National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hard x-ray telescopes

  1. Application of an EMCCD Camera for Calibration of Hard X-Ray Telescopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, J K; Pivovaroff, M J; Nagarkar, V V; Kudrolli, H; Madsen, K K; Koglin, J E; Christensen, F E; Brejnholt, N F

    2011-11-08

    Recent technological innovations now make it feasible to construct hard x-ray telescopes for space-based astronomical missions. Focusing optics are capable of improving the sensitivity in the energy range above 10 keV by orders of magnitude compared to previously used instruments. The last decade has seen focusing optics developed for balloon experiments and they will soon be implemented in approved space missions such as the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and ASTRO-H. The full characterization of x-ray optics for astrophysical and solar imaging missions, including measurement of the point spread function (PSF) as well as scattering and reflectivity properties of substrate coatings, requires a very high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, photon counting and energy discriminating, large area detector. Novel back-thinned Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) are highly suitable detectors for ground-based calibrations. Their chip can be optically coupled to a microcolumnar CsI(Tl) scintillator via a fiberoptic taper. Not only does this device exhibit low noise and high spatial resolution inherent to CCDs, but the EMCCD is also able to handle high frame rates due to its controllable internal gain. Additionally, thick CsI(Tl) yields high detection efficiency for x-rays. This type of detector has already proven to be a unique device very suitable for calibrations in astrophysics: such a camera was used to support the characterization of the performance for all NuSTAR optics. Further optimization will enable similar cameras to be improved and used to calibrate x-ray telescopes for future space missions. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of using an EMCCD to calibrate hard x-ray optics. We will illustrate the promising features of this detector solution using examples of data obtained during the ground calibration of the NuSTAR telescopes performed at Columbia University during 2010/2011. Finally, we give an outlook on ongoing development and optimizations, such as the use of single photon counting mode to enhance spectral resolution.

  2. Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and jitter-free pump-probe experiments at LCLS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hard x-ray delay line for...

  3. THE LACK OF DIFFUSE, NON-THERMAL HARD X-RAY EMISSION IN THE COMA CLUSTER: THE SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE'S EYE VIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Okajima, Takashi; Tueller, Jack; Finoguenov, Alexis; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Clarke, Tracy E.

    2011-02-01

    The Coma Cluster of galaxies hosts the brightest radio halo known and has therefore been the target of numerous searches for associated inverse Compton (IC) emission, particularly at hard X-ray energies where the IC signal must eventually dominate over thermal emission. The most recent search with the Suzaku Hard X-ray Detector failed to confirm previous IC detections with RXTE and BeppoSAX, instead setting an upper limit 2.5 times below their non-thermal flux. However, this discrepancy can be resolved if the IC emission is very extended, beyond the scale of the cluster radio halo. Using reconstructed sky images from the 58-month Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) all-sky survey, the feasibility of such a solution is investigated. Building on Renaud et al., we test and implement a method for extracting the fluxes of extended sources, assuming specified spatial distributions. BAT spectra are jointly fit with an XMM-Newton EPIC-pn spectrum derived from mosaic observations. We find no evidence for large-scale IC emission at the level expected from the previously detected non-thermal fluxes. For all non-thermal spatial distributions considered, which span the gamut of physically reasonable IC models, we determine upper limits for which the largest (most conservative) limit is {approx}<4.2 x 10{sup -12} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (20-80 keV), which corresponds to a lower limit on the magnetic field B > 0.2 {mu} G. A nominal flux upper limit of <2.7 x 10{sup -12} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, with corresponding B > 0.25 {mu} G, is derived for the most probable IC distribution given the size of the radio halo and likely magnetic field radial profile.

  4. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser: Application to Spin Crossover Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Femtosecond X-ray...

  5. Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    anticipate that continuous development on wedged MLLs will advance x-ray nanofocusing optics to new frontiers and enrich capabilities and opportunities for hard X-ray microscopy....

  6. Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siddons, David Peter; Johnson, Erik D.; Guckel, Henry; Klein, Jonathan L.

    1997-10-21

    An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures.

  7. Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siddons, D.P.; Johnson, E.D.; Guckel, H.; Klein, J.L.

    1997-10-21

    An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures. 21 figs.

  8. Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Obara, Yuki; Misawa, Kazuhiko; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Kurahashi, Naoya; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Toshinori; Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198

    2013-09-23

    We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (ΔE/E ∼ 5 × 10{sup −3}), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ∼3 × 10{sup −3}, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

  9. Toward TW-Level, Hard X-Ray Pulses at LCLS (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Toward TW-Level, Hard X-Ray Pulses at LCLS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward TW-Level, Hard X-Ray Pulses at LCLS You are accessing a document from the Department ...

  10. SSRL School 2007 on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in MES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 15-17, 2007 SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences Group photo taken at the SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in...

  11. A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers We ...

  12. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers We ...

  13. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: ... Title: Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: ...

  14. Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56), the ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray ...

  15. Application of hard X-ray microprobe methods to clay-rich materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Application of hard X-ray microprobe methods to clay-rich materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Application of hard X-ray microprobe methods to clay-rich materials ...

  16. Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized nonlinear bunch compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard ...

  17. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ?5 keV to ?10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  18. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopies | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies Tuesday, July 23, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Dimosthenis Sokaras, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical tool for

  19. Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond Hard X-ray pulses with Optimized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond Hard X-ray pulses with Optimized Nonlinear Bunch Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Stable ...

  20. Maximizing spectral flux from self-seeding hard x-ray free electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Maximizing spectral flux from self-seeding hard x-ray free electron lasers Citation ... TOPICS - ACCELERATORS AND BEAMS; Journal Volume: 16 Research Org: Brookhaven National ...

  1. Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fein, J. R. Holloway, J. P.; Peebles, J. L.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P.

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-? x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

  2. Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry Friday, December 14, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL, Bldg. 137, room 322 Zhi Liu The synchrotron based ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) endstation[1] pioneered at ALS based on differentially pumped electron energy analyzer has been recognized by scientific communities as

  3. Toward TW-Level, Hard X-Ray Pulses at LCLS (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Toward TW-Level, Hard X-Ray Pulses at LCLS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward TW-Level, Hard X-Ray Pulses at LCLS Coherent diffraction imaging of complex molecules such as proteins requires a large number (e.g., {approx} 10{sup 13}/pulse) of hard X-ray photons within a time scale of {approx} 10 fs or less. This corresponds to a peak power of {approx} 1 TW, much larger than that currently generated by LCLS or other proposed X-ray free electron lasers (FELs). We study

  4. Expectations for the hard x-ray continuum and gamma-ray line fluxes from

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the typE IA supernova SN 2014J in M82 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Expectations for the hard x-ray continuum and gamma-ray line fluxes from the typE IA supernova SN 2014J in M82 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Expectations for the hard x-ray continuum and gamma-ray line fluxes from the typE IA supernova SN 2014J in M82 The hard X-ray continuum and gamma-ray lines from a Type Ia supernova dominate its integrated photon emissions and can provide unique diagnostics of the mass

  5. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important

  6. A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers We report hard x-ray single-shot spectral measurements of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The spectrometer is based on a 10 {mu}m thick cylindrically bent Si single crystal operating in the symmetric Bragg geometry

  7. Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56), the Most Distant Cluster of Galaxies Observed by the RXTE Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  8. Hard disk drive based microsecond x-ray chopper for characterization of ionization chambers and photodiodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mller, O. Ltzenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R.

