National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hardened chemically altered

  1. Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heath, W.O.; Virden, J.W. Jr.; Richardson, R.L.; Bergsman, T.M.

    1993-10-19

    The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation. 4 figures.

  2. Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heath, William O.; Virden, Jr., Judson W.; Richardson, R. L.; Bergsman, Theresa M.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation.

  3. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  4. Precipitation hardening austenitic superalloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K. (Wexford, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation hardening, austenitic type superalloys are described. These alloys contain 0.5 to 1.5 weight percent silicon in combination with about 0.05 to 0.5 weight percent of a post irradiation ductility enhancing agent selected from the group of hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum and scandium, alone or in combination with each other. In addition, when hafnium or yttrium are selected, reductions in irradiation induced swelling have been noted.

  5. Modeling Wettability Alteration using Chemical EOR Processes in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2007-09-30

    The objective of our search is to develop a mechanistic simulation tool by adapting UTCHEM to model the wettability alteration in both conventional and naturally fractured reservoirs. This will be a unique simulator that can model surfactant floods in naturally fractured reservoir with coupling of wettability effects on relative permeabilities, capillary pressure, and capillary desaturation curves. The capability of wettability alteration will help us and others to better understand and predict the oil recovery mechanisms as a function of wettability in naturally fractured reservoirs. The lack of a reliable simulator for wettability alteration means that either the concept that has already been proven to be effective in the laboratory scale may never be applied commercially to increase oil production or the process must be tested in the field by trial and error and at large expense in time and money. The objective of Task 1 is to perform a literature survey to compile published data on relative permeability, capillary pressure, dispersion, interfacial tension, and capillary desaturation curve as a function of wettability to aid in the development of petrophysical property models as a function of wettability. The new models and correlations will be tested against published data. The models will then be implemented in the compositional chemical flooding reservoir simulator, UTCHEM. The objective of Task 2 is to understand the mechanisms and develop a correlation for the degree of wettability alteration based on published data. The objective of Task 3 is to validate the models and implementation against published data and to perform 3-D field-scale simulations to evaluate the impact of uncertainties in the fracture and matrix properties on surfactant alkaline and hot water floods.

  6. DISPERSION HARDENING OF URANIUM METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arbiter, W.

    1963-01-15

    A method of hardening U metal involves the forming of a fine dispersion of UO/sub 2/. This method consists of first hydriding the U to form a finely divided powder and then exposing the powder to a very dilute O gas in an inert atmosphere under such pressure and temperature conditions as to cause a thin oxide film to coat each particle of the U hydride, The oxide skin prevents agglomeration of the particles as the remaining H is removed, thus preserving the small particle size. The oxide skin coatings remain as an oxide dispersion. The resulting product may be workhardened to improve its physical characteristics. (AEC)

  7. Case hardenable nickel-cobalt steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yana; Olson, Gregory B.

    2012-04-17

    An advanced secondary hardening carburized Ni--Co steel achieves an improved case hardness of about 68-69 Rc together with nominal core hardness of about 50 Rc.

  8. Process for hardening the surface of polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansur, L.K.; Lee, E.H.

    1992-07-14

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them is generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface and improved wear resistance. 1 figure.

  9. Process for hardening the surface of polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansur, Louis K.; Lee, Eal H.

    1992-01-01

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them is generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface and improved wear resistance.

  10. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  11. Determination of Diffusion Profiles in Altered Wellbore Cement Using X-ray Computed Tomography Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Harris E.; Walsh, Stuart D. C.; DuFrane, Wyatt L.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2014-06-17

    The development of accurate, predictive models for use in determining wellbore integrity requires detailed information about the chemical and mechanical changes occurring in hardened Portland cements. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) provides a method that can nondestructively probe these changes in three dimensions. Here, we describe a method for extracting subvoxel mineralogical and chemical information from synchrotron XRCT images by combining advanced image segmentation with geochemical models of cement alteration. The method relies on determining effective linear activity coefficients (ELAC) for the white light source to generate calibration curves that relate the image grayscales to material composition. The resulting data set supports the modeling of cement alteration by CO2-rich brine with discrete increases in calcium concentration at reaction boundaries. The results of these XRCT analyses can be used to further improve coupled geochemical and mechanical models of cement alteration in the wellbore environment.

  12. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-08-05

    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test.

  13. Effects of porosity on leaching of Ca from hardened ordinary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of porosity on leaching of Ca from hardened ordinary Portland cement paste Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of porosity on leaching of Ca from hardened ...

  14. Radiation-hardened transistor and integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Kwok K.

    2007-11-20

    A composite transistor is disclosed for use in radiation hardening a CMOS IC formed on an SOI or bulk semiconductor substrate. The composite transistor has a circuit transistor and a blocking transistor connected in series with a common gate connection. A body terminal of the blocking transistor is connected only to a source terminal thereof, and to no other connection point. The blocking transistor acts to prevent a single-event transient (SET) occurring in the circuit transistor from being coupled outside the composite transistor. Similarly, when a SET occurs in the blocking transistor, the circuit transistor prevents the SET from being coupled outside the composite transistor. N-type and P-type composite transistors can be used for each and every transistor in the CMOS IC to radiation harden the IC, and can be used to form inverters and transmission gates which are the building blocks of CMOS ICs.

  15. An Analytical Elastic Plastic Contact Model with Strain Hardening...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: An Analytical Elastic Plastic Contact Model with Strain Hardening and Frictional Effects for Normal and Oblique Impacts. Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  16. Maturation and Hardening of the Stabilized Radiometer Platforms...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Maturation and Hardening of the Stabilized Radiometer Platforms (STRAPS) Field Campaign Report Measurements of solar and infrared irradiance by instruments rigidly mounted ...

  17. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

  18. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnet, George; Gokhale, Ashok J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

  19. Hardening and Resiliency: U.S. Energy Industry Response to Recent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hardening and Resiliency: U.S. Energy Industry Response to Recent Hurricane Seasons - August 2010 Hardening and Resiliency: U.S. Energy Industry Response to Recent Hurricane ...

  20. Weldable, age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, J.A.; Krenzer, R.W.

    1975-07-22

    An age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel having superior weldability properties as well as resistance to degradation of properties in a hydrogen atmosphere is described. It has a composition of from about 24.0 to about 34.0 weight percent (w/o) nickel, from about 13.5 to about 16.0 w/o chromium, from about 1.9 to about 2.3 w/o titanium, from about 1.0 to about 1.5 w/ o molybdenum, from about 0.01 to about 0.05 w/o carbon, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o manganese, from about 0 to about 0.01 w/o phosphorous and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.010 w/o sulfur and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o silicon, from about 0.1 to about 0.35 w/o aluminum, from about 0.10 to about 0.50 w/o vanadium, from about 0 to about 0.0015 w/o boron, and the balance essentially iron. (auth)

  1. OPC Security Whitepaper #3Hardening Guidelines for OPC Hosts | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy OPC Security Whitepaper #3Hardening Guidelines for OPC Hosts OPC Security Whitepaper #3Hardening Guidelines for OPC Hosts In recent years, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), process control and industrial manufacturing systems have increasingly relied on commercial Information Technologies (IT) such as Ethernet(tm), Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and Windows® for both critical and non-critical communications. This has made the interfacing

  2. Secondary hardening steel having improved combination of hardness and toughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, Earl R.; Zackay, Victor F.; Bhat, Manjeshwar S.; Garrison, Jr., Warren M.

    1979-01-01

    A secondary hardening alloy steel composition consisting essentially of about 0.25-0.5% carbon, about 0.5-1.0% manganese, about 1.5-3.0% nickel, about 0-1.0% chromium, about 1.75-2.5% molybdenum, about 0-0.4% vanadium, and an additive selected from about 1-3% aluminum and a combination of at least about 1% aluminum and at least about 1% silicon for a combined Al+Si content of about 2-4%, the balance being iron and impurity elements. The present steel composition has the following characteristics: it exhibits a flat tempering response, it is hardenable upon tempering to a Rockwell C hardness of at least 50, and it has an improved combination of hardness vs. toughness properties after tempering in the secondary hardening range. A method of preparation is also described.

  3. Temperature influence on water transport in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drouet, Emeline; Poyet, Stéphane; Torrenti, Jean-Michel

    2015-10-15

    Describing water transport in concrete is an important issue for the durability assessment of radioactive waste management reinforced concrete structures. Due to the waste thermal output such structures would be submitted to moderate temperatures (up to 80 °C). We have then studied the influence of temperature on water transport within hardened cement pastes of four different formulations. Using a simplified approach (describing only the permeation of liquid water) we characterized the properties needed to describe water transport (up to 80 °C) using dedicated experiments. For each hardened cement paste the results are presented and discussed.

  4. Statistical thermodynamics of strain hardening in polycrystalline solids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Langer, James S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper starts with a systematic rederivation of the statistical thermodynamic equations of motion for dislocation-mediated plasticity proposed in 2010 by Langer, Bouchbinder, and Lookman. The paper then uses that theory to explain the anomalous rate-hardening behavior reported in 1988 by Follansbee and Kocks and to explore the relation between hardening rate and grain size reported in 1995 by Meyers et al. A central theme is the need for physics-based, nonequilibrium analyses in developing predictive theories of the strength of polycrystalline materials.

  5. Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, Jr., Holt; Harris, Ian D.; Ratka, John O.; Spiegelberg, William D.

    1994-01-01

    A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined.

  6. Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, H. Jr.; Harris, I.D.; Ratka, J.O.; Spiegelberg, W.D.

    1994-06-28

    A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined. 5 figures.

  7. A Low-Cost, Radiation-Hardened Single-Board Computer for Command...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Low-Cost, Radiation-Hardened Single-Board Computer for Command and Data Handling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Low-Cost, Radiation-Hardened Single-Board Computer ...

  8. Radiation Hardening of Gated X-ray Imagers for the National Ignition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Hardening of Gated X-ray Imagers for the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiation Hardening of Gated X-ray Imagers for the National ...

  9. Segmentation-free empirical beam hardening correction for CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schller, Sren; Sawall, Stefan; Stannigel, Kai; Hlsbusch, Markus; Ulrici, Johannes; Hell, Erich; Kachelrie, Marc

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The polychromatic nature of the x-ray beams and their effects on the reconstructed image are often disregarded during standard image reconstruction. This leads to cupping and beam hardening artifacts inside the reconstructed volume. To correct for a general cupping, methods like water precorrection exist. They correct the hardening of the spectrum during the penetration of the measured object only for the major tissue class. In contrast, more complex artifacts like streaks between dense objects need other techniques of correction. If using only the information of one single energy scan, there are two types of corrections. The first one is a physical approach. Thereby, artifacts can be reproduced and corrected within the original reconstruction by using assumptions in a polychromatic forward projector. These assumptions could be the used spectrum, the detector response, the physical attenuation and scatter properties of the intersected materials. A second method is an empirical approach, which does not rely on much prior knowledge. This so-called empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) and the previously mentioned physical-based technique are both relying on a segmentation of the present tissues inside the patient. The difficulty thereby is that beam hardening by itself, scatter, and other effects, which diminish the image quality also disturb the correct tissue classification and thereby reduce the accuracy of the two known classes of correction techniques. The herein proposed method works similar to the empirical beam hardening correction but does not require a tissue segmentation and therefore shows improvements on image data, which are highly degraded by noise and artifacts. Furthermore, the new algorithm is designed in a way that no additional calibration or parameter fitting is needed. Methods: To overcome the segmentation of tissues, the authors propose a histogram deformation of their primary reconstructed CT image. This step is essential for the

  10. Surface hardening of titanium alloys with melting depth controlled by heat sink

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L.; Turner, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for forming a hard surface coating on titanium alloys includes providing a piece of material containing titanium having at least a portion of one surface to be hardened. The piece having a portion of a surface to be hardened is contacted on the backside by a suitable heat sink such that the melting depth of said surface to be hardened may be controlled. A hardening material is then deposited as a slurry. Alternate methods of deposition include flame, arc, or plasma spraying, electrodeposition, vapor deposition, or any other deposition method known by those skilled in the art. The surface to be hardened is then selectively melted to the desired depth, dependent on the desired coating thickness, such that a molten pool is formed of the piece surface and the deposited hardening material. Upon cooling a hardened surface is formed.

  11. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Lawrence T.; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  12. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

  13. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

  14. Ductility and work hardening in nano-sized metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D. Z.; Gu, X. W.; An, Q.; Goddard, W. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-02-09

    In-situ nano-tensile experiments on 70 nm-diameter free-standing electroplated NiP metallic glass nanostructures reveal tensile true strains of ∼18%, an amount comparable to compositionally identical 100 nm-diameter focused ion beam samples and ∼3 times greater than 100 nm-diameter electroplated samples. Simultaneous in-situ observations and stress-strain data during post-elastic deformation reveal necking and work hardening, features uncharacteristic for metallic glasses. The evolution of free volume within molecular dynamics-simulated samples suggests a free surface-mediated relaxation mechanism in nano-sized metallic glasses.

  15. Gamma prime hardened nickel-iron based superalloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1978-01-01

    A low swelling, gamma prime hardened nickel-iron base superalloy useful for fast reactor duct and cladding applications is described having from about 7.0 to about 10.5 weight percent (wt%) chromium, from about 24 to about 35 wt% nickel, from about 1.7 to about 2.5 wt% titanium, from about 0.3 to about 1.0 wt% aluminum, from about 2.0 to about 3.3 wt% molybdenum, from about 0.05 to about 1.0 wt% silicon, from about 0.03 to about 0.06 wt% carbon, a maximum of about 2 wt% manganese, and the balance iron.

  16. Method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2010-08-31

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  17. Change in pore structure and composition of hardened cement paste...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    To investigate the alteration associated with dissolution, dissolution tests of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydrates were performed. Through observation of the samples after ...

  18. Midday Meeting- Chemically induced Mind Alteration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le Docteur Hugo Solms parle de l'abus des drogues, pourquoi les gens en prennent et comment vivre sans

  19. Magnetic Hardening of CeFe11Ti and the Effect of TiC Addition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic Hardening of CeFe11Ti and the Effect of TiC Addition Citation ... Publication Date: 2015-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1221660 Report Number(s): IS-J 8423 Journal ID: ISSN ...

  20. Precipitation hardening in nickel-copper base alloy Monel K 500

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, G.K.; Tewari, R.; Wadekar, S.L.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Rao, P.

    1993-12-01

    The occurrence of a significant amount of age hardening, due to the precipitation of the {gamma}{prime} phase, has been demonstrated in the nickel-copper base alloy MONEL K 500. The microstructure of the precipitation-hardened and deformed alloy has been examined in peak-aged, underaged and overaged conditions. An attempt has been made to compare the observed increments in strength in these three aged conditions to those predicted on the basis of relevant theoretical models.

  1. Method for determining the hardness of strain hardening articles of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Steven A.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a rapid nondestructive method for determining the extent of strain hardening in an article of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy. The method comprises saturating the article with a magnetic field from a permanent magnet, measuring the magnetic flux emanating from the article, comparing the measurements of the magnetic flux emanating from the article with measured magnetic fluxes from similarly shaped standards of the alloy with known amounts of strain hardening to determine the hardness.

  2. Microstructural evolution and the variation of tensile behavior after aging heat treatment of precipitation hardened martensitic steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Jong-Ho; Jeong, JaeSuk; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-15

    The effects of aging temperature on the microstructural evolution and the tensile behavior of precipitation hardened martensitic steel were investigated. Microscopic analysis using transmission electron microscope (TEM) was combined with the microstructural analysis using the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the microstructural evolution with aging temperature. Peak hardness was obtained by precipitation of the Ni{sub 3}Al ordered phase. After aging at temperature range from 420 to 590 °C, spherical Ni{sub 3}Al precipitates and ellipsoidal M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides were observed within laths and at lath boundaries, respectively. Strain hardening behavior was analyzed with Ludwik equation. It is observed that the plastic strain regimes can be divided into two different stages by a rapid increase in strain hardening followed by a comparatively lower increase. At the first strain hardening stage, the aged specimen exhibited higher strain hardening exponent than the as-quenched specimen, and the exponent in the aged specimen was not changed considerably with increasing aging temperature. It is revealed that the strain hardening exponents at the first and the second stages were associated with the Ni{sub 3}Al precipitates and the domain size representing the coherent scattering area, respectively. - Highlights: • All of aged specimen exhibited higher strain hardening exponent than the as-quenched specimen at the first stage. • The value of strain hardening exponent in the aged specimen was nearly constant with aging temperature. • Ni{sub 3}Al precipitation dominantly influenced to the increase of strain hardening exponent at the first strain hardening stage. • Domain size was associated with strain hardening exponent at the second strain hardening stage.

  3. Identifying Deformation and Strain Hardening Behaviors of Nanoscale Metallic Multilayers Through Nano-wear Testing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Economy, David Ross; Mara, Nathan A.; Schoeppner, R.; Schultz, Bradley M.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2016-01-13

    In complex loading conditions (e.g. sliding contact), mechanical properties, such as strain hardening and initial hardness, will dictate the long-term performance of materials systems. With this in mind, the strain hardening behaviors of Cu/Nb nanoscale metallic multilayer systems were examined by performing nanoindentation tests within nanoscratch wear boxes and undeformed, as-deposited regions. Both the architecture and substrate influence were examined by utilizing three different individual layer thicknesses (2, 20, and 100 nm) and two total film thicknesses (1 and 10 μm). After nano-wear deformation, multilayer systems with thinner layers showed less volume loss as measured by laser scanning microscopy. Additionally,more » the hardness of the deformed regions significantly rose with respect to the as-deposited measurements, which further increased with greater wear loads. Strain hardening exponents for multilayers with thinner layers (2 and 20 nm, n ≈ 0.018 and n ≈ 0.022 respectively) were less than was determined for 100 nm systems (n ≈ 0.041). These results suggest that singledislocation based deformation mechanisms observed for the thinner systems limit the extent of achievable strain hardening. This conclusion indicates that impacts of both architecture strengthening and strain hardening must be considered to accurately predict multilayer performance during sliding contact across varying length scales.« less

  4. Transient radiation hardened CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) operational amplifiers. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trombley, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    General strategies are developed for designing radiation hardened bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) operational amplifiers. Comparisons are made between each technology concerning photocurrent mechanisms and the inherent advantages of SOI CMOS. Methods are presented for analysing circuit designs and minimizing the net photocurrent responses. Analysis is performed on standard operational amplifier circuits and subcircuits to demonstrate the usefulness of these methods. Radiation hardening topics discussed include superior radiation hardened topologies, photocurrent compensation and its limitations, and methods to ensure a preferred direction of photocurrent response. Several operational amplifier subcircuits are compared for their hardness characteristics. Folded cascode and three-stage operational amplifiers were fabricated on an SOI CMOS test chip supported by Texas Instruments, Incorporated. At the time of publication, the circuit operation was verified but radiation data were not yet available.

  5. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for twomore » interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.« less

  6. Advanced time integration algorithms for dislocation dynamics simulations of work hardening

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sills, Ryan B.; Aghaei, Amin; Cai, Wei

    2016-04-25

    Efficient time integration is a necessity for dislocation dynamics simulations of work hardening to achieve experimentally relevant strains. In this work, an efficient time integration scheme using a high order explicit method with time step subcycling and a newly-developed collision detection algorithm are evaluated. First, time integrator performance is examined for an annihilating Frank–Read source, showing the effects of dislocation line collision. The integrator with subcycling is found to significantly out-perform other integration schemes. The performance of the time integration and collision detection algorithms is then tested in a work hardening simulation. The new algorithms show a 100-fold speed-up relativemore » to traditional schemes. As a result, subcycling is shown to improve efficiency significantly while maintaining an accurate solution, and the new collision algorithm allows an arbitrarily large time step size without missing collisions.« less

  7. Chemical Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARPA-E Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Chemical Engineering HomeTag:Chemical ...

  8. Hardening and Resiliency: U.S. Energy Industry Response to Recent Hurricane Seasons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hardening and Resiliency U.S. Energy Industry Response to Recent Hurricane Seasons Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability U.S. Department of Energy August 2010 OE/ISER Final Report 8/16/10 i For Further Information This report was prepared by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability under the direction of Patricia Hoffman, Assistant Secretary, and William Bryan, Deputy Assistant Secretary. Specific questions about

  9. Cadmium Depletion Impacts on Hardening Neutron6 Spectrum for Advanced Fuel Testing in ATR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray S. Chang

    2011-05-01

    For transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products effectively is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast spectrum test reactor in the United States of America (USA), initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. A test region is achieved with a Cadmium (Cd) filter which can harden the neutron spectrum to a spectrum similar (although still somewhat softer) to that of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A fuel test loop with a Cd-filter has been installed within the East Flux Trap (EFT) of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A detailed comparison analyses between the cadmium (Cd) filter hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum have been performed using MCWO. MCWO is a set of scripting tools that are used to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2.2. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the Cd-filter can effectively flatten the Rim-Effect and reduce the linear heat rate (LHGR) to meet the advanced fuel testing project requirements at the beginning of irradiation (BOI). However, the filtering characteristics of Cd as a strong absorber quickly depletes over time, and the Cd-filter must be replaced for every two typical operating cycles within the EFT of the ATR. The designed Cd-filter can effectively depress the LHGR in experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum enough to adequately flatten the Rim Effect in the test region.

  10. Neutron energy spectrum influence on irradiation hardening and microstructural development of tungsten

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fukuda, Makoto; Kiran Kumar, N. A. P.; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Garrison, Lauren M.; Snead, Lance L.; Katoh, Yutai; Hasegawa, Akira

    2016-07-02

    We performed a neutron irradiation to single crystal pure tungsten in the mixed spectrum High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). In order to investigate the influences of neutron energy spectrum, the microstructure and irradiation hardening were compared with previous data obtained from the irradiation campaigns in the mixed spectrum Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the sodium-cooled fast reactor Joyo. The irradiation temperatures were in the range of ~90–~800 °C and fast neutron fluences were 0.02–9.00 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Post irradiation evaluation included Vickers hardness measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the hardness and microstructure changes exhibitedmore » a clear dependence on the neutron energy spectrum. The hardness appeared to increase with increasing thermal neutron flux when fast fluence exceeds 1 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Finally, irradiation induced precipitates considered to be χ- and σ-phases were observed in samples irradiated to >1 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), which were pronounced at high dose and due to the very high thermal neutron flux of HFIR. Although the irradiation hardening mainly caused by defects clusters in a low dose regime, the transmutation-induced precipitation appeared to impose additional significant hardening of the tungsten.« less

  11. An Elastic Plastic Contact Model with Strain Hardening for the LAMMPS Granular Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhr, Bryan; Brake, Matthew Robert; Lechman, Jeremy B.

    2015-03-01

    The following details the implementation of an analytical elastic plastic contact model with strain hardening for normal im pacts into the LAMMPS granular package. The model assumes that, upon impact, the co llision has a period of elastic loading followed by a period of mixed elastic plas tic loading, with contributions to each mechanism estimated by a hyperbolic seca nt weight function. This function is implemented in the LAMMPS source code as the pair style gran/ep/history. Preliminary tests, simulating the pouring of pure nickel spheres, showed the elastic/plastic model took 1.66x as long as similar runs using gran/hertz/history.

  12. Multi-scale simulation of radiation damage accumulation and subsequent hardening in neutron-irradiated α-Fe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dunn, Aaron; Dingreville, Remi; Capolungo, Laurent

    2015-11-27

    A hierarchical methodology is introduced to predict the effects of radiation damage and irradiation conditions on the yield stress and internal stress heterogeneity developments in polycrystalline α-Fe. Simulations of defect accumulation under displacement cascade damage conditions are performed using spatially resolved stochastic cluster dynamics. The resulting void and dislocation loop concentrations and average sizes are then input into a crystal plasticity formulation that accounts for the change in critical resolved shear stress due to the presence of radiation induced defects. The simulated polycrystalline tensile tests show a good match to experimental hardening data over a wide range of irradiation doses.more » With this capability, stress heterogeneity development and the effect of dose rate on hardening is investigated. The model predicts increased hardening at higher dose rates for low total doses. By contrast, at doses above 10–2 dpa when cascade overlap becomes significant, the model does not predict significantly different hardening for different dose rates. In conclusion, the development of such a model enables simulation of radiation damage accumulation and associated hardening without relying on experimental data as an input under a wide range of irradiation conditions such as dose, dose rate, and temperature.« less

  13. The role of twinning deformation on the hardening response of polycrystalline magnesium from discrete dislocation dynamics simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fan, Haidong; Aubry, Sylvie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; El-Awady, Jaafar A.

