hardware accelerator for circuit simulation, offering a speedup by a factor of up to 4400 compared with a software circuit simulator running on a Sun-3/60 workstation. The preprocessing ...

D. M. Lewis

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Balancing performance and flexibility with hardware support for network architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goals of performance and flexibility are often at odds in the design of network systems. The tension is common enough to justify an architectural solution, rather than a set of context-specific solutions. The Programmable Protocol Processing Pipeline ... Keywords: FPGA, P4, computer networking, flexibility, hardware, performance, programmable logic devices, programmable networks, protocol processing

Ilija Hadi?; Jonathan M. Smith

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Virtual Machine Services: An Opportunity for Hardware Customization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of transistor count, which is leading to archi- tecture heterogeneity and customization. (2) Software developers (Virtual Machine), which executes services such as profiling, compilation, scheduling, and memory for potential improvements in energy through the use of hardware heterogeneity. This paper uses systematic

McKinley, Kathryn S.

180

Motion Compensation Hardware Accelerator Architecture for H.264/AVC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University of Pelotas Pelotas ­ RS ­ BRAZIL 3 Electrical Engineering Department Federal University of Rio by simulation. A performance comparison was made between a software implementation and a hardware accelerated is enough to reach real time when decoding H.264/AVC Baseline Profile motion compensation for luminance

Wagner, Flávio Rech

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Efficient Partitioning of Fragment Shaders for Multiple-Output Hardware  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Partitioning fragment shaders into multiple rendering passes is an effective technique for virtualizing shading resource limits in graphics hardware. The Recursive Dominator Split (RDS) algorithm is a polynomial-time algorithm for partitioning fragment shaders for real-time rendering that has been shown to generate efficient partitions.

Tim Foley; Mike Houston; Pat Hanrahan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

High dynamic range texture compression for graphics hardware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we break new ground by presenting algorithms for fixed-rate compression of high dynamic range textures at low bit rates. First, the S3TC low dynamic range texture compression scheme is extended in order to enable compression of HDR data. ... Keywords: graphics hardware, high dynamic range images, image compression, texture compression

Jacob Munkberg; Petrik Clarberg; Jon Hasselgren; Tomas Akenine-Mller

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

The Cost of Climate Policy in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the cost of meeting emissions reduction targets consistent with a G8 proposal of a 50 percent global reduction in emissions by 2050, and an Obama Administration proposal of an 80 percent reduction over this ...

Morris, Jennifer F.

184

The Cost of Climate Policy in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the cost of meeting emissions reduction targets consistent with a G8 proposal of a 50 percent global reduction in emissions by 2050, and an Obama Administration proposal of an 80 percent reduction over this ...

Morris, Jennifer F.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Hardware and Software Upgrades to DIII-D Main Computer Control System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The complexities of monitoring and controlling the various DIII-D tokamak systems have always required the aid of high-speed computer resources. Because of recent improvements in computing technology, DIII-D has upgraded both hardware and software for the central DIII-D control system. This system is responsible for coordination of all main DIII-D subsystems during a plasma discharge. The replacement of antiquated older hardware has increased reliability and reduced costs both in the initial procurement and eventual maintenance of the system. As expected, upgrading the corresponding computer software has become the more time consuming and expensive part of this upgrade. During this redesign, the main issues focused on making the most of existing in-house codes, speed with which the new system could be brought on-line, the ability to add new features/enhancements, ease of integration with all DIII-D systems and future portability/upgrades. The resulting system has become a template by which other DIII-D systems can follow during similar upgrade paths; in particular DIII-D's main data acquisition system and neutral beam injection (NBI).

Piglowski, D. A.; Penaflor, B.G.; McHarg, JR., B.B.; Greene, K.L.; Coon, R.M.; Phillips, J.C.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY  

SciTech Connect

The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions. Our findings indicate that steady cost reductions were interrupted between 2004 and 2010, but falling turbine prices and improved turbine performance are expected to drive a historically low LCOE for current installations. In addition, the majority of studies indicate continued cost reductions on the order of 20%-30% through 2030. Moreover, useful cost projections are likely to benefit from stronger consideration of the interactions between capital cost and performance as well as trends in the quality of the wind resource where projects are located, transmission, grid integration, and other cost variables.

NREL,; Wiser, Ryan; Lantz, Eric; Hand, Maureen

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

187

Electricity Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Electricity Costs journal International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy volume year month chapter...

188

Allocation Reductions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Allocation Allocation Reductions Quarterly Allocation Reductions MPP (or computational) repositories that haven't used significant amounts of time are adjusted at certain times by transferring a part of the unused balance to the corresponding DOE Office reserve. The following schedule will be used for allocation year 2014 (which runs 14 January 2014 through 132January 2015). On April 9: if usage is less than 10% remove 25% of the unused balance On July 9: if usage is less than 25% remove 25% of the unused balance if usage is less than 10% remove 50% of the unused balance On October 8: if usage is less than 50% remove 25% of the unused balance if usage is less than 25% remove 75% of the unused balance if usage is less than 10% remove 90% of the unused balance On November 5:

189

Energy Department Announces $19 Million to Drive Down Solar Soft Costs,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9 Million to Drive Down Solar Soft 9 Million to Drive Down Solar Soft Costs, Increase Hardware Efficiency Energy Department Announces $19 Million to Drive Down Solar Soft Costs, Increase Hardware Efficiency November 20, 2013 - 2:17pm Addthis In support of the Obama Administration's effort to advance our clean energy economy and support American innovation, the Energy Department today announced $19 million to reduce both hardware and non-hardware costs of solar and to drive greater solar energy deployment in the United States. This funding builds on the Energy Department's broader SunShot Initiative investments that are driving down the cost of solar and making solar affordable for more American families and companies. Since the beginning of 2010, the price of a solar electric system has dropped by more than 70%.

190

Energy Department Announces $19 Million to Drive Down Solar Soft Costs,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Department Announces $19 Million to Drive Down Solar Soft Energy Department Announces $19 Million to Drive Down Solar Soft Costs, Increase Hardware Efficiency Energy Department Announces $19 Million to Drive Down Solar Soft Costs, Increase Hardware Efficiency November 20, 2013 - 2:17pm Addthis In support of the Obama Administration's effort to advance our clean energy economy and support American innovation, the Energy Department today announced $19 million to reduce both hardware and non-hardware costs of solar and to drive greater solar energy deployment in the United States. This funding builds on the Energy Department's broader SunShot Initiative investments that are driving down the cost of solar and making solar affordable for more American families and companies. Since the beginning of 2010, the price of a solar electric system has dropped by more than 70%.

191

Summary of multi-core hardware and programming model investigations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes our investigations into multi-core processors and programming models for parallel scientific applications. The motivation for this study was to better understand the landscape of multi-core hardware, future trends, and the implications on system software for capability supercomputers. The results of this study are being used as input into the design of a new open-source light-weight kernel operating system being targeted at future capability supercomputers made up of multi-core processors. A goal of this effort is to create an agile system that is able to adapt to and efficiently support whatever multi-core hardware and programming models gain acceptance by the community.

Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Levenhagen, Michael J.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Treatment, packaging, and storage of bundle scrap hardware  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to identify and evaluate the various technical options for treatment, packaging and storing the bundle scrap hardware that results from rod consolidation. The three general scenarios addressed were keeping the treated scrap in the pool, moving it to on-site dry storage, or immediate disposal. The study concluded that practical alternatives existed for all three cases. Use of novel scrap packaging techniques achieved an overall net consolidation ratio of two. The most economical concept was found to be using advanced technology in the pool storage scenario with dry storage schemes a close second. The project also provides information on scrap characterization and provides tools to assist in classifying the scrap hardware.

Fuierer, A. (Rochester Gas and Electric Corp., NY (United States)); Dabolt, R. (Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Hardware/Software Solution Unifying DALI, IBECS, and BACnet  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to investigate broader building-level systems/strategies that enable further energy savings and control. This project investigated the potential savings offered by broader centralized control features and the potential advantages they may add to this system through such features as addressability and load shedding. This report documents the results of LBNL's work in this area. This report focuses on building-level systems and strategies and a multi-protocol gateway solution that is indifferent to the specific choice of lighting control/communications technique used to control the office lighting. The elegance of the IEEE 1451 intelligent gateway proposed in this report is that the overall building communications system should work regardless of whether the office lighting is controlled by DALI, UPB, IBECS, ZigBee or any other accepted communications protocol. Many lighting control companies have robust local lighting control systems with functional strategies for the office level controls. What the industry lacks is the efficient integration of local controls with building controls and energy management systems in order to utilize sensory data. LBNL proposes a framework for a gateway with a level of embedded intelligence, linking various device area networks (DANs) to building control systems. The proposed gateway acts as a translator for DANs enabling them to talk to each other and with a building control system. Just like a PC recognizing a mouse as soon as it is plugged in, the gateway will recognize devices with embedded or virtual Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). This presents a truly ''plug and play'' capability for the building control systems. As a result, sensory data can be automatically calibrated, collected and utilized with minimal labor for effective and efficient building controls. The mature market cost of the proposed gateway is not yet known. But current product suggest that $1000/bridge is achievable today with off-the-shelf components and wireless routers that are common today for computer applications do not have significantly lower capabilities than the $1000 product and are now available at $100-$200. If it is configured so that it caters to commissioning, maintenance and energy monitoring, its benefit from a mere energy saving equipment can be extended to reduction in installation and maintenance costs.

Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis; Sila, Kiliccote

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies  

SciTech Connect

Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport.

Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

A realistic evaluation of memory hardware errors and software system susceptibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Memory hardware reliability is an indispensable part of whole-system dependability. This paper presents the collection of realistic memory hardware error traces (including transient and non-transient errors) from production computer systems with more ...

Xin Li; Michael C. Huang; Kai Shen; Lingkun Chu

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Toward Lean Hardware/Software System Development: An Evaluation of Selected Complex Electronic System Development Methodologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of electronic hardware and software has become a major component of major DoD systems. This report surveys a wide set of new electronic hardware/software development methods and develops a system to evaluate ...

Hou, Alex

197

0 + 0 = 1 : the appliance model of selling software bundled with hardware  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The business model of selling software bundled with hardware is called the appliance model. As hardware becomes less and less expensive and open source software is being offered for free, the traditional business model of ...

Hein, Bettina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Ravel-XL: a hardware accelerator for assigned delay compiled-code logic gate simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: design verification, digital logic simulation, hardware accelerators, levelized compiled code, simulation engines, special purpose architectures, timing analysis

Michael A. Riepe; Joo P. Marques Silva; Karem A. Sakallah; Richard B. Brown

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Emissions Reductions Emissions Reductions Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Reductions Grants The Carl Moyer Memorial Air Quality Standards Attainment Program (Program) provides incentives to cover the incremental cost of purchasing engines and

200

Hardware/Software Partitioning of Software Binaries: A Case Study of H.264 Decode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hardware/Software Partitioning of Software Binaries: A Case Study of H.264 Decode Greg Stitt whether new techniques for hardware/software partitioning of an application's binary are competitive-return, function specialization, algorithmic specialization, hardware-targeted reimplementation, global array

Vahid, Frank

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Automated tools to implement and test Internet systems in reconfigurable hardware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tools have been developed to automatically integrate and test networking systems in reconfigurable hardware. These tools dynamically generate circuits for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). A library of hardware-accelerated modules has been developed ... Keywords: Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Internet, firewall, network intrusion detection and prevention, networks, reconfigurable hardware, tools

John W. Lockwood; Chris Neely; Chris Zuver; Dave Lim

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

FPGA-based hardware accelerator for high-performance data-stream processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An approach to solving high-performance data-stream processing is proposed based on hardware solutions that use a field-programmable gate array. The described HDG hardware solution was successfully applied to video data streams. The computation capacity ... Keywords: FPGA, application-specific processors, data-stream processing, hardware accelerators, high-performance computations, real time

K. F. Lysakov; M. Yu. Shadrin

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Scaling of hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain components for Hardware-in-the-loop simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scaling of hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain components for Hardware-in-the-loop simulation: Hardware-in-the-loop Hybrid electric vehicle Buckingham Pi Theorem Battery model a b s t r a c t Hardware between the highly coupled subsystems typically found in an electric or hybrid-electric vehicle

Brennan, Sean

204

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12;· Marginal Cost: ­ Change in total cost ­ Any production process involves fixed and variable costs. As production increases/expands, fixed costs are unchanged, so

Boisvert, Jeff

205

Efficient hardware generation of random variates with arbitrary distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a technique for efficiently generating random numbers from a given probability distribution. This is achieved by using a generic hardware architecture, which transforms uniform random numbers according to a distribution mapping stored in RAM, and a software approximation generator that creates distribution mappings for any given target distribution. This technique has many features not found in current non-uniform random number generators, such as the ability to adjust the target distribution while the generator is running, per-cycle switching between distributions, and the ability to generate distributions with discontinuities in the Probability Density Function. 1.

David B. Thomas; Wayne Luk

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Resolution-independent surface rendering using programmable graphics hardware  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Surfaces defined by a Bezier tetrahedron, and in particular quadric surfaces, are rendered on programmable graphics hardware. Pixels are rendered through triangular sides of the tetrahedra and locations on the shapes, as well as surface normals for lighting evaluations, are computed using pixel shader computations. Additionally, vertex shaders are used to aid interpolation over a small number of values as input to the pixel shaders. Through this, rendering of the surfaces is performed independently of viewing resolution, allowing for advanced level-of-detail management. By individually rendering tetrahedrally-defined surfaces which together form complex shapes, the complex shapes can be rendered in their entirety.

Loop, Charles T. (Bellevue, WA); Blinn, James Frederick (Bellevue, WA)

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

207

SunShot Initiative: Power Electronics and Balance of System Hardware  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Electronics and Balance of Power Electronics and Balance of System Hardware Technologies to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Power Electronics and Balance of System Hardware Technologies on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Power Electronics and Balance of System Hardware Technologies on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Power Electronics and Balance of System Hardware Technologies on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Power Electronics and Balance of System Hardware Technologies on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Power Electronics and Balance of System Hardware Technologies on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Power Electronics and Balance of System Hardware Technologies on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Systems Integration

208

Realistic costs of carbon capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

"Department of Energy Information Protection Task Force - SSN Reduction Project PA 09-Baseline Inventory",,,,,,,,,,,,,"1. Not Cost Effective","2. No Resources Available","3. Legally Required to Collect and/or Maintain","4. Other - Explain in Column ""R"""  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Department of Energy Information Protection Task Force - SSN Reduction Project PA 09-Baseline Inventory",,,,,,,,,,,,,"1. Not Cost Effective","2. No Resources Available","3. Legally Required to Collect and/or Maintain","4. Other - Explain in Column ""R""" Department of Energy Information Protection Task Force - SSN Reduction Project PA 09-Baseline Inventory",,,,,,,,,,,,,"1. Not Cost Effective","2. No Resources Available","3. Legally Required to Collect and/or Maintain","4. Other - Explain in Column ""R""" "DOE Privacy Website: http://management.energy.gov/FOIA/privacy.htm",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Yes","No","N/A" ,"1. Departmental Element","2. System Name/ Major Application Name","3. Location","4. Name of System Owner/ Information or Data Owner","5. Contact Information","6. Does the system collect or maintain Social Security numbers?","7. Source of Legal Requirement/Authority to Collect or Maintain Social Security Numbers?","8. Does the system have a Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA)?","9. Does the system have a System of Records Notice (SORN)? If yes, provide the name of the System of Records Notice.","10. Does the system collect or maintain other forms of PII?","Comments"

210

PVMaT cost reductions in the EFG high volume PV manufacturing line: Annual report, 5 August 1998--4 August 1999[PhotoVoltaic Manufacturing Technology, Edge-defined Film-fed Growth  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work performed by ASE Americas researchers during the first year of this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology 5A2 program. Significant accomplishments in each of three task are as follows. Task 1--Manufacturing Systems: Researchers completed key node analysis, started statistical process control (SPC) charting, carried out design-of-experiment (DoE) matrices on the cell line to optimize efficiencies, performed a capacity and bottleneck study, prepared a baseline chemical waste analysis report, and completed writing of more than 50% of documentation and statistical sections of ISO 9000 procedures. A highlight of this task is that cell efficiencies in manufacturing were increased by 0.4%--0.5% absolute, to an average in excess of 14.2%, with the help of DoE and SPC methods. Task 2--Low-Cost Processes: Researchers designed, constructed, and tested a 50-cm-diameter, edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) cylinder crystal growth system to successfully produce thin cylinders up to 1.2 meters in length; completed a model for heat transfer; successfully deployed new nozzle designs and used them with a laser wafer-cutting system with the potential to decrease cutting labor costs by 75% and capital costs by 2X; achieved laser-cutting speeds of up to 8X and evaluation of this system is proceeding in production; identified laser-cutting conditions that reduce damage for both Q-switched Nd:YAG and copper-vapor lasers with the help of a breakthrough in fundamental understanding of cutting with these short-pulse-length lasers; and found that bulk EFG material lifetimes are optimized when co-firing of silicon nitride and aluminum is carried out with rapid thermal processing (RTP). Task 3--Flexible Manufacturing: Researchers improved large-volume manufacturing of 10-cm {times} 15-cm EFG wafers by developing laser-cutting fixtures, adapting carriers and fabricating adjustable racks for etching and rinsing facilities, and installing a high-speed data collection net work; initiated fracture studies to develop methods to reduce wafer breakage; and started a module field studies program to collect data on field failures to help identify potential manufacturing problems. New encapsulants, which cure at room temperature, are being tested to improve flexibility and provide higher yields for thin wafers in lamination.

Bathey, B.; Brown, B.; Cao, J.; Ebers, S.; Gonsiorawski, R.; Heath, B.; Kalejs, J.; Kardauskas, M.; Mackintosh, B.; Ouellette, M.; Piwczyk, B.; Rosenblum, M.; Southimath, B.

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

211

NREL: News - NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News Release NR-6313 News Release NR-6313 NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar Installation Total Cost December 2, 2013 Two detailed reports from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) find that solar financing and other non-hardware costs - often referred to as "soft costs" - now comprise up to 64% of the total price of residential solar energy systems, reflecting how soft costs are becoming an increasingly larger fraction of the cost of installing solar. "The two new reports, along with previous reports, provide a comprehensive look at the full cost of installing solar, while delineating and quantifying the various contributors to that final cost," NREL analyst Barry Friedman said. The first new report, "Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft)

212

Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

System Design Document: Hardware Accelerated Market Order Packet Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This document specifies the design of Hardware Accelerated Market Order Packet Generator. The designed system aims at accelerating the release of packets on the network. Optimization is acheived in terms of reducing the latency, decreasing the data uploaded on the Avalon bus which will eventually lead to power optimization. A software application running on a soft-processor would change the transaction-data going over the network in runtime. This document describes the overall architecture of the system, along with describing the design of the custom ethernet accelerator. Typically the ethernet controller should be capable of receiving and sending data over the network. Our implementation will accelerate the sending of data to the network. The receiving of data will still be handled in software.