    2015-03-15

    A fast X-ray chopper capable of producing ms long X-ray pulses with a typical rise time of few ?s was realized. It is ideally suited to investigate the temporal response of X-ray detectors with response times of the order of ?s to ms, in particular, any kind of ionization chambers and large area photo diodes. The drive mechanism consists of a brushless DC motor and driver electronics from a common hard disk drive, keeping the cost at an absolute minimum. Due to its simple construction and small dimensions, this chopper operates at home lab based X-ray tubes and synchrotron radiation sources as well. The dynamics of the most important detectors used in time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy, namely, ionization chambers and Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon photodiodes, were investigated in detail. The results emphasize the applicability of this X-ray chopper.

  9. Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond Hard X-ray pulses with Optimized

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nonlinear Bunch Compression (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond Hard X-ray pulses with Optimized Nonlinear Bunch Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond Hard X-ray pulses with Optimized Nonlinear Bunch Compression Authors: Huang, Senlin ; /Peking U., Heavy Ion Phys. ; Ding, Yuantao ; Huang, Zhirong ; /SLAC ; Qiang, Ji ; /LBNL, Berkeley Publication Date: 2014-10-21 OSTI Identifier: 1160308 Report

  10. Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nonlinear bunch compression (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized nonlinear bunch compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized nonlinear bunch compression Authors: Huang, Senlin ; Ding, Yuantao ; Huang, Zhirong ; Qiang, Ji Publication Date: 2014-12-15 OSTI Identifier: 1181562 Grant/Contract Number: 2011CB808301; AC02-05CH11231; AC02-76SF00515 Type: Published

  11. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectrometers: Identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: Identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: Identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding

  12. Application of hard X-ray microprobe methods to clay-rich materials (Book)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Application of hard X-ray microprobe methods to clay-rich materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Application of hard X-ray microprobe methods to clay-rich materials Authors: Lanzirotti, A. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (UC) Publication Date: 2014-12-22 OSTI Identifier: 1168411 Resource Type: Book Resource Relation: Related Information: CMS Workshop Lectures, Advanced Applications of Synchrotron Radiation in Clay Science Publisher: 2014; Tha Clay Minerals

  13. HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF A JET AND ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Lin, R. P.; Krucker, Saem, E-mail: glesener@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Science Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We report the first hard X-ray observation of a solar jet on the limb with flare footpoints occulted, so that faint emission from accelerated electrons in the corona can be studied in detail. In this event on 2003 August 21, RHESSI observed a double coronal hard X-ray source in the pre-impulsive phase at both thermal and nonthermal energies. In the impulsive phase, the first of two hard X-ray bursts consists of a single thermal/nonthermal source coinciding with the lower of the two earlier sources, and the second burst shows an additional nonthermal, elongated source, spatially and temporally coincident with the coronal jet. Analysis of the jet hard X-ray source shows that collisional losses by accelerated electrons can deposit enough energy to generate the jet. The hard X-ray time profile above 20 keV matches that of the accompanying Type III and broadband gyrosynchrotron radio emission, indicating both accelerated electrons escaping outward along the jet path and electrons trapped in the flare loop. The double coronal hard X-ray source, the open field lines indicated by Type III bursts, and the presence of a small post-flare loop are consistent with significant electron acceleration in an interchange reconnection geometry.

  14. Optimal focusing for a linac-based hard x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.; Krafft, G.; Talman, R.

    2011-03-28

    In spite of having a small average beam current limit, a linac can have features that make it attractive as an x-ray source: high energy, ultralow emittance and energy spread, and flexible beamline optics. Unlike a storage ring, in which an (undulator) radiation source is necessarily short and positioned at an electron beam waist, in a linac the undulator can be long and the electron beam can be adjusted to have a (virtual) waist far downstream toward the x-ray target. Using a planned CEBAF beamline as an example, this paper shows that a factor of 2000 in beam current can be overcome to produce a monochromatic hard x-ray source comparable with, or even exceeding, the performance of an x-ray line at a third generation storage ring. Optimal electron beam focusing conditions for x-ray flux density and brilliance are derived, and are verified by simulations using the SRW code.

  15. Metrology for x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Haizhang; Li, Xiaodan; Grindel, M.W.

    1995-09-01

    Mirrors used in x-ray telescope systems for observations outside of the earth`s atmosphere are usually made of several thin nested shells, each formed by a pair of paraboloidal and hyperboloidal surfaces. The thin shells are very susceptible to self-weight deflection caused by gravity and are nearly impossible to test by conventional interferometric techniques. The metrology requirements for these mirrors are extremely challenging. This paper presents a prototype of a Vertical Scanning Long Trace Profiler (VSLTP) which is optimized to measure the surface figure of x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical orientation. The optical system of the VSLTP is described. Experimental results from measurements on an x-ray telescope mandrel and tests of the accuracy and repeatability of the prototype VSLTP are presented. The prototype instrument has achieved a height measurement accuracy of about 50 nanometers with a repeatability of better than 20 nanometers, and a slope measurement accuracy of about 1 microradian.

  16. Runaway electron energy measurement using hard x-ray spectroscopy in 'Damavand' tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasouli, C.; Farahbod, A. H.; Rasouli, H.; Lamehi, M.; Iraji, D.; Akhtari, K.; Modarresi, H.

    2009-01-15

    Set of experiments has been developed to study existing runaway electrons in ''Damavand'' tokamak plasma upon characteristics of hard x-ray emissions produced by collision of the runaway electrons with the plasma particles and limiters. As a first step, spatial distribution of hard x-ray emissions on the equatorial plane of the torus was considered. Obtained spectra of hard x-ray emissions for different alignments of shielded detector indicate isotropic emissivity in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with wide angle cone of bremsstrahlung radiations, deduced from the mean value of energy of the runaway electrons. The mean energy was calculated from the slope of the energy spectrum of hard x-ray photons. In the second stage in order to investigate time evolution of energy of the runaway electrons, similar technique were applied to obtain hard x-ray energy in every 3 ms intervals, from the beginning to the end of plasma. The mean energy of the runaway electrons increases during the ramp up phase and reaches its maximum between 3 and 9 ms after plasma formation. Also considering the time dependence of the counted photons in each energy range shows that energetic photons are emitted during the ramp up phase of the plasma current in Damavand tokamak.