    2015-04-13

    The mechanical response of micro-twinned polycrystalline magnesium was studied through three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD). A systematic interaction model between dislocations and (1012) tension twin boundaries (TBs) was proposed and introduced into the DDD framework. In addition, a nominal grain boundary (GB) model agreeing with experimental results was also introduced to mimic the GB’s barrier effect. The current simulation results show that TBs act as a strong obstacle to gliding dislocations, which contributes significantly to the hardening behavior of magnesium. On the other hand, the deformation accommodated by twinning plays a softening role. Therefore, the concave shape of the Mgmore » stress-strain curve results from the competition between dislocation-TB induced hardening and twinning deformation induced softening. At low strain levels, twinning deformation induced softening dominates and a decreasing hardening rate is observed in Stage-I. In Stage-II, both the hardening and softening effects decline, but twinning deformation induced softening declines faster, which leads to an increasing hardening rate.« less

  14. Multi-scale simulation of radiation damage accumulation and subsequent hardening in neutron-irradiated α-Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Aaron; Dingreville, Remi; Capolungo, Laurent

    2015-11-27

    A hierarchical methodology is introduced to predict the effects of radiation damage and irradiation conditions on the yield stress and internal stress heterogeneity developments in polycrystalline α-Fe. Simulations of defect accumulation under displacement cascade damage conditions are performed using spatially resolved stochastic cluster dynamics. The resulting void and dislocation loop concentrations and average sizes are then input into a crystal plasticity formulation that accounts for the change in critical resolved shear stress due to the presence of radiation induced defects. The simulated polycrystalline tensile tests show a good match to experimental hardening data over a wide range of irradiation doses. With this capability, stress heterogeneity development and the effect of dose rate on hardening is investigated. The model predicts increased hardening at higher dose rates for low total doses. By contrast, at doses above 10–2 dpa when cascade overlap becomes significant, the model does not predict significantly different hardening for different dose rates. In conclusion, the development of such a model enables simulation of radiation damage accumulation and associated hardening without relying on experimental data as an input under a wide range of irradiation conditions such as dose, dose rate, and temperature.

  15. A tale of two mechanisms. Strain-softening versus strain-hardening in single crystals under small stressed volumes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bei, Hongbin; Xia, Yuzhi; Barabash, Rozaliya; Gao, Y. F.

    2015-08-10

    Pre-straining defect-free single crystals will introduce heterogeneous dislocation nucleation sources that reduce the measured strength from the theoretical value, while pre-straining bulk samples will lead to strain hardening. Their competition is investigated by nanoindentation pop-in tests on variously pre-strained Mo single crystals with several indenter radii (~micrometer). Pre-straining primarily shifts deformation mechanism from homogeneous dislocation nucleation to a stochastic behavior, while strain hardening plays a secondary role, as summarized in a master plot of pop-in strength versus normalized indenter radius.

  16. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mercury Cavitation Resistance of Surface Hardened 316LN Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, Steven J; Hsu, Julia

    2010-11-01

    The cavitation-erosion resistance of carburized 316LN stainless steel was significantly degraded but not destroyed by heat treatment in the temperature range 500-800 C. The heat treatments caused rejection of some carbon from the carburized layer into an amorphous film that formed on each specimen surface. Further, the heat treatments encouraged carbide precipitation and reduced hardness within the carburized layer, but the overall change did not reduce surface hardness fully to the level of untreated material. Heat treatments as short as 10 min at 650 C substantially reduced cavitation-erosion resistance in mercury, while heat treatments at 500 and 800 C were found to be somewhat less detrimental. Overall, the results suggest that modest thermal excursions perhaps the result of a weld made at some distance to the carburized material or a brief stress relief treatment will not render the hardened layer completely ineffective but should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.

  17. Thermal Management in Friction-Stir Welding of Precipitation-Hardening Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyay, Piyush; Reynolds, Anthony

    2015-05-25

    Process design and implementation in FSW is mostly dependent on empirical information gathered through experience. Basic science of friction stir welding and processing can only be complete when fundamental interrelationships between process control parameters and response variables and resulting weld microstructure and properties are established to a reasonable extent. It is known that primary process control parameters like tool rotation and translation rate and forge axis force have complicated and interactive relationships to the process response variables such as peak temperature, time at temperature etc. Of primary influence to the other process response parameters are temperature and its gradient at the deformation and heat affected zones. Through review of pertinent works in the literature and some experimental results from boundary condition work performed in precipitation hardening aluminum alloys this paper will partially elucidate the nature and effects of temperature transients caused by variation of thermal boundaries in Friction Stir Welding.

  18. Radiation-Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Bobrek, Miljko; Blalock, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    As the recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi so vividly demonstrated, telerobotic technologies capable of withstanding high radiation environments need to be readily available to enable operations, repair, and recovery under severe accident scenarios where human entry is extremely dangerous or not possible. Telerobotic technologies that enable remote operation in high dose rate environments have undergone revolutionary improvement over the past few decades. However, much of this technology cannot be employed in nuclear power environments due the radiation sensitivity of the electronics and the organic insulator materials currently in use. This is the final report of the activities involving the NEET 2 project Radiation Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. We present a detailed functional block diagram of the proposed data acquisition system, the thought process leading to technical decisions, the implemented system, and the tested results from the systems. This system will be capable of monitoring at least three parameters of importance to nuclear reactor monitoring: temperature, radiation level, and pressure.

  19. Precipitation hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy having good swelling resistance and low neutron absorbence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K.; Merrick, Howard F.; Gibson, Robert C.

    1980-01-01

    An iron-nickel-chromium age-hardenable alloy suitable for use in fast breeder reactor ducts and cladding which utilizes the gamma-double prime strengthening phase and characterized in having a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime phase and delta phase distributed at or near the grain boundaries. The alloy consists essentially of about 40-50% nickel, 7.5-14% chromium, 1.5-4% niobium, 0.25-0.75% silicon, 1-3% titanium, 0.1-0.5% aluminum, 0.02-0.1% carbon, 0.002-0.015% boron, and the balance iron. Up to 2% manganese and up to 0.01% magnesium may be added to inhibit trace element effects; up to 0.1% zirconium may be added to increase radiation swelling resistance; and up to 3% molybdenum may be added to increase strength.

  20. Chemical Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Science Chemical Science National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Actinide Chemistry» Modeling and Simulation in the Chemical Sciences» Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry» Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science» Chemical Researcher Jeff Pietryga shows two vials of different-size nanocrystals, each

  1. Chemical Recycling | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Recycling Chemical Recycling

  2. Chemical microsensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, Basil I.

    1995-01-01

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

  3. Empirical binary tomography calibration (EBTC) for the precorrection of beam hardening and scatter for flat panel CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimmer, Rainer; Kachelriess, Marc

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: Scatter and beam hardening are prominent artifacts in x-ray CT. Currently, there is no precorrection method that inherently accounts for tube voltage modulation and shaped prefiltration. Methods: A method for self-calibration based on binary tomography of homogeneous objects, which was proposed by B. Li et al. [''A novel beam hardening correction method for computed tomography,'' in Proceedings of the IEEE/ICME International Conference on Complex Medical Engineering CME 2007, pp. 891-895, 23-27 May 2007], has been generalized in order to use this information to preprocess scans of other, nonbinary objects, e.g., to reduce artifacts in medical CT applications. Further on, the method was extended to handle scatter besides beam hardening and to allow for detector pixel-specific and ray-specific precorrections. This implies that the empirical binary tomography calibration (EBTC) technique is sensitive to spectral effects as they are induced by the heel effect, by shaped prefiltration, or by scanners with tube voltage modulation. The presented method models the beam hardening correction by using a rational function, while the scatter component is modeled using the pep model of B. Ohnesorge et al. [''Efficient object scatter correction algorithm for third and fourth generation CT scanners,'' Eur. Radiol. 9(3), 563-569 (1999)]. A smoothness constraint is applied to the parameter space to regularize the underdetermined system of nonlinear equations. The parameters determined are then used to precorrect CT scans. Results: EBTC was evaluated using simulated data of a flat panel cone-beam CT scanner with tube voltage modulation and bow-tie prefiltration and using real data of a flat panel cone-beam CT scanner. In simulation studies, where the ground truth is known, the authors' correction model proved to be highly accurate and was able to reduce beam hardening by 97% and scatter by about 75%. Reconstructions of measured data showed significantly less artifacts than

  4. Chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2001-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator is disclosed with applications to chemical sensing and analysis. The preconcentrator can be formed by depositing a resistive heating element (e.g. platinum) over a membrane (e.g. silicon nitride) suspended above a substrate. A coating of a sorptive material (e.g. a microporous hydrophobic sol-gel coating or a polymer coating) is formed on the suspended membrane proximate to the heating element to selective sorb one or more chemical species of interest over a time period, thereby concentrating the chemical species in the sorptive material. Upon heating the sorptive material with the resistive heating element, the sorbed chemical species are released for detection and analysis in a relatively high concentration and over a relatively short time period. The sorptive material can be made to selectively sorb particular chemical species of interest while not substantially sorbing other chemical species not of interest. The present invention has applications for use in forming high-sensitivity, rapid-response miniaturized chemical analysis systems (e.g. a "chem lab on a chip").

  5. Chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  6. Chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

  7. Hardness-based plasticity and fracture model for quench-hardenable boron steel (22MnB5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greve, L. Medricky, M. Andres, M.; Eller, T. K.

    2013-12-16

    A comprehensive strain hardening and fracture characterization of different grades of boron steel blanks has been performed, providing the foundation for the implementation into the modular material model (MMM) framework developed by Volkswagen Group Research for an explicit crash code. Due to the introduction of hardness-based interpolation rules for the characterized main grades, the hardening and fracture behavior is solely described by the underlying Vickers hardness. In other words, knowledge of the hardness distribution within a hot-formed component is enough to set up the newly developed computational model. The hardness distribution can be easily introduced via an experimentally measured hardness curve or via hardness mapping from a corresponding hot-forming simulation. For industrial application using rather coarse and computationally inexpensive shell element meshes, the user material model has been extended by a necking/post-necking model with reduced mesh-dependency as an additional failure mode. The present paper mainly addresses the necking/post-necking model.

  8. Phase decomposition in an Fe-40 at.% Cr alloy after isothermal aging and its effect on hardening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Hirata, Victor M. Soriano-Vargas, Orlando; Rosales-Dorantes, Hector J.; Saucedo Munoz, Maribel L.

    2011-08-15

    The phase decomposition process of an Fe-40 at.% Cr alloy was studied after isothermal aging at 475 and 500 deg. C using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, as well as hardness measurements. High-resolution transmission electron microscope observations showed that the hardening behavior is associated with the formation of the nanometric coherent decomposed Cr-rich and Fe-rich phases with irregular shape and interconnected as expected for a spinodally-decomposed alloy. As the aging progressed, coherent rounded Cr-rich phase precipitates were observed in the Fe-rich phase matrix. The coarsening process of the Cr-rich phase was observed for aging times up to 750 h. Nevertheless, no decrease in hardness with time was observed because of the nanometric size of the Cr-rich phase, less than 10 nm. Aging hardening was higher at 500 deg. C because of the higher decomposition kinetics. - Research Highlights: {yields} Spinodally-decomposed phases showed an interconnected and irregular shape in aged Fe-Cr alloy. {yields} Further aging promoted the formation of nanometric coherent rounded Cr-rich precipitates. {yields} Nanometric Cr-rich phases are responsible for the age hardening. {yields} Coarsening process of these nanometric Cr-rich precipitates caused no decrease in hardness.

  9. Chemical Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Science Chemical Science Plant fatty acids are used in a vast range of products, from polymers to plastics and soaps to industrial feed stocks -- making up an estimated $150 billion market annually. A new discovery of inserting double bonds in the fatty acids could show the way to the designer production of plant fatty acids, and, in turn, to new industrial applications and new products. <a href

  10. Chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1992-06-09

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

  11. Chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

  12. On the thermal stability of physical vapor deposited oxide-hardened nanocrystalline gold thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argibay, Nicolas; Mogonye, J. E.; Michael, Joseph R.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Kotula, Paul G.; Scharf, T. W.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Prasad, Somuri V.

    2015-04-08

    We describe a correlation between electrical resistivity and grain size for PVD synthesized polycrystalline oxide-hardened metal-matrix thin films in oxide-dilute (<5 vol. % oxide phase) compositions. The correlation is based on the Mayadas-Shatzkes (M-S) electron scattering model, predictive of grain size evolution as a function of composition in the oxide-dilute regime for 2 ?m thick Au-ZnO films. We describe a technique to investigate grain boundary (GB) mobility and the thermal stability of GBs based on in situelectrical resistivity measurements during annealing experiments, interpreted using a combination of the M-S model and the Michels et al. model describing solute drag stabilized grain growth kinetics. Using this technique, activation energy and pre-exponential Arrhenius parameter values of Ea = 21.6 kJ/mol and Ao = 2.3 1017 m2/s for Au-1 vol. % ZnO and Ea =12.7 kJ/mol and Ao = 3.1 1018 m2/s for Au-2 vol.% ZnO were determined. In the oxide-dilute regime, the grain size reduction of the Au matrix yielded a maximum hardness of 2.6 GPa for 5 vol. % ZnO. A combined model including percolation behavior and grain refinement is presented that accurately describes the composition dependent change in electrical resistivity throughout the entire composition range for Au-ZnO thin films. As a result, the proposed correlations are supported by microstructural characterization using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction mapping for grain size determination.

  13. Solid state NMR and LVSEM studies on the hardening of latex modified tile mortar systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rottstegge, J.; Arnold, M.; Herschke, L.; Glasser, G.; Wilhelm, M.; Spiess, H.W. . E-mail: spiess@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Hergeth, W.D.

    2005-12-15

    Construction mortars contain a broad variety of both inorganic and organic additives beside the cement powder. Here we present a study of tile mortar systems based on portland cement, quartz, methyl cellulose and different latex additives. As known, the methyl cellulose stabilizes the freshly prepared cement paste, the latex additive enhances final hydrophobicity, flexibility and adhesion. Measurements were performed by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and low voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) to probe the influence of the latex additives on the hydration, hardening and the final tile mortar properties. While solid state NMR enables monitoring of the bulk composition, scanning electron microscopy affords visualization of particles and textures with respect to their shape and the distribution of the different phases. Within the alkaline cement paste, the poly(vinyl acetate) (VAc)-based latex dispersions stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were found to be relatively stable against hydrolysis. The influence of the combined organic additives methyl cellulose, poly(vinyl alcohol) and latexes stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) on the final silicate structure of the cement hydration products is small. But even small amounts of additives result in an increased ratio of ettringite to monosulfate within the final hydrated tile mortar as monitored by {sup 27}Al NMR. The latex was found to be adsorbed to the inorganic surfaces, acting as glue to the inorganic components. For similar latex water interfaces built up by poly(vinyl alcohol), a variation in the latex polymer composition results in modified organic textures. In addition to the networks of the inorganic cement and of the latex, there is a weak network build up by thin polymer fibers, most probably originating from poly(vinyl alcohol). Besides the weak network, polymer fibers form well-ordered textures covering inorganic crystals such as portlandite.

  14. Determining the slag fraction, water/binder ratio and degree of hydration in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yio, M.H.N. Phelan, J.C.; Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2014-02-15

    A method for determining the original mix composition of hardened slag-blended cement-based materials based on analysis of backscattered electron images combined with loss on ignition measurements is presented. The method does not require comparison to reference standards or prior knowledge of the composition of the binders used. Therefore, it is well-suited for application to real structures. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Results obtained from an experimental study involving sixty samples with a wide range of water/binder (w/b) ratios (0.30 to 0.50), slag/binder ratios (0 to 0.6) and curing ages (3 days to 1 year) show that the method is very promising. The mean absolute errors for the estimated slag, water and cement contents (kg/m{sup 3}), w/b and s/b ratios were 9.1%, 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.7% and 8.7%, respectively. 91% of the estimated w/b ratios were within 0.036 of the actual values. -- Highlights: •A new method for estimating w/b ratio and slag content in cement pastes is proposed. •The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. •Reference standards or prior knowledge of the binder composition are not required. •The method was tested on samples with varying w/b ratios and slag content.

  15. On the thermal stability of physical vapor deposited oxide-hardened nanocrystalline gold thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argibay, Nicolas; Mogonye, J. E.; Michael, Joseph R.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Kotula, Paul G.; Scharf, T. W.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Prasad, Somuri V.

    2015-04-08

    We describe a correlation between electrical resistivity and grain size for PVD synthesized polycrystalline oxide-hardened metal-matrix thin films in oxide-dilute (<5 vol. % oxide phase) compositions. The correlation is based on the Mayadas-Shatzkes (M-S) electron scattering model, predictive of grain size evolution as a function of composition in the oxide-dilute regime for 2 μm thick Au-ZnO films. We describe a technique to investigate grain boundary (GB) mobility and the thermal stability of GBs based on in situelectrical resistivity measurements during annealing experiments, interpreted using a combination of the M-S model and the Michels et al. model describing solute drag stabilized grain growth kinetics. Using this technique, activation energy and pre-exponential Arrhenius parameter values of Ea = 21.6 kJ/mol and Ao = 2.3 × 10-17 m2/s for Au-1 vol. % ZnO and Ea =12.7 kJ/mol and Ao = 3.1 × 10-18 m2/s for Au-2 vol.% ZnO were determined. In the oxide-dilute regime, the grain size reduction of the Au matrix yielded a maximum hardness of 2.6 GPa for 5 vol. % ZnO. A combined model including percolation behavior and grain refinement is presented that accurately describes the composition dependent change in electrical resistivity throughout the entire composition range for Au-ZnO thin films. As a result, the proposed correlations are supported by microstructural characterization using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction mapping for grain size determination.

  16. On the thermal stability of physical vapor deposited oxide-hardened nanocrystalline gold thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Argibay, Nicolas; Mogonye, J. E.; Michael, Joseph R.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Kotula, Paul G.; Scharf, T. W.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Prasad, Somuri V.

    2015-04-08

    We describe a correlation between electrical resistivity and grain size for PVD synthesized polycrystalline oxide-hardened metal-matrix thin films in oxide-dilute (<5 vol. % oxide phase) compositions. The correlation is based on the Mayadas-Shatzkes (M-S) electron scattering model, predictive of grain size evolution as a function of composition in the oxide-dilute regime for 2 μm thick Au-ZnO films. We describe a technique to investigate grain boundary (GB) mobility and the thermal stability of GBs based on in situelectrical resistivity measurements during annealing experiments, interpreted using a combination of the M-S model and the Michels et al. model describing solute drag stabilizedmore » grain growth kinetics. Using this technique, activation energy and pre-exponential Arrhenius parameter values of Ea = 21.6 kJ/mol and Ao = 2.3 × 10-17 m2/s for Au-1 vol. % ZnO and Ea =12.7 kJ/mol and Ao = 3.1 × 10-18 m2/s for Au-2 vol.% ZnO were determined. In the oxide-dilute regime, the grain size reduction of the Au matrix yielded a maximum hardness of 2.6 GPa for 5 vol. % ZnO. A combined model including percolation behavior and grain refinement is presented that accurately describes the composition dependent change in electrical resistivity throughout the entire composition range for Au-ZnO thin films. As a result, the proposed correlations are supported by microstructural characterization using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction mapping for grain size determination.« less

  17. Chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung Y.; Lohan, Dirk; Elizabeth, Anne

    2003-01-01

    A chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic formed by chemically reacting a monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and a sparsely soluble oxide, with a sparsely soluble silicate in an aqueous solution. The monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and sparsely soluble oxide are both in powder form and combined in a stochiometric molar ratio range of (0.5-1.5):1 to form a binder powder. Similarly, the sparsely soluble silicate is also in powder form and mixed with the binder powder to form a mixture. Water is added to the mixture to form a slurry. The water comprises 50% by weight of the powder mixture in said slurry. The slurry is allowed to harden. The resulting chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic exhibits high flexural strength, high compression strength, low porosity and permeability to water, has a definable and bio-compatible chemical composition, and is readily and easily colored to almost any desired shade or hue.

  18. Chemical Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical 'Sponges' Could Make Chemo Safer Chemical 'Sponges' Could Make Chemo Safer July 8, 2016 - 4:22pm Addthis A sample of a polymer-based membrane material created at Berkeley Lab. It’s designed to soak up cancer drugs and limit their side effects. | Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab. A sample of a polymer-based membrane material created at Berkeley Lab. It's designed to soak up cancer drugs and limit their side effects. | Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab. Glenn Roberts Jr.

  19. Chemical Occurrences

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Classification of Chemical Occurrence Reports into the following four classes: Occurrences characterized by serious energy release, injury or exposure requiring medical treatment, or severe environmental damage, Occurrences characterized by minor injury or exposure, or reportable environmental release, Occurrences that were near misses including notable safety violations and Minor occurrences.

  20. Radiation-Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. Report 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britton, Jr, Charles L.; Shelton, Jacob H.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Blalock, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    As the recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi so vividly demonstrated, telerobotic technologies capable of withstanding high radiation environments need to be readily available to enable operations, repair, and recovery under severe accident scenarios when human entry is extremely dangerous or not possible. Telerobotic technologies that enable remote operation in high dose rate environments have undergone revolutionary improvement over the past few decades. However, much of this technology cannot be employed in nuclear power environments because of the radiation sensitivity of the electronics and the organic insulator materials currently in use. This is a report of the activities involving Task 3 of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) 2 project Radiation Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays [1]. Evaluation of the performance of the system for both pre- and post-irradiation as well as operation at elevated temperature will be performed. Detailed performance of the system will be documented to ensure the design meets requirements prior to any extended evaluation. A suite of tests will be developed which will allow evaluation before and after irradiation and during temperature. Selection of the radiation exposure facilities will be determined in the early phase of the project. Radiation exposure will consist of total integrated dose (TID) up to 200 kRad or above with several intermediate doses during test. Dose rates will be in various ranges determined by the facility that will be used with a target of 30 kRad/hr. Many samples of the pre-commercial devices to be used will have been tested in previous projects to doses of at least 300 kRad and temperatures up to 125C. The complete systems will therefore be tested for performance at intermediate doses. Extended temperature testing will be performed up to the limit of the commercial sensors. The test suite performed at each test point will consist of operational testing of the three basic

  1. Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alteration Products Numerous types of colorful hydrothermal alterations compose the landscape at Kerlingarfjoll Geothermal area, Iceland. Photo by Darren Atkins User-specified...

  2. Stream Alteration Permits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Stream Alteration Permits Abstract Stream alteration permits regulate activities that take...

  3. Hydrothermally Altered Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paleochori cliffs Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermal alteration refers to rocks that have been altered from their original...

  4. Effects of compositional complexity on the ion-irradiation induced swelling and hardening in Ni-containing equiatomic alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jin, K.; Lu, C.; Wang, L. M.; Qu, J.; Weber, W. J.; Zhang, Y.; Bei, H.

    2016-04-14

    The impact of compositional complexity on the ion-irradiation induced swelling and hardening is studied in Ni and six Ni-containing equiatomic alloys with face-centered cubic structure. The irradiation resistance at the temperature of 500 °C is improved by controlling the number and, especially, the type of alloying elements. Alloying with Fe and Mn has a stronger influence on swelling reduction than does alloying with Co and Cr. Lastly, the quinary alloy NiCoFeCrMn, with known excellent mechanical properties, has shown 40 times higher swelling tolerance than nickel.

  5. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF/AZ performance. The selection and

  6. Evaluation of the Leon3 soft-core processor within a Xilinx radiation-hardened field-programmable gate array.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Learn, Mark Walter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the work done to evaluate the performance of the Leon3 soft-core processor in a radiation environment while instantiated in a radiation-hardened static random-access memory based field-programmable gate array. This evaluation will look at the differences between two soft-core processors: the open-source Leon3 core and the fault-tolerant Leon3 core. Radiation testing of these two cores was conducted at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron facility and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The results of these tests are included within the report along with designs intended to improve the mitigation of the open-source Leon3. The test setup used for evaluating both versions of the Leon3 is also included within this document.

  7. Incorporation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mortars - Influence of microstructure in the hardened state properties and photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, S.S.