Ankur Gupta; Dhananjay Palshikar; Mithila Paryekar; Sushant Bhardwaj

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Hardware authentication using transmission spectra modified optical fiber.  

SciTech Connect

The ability to authenticate the source and integrity of data is critical to the monitoring and inspection of special nuclear materials, including hardware related to weapons production. Current methods rely on electronic encryption/authentication codes housed in monitoring devices. This always invites the question of implementation and protection of authentication information in an electronic component necessitating EMI shielding, possibly an on board power source to maintain the information in memory. By using atomic layer deposition techniques (ALD) on photonic band gap (PBG) optical fibers we will explore the potential to randomly manipulate the output spectrum and intensity of an input light source. This randomization could produce unique signatures authenticating devices with the potential to authenticate data. An external light source projected through the fiber with a spectrometer at the exit would 'read' the unique signature. No internal power or computational resources would be required.

Grubbs, Robert K.; Romero, Juan A.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Tuple spaces in hardware for accelerated implicit routing  

SciTech Connect

Organizing and optimizing data objects on networks with support for data migration and failing nodes is a complicated problem to handle as systems grow. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that high levels of speedup can be achieved by moving responsibility for finding, fetching, and staging data into an FPGA-based network card. We present a system for implicit routing of data via FPGA-based network cards. In this system, data structures are requested by name, and the network of FPGAs finds the data within the network and relays the structure to the requester. This is acheived through successive examination of hardware hash tables implemented in the FPGA. By avoiding software stacks between nodes, the data is quickly fetched entirely through FPGA-FPGA interaction. The performance of this system is orders of magnitude faster than software implementations due to the improved speed of the hash tables and lowered latency between the network nodes.

Baker, Zachary Kent [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tripp, Justin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

NOx Reduction through Efficiency Gain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benz Air Engineering and the CompuNOx system focus on a controls approach to minimize emissions without exposing steam generation plants to an unbearable financial burden. With minimal system changes we use thorough system analysis in conjunction with a novel control design to deliver a comprehensive boiler controls retrofit that provides reductions in emissions as well as substantial cost savings. Combining mechanical engineering expertise with substantial experience in control engineering in over 200 retrofits this system achieves astonishing results with short payback time, making CompuNOx a feasible solution for emission mandates and cost savings.

Benz, R.; Thompson, R.; Staedter, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Site Energy Reduction Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DuPonts Sabine River Works site is the largest energy consuming location within DuPont. In the year 2000, each production area was encouraged to reduce energy costs. By 2003 site energy consumption was down 16% on an absolute basis and 12% on a BTU/LB basis. By 2004, overall progress had slowed, energy consumption increased slightly, and area results were mixed. It was time to shake things up with a new perspective. A coordinated site energy program was launched. In 2005, the first full year of the unified program, the site saved $6.9 MM from energy reduction projects. The rate of improvement is accelerating in 2006 with $3.6 MM in energy projects being implemented in the first four months.

Jagen, P. R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Life Improvement of Pot Hardware in Continuous Hot Dipping Processes Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The process of continuous galvanizing of rolled sheet steel includes immersion into a bath of molten zinc/aluminum alloy. The steel strip is dipped in the molten bath through a series of driving motors and rollers which control the speed and tension of the strip, with the ability to modify both the amount of coating applied to the steel as well as the thickness and width of the sheet being galvanized. There are three rolls used to guide the steel strip through the molten metal bath. The rolls that operate in the molten Zn/Al are subject to a severely corrosive environment and require frequent changing. The performance of this equipment, the metallic hardware submerged in the molten Zn/Al bath, is the focus of this research. The primary objective of this research is to extend the performance life of the metallic hardware components of molten Zn/Al pot hardware by an order of magnitude. Typical galvanizing operations experience downtimes on the order of every two weeks to change the metallic hardware submerged in the molten metal bath. This is an expensive process for industry which takes upwards of 3 days for a complete turn around to resume normal operation. Each roll bridle consists of a sink, stabilizer, and corrector roll with accompanying bearing components. The cost of the bridle rig with all components is as much as $25,000 dollars just for materials. These inefficiencies are of concern to the steel coating companies and serve as a potential market for many materials suppliers. This research effort served as a bridge between the market potential and industry need to provide an objective analytical and mechanistic approach to the problem of wear and corrosion of molten metal bath hardware in a continuous sheet galvanizing line. The approach of the investigators was to provide a means of testing and analysis that was both expeditious and cost effective. The consortium of researchers from West Virginia University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed several test apparatuses that were designed to work in concert so that the process of developing and evaluating new materials and material combinations could be carried out in the most effective manner. ORNL focused on the long-term effects of static and dynamic corrosion on the hardware. Their efforts have yielded corrosion data in terms of mass loss for a large database of materials for immersion times in excess of 6000 hours. In addition, they have developed a new series of alloy, designated ORNL Alloy 4-x. Several variants of Alloy 4 were tested for corrosion and wear performance. Another effective method for protecting bearing components is through the use of weld overlays or laser cladding. ORNL worked with several project partners to develop a weld overlay process for cladding of 316L stainless steel with metallic materials that are much more corrosion and wear resistant. This method provides super-alloy performance that is more affordable. WVU was tasked to study wear of the bearing materials along with mechanisms of dross buildup on the roll surface. A small scale screening test apparatus was developed for the purpose quickly evaluating wear performance of candidate superalloys, ceramics, and coatings through the use of a ball-and-seat testing combination. This combination uses a fraction of the material used in full-scale bearing applications. With this system, WVU has been able to conduct hundreds of tests on various combinations of materials that mimic a wide variety of operating conditions for the galvanizing lines. The small scale wear tester was used to perform both direct correlation to galvanizing line conditions and to act as a screening mechanism for prototype-scale testing at WVU?s airport bearing materials testing facility. In addition, the studies on the effect of contact pressure and velocity on the bearing wear rate lead to the design and subsequent patent application for a fixed-shaft roll design that has the potential for increasing the bearing life by a factor of 2. The prototype-scale bearing test apparatus was donated by one of our proje

Xingbo Liu

2006-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

219

DOE Science Showcase - Quantum Computer Hardware | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Quantum Computer Hardware Quantum Computer Hardware Building the Quantum Computer In the amazing world of quantum physics, DOE researchers and their partners are designing hardware for quantum computers that function by storing and using data on atoms and the subatomic particles inside of them. Major advances in this hardware development could ultimately accelerate the design of practical, full-scale quantum computers. Learn more about this hardware development in From "1 or 0" to "1 or 0 and Both"-Toward Real Quantum Computers, by Dr. William Watson, Physicist, OSTI staff. Silicon wafer Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Quantum Computer Hardware Research Results in DOE Databases Energy Citations Database Science.gov WorldWideScience.gov More information

220

Medical Hardware for the Space Environment: An Engineering Experience at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The complexity and amount of medical hardware needed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) constantly shifts with mission requirements. Early missions such as Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo required minimal, relatively non-complex medical hardware, but as mission lengths have increased from hours to multiple months and mission crew sizes have increased from one to seven, so has the amount and complexity of medical hardware. As such, a need has arisen to develop a methodology by which medical hardware is certified for the space environment in a safe, consistent, and economically viable manner. This record of study documents my experiences certifying medical hardware for the space environment by providing two specific certification examples, a defibrillator, and automated external defibrillator and provides a brief history of the medical hardware used by NASA for its manned space programs.

Reyna, Baraquiel

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Future Costs Less - High Temperature Materials from an ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

production of cheaper alloys with performance parity. Such cost reductions are important in a situation where raw materials account for approximately 30% of the ...

222

Efficient trusted cloud storage using parallel, pipelined hardware  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cloud storage provides a low-cost storage service with high efficiency and global accessibility via the Internet, but it also introduces security risks. One major security concern is the integrity and freshness of data ...

Yang, Hsin-Jung

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Technology (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presents a cost-benefit of analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology, including potential petroleum use reduction.

Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

NERSC CoDEx Project: A Hardware/Software Codesign Environment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Gateway Development Storage and IO Technologies Testbeds Home R & D Exascale Computing CoDEx Project CoDEx Project: A HardwareSoftware Codesign Environment...

225

W-026 acceptance test plan plant control system hardware (submittal {number_sign} 216)  

SciTech Connect

Acceptance Testing of the WRAP 1 Plant Control System Hardware will be conducted throughout the construction of WRAP I with the final testing on the Process Area hardware being completed in November 1996. The hardware tests will be broken out by the following functional areas; Local Control Units, Operator Control Stations in the WRAP Control Room, DMS Server, PCS Server, Operator Interface Units, printers, DNS terminals, WRAP Local Area Network/Communications, and bar code equipment. This document will contain completed copies of each of the hardware tests along with the applicable test logs and completed test exception reports.

Watson, T.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

226

An Object-Oriented Nano-Kernel for Operating System Hardware Support  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract: The nano-kernel in the /spl mu/Choices operating system provides hardware support for the operating system. The nano-kernel is a single, modular subsystem that encapsulates the hardware and presents an idealized machine architecture to the ... Keywords: /spl mu/Choices operating system hardware support, UNIX, Unix, abstract classes, hardware encapsulation, higher level abstractions, idealized machine architecture, interface, object-oriented methods, object-oriented nano-kernel, object-oriented programming, operating system kernels, policy, portable design, process paradigms, single modular subsystem, software portability, virtual memory

D. K. Raila

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

High-Voltage Direct Current Corona Testing of Transmission Line Hardware and Insulator Assemblies: Development of Test Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When specifying hardware for new high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines or replacement hardware for existing HVDC lines utilities generally require that the hardware meet specific corona performance requirements.While standards and test methods exist for testing hardware used on HVAC systems, no such material is available for HVDC systems.HVAC tests are sometimes conducted on the hardware and the results obtained are then related to HVDC by utilizing the peak HVAC line to ...

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

228

Synthesis of Reversible Functions Beyond Gate Count and Quantum Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many synthesis approaches for reversible and quantum logic have been proposed so far. However, most of them generate circuits with respect to simple metrics, i.e. gate count or quantum cost. On the other hand, to physically realize reversible and quantum hardware, additional constraints exist. In this paper, we describe cost metrics beyond gate count and quantum cost that should be considered while synthesizing reversible and quantum logic for the respective target technologies. We show that the evaluation of a synthesis approach may differ if additional costs are applied. In addition, a new cost metric, namely Nearest Neighbor Cost (NNC) which is imposed by realistic physical quantum architectures, is considered in detail. We discuss how existing synthesis flows can be extended to generate optimal circuits with respect to NNC while still keeping the quantum cost small.

Robert Wille; Mehdi Saeedi; Rolf Drechsler

2010-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

229

New Concepts in Hardware and Processes to Conserve Oil and Gas in Industrial Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A broad program to identify and evaluate new types of hardware and processes to conserve oil and gas in chemical plants and petroleum refineries has been completed. During the course of this program, which was sponsored by the Office of Industrial Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne interacted with 130 industrial companies to help define and evaluate appropriate areas of technology. The initial step was to assemble a master list of technologies that promised to conserve oil and gas. These technologies were then screened on the basis of quantity of energy saved, capital and operating costs, industry attitude, market potential, and special barriers to implementation such as environmental issues and other special types of problems. One approach used to determine industry attitudes on technologies was to poll several key energy-conservation groups. These included the Gulf Coast Energy Society, Golden Triangle Energy Society, CMA Energy Committee, and the Energy Conservation Committee of the American Petroleum Institute. This paper will summarize some of the results of this program in terms of the following areas of technology: Energy-efficient methods of separation ; Alternative fuels and feed stocks ; Recovery of low-level heat; Advanced Concepts Although the above technologies were identified and evaluated in terms of their application specifically to chemical plants and petroleum refineries, they have the potential of conserving oil and gas across a broad spectrum of industrial processes.

Humphrey, J. L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408) costs apply to those items that are consumed in production process and are roughly proportional to level in cash flow analysis and in the decision to use the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12

Boisvert, Jeff

231

A Fast Hardware Tracker for the ATLAS Trigger System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In hadron collider experiments, triggering the detector to store interesting events for offline analysis is a challenge due to the high rates and multiplicities of particles produced. Maintaining high trigger efficiency for the physics we are most interested in while at the same time suppressing high rate physics from inclusive QCD processes is a difficult but important problem. It is essential that the trigger system be flexible and robust, with sufficient redundancy and operating margin. Providing high quality track reconstruction over the full ATLAS detector by the start of processing at LVL2 is an important element to achieve these needs. As the instantaneous luminosity increases, the computational load on the LVL2 system will significantly increase due to the need for more sophisticated algorithms to suppress backgrounds. The Fast Tracker (FTK) is a proposed upgrade to the ATLAS trigger system. It is designed to enable early rejection of background events and thus leave more LVL2 execution time by moving track reconstruction into a hardware system that takes massively parallel processing to the extreme. The FTK system completes global track reconstruction with near offline resolution shortly after the start of LVL2 processing by rapidly finding and fitting tracks in the inner detector for events passing LVL1 using pattern recognition from a large, pre-computed bank of possible hit patterns. We describe the FTK system design and expected performance in the areas of b-tagging, {\\tau}-tagging, and lepton isolation which play and important role in the ATLAS physics program.

Mark S. Neubauer; for the ATLAS Collaboration

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

232

What Scientific Applications can Benefit from Hardware Transactional Memory?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Achieving efficient and correct synchronization of multiple threads is a difficult and error-prone task at small scale and, as we march towards extreme scale computing, will be even more challenging when the resulting application is supposed to utilize millions of cores efficiently. Transactional Memory (TM) is a promising technique to ease the burden on the programmer, but only recently has become available on commercial hardware in the new Blue Gene/Q system and hence the real benefit for realistic applications has not been studied, yet. This paper presents the first performance results of TM embedded into OpenMP on a prototype system of BG/Q and characterizes code properties that will likely lead to benefits when augmented with TM primitives. We first, study the influence of thread count, environment variables and memory layout on TM performance and identify code properties that will yield performance gains with TM. Second, we evaluate the combination of OpenMP with multiple synchronization primitives on top of MPI to determine suitable task to thread ratios per node. Finally, we condense our findings into a set of best practices. These are applied to a Monte Carlo Benchmark and a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method. In both cases an optimized TM version, executed with 64 threads on one node, outperforms a simple TM implementation. MCB with optimized TM yields a speedup of 27.45 over baseline.

Schindewolf, M; Bihari, B; Gyllenhaal, J; Schulz, M; Wang, A; Karl, W

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

233

SF6 Emission Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SF 6 Emission Reduction Steve Lowder Bonneville Power Administration 2010.09 slide 1 Emission Reduction Emission Reduction is the reason for why we do all of this - because:...

234

Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI); Thiel, Matthew P. (Madison, WI)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

FORTUNA-A framework for the design and development of hardware-based secure systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Security requires a holistic view. In this work we contribute to this goal by taking a new viewpoint, with the proposal of the logic-probabilistic framework FORTUNA to support the design and development of hardware-based-security systems (HwBSS). It ... Keywords: Formal methods for security, Hardware-based security, Information security, Security evaluation tool, Security metrics

Roberto Gallo, Henrique Kawakami, Ricardo Dahab

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

A time management optimization framework for large-scale distributed hardware-in-the-loop simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale distributed HIL(Hardware-In-The-Loop) simulation is an important and indispensable method for testing and verifying complex engineering systems. An important necessary condition for realizing HIL simulation is that the speedup ratio of full-speed ... Keywords: hardware-in-the-loop simulation, large-scale distributed simulation, optimization framework, speedup ratio of simulation, time management

Wei Dong

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Design and implementation of digital linear control systems on reconfigurable hardware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The implementation of large linear control systems requires a high amount of digital signal processing. Here, we show that re-configurable hardware allows the design of fast yet flexible control systems. After discussing the basic concepts for the design ... Keywords: digital linear control, mechatronic systems, reconfigurable hardware

Marcus Bednara; Klaus Danne; Markus Deppe; Oliver Oberschelp; Frank Slomka; Jrgen Teich

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Hardware architectures for MSP430-based wireless sensor nodes performing elliptic curve cryptography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maximizing the battery lifetime of wireless sensor nodes and equipping them with elliptic curve cryptography is a challenge that requires new energy-saving architectures. In this paper, we present an architecture that drops a hardware accelerator between ... Keywords: ASIC, MSP430, elliptic curve cryptography, hardware, software, wireless sensor nodes

Erich Wenger

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Hardware generation of arbitrary random number distributions from uniform distributions via the inversion method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an automated methodology for producing hardware-based random number generator (RNG) designs for arbitrary distributions using the inverse cumulative distribution function (ICDF). The ICDF is evaluated via piecewise polynomial approximation ... Keywords: Chebyshev approximation and theory, algorithms implemented in hardware, automatic synthesis, computer arithmetic, elementary function approximation, error analysis, gate arrays, piecewise polynomial approximation

Ray C. C. Cheung; Dong-U Lee; Wayne Luk; John D. Villasenor

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

On a Graphics Hardware-Based Vortex Detection and Visualization System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a graphics hardware-based system for interactive denoising, vortex detection, and visualization of vector data. No intermediate results need to be read back by the application once the vector field has been loaded onto the graphics adapter. ... Keywords: Flow visualization, Graphics hardware, Vortex detection

S. Stegmaier; T. Ertl

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Roasting, Reduction and Smelting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 6, 2013 ... Researches on Reduction Roasting of Low-grade Manganese Oxide Ores Using Biomass Charcoal as Reductant: Yuanbo Zhang1; Daoxian...

242

Gas pressure reduction circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note describes passive pressure reduction devices for use with sensitive instruments. Two gas circuits are developed which not only provide a pressure reduction under flow demand

D. W. Guillaume; D. DeVries

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Automated Source-Level Error Localization in Hardware Designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent achievements in formal verification techniques allow for fault detection even in large real-world designs. Tool support for localizing the faulty statements is critical, because it reduces development time and overall project costs. Automated ... Keywords: design error diagnosis, software debugging, model-based diagnosis, fault localization

Bernhard Peischl; Franz Wotawa

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Functional thinking in cost estimation through the tools and concepts of axiomatic design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has been an increasing demand for cost estimation tools which aid in the reduction of system cost or the active consideration of cost as a design constraint. The existing tools are currently incapable of anticipating ...