  17. Maximizing spectral flux from self-seeding hard x-ray free electron lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Maximizing spectral flux from self-seeding hard x-ray free electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Maximizing spectral flux from self-seeding hard x-ray free electron lasers Authors: Yang X. Publication Date: 2013-12-02 OSTI Identifier: 1132380 Report Number(s): BNL--103817-2014-JA 39KC02000 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-98CH10886 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: PHYSICAL REVIEW SPECIAL TOPICS - ACCELERATORS

  18. Hard X-ray spatial array diagnostics on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, D. W.; Chen, Z. Y. Luo, Y. H.; Tong, R. H.; Yan, W.; Jin, W.; Zhuang, G.

    2014-11-15

    A spatially distributed hard X-ray detection array has been developed to diagnose the loss of runaway electron with toroidal and poloidal resolution. The hard X-ray radiation in the energy ranges of 0.31 MeV resulted from runaway electrons can be measured. The detection array consists of 12 CdTe detectors which are arranged surrounding the tokamak. It is found that most runaway electrons which transport to plasma boundary tend to loss on limiters. The application of electrode biasing probe resulted in enhancement of local runaway loss. Resonant magnetic perturbations enhanced the runaway electrons diffusion and showed an asymmetric poloidal loss rate.

  19. Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet Cluster

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (1E0657-56), the Most Distant Cluster of Galaxies Observed by the RXTE (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56), the Most Distant Cluster of Galaxies Observed by the RXTE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56), the Most Distant Cluster of Galaxies Observed by the RXTE Evidence for non-thermal activity in clusters of

  20. Pulse energy measurement at the hard x-ray laser in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Saito, N.; Kurosawa, T.; Richter, M.; Sorokin, A. A.; Tiedtke, K.; Kudo, T.; Yabashi, M.; Tono, K.; Ishikawa, T.

    2012-07-09

    The pulse energies of a free electron laser have accurately been measured in the hard x-ray spectral range. In the photon energy regime from 4.4 keV to 16.8 keV, pulse energies up to 100 {mu}J were obtained at the hard x-ray laser facility SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser). Two independent methods, using a cryogenic radiometer and a gas monitor detector, were applied and agreement within 3.3% was achieved. Based on our validated pulse energy measurement, a SACLA online monitor detector could be calibrated for all future experiments.

  1. Transverse pulse shaping and optimization of a tapered hard X-ray free

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electron laser (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Transverse pulse shaping and optimization of a tapered hard X-ray free electron laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transverse pulse shaping and optimization of a tapered hard X-ray free electron laser Authors: Emma, C. ; /UCLA, Los Angeles ; Pellegrini, C. ; /UCLA, Los Angeles /SLAC ; Wu, Juhao ; /SLAC ; , Publication Date: 2014-05-05 OSTI Identifier: 1131466 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15940 arXiv:1403.5305 DOE Contract Number:

  2. Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Conley, Raymond; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Macrander, Albert; Maser, Jorg; Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Harder, Ross; et al

    2015-05-04

    We report on the fabrication and the characterization of a wedged multilayer Laue lens for x-ray nanofocusing. The lens was fabricated using a sputtering deposition technique, in which a specially designed mask was employed to introduce a thickness gradient in the lateral direction of the multilayer. X-ray characterization shows an efficiency of 27% and a focus size of 26 nm at 14.6 keV, in a good agreement with theoretical calculations. These results indicate that the desired wedging is achieved in the fabricated structure. We anticipate that continuous development on wedged MLLs will advance x-ray nanofocusing optics to new frontiers andmoreenrich capabilities and opportunities for hard X-ray microscopy.less

  3. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H.; Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T.

    2014-05-15

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  4. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian K.; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; et al

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioningmore » it.« less

  5. Study of runaway electrons with Hard X-ray spectrometry of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shevelev, A.; Chugunov, I.; Khilkevitch, E.; Gin, D.; Doinikov, D.; Naidenov, V.; Kiptily, V.; Collaboration: EFDA-JET Contributors

    2014-08-21

    Hard-X-ray spectrometry is a tool widely used for diagnostic of runaway electrons in existing tokamaks. In future machines, ITER and DEMO, HXR spectrometry will be useful providing information on runaway electron energy, runaway beam current and its profile during disruption.

  6. Self-standing quasi-mosaic crystals for focusing hard X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo; Bellucci, Valerio; Neri, Ilaria; Frontera, Filippo; Jentschel, Michael

    2013-05-15

    A quasi mosaic bent crystal for high-resolution diffraction of X and {gamma} rays has been realized. A net curvature was imprinted to the crystal thanks to a series of superficial grooves to keep the curvature without external devices. The crystal highlights very high diffraction efficiency due to quasi mosaic curvature. Quasi mosaic crystals of this kind are proposed for the realization of a high-resolution focusing Laue lens for hard X-rays.

  7. Hard x-ray tomographic studies of the destruction of an energetic electron ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.

    2013-05-15

    A tomography system was designed and built at the Large Plasma Device to measure the spatial distribution of hard x-ray (100 KeV-3 MeV) emissivity. The x-rays were generated when a hot electron ring was significantly disrupted by a shear Alfven wave. The plasma is pulsed at 1 Hz (1 shot/s). A lead shielded scintillator detector with an acceptance angle defined by a lead pinhole is mounted on a rotary gimbal and used to detect the x-rays. The system measures one chord per plasma shot using only one detector. A data plane usually consists of several hundred chords. A novel Dot by Dot Reconstruction (DDR) method is introduced to calculate the emissivity profile from the line integrated data. In the experiments, there are often physical obstructions, which make measurements at certain angles impossible. The DDR method works well even in this situation. The method was tested with simulated data, and was found to be more effective than previously published methods for the specific geometry of this experiment. The reconstructed x-ray emissivity from experimental data by this method is shown.

  8. IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR FLARE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR FLARE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR FLARE We present the analysis of a pair of unusually energetic coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources detected by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager during the impulsive phase of an X3.9 class solar flare on 2003 November 3, which simultaneously shows two intense

  9. Hard x-ray transmission crystal spectrometer at the OMEGA-EP laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seely, J. F.; Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.