    2013-01-15

    The environmental pollution in urban areas is one of the causes for poor indoor air quality in buildings, particularly in suburban areas. The development of photocatalytic construction materials can contribute to clean the air and improve sustainability levels. Previous studies have focused mainly in cement and concrete materials, disregarding the potential application in historic buildings. In this work, a photocatalytic additive (titanium dioxide) was added to mortars prepared with aerial lime, cement and gypsum binders. The main goal was to study the way that microstructural changes affect the photocatalytic efficiency. The photocatalytic activity was determined using a reactor developed to assess the degradation rate with a common urban pollutant, NO{sub x}. The laboratory results show that all the compositions tested exhibited high photocatalytic efficiency. It was demonstrated that photocatalytic mortars can be applied in new and old buildings, because the nanoadditives do not compromise the mortar hardened state properties.

  8. Comparison Of Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    could invade carbonate rocks which were otherwise essentially impermeable. Alteration intensity (and correspondingly inferred paleopermeability) is only slightly higher in...

  9. SU-E-I-57: Evaluation and Optimization of Effective-Dose Using Different Beam-Hardening Filters in Clinical Pediatric Shunt CT Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, K; Aldoohan, S; Collier, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Study image optimization and radiation dose reduction in pediatric shunt CT scanning protocol through the use of different beam-hardening filters Methods: A 64-slice CT scanner at OU Childrens Hospital has been used to evaluate CT image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and measure effective-doses based on the concept of CT dose index (CTDIvol) using the pediatric head shunt scanning protocol. The routine axial pediatric head shunt scanning protocol that has been optimized for the intrinsic x-ray tube filter has been used to evaluate CNR by acquiring images using the ACR approved CT-phantom and radiation dose CTphantom, which was used to measure CTDIvol. These results were set as reference points to study and evaluate the effects of adding different filtering materials (i.e. Tungsten, Tantalum, Titanium, Nickel and Copper filters) to the existing filter on image quality and radiation dose. To ensure optimal image quality, the scanner routine air calibration was run for each added filter. The image CNR was evaluated for different kVps and wide range of mAs values using above mentioned beam-hardening filters. These scanning protocols were run under axial as well as under helical techniques. The CTDIvol and the effective-dose were measured and calculated for all scanning protocols and added filtration, including the intrinsic x-ray tube filter. Results: Beam-hardening filter shapes energy spectrum, which reduces the dose by 27%. No noticeable changes in image low contrast detectability Conclusion: Effective-dose is very much dependent on the CTDIVol, which is further very much dependent on beam-hardening filters. Substantial reduction in effective-dose is realized using beam-hardening filters as compare to the intrinsic filter. This phantom study showed that significant radiation dose reduction could be achieved in CT pediatric shunt scanning protocols without compromising in diagnostic value of image quality.

  10. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Evaluation on the Effect of Composition on Radiation Hardening and Embrittlement in Model FeCrAl Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Edmondson, Philip; Hu, Xunxiang; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Howard, Richard; Parish, Chad M.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-09-18

    This report details the findings of post-radiation mechanical testing and microstructural characterization performed on a series of model and commercial FeCrAl alloys to assist with the development of a cladding technology with enhanced accident tolerance. The samples investigated include model alloys with simple ferritic grain structure and two commercial alloys with minor solute additions. These samples were irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) up to nominal doses of 7.0 dpa near or at Light Water Reactor (LWR) relevant temperatures (300-400 C). Characterization included a suite of techniques including small angle neutron scattering (SANS), atom probe tomography (APT), and transmission based electron microscopy techniques. Mechanical testing included tensile tests at room temperature on sub-sized tensile specimens. The goal of this work was to conduct detailed characterization and mechanical testing to begin establishing empirical and/or theoretical structure-property relationships for radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement in the FeCrAl alloy class. Development of such relationships will provide insight on the performance of FeCrAl alloys in an irradiation environment and will enable further development of the alloy class for applications within a LWR environment. A particular focus was made on establishing trends, including composition and radiation dose. The report highlights in detail the pertinent findings based on this work. This report shows that radiation hardening in the alloys is primarily composition dependent due to the phase separation in the high-Cr FeCrAl alloys. Other radiation induced/enhanced microstructural features were less dependent on composition and when observed at low number densities, were not a significant contributor to the observed mechanical responses. Pre-existing microstructure in the alloys was found to be important, with grain boundaries and pre-existing dislocation

  12. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of Appropriate Resistance Spot Welding Practice for Transformation-Hardened Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Chuko; Jerry Gould

    2002-07-08

    This report describes work accomplished in the project, titled ''Development of Appropriate Resistance Spot Welding Practice for Transformation-Hardened Steels.'' The Phase 1 of the program involved development of in-situ temper diagrams for two gauges of representative dual-phase and martensitic grades of steels. The results showed that tempering is an effective way of reducing hold-time sensitivity (HTS) in hardenable high-strength sheet steels. In Phase 2, post-weld cooling rate techniques, incorporating tempering, were evaluated to reduce HTS for the same four steels. Three alternative methods, viz., post-heating, downsloping, and spike tempering, for HTS reduction were investigated. Downsloping was selected for detailed additional study, as it appeared to be the most promising of the cooling rate control methods. The downsloping maps for each of the candidate steels were used to locate the conditions necessary for the peak response. Three specific downslope conditions (at a fix ed final current for each material, timed for a zero-, medium-, and full-softening response) were chosen for further metallurgical and mechanical testing. Representative samples, were inspected metallographically, examining both local hardness variations and microstructures. The resulting downslope diagrams were found to consist largely of a C-curve. The softening observed in these curves, however, was not supported by subsequent metallography, which showed that all welds made, regardless of material and downslope condition, were essentially martensitic. CCT/TTT diagrams, generated based on microstructural modeling done at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, showed that minimum downslope times of 2 and 10 s for the martensitic and dual-phase grades of steels, respectively, were required to avoid martensite formation. These times, however, were beyond those examined in this study. These results show that downsloping is not an effective means of reducing HTS for production resistance spot

  13. An analytical elastic plastic contact model with strain hardening and frictional effects for normal and oblique impacts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brake, M. R. W.

    2015-02-17

    Impact between metallic surfaces is a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in the design and analysis of mechanical systems. We found that to model this phenomenon, a new formulation for frictional elastic–plastic contact between two surfaces is developed. The formulation is developed to consider both frictional, oblique contact (of which normal, frictionless contact is a limiting case) and strain hardening effects. The constitutive model for normal contact is developed as two contiguous loading domains: the elastic regime and a transitionary region in which the plastic response of the materials develops and the elastic response abates. For unloading, the constitutive model ismore » based on an elastic process. Moreover, the normal contact model is assumed to only couple one-way with the frictional/tangential contact model, which results in the normal contact model being independent of the frictional effects. Frictional, tangential contact is modeled using a microslip model that is developed to consider the pressure distribution that develops from the elastic–plastic normal contact. This model is validated through comparisons with experimental results reported in the literature, and is demonstrated to be significantly more accurate than 10 other normal contact models and three other tangential contact models found in the literature.« less

  14. An analytical elastic plastic contact model with strain hardening and frictional effects for normal and oblique impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brake, M. R. W.

    2015-02-17

    Impact between metallic surfaces is a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in the design and analysis of mechanical systems. We found that to model this phenomenon, a new formulation for frictional elasticplastic contact between two surfaces is developed. The formulation is developed to consider both frictional, oblique contact (of which normal, frictionless contact is a limiting case) and strain hardening effects. The constitutive model for normal contact is developed as two contiguous loading domains: the elastic regime and a transitionary region in which the plastic response of the materials develops and the elastic response abates. For unloading, the constitutive model is based on an elastic process. Moreover, the normal contact model is assumed to only couple one-way with the frictional/tangential contact model, which results in the normal contact model being independent of the frictional effects. Frictional, tangential contact is modeled using a microslip model that is developed to consider the pressure distribution that develops from the elasticplastic normal contact. This model is validated through comparisons with experimental results reported in the literature, and is demonstrated to be significantly more accurate than 10 other normal contact models and three other tangential contact models found in the literature.

  15. Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    abundanthigh temperature alteration. Structural analysis of the alteredregion using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) suggests that thisoutcrop is bounded on all sides by a set of...

  16. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Chung-cheng; Sui, Guodong; Elizarov, Arkadij; Kolb, Hartmuth C.; Huang, Jiang; Heath, James R.; Phelps, Michael E.; Quake, Stephen R.; Tseng, Hsian-rong; Wyatt, Paul; Daridon, Antoine

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  17. Chemical Management System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-10-30

    CMS provides an inventory of all chemicals on order or being held in the laboratory, to provide a specific location for all chemical containers, to ensure that health and safety regulatory codes are being upheld, and to provide PNNL staff with hazardous chemical information to better manage their inventories. CMS is comprised of five major modules: 1) chemical purchasing, 2) chemical inventory, 3) chemical names, properties, and hazard groups, 4) reporting, and 5) system administration.

  18. Effect of hydrogen sulfide partial pressure, pH, and chloride content on the SSC resistance of martensitic stainless steels and martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, D.D.

    1999-11-01

    Centrifugal compressor applications require the use of martensitic stainless and martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels at high hydrogen sulfide partial pressures. These materials do not perform well when tested with standard TM0177 test solutions. This paper describes the effect of hydrogen sulfide partial pressure, pH, and chloride content on their SSC resistance and explains their successful field operational experience. Environmental limits are determined for several materials and heat treat conditions.

  19. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-02-01

    Improved Corrosion Management Could Provide Significant Cost and Energy Savings for the Chemical Industry. In the chemical industry, corrosion is often responsible for significant shutdown and maintenance costs.

  20. Chemical & Engineering News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARPA-E Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Chemical & Engineering News Home...

  1. Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes ICEHT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes...

  2. Multimedia regulated chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.; Mao, Y.L.

    1999-10-01

    This article examines those chemicals that are listed in either environmental laws or regulations. Its objective is to help readers determine which laws regulate what types of chemicals and which types of chemicals are regulated by what laws. It is multimedia in scope, describing the various chemicals that are regulated in the different media (i.e., air, water, or land).

  3. Chemical Management Contacts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Contacts for additional information on Chemical Management and brief description on Energy Facility Contractors Group

  4. PINS chemical identification software

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caffrey, Augustine J.; Krebs, Kennth M.

    2004-09-14

    An apparatus and method for identifying a chemical compound. A neutron source delivers neutrons into the chemical compound. The nuclei of chemical elements constituting the chemical compound emit gamma rays upon interaction with the neutrons. The gamma rays are characteristic of the chemical elements constituting the chemical compound. A spectrum of the gamma rays is generated having a detection count and an energy scale. The energy scale is calibrated by comparing peaks in the spectrum to energies of pre-selected chemical elements in the spectrum. A least-squares fit completes the calibration. The chemical elements constituting the chemical compound can be readily determined, which then allows for identification of the chemical compound.

  5. Initial precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging in an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Wenchao; Ji, Shouxun; Huang, Lanping; Sheng, Xiaofei; Li, Zhou; Wang, Mingpu

    2014-08-15

    The characterization of precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging had been investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy for an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. It was proposed that the needle-shaped β″ precipitates with a three-dimension coherency strain-field and an increased number density in the Al matrix provided the maximum strengthening effect for the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. Simultaneously, it was also found that the formation and evolution of clusters in the early precipitation were associated with the vacancy binding energy, during which Si atoms played an important role in controlling the numbers density of Mg/Si co-clusters, and the excess Si atoms provided the increased number of nucleation sites for the subsequent precipitates to strengthen and improve the precipitation rate. Finally, based on the experimental observation and theoretical analysis, the precipitation sequence during the early precipitation in the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy was proposed as: supersaturated solid solution → Si-vacancy pairs, Mg-vacancy pairs and Mg clusters → Si clusters, and dissolution of Mg clusters → Mg atoms diffusion into the existing Si clusters → Mg/Si co-clusters → GP zone. - Highlights: • β″ precipitates provide the maximum strengthening effect for the 6005A alloy. • Si atoms play an important role in controlling the numbers of Mg/Si co-clusters. • The early aging sequence is deduced based on the solute-vacancy binding energy.

  6. Chemical Sciences Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling and Simulation in the Chemical Sciences Capabilities Modeling and simulation help us transform chemical data into meaningful information: * Develop remote-sensors that detect nuclear materials * Perform large- or small-scaled process modeling * Simulate new chemicals with tailored properties for diverse applications * Analyze chemical reaction rates for complex modeling needs * Examine chemical-sciences data and modeling for nuclear forensics * Analyze high explosive data and perform

  7. Chemical Sector Analysis | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACChemical Sector Analysis content top Chemical Supply Chain Analysis Posted by Admin on Mar 1, 2012 in | Comments 0 comments Chemical Supply Chain Analysis NISAC has developed a range of capabilities for analyzing the consequences of disruptions to the chemical manufacturing industry. Each capability provides a different but complementary perspective on the questions of interest-questions like Given an event, will the entire chemical sector be impacted or just parts? Which chemicals, plants,

  8. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  9. Capacitive chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  10. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  11. Chemicals | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ace013_pitz_2010_o.pdf (1.44 MB) More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetics Research on HCCI and Diesel Fuels Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    Discusses detailed chemical kinetics mechanisms for complex hydrocarbon fuels and

  12. 2. Chemical Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Lecture) Chung K. Law Robert H. Goddard Professor Princeton University Princeton-CEFRC-Combustion Institute Summer School on Combustion June 20-24, 2016 1 Day 1: Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics 1. Chemical Thermodynamics * Chemical equilibrium * Energy conservation & adiabatic flame temp., T ad 2. Chemical Kinetics * Reaction rates and approximations * Theories of reaction rates * Straight and branched chain reactions 3. Oxidation Mechanisms of Fuels * Hydrogen, CO, hydrocarbons 2 1.

  13. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Troy A. Semelsberger Los Alamos National Laboratory Hydrogen Storage Summit Jan 27-29, 2015 Denver, CO Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials 2 Objectives 1. Assess chemical hydrogen storage materials that can exceed 700 bar compressed hydrogen tanks 2. Status (state-of-the-art) of chemical hydrogen storage materials 3. Identify key material characteristics 4. Identify obstacles, challenges and risks for the successful deployment of chemical hydrogen materials in a practical on-board hydrogen

  14. ITP Chemicals: Chemical Industry of the Future: New Biocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Chemicals: Chemical Industry of the Future: New Biocatalysts: Essential Tools for a ... TECHNOLOGY VISION 2020: The U.S. Chemical Industry Gasoline Biodesulfurization Fact Sheet ...

  15. ITP Chemicals: Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Identifying Process ... ITP Chemicals: Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Identifying ...

  16. Beam hardening and smoothing correction effects on performance of micro-ct SkyScan 1173 for imaging low contrast density materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriwayu, Wa Ode; Haryanto, Freddy; Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar

    2015-04-16

    We have designed and fabricated phantom mimicking breast cancer composition known as a region that has low contrast density. The used compositions are a microcalcifications, fatty tissues and tumor mass by using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, C{sub 27}H{sub 46}O, and hard nylon materials. Besides, phantom also has a part to calculate low cost criteria /CNR (Contrast to Noise Ratio). Uniformity will be measured at water distillation medium located in a part of phantom scale contrast. Phantom will be imaged by using micro ct-sky scan 1173 high energy type, and then also can be quantified CT number to examine SkyScan 1173 performance in imaging low contrast density materials. Evaluation of CT number is done at technique configuration parameter using voltage of 30?kV, exposure 0.160 mAs, and camera resolution 560x560 pixel, the effect of image quality to reconstruction process is evaluated by varying image processing parameters in the form of beam hardening corrections with amount of 25%, 66% and100% with each smoothing level S10,S2 and S7. To obtain the better high quality image, the adjustment of beam hardening correction should be 66% and smoothing level reach maximal value at level 10.

  17. Alteration of immature sedimentary rocks on Earth and Mars. Recording Aqueous and Surface-atmosphere Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, Kenneth M.; Mustard, John F.; Salvatore, Mark R.

    2015-03-05

    The rock alteration and rind formation in analog environments like Antarctica may provide clues to rock alteration and therefore paleoclimates on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks derived from basaltic sources have been studied in situ by martian rovers and are likely abundant on the surface of Mars. Moreover, how such rock types undergo alteration when exposed to different environmental conditions is poorly understood compared with alteration of intact basaltic flows. Here we characterize alteration in the chemically immature Carapace Sandstone from Antarctica, a terrestrial analog for martian sedimentary rocks. We employ a variety of measurements similar to those used on previous and current Mars missions. Laboratory techniques included bulk chemistry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyperspectral imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through these methods we find that primary basaltic material in the Carapace Sandstone is pervasively altered to hydrated clay minerals and palagonite as a result of water–rock interaction. A thick orange rind is forming in current Antarctic conditions, superimposing this previous aqueous alteration signature. The rind exhibits a higher reflectance at visible-near infrared wavelengths than the rock interior, with an enhanced ferric absorption edge likely due to an increase in Fe3+ of existing phases or the formation of minor iron (oxy)hydroxides. This alteration sequence in the Carapace Sandstone results from decreased water–rock interaction over time, and weathering in a cold, dry environment, mimicking a similar transition early in martian history. This transition may be recorded in sedimentary rocks on Mars through a similar superimposition mechanism, capturing past climate changes at the hand sample scale. These results also suggest that basalt-derived sediments could have sourced significant volumes of hydrated minerals on early Mars due to their greater permeability compared with intact igneous rocks.

  18. Chemical Resources | Sample Preparation Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Resources Chemical Inventory All Sample Preparation Labs are stocked with an assortment of common solvents, acids, bases, buffers, and other reagents. See our Chemical ...

  19. Lignin structural alterations in thermochemical pretreatments with limited delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pu, Yunqiao; Hu, Fan; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-02

    Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion, and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants. While these thermochemical pretreatments generally lead to only a limited delignification and no significant change of lignin content in the pretreated biomass, the lignin transformations that occur during these pretreatments and the roles they play in recalcitrance reduction is an important research aspect. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of lignin alterations during these limited delignification thermochemical pretreatments, with emphasis on lignin chemical structures, molecular weights, and redistributions in the pretreated biomass.

  20. Lignin structural alterations in thermochemical pretreatments with limited delignification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pu, Yunqiao; Hu, Fan; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-02

    Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion,more » and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants. While these thermochemical pretreatments generally lead to only a limited delignification and no significant change of lignin content in the pretreated biomass, the lignin transformations that occur during these pretreatments and the roles they play in recalcitrance reduction is an important research aspect. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of lignin alterations during these limited delignification thermochemical pretreatments, with emphasis on lignin chemical structures, molecular weights, and redistributions in the pretreated biomass.« less

  1. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  2. CAMD Cleanroom Chemical List

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CAMD Cleanroom Chemical List Chemicals on this list are routine use chemicals in the CAMD Cleanroom and are available to users for general use. All others (*) are approved for use in the cleanroom but are not provided by CAMD. You must purchase from your department and store at the facility. If there are any other chemicals that you need to use that are not on this list, contact the Safety Director, Dr. Lorraine Day, day@lsu.edu, 225-578-4616 for approval. Resists Developers *AZ 1505 *AZ 1512

  3. Apparatus for chemical synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Herring, J. Stephen; Grandy, Jon D.

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  4. Chemical and mechanical stability of sodium sulfate activated slag after exposure to elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashad, A.M.; Bai, Y.; Basheer, P.A.M.; Collier, N.C.; Milestone, N.B.

    2012-02-15

    The chemical and mechanical stability of slag activated with two different concentrations of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) after exposure to elevated temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 Degree-Sign C with an increment of 200 Degree-Sign C has been examined. Compressive strengths and pH of the hardened pastes before and after the exposure were determined. The various decomposition phases formed were identified using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} activated slag has a better resistance to the degradation caused by exposure to elevated temperature up to 600 Degree-Sign C than Portland cement system as its relative strengths are superior. The finer slag and higher Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration gave better temperature resistance. Whilst the pH of the hardened pastes decreased with an increase in temperature, it still maintained a sufficiently high pH for the protection of reinforcing bar against corrosion.

  5. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  6. Comparative study of structure formation and mechanical behavior of age-hardened Ti–Nb–Zr and Ti–Nb–Ta shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inaekyan, K.; Brailovski, V.; Prokoshkin, S.; Pushin, V.; Dubinskiy, S.; Sheremetyev, V.

    2015-05-15

    This work sets out to study the peculiar effects of aging treatment on the structure and mechanical behavior of cold-rolled and annealed biomedical Ti–21.8Nb–6.0Zr (TNZ) and Ti–19.7Nb–5.8Ta (TNT) (at.%) shape memory alloys by means of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, functional fatigue and thermomechanical testing techniques. Dissimilar effects of aging treatment on the mechanical behavior of Zr- and Ta-doped alloys are explained by the differences in the ω-phase formation rate, precipitate size, fraction and distribution, and by their effect on the alloys' critical stresses and transformation temperatures. Even short-time aging of the TNZ alloy leads to its drastic embrittlement caused by “overaging”. On the contrary, during aging of the TNT alloy, formation of finely dispersed ω-phase precipitates is gradual and controllable, which makes it possible to finely adjust the TNT alloy functional properties using precipitation hardening mechanisms. To create in this alloy nanosubgrained dislocation substructure containing highly-dispersed coherent nanosized ω-phase precipitates, the following optimum thermomechanical treatment is recommended: cold rolling (true strain 0.37), followed by post-deformation annealing (600 °C, 15–30 min) and age-hardening (300 °C, 30 min) thermal treatments. It is shown that in TNT alloy, pre-transition diffraction effects (diffuse reflections) can “mask” the β-phase substructure and morphology of secondary phases. - Highlights: • TNZ alloy is characterized by much higher ω-phase precipitation rate than TNT alloy. • Difference in precipitation rates is linked to the difference in Zr and Ta diffusion mobility. • Aging of nanosubgrained TNZ alloy worsens its properties irrespective of the aging time. • Aging time of nanosubgrained TNT alloy can be optimized to improve its properties.

  7. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  8. Selecting chemical treatment programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.E. )

    1988-09-01

    Many process equipment performance and reliability problems can be solved economically by the proper selection and application of chemical treatment programs. It is important to choose an experienced chemical vendor and to work closely with the vendor to develop a good chemical treatment program. This requires devoting sufficient manpower to ensure that the treatment program development is thorough and timely. After the treatment program is installed, the system operation and performance should be routinely monitored to ensure that expected benefits are achieved and unexpected problems do not develop.

  9. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spires, Renee H.

    2010-11-01

    Renee Spires, Project Manager at Savannah River Remediation, opens Session 3 (Accelerated Waste Retrieval and Closure: Key Technologies) at the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange with a talk on enhanced chemical cleaning.

  10. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  11. Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CDE Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering We support stockpile manufacturing, surveillance, applied and basic energy sciences, threat reduction, public health, the environment, and space exploration. Contact Us Group Leader Peter Stark Deputy Group Leader Tom Yoshida Group Office (505) 667-5740 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy The Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering (C-CDE) Group combines engineering design with routine analytical services and state-of-the-art

  12. American Chemical Society Fellows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    selected as American Chemical Society Fellows August 7, 2014 Chamberlin and Porterfield named ACS Fellows LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Aug. 7, 2014-Rebecca Chamberlin and Donivan Porterfield, both of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Actinide Analytical Chemistry group, have been selected as a 2014 Fellows of the American Chemical Society (ACS). Rebecca Chamberlin An inorganic chemist and radiochemist, Chamberlin is currently the co-principal investigator for development of novel microreactor-based systems

  13. 2. Chemical Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chung K. Law Robert H. Goddard Professor Princeton University Princeton-CEFRC-Combustion Institute Summer School on Combustion June 20-24, 2016 1 What is Combustion? * Study of chemically reacting flows with highly exothermic, temperature-sensitive reactions A Laminar Bunsen Flame A Turbulent Jet Flame Combustion is A Multi-physics & Multi-scale Science * Combustion is a multi- physics science, embodying two major branches of nonlinear science: - Chemical kinetics - Fluid mechanics *

  14. ITP Chemicals: Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Identifying Process Inefficiencies in the U.S. Chemical Industry, Industrial Technologies Program, DRAFT Summary Report, December 2006 | Department of Energy Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Identifying Process Inefficiencies in the U.S. Chemical Industry, Industrial Technologies Program, DRAFT Summary Report, December 2006 ITP Chemicals: Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Identifying Process Inefficiencies in the U.S. Chemical

  15. Apparent Welding Textures In Altered Pumice-Rich Rocks | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apparent Welding Textures In Altered Pumice-Rich Rocks Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Apparent Welding Textures In Altered...