Odhner, Lael Ulam, 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Cost Study for Large Wind Turbine Blades  

SciTech Connect

The cost study for large wind turbine blades reviewed three blades of 30 meters, 50 meters, and 70 meters in length. Blade extreme wind design loads were estimated in accordance with IEC Class I recommendations. Structural analyses of three blade sizes were performed at representative spanwise stations assuming a stressed shell design approach and E-glass/vinylester laminate. A bill of materials was prepared for each of the three blade sizes using the laminate requirements prepared during the structural analysis effort. The labor requirements were prepared for twelve major manufacturing tasks. TPI Composites developed a conceptual design of the manufacturing facility for each of the three blade sizes, which was used for determining the cost of labor and overhead (capital equipment and facilities). Each of the three potential manufacturing facilities was sized to provide a constant annual rated power production (MW per year) of the blades it produced. The cost of the production tooling and overland transportation was also estimated. The results indicate that as blades get larger, materials become a greater proportion of total cost, while the percentage of labor cost is decreased. Transportation costs decreased as a percentage of total cost. The study also suggests that blade cost reduction efforts should focus on reducing material cost and lowering manufacturing labor, because cost reductions in those areas will have the strongest impact on overall blade cost.

ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Dose Reduction Techniques  

SciTech Connect

As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

WAGGONER, L.O.

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

247

Evaluation of selected chemical processes for production of low-cost silicon (Phase II). Silicon Material Task Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Eighth quarterly progress report, July 1, 1977--September 30, 1977. [Zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride in fluidized bed of seed particles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported in the design of a large experimental facility for the preparation of high-purity silicon by the zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride in a fluidized bed of seed particles to form a free-flowing granular product. As of July 25, 1977, the capacity goal for the experimental facility was raised from 25 to 50 MT Si/year. Process flow diagrams and materials/energy flow sheets have been revised to conform to the higher capacity and a plant layout has been developed for locating the facility within an available structure. A unit-by-unit review of instrumentation and other requirements has been made, with the inclusion of those items in the flow diagrams and flow sheets. Alternative designs are presented for a silicon carbide-coated carbon-lined fluidized-bed reactor contained in hot-wall stainless steel, including alternative designs for zinc vaporizers based on detailed heat-transfer calculations. Conditions and equipment for the conversion of by-product chlorine to hypochlorite for use in the treatment of sewage effluent locally were defined. The logistics of 19 percent NaOH delivery and pick-up of 14 percent NaOCL was worked out and equipment suppliers were identified. Heat dissipation requirements for the fluidized bed, Zn/ZnCl/sub 2/ condenser, and SiCl/sub 4/ waste disposal sections were established. Resistivity and purity data were obtained for DuPont's silicon prepared by batchwise zinc reduction of SiCl/sub 4/. A preliminary safety review was made of the experimental facility. During the report period, the miniplant was operated to (1) provide 2.2 kg of product for JPL evaluation, (2) evaluate methods of product withdrawal, and (3) test three zinc vaporizer concepts. Results of the zinc vaporizer tests were consistent with concurrent heat-transfer calculations. An average value of approximately 450 Btu hr/sup -1/ ft/sup -2/ F/sup -1/ for heat transfer from graphite to boiling zinc (1 atm) was determined.

Blocher, J.M. Jr.; Browning, M.F.; Wilson, W.J.; Carmichael, D.C.

1977-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

248

Spent fuel assembly hardware: Characterization and 10 CFR 61 classification for waste disposal: Volume 1, Activation measurements and comparison with calculations for spent fuel assembly hardware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consolidation of spent fuel is under active consideration as the US Department of Energy plans to dispose of spent fuel. During consolidation, the fuel pins are removed from an intact fuel assembly and repackaged into a more compact configuration. After repackaging, approximately 30 kg of residual spent fuel assembly hardware per assembly remains that is also radioactive and requires disposal. Understanding the nature of this secondary waste stream is critical to designing a system that will properly handle, package, store, and dispose of the waste. This report presents a methodology for estimating the radionuclide inventory in irradiated spent fuel hardware. Ratios are developed that allow the use of ORIGEN2 computer code calculations to be applied to regions that are outside the fueled region. The ratios are based on the analysis of samples of irradiated hardware from spent fuel assemblies. The results of this research are presented in three volumes. In Volume 1, the development of scaling factors that can be used with ORIGEN2 calculations to estimate activation of spent fuel assembly hardware is documented. The results from laboratory analysis of irradiated spent-fuel hardware samples are also presented in Volume 1. In Volumes 2 and 3, the calculated flux profiles of spent nuclear fuel assemblies are presented for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, respectively. The results presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were used to develop the scaling factors documented in Volume 1. 5 refs., 4 figs., 21 tabs.

Luksic, A.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Benchmarking Soft Costs for PV Systems in the United States (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results from the first U.S. based data collection effort to quantify non-hardware, business process costs for PV systems at the residential and commercial scales, using a bottom-up approach. Annual expenditure and labor hour productivity data are analyzed to benchmark business process costs in the specific areas of: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection; (3) labor costs of third party financing; and (4) installation labor.

Ardani, K.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

ESNETPKI-007 Helm Muruganantham ESnet Hardware Security Module Evaluation September 2002 . Public Key Infrastructure ESnet Hardware Security Module Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This document discusses the technical details of Chrysalis, nCipher and Rainbow Hardware Security Module products. We conducted this investigation in order to identify a product or products we could use in our Certificate Authority project in support of DOE Office of Sciences computational grids. The investment DOE made in our project justified the time and expense of bringing this CA up to a higher standard of trustworthiness. We were able to identify some usable products and selected nCipher for our use, and this is described below. The experience we went through may be of benefit to others, and any discussion provoked by this report may be of benefit to us. 1.1 Scope of Problem The heart of the PKI is the Certificate Authority (CA). A certificate authority signs objects, such as subscribers' public keys; these objects are then trusted by relying parties. What that trust means is a matter left to the Certificate Policy (CP) document, and the relying parties themselves (and perhaps other agreements or statutory limitations). The CA Signing Key is used to sign all certificates that are issued by that particular CA, as well as certificate revocation lists (CRLs) and other objects. The very foundation of the PKI is based on the integrity of that root key. If the signing key is compromised, all certificates and CRLs within that specific CA service are suspect and the Certificate Authority's overall credibility is brought into serious question. In addition, ESnet needs to run some of the CA services "on line". Without going into the details of the iPlanet CMS software, the registration manager and the certificate manager are meant to be on-line services, available to customers, subscribers, registration authority agents, and administrators at all times. The servers that s...

September Overview The; Esnetpki- Helm

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Minimum Changeover Cost Arborescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

having minimum changeover cost, a cost that we now describe. ... We define the changeover cost at j, denoted by d(j), as the sum of the costs at j paid for each of ...

252

Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

zero energy homes where the combined energy efficient GSHP and abundant solar energy production in hot climate can be an optimal solution. To address these challenges, Florida...

253

EV Everywhre Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electric Range, miles 200-300 Discharge Pulse Power (10 sec), kW 80-120 Regenerative Pulse Power (10 sec), kW 40 Available Energy, kWh 40-60 Recharge...

254

M28 Fixed wing transport aircraft cost reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The M28 is a Polish short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) light cargo aircraft developed in 1984 and currently built by PZL Mielec, a subsidiary of United Technology Corporation (UTC). There has been renewed interest in the ...

Xia, YuXin, M.B.A. Sloan School of Management

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Hardware and Software Developments for the Accurate Time-Linked Data Acquisition System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind-energy researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed a new, light-weight, modular data acquisition system capable of acquiring long-term, continuous, multi-channel time-series data from operating wind-turbines. New hardware features have been added to this system to make it more flexible and permit programming via telemetry. User-friendly Windows-based software has been developed for programming the hardware and acquiring, storing, analyzing, and archiving the data. This paper briefly reviews the major components of the system, summarizes the recent hardware enhancements and operating experiences, and discusses the features and capabilities of the software programs that have been developed.

BERG,DALE E.; RUMSEY,MARK A.; ZAYAS,JOSE R.

1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

256

CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series Agency/Company /Organization: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies Sector: Energy, Water Focus Area: Agriculture, Greenhouse Gas Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Online calculator User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.iges.or.jp/en/cdm/report_ers.html Cost: Free CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series Screenshot References: CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series[1] "IGES ERs Calculation Sheet aims at providing a simplified spreadsheet for demonstrating emission reductions based on the approved methodologies corresponding to eligible project activities. The sheet will provide you

257

External Costs of Energy Technologies Position Statement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The American Nuclear Society believes that decisions concerning national energy policy should appropriately take external costs into account. In some energy options, external costs are not included in the cost of the energy produced; instead, they are borne by parties not involved in the original transaction, generally without consent or due compensation. External costs 1 may be related to many factors, including impacts on public health, environmental impacts, degradation of quality of life, degradation of agricultural land, depletion of natural resources, and reduction in security. These costs are incurred at various stages of the life cycle of an energy technology. While some energy technologies may appear to have smaller environmental impacts than others, their external costs may be significant when the complete life cycle costs are taken into account. Particularly, an energy source that is inherently intermittent will require, for applications demanding reliable performance, either a backup energy supply or an energy storage facility, whose external costs are not negligible. On the other hand, practically all the costs to make nuclear power technology safe and secure, including the costs of waste management and disposal, are already incorporated into the cost of electricity generation. 2 Appropriately accounting for external costs should be an essential element in energy policy since in doing so, the final product is compared based on a consistent set of parameters for all technologies, and the resulting mix of energy sources will more appropriately balance the competing economic, environmental, and social needs from energy production and consumption.

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Breakeven costs of storage in optimized solar energy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results are described of an analysis of the breakeven cost, or value, of energy storage to solar energy systems. It is shown that the value of storage depends strongly both on solar fraction of the solar energy system in which the storage is employed, and on the cost of the collectors used in the system. Various strategies for dealing with this ambiguity are presented, and it is shown that for a broad class of technically and economically practical solar energy systems, storage costs need only be low enough to make a system employing very small amounts of storage practical. Reductions in cost of collectors will thereafter produce greater reductions in the total system costs or provide greater fuel displacement at constant total system cost than will reductions in the cost of storage, within limits discussed. The analysis makes use of a simple, accurate representation of solar energy system performance which may prove useful in other contexts.

Leigh, R. W.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

vlogsl: a strategy language for simulation-based verification of hardware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Languages such as SystemVerilog and e play an important role in contemporary hardware verification methodology. Through direct, language-level support for notions like constrained randoms, functional coverage, assertions, and so forth, they help ...

Michael Katelman; Jos Meseguer

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

The Design and Qualification of a Hydraulic Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The goal of this work was to design and evaluate a hydraulic Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation system based around electric and hydraulic motors. The idea behind (more)

Driscoll, Scott Crawford

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Hybrid NOrec: a case study in the effectiveness of best effort hardware transactional memory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transactional memory (TM) is a promising synchronization mechanism for the next generation of multicore processors. Best-effort Hardware Transactional Memory (HTM) designs, such as Sun's prototype Rock processor and AMD's proposed Advanced Synchronization ... Keywords: transactional memory

Luke Dalessandro; Franois Carouge; Sean White; Yossi Lev; Mark Moir; Michael L. Scott; Michael F. Spear

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A hardware efficient random number generator for nonuniform distributions with arbitrary precision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nonuniform random numbers are key for many technical applications, and designing efficient hardware implementations of nonuniform random number generators is a very active research field. However, most state-of-the-art architectures are either tailored ...

Christian De Schryver; Daniel Schmidt; Norbert Wehn; Elke Korn; Henning Marxen; Anton Kostiuk; Ralf Korn

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Rapid VLIW processor customization for signal processing applications using combinational hardware functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an architecture that combines VLIW (very long instruction word) processing with the capability to introduce application-specific customized instructions and highly parallel combinational hardware functions for the acceleration of ...

Raymond R. Hoare; Alex K. Jones; Dara Kusic; Joshua Fazekas; John Foster; Shenchih Tung; Michael McCloud

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Software/Hardware Engineering with the Parallel Object-Oriented Specification Language  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The complexity of designing hardware/software systems motivates research on frameworks that structure and automate the design process. Such design methodologies reduce the risk of expensive design-implementation iterations by assisting designers in constructing ...

B. D. Theelen; O. Florescu; M. C. W. Geilen; J. Huang; P. H. A. van der Putten; J. P. M. Voeten

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

PNNL OS3700 Tritium Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

The PNNL OS3700 Tritium Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual describes herein how to install and operate the software and hardware on a personal computer in conjunction with the Berthold LB110 flow-through proportional counter detector system. Included are operational details for the software functions, how to read and use the drop-down menus, how to understand readings and calculations, and how to access the database tables.

Barnett, J M.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Carrell, Dorothy M.; Douglas, David D.; Carter, Gregory L.

2005-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

266

PNNL OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual describes how to install and operate the software and hardware on a personal computer in conjunction with the EG&G Berthold LB150D continuous air monitor. Included are operational details for the software functions, how to read and use the drop-down menus, how to understand readings and calculations, and how to access the database tables.

Barnett, J. M.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Carter, Gregory L.; Douglas, David D.; Carrell, Dorothy M.

2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

267

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing the Power Modulation Window of Aluminium Smelter Pots with Shell Heat Exchanger Technology Initiatives To Reduction Of Aluminum Potline...

268

Cobalt Reduction Sourcebook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many nuclear utilities have a cobalt reduction plan in place for each plant. However, establishing a cobalt reduction plan is a challenging and often plant-specific task. This document seeks to provide a general approach to not only minimizing elemental cobalt transport to Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) reactors, but also to help prioritize cobalt reduction actions for optimum dose rate reduction.

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

269

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2011 ... GHG Measurement and Inventory for Aluminum Production HEX Retrofit Enables Smelter Capacity Expansion HF Emission Reduction from...

270

Merging photovoltaic hardware development with hybrid applications in the USA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of multi-source power systems, ``hybrids,`` is one of the fastest growing, potentially significant markets for photovoltaic (PV) system technology today. Cost-effective applications today include remote facility power, remote area power supplies, remote home and village power, and power for dedicated electrical loads such as communications systems. This market sector is anticipated to be one of the most important growth opportunities for PV over the next five years. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are currently engaged in an effort to accelerate the adoption of market-driven PV hybrid power systems and to effectively integrate PV with other energy sources. This paper provides details of this development and the ongoing hybrid activities in the United States. Hybrid systems are the primary focus of this paper.

Bower, W.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

MCNP variance reduction overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code.

Hendricks, J.S.; Booth, T.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

SYSPLAN. Load Leveling Battery System Costs  

SciTech Connect

SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer`s monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer`s peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer`s side of the meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer`s load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.

Hostick, C.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

273

FY 1996 cost savings report  

SciTech Connect

Cost savings are an integral part of Hanford site operations. Congressional actions towards establishing a balanced budget have resulted in reductions to funding for all federal agencies, including the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission. In September 1994 the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) approved the FY 1995 multi-year baseline that included a cost estimate of $1.9 billion for FY 1996. However, Congress only appropriated $1.3 billion for that year. The shortfall of $600 million resulted in a significant challenge to accomplish the required workscope. Therefore, RL initiated an aggressive cost savings program to eliminate the shortfall by deleting workscope that was unnecessary and performing the remaining workscope more efficiently. RL initiated baseline planning actions (including deletions, deferrals, transfers, and additions) during the FY 1996 multi-year baseline development process to match workscope and anticipated funding and identified $205 million of workscope deletions. CFR (Contract Finance and Review Division) then reviewed over 200 cost baseline change requests during FY 1996 and documented an additional $95 million of FY 1996 cost savings. This included $73 million of workscope deletions and $22 million of efficiencies. Total savings as a result of FY 1996 initiatives, including baseline planning actions and current year initiatives, were $300 million.

Andrews-Smith, K.L.

1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Cost Study Manual  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

28, 2012 28, 2012 Cost Study Manual Executive Summary This Cost Study Manual documents the procedures for preparing a Cost Study to compare the cost of a contractor's employee benefits to the industry average from a broad-based national benefit cost survey. The annual Employee Benefits Cost Study Comparison (Cost Study) assists with the analysis of contractors' employee benefits costs. The Contracting Officer (CO) may require corrective action when the average benefit per capita cost or the benefit cost as a percent of payroll exceeds the comparator group by more than five percent. For example, if per capita benefit costs for the comparator group are $10,000 and the benefit costs as a percent of payroll for the comparator group are 20%, the threshold for the contractor's benefits as a

275

Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

factors add 20 percent to liquefaction plant total installed cost 6 Distribution Pipeline Costs Collected historical Oil & Gas Journal data, and surveyed for current urban and...

276

Highly Insulating Windows - Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Cost The following is an estimate of the cost effective incremental cost of highly-insulating windows (U-factor=0.20 Btu/hr-ft2-F) compared to regular ENERGY STAR windows (U-factor 0.35 Btu/hr-ft2-F). Energy savings from lower U-factors were simulated with RESFEN over an assumed useful window life of 25 years. To determine the maximum incremental cost at which highly-insulating windows would still be cost-effective, we used a formula used by many utility companies to calculate the cost of saved energy from energy efficiency programs, based on the programs' cost and savings. We turned this formula around so that the cost of saved energy equals the present energy prices in the studied locations, whereas the program cost (the incremental cost of the windows) is the dependent variable. By entering 5%

277

COE Reductions through Active Aerodynamic Control of Rotor Aerodynamics and Geometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates potential cost of energy reductions that might be achieved by designing active systems to mitigate loads throughout the wind turbine system.