    2010-10-15

    The transmission crystal spectrometer (TCS) is approved for taking data at the OMEGA-EP laser facility since 2009 and will be available for the OMEGA target chamber in 2010. TCS utilizes a Cauchois type cylindrically bent transmission crystal geometry with a source to crystal distance of 600 mm. Spectral images are recorded by image plates in four positions, one IP on the Rowland circle and three others at 200, 400, and 600 mm beyond the Rowland circle. An earlier version of TCS was used at LULI on experiments that determined the x-ray source size from spectral line broadening on one IP positioned behind the Rowland circle. TCS has recorded numerous backlighter spectra at EP for point projection radiography and for source size measurements. Hard x-ray source size can be determined from the source broadening of both K shell emission lines and from K absorption edges in the bremsstrahlung continuum, the latter being a new way to measure the spatial extent of the hard x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum.

  10. SWIFT/BAT DETECTION OF HARD X-RAYS FROM TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT: EVIDENCE FOR TITANIUM-44

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troja, E.; Baumgartner, W.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Segreto, A.; La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.; Hartmann, D.

    2014-12-10

    We report Swift/Burst Alert Telescope survey observations of the Tycho's supernova remnant, performed over a period of 104 months since the mission's launch. The remnant is detected with high significance (>10σ) below 50 keV. We detect significant hard X-ray emission in the 60-85 keV band, above the continuum level predicted by a simple synchrotron model. The location of the observed excess is consistent with line emission from radioactive titanium-44, so far reported only for Type II supernova explosions. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the galactic supernova rate, and nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernova.

  11. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using an environmental cell with silicon nitride membrane windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsunemi, Eika; Watanabe, Yoshio; Oji, Hiroshi; Cui, Yi-Tao; Son, Jin-Young

    2015-06-21

    We applied hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) to a sample under ambient pressure conditions using an environmental cell with an approximately 24 nm-thick SiN{sub x} membrane window. As a model chemical substance, europium (II) iodide (EuI{sub 2}) sealed in the cell with argon gas was investigated with HAXPES to identify the chemical species present inside the cell. The optical and morphological properties of the sample within the cell were measured with optical and fluorescent microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. We confirmed the effectiveness of the gas barrier properties of the cell with the SiN{sub x} window and demonstrated its applicability to various other optical and electron measurements as well as HAXPES.

  12. Claudio Pellegrini and the World’s First Hard X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, Claudio

    2015-10-20

    President Obama welcomed SLAC's Claudio Pellegrini inside the Oval Office on Tuesday morning as a recipient of the Enrico Fermi Award, one of the highest honors the U.S. government can give to a scientist. Pellegrini, a visiting scientist and consulting professor at SLAC and distinguished professor emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles, received the award for research that aided in the development of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) including SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a DOE Office of Science User Facility that started up in 2009. Here, Pellegrini describes his efforts that contributed to the realization of SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source, the world’s first hard X-ray free-electron laser.

  13. Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth Hard X-Ray Free-Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    one of the most promising methods to accomplish this. In the hard x-ray regime with high- energy electrons, this method requires a large magnetic chicane to match the path length...

  14. Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth Hard X-Ray Free-Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth Hard X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth...

  15. Phase-matched generation of coherent soft and hard X-rays using IR lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Bahabad, Alon; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2013-06-11

    Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation of soft and hard X-rays is accomplished using infrared driving lasers in a high-pressure non-linear medium. The pressure of the non-linear medium is increased to multi-atmospheres and a mid-IR (or higher) laser device provides the driving pulse. Based on this scaling, also a general method for global optimization of the flux of phase-matched high-order harmonic generation at a desired wavelength is designed.

  16. Nonlinear delayed symmetry breaking in a solid excited by hard x-ray free electron laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrer, A.; Johnson, J. A. Mariager, S. O.; Grbel, S.; Staub, U.; Huber, T.; Trant, M.; Johnson, S. L.; Zhu, D.; Chollet, M.; Robinson, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Ingold, G.; Beaud, P.; Milne, C.

    2015-04-13

    We have studied the ultrafast changes of electronic states in bulk ZnO upon intense hard x-ray excitation from a free electron laser. By monitoring the transient anisotropy induced in an optical probe beam, we observe a delayed breaking of the initial c-plane symmetry of the crystal that lasts for several picoseconds. Interaction with the intense x-ray pulses modifies the electronic state filling in a manner inconsistent with a simple increase in electronic temperature. These results may indicate a way to use intense ultrashort x-ray pulses to investigate high-energy carrier dynamics and to control certain properties of solid-state materials.

  17. The LCLS variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, David; Zhu, Diling; Turner, James; Zhang, Dehong; Hill, Bruce; Feng, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The engineering design, implementation, operation and performance of the new variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer (HXSSS) for the LCLS free-electron laser (FEL) are reported. The HXSSS system is based on a cylindrically bent Si thin crystal for dispersing the incident polychromatic FEL beam. A spatially resolved detector system consisting of a Ce:YAG X-ray scintillator screen, an optical imaging system and a low-noise pixelated optical camera is used to record the spectrograph. The HXSSS provides single-shot spectrum measurements for users whose experiments depend critically on the knowledge of the self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL spectrum. It also helps accelerator physicists for the continuing studies and optimization of self-seeding, various improved mechanisms for lasing mechanisms, and FEL performance improvements. The designed operating energy range of the HXSSS is from 4 to 20 keV, with the spectral range of order larger than 2% and a spectral resolution of 2 × 10-5or better. Those performance goals have all been achieved during the commissioning of the HXSSS.

  18. The LCLS variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, David; Zhu, Diling; Turner, James; Zhang, Dehong; Hill, Bruce; Feng, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The engineering design, implementation, operation and performance of the new variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer (HXSSS) for the LCLS free-electron laser (FEL) are reported. The HXSSS system is based on a cylindrically bent Si thin crystal for dispersing the incident polychromatic FEL beam. A spatially resolved detector system consisting of a Ce:YAG X-ray scintillator screen, an optical imaging system and a low-noise pixelated optical camera is used to record the spectrograph. The HXSSS provides single-shot spectrum measurements for users whose experiments depend critically on the knowledge of the self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL spectrum. It also helps accelerator physicists for the continuing studies and optimization of self-seeding, various improved mechanisms for lasing mechanisms, and FEL performance improvements. The designed operating energy range of the HXSSS is from 4 to 20 keV, with the spectral range of order larger than 2% and a spectral resolution of 2 × 10-5or better. Those performance goals have all been achieved during the commissioning of the HXSSS.

  19. Achieving Vibration Stability of the NSLS-II Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simos, N.; Chu, Y. N.; Broadbent, A.; Nazaretski, E.; Margulies, L.; Dyling, O.; Shen, Q.; Fallier, M.