  16. Biological and Chemical Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  17. Process Intensification - Chemical Sector Focus

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Intensification - Chemical Sector Focus 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1 4 2. Technology Assessment and Potential ................................................................................................................. 5 5 2.1 Chemical Industry Focus

  18. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, S.P.

    1999-03-02

    A dispenser is disclosed for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 {micro}m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (ca. 200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments. 4 figs.

  19. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P.

    1999-03-02

    A dispenser for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 .mu.m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (.about.200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments.

  20. Equilibria in Chemical Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-01-01

    SOLGASMIX-PV calculates equilibrium relationships in complex chemical systems. Chemical equilibrium calculations involve finding the system composition, within certain constraints, which contains the minimum free energy. The constraints are the preservation of the masses of each element present and either constant pressure or volume. SOLGASMIX-PV can calculate equilibria in systems containing a gaseous phase, condensed phase solutions, and condensed phases of invariant and variable stoichiometry. Either a constant total gas volume or a constant total pressuremore » can be assumed. Unit activities for condensed phases and ideality for solutions are assumed, although nonideal systems can be handled provided activity coefficient relationships are available.« less

  1. Method and apparatus for altering material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, Regan W.; Greenly, John B.

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for thermally altering the near surface characteristics of a material are described. In particular, a repetitively pulsed ion beam system comprising a high energy pulsed power source and an ion beam generator are described which are capable of producing single species high voltage ion beams (0.25-2.5 MeV) at 1-1000 kW average power and over extended operating cycles (10.sup.8). Irradiating materials with such high energy, repetitively pulsed ion beams can yield surface treatments including localized high temperature anneals to melting, both followed by rapid thermal quenching to ambient temperatures to achieve both novel and heretofore commercially unachievable physical characteristics in a near surface layer of material.

  2. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-24

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  3. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  4. Category:Chemical Logging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical Logging Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Chemical Logging page? For detailed information on Chemical Logging, click here. Category:Chemical...

  5. Chemical Supply Chain Analysis | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACCapabilitiesChemical Supply Chain Analysis content top Chemical Supply Chain Analysis NISAC has developed a range of capabilities for analyzing the consequences of disruptions to the chemical manufacturing industry. Each capability provides a different but complementary perspective on the questions of interest-questions like Given an event, will the entire chemical sector be impacted or just parts? Which chemicals, plants, and complexes could be impacted? In which regions of the country?

  6. Progress in the R and D Project on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened and Precipitation Hardened Ferritic Steels for Sodium Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Inoue, Masaki

    2007-07-01

    High burnup capability of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (SFR) fuels depends significantly on irradiation performance of their component materials. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels and a precipitation hardened (PH) ferritic steel as the most prospective materials for fuel pin cladding and duct tubes, respectively. Technology for small-scale manufacturing is already established, and several hundreds of ODS steel cladding tubes and dozens of PH steel duct tubes were successfully produced. We will step forward to develop manufacturing technology for mass production to supply these steels for future SFR fuels. Mechanical properties of the products were examined by out-of-pile and in-pile tests including material irradiation tests in the experimental fast reactor JOYO and foreign fast reactors. The material strength standards (MSSs) were tentatively compiled in 2005 for ODS steels and in 1993 for PH steel. In order to upgrade the MSSs and to demonstrate high burnup capability of the materials, we will perform a series of irradiation tests in BOR-60 and JOYO until 2015 and contribute to design study for a demonstration SFR of which operation is expected after 2025. (authors)

  7. Electro-Chemical Processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electro-Chemical Processes - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  8. 2. Chemical Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Lecture) Chung K. Law Robert H. Goddard Professor Princeton University Princeton-CEFRC-Combustion Institute Summer School on Combustion June 20-24, 2016 1 Day 4: Laminar Premixed Flames 1. The standard premixed flame 1. Phenomenological and asymptotic analyses 2. Parametric dependence 3. Chemical structure 2. Limit phenomena 1. The S-curve concept 2. Extinction through volumetric heat loss 3. Aerodynamics of flames 1. Hydrodynamic stretch 2. Flame stretch 3. Flamefront instabilities 2 1. The

  9. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30

    Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field

  10. Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or Thermal Treatment in a Metal-Organic Framework Previous Next List Jinhee Park , Daqiang Yuan , Khanh T. Pham , ...

  11. Geology and alteration of the Raft River geothermal system, Idaho...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Raft River geothermal system, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Geology and alteration of the Raft River geothermal...

  12. Method for chemically inactivating energetic materials and forming a nondetonable product therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadros, Maher E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for rendering nondetonble energetic materials, such as are contained in or removed from decommissioned ordnance. The energetic materials are either combined with epoxy hardener or are combined with other compounds, preferably amine compounds, to form a substance that functions as an epoxy hardener. According to the invention, energetic materials (including TNT, RDX and Composition B) that are treated according to the invention method yield a reaction product that is non-explosive, that serves to harden or cure conventional epoxy resin to form a stable, nonexplosive waste product. Epoxy hardener made using the method of the invention is also described.

  13. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, F

    2007-03-19

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks.

  14. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  15. Chemical Processing Qualification Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6-2010 February 2010 DOE STANDARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING QUALIFICATION STANDARD DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1176-2010 ii This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds DOE-STD-1176-2010 iv INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1176-2010 v

  16. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laguna, George R.; Peter, Frank J.; Butler, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir.

  17. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Butler, M.A.

    1999-02-16

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir. 7 figs.

  18. Chemical kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical kinetics of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.

  19. Chemical sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darrow, Christopher B.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Lane, Stephen M.; Lee, Abraham P.; Wang, Amy W.

    2002-01-01

    An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  20. LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-09-24

    The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

  1. Near infrared radio-luminescence of O{sub 2} loaded radiation hardened silica optical fibers: A candidate dosimeter for harsh environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Francesca, D.; Girard, S.; Boukenter, A.; Ouerdane, Y.; Agnello, S.; Gelardi, F. M.; Marcandella, C.; Paillet, P.

    2014-11-03

    We report on an experimental investigation of the infrared Radio-Luminescence (iRL) emission of interstitial O{sub 2} molecules loaded in radiation hardened pure-silica-core and fluorine-doped silica-based optical fibers (OFs). The O{sub 2} loading treatment successfully dissolved high concentrations of oxygen molecules into the silica matrix. A sharp luminescence at 1272 nm was detected when 2.5 cm of the treated OFs were irradiated with 10 keV X-rays. This emission originates from the radiative decay of the first excited singlet state of the embedded O{sub 2} molecules. The dose, dose-rate, and temperature dependencies of the infrared emission are studied through in situ optical measurements. The results show that the iRL is quite stable in doses of up to 1 MGy(SiO{sub 2}) and is linearly dependent on the dose-rate up to the maximum investigated dose-rate of ∼200 kGy(SiO{sub 2})/h. The temperature dependency of the iRL shows a decrease in efficiency above 200 °C, which is attributed to the non-radiative decay of the excited O{sub 2} molecules. The results obtained and the long-term stability of the O{sub 2}-loading treatment (no out-gassing effect) strongly suggest the applicability of these components to real-time remote dosimetry in environments characterized by high radiation doses and dose-rates.

  2. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, A.U.; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  3. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  4. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  5. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  6. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  7. Method for altering the luminescence of a semiconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbour, J.C.; Dimos, D.B.

    1999-01-12

    A method is described for altering the luminescence of a light emitting semiconductor (LES) device. In particular, a method is described whereby a silicon LES device can be selectively irradiated with a radiation source effective for altering the intensity of luminescence of the irradiated region. 4 figs.

  8. Method for altering the luminescence of a semiconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbour, J. Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Dimos, Duane B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method is described for altering the luminescence of a light emitting semiconductor (LES) device. In particular, a method is described whereby a silicon LES device can be selectively irradiated with a radiation source effective for altering the intensity of luminescence of the irradiated region.

  9. Volatile chemical reagent detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Liaohai; McBranch, Duncan; Wang, Rong; Whitten, David

    2004-08-24

    A device for detecting volatile chemical reagents based on fluorescence quenching analysis that is capable of detecting neutral electron acceptor molecules. The device includes a fluorescent material, a contact region, a light source, and an optical detector. The fluorescent material includes at least one polymer-surfactant complex. The polymer-surfactant complex is formed by combining a fluorescent ionic conjugated polymer with an oppositely charged surfactant. The polymer-surfactant complex may be formed in a polar solvent and included in the fluorescent material as a solution. Alternatively, the complex may be included in the fluorescent material as a thin film. The use of a polymer-surfactant complex in the fluorescent material allows the device to detect both neutral and ionic acceptor molecules. The use of a polymer-surfactant complex film allows the device and the fluorescent material to be reusable after exposing the fluorescent material to a vacuum for limited time.

  10. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  11. Corsicana Chemical Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corsicana Chemical Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Corsicana Chemical Company Place: Corsicana, Texas Zip: 75110 Product: Chemical company and biodiesel producer in...

  12. Atlanta Chemical Engineering LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Atlanta Chemical Engineering LLC Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Atlanta Chemical Engineering LLC Name: Atlanta Chemical Engineering LLC Place: Marietta, Georgia Country: United...

  13. chemical_methods | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Methods Chemical methods focus mainly on alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) processes that involve the injection of micellar-polymers into the reservoir. Chemical flooding ...

  14. Shanghai TL Chemical Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shanghai TL Chemical Company Place: Shanghai, China Zip: 200240 Product: Focuses on novel chemical structure PEM and PE Resin, PEM FC materials and parts, Key chemical...

  15. Gas phase chemical detection with an integrated chemical analysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; KOTTENSTETTE,RICHARD; HELLER,EDWIN J.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; LEWIS,PATRICK R.; MANGINELL,RONALD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.

    2000-04-12

    Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample preconcentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described.

  16. Methods of forming hardened surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID)

    2004-07-27

    The invention encompasses a method of forming a metallic coating. A metallic glass coating is formed over a metallic substrate. After formation of the coating, at least a portion of the metallic glass can be converted into a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size. The invention also encompasses metallic coatings comprising metallic glass. Additionally, the invention encompasses metallic coatings comprising crystalline metallic material, with at least some of the crystalline metallic material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  17. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Hughes, Robert C.; Kepler, R. Glen; Kurtz, Steven R.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  18. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1984-07-16

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  19. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocher, Jr., John M.; Veigel, Neil D.; Landrigan, Richard B.

    1983-04-19

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  20. Gas Phase Chemical Detection with an Integrated Chemical Analysis System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baca, Albert G.; Casalnuovo, Stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Hietala, Susan L.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Matzke, Carloyn M.; Reno, John L.; Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1999-07-08

    Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample concentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described. The design and performance of novel micromachined acoustic wave devices, with the potential for improved chemical sensitivity, are also described.

  1. Effect of reinforcing particle type on morphology and age-hardening behavior of Al–4.5 wt.% Cu based nanocomposites synthesized through mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mostaed, A.; Saghafian, H.; Mostaed, E.; Shokuhfar, A.; Rezaie, H.R.

    2013-02-15

    The effects of reinforcing particle type (SiC and TiC) on morphology and precipitation hardening behavior of Al–4.5%Cu based nanocomposites synthesized via mechanical milling were investigated in the current work. In order to study the microstructure and morphology of mechanically milled powder, X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were utilized. Results revealed that at the early stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are polycrystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the TiC particles as reinforcement. But, at the final stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are single crystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the SiC ones. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that Al–4.5 wt.%Cu based nanocomposite powders were synthesized and confirmed that the mutual diffusion of aluminum and copper occurs through the interfacial plane of (200). The hardness results showed that not only does introducing 4 vol.% of reinforcing particles (SiC or TiC) considerably decrease the porosity of the bulk composite samples, but also it approximately doubles the hardness of Al–4.5 wt.%Cu alloy (53.4 HB). Finally, apart from TEM and scanning electron microscopy observation which are localized, a decline in hardness in the TiC and SiC contained samples, respectively, after 1.5 and 2 h aging time at 473 K proves the fact that the size of SiC particles is smaller than the size of the TiC ones. - Highlights: ► HRTEM results show mutual diffusion of Al and Cu occurs through the (200) planes. ► TiC particles enhance alloying process more than the SiC ones at the early stages of MM. ► SiC particles enhance alloying process more than the TiC ones at the final stages of MM.

  2. SU-E-I-62: Assessing Radiation Dose Reduction and CT Image Optimization Through the Measurement and Analysis of the Detector Quantum Efficiency (DQE) of CT Images Using Different Beam Hardening Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collier, J; Aldoohan, S; Gill, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Reducing patient dose while maintaining (or even improving) image quality is one of the foremost goals in CT imaging. To this end, we consider the feasibility of optimizing CT scan protocols in conjunction with the application of different beam-hardening filtrations and assess this augmentation through noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detector quantum efficiency (DQE) analysis. Methods: American College of Radiology (ACR) and Catphan phantoms (The Phantom Laboratory) were scanned with a 64 slice CT scanner when additional filtration of thickness and composition (e.g., copper, nickel, tantalum, titanium, and tungsten) had been applied. A MATLAB-based code was employed to calculate the image of noise NPS. The Catphan Image Owl software suite was then used to compute the modulated transfer function (MTF) responses of the scanner. The DQE for each additional filter, including the inherent filtration, was then computed from these values. Finally, CT dose index (CTDIvol) values were obtained for each applied filtration through the use of a 100 mm pencil ionization chamber and CT dose phantom. Results: NPS, MTF, and DQE values were computed for each applied filtration and compared to the reference case of inherent beam-hardening filtration only. Results showed that the NPS values were reduced between 5 and 12% compared to inherent filtration case. Additionally, CTDIvol values were reduced between 15 and 27% depending on the composition of filtration applied. However, no noticeable changes in image contrast-to-noise ratios were noted. Conclusion: The reduction in the quanta noise section of the NPS profile found in this phantom-based study is encouraging. The reduction in both noise and dose through the application of beam-hardening filters is reflected in our phantom image quality. However, further investigation is needed to ascertain the applicability of this approach to reducing patient dose while maintaining diagnostically acceptable image qualities in a

  3. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Hydrothermal Alteration Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This is a hydrothermal alteration map of the Tularosa Basin area, New Mexico and Texas that was created using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) multispectral data band ratios based upon diagnostic features of clay, calcite, silica, gypsum, ferric iron, and ferrous iron. Mesoproterozoic granite in the San Andreas Range often appeared altered, but this may be from clays produced by weathering or, locally, by hydrothermal alteration. However, no field checking was done. This work was done under U.S. D.O.E. Contract #DE-EE0006730

  4. ARM - Measurement - Inorganic chemical composition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsInorganic chemical composition ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Inorganic chemical composition The chemical composition of an aerosol, with the exception of those with hydrocarbons, and usually including carbides, oxides of carbon, metallic carbonates, carbon sulfur compounds, and carbon nitrogen compounds. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is

  5. Enhancing chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of enhancing selected chemical reactions. The population of a selected high vibrational energy state of a reactant molecule is increased substantially above its population at thermal equilibrium by directing onto the molecule a beam of radiant energy from a laser having a combination of frequency and intensity selected to pump the selected energy state, and the reaction is carried out with the temperature, pressure, and concentrations of reactants maintained at a combination of values selected to optimize the reaction in preference to thermal degradation by transforming the absorbed energy into translational motion. The reaction temperature is selected to optimize the reaction. Typically a laser and a frequency doubler emit radiant energy at frequencies of .nu. and 2.nu. into an optical dye within an optical cavity capable of being tuned to a wanted frequency .delta. or a parametric oscillator comprising a non-centrosymmetric crystal having two indices of refraction, to emit radiant energy at the frequencies of .nu., 2.nu., and .delta. (and, with a parametric oscillator, also at 2.nu.-.delta.). Each unwanted frequency is filtered out, and each desired frequency is focused to the desired radiation flux within a reaction chamber and is reflected repeatedly through the chamber while reactants are fed into the chamber and reaction products are removed therefrom.

  6. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr.

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  7. FAQS Reference Guide- Chemical Processing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the February 2010 edition of DOE-STD-1176-2010, Chemical Processing Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  8. Chemical Looping | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to convert fossil fuels to electricity and provide carbon capture without significant efficiency or cost penalties. Chemical looping combustion is very similar to oxy-fuel...

  9. Chemical Logging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    concentrations.1 Use in Geothermal Exploration During a chemical logging study at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site, returned drilling fluid samples were collected every...

  10. 16 USC 799 License duration, conditions, revocation, alteration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    9 License duration, conditions, revocation, alteration, or surrender Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 16 USC 799...

  11. POSSIBLE ALTERATION OF ROCKS OBSERVED BY CHEMCAM ALONG THE TRAVERSE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TO GLENELG IN GALE CRATER ON MARS. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: POSSIBLE ALTERATION OF ROCKS OBSERVED BY CHEMCAM ALONG THE TRAVERSE TO GLENELG IN GALE CRATER ON ...

  12. Argillic-Advanced Argillic Alteration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    clay minerals. Advanced Argillic alteration forms at higher temperatures and lower pH conditions (e.g. the acid-steam condensate zone of a hydrothermal system). It consists...

  13. FAQS Gap Analysis Qualification Card - Chemical Processing |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemical Processing FAQS Gap Analysis Qualification Card - Chemical Processing Functional Area Qualification Standard Gap Analysis Qualification Cards outline the differences ...

  14. Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development for high efficiency clean combustion engines Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development for high ...

  15. Proton's party pals may alter its internal structure | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton's party pals may alter its internal structure Proton's party pals may alter its internal structure NEWPORT NEWS, VA, November 18, 2009 - A recent experiment at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has found that a proton's nearest neighbors in the nucleus of the atom may modify the proton's internal structure. The result was published in the November 13 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters. When comparing large nuclei to small nuclei, past

  16. Tensile and Fatigue Testing and Material Hardening Model Development for 508 LAS Base Metal and 316 SS Similar Metal Weld under In-air and PWR Primary Loop Water Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Soppet, William; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2015-09-01

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in September 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In an April 2015 report we presented a baseline mechanistic finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) for systemlevel heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis and fatigue life estimation under reactor thermal-mechanical cycles. In the present report, we provide tensile and fatigue test data for 508 low-alloy steel (LAS) base metal, 508 LAS heat-affected zone metal in 508 LAS–316 stainless steel (SS) dissimilar metal welds, and 316 SS-316 SS similar metal welds. The test was conducted under different conditions such as in air at room temperature, in air at 300 oC, and under PWR primary loop water conditions. Data are provided on materials properties related to time-independent tensile tests and time-dependent cyclic tests, such as elastic modulus, elastic and offset strain yield limit stress, and linear and nonlinear kinematic hardening model parameters. The overall objective of this report is to provide guidance to estimate tensile/fatigue hardening parameters from test data. Also, the material models and parameters reported here can directly be used in commercially available finite element codes for fatigue and ratcheting evaluation of reactor components under in-air and PWR water conditions.

  17. Chemical Management Volume 3 of 3 - Consolidated Chemical User...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Code NFPA 45 (2004), Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals NFPA 51 (1997), Standard for the Design and Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems NFPA 55 ...

  18. Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbreath, K.C.; Duke, E.F.; Papike, J.J. ); Laul, J.C. )

    1988-07-01

    Mass transfer and fluid-rock interaction have been evaluated along two sample traverses in low-sillimanite grade quartz-mica schist adjacent to a synmetamorphic quartz-graphite vein in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. In an {approximately}17 cm halo between apparently unaltered schist and the vein contact is an outer zone of cryptic alteration and three inner zones of visible alteration. The cryptic zone consists of the original prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage plus anomalously high amounts of tourmaline. The outermost visible zone contains abundant graphite. The second visible zone is defined by intensive bleaching of the schist. The innermost visible zone, immediately adjacent to the vein, is tourmaline + quartz + plagioclase + limonite + graphite. The vein is composed almost entirely of quartz, but also contains trace amounts of graphite. Mass balance calculations indicate that Al was essentially inert. The predominant chemical changes during wall-rock alteration were addition of B and C from the vein-forming fluid along with loss of K from the wall rocks, corresponding to precipitation of tourmaline and graphite, and the progressive destruction of microcline, biotite, and muscovite toward the vein. In addition, the elements V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, W, and Au were introduced into the country rock, whereas Si, Rb, Ba, and Cs were removed. Fluid-rock interaction modeling suggests that between one and four equivalent masses of fluid interacted chemically with the most altered mineral assemblages. In addition, greater than one equivalent mass of reactive fluid penetrated to distances of at least 5 cm from the vein contact.

  19. Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-11-13

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

  20. Method of forming a chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.; Wendt, Kraig M.

    2007-10-09

    A method of forming a chemical composition such as a chemical hydride is described and which includes the steps of selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of hydrogen; and exposing the selected composition to an amount of ionizing radiation to encourage the changing of the chemical bonds of the selected composition, and chemically reacting the selected composition with the source of hydrogen to facilitate the formation of a chemical hydride.

  1. Alterations of intermolecular disulfides in the insulin receptor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biol.; (United States); Journal Volume: 45:6; Conference: 76. annual meeting of the Federation of American Society for ... ANTIMITOTIC DRUGS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; DRUGS; ...

  2. Non-planar chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Sokolowski, Sara S.; Lewis, Patrick R.

    2006-10-10

    A non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a high-surface area, low mass, three-dimensional, flow-through sorption support structure that can be coated or packed with a sorptive material. The sorptive material can collect and concentrate a chemical analyte from a fluid stream and rapidly release it as a very narrow temporal plug for improved separations in a microanalytical system. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator retains most of the thermal and fabrication benefits of a planar preconcentrator, but has improved ruggedness and uptake, while reducing sorptive coating concerns and extending the range of collectible analytes.

  3. Chemical microreactor and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan

    2011-08-09

    A method for forming a chemical microreactor includes forming at least one capillary microchannel in a substrate having at least one inlet and at least one outlet, integrating at least one heater into the chemical microreactor, interfacing the capillary microchannel with a liquid chemical reservoir at the inlet of the capillary microchannel, and interfacing the capillary microchannel with a porous membrane near the outlet of the capillary microchannel, the porous membrane being positioned beyond the outlet of the capillary microchannel, wherein the porous membrane has at least one catalyst material imbedded therein.

  4. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  5. Alteration Patterns In Volcanic Rocks Within An East-West Traverse...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    probably exceeded 100Ckm. There are also (iii) local alteration aureoles around gold-bearing quartz veins. The regional alteration assemblages include minerals that, under...

  6. Mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Lewis, Patrick R.

    2007-01-30

    A microfabricated mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator actively measures the mass of a sample on an acoustic microbalance during the collection process. The microbalance comprises a chemically sensitive interface for collecting the sample thereon and an acoustic-based physical transducer that provides an electrical output that is proportional to the mass of the collected sample. The acoustic microbalance preferably comprises a pivot plate resonator. A resistive heating element can be disposed on the chemically sensitive interface to rapidly heat and release the collected sample for further analysis. Therefore, the mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  7. Chemical Science | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemical Science Chemical Science Plant fatty acids are used in a vast range of products, from polymers to plastics and soaps to industrial feed stocks -- making up an estimated $150 billion market annually. A new discovery of inserting double bonds in the fatty acids could show the way to the designer production of plant fatty acids, and, in turn, to new industrial applications and new products. <a href

  8. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Doughty, Daniel H.; Bein, Thomas; Moller, Karin

    1996-01-01

    Coatings and sensors having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

  9. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, G.C.; Brinker, C.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Bein, T.; Moller, K.

    1996-12-31

    Coatings and sensors are disclosed having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided. 7 figs.

  10. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, G.C.; Brinker, C.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Bein, T.; Moller, K.

    1993-07-06

    Coatings and sensors are described having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

  11. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Doughty, Daniel H.; Bein, Thomas; Moller, Karin

    1993-01-01

    Coatings and sensors having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

  12. Integrated Chemical Geothermometry System for Geothermal Exploration |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Chemical Geothermometry System for Geothermal Exploration Integrated Chemical Geothermometry System for Geothermal Exploration DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Develop practical and reliable system to predict geothermal reservoir temperatures from integrated chemical analyses of spring and well fluids. tracers_spycher_integrated_chemical.pdf (272.32 KB) More Documents & Publications Integrated Chemical Geothermometry System for Geothermal Exploration

  13. Amino resin modified xanthan polymer foamed with a chemical blowing agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazlett, R.D.; Shu, P.