Griffin, D. A.; McCoy, T. J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

Wang, Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

279

SADmote: a robust and cost-effective device for environmental monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time to deployment for wireless sensor networks could be reduced by using commercial sensor nodes. However, this may lead to suboptimal flexibility, power consumption and cost of the system. Our pilot deployment for precision agriculture and fruit growing ... Keywords: environmental monitoring, hardware design, precision agriculture, sensor networks

Atis Elsts; Rihards Balass; Janis Judvaitis; Reinholds Zviedris; Girts Strazdins; Artis Mednis; Leo Selavo

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Using  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:25am Addthis After determining the best greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction strategies using renewable energy, a Federal agency should estimate the cost of implementing them in a building or buildings. There are several cost factors that need to be considered when developing a renewable energy project. Capital costs, fixed and variable operations and maintenance (O&M) costs and in the case of biomass and waste-to-energy projects, fuel costs all contribute to the total cost of operating a renewable energy system. The levelized system cost takes into account these

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Co-design of software and hardware to implement remote sensing algorithms  

SciTech Connect

Both for offline searches through large data archives and for onboard computation at the sensor head, there is a growing need for ever-more rapid processing of remote sensing data. For many algorithms of use in remote sensing, the bulk of the processing takes place in an 'inner loop' with a large number of simple operations. For these algorithms, dramatic speedups can often be obtained with specialized hardware. The difficulty and expense of digital design continues to limit applicability of this approach, but the development of new design tools is making this approach more feasible, and some notable successes have been reported. On the other hand, it is often the case that processing can also be accelerated by adopting a more sophisticated algorithm design. Unfortunately, a more sophisticated algorithm is much harder to implement in hardware, so these approaches are often at odds with each other. With careful planning, however, it is sometimes possible to combine software and hardware design in such a way that each complements the other, and the final implementation achieves speedup that would not have been possible with a hardware-only or a software-only solution. We will in particular discuss the co-design of software and hardware to achieve substantial speedup of algorithms for multispectral image segmentation and for endmember identification.

Theiler, J. P. (James P.); Frigo, J. (Janette); Gokhale, M. (Maya); Szymanski, J. J. (John J.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hide data for this chart (-)Show data for this chart (+) Loading data... Transparent Cost Database Generation Showing: Historical Projections Year Published: Release mouse to...

283

Recycling, Source Reduction,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Type:" ,"Emission Reductions by Gas in U.S. Units:" ,"Year","Carbon Dioxide (CO2)",,"Methane (CH4)",,"Perfluoromethane (CF4)",,"Perfluoroethane (C2F6)" ,,"short...

284

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased Energy Efficiency and Reduced HF Emissions with New Heat Exchanger Industrial Test of Low-voltage Energy-saving Aluminum Reduction...

285

Lattice Reduction - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lattice reduction`);" }} {PARA 0 "> " 0 "" {MPLTEXT 1 0 6 " fi;" }}{PARA 0 "> " 0 "" { MPLTEXT 1 0 13 " if dd then" }}{PARA 0 "> " 0 "" {MPLTEXT 1 0 27 " \\+ uu...

286

PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT SUBMISSION  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

19. Certification for Paperwork Reduction Act Submissions On behalf of this Federal agency, I certify that the collection of information encompassed ...

287

Driving Down HB-LED Costs: Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods of High Yield MOCVD Growth  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this multi-faceted program is to develop epitaxial growth systems that meet a goal of 75% (4X) cost reduction in the epitaxy phase of HB-LED manufacture. A 75% reduction in yielded epitaxy cost is necessary in order to achieve the cost goals for widespread penetration of HB-LED??s into back-lighting units (BLU) for LCD panels and ultimately for solid-state lighting (SSL). To do this, the program will address significant improvements in overall equipment Cost of Ownership, or CoO. CoO is a model that includes all costs associated with the epitaxy portion of production. These aspects include cost of yield, capital cost, operational costs, and maintenance costs. We divide the program into three phases where later phases will incorporate the gains of prior phases. Phase one activities are enabling technologies. In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories we develop a Fluent-compatible chemistry predictive model and a set of mid-infrared and near-ultraviolet pyrometer monitoring tools. Where previously the modeling of the reactor dynamics were studied within FLUENT alone, here, FLUENT and Chemkin are integrated into a comprehensive model of fluid dynamics and the most advanced transport equations developed for Chemkin. Specifically, the Chemkin model offered the key reaction terms for gas-phase nucleation, a key consideration in the optimization of the MOCVD process. This new predictive model is used to design new MOCVD reactors with optimized growth conditions and the newly developed pyrometers are used monitor and control the MOCVD process temperature to within 0.5°C run-to-run and within each wafer. This portion of the grant is in collaboration with partners at Sandia National Laboratories. Phase two activities are continuous improvement projects which extend the current reactor platform along the lines of improved operational efficiency, improved systems control for throughput, and carrier modifications for increased yield. Programmatically, improvements made in Phase I are applied to developments of Phase II when applicable. Phase three is the culmination of the individual tasks from both phases one and two applied to proposed production platforms. We selectively combine previously demonstrated tasks and other options to develop a high-volume production-worthy MOCVD system demonstrating >3x throughput, 1.3x capital efficiency, and 0.7x cost of ownership. In a parallel demonstration we validate the concept of an improved, larger deposition system which utilizes the predictive modeling of chemistry-based flow analysis and extensions of the improvements demonstrated on the current platforms. This validation includes the build and testing of a prototype version of the hardware and demonstration of 69% reduction in the cost of ownership. Also, in this phase we present a stand-alone project to develop a high-temperature system which improves source efficiency by 30% while concurrently increasing growth rate by 1.3x. The material quality is held to the same material quality specifications of our existing baseline processes. The merits of other line item tasks in phase three are discussed for inclusion on next-generation platforms.

William Quinn

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

288

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating...

289

Stability of alert survivable forces during reductions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stability of current and projected strategic forces are discussed within a framework that contains elements of current US and Russian analyses. For current force levels and high alert, stability levels are high, as are the levels of potential strikes, due to the large forces deployed. As force levels drop towards those of current value target sets, the analysis becomes linear, concern shifts from stability to reconstitution, and survivable forces drop out. Adverse marginal costs generally provide disincentives for the reduction of vulnerable weapons, but the exchange of vulnerable for survivable weapons could reduce cost while increasing stability even for aggressive participants. Exchanges between effective vulnerable and survivable missile forces are studied with an aggregated, probabilistic model, which optimizes each sides` first and determines each sides` second strikes and costs by minimizing first strike costs.

Canavan, G.H.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 19'9. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1)kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; developmeNt of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

None

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Early Station Costs Questionnaire  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Early Station Costs Questionnaire Early Station Costs Questionnaire Marc Melaina Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center Market Readiness Workshop February 16-17th, 2011 Washington, DC Questionnaire Goals * The Early Station Costs questionnaire provides an anonymous mechanism for organizations with direct experience with hydrogen station costs to provide feedback on current costs, near-term costs, economies of scale, and R&D priorities. * This feedback serves the hydrogen community and government agencies by increasing awareness of the status of refueling infrastructure costs National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Questions for Market Readiness Workshop Attendees * Are these questions the right ones to be asking?

292

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost, Durable Seal Cost, Durable Seal George M. Roberts UTC Power Corporation February 14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 1 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Outline * Project Objective * Technical Approach * Timeline * Team Roles * Budget * Q&A 2 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Project Objective Develop advanced, low cost, durable seal materials and sealing techniques amenable to high volume manufacture of PEM cell stacks. DOE Targets/Goals/Objectives Project Goal Durability Transportation: 5,000 hr Stationary: 40,000 hr Durability Improve mechanical and chemical stability to achieve 40,000 hr of useful operating life. Low Cost Low Cost A material cost equivalent to or less than the cost of silicones in common use. 3 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL

293

Pollution prevention cost savings potential  

SciTech Connect

The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

Celeste, J.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

OOTW COST TOOLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Quality Hardware and Machine Co - IL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quality Hardware and Machine Co - Quality Hardware and Machine Co - IL 11 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: QUALITY HARDWARE AND MACHINE CO. (IL.11) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Ravenswood Venture Marden Manufacturing Co. IL.11-1 IL.11-2 Location: 5823/5849 North Ravenswood Avenue , Chicago , Illinois IL.11-3 Evaluation Year: 1990 IL.11-4 IL.11-5 Site Operations: From 1944 to 1945, entered into subcontracts with the University of Chicago to furnish personnel, facilities, and equipment to produce special tools, dies, fixtures, etc., from materials furnished by the University; was involved in the Hanford slug canning process. IL.11-10 IL.11-6 IL.11-7 IL.11-8 IL.11-9 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Radiation levels below criteria IL.11-11

296

Transparent partial order reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Partial Order Reduction (POR) techniques improve the basic model checking algorithm by reducing the numbers of states and transitions explored in verifying a property of the model. In the "ample set" POR framework for the verification of an LTLX ... Keywords: Invisibility, Model checking, Partial order reduction, Transparent, Verification

Stephen F. Siegel

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

RMOTC to Test Oil Viscosity Reduction Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to Test Oil Viscosity Reduction Technology to Test Oil Viscosity Reduction Technology The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) announces that the "Teapot Dome" oil field in Wyoming is hosting a series of tests funded by STWA, Inc. ("STWA") to determine the performance of its Applied Oil Technology (AOT(tm)) in reducing crude oil's viscosity to lower transportation costs for pipeline operators. The testing is managed by RMOTC, and conducted at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3, also known as the Teapot Dome oil field. RMOTC is providing the infrastructure and technical expertise to support companies such as STWA in their efforts to validate new technologies and bring those products and

298

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Plains Co{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) activities have focused on developing information on deployment issues to support Task 5 activities by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) activities have focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) has included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) activities have focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

Edward N. Steadman

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Accelerating PV Cost Effectiveness Through Systems Design, Engineering, and Quality Assurance: Final Subcontract Report, June 2007  

SciTech Connect

This report describes PowerLight Corporation's significant progress toward the reduction of installed costs for commercial-scale, rooftop PV systems.

Botkin, J.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Accelerating PV Cost Effectiveness Through Systems Design, Engineering, and Quality Assurance: Final Subcontract Report, June 2007  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes PowerLight Corporation's significant progress toward the reduction of installed costs for commercial-scale, rooftop PV systems.

Botkin, J.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

LBNL-54244 Life-cycle Cost and Payback Period Analysis for Commercial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

costs (increased LCC). Moving towards the right on the axis, values greater than zero indicate reductions in LCC (LCC savings). LCC savings occur when increased total...

304

The Costs of Reducing Electricity Sector CO2 Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a high-level analysis of some of the critical challenges associated with cutting United States electricity-sector CO2 emissions and an order of magnitude feeling for what it will cost to meet emission-reduction targets now under consideration. Three basic strategies to limit emissions are illustrated to give readers a basic understanding of the tradeoff between CO2 reductions and additional cost inherent in several generation choices. Regional power market system simulations are then...

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

305

Operations Cost Allocation Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project (OCP) Cost Allocation Presentation - September 20, 2011 OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation List of Acronyms OCP Cost Allocation Spreadsheets OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation - Questions and Answers - September 19 - 20, 2011 Additional Questions and Answers Customer Comments/Questions and Answers: Arizona Municipal Power Users Association Arizona Power Authority Central Arizona Project Colorado River Commission Colorado River Energy Distributors Association City of Gilbert, AZ Irrigation and Electrical Districts Association of Arizona Town of Marana, AZ City of Mesa, AZ Town of Wickenburg, AZ Western's Final Decision Regarding the Long-Term Cost Allocation Methodology for Operations Staff Costs

306

Minimum Cost Arborescences ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we analyze the cost allocation problem when a group of agents or nodes have to be connected to a source, and where the cost matrix describing the cost of connecting each pair of agents is not necessarily symmetric, thus extending the well-studied problem of minimum cost spanning tree games, where the costs are assumed to be symmetric. The focus is on rules which satisfy axioms representing incentive and fairness properties. We show that while some results are similar, there are also significant differences between the frameworks corresponding to symmetric and asymmetric cost matrices.

Bhaskar Dutta; Debasis Mishra; We Thank Daniel Granot; Anirban Kar; Herve Moulin For Comments

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Nuclear fuel cycle costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

FY 1995 cost savings report  

SciTech Connect

Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue. Budgets remain on the decline, even while the expectations increase. Yet we are confident in our ability to keep our commitments and goals by identifying new efficiencies in the Hanford cleanup program. We will also pursue new contracting arrangements that will allow us to foster greater competition and use more commercial practices while maintaining our commitment to the safety and health of the public, our workers, and the environment.

Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

309

Cryptanalysis of the Full AES Using GPU-Like Special-Purpose Hardware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The block cipher Rijndael has undergone more than ten years of extensive cryptanalysis since its submission as a candidate for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in April 1998. To date, most of the publicly-known cryptanalytic results are based on ... Keywords: Advanced Encryption Standard, Cryptanalysis, Cryptanalytic Hardware, Graphics Processing Unit, Performance and Energy Evaluation

Alex Biryukov; Johann Groschdl

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

High-speed hardware implementations of Elliptic Curve Cryptography: A survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the last decade, Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) has gained increasing acceptance in the industry and the academic community and has been the subject of several standards. This interest is mainly due to the high level of security with relatively ... Keywords: Efficiency-flexibility tradeoffs, Elliptic Curve Cryptography, High-speed hardware implementation, Network applications, Public-key cryptography

Guerric Meurice de Dormale; Jean-Jacques Quisquater

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

A study of hardware performance monitoring counter selection in power modeling of computing systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power management and energy savings in high-performance computing has become an increasingly important design constraint. The foundation of many power/energy saving methods is based on power consumption models, which commonly rely on hardware performance ... Keywords: energy saving,performance monitoring counters,power modeling

Reza Zamani; Ahmad Afsahi

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

A min-max optimization framework for designing ?? learners: theory and hardware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a framework for constructing ?? learning algorithms and hardware that can identify and track low-dimensional manifolds embedded in a high-dimensional analog signal space. At the core of the proposed approach is a min-max ... Keywords: ?? conversion, analog-to-digital conversion (ADC), high-dimensional signal processing, manifold learning, multichannel ADC, signal decorrelation

Amit Gore; Shantanu Chakrabartty

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Hardware-in-the-loop testing of wireless systems in realistic environments.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes an approach for testing of wireless systems in realistic environments that include intentional as well as unintentional radio frequency interference. In the approach, signal generators along with radio channel simulators are used to carry out hardware-in-the-loop testing. The channel parameters are obtained independently via channel sounding measurements and/or EM simulations.

Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory); Schniter, P. (Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory)

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Fuzzy logic hardware implementation for pneumatic control of one DOF pneumatic robot  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pneumatic actuators can be a useful way to control the position of a manipulator robot, instead of an electrical actuator. The major problem with pneumatic actuators is the compressibility of the air, due to the fact that the mathematical model is ... Keywords: FPGA, fuzzy logic, hardware, pneumatic, robot

Juan-Manuel Ramos-Arreguin; Emmanuel Guillen-Garcia; Sandra Canchola-Magdaleno; Jesus-Carlos Pedraza-Ortega; Efren Gorrostieta-Hurtado; Marco-Antonio Aceves-Fernndez; Carlos-Alberto Ramos-Arreguin

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

FPGA-based Connect6 solver with hardware-accelerated move refinement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Connect6 is a two-player game similar to Go-Moku, which was introduced in 2003. Since placing two stones in each turn makes a huge game-tree, we require some acceleration techniques for a solver based on a typical approach to search the tree. This paper ... Keywords: Connect6 solver, FPGA, game-tree search, hardware accelerator

Kentaro Sano; Yoshiaki Kono

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

A Hardware Implementation of a Genetic Programming System Using FPGAs and Handel-C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an implementation of Genetic Programming using a Field Programmable Gate Array. This novel implementation uses a high level language to hardware compilation system, called Handel-C, to produce a Field Programmable Logic Array capable ... Keywords: FPGA, Handel-C, genetic programming, parallel genetic algorithm

Peter Martin

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Analysis of cache-coherence bottlenecks with hybrid hardware/software techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application performance on high-performance shared-memory systems is often limited by sharing patterns resulting in cache-coherence bottlenecks. Current approaches to identify coherence bottlenecks incur considerable run-time overhead and do not scale. ... Keywords: Hardware performance monitoring, SMPs, cache analysis, coherence protocols, dynamic binary rewriting, program instrumentation

Jaydeep Marathe; Frank Mueller; Bronis R. de Supinski

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

RobbyDBMS: a case study on hardware/software product line engineering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a highly configurable data management system is a challenging task, especially if it is to be implemented on an embedded system that provides limited resources. We present a case study of such a data management system, called RobbyDBMS, ... Keywords: FeatureC++, domain engineering, feature oriented software development, hardware product lines, software product lines

Jrg Liebig; Sven Apel; Christian Lengauer; Thomas Leich

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A survey on hardware-aware and heterogeneous computing on multicore processors and accelerators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the last few years, the landscape of parallel computing has been subject to profound and highly dynamic changes. The paradigm shift towards multicore and manycore technologies coupled with accelerators in a heterogeneous environment is offering a ... Keywords: accelerators, hardware-aware computing, heterogeneity, multicore and manycore processors, numerical simulation, parallel programming

Rainer Buchty; Vincent Heuveline; Wolfgang Karl; Jan-Philipp Weiss

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Graphics for the masses: a hardware rasterization architecture for mobile phones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mobile phone is one of the most widespread devices with rendering capabilities. Those capabilities have been very limited because the resources on such devices are extremely scarce; small amounts of memory, little bandwidth, little chip area dedicated ... Keywords: culling, graphics hardware, mobile phone, multisampling, texture filtering

Tomas Akenine-Mller; Jacob Strm

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Hardware-Modulated Parallelism in Chip Multiprocessors Julia Chen, Philo Juang, Kevin Ko,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering Princeton University Email:peh@princeton.edu Abstract Chip hardware-software contract. The software layer is encouraged to expose large amounts of multi-all, stream- ing and recursive parallellism show speedups of 4-11.5X and energy-delay-product savings of 3.8X

Martonosi, Margaret

322

HardwareModulated Parallelism in Chip Multiprocessors Julia Chen, Philo Juang, Kevin Ko,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering Princeton University Email:peh@princeton.edu Abstract Chip hardware­software contract. The software layer is encouraged to expose large amounts of multi­all, stream­ ing and recursive parallellism show speedups of 4­11.5X and energy­delay­product savings of 3.8X

Martonosi, Margaret

323

HARD: Hardware-Assisted Lockset-based Race Detection , Radu Teodorescu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HARD: Hardware-Assisted Lockset-based Race Detection Pin Zhou§ , Radu Teodorescu and Yuanyuan Zhou that overhead. However, all existing hard- ware proposals for race detection are based on the happens- before implementation (called HARD) of the lockset algorithm to exploit the race detection capability of this algorithm

Zhou, Yuanyuan

324

Energy-efficient Hardware Accelerators for the SA-DCT and Its Inverse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The explosive growth of the mobile multimedia industry has accentuated the need for efficient VLSI implementations of the associated computationally demanding signal processing algorithms. In particular, the short battery life caused by excessive power ... Keywords: MPEG-4, hardware acceleration, low power, shape adaptive DCT/IDCT, video objects

Andrew Kinane; Noel O'Connor

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Designing BEE: a hardware emulation engine for signal processing in low-power wireless applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the design of a large-scale emulation engine and an application example from the field of low-power wireless devices. The primary goal of the emulator is to support design space exploration of real-time algorithms. The emulator is ... Keywords: FPGA, design flow, hardware emulation, low power, rapid prototyping

Kimmo Kuusilinna; Chen Chang; M. Josephine Ammer; Brian C. Richards; Robert W. Brodersen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Graphics hardware implementation of the parameter-less self-organising map  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a highly parallel implementation of a new type of Self-Organising Map (SOM) using graphics hardware. The Parameter-Less SOM smoothly adapts to new data while preserving the mapping formed by previous data. It is therefore in principle ...