    2010-08-30

    The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (HXN) Beamline of National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-lI) requires high levels of stability in order to achieve the desired instrument resolution. To ensure that the design of the endstation helps meet the stringent criteria and that natural and cultural vibration is mitigated both passively and actively, a comprehensive study complimentary to the design process has been undertaken. Vibration sources that have the potential to disrupt sensitive experiments such as wind, traffic and NSLS II operating systems have been studied using state of the art simulations and an array of field data. Further, final stage vibration isolation principles have been explored in order to be utilized in supporting endstation instruments. This paper presents results of the various study aspects and their influence on the HXN design optimization.

  20. Suzaku monitoring of hard X-ray emission from ? Carinae over a single binary orbital cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Yuasa, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu; Pittard, Julian M.; Russell, Christopher M. P.

    2014-11-10

    The Suzaku X-ray observatory monitored the supermassive binary system ? Carinae 10 times during the whole 5.5 yr orbital cycle between 2005 and 2011. This series of observations presents the first long-term monitoring of this enigmatic system in the extremely hard X-ray band between 15 and 40 keV. During most of the orbit, the 15-25 keV emission varied similarly to the 2-10 keV emission, indicating an origin in the hard energy tail of the kT ? 4 keV wind-wind collision (WWC) plasma. However, the 15-25 keV emission declined only by a factor of three around periastron when the 2-10 keV emission dropped by two orders of magnitude due probably to an eclipse of the WWC plasma. The observed minimum in the 15-25 keV emission occurred after the 2-10 keV flux had already recovered by a factor of ?3. This may mean that the WWC activity was strong, but hidden behind the thick primary stellar wind during the eclipse. The 25-40 keV flux was rather constant through the orbital cycle, at the level measured with INTEGRAL in 2004. This result may suggest a connection of this flux component to the ?-ray source detected in this field. The helium-like Fe K? line complex at ?6.7 keV became strongly distorted toward periastron as seen in the previous cycle. The 5-9 keV spectra can be reproduced well with a two-component spectral model, which includes plasma in collision equilibrium and a plasma in non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) with ? ? 10{sup 11} cm{sup 3} s{sup 1}. The NEI plasma increases in importance toward periastron.

  1. Photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    different source characteristics and its resulting impact on sample delivery, X-ray optics, X-ray detection and data acquisition. Here it is described how photon-in photon-out...

  2. Hard X-ray emission and {sup 44}Ti line features of the Tycho supernova remnant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Zhuo, E-mail: wangwei@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: zhuo.li@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-07-10

    A deep hard X-ray survey of the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) satellite has detected for the first time non-thermal emission up to 90 keV in the Tycho supernova (SN) remnant. Its 3-100 keV spectrum is fitted with a thermal bremsstrahlung of kT ? 0.81 0.45 keV plus a power-law model of ? ? 3.01 0.16. Based on diffusive shock acceleration theory, this non-thermal emission, together with radio measurements, implies that the Tycho remnant may not accelerate protons up to >PeV but to hundreds TeV. Only heavier nuclei may be accelerated to the cosmic ray spectral 'knee'. In addition, using INTEGRAL, we search for soft gamma-ray lines at 67.9 and 78.4 keV that come from the decay of radioactive {sup 44}Ti in the Tycho remnant. A bump feature in the 60-90 keV energy band, potentially associated with the {sup 44}Ti line emission, is found with a marginal significance level of ?2.6?. The corresponding 3? upper limit on the {sup 44}Ti line flux amounts to 1.5 10{sup 5} photon cm{sup 2} s{sup 1}. Implications on the progenitor of the Tycho SN, considered to be a Type Ia SN prototype, are discussed.

  3. MOTIONS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCES DURING AN ASYMMETRIC ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Chang; Jing Ju; Liu Rui; Deng Na; Wang Haimin; Lee, Jeongwoo

    2010-10-01

    Filament eruptions and hard X-ray (HXR) source motions are commonly observed in solar flares, which provide critical information on the coronal magnetic reconnection. This Letter reports an event on 2005 January 15, in which we found an asymmetric filament eruption and a subsequent coronal mass ejection together with complicated motions of HXR sources during the GOES-class X2.6 flare. The HXR sources initially converge to the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), and then move in directions either parallel or perpendicular to the PIL depending on the local field configuration. We distinguish the evolution of the HXR source motion in four phases and associate each of them with distinct regions of coronal magnetic fields as reconstructed using a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation. It is found that the magnetic reconnection proceeds along the PIL toward the regions where the overlying field decreases with height more rapidly. It is also found that not only the perpendicular but the parallel motion of the HXR sources correlates well with the HXR light curve. These results are discussed in favor of the torus instability as an important factor in the eruptive process.

  4. KAPPA DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR HARD X-RAY CORONAL SOURCES OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Krucker, S.; Lin, R. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-02-10

    Solar flares produce hard X-ray emission, the photon spectrum of which is often represented by a combination of thermal and power-law distributions. However, the estimates of the number and total energy of non-thermal electrons are sensitive to the determination of the power-law cutoff energy. Here, we revisit an 'above-the-loop' coronal source observed by RHESSI on 2007 December 31 and show that a kappa distribution model can also be used to fit its spectrum. Because the kappa distribution has a Maxwellian-like core in addition to a high-energy power-law tail, the emission measure and temperature of the instantaneous electrons can be derived without assuming the cutoff energy. Moreover, the non-thermal fractions of electron number/energy densities can be uniquely estimated because they are functions of only the power-law index. With the kappa distribution model, we estimated that the total electron density of the coronal source region was {approx}2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. We also estimated without assuming the source volume that a moderate fraction ({approx}20%) of electrons in the source region was non-thermal and carried {approx}52% of the total electron energy. The temperature was 28 MK, and the power-law index {delta} of the electron density distribution was -4.3. These results are compared to the conventional power-law models with and without a thermal core component.