    1989-05-16

    A method is described for reducing the permeability in an area of a subterranean formation which consists of mixing a gellable composition containing: water, about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt.% of a cross linkable polysaccharide biopolymer having at least one functional group charide biopolymer having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group, and about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt.% of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the biopolymer thereby causing the polymer to become more thermally stable. Also included are sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to reduce permeability in a more permeable zone in the formation. A chemical surfactant, and an alkali metal salt of azodicarboxylic acid, are then introduced produce a gas sufficient to foam the composition described above. The composition is then injected into the desired area of the formation where the azodicarboxylic acid decomposes thereby generating nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas in an amount sufficient to form a foam which subsequently hardens and reduces the permeability in the desired area.

  14. Chemical incident economic impact analysis methodology. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemical incident economic impact analysis methodology. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemical incident economic impact analysis methodology. You are accessing a ...

  15. Dainippon Ink Chemicals Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dainippon Ink & Chemicals Inc Place: Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Zip: 103-8233 Product: Japanese diversified chemical company that primarily...

  16. Mitsui Chemicals Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mitsui Chemicals Inc Place: Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Zip: 105-7117 Sector: Solar Product: Chemicals maker including plastics, industrial...

  17. MECS 2006 - Chemicals | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Chemicals (121.71 KB) More Documents & Publications Chemicals (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - Cement

  18. Hanwha Chemical Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hanwha Chemical Corp Place: Seoul, Seoul, Korea (Republic) Zip: 100-797 Product: Korea-based manufacturer of synthetic resins and...

  19. Silicon Chemical Corp SCC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corp SCC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Chemical Corp (SCC) Place: Vancouver, Washington State Zip: 98687 Product: US manufacturer of polysilicon and silicon chemical...

  20. Heilongjiang Fengrui Chemical Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fengrui Chemical Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Heilongjiang Fengrui Chemical Group Place: Shuangyashan, Heilongjiang Province, China Product: A Chinese bioethanol...

  1. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes. ... The measurements generated chemical contour maps for the species present. Quantitative ...

  2. Dow Chemical Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Dow Chemical Co Place: Midland, Michigan Zip: 48674 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Michigan-based global chemical, plastic and agricultural products maker,...

  3. Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Valorization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Valorization of Lignin. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Valorization ...

  4. Keeping Tabs on the World's Dangerous Chemicals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sandia chemical engineer Nancy Jackson has worked in laboratories around the world to help ensure that chemicals are used safely and kept secure.

  5. Chemical Safety Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    For Additional Information Contact: Bill R. McArthur Chemical Management Tools Chemical Compatibility Material Safety Data Sheets Protective Action Criteria (PAC) with AEGLs, ...

  6. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles ...

  7. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most ...

  8. Thomas selected as American Chemical Society Fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thomas selected as ACS Fellow Thomas selected as American Chemical Society Fellow Kimberly ... first Los Alamos researcher to be named a Fellow of the American Chemical Society (ACS). ...

  9. Nanomechanical Sensor Detects and Identifies Chemical Analytes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanomechanical Sensor Detects and Identifies Chemical Analytes Oak Ridge National ... It can also quickly identify a potentially harmful chemical. The invention's sensitivity ...

  10. Mr. Robert Muller, Manager General Chemical Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    S 1997 Mr. Robert Muller, Manager General Chemical Corporation 6300 Philadelphia Pike ... Mr. D. T. Murphy of Allied Chemical Corporation, Delaware Valley Works in Marcus Hook, was ...

  11. Plutonium-238 Production Chemical Processing Evaluations (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Plutonium-238 Production Chemical Processing Evaluations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plutonium-238 Production Chemical Processing Evaluations Authors: ...

  12. Uncoated microcantilevers as chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G.

    2001-01-01

    A method and device are provided for chemical sensing using cantilevers that do not use chemically deposited, chemically specific layers. This novel device utilizes the adsorption-induced variation in the surfaces states on a cantilever. The methodology involves exciting charge carriers into or out of the surface states with photons having increasing discrete levels of energy. The excitation energy is provided as discrete levels of photon energy by scanning the wavelength of an exciting source that is illuminating the cantilever surface. When the charge carriers are excited into or out of the surface states, the cantilever bending changes due to changes in surface stress. The amount of cantilever bending with respect to an identical cantilever as a function of excitation energy is used to determine the energy levels associated with adsorbates.

  13. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  14. Chemical sciences, annual report 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Chemical Sciences Division (CSD) is one of eleven research Divisions of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a DOE National Laboratory. In FY 1993, the Division made considerable progress on developing two end-stations and a beamline to advance combustion dynamics at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). In support of DOE`s national role in combustion research and chemical science, the beamline effort will enable researchers from around the world to make fundamental advances in understanding the structure and reactivity of critical reaction intermediates and transients, and in understanding the dynamics of elementary chemical reactions. The Division has continued to place a strong emphasis on full compliance with environmental health and safety guidelines and regulations and has made progress in technology transfer to industry. Finally, the Division has begun a new program in advanced battery research and development that should help strengthen industrial competitiveness both at home and abroad.

  15. The chemical industry, by country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-03-01

    Beijing will be the site for the third ACHEMASIA, international petrochemical and chemical exhibition and conference, May 15--20, 1995. In preparation for this conference, Hydrocarbon Processing contacted executives of petrochemical/chemical industries and trade associations, seeking views on the state of the industry. The Asia-Pacific region is the center of new construction and expanded capacity and also a mixture of mature, developing and emerging petrochemical industries. Established countries must mold and grow with emerging economies as the newcomers access natural resources and develop their own petrochemical infrastructures. The following nation reports focus on product supply/demand trends, economic forecasts, new construction, etc. Space limitations prohibit publishing commentaries from all countries that have petrochemical/chemical capacity. Reports are published from the following countries: Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

  16. Method for producing chemical energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2004-09-21

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles having a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer are prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  17. Chemical Inventory | Sample Preparation Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Inventory Use the following dropdown menus to filter the results for chemical records. To reset the results clear the entries and click "update". Facility - Any - SSRL LCLS Building - Any - 120 131 999 Room - Any - 109 113 209 257 Storage Area Storage Category Apply Title Facility Building Room Storage Area Storage Category Available to All Qty. Size Units Responsible Person 1,3-cyclohexadiene SSRL 131 209 CI L No 1 25 milliliters (ml) Tsu-Chien Weng 1,4- dioxane SSRL 120 257

  18. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Schubert, W. Kent (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  19. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-01-18

    An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

  20. High energy chemical laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.; Pearson, R.K.

    1975-12-23

    A high energy chemical laser system is described wherein explosive gaseous mixtures of a reducing agent providing hydrogen isotopes and interhalogen compounds are uniformly ignited by means of an electrical discharge, flash- photolysis or an electron beam. The resulting chemical explosion pumps a lasing chemical species, hydrogen fluoride or deuterium fluoride which is formed in the chemical reaction. The generated lasing pulse has light frequencies in the 3- micron range. Suitable interhalogen compounds include bromine trifluoride (BrF$sub 3$), bromine pentafluoride (BrF$sub 5$), chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF$sub 3$), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF$sub 5$), iodine pentafluoride (IF$sub 5$), and iodine heptafluoride (IF$sub 7$); and suitable reducing agents include hydrogen (H$sub 2$), hydrocarbons such as methane (CH$sub 4$), deuterium (D$sub 2$), and diborane (B$sub 2$H$sub 6$), as well as combinations of the gaseous compound and/or molecular mixtures of the reducing agent.

  1. Method of producing a chemical hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Wendt, Kraig M.

    2007-11-13

    A method of producing a chemical hydride is described and which includes selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of a hydrocarbon; and reacting the composition with the source of the hydrocarbon to generate a chemical hydride.

  2. Chemicals (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemicals (2010 MECS) Chemicals (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Chemicals Sector (NAICS 325) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Chemicals (125.4 KB) More Documents & Publications All Manufacturing (2010 MECS) Cement (2010 MECS) Computers, Electronics and Electrical Equipment

  3. ALTERATION OF U(VI)-PHASES UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.P. Deditius; S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2006-02-21

    Uranium-(VI) phases are the primary alteration products of the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel and the UO{sub 2+x}, in natural uranium deposits. The U(VI)-phases generally form sheet structures of edge-sharing UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} polyhedra. The complexity of these structures offers numerous possibilities for coupled-substitutions of trace metals and radionuclides. The incorporation of radionuclides into U(VI)-structures provides a potential barrier to their release and transport in a geologic repository that experiences oxidizing conditions. In this study, we have used natural samples of UO{sub 2+x}, to study the U(VI)-phases that form during alteration and to determine the fate of the associated trace elements.

  4. Small Electric Voltage Alters Conductivity in Key Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Voltage Alters Conductivity in Key Materials - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste

  5. Apparatus and methods for detecting chemical permeation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation.

  6. Chemical compositions, methods of making the chemical compositions, and structures made from the chemical compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Ze; Liu, Meilin

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include chemical compositions, structures, anodes, cathodes, electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells, fuel cells, fuel cell membranes, separation membranes, catalytic membranes, sensors, coatings for electrolytes, electrodes, membranes, and catalysts, and the like, are disclosed.

  7. Chemically induced strength changes in sandstone. Report of Investigations/1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroud, W.P.; Dolinar, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical alteration of the compressive strength of sandstone has been investigated by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). Successful development of this technology would offer an attractive alternative to the methods now used for stress control in mines. Sandstone cores were stressed to failure under uniaxial compression at two different strain rates. Specimens saturated with either distilled or tap water showed an average 14% reduction in stress at failure compared with those dried in vacuum. Samples saturated with dilute solutions of aluminum chloride, hydrochloric acid, and polyethylene oxide showed no statistically significant difference in failure stress compared with those saturated with water. By contrast, compressive strength of the cores was increased some 7% by saturation with the nonpolar solvent carbon tetrachloride. No correlation was found between zeta potential and compressive strength.

  8. Olefin recovery via chemical absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barchas, R.

    1998-06-01

    The recovery of fight olefins in petrochemical plants has generally been accomplished through cryogenic distillation, a process which is very capital and energy intensive. In an effort to simplify the recovery process and reduce its cost, BP Chemicals has developed a chemical absorption technology based on an aqueous silver nitrate solution. Stone & Webster is now marketing, licensing, and engineering the technology. The process is commercially ready for recovering olefins from olefin derivative plant vent gases, such as vents from polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene oxide, and synthetic ethanol units. The process can also be used to debottleneck C{sub 2} or C{sub 3} splinters, or to improve olefin product purity. This paper presents the olefin recovery imp technology, discusses its applications, and presents economics for the recovery of ethylene and propylene.

  9. chemicals | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemicals Overview Key end products from coal gasification include hydrogen (and synthetic natural gas as a closely related product), electric power, fuels (mainly diesel fuel and gasoline), and fertilizer (which hinges on the large quantities of ammonia produced from gasification). In the context of liquid fuels, methanol can be added as an end product; in some locations (China in particular) methanol is a heavily-used fuel blending stock and feedstock for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)

  10. Chemical Physics | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics FWP/Project Description: Project Leader(s): James Evans, Mark Gordon Principal Investigators: James Evans, Mark Gordon, Klaus Ruedenberg, Theresa Windus Key Scientific Personnel: Da-Jiang Liu, Michael Schmidt. The theoretical Chemical Physics program at Ames Laboratory supports integrated efforts in electronic structure theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanical & multiscale modeling. The primary focus is on the development and especially application of methods that enable the

  11. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  12. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.; Casey, A.W.

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition are described. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200/sup 0/C; and impinging a gas containing N/sub 2/, SiCl/sub 4/, and AlCl/sub 3/ on the surface.

  13. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  14. Passive in-situ chemical sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrell, Jonathan S.; Ripley, Edward B.

    2012-02-14

    A chemical sensor for assessing a chemical of interest. In typical embodiments the chemical sensor includes a first thermocouple and second thermocouple. A reactive component is typically disposed proximal to the second thermal couple, and is selected to react with the chemical of interest and generate a temperature variation that may be detected by a comparison of a temperature sensed by the second thermocouple compared with a concurrent temperature detected by the first thermocouple. Further disclosed is a method for assessing a chemical of interest and a method for identifying a reaction temperature for a chemical of interest in a system.

  15. Chemical tracking at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costain, D.B.

    1994-04-01

    EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc., has developed a chemical tracking system to support compliance with the Emergency Planning and community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) at the Rocky Flats Plant. This system, referred to as the EPCRA Chemical Control system (ECCS), uses bar code technology to uniquely identify and track the receipt, distribution, and use of chemicals. Chemical inventories are conducted using hand-held electronic scanners to update a site wide chemical database on a VAX 6000 computer. Information from the ECCS supports preparation of the EPCRA Tier II and Form R reports on chemical storage and use.

  16. ITP Chemicals: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Chemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Chemical Industry, May 2000 ITP Chemicals: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Chemical Industry, May 2000 PDF icon ...

  17. Radionuclide transport through engineered barrier system alteration products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viani, B.E.; Torretto, P.C.; Matzen, S.L.

    1997-12-01

    The primary rationale for studying the transport behavior of radionuclides through the Engineered Barrier system / Near Field Environment (EBS/NFE) is to ascertain whether the material properties of the introduced and altered host rock can significantly affect the transport of radionuclides from the waste container to the far field. The intent of this report is to present data and modeling results that can be used to assess the importance of canister corrosion products and cementitious materials to transport of radionuclides to the far field.

  18. Light-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Soden, Jerry M.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC), The invention uses a focused light beam that is scanned over a surface of the IC to generate a light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) signal for analysis of the IC, The LIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any defects in the IC; and it may be further used to image and control the logic states of the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for the development of ICs, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs.

  19. Light-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.

    1995-07-04

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a focused light beam that is scanned over a surface of the IC to generate a light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) signal for analysis of the IC. The LIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any defects in the IC; and it may be further used to image and control the logic states of the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for the development of ICs, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs. 18 figs.

  20. Magnetic hardening of Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi with ThMn12 structure by melt spinning

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Chen; Sun, Kewei; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Kramer, M. J.

    2015-04-15

    A recent study on the intrinsic magnetic properties of CeFe11–yCoyTi has revealed that substituting one Co for Fe retains the favorable magnetocrystalline anisotropy Ha found in the ternary Fe end member, while enhancing the Curie temperature Tc and saturation magnetization 4πMs. These findings warrant further optimization around Co substitution y = 1 to try to exploit the hard magnetic properties of these Ce-based magnets. Both Ce and Co concentrations in Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi have been optimized in the range of x = 0 – 0.2 and y = 0 –1.5. It was found that Co substitution effectively enhances all hard magnetic properties,more »although the values are still lower than those predicted from the intrinsic magnetic properties. Specifically, Tc increases from 210 °C to 285 – 350 °C; 4πM19 (magnetization at 19 kOe) from 8.9 kG to 10.5 – 11.5 kG, remanence Br from 3.1 kG to 4.1 – 4.5 kG, and most importantly, Hci from 1.1 kOe to 1.5 kOe. As a result, the room temperature energy product (BH)max has been increased by over 100% from 0.7 MGOe in Ce1.1Fe11Ti to 1.5 MGOe in Ce1.05Fe9.75Co1.25Ti. Microscopy analysis indicates that the addition of Co refines the grain size and promotes chemical homogeneity at the microscopic scale. As a result, the beneficial effect of Co on the microstructure contributes to the improved hard magnetic properties.« less

  1. Magnetic hardening of Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi with ThMn12 structure by melt spinning

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Chen; Sun, Kewei; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Kramer, M. J.

    2015-04-15

    A recent study on the intrinsic magnetic properties of CeFe11–yCoyTi has revealed that substituting one Co for Fe retains the favorable magnetocrystalline anisotropy Ha found in the ternary Fe end member, while enhancing the Curie temperature Tc and saturation magnetization 4πMs. These findings warrant further optimization around Co substitution y = 1 to try to exploit the hard magnetic properties of these Ce-based magnets. Both Ce and Co concentrations in Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi have been optimized in the range of x = 0 – 0.2 and y = 0 –1.5. It was found that Co substitution effectively enhances all hard magnetic properties,more » although the values are still lower than those predicted from the intrinsic magnetic properties. Specifically, Tc increases from 210 °C to 285 – 350 °C; 4πM19 (magnetization at 19 kOe) from 8.9 kG to 10.5 – 11.5 kG, remanence Br from 3.1 kG to 4.1 – 4.5 kG, and most importantly, Hci from 1.1 kOe to 1.5 kOe. As a result, the room temperature energy product (BH)max has been increased by over 100% from 0.7 MGOe in Ce1.1Fe11Ti to 1.5 MGOe in Ce1.05Fe9.75Co1.25Ti. Microscopy analysis indicates that the addition of Co refines the grain size and promotes chemical homogeneity at the microscopic scale. As a result, the beneficial effect of Co on the microstructure contributes to the improved hard magnetic properties.« less

  2. Tanaka Chemical Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tanaka Chemical Corp Place: Fukui-shi, Fukui, Japan Zip: 910-3131 Product: Japanese chemical manufactuerer with a focus on materials for...

  3. Searching for the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Searching for the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Searching for the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print Wednesday, 20 February 2013 00:00 The ratio of isotopes in elements like ...

  4. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print To study the origins of different ... of California, San Diego is using ALS Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 to mimic ...

  5. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print Tuesday, 26 March 2013 00:00 To study the origins of different isotope ratios among ...

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L.; Casey, Alton W.

    1982-01-01

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200.degree. C.; and impinging a gas containing in a flowing atmosphere of air N.sub.2, SiCl.sub.4, and AlCl.sub.3 on the surface.

  7. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  8. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.; Birmingham, Joseph G.; McDonald, Carolyn Evans; Kurath, Dean E.; Friedrich, Michele

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  9. Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

  10. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for analysis of microelectromechanical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walraven, Jeremy A.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    2002-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device with or without on-board integrated circuitry. One embodiment of the TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the MEM device while scanning a focused laser beam over electrically-active members therein to produce localized heating which alters the power demand of the MEM device and thereby changes the voltage of the constant-current source. This changing voltage of the constant-current source can be measured and used in combination with the position of the focused and scanned laser beam to generate an image of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device (e.g. due to stiction or fabrication defects). In another embodiment of the TIVA apparatus, an image can be generated directly from a thermoelectric potential produced by localized laser heating at the location of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device, without any need for supplying power to the MEM device. The TIVA apparatus can be formed, in part, from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of MEM devices.

  11. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    2000-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  12. Alteration of cell cycle progression by Sindbis virus infection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Ruirong; Saito, Kengo; Isegawa, Naohisa; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2015-07-10

    We examined the impact of Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on cell cycle progression in a cancer cell line, HeLa, and a non-cancerous cell line, Vero. Cell cycle analyses showed that SINV infection is able to alter the cell cycle progression in both HeLa and Vero cells, but differently, especially during the early stage of infection. SINV infection affected the expression of several cell cycle regulators (CDK4, CDK6, cyclin E, p21, cyclin A and cyclin B) in HeLa cells and caused HeLa cells to accumulate in S phase during the early stage of infection. Monitoring SINV replication in HeLa and Vero cells expressing cell cycle indicators revealed that SINV which infected HeLa cells during G{sub 1} phase preferred to proliferate during S/G{sub 2} phase, and the average time interval for viral replication was significantly shorter in both HeLa and Vero cells infected during G{sub 1} phase than in cells infected during S/G{sub 2} phase. - Highlights: • SINV infection was able to alter the cell cycle progression of infected cancer cells. • SINV infection can affect the expression of cell cycle regulators. • SINV infection exhibited a preference for the timing of viral replication among the cell cycle phases.

  13. CRAD, Chemical Management Implementation- June 30, 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chemical Management Implementation Inspection Criteria, Approach, and Lines of Inquiry (HSS CRAD 45-31, Rev. 1)

  14. Chemical Free Water Analysis with Nanoelectrode Arrays

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2013-06-05

    Electrochemical analysis is a highly sensitive, chemically selective method for identifying and quantifying many different chemicals in water.  Previous art required  field samples be transported to a laboratory where additional chemicals would be added before the analysis could be performed.  Sandia National Laboratories has invented an electrochemical analysis method that has eliminated the need to add chemicals to the testing process while increasing the...

  15. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage » Materials-Based Storage » Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's (FCTO's) chemical hydrogen storage materials research focuses on improving the volumetric and gravimetric capacity, transient performance, and efficient, cost-effective regeneration of the spent storage material. Technical Overview The category of chemical hydrogen storage materials generally refers to covalently bound hydrogen in either solid or

  16. Nanomechanical Sensor Detects and Identifies Chemical Analytes

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2012-09-26

    ORNL researchers developed a cost-efficient nanomechanical sensor that candetect chemicals adsorbed to a surface and then quickly analyze and identifythose chemicals. The device is a significant improvement over current detectiontechnologies, which are not able to perform reliable identification. Rapididentification of trace amounts of chemicals(e.g., polymers, explosives) is importantfor ensuring safety in pharmaceutical, transportation, and other sectors....

  17. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Edward C.; Huxtable, Douglas D.

    1985-08-06

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  18. Altering wettability to recover more oil from tight formations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Bryan, Charles R.; Thyne, Geoffrey; Li, Huina

    2016-06-03

    We describe here a method for chemically modifying fracturing fluids and overflushes to chemically increase oil recovery from tight formations. Oil wetting of tight formations is usually controlled by adhesion to illite, kerogen, or both; adhesion to carbonate minerals may also play a role. Oil-illite adhesion is sensitive to salinity, dissolved divalent cation content, and pH. We measure oil-rock adhesion with middle Bakken formation oil and core to verify a surface complexation model of reservoir wettability. The agreement between the model and experiments suggests that wettability trends in tight formations can be quantitatively predicted and that fracturing fluid and overflushmore » compositions can be individually tailored to increase oil recovery.« less

  19. Ultrafast optical technique for the characterization of altered materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method and a system for non-destructively examining a semiconductor sample (30) having at least one localized region underlying a surface (30a) through into which a selected chemical species has been implanted or diffused. A first step induces at least one transient time-varying change in optical constants of the sample at a location at or near to a surface of the sample. A second step measures a response of the sample to an optical probe beam, either pulsed or continuous wave, at least during a time that the optical constants are varying. A third step associates the measured response with at least one of chemical species concentration, chemical species type, implant energy, a presence or absence of an introduced chemical species region at the location, and a presence or absence of implant-related damage. The method and apparatus in accordance with this invention can be employed in conjunction with a measurement of one or more of the following effects arising from a time-dependent change in the optical constants of the sample due to the application of at least one pump pulse: (a) a change in reflected intensity; (b) a change in transmitted intensity; (c) a change in a polarization state of the reflected and/or transmitted light; (d) a change in the optical phase of the reflected and/or transmitted light; (e) a change in direction of the reflected and/or transmitted light; and (f) a change in optical path length between the sample's surface and a detector.

  20. Ultrafast optical technique for the characterization of altered materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, H.J.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed herein is a method and a system for non-destructively examining a semiconductor sample having at least one localized region underlying a surface through into which a selected chemical species has been implanted or diffused. A first step induces at least one transient time-varying change in optical constants of the sample at a location at or near to a surface of the sample. A second step measures a response of the sample to an optical probe beam, either pulsed or continuous wave, at least during a time that the optical constants are varying. A third step associates the measured response with at least one of chemical species concentration, chemical species type, implant energy, a presence or absence of an introduced chemical species region at the location, and a presence or absence of implant-related damage. The method and apparatus in accordance with this invention can be employed in conjunction with a measurement of one or more of the following effects arising from a time-dependent change in the optical constants of the sample due to the application of at least one pump pulse: (a) a change in reflected intensity; (b) a change in transmitted intensity; (c) a change in a polarization state of the reflected and/or transmitted light; (d) a change in the optical phase of the reflected and/or transmitted light; (e) a change in direction of the reflected and/or transmitted light; and (f) a change in optical path length between the sample`s surface and a detector. 22 figs.

  1. Apparatus and methods for detecting chemical permeation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1994-12-27

    Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation. The invention also relates to the fabrication of protective clothing materials. 13 figures.