Alexander Campbell; Erik Berglund; Alexander Streit

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing vehicles [gasoline in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs)] in 2020. This record documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost. Principles: The cost threshold analysis is a "top-down" analysis of the cost at which hydrogen would be

328

Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pathway Cost Distributions Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric hybrids are benchmarks * R&D guidance provided in two forms * Evolved gasoline ICE defines a threshold hydrogen cost used to screen or eliminate options which can't show ability to meet target * Gasoline-electric hybrid defines a lower hydrogen cost used to prioritize projects for resource allocation

329

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs U.S. Petroleum Use, 1970-2010 Nearly 40% of the oil we use is imported, costing us roughly 300 billion annually. Increased domestic oil production from...

330

Documents: Cost Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis Search Documents: Search PDF Documents View a list of all documents Cost Analysis PDF Icon Summary of the Cost Analysis Report for the Long-term Management of Depleted UF6...

331

Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost Presented by: J.M. Hieb, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company CHPRC1204-04 Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost Everyone is trying to stretch a...

332

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 15, 2013... and academia from all over the world meet each other and share information. ... Trend and market demand, Energy saving initiatives in Reduction Process, ... An improved finite element model for thermal balance analysis of...

333

Reduction-in-Force  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Reduction in force (RIF) is a set of regulations and procedures that are used to determine whether an employee keeps his or her present position, or whether the employee has a right to another...

334

Cost Estimation Recommendations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...D.P. Hoult and C.L. Meador, Manufacturing Cost Estimating, Materials Selection and Design, Vol 20, ASM Handbook,

335

Human Error Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reducing human error is recognized in the power-generation industry as a key factor in reducing safety-related events as well as improving asset availability. Achieving a sustainable culture change that leads to human error reduction in plant operations and maintenance remains a significant challenge to the industry. This report presents a behavior-based approach to human performance improvement and error reduction. The report explains fundamental elements of culture change and describes proven practices...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

336

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology January 12, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative technology that could potentially help some coal-based power generation facilities comply with anticipated new mercury emissions standards was successfully demonstrated in a recently concluded milestone project at a Michigan power plant. Under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), WE Energies demonstrated the TOXECON(TM) process in a $52.9million project at the Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Mich. TOXECON is a relatively cost-effective option for achieving significant reductions in mercury emissions and increasing the

338

Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Employee Commuting Employee Commuting Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for Employee Commuting October 7, 2013 - 2:27pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 4 For greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, once a Federal agency identifies the employee commute alternatives and supporting strategies that will most effectively reduce trips to the worksite, costs of encouraging adoption of those methods can be estimated. The annual costs of commute trip reduction programs can vary greatly by worksite. This section outlines types of costs that might be incurred by an agency as well as savings and other benefits of commute trip reduction to an agency, its employees, and the communities surrounding its major worksites. It includes: Employer costs and benefits Employee costs and benefits

339

Low Cost, High Performance, 50-year Electrode  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an extremely durable, highly active, conductive, and inexpensive electrode for flow batteries. Flow batteries offer one of the most exciting opportunities for affordable grid storage, however electrodes are costly and are the single largest cost component in a well integrated design. Grid storage can yield numerous benefits in utility and customer- owned applications:  renewable firming  peak load reduction  load shifting  capital deferral  frequency regulation By incorporating volume production practices from the chlorine, filter media, and electroplating industries, Primus Power will effectively reduce electrode costs to exceed GRIDS cost targets while providing the durability essential for widespread grid-scale adoption.

340

On the Accuracy of Regulatory Cost Estimates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On the Accuracy of Regulatory Cost Estimates On the Accuracy of Regulatory Cost Estimates Speaker(s): Richard Morgenstern Date: December 10, 2013 - 12:00pm - 1:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Alan Sanstad Margaret Taylor Over the past several decades, the U.S. has seen a gradual reduction in economic regulation and a simultaneous increase in safety, health, environmental, and other social regulations. Especially with the prospect of regulation on greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act, there is growing concern about the costs, effectiveness, and benefits of federal rules. While prospective or ex ante analyses of the benefits and costs of major federal regulations are now a standard part of government operations, retrospective or ex post analyses, focusing on measurements of actual

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Efficiency Improvement through Reduction in Friction and Wear in Powertrain Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of truck drivelines through reduction of friction and parasitic losses in transmission and drive axles. Known efficiencies for these products exceeded 97 percent, so the task was not trivial. The project relied on a working relationship between modeling and hardware testing. Modeling was to shorten the development cycle by guiding the selection of materials, processes and strategies. Bench top and fixture tests were to validate the models. Modeling was performed at a world class, high academic level, but in the end, modeling did not impact the hardware development as much as intended. Insights leading to the most significant accomplishments came from bench top and fixture tests and full scale dynamometer tests. A key development in the project was the formulation of the implementation strategy. Five technical elements with potential to minimize friction and parasitic losses were identified. These elements included churning, lubrication, surface roughness, coatings and textures. An interesting fact is that both Caterpillar and Eaton independently converged on the same set of technical elements in formulating their implementation strategies. Exploiting technical elements of the implementation strategy had a positive impact on transmission and drive axle efficiencies. During one dynamometer test of an Eaton Best Tech 1 transmission, all three gear ranges tested: Under drive, direct drive and over drive, showed efficiencies greater than 99 percent. Technology boosts to efficiency for transmissions reached 1 percent, while efficiency improvements to drive axle pushed 2 percent. These advancements seem small, but the accomplishment is large considering that these products normally run at greater than 97 percent efficiency. Barriers and risks to implementing these technology elements are clear. Schemes using a low fill sump and spray tubes endanger the gears and bearings by lubricant starvation. Gear coatings have exhibited durability issues, stripping away under conditions less demanding than 750,000 miles in service on the road. Failed coatings compound the problem by contaminating the lubricant with hard particles. Under the most severe conditions, super finished surfaces may polish further, reaching a surface roughness unable to support the critical oil film thickness. Low viscosity and low friction lubricants may not protect the gears and bearings adequately leading to excessive pitting, wear and noise. Additives in low friction oils may not stay in solution or suspended thus settling to the bottom and unavailable when they are needed most. Technical barriers and risks can be overcome through engineering, but two barriers remain formidable: (1) cost of the technology and (2) convincing fleet owners that the technology provides a tangible benefit. Dry sumps lower lubricant operating temperatures so the removal of heat exchangers and hoses and reduced demand on engine cooling systems justify their use. The benefits of surface texturing are varied and remain unproven. Lubricant costs seem manageable, but the cost of super finishing and gear coating are high. These are issues of scale and processing technology. Going across the board with gear super finishing and coating will reduce costs. Pushing the envelope to applications with higher torque and higher power density should drive the adoption of these technologies. Fleet owners are an educated and seasoned lot. Only technology measureable in dollars returned is used on truck fleets. To convince fleet owners of the benefit of these technologies, new precision in measuring fuel efficiency must be introduced. Legislation for a minimum standard in truck miles per gallon would also enable the use of these technologies. Improving the efficiency of truck transmissions and axle will make a noticeable impact on the fuel consumption by heavy vehicles in the United States. However, the greatest benefit will come when all the individual efficiency technologies like hybrid power, aerodynamic fairings, auxiliary power units, super

Michael Killian

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

342

Energy-efficient Hardware Architecture and VLSI Implementation of a Polyphase Channelizer with Applications to Subband Adaptive Filtering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polyphase channelizer is an important component of subband adaptive filtering systems. This paper presents an energy-efficient hardware architecture and VLSI implementation of polyphase channelizer, integrating algorithmic, architectural and circuit ... Keywords: Hardware architecture, Low power design, Multirate system, Polyphase channelizer, Very large scale integration (VLSI)

Yongtao Wang; Hamid Mahmoodi; Lih-Yih Chiou; Hunsoo Choo; Jongsun Park; Woopyo Jeong; Kaushik Roy

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Validation of MPPT strategy for a wind energy conversion system using a hardware-in-the-loop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Validation of MPPT strategy for a wind energy conversion system using a hardware - A hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a wind energy conversion system is used to assess a MPPT strategy of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) have been studied [1, 2]. In most of case, simulation has been

Hansen, René Rydhof

344

Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Automated multispectra alpha spectrometer and data reduction system  

SciTech Connect

A complete hardware and software package for the accumulation and rapid analysis of multiple alpha pulse height spectra has been developed. The system utilizes a 4096-channel analyzer capable of accepting up to sixteen inputs from solid-state surface barrier detectors via mixer-router modules. The analyzer is interfaced to a desk-top programmable calculator and thermal line printer. A chained software package including spectrum printout, peak analysis, plutonium- 238 and plutonium-239 data reduction, and automatic energy calibration routines was written. With the chained program a complete printout, peak analysis, and plutonium data reduction of a 512-channel alpha spectrum are obtained in about three minutes with an accuracy within five percent of hand analyses. (auth)

Hochel, R.C.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Potential impact of R and D on hydrothermal energy cost  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potentital impact of the DOE/Geothermal Technology Development programs on the cost of geothermal power has been estimated using the computer program IMGEO.300. Results indicate a potential 30 to 40% cost reduction for hydrothermal systems with a 40 to 50% cost reduction potential for binary systems. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate the use of IMGEO. The initial results are tentative because the R and D goals have not been finalized and the code has not been completely validated.

Traeger, R.K.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Commercial equipment cost database  

SciTech Connect

This report, prepared for DOE, Office of Codes and Standards, as part of the Commercial Equipment Standards Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, specifically addresses the equipment cost estimates used to evaluate the economic impacts of revised standards. A database including commercial equipment list prices and estimated contractor costs was developed, and through statistical modeling, estimated contractor costs are related to equipment parameters including performance. These models are then used to evaluate cost estimates developed by the ASHRAE 90.1 Standing Standards Project Committee, which is in the process of developing a revised ASHRAE 90.1 standard. The database will also be used to support further evaluation of the manufacturer and consumer impacts of standards. Cost estimates developed from the database will serve as inputs to economic modeling tools, which will be used to estimate these impacts. Preliminary results suggest that list pricing is a suitable measure from which to estimate contractor costs for commercial equipment. Models developed from these cost estimates accurately predict estimated costs. The models also confirm the expected relationships between equipment characteristics and cost. Cost models were developed for gas-fired and electric water heaters, gas-fired packaged boilers, and warm air furnaces for indoor installation. Because of industry concerns about the use of the data, information was not available for the other categories of EPAct-covered equipment. These concerns must be addressed to extend the analysis to all EPAct equipment categories.

Freeman, S.L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

SIMULATED LIFECYCLE COSTS OF ULTRACAPACITORS IN BATTERY ELECTRIC VEHICLES A.G. Simpson*, P.C. Sernia and G.R. Walker  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SIMULATED LIFECYCLE COSTS OF ULTRACAPACITORS IN BATTERY ELECTRIC VEHICLES A.G. Simpson*, P, vehicle driving range, battery pack lifetime, and potential reductions in system lifecycle cost costs of ultracapacitors in battery electric vehicle applications. The lifecycle operation

Walker, Geoff

349

Life cycle cost and risk estimation of environmental management options  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation process is demonstrated in this paper through comparative analysis of two alternative scenarios identified for the management of the alpha-contaminated fixed low-level waste currently stored at INEL. These two scenarios, the Base Case and the Delay Case, are realistic and based on actual data, but are not intended to exactly match actual plans currently being developed at INEL. Life cycle cost estimates were developed for both scenarios using the System Cost Model; resulting costs are presented and compared. Life cycle costs are shown as a function of time and also aggregated by pretreatment, treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Although there are some short-term cost savings for the Delay Case, cumulative life cycle costs eventually become much higher than costs for the Base Case over the same period of time, due mainly to the storage and repackaging necessary to accommodate the longer Delay Case schedule. Life cycle risk estimates were prepared using a new risk analysis method adapted to the System Cost Model architecture for automated, systematic cost/risk applications. Relative risk summaries are presented for both scenarios as a function of time and also aggregated by pretreatment, treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Relative risk of the Delay Case is shown to be higher than that of the Base Case. Finally, risk and cost results are combined to show how the collective information can be used to help identify opportunities for risk or cost reduction and highlight areas where risk reduction can be achieved most economically.

Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Statewide Emissions Reduction, Electricity and Demand Savings from the Implementation of Building-Energy-Codes in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the estimate of electricity reduction and electric demand savings from the adoption energy codes for single-family residences in Texas, 2002-2009, corresponding increase in cnstruction costs and estimates of the statewide emissions reduction.

Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J.; Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Zilbershtein, G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

THERMAL DeNOx: A COMMERCIAL SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC NOx REDUCTION PROCESS FOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THERMAL DeNOx: A COMMERCIAL SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC NOx REDUCTION PROCESS FOR WASTE when high NOx reduction is required. To illustrate the cost effectiveness, investment and operating in cinerators. INTRODUCTION THERMAL DeNO", a selective noncatalytic NO" reduction process, was invented just

Columbia University

352

Long-Term, Low-Level Radwaste Volume-Reduction Strategies, Volumes 1-5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sharp increases in the cost of low-level radioactive waste disposal make volume reduction an attractive alternative for owners of nuclear power plants. This study evaluated the leading volume-reduction options and developed the powerful VRTECH computer code to assist utilities in making long-range volume-reduction selection decisions.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Global Threat Reduction Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

comprehensive comprehensive strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism; and  The key organization responsible for implementing the U.S. HEU minimization policy. GTRI MISSION Reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. DOE STRATEGIC GOAL 2.2 Prevent the acquisition of nuclear and radiological materials for use in weapons of mass destruction and other acts of terrorism Protect high priority nuclear and radiological materials from theft and sabotage These efforts result in threat reduction by improving security on the bomb material remaining at civilian sites - each vulnerable building that is protected reduces the risk until a permanent threat reduction solution can be implemented.

354

REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

355

Methods | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methods Methods Disclaimer The data gathered here are for informational purposes only. Inclusion of a report in the database does not represent approval of the estimates by DOE or NREL. Levelized cost calculations DO NOT represent real world market conditions. The calculation uses a single discount rate in order to compare technology costs only. About the Cost Database For emerging energy technologies, a variety of cost and performance numbers are cited in presentations and reports for present-day characteristics and potential improvements. Amid a variety of sources and methods for these data, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's technology development programs determine estimates for use in program planning. The Transparent Cost Database collects program cost and performance

356

Low cost MCFC anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper outlines a project, funded under a DOE SBIR grant, which tested a potentially lower cost method of manufacturing MCFC stack anodes and evaluated the feasibility of using the technology in the existing M-C Power Corp. manufacturing facility. The procedure involves adding activator salts to the anode tape casting slurry with the Ni and Cr or Al powders. Two different processes occur during heat treatment in a reducing environment: sintering of the base Ni structure, and alloying or cementation of the Cr or Al powders. To determine whether it was cost-effective to implement the cementation alloying manufacturing process, the M-C Power manufacturing cost model was used to determine the impact of different material costs and processing parameters on total anode cost. Cost analysis included equipment expenditures and facility modifications required by the cementation alloying process.

Erickson, D.S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

357

Multi-Site Energy Reduction Through Teamwork  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Teams have been established at seven BASF locations to facilitate implementation of the findings from the 2003 and 2004 Energy Audits conducted at these Sites. These Teams were charged with implementation, progress tracking, and management reporting. The Teams are comprised of engineers, technicians, and operators with various backgrounds and responsibilities. The diversity of the Teams was a factor in their success through the willingness to challenge various conditions. The Teams addressed hundreds of Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) to set priorities and create implementation schedules. Many of the ECOs were implemented with little or no cost to BASF. The final Energy Audit of 2004 was conducted in July and the Energy Team for that Site was still able to implement a 7% energy reduction as compared to 2003. The combined results from these seven Energy Teams represent a 5.8% reduction in energy consumption, for these facilities, within BASF in 2004, as compared to 2003, a total savings of slightly more than $4,900k. The top ten items implemented were: 1. Cogeneration load following 2. Creation of a 60 psig steam header between blocks to utilize waste steam 3. Elimination of WWTP steam 4. Incinerator process control 5. Flare switched to stand-by 6. Acid water specification 7. Nitrogen consumption reduction 8. Compressed air optimization 9. Boiler minimum fire set-point reduction 10. Leak reduction

Theising, T

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

The NUCLARR databank: Human reliability and hardware failure data for the nuclear power industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) was developed to provide human reliability and hardware failure data to analysts in the nuclear power industry. This IBM-compatible databank is contained on a set of floppy diskettes which include data files and a menu-driven system for locating, reviewing, sorting, and retrieving the data. NUCLARR contains over 2500 individual data records, drawn from more, than 60 sources. The system is upgraded annually, to include additional human error and hardware component failure data and programming enhancements (i.e., increased user-friendliness). NUCLARR is available from the NRC through project staff at the INEL.

Reece, W.J.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Locating hardware faults in a data communications network of a parallel computer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hardware faults location in a data communications network of a parallel computer. Such a parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes and a data communications network that couples the compute nodes for data communications and organizes the compute node as a tree. Locating hardware faults includes identifying a next compute node as a parent node and a root of a parent test tree, identifying for each child compute node of the parent node a child test tree having the child compute node as root, running a same test suite on the parent test tree and each child test tree, and identifying the parent compute node as having a defective link connected from the parent compute node to a child compute node if the test suite fails on the parent test tree and succeeds on all the child test trees.