  5. Photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling; Kroll, Thomas; Chollet, Mathieu; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Kern, Jan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Nordlund, Dennis; et al

    2015-04-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) have opened unprecedented possibilities to study the structure and dynamics of matter at an atomic level and ultra-fast timescale. Many of the techniques routinely used at storage ring facilities are being adapted for experiments conducted at FELs. In order to take full advantage of these new sources several challenges have to be overcome. They are related to the very different source characteristics and its resulting impact on sample delivery, X-ray optics, X-ray detection and data acquisition. Here it is described how photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy techniques can be applied to study the electronic structure andmore » its dynamics of transition metal systems with ultra-bright and ultra-short FEL X-ray pulses. In particular, some of the experimental details that are different compared with synchrotron-based setups are discussed and illustrated by recent measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source.« less

  6. ELECTRON ENERGY PARTITION IN THE ABOVE-THE-LOOPTOP SOLAR HARD X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, Mitsuo; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Solar flares produce non-thermal electrons with energies up to tens of MeVs. To understand the origin of energetic electrons, coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources, in particular above-the-looptop sources, have been studied extensively. However, it still remains unclear how energies are partitioned between thermal and non-thermal electrons within the above-the-looptop source. Here we show that the kappa distribution, when compared to conventional spectral models, can better characterize the above-the-looptop HXRs (≳15 keV) observed in four different cases. The widely used conventional model (i.e., the combined thermal plus power-law distribution) can also fit the data, but it returns unreasonable parameter values due to a non-physical sharp lower-energy cutoff E{sub c}. In two cases, extreme-ultraviolet data were available from SDO/AIA and the kappa distribution was still consistent with the analysis of differential emission measure. Based on the kappa distribution model, we found that the 2012 July 19 flare showed the largest non-thermal fraction of electron energies about 50%, suggesting equipartition of energies. Considering the results of particle-in-cell simulations, as well as density estimates of the four cases studied, we propose a scenario in which electron acceleration is achieved primarily by collisionless magnetic reconnection, but the electron energy partition in the above-the-looptop source depends on the source density. In low-density above-the-looptop regions (few times 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}), the enhanced non-thermal tail can remain and a prominent HXR source is created, whereas in higher-densities (>10{sup 10} cm{sup –3}), the non-thermal tail is suppressed or thermalized by Coulomb collisions.

  7. CORONAL THICK TARGET HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS AND RADIO EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jeongwoo; Lim, Daye; Choe, G. S.; Kim, Kap-Sung; Jang, Minhwan

    2013-05-20

    A distinctive class of hard X-ray (HXR) sources located in the corona was recently found, which implies that the collisionally thick target model (CTTM) applies even to the corona. We investigated whether this idea can be independently verified by microwave radiations which have been known as the best companion to HXRs. This study is conducted on the GOES M2.3 class flare which occurred on 2002 September 9 and was observed by the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and the Owens Valley Solar Array. Interpreting the observed energy-dependent variation of HXR source size under the CTTM, the coronal density should be as high as 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} over a distance of up to 12''. To explain the cutoff feature of the microwave spectrum at 3 GHz, however, we require a density no higher than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Additional constraints must be placed on the temperature and magnetic field of the coronal source in order to reproduce the microwave spectrum as a whole. First, a spectral feature called the Razin suppression requires a magnetic field in a range of 250-350 G along with high viewing angles around 75 Degree-Sign . Second, to avoid excess fluxes at high frequencies due to the free-free emission that was not observed, we need a high temperature {>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K. These two microwave spectral features, Razin suppression and free-free emissions, become more significant at regions of high thermal plasma density and are essential for validating and determining additional parameters of the coronal HXR sources.

  8. SSRL School 2008 on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in MES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 20-22, 2008 SSRL School on Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Techniques in Environmental and Materials Sciences: Theory and Application Group photo from the 2008 SSRL...

  9. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; Patthey, L.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Feng, Y.; David, C.

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy of >1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of Ε/δΕ > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.

  10. A seven-crystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokaras, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Nordlund, D.; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Rabedeau, T.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Bergmann, U.

    2013-05-15

    We present a multicrystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer ({approx}5-18 keV) recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The instrument is set at the wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two liquid nitrogen cooled monochromators - Si(111) and Si(311) - as well as collimating and focusing optics. The spectrometer consists of seven spherically bent crystal analyzers placed on intersecting vertical Rowland circles of 1 m of diameter. The spectrometer is scanned vertically capturing an extended backscattering Bragg angular range (88 Degree-Sign -74 Degree-Sign ) while maintaining all crystals on the Rowland circle trace. The instrument operates in atmospheric pressure by means of a helium bag and when all the seven crystals are used (100 mm of projected diameter each), has a solid angle of about 0.45% of 4{pi} sr. The typical resolving power is in the order of (E/{Delta}E){approx}10 000. The spectrometer's high detection efficiency combined with the beamline 6-2 characteristics permits routine studies of x-ray emission, high energy resolution fluorescence detected x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of very diluted samples as well as implementation of demanding in situ environments.

  11. Microjet formation and hard x-ray production from a liquid metal target irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lar'kin, A. Uryupina, D.; Ivanov, K.; Savel'ev, A.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Spohr, K.; Breil, J.; Chimier, B.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Leguay, P.-M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2014-09-15

    By using a liquid metal as a target one may significantly enhance the yield of hard x-rays with a sequence of two intense femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the time delay between the two pulses is studied experimentally and interpreted with numerical simulations. It was suggested that the first arbitrary weak pulse produces microjets from the target surface, while the second intense pulse provides an efficient electron heating and acceleration along the jet surface. These energetic electrons are the source of x-ray emission while striking the target surface. The microjet formation is explained based on the results given by both optical diagnostics and hydrodynamic modeling by a collision of shocks originated from two distinct zones of laser energy deposition.

  12. Fresnel zone plate stacking in the intermediate field for high efficiency focusing in the hard X-ray regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Wojcik, Michael; Liu, Jie; Roehrig, Chris; Cummings, Marvin; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Li, Kenan; Lai, Barry; Shu, Deming; Vogt, Stefan

    2014-11-05

    Focusing efficiency of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) for X-rays depends on zone height, while the achievable spatial resolution depends on the width of the finest zones. FZPs with optimal efficiency and sub-100-nm spatial resolution require high aspect ratio structures which are difficult to fabricate with current technology especially for the hard X-ray regime. A possible solution is to stack several zone plates. To increase the number of FZPs within one stack, we first demonstrate intermediate-field stacking and apply this method by stacks of up to five FZPs with adjusted diameters. Approaching the respective optimum zone height, we maximized efficiencies formorehigh resolution focusing at three different energies, 10, 11.8, and 25 keV.less

  13. Hard X-ray nanofocusing using adaptive focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, Takumi; Nakamori, Hiroki; Sano, Yasuhisa; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Kimura, Takashi; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2015-04-15

    An adaptive Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors was constructed at SPring-8 and its focusing performance characteristics were demonstrated. By adjusting the voltages applied to the deformable mirrors, the shape errors (compared to a target elliptical shape) were finely corrected on the basis of the mirror shape determined using the pencil-beam method, which is a type of at-wavelength figure metrology in the X-ray region. The mirror shapes were controlled with a peak-to-valley height accuracy of 2.5 nm. A focused beam with an intensity profile having a full width at half maximum of 110 × 65 nm (V × H) was achieved at an X-ray energy of 10 keV.