  2. Corona Method And Apparatus For Altering Carbon Containing Compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharma, Amit K.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Josephson; Gary B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for altering a carbon-containing compound in an aqueous mixture. According to a first aspect of the present invention, it has been discovered that for an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound with an ozone reaction rate less than the ozone reaction rate of pentachlorophenol, use of corona discharge in a low or non-oxidizing atmosphere increases the rate of destruction of the carbon containing compound compared to corona discharge an oxidizing atmosphere. For an aqueous mixture containing pentachlorphenol, there was essentially no difference in destruction between atmospheres. According to a second aspect of the present invention, it has been further discovered that an aqueous mixture having a carbon-containing compound in the presence of a catalyst and oxygen resulted in an increased destruction rate of the carbon containing compound compared to no catalyst.

  3. Corona method and apparatus for altering carbon containing compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharma, Amit K.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for altering a carbon containing compound in an aqueous mixture. According to a first aspect of the present invention, it has been discovered that for an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound with an ozone reaction rate less than the ozone reaction rate of pentachlorophenol, use of corona discharge in a low or non-oxidizing atmosphere increases the rate of destruction of the carbon containing compound compared to corona discharge an oxidizing atmosphere. For an aqueous mixture containing pentachlorphenol, there was essentially no difference in destruction between atmospheres. According to a second aspect of the present invention, it has been further discovered that an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound in the presence of a catalyst and oxygen resulted in an increased destruction rate of the carbon containing compound compared to no catalyst.

  4. Human alteration of the rural landscape: Variations in visual perception

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustin Carmen Torres-Sibille, Ana del; Cloquell-Ballester, Victor-Andres; Santamarina-Siurana, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-15

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate how visual perception varies as the rural landscape is altered by human interventions of varying character. An experiment is carried out using Semantic Differential Analysis to analyse the effect of the character and the type of the intervention on perception. Interventions are divided into elements of 'permanent industrial character', 'elements of permanent rural character' and 'elements of temporary character', and these categories are sub-divided into smaller groups according to the type of development. To increase the reliability of the results, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient tool, is applied to validate the semantic space of the perceptual responses and to determine the number of subjects required for a reliable evaluation of the scenes.

  5. Chemical microreactor and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan

    2005-11-01

    A chemical microreactor suitable for generation of hydrogen fuel from liquid sources such as ammonia, methanol, and butane through steam reforming processes when mixed with an appropriate amount of water contains capillary microchannels with integrated resistive heaters to facilitate the occurrence of catalytic steam reforming reactions. One such microreactor employs a packed catalyst capillary microchannel and at least one porous membrane. Another employs a porous membrane with a large surface area or a porous membrane support structure containing a plurality of porous membranes having a large surface area in the aggregate, i.e., greater than about 1 m.sup.2 /cm.sup.3. The packed catalyst capillary microchannels, porous membranes and porous membrane support structures may be formed by a variety of methods.

  6. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L.; Hannum, David W.; Conrad, Frank James

    1999-01-01

    A portal apparatus for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow.

  7. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, K.L.; Hannum, D.W.; Conrad, F.J.

    1999-06-22

    A portal apparatus is described for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow. 3 figs.

  8. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  9. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  10. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  11. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  12. Integrated sensing platform and method for improved quantitative and selective monitoring of chemical analytes in both liquid and gas phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blair, Dianna S.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Butler, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    By measuring two or more physical parameters of a thin sensing film which are altered when exposed to chemicals, more effective discrimination between chemicals can be achieved. In using more than one sensor, the sensors are preferably integrated on the same substrate so that they may measure the same thin film. Even more preferably, the sensors are provided orthogonal to one another so that they may measure the same portion of the thin film. These provisions reduce problems in discrimination arising from variations in thin films.

  13. Lee Chung Yung Chemical Industry Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chung Yung Chemical Industry Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lee Chung Yung Chemical Industry Corporation Place: Taipei, Taiwan Product: Chemical manufacturer...

  14. Spin-selective recombination kinetics of a model chemical magnetorecep...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spin-selective recombination kinetics of a model chemical magnetoreceptor Authors: Maeda, ... recombination kinetics of a model chemical magnetoreceptor Source: Chemical ...

  15. Nuclear energy field fascinates David Parkinson, chemical engineer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear energy field fascinates David Parkinson, chemical engineer Nuclear energy field fascinates David Parkinson, chemical engineer Chemical engineer undergraduate designs and ...

  16. ITP Chemicals: Final Report: Evaluation of Alternative Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications ITP Chemicals: Chemical Bandwidth Study - Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Identifying Process Inefficiencies in the U.S. Chemical Industry, ...

  17. T Plant, Chemical Separation Building | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manhattan Project Signature Facilities T Plant, Chemical Separation Building T Plant, Chemical Separation Building Photos of T-plant's construction and T-Plant's Chemical ...

  18. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Keuren, J.C.; Davis, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This topical report contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences of releases of toxic chemical and gases for the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis report (FSAR).It does not provide results for specific accident scenarios but does provide information for use in those calculations including chemicals to be considered, chemical concentrations, chemical limits and a method of summing the fractional contributions of each chemical. Tank farm composites evaluated were liquids and solids for double shell tanks, single shell tanks, all solids,all liquids, headspace gases, and 241-C-106 solids. Emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs) were used as the limits.Where ERPGs were not available for the chemicals of interest, surrogate ERPGs were developed. Revision 2 includes updated sample data, an executive summary, and some editorial revisions.

  19. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  20. SOME CHEMICAL SAFETY ASPECTS AT LANL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. LAUL

    2001-05-01

    Recently, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have begun activities to improve the quality and consistency of chemical safety programs throughout the DOE Complex. Several working groups have been formed to assemble a framework for systematically identifying and quantifying chemical hazards and managing chemical risks. At LANL, chemical safety program is implemented through Laboratory Implementation Requirements (LIRs), which are part of the Integrated Safety Management (ISM) plan that includes Safe Work Practices, emphasizing five core functions; define work, identify and analyze hazards, develop and implement controls, perform work safely, and ensure performance. Work is authorized in medium, low and minimal risk areas and not in high risk. Some chemical safety aspects are discussed in terms of chemical hazards and identification, screening, facility hazard categorization--Category A (high), Category B (moderate), and Category C (low), and their requirements in format and content in Authorization Safety Basis documents.

  1. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  2. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  3. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  4. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  5. Manager, International Chemical Threat Reduction Department, Sandia

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Laboratories | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Manager, International Chemical Threat Reduction Department, Sandia National Laboratories Nancy B. Jackson Nancy Jackson Nancy B. Jackson, manager of the International Chemical Threat Reduction Department at Sandia National Laboratories, will be the American Chemical Society president in 2011 and will serve on the ACS Board of Directors during her presidential succession, which will run from 2010 to 2012. Jackson holds

  6. chemical_methods | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Methods Chemical methods focus mainly on alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) processes that involve the injection of micellar-polymers into the reservoir. Chemical flooding reduces the interfacial tension between the in-place crude oil and the injected water, allowing the oil to be produced. Micellar fluids are composed largely of surfactants mixed with water. Goals of polymer floods are to shut off excess water in producing wells, and to improve sweep efficiency to produce more oil.

  7. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  8. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  9. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  10. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  11. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  12. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support,

  13. Distinctive properties of tabular solar chemical reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meirovitch, E. )

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated sunlight that can be stored in the chemical bond by activating an endothermic reaction. This novel concept has been implemented recently with solar power captured in a central receiver equipped with chemical reactors. The related theory, presented in this report, singles out this interactive radiative-chemical system as distinctively stable thermodynamically, resilient to perturbations, internally regulatory and self-corrective. None of the thermochemical devices conceived so far bear all these attributes.

  14. Chemical Looping Combustion | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Looping Combustion chemical-looping-combustion.jpg An economical option for using our abundant, domestic coal resources while eliminating CO2 emissions may sound like science fiction, but NETL researchers are working to bring this technology of the future into the present. Chemical looping is the solution. This cost-effective indirect combustion technology has CO2 capture "built in," effectively eradicating greenhouse gas emissions from coal. Although still a few years away

  15. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print Tuesday, 26 March 2013 00:00 To study the origins of different isotope ratios among the elements that make up today's smorgasbord of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and interplanetary ice and dust, a team of scientists from the University of California, San Diego is using ALS Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 to mimic radiation from the protosun when the solar system was forming. For more than three

  16. 2.3 Understanding Chemical Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6/1/2011 2.3 Understanding Chemical Reactions The molecular features that influence the rate of chemical reactions were poorly understood until the mid- 1960s, when Dudley Herschbach and his postdoctoral student Yuan T. Lee began a series of experiments at Harvard University. With funding from the Office of Science and predecessor agencies, they explained in detail how chemical reactions take place, and solved the problem of how to observe the random directions and velocities of molecules in a

  17. 2005 Chemical Reactions at Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cynthia M. Friend

    2006-03-14

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2005 Chemical Reactions at Surfaces was held at Ventura Beach Marriott, Ventura California from February 13, 2005 through February 18, 2005. The Conference was well-attended with 124 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, 'free time' was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  18. Division Director, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division is seeking a motivated and highly qualified individual to...

  19. Predicting Pressure-Dependent Combustion Chemical Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Chemical Reactions HomeCapabilities, Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF, Energy, ... in combus-tion and atmospheric chemistry that is expected to benefit auto and ...

  20. ORISE: Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program Exercise...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program Exercise Training and Analysis Tool Training Tool Improves Information Sharing Between CSEPP and its Response Partners In 2006,...

  1. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock...

  2. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even...

  3. Methods and compounds for chemical ligation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M.; Sismour, A. Michael

    2013-07-09

    Compositions and methods for chemical ligation are provided. Methods for nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid assembly and nucleic acid synthesis are also provided.

  4. Chemical Design Inc CDI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Design Inc CDI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chemical Design Inc (CDI) Place: Lockport, New York Zip: 14094 Product: US-based engineer of separation and purification plants;...

  5. Workshop: Synchrotron Applications in Chemical Catalysis | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications in Chemical Catalysis Tuesday, October 25, 2011 - 8:00am 2011 SSRLLCLS Annual Users Conference This workshop, part of the 2011 SSRLLCLS Annual Users...

  6. Sanyo Chemical Industries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industries Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sanyo Chemical Industries Place: Tokyo, Japan Zip: 103-0023 Product: String representation "Sanyo is a petr ... uction process." is...

  7. Dudley Herschbach: Chemical Reactions and Molecular Beams

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    As a co-recipient of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 'Dudley Herschbach was cited for ... Dudley R. Herschbach, Harvard Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology Teaching ...

  8. Method and apparatus for chemical synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong; Peter C. , Herring; J. Stephen , Grandy; Jon D.

    2007-12-04

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  9. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print To study the origins of different isotope ratios among the elements that make up today's smorgasbord of planets, moons, comets,...

  10. Characterization of Chemical Properties, Unit Cell Parameters...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    They have been characterized by a variety of chemical and physical measurement methods: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), gravimetry, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), ...

  11. Chemically stabilized ionomers containing inorganic fillers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roelofs, Mark Gerrit

    2013-12-31

    Ionomeric polymers that are chemically stabilized and contain inorganic fillers are prepared, and show reduced degradation. The ionomers care useful in membranes and electrochemical cells.

  12. Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

  13. FAQS Qualification Card - Chemical Processing | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Programs is a set of common Functional Area Qualification Standards (FAQS) and ... More Documents & Publications FAQS Gap Analysis Qualification Card - Chemical Processing ...

  14. Chemical Management (Volume 3 of 3)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... NFPA 30 (2000), "Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code". NFPA 45 (2000), "Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals". NFPA 51 (1997), "Standard for the Design ...

  15. Integrated Chemical Geothermometry System for Geothermal Exploration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Develop practical and reliable system to predict geothermal reservoir temperatures from integrated chemical analyses of spring and well fluids.

  16. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verschueren, K.

    1983-01-01

    This text presents essential data on over 2,000 organic chemicals: synonyms, formulas, properties; effects on plants, animals, people, air, water.

  17. Air Products Chemicals Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Products & Chemicals Inc Place: Allentown, Pennsylvania Zip: 18195 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen, Services Product: A global supplier of merchant hydrogen with a portfolio of...

  18. Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Valorization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomass: Valorization of Lignin Mike Kent Deconstruction Division Joint BioEnergy Institute Outline 1. Introduction: -fuels and chemicals from Ngnocellulosic biomass -need ...

  19. Batteryless Chemical Detection - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deployable chemical sensors for military, industrial, and environmental applications. ... small enough to serve in unique situations ranging from military to medical applications. ...

  20. Microbend fiber-optic chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2002-01-01

    A microbend fiber-optic chemical sensor for detecting chemicals in a sample, and a method for its use, is disclosed. The sensor comprises at least one optical fiber having a microbend section (a section of small undulations in its axis), for transmitting and receiving light. In transmission, light guided through the microbend section scatters out of the fiber core and interacts, either directly or indirectly, with the chemical in the sample, inducing fluorescence radiation. Fluorescence radiation is scattered back into the microbend section and returned to an optical detector for determining characteristics of the fluorescence radiation quantifying the presence of a specific chemical.

  1. WEBINAR: MODULAR CHEMICAL PROCESS INTENSIFICATION INSTITUTE FOR...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Energy Department's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy will conduct an informational webinar for the Modular Chemical Process Intensification Institute for Clean ...

  2. Solutia: Massachusetts Chemical Manufacturer Uses SECURE Methodology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption Solutia: Massachusetts Chemical Manufacturer Uses SECURE Methodology to Identify Potential Reductions in Utility and Process Energy Consumption This case ...

  3. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. ...

  4. Chemical Characterization of Individual Particles and Residuals...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Chemical Characterization of Individual ... Collected On Board Research Aircraft in the ISDAC ... inorganic or black carbon cores coated by organic materials. ...

  5. Inventure Chemical Technology | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inventure Chemical Technology Address: P.O. Box 530 Place: Gig Harbor, Washington Zip: 98335 Region: Pacific Northwest Area Sector:...

  6. Chemical Transformation - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Transformation December 21, 2015, Research Highlights Redox Mediators that ... Read More Chemical Transformation Electrolyte Genome December 21, 2015, Research ...

  7. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  8. Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prev Next Title: Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's...

  9. Excellence in biotechnology for fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neufeld, S.

    1999-04-23

    The Biotechnology Center for Fuels and Chemicals (BCFC) leads a national effort, in cooperation with industry, to develop innovative, market-driven biotechnologies for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. The BCFC researchers focus on using bioprocesses to convert renewable biomass feedstocks into valuable products.

  10. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  11. Use and Misuse of Chemical Reactivity Spreadsheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, F

    2005-09-20

    Misidentifying chemical hazards can have serious deleterious effects. Consequences of not identifying a chemical are obvious and include fires, explosions, injury to workers, etc. Consequences of identifying hazards that are really not present can be equally as bad. Misidentifying hazards can result in increased work with loss of productivity, increased expenses, utilization/consumption of scarce resources, and the potential to modify the work to include chemicals or processes that are actually more hazardous than those originally proposed. For these reasons, accurate hazard identification is critical to any safety program. Hazard identification in the world of chemistry is, at best, a daunting task. The knowing or understanding, of the reactions between any of approximately twelve million known chemicals that may be hazardous, is the reason for this task being so arduous. Other variables, such as adding other reactants/contaminants or changing conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, or concentration), make hazard determination something many would construe as being more than impossibly difficult. Despite these complexities, people who do not have an extensive background in the chemical sciences can be called upon to perform chemical hazard identification. Because hazard identification in the area of chemical safety is so burdensome and because people with a wide variety of training are called upon to perform this work, tools are required to aid in chemical hazard identification. Many tools have been developed. Unfortunately, many of these tools are not seen as the limited resource that they are and are used inappropriately.

  12. Surface wave chemical detector using optical radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2007-07-17

    A surface wave chemical detector comprising at least one surface wave substrate, each of said substrates having a surface wave and at least one measurable surface wave parameter; means for exposing said surface wave substrate to an unknown sample of at least one chemical to be analyzed, said substrate adsorbing said at least one chemical to be sensed if present in said sample; a source of radiation for radiating said surface wave substrate with different wavelengths of said radiation, said surface wave parameter being changed by said adsorbing; and means for recording signals representative of said surface wave parameter of each of said surface wave substrates responsive to said radiation of said different wavelengths, measurable changes of said parameter due to adsorbing said chemical defining a unique signature of a detected chemical.

  13. Chemical Sciences Division: Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Chemical Sciences Division (CSD) is one of twelve research Divisions of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a Department of Energy National Laboratory. The CSD is composed of individual groups and research programs that are organized into five scientific areas: Chemical Physics, Inorganic/Organometallic Chemistry, Actinide Chemistry, Atomic Physics, and Physical Chemistry. This report describes progress by the CSD for 1992. Also included are remarks by the Division Director, a description of work for others (United States Office of Naval Research), and appendices of the Division personnel and an index of investigators. Research reports are grouped as Fundamental Interactions (Photochemical and Radiation Sciences, Chemical Physics, Atomic Physics) or Processes and Techniques (Chemical Energy, Heavy-Element Chemistry, and Chemical Engineering Sciences).

  14. Does elevated CO2 alter silica uptake in trees?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fulweiler, Robinson W.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Carey, Joanna C.; Finzi, Adrien C.

    2015-01-13

    Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global CO2 fertilization, longterm free-air CO2 enrichment experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si) in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine), and five hardwoodmore » species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20 and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.« less

  15. Technology of the radiation hardened MOS devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragan, M.; Draghici, I.; Sachelarie, D.; Sachelarie, M.

    1984-02-01

    During technological processes such as ion doping, plasma corrosion or X-ray lithography, radiation effects can be harmful to MOS devices used in the space, military and nuclear industries. Silicon and silicon dioxide preparation for radiation resistant MOS devices is reviewed. To obtain the lowest possible threshold voltage (1-2 V of 1,000,000 rad) the following points are outlined: (1) the silicon must be of the (100) type (2) the optimum oxidation temperature should be between 850 to 1000 C, while the sintering temperature should be between 460 to 500 C (3) aluminum doping can be useful. Silicon, silicon dioxide and metallization preparation and subsequent treatments are presented to achieve a very low shift in the threshold voltage under neutron radiation of a 10 to 4th power rad (si) total dose.

  16. Alteration of plant meristem function by manipulation of the Retinoblastoma-like plant RRB gene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durfee, Tim; Feiler, Heidi; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Jenkins, Susan; Roe, Judith; Zambryski, Patricia

    2007-01-16

    This invention provides methods and compositions for altering the growth, organization, and differentiation of plant tissues. The invention is based on the discovery that, in plants, genetically altering the levels of Retinoblastoma-related gene (RRB) activity produces dramatic effects on the growth, proliferation, organization, and differentiation of plant meristem.

  17. Exposure Levels for Chemical Threat Compounds; Information to Facilitate Chemical Incident Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauschild, Veronique; Watson, Annetta Paule

    2013-01-01

    Exposure Standards, Limits and Guidelines for Chemical Threat Compunds ABSTRACT Exposure criteria for chemical warfare (CW) agents and certain toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) used as CW agents (such as chlorine fill in an improvised explosive device) have been developed for protection of the civilian general public, civilian employees in chemical agent processing facilities and deployed military populations. In addition, compound-specific concentrations have been developed to serve as how clean is clean enough clearance criteria guiding facility recovery following chemical terrorist or other hazardous release events. Such criteria are also useful to verify compound absence, identify containment boundaries and expedite facility recovery following chemical threat release. There is no single right value or concentration appropriate for all chemical hazard control applications. It is acknowledged that locating and comparing the many sources of CW agent and TIC exposure criteria has not been previously well-defined. This paper summarizes many of these estimates and assembles critical documentation regarding their derivation and use.

  18. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  19. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH); Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (i) the electrode, (ii) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (iii) a counterelectrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes.

  20. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1998-05-26

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (1) the electrode, (2) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (3) a counter electrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes. 3 figs.

  1. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  2. How Do I Work with Chemicals?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Do I Work with Chemicals? Print Planning In your experiment proposal, you must indicate whether you will be working with chemicals at the ALS. In the Experiment Safety Sheet (ESS), identify each chemical that you will be working with and let ALS This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it know if any are flammable, toxic, engineered nanomaterials or reactive items. LBNL has an on-line MSDS database that can provide information for most

  3. How Do I Work with Chemicals?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Do I Work with Chemicals? Print Planning In your experiment proposal, you must indicate whether you will be working with chemicals at the ALS. In the Experiment Safety Sheet (ESS), identify each chemical that you will be working with and let ALS This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it know if any are flammable, toxic, engineered nanomaterials or reactive items. LBNL has an on-line MSDS database that can provide information for most

  4. Chemical safety: asking the right questions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whyte, Helena M; Quigley, David; Freshwater, David

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that, despite efforts to the contrary, chemical accidents continue to occur at an unacceptable rate and there is no evidence that this rate is decreasing. Based on this observation, one can conclude that previous analyses have not accurately identified and implemented appropriate fixes to eliminate identified root causes for chemical events. Based on this, it is time to reevaluate chemical accident data with a fresh eye and determine (a) what corrective actions have already been identified but have not been implemented, (b) what other root causes may be involved, and (c) what new corrective actions should be taken to eliminate these newly identified root causes.

  5. How Do I Work with Chemicals?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Do I Work with Chemicals? Print Planning In your experiment proposal, you must indicate whether you will be working with chemicals at the ALS. In the Experiment Safety Sheet (ESS), identify each chemical that you will be working with and let ALS This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it know if any are flammable, toxic, engineered nanomaterials or reactive items. LBNL has an on-line MSDS database that can provide information for most

  6. How Do I Work with Chemicals?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Do I Work with Chemicals? Print Planning In your experiment proposal, you must indicate whether you will be working with chemicals at the ALS. In the Experiment Safety Sheet (ESS), identify each chemical that you will be working with and let ALS This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it know if any are flammable, toxic, engineered nanomaterials or reactive items. LBNL has an on-line MSDS database that can provide information for most

  7. How Do I Work with Chemicals?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Do I Work with Chemicals? Print Planning In your experiment proposal, you must indicate whether you will be working with chemicals at the ALS. In the Experiment Safety Sheet (ESS), identify each chemical that you will be working with and let ALS This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it know if any are flammable, toxic, engineered nanomaterials or reactive items. LBNL has an on-line MSDS database that can provide information for most

  8. Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

  9. Chemical Sciences Division annual report 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The division is one of ten LBL research divisions. It is composed of individual research groups organized into 5 scientific areas: chemical physics, inorganic/organometallic chemistry, actinide chemistry, atomic physics, and chemical engineering. Studies include structure and reactivity of critical reaction intermediates, transients and dynamics of elementary chemical reactions, and heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis. Work for others included studies of superconducting properties of high-{Tc} oxides. In FY 1994, the division neared completion of two end-stations and a beamline for the Advanced Light Source, which will be used for combustion and other studies. This document presents summaries of the studies.

  10. CHEMICAL SAFETY: ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, F

    2008-08-05

    Recent reports have shown that, despite efforts to the contrary, chemical accidents continue to occur at an unacceptable rate and there is no evidence that this rate is decreasing. Based on this observation, one can conclude that previous analyses have not accurately identified and implemented appropriate fixes to eliminate identified root causes for chemical events. Based on this, it is time to reevaluate chemical accident data with a fresh eye and determine (a) what corrective actions have already been identified but have not been implemented, (b) what other root causes may be involved, and (c) what new corrective actions should be taken to eliminate these newly identified root causes.

  11. A semisynthetic strategy leads to alteration of the backbone amidate ligand in the NiSOD active site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campeciño, Julius O.; Dudycz, Lech W.; Tumelty, David; Berg, Volker; Cabelli, Diane E.; Maroney, Michael J.

    2015-07-01

    Computational investigations have implicated the amidate ligand in nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) in stabilizing Ni-centered redox catalysis and in preventing cysteine thiolate ligand oxidation. To test these predictions, we have used an experimental approach utilizing a semisynthetic scheme that employs native chemical ligation of a pentapeptide (HCDLP) to recombinant S. coelicolor NiSOD lacking these N-terminal residues, NΔ5-NiSOD. Wild-type enzyme produced in this manner exhibits the characteristic spectral properties of recombinant WT-NiSOD and is as catalytically active. The semisynthetic scheme was also employed to construct a variant where the amidate ligand was converted to a secondary amine, H1*-NiSOD, a novel strategy that retains a backbone N-donor atom. The H1*-NiSOD variant was found to have only ~1% of the catalytic activity of the recombinant wild-type enzyme, and had altered spectroscopic properties. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals a four-coordinate planar site with N2S2-donor ligands, consistent with electronic absorption spectroscopic results indicating that the Ni center in H1*-NiSOD is mostly reduced in the as-isolated sample, as opposed to 50:50 Ni(II)/Ni(III) mixture that is typical for the recombinant wild-type enzyme. The EPR spectrum of as-isolated H1*-NiSOD accounts for ~11% of the Ni in the sample and is similar to WT-NiSOD, but more axial, with gz < gx,y. 14N-hyperfine is observed on gzaltered electronic properties and implications for redox catalysis are discussed in light of predictions based on synthetic and computational models.