Archer, Charles J. (Rochester, MN); Megerian, Mark G. (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian E. (Rochester, MN)

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

360

Compilation, Synthesis, and Simulation of Hardware Description Languages - The Compositional Models of HDL's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compilation, Synthesis, and Simulation of Hardware Description Languages --- The Compositional Models of HDL's by Szu-Tsung Cheng Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Science University of California, Berkeley Professor Robert K. Brayton, Chair With the advent of advanced CAD tools, people are now able to design multimillion gate chips. Generally, each of these tools has its specific view and model of the world. To represent designs in such a way that tools can understand and manipulate them, one needs to use certain languages. Hardware Description Languages (HDLs) like Verilog or VHDL are developed as description languages or simulator programming languages to describe the behavior of circuits at various abstraction levels. However, they suffer from the fact that they are based on the event-driven model, which does not match well with the Finite State Machine (FSM) model which is used by lots of synthesis, cycle-simulation, or verification engines. Therefore, one needs to maintain multi...

Szu-Tsung Cheng; Szu-tsung Cheng; Szu-tsung Cheng

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

What solar heating costs  

SciTech Connect

Few people know why solar energy systems cost what they do. Designers and installers know what whole packages cost, but rarely how much goes to piping, how much for labor and how much for the collectors. Yet one stands a better chance of controlling costs if one can compare where the money is going against where it should be going. A detailed Tennessee Valley Authority study of large solar projects shows how much each component contributes to the total bill.

Adams, J.A.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Cost analysis guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

Strait, R.S.

1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

363

CAES Updated Cost Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems (CAES) for bulk energy storage applications have been receiving renewed interest. Increased penetration of large quantities of intermittent wind generation are requiring utilities to re-examine the cost and value of CAES systems. New second generation CAES cycles have been identified which offer the potential for lower capital and operating costs. This project was undertaken to update and summarize the capital and operating costs and performance features of second ge...

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

364

Prioritize Strategies and Set Internal Reduction Targets for Scope 3  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Strategies and Set Internal Reduction Targets for Scope Strategies and Set Internal Reduction Targets for Scope 3 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Prioritize Strategies and Set Internal Reduction Targets for Scope 3 Greenhouse Gas Emissions October 7, 2013 - 10:22am Addthis The final steps in the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning process for Scope 3 emissions include: Prioritizing strategies across all Scope 3 emission sources Setting internal Scope 3 reduction targets. Prioritizing All Scope 3 Strategies Once the Federal agency understands what Scope 3 reductions are feasible and at what costs, it should prioritize proposed GHG reduction activities across all Scope 3 emission sources. This prioritization will help agencies determine how to get the most out of limited resources for Scope 3 mitigation. It will also assist in developing more informed targets at the

365

Cost Affordable Titanium IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... Enhancing the Cost Effectiveness of High Performance Titanium Alloy Component Production by Powder Metallurgy Evolution of Texture in...

366

Cost Effective Single Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

three relevant technologies, namely casting, alloy development and orientation measurement, developed by Rolls-Royce to enable the cost effective production.

367

Sharing Supermodular Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the costs collectively incurred by a group of cooperating agents. ..... Mixed integer programming formulations for production planning and scheduling prob- lems.

368

Petroleum well costs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This is the first academic study of well costs and drilling times for Australia?s petroleum producing basins, both onshore and offshore. I analyse a substantial (more)

Leamon, Gregory Robert

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

COST REVIEW and ESTIMATING  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Programming Guide. OMB Circular A-94, Guidelines and Discount Rates for Benefit-Cost Analysis of Federal Programs, dated October 29, 1992 Page | 41 APPENDIX A ICRICE...

370

The Cost of Debt ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We estimate firm-specific marginal cost of debt functions for a large panel of companies between 1980 and 2007. The marginal cost curves are identified by exogenous variation in the marginal tax benefits of debt. The location of a given companys cost of debt function varies with characteristics such as asset collateral, size, book-to-market, asset tangibility, cash flows, and whether the firm pays dividends. By integrating the area between benefit and cost functions we estimate that the equilibrium net benefit of debt is 3.5 % of asset value, resulting from an estimated gross benefit of debt of 10.4 % of asset value and an estimated cost of debt of 6.9%. We find that the cost of being overlevered is asymmetrically higher than the cost of being underlevered and that expected default costs constitute approximately half of the total ex ante cost of debt. We thank Rick Green (the Acting Editor), and an anonymous referee, Heitor Almeida, Ravi Bansal,

Jules H. Van Binsbergen; John R. Graham; Jie Yang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Reducing Energy Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy expense is becoming increasingly dominant in the operating costs of high-performance computing (HPC) systems. At the same time, electricity prices vary significantly at...

372

Target Cost Management Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Target cost management (TCM) is an innovation of Japanese management accounting system and by common sense has been considered with great interest by practitioners. Nowadays, TCM related

Okano, Hiroshi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

374

Carbonate fuel cell monolith design for high power density and low cost  

SciTech Connect

Objective is higher power density operation and cost reduction. This is accomplished by the design of a bipolar plate where the separate corrugated current collectors are eliminated; cost reduction was also derived through higher power density and reduced material usage. The higher volumetric power density operation was achieved through lower cell resistance, increased active component surface area, and reduced cell height.

Allen, J.; Doyon, J.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, 27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, Streamline Permitting and Installations DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, Streamline Permitting and Installations June 1, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - As part of the Obama Administration's SunShot Initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with fossil fuels within the decade, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the availability of more than $27 million in new funding that will reduce the non-hardware costs of solar energy projects, a critical element in bringing down the overall costs of installed solar energy systems. The funding will support a $12.5 million challenge to encourage cities and counties to compete to streamline and digitize permitting processes, as

376

DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, Streamline Permitting and Installations DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, Streamline Permitting and Installations June 1, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - As part of the Obama Administration's SunShot Initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with fossil fuels within the decade, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the availability of more than $27 million in new funding that will reduce the non-hardware costs of solar energy projects, a critical element in bringing down the overall costs of installed solar energy systems. The funding will support a $12.5 million challenge to encourage cities and counties to compete to streamline and digitize permitting processes, as

377

Software Cost Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software cost estimation is the process of predicting the effort required to develop a software system. Many estimation models have been proposed over the last 30 years. This paper provides a general overview of software cost estimation methods including the recent advances in the field. As a number of these models rely on a software size estimate as input, we first provide an overview of common size metrics. We then highlight the cost estimation models that have been proposed and used successfully. Models may be classified into 2 major categories: algorithmic and non-algorithmic. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses. A key factor in selecting a cost estimation model is the accuracy of its estimates. Unfortunately, despite the large body of experience with estimation models, the accuracy of these models is not satisfactory. The paper includes comment on the performance of the estimation models and description of several newer approaches to cost estimation.

Hareton Leung Zhang; Zhang Fan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Cost-Affordable Titanium III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost-Effective Production and Thermomechanical Consolidation of Titanium Alloy Powders Cost Affordable Developments in Titanium Technology and...

379

Transmission line capital costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the advantage of offering smooth animations, while spatial compression can handle volumes of larger dimensions.

Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Form EIA-923 Frame Reduction Impact 1 Form EIA-923 Frame Reduction Impact 1 August 30, 2012 Form EIA-923 Frame Reduction Impact Schedule 2 of the Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," collects the cost and quality of fossil fuel purchases made by electric power plants with at least 50 megawatts (MW) of nameplate capacity primarily fueled by fossil fuels. The proposal is to raise the threshold to 200 megawatts of nameplate capacity primarily fueled by natural gas, petroleum coke, distillate fuel oil, and residual fuel oil. This would result in reducing the Form EIA-923 overall annual burden by 2.2 percent. The threshold for coal plants will remain at 50 megawatts. Natural gas data collection on Schedule 2 will be reduced from approximately 970 to 603 plants

382

Circofer -- Low cost approach to DRI production  

SciTech Connect

Lurgi's Circofer Process for reducing fine ores with coal in a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) is a direct approach by using a widely applied and proven reactor in commercializing a state of the art technology. The technology is in response to the demand for a direct reduction process of the future by making possible: the use of low cost ore fines and inexpensive primary energy, fine coal; production of a high grade product used as feedstock by mini mills with the additional advantage of dilution of contaminants introduced by scrap; low environmental impact; and low specific investment costs due to the closed energy circuit. With the incorporation of the latest developments in CFB technology, Circofer offers excellent heat and mass transfer conditions and, consequently, improved gas and energy utilization. High gas conversions using recycle gas have a positive influence on the process economics whereby no export gas is produced. Sticking, accretion and reoxidation problems, which have plagued all previous attempts at developing direct reduction processes using fine ore and coal as a reductant, are avoided, essentially by operating with defined amounts of excess carbon and separation of the reduction and gasifying zones.

Weber, P.; Bresser, W.; Hirsch, M. (Lurgi Metallurgie GmbH, Frankfurt (Germany))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Aluminum reduction cell electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

1982-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

384

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Heliostat manufacturing cost analysis. Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study has two primary objectives. The first is to provide a detailed cost evaluation of the second generation of DOE heliostats, from which repowering heliostat designs are likely to be derived. A second objective is to provide an analytical foundation for the evaluation of futue heliostat designs. The approach taken for this study was to produce a cost estimate for the production of the McDonnell Douglas prototype design by generating estimates of the materials, labor, overhead, and facilities costs for two different production scenarios, 25,000 heliostats per year and 250,000 heliostats per year. The primary conclusion of this study is that the second generation of heliostat designs should cost approximately $100/m/sup 2/ at volumes of 25,000 units/year. This price falls to approximately $80/m/sup 2/ at volumes of 250,000 units/year. A second conclusion is that cost reduction begins at relatively low production volumes and that many production benefits can be obtained at production rates of 5,000 to 15,000 units/year. A third conclusion is that the SAMICS model and the SAMIS III program can be useful tools in heliostat manufacturing, costing, and economic studies.

Drumheller, K; Schulte, S C; Dilbeck, R A; Long, L W

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Thermochemical nitrate reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with {approximately}3 wt% NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200{degrees}C to 350{degrees}C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia {approx} methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics.

Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Lookin g for data personnel costs, indirect costs, equipment costs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Negotiating Group Question/Answer Sessions November 19, 2009 Q: What happens now? A: The negotiation process starts tomorrow [November 20, 2009], when DOE will be sending the Awardees an e-mail with information about which website to go to for clarification and direction, information from the Office of Civil Rights, and answers to some of the questions that came up in the meeting. DOE will be gathering information about the questions concerning cyber requirements, metrics, and reporting requirements and will be getting back to the awardees about those issues the week after Thanksgiving. We have done a review of the budgets, and emails will be sent giving opportunities to address any issues. We will also re-review technical and cost proposals.

389

THE COST OF MAINTENANCE TRANSFER UNDER LOAD TAP OF THE TRANSFORMERS POWER OF EXTRA HIGH VOLTAGE THE ELETRONORTE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this work a methodology for reduction of maintenance cost in the on-load tap changers (OLTC) of extra high voltage is proposed. The methodology is (more)

RAIMUNDO NONATO ROSA FILHO

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Evaluation of The Thermal Performance and Cost Effectiveness of Radiant Barrier Thermal Insulation Materials In Residential Construction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Reducing heating and cooling systems loads in buildings is a cost effective way to decrease energy consumption in residential houses. This reduction can be achieved (more)

Asadi, Somayeh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Qualification of the IBM CSC factory in Singapore : resource estimation and allocation in software and hardware services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CSC department of IBM Singapore has been established two years ago. It provides a variety of hardware and software services for its customers. Due to the complex mix of products and the different ways of completing the ...

Li, Chengguang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Reducing cold start hydrocarbon emissions from port fuel injected spark ignition engines with improved management of hardware & controls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed to investigate strategies for reducing cold start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from port fuel injected (PFI) spark ignition (SI) engines with better use of existing hardware and control ...

Lang, Kevin R., 1980-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Hardware model of a shipboard zonal electrical distribution system (ZEDS) : alternating current/direct current (AC/DC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A hardware model of a shipboard electrical distribution system based on aspects of the DDG 51 Flight IIA, Arleigh Burke class, 60Hz Alternating Current (AC) and the future direct current (DC), zonal electrical distribution ...

Tidd, Chad N. (Chad Norman)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Vehicle Technologies Office: Parasitic Loss Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Parasitic Loss Reduction Parasitic Loss Reduction Heavy vehicles lose a tremendous amount of energy to wind resistance and drag, braking, and rolling resistance. Such non-engine losses can account for an approximate 45% decrease in efficiency. Other sources of energy loss include: friction and wear in the power train, thermal (heat) loads, operation of auxiliary loads (air conditioning, heaters, refrigeration, etc.), and engine idling. The parasitic loss activity identifies methodologies that may reduce energy losses, and tests those in the laboratory. Promising technologies are then prototyped and tested onboard heavy vehicles. Once validated, technologies must be tested on-road to obtain durability, reliability, and life-cycle cost data for the developmental component and/or design strategy.

395

Low cost fault detection system for railcars and tracks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A "low cost fault detection system" that identifies wheel flats and defective tracks is explored here. This is achieved with the conjunction of sensors, microcontrollers and Radio Frequency (RF) transceivers. The objective of the proposed research is to identify faults plaguing railcars and to be able to clearly distinguish the faults of a railcar from the inherent faults in the track. The focus of the research though, is mainly to identify wheel flats and defective tracks. The thesis has been written with the premise that the results from the simulation software GENSYS are close to the real time data that would have been obtained from an actual railcar. Based on the results of GENSYS, a suitable algorithm is written that helps segregate a fault in a railcar from a defect in a track. The above code is implemented using hardware including microcontrollers, accelerometers, RF transceivers and a real time monitor. An enclosure houses the system completely, so that it is ready for application in a real environment. This also involves selection of suitable hardware so that there is a uniform source of power supply that reduces the cost and assists in building a robust system.

Vengalathur, Sriram T.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.

Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

cost | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cost cost Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

398

Vehicle Cost Calculator  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Next Vehicle Cost Calculator U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

399

COSTS OF NUCLEAR POWER  

SciTech Connect

The discussion on the costs of nuclear power from stationary plants, designed primarily for the generation of electricity. deals with those plants in operation, being built, or being designed for construction at an early date. An attempt is made to consider the power costs on the basis of consistent definitions and assumptions for the various nuclear plants and for comparable fossil-fuel plants. Information on several new power reactor projects is included. (auth)

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Energy for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: UNDP Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: UNDP Energy Energy for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: UNDP Energy Documents and Publications Catalogue Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: UNDP Energy Documents and Publications Catalogue Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency Phase: Create a Vision Topics: - Energy Access Resource Type: Publications User Interface: Website Website: www.undp.org/energy/docs/Catalogue-Energy%20for%20Poverty%20Reduction% Cost: Free Language: English This catalogue contains documents produced over the past decade by UNDP together with its partners in the area of energy for poverty reduction and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets October 7, 2013 - 10:24am Addthis Question to Answer What are appropriate GHG emission reduction targets for specific agency programs and sites? Not all administrative units within the agency have the same potential to contribute to agency-level targets. This step aims to help agencies establish what each major administrative unit (e.g. program site) should contribute to the agency goal based on its planned growth trajectory and estimates of its cost and potential to reduce GHG emissions. As illustrated in the figure below, two sites may have equal potential to reduce GHG emissions. But a site expecting significant mission-related growth prior to the 2020 target year may have a lower reduction target

402

Digital pipelined hardware median filter design for real-time image processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hardware median filter is described which is designed to filter imagery at a rate of 10*10/sup 6/ pixels/second. The data is windowed with line buffers, and propagated through n pipelined stages where n is the number of bits in a pixel. The algorithm described is a form of the Radix method of Ataman modified to reduce the decisionmaking at each stage. The filter can be implemented with available logic components and would be useful as a preprocessor in a pattern recognition system. 6 references.

Delman, D.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Geothermal direct applications hardware systems development and testing. 1979 summary report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Activities performed during calendar year 1979 for the hardware system development and testing task are presented. The fluidized bed technology was applied to the drying of potato by-products and to the exchange of heat to air in the space heating experiment. Geothermal water was flashed to steam and also used as the prime energy source in the steam distillation of peppermint oil. Geothermal water temperatures as low as 112.8/sup 0/C were utilized to distill alcohol from sugar beet juice, and lower temperature water provided air conditioning through an absorption air conditioning system. These experiments are discussed.

Keller, J.G.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

An Analysis of a Combined Hardware-software Mechanism for Speculative Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a simple hardware mechanism and related compiler support for softwarecontrolled speculative loads. The compiler issues speculative load instructions based on anticipated data references and the ability of the memory system to hide memory latency in high-performance processors. The architectural support for such a mechanism is simple and minimal, yet handles faults gracefully. We have simulated three speculative load mechanisms based on a MIPS processor and a detailed memory system. The results of scientific kernel loops indicate that speculative load techniques can hide memory latency effectively.

Stefanos Damianakis; Kai Li; Anne Rogers

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Electric air filtration: theory, laboratory studies, hardware development, and field evaluations  

SciTech Connect

We summarize the results of a seven-year research project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop electric air filters that extend the service life of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in the nuclear industry. This project was unique to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and it entailed comprehensive theory, laboratory studies, and hardware development. We present our work in three major areas: (1) theory of and instrumentation for filter test methods, (2) theoretical and laboratory studies of electric air filters, and (3) development and evaluation of eight experimental electric air filters.

Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.; Kuhl, W.; Lum, B.; Bogdanoff, A.; Hebard, H.; Hall, M.; Banks, D.; Mazumder, M.; Johnson, J.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Low-Cost Composite Materials for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCS) are under widespread development to produce electrical power for a variety of stationary and transportation applications. To date, the bipolar plate remains the most problematic and costly component of PEFC stacks (1). In addition to meeting cost constraints, bipolar plates must possess a host of other properties, the most important of which are listed in Table 1. The most commonly used material for single cell testing is machined graphite, which is expensive and costly to machine. The brittle nature of graphite also precludes the use of thin components for reducing stack size and weight, which is particularly important for transportation applications. Other stack designs consider the use of metal hardware such as stainless steel (2,3). But a number of disadvantages are associated with stainless steel, including high density, high cost of machining, and possible corrosion in the fuel cell environment. In light of these difficulties, much of the recent work on fuel cell bipolar plate materials has concentrated on graphite/polymer composites (4--8). Composite materials offer the potential advantages of lower cost, lower weight, and greater ease of manufacture than traditional graphite and metal plates. For instance, flow fields can be molded directly into these composites, thereby eliminating the costly and difficult machining step required for graphite or metal hardware.

Busick, D.N.; Wilson, M.S.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

On the longest perpetual reductions in orthogonal expression reduction systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study perpetual reductions in orthogonal (or conflict-free) fully extended expression reduction systems (OERS). ERS is a formalism for rewriting that subsumes term rewriting systems (TRSs) and the &lgr;-calculus. We design a strategy ... Keywords: &lgr;-calculus, perpetual reductions, rewrite systems, strong normalization

Zurab Khasidashvili

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost mo

Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

409

NETL: Turbine Projects - Emissions Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions Reduction Turbine Projects Emissions Reduction Pre-Mixer Design for High Hydrogen Fuels DataFact Sheets Low-NOX Emissions in a Fuel Flexible Gas Turbine Combustor Design...