  14. Inverse Compton Origin of the Hard X-ray and Soft gamma-ray Emission from the Galactic Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, Troy A.; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Orlando, Elena; Bouchet, Laurent

    2008-09-30

    A recent re-determination of the non-thermal component of the hard X-ray to soft {gamma}-ray emission from the Galactic ridge, using the SPI instrument on the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) Observatory, is shown to be well reproduced as inverse-Compton emission from the interstellar medium. Both cosmic-ray primary electrons and secondary electrons and positrons contribute to the emission. The prediction uses the GALPROP model and includes a new calculation of the interstellar radiation field. This may solve a long-standing mystery of the origin of this emission, and potentially opens a new window on Galactic cosmic rays.

  15. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; et al

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy ofmore » >1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of Ε/δΕ > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.« less

  16. HARD X-RAY LAGS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: TESTING THE DISTANT REVERBERATION HYPOTHESIS WITH NGC 6814

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Zoghbi, A.; Reynolds, C. S.; Cackett, E. M.; Uttley, P.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.

    2013-11-10

    We present an X-ray spectral and temporal analysis of the variable active galaxy NGC 6814, observed with Suzaku during 2011 November. Remarkably, the X-ray spectrum shows no evidence for the soft excess commonly observed amongst other active galaxies, despite its relatively low level of obscuration, and is dominated across the whole Suzaku bandpass by the intrinsic powerlaw-like continuum. Despite this, we clearly detect the presence of a low-frequency hard lag of ∼1600 s between the 0.5-2.0 and 2.0-5.0 keV energy bands at greater than 6σ significance, similar to those reported in the literature for a variety of other active galactic nuclei (AGNs). At these energies, any additional emission from, e.g., a very weak, undetected soft excess, or from distant reflection must contribute less than 3% of the observed countrates (at 90% confidence). Given the lack of any significant continuum emission component other than the powerlaw, we can rule out models that invoke distant reprocessing for the observed lag behavior, which must instead be associated with this continuum emission. These results are fully consistent with a propagating fluctuation origin for the low-frequency hard lags, and with the interpretation of the high-frequency soft lags—a common feature seen in the highest quality AGN data with strong soft excesses—as reverberation from the inner accretion disk.

  17. Ultra-stable sub-meV monochromator for hard X-rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Toellner, T. S.; Collins, J.; Goetze, K.; Hu, M. Y.; Preissner, C.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Yan, L.

    2015-07-17

    A high-resolution silicon monochromator suitable for 21.541 keV synchrotron radiation is presented that produces a bandwidth of 0.27 meV. The operating energy corresponds to a nuclear transition in 151Eu. The first-of-its-kind, fully cryogenic design achieves an energy-alignment stability of 0.017 meV r.m.s. per day, or a 100-fold improvement over other meV-monochromators, and can tolerate higher X-ray power loads than room-temperature designs of comparable resolution. This offers the potential for significantly more accurate measurements of lattice excitation energies using nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy if combined with accurate energy calibration using, for example, high-speed Doppler shifting. The design of the monochromator alongmore » with its performance and impact on transmitted beam properties are presented.« less

  18. Ultra-stable sub-meV monochromator for hard X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toellner, T. S.; Collins, J.; Goetze, K.; Hu, M. Y.; Preissner, C.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Yan, L.

    2015-07-17

    A high-resolution silicon monochromator suitable for 21.541 keV synchrotron radiation is presented that produces a bandwidth of 0.27 meV. The operating energy corresponds to a nuclear transition in 151Eu. The first-of-its-kind, fully cryogenic design achieves an energy-alignment stability of 0.017 meV r.m.s. per day, or a 100-fold improvement over other meV-monochromators, and can tolerate higher X-ray power loads than room-temperature designs of comparable resolution. This offers the potential for significantly more accurate measurements of lattice excitation energies using nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy if combined with accurate energy calibration using, for example, high-speed Doppler shifting. The design of the monochromator along with its performance and impact on transmitted beam properties are presented.

  19. Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almaviva, S.; Bonfigli, F.; Franzini, I.; Lai, A.; Montereali, R. M.; Pelliccia, D.; Cedola, A.; Lagomarsino, S.

    2006-07-31

    An innovative route for deep-submicrometer spatial resolution hard x-ray microscopy with tabletop x-ray source is proposed. A film of lithium fluoride (LiF) was used as imaging detector in contact mode. We present here the x-ray images recorded on LiF films of a Fresnel zone plate with submicrometer gold structures and of an onion cataphyll. The images were read with an optical confocal microscope in fluorescence mode. The measured spatial resolution was about 250 nm, i.e., close to the resolution limit of the confocal microscope. The advantages and drawbacks, and the possible improvements, of this route are discussed.

  20. Experimental comparison of grating- and propagation-based hard X-ray phase tomography of soft tissue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, S.; Schulz, G.; Müller, B.; Zanette, I.; Dominietto, M.; Langer, M.; Rack, A.; Le Duc, G.; David, C.; Mohr, J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Weitkamp, T.

    2014-10-21

    When imaging soft tissues with hard X-rays, phase contrast is often preferred over conventional attenuation contrast due its superior sensitivity. However, it is unclear which of the numerous phase tomography methods yields the optimized results at given experimental conditions. Therefore, we quantitatively compared the three phase tomography methods implemented at the beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: X-ray grating interferometry (XGI), and propagation-based phase tomography, i.e., single-distance phase retrieval (SDPR) and holotomography (HT), using cancerous tissue from a mouse model and an entire heart of a rat. We show that for both specimens, the spatial resolution derived from the characteristic morphological features is about a factor of two better for HT and SDPR compared to XGI, whereas the XGI data generally exhibit much better contrast-to-noise ratios for the anatomical features. Moreover, XGI excels in fidelity of the density measurements, and is also more robust against low-frequency artifacts than HT, but it might suffer from phase-wrapping artifacts. Thus, we can regard the three phase tomography methods discussed as complementary. The application will decide which spatial and density resolutions are desired, for the imaging task and dose requirements, and, in addition, the applicant must choose between the complexity of the experimental setup and the one of data processing.

  1. EXTENDED HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE VELA PULSAR WIND NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattana, F.; Terrier, R.; Zurita Heras, J. A.; Goetz, D.; Caballero, I.; Soldi, S.; Schanne, S.; Ponti, G.; Falanga, M.; Renaud, M.