  12. A semisynthetic strategy leads to alteration of the backbone amidate ligand in the NiSOD active site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campecio, Julius O.; Dudycz, Lech W.; Tumelty, David; Berg, Volker; Cabelli, Diane E.; Maroney, Michael J.

    2015-07-01

    Computational investigations have implicated the amidate ligand in nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) in stabilizing Ni-centered redox catalysis and in preventing cysteine thiolate ligand oxidation. To test these predictions, we have used an experimental approach utilizing a semisynthetic scheme that employs native chemical ligation of a pentapeptide (HCDLP) to recombinant S. coelicolor NiSOD lacking these N-terminal residues, N?5-NiSOD. Wild-type enzyme produced in this manner exhibits the characteristic spectral properties of recombinant WT-NiSOD and is as catalytically active. The semisynthetic scheme was also employed to construct a variant where the amidate ligand was converted to a secondary amine, H1*-NiSOD, a novel strategy that retains a backbone N-donor atom. The H1*-NiSOD variant was found to have only ~1% of the catalytic activity of the recombinant wild-type enzyme, and had altered spectroscopic properties. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals a four-coordinate planar site with N2S2-donor ligands, consistent with electronic absorption spectroscopic results indicating that the Ni center in H1*-NiSOD is mostly reduced in the as-isolated sample, as opposed to 50:50 Ni(II)/Ni(III) mixture that is typical for the recombinant wild-type enzyme. The EPR spectrum of as-isolated H1*-NiSOD accounts for ~11% of the Ni in the sample and is similar to WT-NiSOD, but more axial, with gz < gx,y. 14N-hyperfine is observed on gzaltered electronic properties and implications for redox catalysis are discussed in light of predictions based on synthetic and computational models.

  13. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P.J. Kooyman, H.W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B.M. Weckhuysen, and F.M.F. de Groot, "Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy," Nature...

  14. Chemical structure and dynamics: Annual report 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colson, S.D.; McDowell, R.S.

    1997-03-01

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS&D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. We respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for characterizing waste tanks and pollutant distributions, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species.

  15. Linyi Gelon Chemical | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Product: Shangdong based cathode materials (LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4) maker for Lithium secondary batteries. References: Linyi Gelon Chemical1 This article is a stub. You...

  16. Dow Chemical Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dow Chemical Company Place: Midland, MI Zip: 48667 Website: www.dow.com Coordinates: 43.6039709, -84.2370999 Show Map Loading map......

  17. Collaborating for Multi-Scale Chemical Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William H. Green

    2006-07-14

    Advanced model reduction methods were developed and integrated into the CMCS multiscale chemical science simulation software. The new technologies were used to simulate HCCI engines and burner flames with exceptional fidelity.

  18. Method And Apparatus For Detecting Chemical Binding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P.; Havrilla, George J.; Miller, Thomasin C.; Wells, Cyndi A.

    2005-02-22

    The method for screening binding between a target binder and potential pharmaceutical chemicals involves sending a solution (preferably an aqueous solution) of the target binder through a conduit to a size exclusion filter, the target binder being too large to pass through the size exclusion filter, and then sending a solution of one or more potential pharmaceutical chemicals (preferably an aqueous solution) through the same conduit to the size exclusion filter after target binder has collected on the filter. The potential pharmaceutical chemicals are small enough to pass through the filter. Afterwards, x-rays are sent from an x-ray source to the size exclusion filter, and if the potential pharmaceutical chemicals form a complex with the target binder, the complex produces an x-ray fluorescence signal having an intensity that indicates that a complex has formed.

  19. Chemical sensor with oscillating cantilevered probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Jesse D

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides a method of detecting a chemical species with an oscillating cantilevered probe. A cantilevered beam is driven into oscillation with a drive mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A free end of the oscillating cantilevered beam is tapped against a mechanical stop coupled to a base end of the cantilevered beam. An amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured with a sense mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A treated portion of the cantilevered beam is exposed to the chemical species, wherein the cantilevered beam bends when exposed to the chemical species. A second amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured, and the chemical species is determined based on the measured amplitudes.

  20. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J.; Currier, Robert P.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Barbero, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  1. Chemical structure and dynamics. Annual report 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colson, S.D.; McDowell, R.S.

    1996-05-01

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics program is a major component of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), providing a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. We respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for the characterization of waste tanks and pollutant distributions, and for detection and monitoring of trace atmospheric species.

  2. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's chemical hydrogen storage R&D is focused on developing low-cost energy-efficient regeneration systems for these irreversible hydrogen storage systems. Significant technical issues remain...

  3. Sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Dechang; Senesac, Lawrence R.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2011-07-05

    A sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes includes a microscale body having a first end and a second end and a surface between the ends for adsorbing a chemical analyte. The surface includes at least one conductive heating track for heating the chemical analyte and also a conductive response track, which is electrically isolated from the heating track, for producing a thermal response signal from the chemical analyte. The heating track is electrically connected with a voltage source and the response track is electrically connected with a signal recorder. The microscale body is restrained at the first end and the second end and is substantially isolated from its surroundings therebetween, thus having a bridge configuration.

  4. Method and apparatus for detecting chemical binding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P.; Havrilla, George J.; Miller, Thomasin C.; Wells, Cyndi A.

    2007-07-10

    The method for screening binding between a target binder and potential pharmaceutical chemicals involves sending a solution (preferably an aqueous solution) of the target binder through a conduit to a size exclusion filter, the target binder being too large to pass through the size exclusion filter, and then sending a solution of one or more potential pharmaceutical chemicals (preferably an aqueous solution) through the same conduit to the size exclusion filter after target binder has collected on the filter. The potential pharmaceutical chemicals are small enough to pass through the filter. Afterwards, x-rays are sent from an x-ray source to the size exclusion filter, and if the potential pharmaceutical chemicals form a complex with the target binder, the complex produces an x-ray fluorescence signal having an intensity that indicates that a complex has formed.

  5. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  6. Annular gel reactor for chemical pattern formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nosticzius, Zoltan; Horsthemke, Werner; McCormick, William D.; Swinney, Harry L.; Tam, Wing Y.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an annular gel reactor suitable for the production and observation of spatiotemporal patterns created during a chemical reaction. The apparatus comprises a vessel having at least a first and second chamber separated one from the other by an annular polymer gel layer (or other fine porous medium) which is inert to the materials to be reacted but capable of allowing diffusion of the chemicals into it.

  7. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Chemical & Sample Prep

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical & Sample Preparation For general questions, please contact the Lujan Center Chemical and Sample Preparation Laboratory responsible: Charles Kelsey | ckelsey@lanl.gov | 505.665.5579 Sample and Equipment Shipping Instructions For questions regarding shipping procedures, contact theLujan Center Experiment Coordinator: TBA Chemistry Laboratories High-Pressure Laboratory X-ray Laboratory Spectroscopy Laboratory Clean Room Laboratory Glove box - He atmosphere High-purity water Diamond

  8. Hobart named American Chemical Society Fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hobart named American Chemical Society Fellow August 21, 2013 David Hobart, long-time Chemistry Division employee and current affiliate in the National Security Education Center (NSEC), has been elected to Fellow of the American Chemical Society (ACS). The ACS honored him for his significant contributions to f-element science. The f-elements are those that have electrons in their f orbitals (lanthanides and the actinides). The ACS noted that Hobart contributed the reduction potential for the

  9. Real time chemical exposure and risk monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thrall, Karla D.; Kenny, Donald V.; Endres, George W. R.; Sisk, Daniel R.

    1997-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention is a combination of a breath interface and an external exposure dosimeter interface to a chemical analysis device, all controlled by an electronic processor for quantitatively analyzing chemical analysis data from both the breath interface and the external exposure dosimeter for determining internal tissue dose. The method of the present invention is a combination of steps of measuring an external dose, measuring breath content, then analyzing the external dose and breath content and determining internal tissue dose.

  10. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print To study the origins of different isotope ratios among the elements that make up today's smorgasbord of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and interplanetary ice and dust, a team of scientists from the University of California, San Diego is using ALS Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 to mimic radiation from the protosun when the solar system was forming. For more than three decades, Mark Thiemens, Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences at UCSD,

  11. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print To study the origins of different isotope ratios among the elements that make up today's smorgasbord of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and interplanetary ice and dust, a team of scientists from the University of California, San Diego is using ALS Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 to mimic radiation from the protosun when the solar system was forming. For more than three decades, Mark Thiemens, Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences at UCSD,

  12. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print To study the origins of different isotope ratios among the elements that make up today's smorgasbord of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and interplanetary ice and dust, a team of scientists from the University of California, San Diego is using ALS Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 to mimic radiation from the protosun when the solar system was forming. For more than three decades, Mark Thiemens, Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences at UCSD,

  13. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print To study the origins of different isotope ratios among the elements that make up today's smorgasbord of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and interplanetary ice and dust, a team of scientists from the University of California, San Diego is using ALS Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 to mimic radiation from the protosun when the solar system was forming. For more than three decades, Mark Thiemens, Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences at UCSD,

  14. Predicted thermochemistry for chemical conversions of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5-hydroxymethylfurfural | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Predicted thermochemistry for chemical conversions of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural Authors: Assary, R.S., Redfernb, P.C., Hammondd, J.R., Greeley, J., Curtiss, L.A. The thermochemistry of various chemical transformations of 5-hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) were investigated using highly accurate Gaussian-4 (G4) theory. The conversion of HMF to nonane through aldol condensation, hydrogenation, and hydrogenolysis reactions was found to

  15. Expansion of ARAC for chemical releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baskett, R.L.; Blair, M.D.; Foster, C.S.; Taylor, A.G.

    1997-07-01

    In 1996 the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) completed an effort to expand its national emergency response modeling system for chemical releases. Key components of the new capability include the integration of (1) an extensive chemical property database, (2) source modeling for tanks and evaporating pools, (3) denser-than-air dispersion, (4) public exposure guidelines, and (5) an interactive graphical user interface (GUI). Recent use and the future of the new capability are also discussed.

  16. Gene expression profiles in rainbow trout, Onchorynchus mykiss, exposed to a simple chemical mixture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hook, Sharon E.; Skillman, Ann D.; Gopalan, Banu; Small, Jack A.; Schultz, Irvin R.

    2008-03-01

    Among proposed uses for microarrays in environmental toxiciology is the identification of key contributors to toxicity within a mixture. However, it remains uncertain whether the transcriptomic profiles resulting from exposure to a mixture have patterns of altered gene expression that contain identifiable contributions from each toxicant component. We exposed isogenic rainbow trout Onchorynchus mykiss, to sublethal levels of ethynylestradiol, 2,2,4,4 tetrabromodiphenyl ether, and chromium VI or to a mixture of all three toxicants Fluorescently labeled cDNA were generated and hybridized against a commercially available Salmonid array spotted with 16,000 cDNAs. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (p < 0.05) with a Benjamani-Hochberg multiple test correction (Genespring (Agilent) software package) to identify up and down regulated genes. Gene clustering patterns that can be used as “expression signatures” were determined using hierarchical cluster analysis. The gene ontology terms associated with significantly altered genes were also used to identify functional groups that were associated with toxicant exposure. Cross-ontological analytics (XOA) approach was used to assign functional annotations to genes with "unknown" function. Our analysis indicates that transcriptomic profiles resulting from the mixture exposure resemble those of the individual contaminant exposures, but are not a simple additive list. However, patterns of altered genes representative of each component of the mixture are clearly discernible, and the functional classes of genes altered represent the individual components of the mixture. These findings indicate that the use of microarrays to identify transcriptomic profiles may aid in the identification of key stressors within a chemical mixture, ultimately improving environmental assessment.

  17. Diffusion approximations to the chemical master equation only have a consistent stochastic thermodynamics at chemical equilibrium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, Jordan M.

    2015-07-28

    The stochastic thermodynamics of a dilute, well-stirred mixture of chemically reacting species is built on the stochastic trajectories of reaction events obtained from the chemical master equation. However, when the molecular populations are large, the discrete chemical master equation can be approximated with a continuous diffusion process, like the chemical Langevin equation or low noise approximation. In this paper, we investigate to what extent these diffusion approximations inherit the stochastic thermodynamics of the chemical master equation. We find that a stochastic-thermodynamic description is only valid at a detailed-balanced, equilibrium steady state. Away from equilibrium, where there is no consistent stochastic thermodynamics, we show that one can still use the diffusive solutions to approximate the underlying thermodynamics of the chemical master equation.

  18. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOORE, T.L.

    2003-10-03

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH&Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations.

  19. ITP Chemicals: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Chemical Industry, May 2000

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Profiles about the ethylene chain, propylene chain, benzene-toulene-xylene chain, agricultural chemicals chain, chlor-alkali industry, and supporting processes

  20. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  1. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  2. Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology KRICT | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Chemical Technology KRICT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT) Place: Yooseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea (Republic) Zip: 305-600...

  3. Nova Chemicals Reliance Industries JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Nova Chemicals has signed an agreement with Reliance Industries to construct energy efficient buildings in India. References: Nova Chemicals & Reliance Industries...

  4. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of Zinc Oxide Nanowire Corrosion ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of Zinc Oxide Nanowire Corrosion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of Zinc Oxide Nanowire Corrosion Nanoscale ...

  5. Enabling Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperation Enabling Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperation Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel ...

  6. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of fluids within the Baca...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by conductive reheating during downward movement. Chemical modeling using the EQ3NR computer code indicates chemical stability with the mineral assemblage quartz, albite, K-mica,...

  7. MSA Apparatus Construction for Chemical Equipment Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MSA Apparatus Construction for Chemical Equipment Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: MSA Apparatus Construction for Chemical Equipment Ltd Place: United Kingdom Sector: Hydro,...

  8. Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for Diesel Exhaust, Both Real Time and Filter Based Measurements Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for ...

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - Chemical Holes Brookhaven National Laboratory - Sr90 - Chemical Holes January 1, 2014 - ... InstallationName, State: Brookhaven National Laboratory Responsible DOE Office: Office of ...

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Based Chemicals: A Successful Public-Private Partnership Commercialization of Bio-Based Chemicals: A Successful Public-Private Partnership Opening Plenary Session: Celebrating ...

  11. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations - an Energy Frontier Research Center The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT) employs a...

  12. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scientific roadblocks to U.S. energy security. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT)...

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Down Select Decisions Made Within DOE's Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence Materials Down Select Decisions Made Within DOE's Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of ...

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Final Report for the DOE Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence Final Report for the DOE Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence This technical report describes the ...

  15. Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant PCMP | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant PCMP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant (PCMP) Place: Moscow, Russian Federation Zip: 142103...

  16. Zibo Baoyun Chemical Company Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zibo Baoyun Chemical Company Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zibo Baoyun Chemical Company Ltd Place: Zibo, Shandong Province, China Product: Chinese trichlorosilane producer...

  17. Consortium of Chemical International Ltd CCIL | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Chemical International Ltd CCIL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Consortium of Chemical International Ltd (CCIL) Place: New Delhi, Delhi (NCT), India Sector: Biomass Product:...

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    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HEPCRA Hazardous Chemical Storage and Tier II Reporting Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Hawaii HEPCRA Hazardous Chemical...

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    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polish Academy of Sciences Institute of Chemical Engineering Jump to: navigation, search Name: Polish Academy of Sciences: Institute of Chemical Engineering Place: Gliwice, Poland...

  20. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have ... The ability to image the chemical reactions in living cells in real time, especially in ...

  1. BETO Project Improves Production of Renewable Chemical from Cellulosic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Project Improves Production of Renewable Chemical from Cellulosic Feedstocks BETO Project Improves Production of Renewable Chemical from Cellulosic Feedstocks October 13, 2015 - ...

  2. Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent Behavior in Complex ... Title: Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent Behavior in ...

  3. Lynden Archer receives chemical engineering award > EMC2 News...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lynden Archer receives chemical engineering award August 6th, 2014 Lynden Archer, the William C. Hooey Director and Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, has...

  4. New mechanism discovered for controlling ultracold chemical reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New mechanism for controlling ultracold chemical reactions New mechanism discovered for controlling ultracold chemical reactions Researchers have discovered a new interference ...

  5. Chemical stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemical stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemical stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste Authors: Cantrell, Kirk J. ; ...

  6. Direct Determination of the Chemical Bonding of Individual Impurities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Direct Determination of the Chemical Bonding of Individual Impurities in Graphene Prev Next Title: Direct Determination of the Chemical ...

  7. Microcalibrator system for chemical signature and reagent delivery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Microcalibrator system for chemical signature and reagent delivery. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microcalibrator system for chemical signature and ...

  8. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC ... must understand the evolution of chemical composition and morphology of battery ...

  9. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model And Experiments...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model And Experiments For Optimization Of ... Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments for Optimization ...

  10. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial ...

  11. Chemical Doping Enhances Electronic Transport in Networks of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 12, 2015, Research Highlights Chemical Doping Enhances Electronic Transport in ... Here, it is shown that upon chemical oxidation, hexabenzocoronenes (HBCs) enhance charge ...

  12. Evaluation of Pre- and Post-Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Evaluation of Pre- and Post-Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical Analyses from LM Monitoring Wells Evaluation of Pre- and Post-Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical Analyses from LM ...

  13. Computer Modeling of Chemical and Geochemical Processes in High...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer modeling of chemical and geochemical processes in high ionic strength solutions ... in brine Computer modeling of chemical and geochemical processes in high ionic ...

  14. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Wednesday, 25 August 2010 00:00 Scientists have ...

  15. Experiment-Based Model for the Chemical Interactions between...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Experiment-Based Model for the Chemical Interactions between Geothermal Rocks, ... Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2as Heat Transmission Fluid Chemical Impact of ...

  16. Chemical analysis of Wild-2 samples returned by Stardust (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Chemical analysis of Wild-2 samples returned by Stardust Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemical analysis of Wild-2 samples returned by Stardust Authors: ...

  17. Chemical Scientist Hendrik Bluhm Receives Bessel Research Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Scientist Hendrik Bluhm Receives Bessel Research Award Chemical Scientist Hendrik Bluhm Receives Bessel Research Award Print Friday, 24 May 2013 00:00 Hendrik Bluhm of the ...

  18. DOE Funding Leads to New Technology that is Revolutionizing Chemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Analysis Research funded by the DOE Office of Science has led to the commercialization of a new product, the Polyarc(tm) reactor, which is improving chemical ...

  19. Nanojunction Sensors for the Detection of chemical and Biological...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanojunction Sensors for the Detection of chemical and Biological Species DOE Grant ... gaps for various applications, including chemical and biological sensors, magnetoresistive ...

  20. Analysis and Reduction of Chemical Models under Uncertainty ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis and Reduction of Chemical Models under Uncertainty Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis and Reduction of Chemical Models under Uncertainty Abstract not ...

  1. Chiral random matrix model at finite chemical potential: Characteristi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chiral random matrix model at finite chemical potential: Characteristic determinant and edge universality Prev Next Title: Chiral random matrix model at finite chemical ...

  2. The Formation of Pioneer Plant Projects in Chemical Processing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Formation of Pioneer Plant Projects in Chemical Processing Firms The Formation of Pioneer Plant Projects in Chemical Processing Firms This report should provide DOE and the ...

  3. FAA Form 7460-1: Notice of Proposed Construction or Alteration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FAA Form 7460-1: Notice of Proposed Construction or Alteration Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: FAA Form 7460-1: Notice of Proposed...

  4. The Fate of Trees: How Climate Change May Alter Forests Worldwide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rolling Stone" covers climate change research at Los Alamos Lab March 26, 2015 The Fate of Trees: How Climate Change May Alter Forests Worldwide By the end of the century, the...

  5. Direct experimental evidence for differing reactivity alterations of minerals following irradiation. The case of calcite and quartz

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Kumar, Aditya; Field, Kevin G.; Wang, Bu; Yu, Yingtian; Le Pape, Yann; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav

    2016-01-29

    Concrete, used in the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs), may be exposed to radiation emanating from the reactor core. Until recently, concrete has been assumed immune to radiation exposure. Direct evidence acquired on Ar+ -ion irradiated calcite and quartz indicates, on the contrary, that, such minerals, which constitute aggregates in concrete, may be significantly altered by irradiation. More specifically, while quartz undergoes disordering of its atomic structure resulting in a near complete lack of periodicity, calcite only experiences random rotations, and distortions of its carbonate groups. As a result, irradiated quartz shows a reduction in density of around 15%,more » and an increase in chemical reactivity, described by its dissolution rate, similar to a glassy silica. However, calcite shows little change in dissolution rate - although its density noted to reduce by 9%. These differences are correlated with the nature of bonds in these minerals, i.e., being dominantly ionic or covalent, and the rigidity of the mineral's atomic network that is characterized by the number of topological constraints (nc) that are imposed on the atoms in the network. Our outcomes have major implications on the durability of concrete structural elements formed with calcitic or quartzitic aggregates in nuclear power plants.« less

  6. The TSCA interagency testing committee`s approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups: 1977-1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, J.D.

    1990-12-31

    This paper describes the TSCA interagency testing committee`s (ITC) approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups between 1977 and 1983. During this time the ITC conducted five scoring exercises to select chemicals and chemical groups for detailed review and to determine which of these chemicals and chemical groups should be added to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. DOE contractor's meeting on chemical toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) is required to determine the potential health and environmental effects associated with energy production and use. To ensure appropriate communication among investigators and scientific disciplines that these research studies represent, OHER has sponsored workshops. This document provides a compilation of activities at the Third Annual DOE/OHER Workshop. This year's workshop was broadened to include all OHER activities identified as within the chemical effects area. The workshop consisted of eight sessions entitled Isolation and Detection of Toxic chemicals; Adduct Formation and Repair; Chemical Toxicity (Posters); Metabolism and Genotoxicity; Inhalation Toxicology; Gene Regulation; Metals Toxicity; and Biological Mechanisms. This document contains abstracts of the information presented by session.

  8. Separations Needs for the Alternate Chemical Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick F. Stewart

    2007-05-01

    The bulk of the efforts for the development of a hydrogen production plant supported by the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) have been directed towards the sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle. However, it was judged prudent to re-investigate alternate chemical cycles in light of new developments and technical accomplishments derived from the current S-I work. This work analyzes the available data for the promising alternate chemical cycles to provide an understanding of their inherent chemical separations needs. None of the cycles analyzed have separations that are potential “show stoppers”; although some of the indicated separations will be challenging to perform. The majority of the separations involve processes that are either more achievable or more developed

  9. Engineering microbes for efficient production of chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Wei; Dole, Sudhanshu; Grabar, Tammy; Collard, Andrew Christopher; Pero, Janice G; Yocum, R Rogers

    2015-04-28

    This present invention relates to production of chemicals from microorganisms that have been genetically engineered and metabolically evolved. Improvements in chemical production have been established, and particular mutations that lead to those improvements have been identified. Specific examples are given in the identification of mutations that occurred during the metabolic evolution of a bacterial strain genetically engineered to produce succinic acid. This present invention also provides a method for evaluating the industrial applicability of mutations that were selected during the metabolic evolution for increased succinic acid production. This present invention further provides microorganisms engineered to have mutations that are selected during metabolic evolution and contribute to improved production of succinic acid, other organic acids and other chemicals of commercial interest.

  10. Development of specialty chemicals from dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Lee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME) may be efficiently produced from coal-bases syngas in a high pressure, mechanically agitated slurry reactor. DME synthesis occurs in the liquid phase using a dual catalyst. By operating in a dual catalyst mode, DME may be converted from in-situ produced methanol resulting in higher methyl productivities and syngas conversions over methanol conversion alone. The feasibility of utilizing DME as a building block for more valuable specialty chemicals has been examined. A wide variety of petrochemicals may be produced from DME including light olefins, gasoline range hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and glycol precursors. These chemicals represent an important part of petroleum industries inventory of fine chemicals. Carbonylation, hydrocarbonylation, and oxidative dimerization are but a few of the reactions in which DME may undergo conversion. DME provides an additional route for the production of industrially important petrochemicals.