410

A hybrid electron and photon IMRT planning technique that lowers normal tissue integral patient dose using standard hardware  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present a mixed electron and photon IMRT planning technique using electron beams with an energy range of 6-22 MeV and standard hardware that minimizes integral dose to patients for targets as deep as 7.5 cm. Methods: Ten brain cases, two lung, a thyroid, an abdominal, and a parotid case were planned using two planning techniques: a photon-only IMRT (IMRT) versus a mixed modality treatment (E + IMRT) that includes an enface electron beam and a photon IMRT portion that ensures a uniform target coverage. The electron beam is delivered using a regular cutout placed in an electron cone. The electron energy was chosen to provide a good trade-off between minimizing integral dose and generating a uniform, deliverable plan. The authors choose electron energies that cover the deepest part of PTV with the 65%-70% isodose line. The normal tissue integral dose, the dose for ring structures around the PTV, and the volumes of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isosurfaces were used to compare the dose distributions generated by the two planning techniques. Results: The normal tissue integral dose was lowered by about 20% by the E + IMRT plans compared to the photon-only IMRT ones for most studied cases. With the exception of lungs, the dose reduction associated to the E + IMRT plans was more pronounced further away from the target. The average dose ratio delivered to the 0-2 cm and the 2-4 cm ring structures for brain patients for the two planning techniques were 89.6% and 70.8%, respectively. The enhanced dose sparing away from the target for the brain patients can also be observed in the ratio of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isodose line volumes for the two techniques, which decreases from 85.5% to 72.6% and further to 65.1%, respectively. For lungs, the lateral electron beams used in the E + IMRT plans were perpendicular to the mostly anterior/posterior photon beams, generating much more conformal plans. Conclusions: The authors proved that even using the existing electron delivery hardware, a mixed electron/photon planning technique (E + IMRT) can decrease the normal tissue integral dose compared to a photon-only IMRT plan. Different planning approaches can be enabled by the use of an electron beam directed toward organs at risk distal to the target, which are still spared due the rapid dose fall-off of the electron beam. Examples of such cases are the lateral electron beams in the thoracic region that do not irradiate the heart and contralateral lung, electron beams pointed toward kidneys in the abdominal region, or beams treating brain lesions pointed toward the brainstem or optical apparatus. For brain, electron vertex beams can also be used without irradiating the whole body. Since radiation retreatments become more and more common, minimizing the normal tissue integral dose and the dose delivered to tissues surrounding the target, as enabled by E + IMRT type techniques, should receive more attention.

Rosca, Florin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Danvers, Massachusetts 01923 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

facial reduction and extended duals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Facial reduction and extended duals Here we study two fundamental approaches ...... denberghe, and Henry Wolkowicz, editors, Handbook of semidefinite...

412

ALUMINIUM REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY: V: Fundamentals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ALUMINIUM REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY: Session V: Fundamentals. Sponsored by: LMD Aluminum Committee Program Organizer: Harald A. ye, Institute of...

413

Faster mutation testing inspired by test prioritization and reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mutation testing is a well-known but costly approach for determining test adequacy. The central idea behind the approach is to generate mutants, which are small syntactic transformations of the program under test, and then to measure for a given test ... Keywords: Mutation testing, Test Prioritization, Test Reduction

Lingming Zhang, Darko Marinov, Sarfraz Khurshid

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Cost Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Compressed Hydrogen and PEM Fuel Cell System Discussion Fuel Cell Tech Team FreedomCar Detroit. MI October 20, 2004 TIAX LLC Acorn Park Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140-2390 Ref D0006 SFAA No. DE-SCO2- 98EE50526 Topic 1 Subtopic 1C Agenda EC_2004 10 20 FC Tech Team Presentation 1 1 Project Overview 2 Compressed Hydrogen Storage Cost 3 2004 System Cost Update 4 Appendix Project Overview Approach EC_2004 10 20 FC Tech Team Presentation 2 In our final year of the project, we assessed the cost of compressed hydrogen storage and updated the overall system cost projection. Task 1: PEMFC System Technology Synopsis Task 2: Develop Cost Model and Baseline Estimates Task 3: Identify Opportunities for System Cost Reduction Tasks 4, 5, 6 & 7: Annual Updates

415

Additional Resources for Estimating Building Energy and Cost Savings to  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Additional Resources for Estimating Building Energy and Cost Additional Resources for Estimating Building Energy and Cost Savings to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Additional Resources for Estimating Building Energy and Cost Savings to Reduce Greenhouse Gases October 7, 2013 - 11:06am Addthis For evaluating greenhouse gas reduction strategies and estimating costs, the following information resources can help Federal agencies estimate energy and cost savings potential by building type. When deciding what resource to use for developing energy- and cost-savings estimates, a program should consider items detailed in Table 1. Table 1.Resources for Estimating Energy Savings Resource Items to consider Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides Based on representative building models of commercial buildings. Guidance available for a limited number of building types using the most common technologies.

416

Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 1:13pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE: Step 4 Once a Federal agency identifies the various strategic opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for vehicles and mobile equipment, it is necessary to evaluate the associated costs of adopting each strategy. The costs to reduce GHG emissions can vary greatly from cost-free behavior modification to the high-cost of purchasing zero-emission battery electric vehicles and associated fueling infrastructure. This section provides an overview of the costs and savings to consider when planning for mobile source emissions reductions, including efforts to: Reduce vehicle miles traveled

417

Preliminary Experimental Results of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Operation Using Hardware Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A newly developed integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) hybrid system concept has been tested using the Hybrid Performance (Hyper) project hardware-based simulation facility at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. The cathode-loop hardware facility, previously connected to the real-time fuel cell model, was integrated with a real-time model of a gasifier of solid (biomass and fossil) fuel. The fuel cells are operated at the compressor delivery pressure, and they are fueled by an updraft atmospheric gasifier, through the syngas conditioning train for tar removal and syngas compression. The system was brought to steady state; then several perturbations in open loop (variable speed) and closed loop (constant speed) were performed in order to characterize the IGFC behavior. Coupled experiments and computations have shown the feasibility of relatively fast control of the plant as well as a possible mitigation strategy to reduce the thermal stress on the fuel cells as a consequence of load variation and change in gasifier operating conditions. Results also provided an insight into the different features of variable versus constant speed operation of the gas turbine section.

Traverso, Alberto; Tucker, David; Haynes, Comas L.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Address-Value Delta (AVD) Prediction: A Hardware Technique for Efficiently Parallelizing Dependent Cache Misses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While runahead execution is effective at parallelizing independent long-latency cache misses, it is unable to parallelize dependent long-latency cache misses. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes a novel hardware technique, address-value delta (AVD) prediction. An AVD predictor keeps track of the address (pointer) load instructions for which the arithmetic difference (i.e., delta) between the effective address and the data value is stable. If such a load instruction incurs a long-latency cache miss during runahead execution, its data value is predicted by subtracting the stable delta from its effective address. This prediction enables the preexecution of dependent instructions, including load instructions that incur long-latency cache misses. We analyze why and for what kind of loads AVD prediction works and describe the design of an implementable AVD predictor. We also describe simple hardware and software optimizations that can significantly improve the benefits of AVD prediction and analyze the interaction of AVD prediction with runahead efficiency techniques and stream-based data prefetching. Our analysis shows that AVD prediction is complementary to these techniques. Our results show that augmenting a runahead processor with a simple, 16-entry AVD predictor improves the average execution time of a set of pointer-intensive applications by 14.3 percent (7.5 percent excluding benchmark health).

Onur Mutlu; Hyesoon Kim; Yale N. Patt

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Updating Texas Energy Cost Containment Audit Reports  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1984 and 1986, 35.3 million square feet of state owned buildings were audited to identify cost saving retrofit projects. Originally intended for direct legislative funding or bond sales, funding became available in 1989 through oil overcharge moneys in a program known as LoanSTAR. Due to the time between the audits and availability of funds, update of the reports for current energy and equipment cost, and for accomplishment of projects was necessary. Audits in 1984 and 1986 identified total savings of $21.3 million per year and investment costs of $42.3 million per year. The 1989 update revealed retrofit projects remaining worth $10.9 million per year in savings and costing $30.5 million. The reduction in savings and costs is primarily due to changes in prices and accomplishment of projects. The methodology for updating prices and surveying facility energy contacts to determine accomplishment will be discussed. Both the accomplishment of maintenance and operation (M&O) type projects and capital-intensive retrofit/measures will be discussed. For example, the surveys revealed that 69% of 291 M&O's have already been accomplished, along with 24% of the 750 retrofit/measures.

Burke, T. E.; Heffington, W. M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

PC-based PCM telemetry data reduction system software  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) Wind Research Program is using pulse code modulation (PCM) telemetry systems to study horizontal-axis wind turbines. SERI has developed a low-cost PC-based PCM data-acquisition system to facilitate quick PCM data analysis in the field. The SERI PC-PCM system consists of AT-compatible hardware boards for decoding and combining PCM data streams and DOS software for control and management of data acquisition. Up to four boards can be installed in a single PC, providing the capability to combine data from four PCM streams direct to disk or memory. This paper describes the SERI Quick-Look Data Management Program, which is a comprehensive software package used to organize, acquire, process, and display information from PCM data streams. The software was designed for use in conjunction with SERI's PC-PCM hardware described in a related paper. Features of the Quick-Look program are highlighted, including those which make it useful in an experiment test environment to quickly examine and verify incoming data. Also discussed are problems and techniques associated with PC-based PCM data acquisition, processing, and real-time display. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Simms, D.A.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Hardware/Software Co-design for Energy-Ef?cient Seismic Modeling  

the capital expense of acquiring the HPC platform domi-nated total cost of ownership (TCO), ... metic intensity (as well as ops per point) increases ...

422

SunShot Initiative: Solar Projects to Reduce Non-Hardware Balance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on removing technical and administrative barriers to cost-effective interconnection and transmission, expanding market opportunities for solar PV by enabling the availability of...

423

Global Threat Reduction Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nonproliferation Nonproliferation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 1 The Current Status of Gap and U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals 2011 Jeff Galan, Deputy Project Manager U.S.-Origin Nuclear Remove Program National Nuclear Security Administration Global Threat Reduction Initiative Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2 GTRI Mission and Goals GTRI is: A part of President Obama's comprehensive strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism; and The key organization responsible for implementing the U.S. HEU minimization policy. GTRI MISSION Reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. DOE STRATEGIC GOAL 2.2 Prevent the acquisition of nuclear and radiological materials for use in weapons of mass destruction and other

424

Aluminum reduction cell electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

Payne, J.R.

1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

425

Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

which needs to be 44% or better along with relatively high wind speeds. Along with low production costs, however, delivery and storage costs will also factor into the final cost...

426

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation CTS 21st Annual Transportation Research Conference costs #12;Potential Applications · Roadway Project Feasibility Studies ­ Identified potential roadway infrastructure improvement ­ Documentation of estimated project costs ­ Determine property assessments

Minnesota, University of

427

Energy-cost-aware scheduling of HPC workloads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Job submission in high performance computing workloads exhibits a diurnal pattern similar to electrical prices. While high-priority jobs may need immediate access to resources, by altering the cluster scheduler to delay the execution of lower-priority ... Keywords: electricity cost saving, energy-cost-aware scheduling, HPC workload, high performance computing workloads, high-priority jobs, resource access, cluster scheduler, power price, power demand reduction, energy availability, carbon footprint, electrical grid, electrical pricing, environmentally friendly renewable energy source, electrical grid

D. Aikema; C. Kiddle; R. Simmonds

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Strategies to address transition costs in the electricity industry  

SciTech Connect

Transition costs are the potential monetary losses that electric- utility shareholders, ratepayers, or other parties might experience because of structural changes in the electricity industry. Regulators, policy analysts, utilities, and consumer groups have proposed a number of strategies to address transition costs, such as immediately opening retail electricity markets or delaying retail competition. This report has 3 objectives: identify a wide range of strategies available to regulators and utilities; systematically examine effects of strategies; and identify potentially promising strategies that may provide benefits to more than one set of stakeholders. The many individual strategies are grouped into 6 major categories: market actions, depreciation options, rate-making actions, utility cost reductions, tax measures, and other options. Of the 34 individual strategies, retail ratepayers have primary or secondary responsibility for paying transition costs in 19 of the strategies, shareholders in 12, wheeling customers in 11, taxpayers in 8, and nonutility suppliers in 4. Most of the strategies shift costs among different segments of the economy, although utility cost reductions can be used to offset transition costs. Most of the strategies require cooperation of other parties, including regulators, to be implemented successfully; financial stakeholders must be engages in negotiations that hold the promise of shared benefits. Only by rejecting ``winner-take-all`` strategies will the transition-cost issue be expeditiously resolved.

Baxter, L.; Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COST REVIEW (ICR) COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP) Revision 1 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT (OAPM) September 2013 SUMMARY OF UPDATES: This revision includes the following significant changes since the December 2011 SOP release: 1. The original SOP discussed how an EIR and an ICE could be executed in tandem, but since we are no longer advocating this approach the ICE process has been completely separated from the EIR process and references to EIRs have been removed. 2. Section 1 adds a reference to Public Law 2055 reflecting that we must now, as a matter of law, perform an ICE at CD-3 for projects with a TPC over $100 million. 3. Section 2 notes that DOE Programs must now pay for ICRs and ICEs and reflects that PARS II must be

430

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COST REVIEW (ICR) COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP) Revision 1 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT (OAPM) September 2013 SUMMARY OF UPDATES: This revision includes the following significant changes since the December 2011 SOP release: 1. The original SOP discussed how an EIR and an ICE could be executed in tandem, but since we are no longer advocating this approach the ICE process has been completely separated from the EIR process and references to EIRs have been removed. 2. Section 1 adds a reference to Public Law 2055 reflecting that we must now, as a matter of law, perform an ICE at CD-3 for projects with a TPC over $100 million. 3. Section 2 notes that DOE Programs must now pay for ICRs and ICEs and reflects that PARS II must be

431

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Plant Cycling Costs Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-55433 July 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Prepared under Subcontract No. NFT-1-11325-01

432

Low Cost Production of InGaN for Next-Generation Photovoltaic Devices  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop a low-cost and low-energy technology for production of photovoltaic devices based on InGaN materials. This project builds on the ongoing development by Structured Materials Industries (SMI), of novel thin film deposition technology for Group III-Nitride materials, which is capable of depositing Group-III nitride materials at significantly lower costs and significantly lower energy usage compared to conventional deposition techniques. During this project, SMI demonstrated deposition of GaN and InGaN films using metalorganic sources, and demonstrated compatibility of the process with standard substrate materials and hardware components.

Nick M. Sbrockey, Shangzhu Sun, Gary S. Tompa,

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

433

Production Cost Optimization Assessments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The benefits of improved thermal performance of coal-fired power plants continue to grow, as the costs of fuel rise and the prospect of a carbon dioxide cap and trade program looms on the horizon. This report summarizes the efforts to date of utilities committed to reducing their heat rate by 1.0% in the Production Cost Optimization (PCO) Project. The process includes benchmarking of plant thermal performance using existing plant data and a site-specific performance appraisal. The appraisal determines po...

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

434

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

SciTech Connect

Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

435

Service Provider Competition: Delay Cost Structure, Segmentation, and Cost Advantage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We model competition between two providers who serve delay-sensitive customers. We compare a generalized delay cost structure, where a customer's delay cost depends on her service valuation, with the traditional additive delay cost structure, where the ... Keywords: delay cost structure, service competition, value-based market segmentation

Maxim Afanasyev; Haim Mendelson

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Long-run marginal costs lower than average costs  

SciTech Connect

The thesis of this article is that the long-run marginal costs of electricity are not always greater than the present average costs, as is often assumed. As long as short-run costs decrease with new plant additions, the long-run marginal cost is less than long-run average cost. When average costs increase with new additions, long-run marginal costs are greater than long-run average costs. The long-run marginal costs of a particular utility may be less than, equal to, or greater than its long-run average costs - even with inflation present. The way to determine which condition holds for a given utility is to estimate costs under various combinations of assumptions: probable load growth, zero load growth, and load growth greater than expected; and changes in load factor with attendant costs. Utilities that can demonstrate long-run marginal costs lower than long-run average costs should be encouraged to build plant and increase load, for the resulting productivity gains and slowing of inflation. Utilities that face long-run marginal costs greater than long-run average costs should discourage growth in sales through any available means.

Hunter, S.R.

1980-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

437

Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings To help facility managers make sound decisions, FEMP provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments. Federal Requirements Life cycle cost (LCC) rules are promulgated in 10 CFR 436 A, Life Cycle Cost Methodology and Procedures and conforms to requirements in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and subsequent energy conservation legislation as well as Executive Order 13423. The LCC guidance and materials provided here assume discount rates and energy price projections (TXT 17 KB) determined annually by FEMP and the Energy Information Administration. Building Life Cycle Cost Software FEMP's Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) software can help you calculate life cycle costs, net savings, savings-to-investment ratio, internal rate of return, and payback period for Federal energy and water conservation projects funded by agencies or alternatively financed. BLCC also estimates emissions and emission reductions. An energy escalation rate calculator (EERC) computes an average escalation rate for energy savings performance contracts when payments are based on energy cost savings.

438

Transportation and Electricity Convergence Session 2: National Lab Perspective (Sub-metering Hardware and Protocols)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation and Electricity Convergence Session 2: National Lab Perspective (Sub-metering Hardware and Protocols) 1912 2012 Theodore Bohn Argonne National Laboratory 4 th Annual Workshop Evs- Transportation and Electricity Convergence Houston, TX Nov 2, 2011 ANL Perspective: Standards are the common thread that enables interoperability of new technologies Detroit was the first American city to use electric taxi cabs, in 1914. Are Indoor/Outdoor Charge Ports New? Detroit's first electric taxi accumulated >46,000 miles first two years. 2 Outdoor Curb-Side Charging Port Indoor charging stations 3 Charging Levels/ Recharge Times (it depends)  AC Level 1 - 120 v/20A outlet (~1600W) - In most garages - Outlet capacity? - Dedicated outlet usually required

439

Prefiltered B-Spline Reconstruction for Hardware-Accelerated Rendering of Optimally Sampled Volumetric Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper odd-order B-spline filters are proposed to reconstruct volumetric data sampled on an optimal Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) grid. To make these filters nearly interpolating, we adapt a previously published framework, which is based on a discrete frequency-domain prefiltering. It is shown that a BCC-sampled B-spline kernel is not invertible, therefore the interpolation constraint cannot be satisfied by a discrete prefiltering. To remedy this problem, we use a slightly modified discrete Bspline for prefiltering, which is proven to be invertible. Although this modification leads to an approximation, the proposed prefiltered B-spline reconstruction of BCC-sampled data still provides much higher image quality than the interpolating prefiltered B-spline reconstruction of volume data sampled on an equivalent Cartesian Cubic (CC) grid. Furthermore, our method directly supports an efficient implementation on a conventional graphics hardware, unlike the previous reconstruction methods developed for the BCC grid.