  11. Conformal chemically resistant coatings for microflow devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A.; Zdeblick, Mark

    2003-05-13

    A process for coating the inside surfaces of silicon microflow devices, such as electrophoresis microchannels, with a low-stress, conformal (uniform) silicon nitride film which has the ability to uniformly coat deeply-recessed cavities with, for example, aspect ratios of up to 40:1 or higher. The silicon nitride coating allows extended exposure to caustic solutions. The coating enables a microflow device fabricated in silicon to be resistant to all classes of chemicals: acids, bases, and solvents. The process involves low-pressure (vacuum) chemical vapor deposition. The ultra-low-stress silicon nitride deposition process allows 1-2 .mu.m thick films without cracks, and so enables extended chemical protection of a silicon microflow device against caustics for up to 1 year. Tests have demonstrated the resistance of the films to caustic solutions at both ambient and elevated temperatures to 65.degree. C.

  12. Compact chemical energy system for seismic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engelke, Raymond P.; Hedges, Robert O.; Kammerman, Alan B.; Albright, James N.

    1998-01-01

    A chemical energy system is formed for producing detonations in a confined environment. An explosive mixture is formed from nitromethane (NM) and diethylenetriamine (DETA). A slapper detonator is arranged adjacent to the explosive mixture to initiate detonation of the mixture. NM and DETA are not classified as explosives when handled separately and can be safely transported and handled by workers in the field. In one aspect of the present invention, the chemicals are mixed at a location where an explosion is to occur. For application in a confined environment, the chemicals are mixed in an inflatable container to minimize storage space until it is desired to initiate an explosion. To enable an inflatable container to be used, at least 2.5 wt % DETA is used in the explosive mixture. A barrier is utilized that is formed of a carbon composite material to provide the appropriate barrel geometry and energy transmission to the explosive mixture from the slapper detonator system.

  13. Chemical and biological sensing using tuning forks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Nongjian; Boussaad, Salah

    2012-07-10

    A device for sensing a chemical analyte is disclosed. The device is comprised of a vibrating structure having first and second surfaces and having an associated resonant frequency and a wire coupled between the first and second surfaces of the vibrating structure, wherein the analyte interacts with the wire and causes a change in the resonant frequency of the vibrating structure. The vibrating structure can include a tuning fork. The vibrating structure can be comprised of quartz. The wire can be comprised of polymer. A plurality of vibrating structures are arranged in an array to increase confidence by promoting a redundancy of measurement or to detect a plurality of chemical analytes. A method of making a device for sensing a chemical analyte is also disclosed.

  14. Chemical structure and dynamics. Annual report 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colson, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics program was organized as a major component of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. Our program responds to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at the wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces, and (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage. This research effort was initiated in 1989 and will continue to evolve over the next few years into a program of rigorous studies of fundamental molecular processes in model systems, such as well-characterized surfaces, single-component solutions, clusters, and biological molecules; and studies of complex systems found in the environment (multispecies, multiphase solutions; solid/liquid, liquid/liquid, and gas/surface interfaces; colloidal dispersions; ultrafine aerosols; and functioning biological systems). The success of this program will result in the achievement of a quantitative understanding of chemical reactions at interfaces, and more generally in condensed media, that is comparable to that currently available for gas-phase reactions. This understanding will form the basis for the development of a priori theories for predictions of macroscopic chemical behavior in condensed and heterogeneous media, adding significantly to the value of field-scale environmental models, the prediction of short- and long-term nuclear waste storage stabilities, and other problems related to the primary missions of the DOE.

  15. Chemical sensors technology development planning workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastiaans, G.J.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Junk, G.A.

    1993-03-01

    The workshop participants were asked to: (1) Assess the current capabilities of chemical sensor technologies for addressing US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) needs; (2) Estimate potential near term (one to two years) and intermediate term (three to five years) capabilities for addressing those needs; and (3) Generate a ranked list of specific recommendations on what research and development (R&D) should be funded to provide the necessary capabilities. The needs were described in terms of two pervasive EM problems, the in situ determination of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and selected metals in various matrices at DOE sites. The R&D recommendations were to be ranked according to the estimated likelihood that the product technology will be ready for application within the time frame it is needed and the estimated return on investment. The principal conclusions and recommendations of the workshop are as follows: Chemical sensors capable of in situ determinations can significantly reduce analytical costs; Chemical sensors have been developed for certain VOCs in gases and water but none are currently capable of in situ determination of VOCs in soils; The DOE need for in situ determination of metals in soils cannot be addressed with existing chemical sensors and the prospects for their availability in three to five years are uncertain; Adaptation, if necessary, and field application of laboratory analytical instruments and those few chemical sensors that are already in field testing is the best approach for the near term; The chemical sensor technology development plan should include balanced support for near- and intermediate-term efforts.

  16. Annual Report 1998: Chemical Structure and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SD Colson; RS McDowell

    1999-05-10

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS&D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Labo- ratory (EMSL), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of- the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. We respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interracial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in envi- ronmental chemistry and in nuclear waste proc- essing and storage; and (3) developing state-of- the-art analytical methods for characterizing com- plex materials of the types found in stored wastes and contaminated soils, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species. Our program aims at achieving a quantitative understanding of chemical reactions at interfaces and, more generally, in condensed media, compa- rable to that currently available for gas-phase reactions. This understanding will form the basis for the development of a priori theories for pre- dicting macroscopic chemical behavior in con- densed and heterogeneous media, which will add significantly to the value of field-scale envi- ronmental models, predictions of short- and long- term nuclear waste storage stabilities, and other areas related to the primary missions of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  17. Revisiting the chemical reactivity indices as the state function derivatives. The role of classical chemical hardness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malek, Ali; Balawender, Robert

    2015-02-07

    The chemical reactivity indices as the equilibrium state-function derivatives are revisited. They are obtained in terms of the central moments (fluctuation formulas). To analyze the role of the chemical hardness introduced by Pearson [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105, 7512 (1983)], the relations between the derivatives up to the third-order and the central moments are obtained. As shown, the chemical hardness and the chemical potential are really the principal indices of the chemical reactivity theory. It is clear from the results presented here that the chemical hardness is not the derivative of the Mulliken chemical potential (this means also not the second derivative of the energy at zero-temperature limit). The conventional quadratic dependence of energy, observed at finite temperature, reduces to linear dependence on the electron number at zero-temperature limit. The chemical hardness plays a double role in the admixture of ionic states to the reference neutral state energy: it determines the amplitude of the admixture and regulates the damping of its thermal factor.

  18. Chemically-functionalized microcantilevers for detection of chemical, biological and explosive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A; Thundat, Thomas G; Brown, Gilbert M; Hawk, John Eric; Boiadjiev, Vassil I

    2007-04-24

    A chemically functionalized cantilever system has a cantilever coated on one side thereof with a reagent or biological species which binds to an analyte. The system is of particular value when the analyte is a toxic chemical biological warfare agent or an explosive.

  19. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  20. Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Molnar, Linda K.; Hatton, T. Alan; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2001-05-15

    Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

  1. Detection of electrophilic and nucleophilic chemical agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2014-08-12

    A "real time" method for detecting chemical agents generally and particularly electrophilic and nucleophilic species by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species. By bonding or otherwise attaching these precursor molecules to a surface or substrate they can be used in numerous applications.

  2. Real time chemical exposure and risk monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thrall, K.D.; Kenny, D.V.; Endres, G.W.R.; Sisk, D.R.

    1997-07-08

    The apparatus of the present invention is a combination of a breath interface and an external exposure dosimeter interface to a chemical analysis device, all controlled by an electronic processor for quantitatively analyzing chemical analysis data from both the breath interface and the external exposure dosimeter for determining internal tissue dose. The method of the present invention is a combination of steps of measuring an external dose, measuring breath content, then analyzing the external dose and breath content and determining internal tissue dose. 7 figs.

  3. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkman, Samuel

    1984-01-01

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  4. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadtler, Bryce F

    2009-05-20

    Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions ofa nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size and shape to examine the spatial organization of materials within the resulting nanocrystal heterostructures. The selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. The exchange of copper (I) (Cu+) cations in CdS nanorods occurs preferentially at the ends of the nanorods. Theoretical modeling of epitaxial attachments between different facets of CdS and Cu2S indicate that the selectivity for cation exchange at the ends of the nanorods is a result of the low formation energy of the interfaces produced. During silver (I) (Ag+) cation exchange in CdS nanorods, non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S), followed by partial phase segregation leads to significant changes in the spatial arrangement of CdS and Ag2S regions at the exchange reaction proceeds through the nanocrystal. A well-ordered striped pattern of alternating CdS and Ag2S segments is found at intermediate fractions of exchange. The forces mediating this spontaneous process are a combination of Ostwald ripening to reduce the interfacial area along with a strain-induced repulsive interaction between Ag2S segments. To elucidate why Cu+ and Ag+ cation exchange with CdS nanorods produce different morphologies, models for epitaxial attachments between various facets of CdS with Cu2S or Ag2S lattices were used to calculate interface formation energies. The formation energies indicate the

  5. Coupled molecular dynamics-Monte Carlo model to study the role of chemical processes during laser ablation of polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, Manish; Conforti, Patrick F.; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2007-08-28

    The coarse grained chemical reaction model is enhanced to build a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation framework with an embedded Monte Carlo (MC) based reaction scheme. The MC scheme utilizes predetermined reaction chemistry, energetics, and rate kinetics of materials to incorporate chemical reactions occurring in a substrate into the MD simulation. The kinetics information is utilized to set the probabilities for the types of reactions to perform based on radical survival times and reaction rates. Implementing a reaction involves changing the reactants species types which alters their interaction potentials and thus produces the required energy change. We discuss the application of this method to study the initiation of ultraviolet laser ablation in poly(methyl methacrylate). The use of this scheme enables the modeling of all possible photoexcitation pathways in the polymer. It also permits a direct study of the role of thermal, mechanical, and chemical processes that can set off ablation. We demonstrate that the role of laser induced heating, thermomechanical stresses, pressure wave formation and relaxation, and thermochemical decomposition of the polymer substrate can be investigated directly by suitably choosing the potential energy and chemical reaction energy landscape. The results highlight the usefulness of such a modeling approach by showing that various processes in polymer ablation are intricately linked leading to the transformation of the substrate and its ejection. The method, in principle, can be utilized to study systems where chemical reactions are expected to play a dominant role or interact strongly with other physical processes.

  6. Collaboratory for Multiscale Chemical Science (CMCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, Thomas C

    2012-07-03

    This document provides details of the contributions made by NIST to the Collaboratory for Multiscale Chemical Science (CMCS) project. In particular, efforts related to the provision of data (and software in support of that data) relevant to the combustion pilot project are described.

  7. Detection of Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Chemical Agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2008-11-11

    A "real time" method for detecting electrophilic and nucleophilic species generally by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species.

  8. Chemical segregation in metallic glass nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Mo; Li, Qi-Kai

    2014-11-21

    Nanowires made of metallic glass have been actively pursued recently due to the superb and unique properties over those of the crystalline materials. The amorphous nanowires are synthesized either at high temperature or via mechanical disruption using focused ion beam. These processes have potential to cause significant changes in structure and chemical concentration, as well as formation of defect or imperfection, but little is known to date about the possibilities and mechanisms. Here, we report chemical segregation to surfaces and its mechanisms in metallic glass nanowires made of binary Cu and Zr elements from molecular dynamics simulation. Strong concentration deviation are found in the nanowires under the conditions similar to these in experiment via focused ion beam processing, hot imprinting, and casting by rapid cooling from liquid state. Our analysis indicates that non-uniform internal stress distribution is a major cause for the chemical segregation, especially at low temperatures. Extension is discussed for this observation to multicomponent metallic glass nanowires as well as the potential applications and side effects of the composition modulation. The finding also points to the possibility of the mechanical-chemical process that may occur in different settings such as fracture, cavitation, and foams where strong internal stress is present in small length scales.

  9. Chemical enhancement of metallized zinc anode performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, J.

    1998-12-31

    Galvanic current delivered to reinforced concrete by a metallized zinc anode was studied relative to the humidity of its environment and periodic direct wetting. Current decreased quickly at low humidity to values unlikely to meet accepted cathodic protection criteria, but could be easily restored by direct wetting of the anode. Thirteen chemicals were screened for their ability to enhance galvanic current. Such chemicals, when applied to the exterior surface of the anode, are easily transported by capillary action to the anode-concrete interface where they serve to maintain the interface conductive and the zinc electrochemically active. The most effective chemicals were potassium and lithium bromide, acetate, chloride and nitrate, which increased galvanic current by a factor of 2--15, depending on relative humidity and chloride contamination of the concrete. This new technique is expected to greatly expand the number of concrete structures which can be protected by simple galvanic cathodic protection, The use of lithium-based chemicals together with metallized zinc anode is also proposed for mitigation of existing problems due to ASR. In this case, lithium which prevents or inhibits expansion due to ASR can be readily injected into the concrete. A new process, electrochemical maintenance of concrete (EMC), is also proposed to benefit reinforced concrete structures suffering from chloride-induced corrosion.

  10. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  11. Chemical Biological Emergency Management Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-06-15

    CB-EMIS is designed to provide information and analysis to transit system operators and emergency responders in the event of a chemical attack on a subway system. The software inforporates detector data, video images, train data, meteorological data, and above- and below-ground plume dispersion models, hight of the liquid level.

  12. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  13. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  14. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  15. Biosensor discovery of thyroxine transport disrupting chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchesini, Gerardo R. Meimaridou, Anastasia; Haasnoot, Willem; Meulenberg, Eline; Albertus, Faywell; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Irth, Hubertus; Murk, Albertinka J.

    2008-10-01

    Ubiquitous chemicals may interfere with the thyroid system that is essential in the development and physiology of vertebrates. We applied a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor-based screening method for the fast screening of chemicals with thyroxine (T4) transport disrupting activity. Two inhibition assays using the main thyroid hormone transport proteins, T4 binding globulin (TBG) and transthyretin (TTR), in combination with a T4-coated biosensor chip were optimized and automated for screening chemical libraries. The transport protein-based biosensor assays were rapid, high throughput and bioeffect-related. A library of 62 chemicals including the natural hormones, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and metabolites, halogenated bisphenol A (BPA), halogenated phenols, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other potential environmentally relevant chemicals was tested with the two assays. We discovered ten new active compounds with moderate to high affinity for TBG with the TBG assay. Strikingly, the most potent binding was observed with hydroxylated metabolites of the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) BDE 47, BDE 49 and BDE 99, that are commonly found in human plasma. The TTR assay confirmed the activity of previously identified hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs and PBDEs, halogenated BPA and genistein. These results show that the hydroxylated metabolites of the ubiquitous PBDEs not only target the T4 transport at the TTR level, but also, and to a great extent, at the TBG level where most of the T4 in humans is circulating. The optimized SPR biosensor-based transport protein assay is a suitable method for high throughput screening of large libraries for potential thyroid hormone disrupting compounds.

  16. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  17. Identification of chemical hazards for security risk analysis activities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaeger, Calvin Dell

    2005-01-01

    The presentation outline of this paper is: (1) How identification of chemical hazards fits into a security risk analysis approach; (2) Techniques for target identification; and (3) Identification of chemical hazards by different organizations. The summary is: (1) There are a number of different methodologies used within the chemical industry which identify chemical hazards: (a) Some develop a manual listing of potential targets based on published lists of hazardous chemicals or chemicals of concern, 'expert opinion' or known hazards. (b) Others develop a prioritized list based on chemicals found at a facility and consequence analysis (offsite release affecting population, theft of material, product tampering). (2) Identification of chemical hazards should include not only intrinsic properties of the chemicals but also potential reactive chemical hazards and potential use for activities off-site.

  18. Chemical reactor and method for chemically converting a first material into a second material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.

    2008-04-08

    A chemical reactor and method for converting a first material into a second material is disclosed and wherein the chemical reactor is provided with a feed stream of a first material which is to be converted into a second material; and wherein the first material is combusted in the chemical reactor to produce a combustion flame, and a resulting gas; and an electrical arc is provided which is passed through or superimposed upon the combustion flame and the resulting gas to facilitate the production of the second material.

  19. Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. Image courtesy of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc Image courtesy of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc APCI PORT ARTHUR ICCS PROJECT In October 2009, DOE selected the Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) team to conduct one of 12 projects in Phase 1 of its Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (ICCS) program. DOE again selected the project in June 2010 as one of three projects to receive continued (Phase 2) funding. In total,

  20. Bandwidth Study U.S. Chemical Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemical Manufacturing Bandwidth Study U.S. Chemical Manufacturing Chemicals.jpg Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing

  1. Chemical Transformation - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Transformation A second energy storage concept being pursued by JCESR is chemical transformation. This concept involves replacement of intercalation of the working ion at the anode and cathode with higher energy chemical bonds. Chemical transformation research is focused on replacing conventional intercalation of the working ion at the cathode with a true chemical reaction. On the basis of techno-economic modeling of the possible battery systems, we have chosen to focus our efforts on a

  2. Division of Chemical & Biological Sciences | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical & Biological Sciences [PHOTO]Laboratory-scale instrumentation for chemical analysis. The Division of Chemical and Biological Sciences is known for laboratory-scale instrumentation development for chemical analysis. Read about dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) | Read about stimulation emission deplection (STED) [IMAGE]Imaging mass spectrometry Imaging mass spectrometry enables new understanding of the distribution of chemicals in plant materials. Read More [PHOTO] Previous Pause

  3. Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development for high

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    efficiency clean combustion engines | Department of Energy Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development for high efficiency clean combustion engines Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development for high efficiency clean combustion engines Developing chemical kinetic mechanisms and applying them to simulating engine combustion processes. deer09_aceves.pdf (3.04 MB) More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels Chemical

  4. Thermal-chemical-mechanical feedback during fluid-rock interactions: Implications for chemical transport and scales of equilibria in the crust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutrow, Barbara

    2008-08-13

    Our research evaluates the hypothesis that feedback amongst thermal-chemical-mechanical processes operative in fluid-rock systems alters the fluid flow dynamics of the system which, in turn, affects chemical transport and temporal and spatial scales of equilibria, thus impacting the resultant mineral textural development of rocks. Our methods include computational experimentation and detailed analyses of fluid-infiltrated rocks from well-characterized terranes. This work focuses on metamorphic rocks and hydrothermal systems where minerals and their textures are utilized to evaluate pressure (P), temperature (T), and time (t) paths in the evolution of mountain belts and ore deposits, and to interpret tectonic events and the timing of these events. Our work on coupled processes also extends to other areas where subsurface flow and transport in porous media have consequences such as oil and gas movement, geothermal system development, transport of contaminants, nuclear waste disposal, and other systems rich in fluid-rock reactions. Fluid-rock systems are widespread in the geologic record. Correctly deciphering the products resulting from such systems is important to interpreting a number of geologic phenomena. These systems are characterized by complex interactions involving time-dependent, non-linear processes in heterogeneous materials. While many of these interactions have been studied in isolation, they are more appropriately analyzed in the context of a system with feedback. When one process impacts another process, time and space scales as well as the overall outcome of the interaction can be dramatically altered. Our goals to test this hypothesis are: to develop and incorporate algorithms into our 3D heat and mass transport code to allow the effects of feedback to be investigated numerically, to analyze fluid infiltrated rocks from a variety of terranes at differing P-T conditions, to identify subtle features of the infiltration of fluids and/or feedback, and

  5. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  6. Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material to provide fuels or chemical feed stock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Dennis A.

    1980-01-01

    A process is disclosed for hydrocracking coal or other carbonaceous material to produce various aromatic hydrocarbons including benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, phenol and cresols in variable relative concentrations while maintaining a near constant maximum temperature. Variations in relative aromatic concentrations are achieved by changing the kinetic severity of the hydrocracking reaction by altering the temperature profile up to and quenching from the final hydrocracking temperature. The relative concentration of benzene to the alkyl and hydroxyl aromatics is increased by imposing increased kinetic severity above that corresponding to constant heating rate followed by immediate quenching at about the same rate to below the temperature at which dehydroxylation and dealkylation reactions appreciably occur. Similarly phenols, cresols and xylenes are produced in enhanced concentrations by adjusting the temperature profile to provide a reduced kinetic severity relative to that employed when high benzene concentrations are desired. These variations in concentrations can be used to produce desired materials for chemical feed stocks or for fuels.

  7. Laser-based Sensors for Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schiffern, John T.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2010-05-10

    Stand-off detection of hazardous materials ensures that the responder is located at a safe distance from the suspected source. Remote detection and identification of hazardous materials can be accomplished using a highly sensitive and portable device, at significant distances downwind from the source or the threat. Optical sensing methods, in particular infrared absorption spectroscopy combined with quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), are highly suited for the detection of chemical substances since they enable rapid detection and are amenable for autonomous operation in a compact and rugged package. This talk will discuss the sensor systems developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and will discuss the progress to reduce the size and power while maintaining sensitivity to enable stand-off detection of multiple chemicals.

  8. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-04-21

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH3BH3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H2, and ammonia triborane NH3B3H7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H2, were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H2-release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H2-release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H2­-release, the tunability of both their H2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic­-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These studies also

  9. Polymers for Chemical Sensors Using Hydrosilylation Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Kaganove, Steven N.; Nelson, David A.

    2001-06-28

    Sorbent and functionalized polymers play a key role in a diverse set of fields, including chemical sensors, separation membranes, solid phase extraction techniques, and chromatography. Sorbent polymers are critical to a number of sensor array or "electronic nose" systems. The responses of the sensors in the array give rise to patterns that can be used to distinguish one compound from another, provided that a sufficiently diverse set of sensing materials is present in the array. Figure 1 illustrates the concept of several sensors, each with a different sensor coating, giving rise to variable responses to an analyte that appear as a pattern in bar graph format. Using hydrosilylation as the bond-forming reaction, we have developed a versatile and efficient approach to developing sorbent polymers with diverse interactive properties for sensor applications. Both the chemical and physical properties of these polymers are predictable and tunable by design.

  10. Microfabricated electrochemiluminescence cell for chemical reaction detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen; Hsueh, Yun-Tai; Smith, Rosemary L.

    2003-01-01

    A detector cell for a silicon-based or non-silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The detector cell is an electrochemiluminescence cell constructed of layers of silicon with a cover layer of glass, with spaced electrodes located intermediate various layers forming the cell. The cell includes a cavity formed therein and fluid inlets for directing reaction fluid therein. The reaction chamber and detector cell may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The ECL cell may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

  11. A NEW GENERATION CHEMICAL FLOODING SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori; Mojdeh Delshad

    2005-01-01

    The premise of this research is that a general-purpose reservoir simulator for several improved oil recovery processes can and should be developed so that high-resolution simulations of a variety of very large and difficult problems can be achieved using state-of-the-art algorithms and computers. Such a simulator is not currently available to the industry. The goal of this proposed research is to develop a new-generation chemical flooding simulator that is capable of efficiently and accurately simulating oil reservoirs with at least a million gridblocks in less than one day on massively parallel computers. Task 1 is the formulation and development of solution scheme, Task 2 is the implementation of the chemical module, and Task 3 is validation and application. In this final report, we will detail our progress on Tasks 1 through 3 of the project.

  12. The chemical weapons conventional legal issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1997-12-31

    Because the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) contains the best developed verification regime in multilaterial arms control history, some have raised concerns for the chemical industry that have legal implications. Chief among these are safeguarding confidential business information and protecting constitutional rights during inspections. This discussion will show how the CWC and proposed national implementing legislation work together to allay these concerns. Both concerns are legitimate. Confidential business information could be lost to a national government or the CWC governing body accidentially or purposely. The CWC regime of routine and challenge inspections are searches under the constitution and could, if abused, potentially conflict with recognized commercial privacy interests. Neither concern justifies opposition to the convention, but both need to be addressed in national implementing legislation. Proposed US legislation goes far in this direction, but can be improved.

  13. Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, J.W. Jr.

    1991-07-23

    A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken. 5 figures.

  14. Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, Jr., John W.

    1991-01-01

    A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken.

  15. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2000-03-31

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  16. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Tijrn

    2003-01-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  17. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  18. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  19. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  20. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.