Balzs Csbfalvi; Markus Hadwiger

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Final Technical Progress Report: Development of Low-Cost Suspension Heliostat; December 7, 2011 - December 6, 2012  

SciTech Connect

Final technical progress report of SunShot Incubator Solaflect Energy. The project succeeded in demonstrating that the Solaflect Suspension Heliostat design is viable for large-scale CSP installations. Canting accuracy is acceptable and is continually improving as Solaflect improves its understanding of this design. Cost reduction initiatives were successful, and there are still many opportunities for further development and further cost reduction.

Bender, W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Estimating decommissioning costs: The 1994 YNPS decommissioning cost study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Early this year, Yankee Atomic Electric Company began developing a revised decommissioning cost estimate for the Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) to provide a basis for detailed decommissioning planning and to reflect slow progress in siting low-level waste (LLW) and spent-nuclear-fuel disposal facilities. The revision also reflects the need to change from a cost estimate that focuses on overall costs to a cost estimate that is sufficiently detailed to implement decommissioning and identify the final cost of decommissioning.

Szymczak, W.J.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

442

Percent of 2010 Luminaire Cost LED Luminaire Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LEDs promise to change the world, and few doubt that they will, but a key limiter to more rapid adoption is the cost of the LED themselves. The cost breakdown of LED luminaires vary, but it is safe to put the cost of the LED at around 25% to 40 % of the total luminaire cost. It is projected to remain a significant cost of the total luminaire for many years.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Proceedings: Workshop on CO2 Transport/Storage Cost Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If reductions in CO2 emissions are needed in the utility industry, one of the potential solutions is application of CO2 capture and storage. In order to make informed decisions on applying CO2 capture and storage to the utility industry, high quality estimates of the costs are needed. While significant efforts have been made to evaluate the costs of CO2 capture from power plants, relatively little has been done to develop costs of transport and storage of CO2. This report presents the results of a worksh...

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

444

Hardware Architectures for Data-Intensive Computing Problems: A Case Study for String Matching  

SciTech Connect

DNA analysis is an emerging application of high performance bioinformatic. Modern sequencing machinery are able to provide, in few hours, large input streams of data, which needs to be matched against exponentially growing databases of known fragments. The ability to recognize these patterns effectively and fastly may allow extending the scale and the reach of the investigations performed by biology scientists. Aho-Corasick is an exact, multiple pattern matching algorithm often at the base of this application. High performance systems are a promising platform to accelerate this algorithm, which is computationally intensive but also inherently parallel. Nowadays, high performance systems also include heterogeneous processing elements, such as Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), to further accelerate parallel algorithms. Unfortunately, the Aho-Corasick algorithm exhibits large performance variability, depending on the size of the input streams, on the number of patterns to search and on the number of matches, and poses significant challenges on current high performance software and hardware implementations. An adequate mapping of the algorithm on the target architecture, coping with the limit of the underlining hardware, is required to reach the desired high throughputs. In this paper, we discuss the implementation of the Aho-Corasick algorithm for GPU-accelerated high performance systems. We present an optimized implementation of Aho-Corasick for GPUs and discuss its tradeoffs on the Tesla T10 and he new Tesla T20 (codename Fermi) GPUs. We then integrate the optimized GPU code, respectively, in a MPI-based and in a pthreads-based load balancer to enable execution of the algorithm on clusters and large sharedmemory multiprocessors (SMPs) accelerated with multiple GPUs.

Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Chavarra-Miranda, Daniel

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

445

WattProbe - Software-based Empirical Extraction of Hardware Energy Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Thesis Software-based Empirical Extraction of Hardware Energy Models by Manish Prasad Master of Science in Computer Science Stony Brook University 2003 A compelling goal of portable computing is to make PCs as light as possible while adding enhanced features in the form of substantial processing power, storage and wireless networking capabilities in order to run demanding applications like multimedia. On the other hand battery technology hasn't improved significantly, which implies that lighter batteries mean lesser capacity. This demands that battery power be managed critically, which has resulted in the recent thrust in energy-aware computing research in the OS community as well as implementation of power saving mechanisms on state-of-the-art portables. However, there are various factors which impede power management research and hamper the effectiveness of power saving mechanisms. Firstly, energy measurement is hard and cumbersome as it requires special experimental setup comprising externally connected multimeters. This makes it very difficult to evaluate any proposed power management strategy across multiple platforms outside a laboratory setting. Since effectiveness of power management strategies vary largely with underlying platform energy consumption characteristics, it is essential to evaluate any such strategy across multiple platforms. Furthermore, large scale deployment of power saving schemes in production class OSes for state-of-the-art portables warrants a mechanism to incorporate the knowledge of underlying hardware energy models into such schemes. Due to substantial differences in power consumption of processors and I/O devices from different vendors, a cardinal requirement to achieve the above said goal is the ability to learn underlyin...

Manish Prasad; Manish Prasad

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Iron Based Flow Batteries for Low Cost Grid Level Energy Storage - Jesse Wainright, Case Western Reserve  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy/Office of Electricity's Energy Storage Program. authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy/Office of Electricity's Energy Storage Program. Iron Based Flow Batteries for Low Cost Grid Level Energy Storage J.S. Wainright, R. F. Savinell, P.I.s Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University Purpose Impact on Iron Based Batteries on the DOE OE Energy Storage Mission Recent Results Recent Results Develop efficient, cost-effective grid level storage capability based on iron. Goals of this Effort: * Minimize Cost/Watt by increasing current density - Hardware Cost >> Electrolyte Cost * Minimize Cost/Whr by increasing plating capacity * Maximize Efficiency by minimizing current lost to hydrogen evolution Electrochemistry of the all-Iron system:

447

A Parallel Implementation of a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method on Graphics Hardware Using the Compute Unified Device Architecture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), which is a class of meshfree particle methods (MPMs), has a wide range of applications from micro-scale to macro-scale as well as from discrete systems to continuum systems. Graphics hardware, originally designed for computer graphics, now provide unprecedented computational power for scientific computation. Particle system needs a huge amount of computations in physical simulation. In this paper, an efficient parallel implementation of a SPH method on graphics hardware using the Compute Unified Device Architecture is developed for fluid simulation. Comparing to the corresponding CPU implementation, our experimental results show that the new approach allows significant speedups of fluid simulation through handling huge amount of computations in parallel on graphics hardware.

Wong Unhong; Wong Honcheng; Tang Zesheng [NAOC-MUST Collaborative Research Laboratory for Lunar and Planetary Exploration, Faculty of Information Technology, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China)

2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

448

Bridging the Divide Between Poverty Reduction and Climate Change Through  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bridging the Divide Between Poverty Reduction and Climate Change Through Bridging the Divide Between Poverty Reduction and Climate Change Through Sustainable and Innovative Energy Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Bridging the Divide Between Poverty Reduction and Climate Change Through Sustainable and Innovative Energy Technologies Agency/Company /Organization: Dr. Anilla Cherian Sector: Climate, Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications User Interface: Website Website: www.undp.ro/download/sustainable%20Innovative%20Energy%20Technologies% Cost: Free Language: English This expert report highlights the need to bridge the divide between climate change and poverty reduction through innovative energy technologies and to

449

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicles and Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:48am Addthis YOU ARE HERE: Step 3 Reducing petroleum consumption is the principal means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from vehicles and mobile equipment. Each agency has the flexibility to evaluate a variety of options to ensure its strategy best fits the mission and makeup of its fleets. The purpose of this evaluation is to: Identify strategies that will best encourage the reduction of petroleum use in Federal vehicles Estimate the GHG reduction potential and cost effectiveness of these strategies. Next Step After evaluating GHG reduction strategies, the next step in the GHG mitigation planning for vehicles and mobile equipment is to estimate the

450

Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report, 1 October 1977-31 December 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 1979. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1-kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; development of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

Rabenhorst, D.W.; Small, T.R.; Wilkinson, W.O.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Energy Reduction at HQ | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Reduction at HQ Energy Reduction at HQ Aviation Management Executive Secretariat Energy Reduction at HQ Electric Metering Facilities Initiatives Recycling Programs Services...

452

EFFECT OF REDUCED U-235 PRICE ON FUEL CYCLE COSTS  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to determine the effect of changes in natural uranium cost and in separative work charges on fuel cycle costs in nuclear power plants. Reactors considered were a Dresden-type boiling water reactor (BWR) and a Yankee- type pressurized water reactor (PWR), with net power ratings of 100, 300, and 500 Mwe. Fuel cycle costs were calculated for these reactors, using either enriched uranium or U/sup 235/-thorium as the fuel material. The price schedule for uranium was based on a feed material cost of /kg uranium as UF/sub 6/ and separative work costs of /kg uranium (Schedule B) and /kg uranium (Schedule C). The present AEC price schedule for enriched uranium was also used for purposes of a reference case. The results indicate that a reduction in present enriched uranium price to that given by Schedule B would reduce fuel cycle costs for the BWR plants by 0.4 to 0.5 mill/kwh for the enriched-uranium cycle, and 0.4 to 0.7 mill/kwh for the thorium cycle. Reductions in fuel cycle costs for the PWR plants were 0.5 to 0.7 and 0.4 to 0.75 mill/kwh, respectively, for the same situations. (auth)

Bennett, L.L.

1962-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Larger Turbines and the Future Cost of Wind Energy (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The move to larger turbines has been observed in the United States and around the world. Turbine scaling increases energy capture while reducing general project infrastructure costs and landscape impacts, each of which of can reduce the cost of wind energy. However, scaling in the absence of innovation, can increase turbine costs. The ability of turbine designers and manufacturers to continue to scale turbines, while simultaneously reducing costs, is an important factor in long-term viability of the industry. This research seeks to better understand how technology innovation can allow the continued development of larger turbines on taller towers while also achieving lower cost of energy. Modeling incremental technology improvements identified over the past decade demonstrates that cost reductions on the order of 10%, and capacity factor improvements on the order of 5% (for sites with annual mean wind speed of 7.25 m/s at 50m), are achievable for turbines up to 3.5 MW. However, to achieve a 10% cost reduction and a 10% capacity factor improvement for turbines up to 5 MW, additional technology innovations must be developed and implemented.

Lantz, E.; Hand, M.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

NREL: Buildings Research - News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Department's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently issued a new report, "Non-Hardware ('Soft') Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial...

455

costs | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7 7 Varnish cache server costs Dataset Summary Description This dataset represents a historical repository of all the numerical data from the smartgrid.gov website condensed into spreadsheets to enable analysis of the data. Below are a couple of things worth noting: Source Smartgrid.gov Date Released March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Date Updated March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Keywords AMI costs distribution smart grid transmission Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 4Q12 (xlsx, 112.1 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 3Q12 (xlsx, 107.9 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 2Q12 (xlsx, 111.9 KiB)

456

Accelerated cleanup risk reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is no proven technology for remediating contaminant plume source regions in a heterogeneous subsurface. This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop the requisite new technologies so that will be rapidly accepted by the remediation community. Our technology focus is hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) which is a novel in situ thermal technique. We have expanded this core technology to leverage the action of steam injection and place an in situ microbial filter downstream to intercept and destroy the accelerated movement of contaminated groundwater. Most contaminant plume source regions, including the chlorinated solvent plume at LLNL, are in subsurface media characterized by a wide range in hydraulic conductivity. At LLNL, the main conduits for contaminant transport are buried stream channels composed of gravels and sands; these have a hydraulic conductivity in the range of 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -2} cm/s. Clay and silt units with a hydraulic conductivity of 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} cm/s bound these buried channels; these are barriers to groundwater movement and contain the highest contaminant concentrations in the source region. New remediation technologies are required because the current ones preferentially access the high conductivity units. HPO is an innovative process for the in situ destruction of contaminants in the entire subsurface. It operates by the injection of steam. We have demonstrated in laboratory experiments that many contaminants rapidly oxidize to harmless compounds at temperatures easily achieved by injecting steam, provided sufficient dissolved oxygen is present. One important challenge in a heterogeneous source region is getting heat, contaminants, and an oxidizing agent in the same place at the same time. We have used the NUFT computer program to simulate the cyclic injection of steam into a contaminated aquifer for design of a field demonstration. We used an 8 hour, steam/oxygen injection cycle followed by a 56 hour relaxation period in which the well was `capped`. Our results show the formation of an inclined gas phase during injection and a fast collapse of the steam zone within an hour of terminating steam injection. The majority of destruction occurs during the collapse phase, when contaminant laden water is drawn back towards the well. Little to no noncondensible gasses are created in this process, removing any possibility of sparging processes interfering with contaminant destruction. Our models suggest that the thermal region should be as hot and as large as possible. To have HPO accepted, we need to demonstrate the in situ destruction of contaminants. This requires the ability to inexpensively sample at depth and under high temperatures. We proved the ability to implies monitoring points at depths exceeding 150 feet in highly heterogeneous soils by use of cone penetrometry. In addition, an extractive system has been developed for sampling fluids and measuring their chemistry under the range of extreme conditions expected. We conducted a collaborative field test of HPO at a Superfund site in southern California where the contaminant is mainly creosote and pentachlorophenol. Field results confirm the destruction of contaminants by HPO, validate our field design from simulations, demonstrate that accurate field measurements of the critical fluid parameters can be obtained using existing monitoring wells (and minimal capital cost) and yield reliable cost estimates for future commercial application. We also tested the in situ microbial filter technology as a means to intercept and destroy the accelerated flow of contaminants caused by the injection of steam. A series of laboratory and field tests revealed that the selected bacterial species effectively degrades trichloroethene in LLNL Groundwater and under LLNL site conditions. In addition, it was demonstrated that the bacteria effectively attach to the LLNL subsurface media. An in-well treatability study indicated that the bacteria initially degrade greater than 99% of the contaminant, to concentrations less than regulatory limit

Knapp, R.B.; Aines, R.M.; Blake, R.G.; Copeland, A.B.; Newmark, R.L.; Tompson, A.F.B.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Geothermal probabilistic cost study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Cooling tower waste reduction  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Audit of Mound Plant`s reduction in force  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objective of this audit was to determine whether the Mound Plant`s Fiscal Year 1992 reduction in force (RIF) was effectively managed and implemented properly by DOE. DOE established policy to encourage contractors to reduce staffing by voluntary separations without unreasonable separation costs. EG&G Mound`s FY 1992 RIF was accomplished by voluntary separations; however, its implementation unreasonably increased costs because DOE did not have adequate criteria or guidelines for evaluating contractors` RIF proposals, and because EG&G Mound furnished inaccurate cost data to DOE evaluators. The unreasonable costs amounted to at least $21 million. Recommendations are made that DOE develop and implement guidelines to impose limitations on voluntary separation allowances, early retirement incentive payments, and inclusion of crucial employee classifications in voluntary RIFs.

Not Available

1993-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

460

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways -costs are compared with cost estimates of similar stationsHydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hardware cost reductions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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461

Cost Study Manual | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual Update 62912. Memo regarding Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual More Documents & Publications Technical Standards, Newsletter-June 1999 Build...

462

REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES  

SciTech Connect

This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of ? The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. ? The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. ? The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. ? The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. ? The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for which per-unit costs were climbing when it was eliminated under the PNIs. Although there were liabilities associated with each of these systems, there were also unique capabilities; this paper lays out the pros and cons for each. Further, we articulate the capabilities that were eliminated with these systems.

Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

463

Modeling of CO2 Reduction Impacts on Energy Prices with Modelica Philip Machanick1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Price mean reversion rate" ; Real relEnergyPrice (start = 1); Real energyCostTrend (start = 1); Real[i,j,k]; end nextStep; equation energyCostTrend = relEnergyPrice * energyUse / baseEnergyUse; // usefulModeling of CO2 Reduction Impacts on Energy Prices with Modelica Philip Machanick1 , Ariel Liebman1

Machanick, Philip

464

U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a â??bottom-upâ? costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with DFMA?® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target. In general, tank costs are the largest component of system cost, responsible for at least 30 percent of total system cost, in all but two of the 12 systems. Purchased BOP cost also drives system cost, accounting for 10 to 50 percent of total system cost across the various storage systems. Potential improvements in these cost drivers for all storage systems may come from new manufacturing processes and higher production volumes for BOP components. In addition, advances in the production of storage media may help drive down overall costs for the sodium alanate, SBH, LCH2, MOF, and AX-21 systems.

Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

465

Regulatory Control of Vehicle and Power Plant Emissions: How Effective and at What Cost?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Passenger vehicles and power plants are major sources of greenhouse gas emissions. While economic analyses generally indicate that a broader market-based approach to greenhouse gas reduction would be less costly and more ...

Paltsev, S.

466

Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

467

Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation system leads to higher thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency. However, in a CSP system, higher operating temperature also leads to greater thermal losses. These two effects combine to give an optimal system-level operating temperature that may be less than the upper operating temperature limit of system components. The overall efficiency may be improved by developing materials, power cycles, and system-integration strategies that enable operation at elevated temperature while limiting thermal losses. This is particularly true for the TES system and its components. Meeting the SunShot cost target will require cost and performance improvements in all systems and components within a CSP plant. Solar collector field hardware will need to decrease significantly in cost with no loss in performance and possibly with performance improvements. As higher temperatures are considered for the power block, new working fluids, heat-transfer fluids (HTFs), and storage fluids will all need to be identified to meet these new operating conditions. Figure 1 shows thermodynamic conversion efficiency as a function of temperature for the ideal Carnot cycle and 75% Carnot, which is considered to be the practical efficiency attainable by current power cycles. Current conversion efficiencies for the parabolic trough steam cycle, power tower steam cycle, parabolic dish/Stirling, Ericsson, and air-Brayton/steam Rankine combined cycles are shown at their corresponding operating temperatures. Efficiencies for supercritical steam and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) are also shown for their operating temperature ranges.