    2011-12-10

    The nebula powered by the Vela pulsar is one of the best examples of an evolved pulsar wind nebula, allowing access to the particle injection history and the interaction with the supernova ejecta. We report on the INTEGRAL discovery of extended emission above 18 keV from the Vela nebula. The northern side has no known counterparts and it appears larger and more significant than the southern one, which is in turn partially coincident with the cocoon, the soft X-ray, and TeV filament toward the center of the remnant. We also present the spectrum of the Vela nebula in the 18-400 keV energy range as measured by IBIS/ISGRI and SPI on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The apparent discrepancy between IBIS/ISGRI, SPI, and previous measurements is understood in terms of the point-spread function, supporting the hypothesis of a nebula more diffuse than previously thought. A break at {approx}25 keV is found in the spectrum within 6' from the pulsar after including the Suzaku XIS data. Interpreted as a cooling break, this points out that the inner nebula is composed of electrons injected in the last {approx}2000 years. Broadband modeling also implies a magnetic field higher than 10 {mu}G in this region. Finally, we discuss the nature of the northern emission, which might be due to fresh particles injected after the passage of the reverse shock.

  2. Turbulent pitch-angle scattering and diffusive transport of hard X-ray-producing electrons in flaring coronal loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kontar, Eduard P.; Bian, Nicolas H.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Vilmer, Nicole E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu

    2014-01-10

    Recent observations from RHESSI have revealed that the number of non-thermal electrons in the coronal part of a flaring loop can exceed the number of electrons required to explain the hard X-ray-emitting footpoints of the same flaring loop. Such sources cannot, therefore, be interpreted on the basis of the standard collisional transport model, in which electrons stream along the loop while losing their energy through collisions with the ambient plasma; additional physical processes, to either trap or scatter the energetic electrons, are required. Motivated by this and other observations that suggest that high-energy electrons are confined to the coronal region of the source, we consider turbulent pitch-angle scattering of fast electrons off low-frequency magnetic fluctuations as a confinement mechanism, modeled as a spatial diffusion parallel to the mean magnetic field. In general, turbulent scattering leads to a reduction of the collisional stopping distance of non-thermal electrons along the loop, and hence to an enhancement of the coronal hard X-ray source relative to the footpoints. The variation of source size L with electron energy E becomes weaker than the quadratic behavior pertinent to collisional transport, with the slope of L(E) depending directly on the mean free path ? associated with the non-collisional scattering mechanism. Comparing the predictions of the model with observations, we find that ? ? (10{sup 8}-10{sup 9}) cm for ?30 keV, less than the length of a typical flaring loop and smaller than, or comparable to, the size of the electron acceleration region.

  3. X-Ray Microscopy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy X-Ray Microscopy This group exploits the unique capabilities of hard X-ray microscopy to visualize and understand the structure and behavior of hybrid,...

  4. A Low-Charge, Hard X-Ray FEL Driven with an X-band Injector and Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yipeng; Adolphsen, Chris; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Raubenheimer, Tor; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    After the successful operation of FLASH (Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg) and LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source), soft and hard X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) are being built, designed or proposed at many accelerator laboratories. Acceleration employing lower frequency RF cavities, ranging from L-band to C-band, is usually adopted in these designs. In the first stage bunch compression, higher-frequency harmonic RF system is employed to linearize the beam's longitudinal phase space, which is nonlinearly chirped during the lower frequency RF acceleration process. In this paper, a hard X-ray FEL design using an all X-band accelerator at 11.424 GHz (from photo-cathode RF gun to linac end) is presented, without the assistance of any harmonic RF linearization. It achieves LCLS-like performance at low charge using X-band linac drivers, which is more versatile, efficient and compact than ones using S-band or C-band rf technology. It employs initially 42 microns long (RMS), low charge (10 pC) electron bunches from an X-band photoinjector. An overall bunch compression ratio of roughly 100 times is proposed in a two stage bunch compressor system. The start-to-end macro-particle 3-D simulation employing several computer codes is presented in this paper, where space charge, wakefields, incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation (ISR and CSR) effects are included. Employing an undulator with a short period of 1.5 cm, a Genesis FEL simulation shows successful lasing at a wavelength of 0.15 nm with a pulse length of 2 fs and a power saturation length as short as 20 meters, which is equivalent to LCLS low charge mode. Its overall length of both accelerators and undulators is 180 meters (much shorter than the effective LCLS overall length of 1230 meters, including an accelerator length of 1100 meters and an undulator length of 130 meters), which makes it possible to be built in places where only limited space is available.

  5. SPATIALLY RESOLVING A STARBURST GALAXY AT HARD X-RAY ENERGIES: NuSTAR, CHANDRA, AND VLBA OBSERVATIONS OF NGC253

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wik, D. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Yukita, M.; Ptak, A.; Venters, T.; Zhang, W. W.; Zezas, A.; Antoniou, V.; Argo, M. K.; Bechtol, K.; Boggs, S.; Craig, W.; Krivonos, R.; Christensen, F.; Hailey, C.; Harrison, F.; Maccarone, T. J.; Stern, D.

    2014-12-20

    Prior to the launch of NuSTAR, it was not feasible to spatially resolve the hard (E > 10 keV) emission from galaxies beyond the Local Group. The combined NuSTAR data set, comprised of three ?165 ks observations, allows spatial characterization of the hard X-ray emission in the galaxy NGC253 for the first time. As a follow up to our initial study of its nuclear region, we present the first results concerning the full galaxy from simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and Very Long Baseline Array monitoring of the local starburst galaxy NGC253. Above ?10 keV, nearly all the emission is concentrated within 100'' of the galactic center, produced almost exclusively by three nuclear sources, an off-nuclear ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), and a pulsar candidate that we identify for the first time in these observations. We detect 21 distinct sources in energy bands up to 25 keV, mostly consisting of intermediate state black hole X-ray binaries. The global X-ray emission of the galaxydominated by the off-nuclear ULX and nuclear sources, which are also likely ULXsfalls steeply (photon index ? 3) above 10 keV, consistent with other NuSTAR-observed ULXs, and no significant excess above the background is detected at E > 40 keV. We report upper limits on diffuse inverse Compton emission for a range of spatial models. For the most extended morphologies considered, these hard X-ray constraints disfavor a dominant inverse Compton component to explain the ?-ray emission detected with Fermi and H.E.S.S. If NGC253 is typical of starburst galaxies at higher redshift, their contribution to the E > 10 keV cosmic X-ray background is <1%.

  6. A hard X-ray study of a manganese-terpyridine catalyst in a chromium-based Metal Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, Alexandra V.

    2015-08-28

    Hydrogen produced from water splitting is a promising source of clean energy. However, a robust catalyst is necessary to carry out the water oxidation step of water splitting. In this study, the catalyst studied was [(terpy)Mn(?-O)2Mn(terpy)]3+ (MnTD) synthesized in the Metal Organic Framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr), and the method used for analysis was hard X-ray powder diffraction. The diffraction data was used to detect the presence of MOF in different catalytic stages, and lattice parameters were assigned to the samples containing MOF. Fourier maps were constructed with GSAS II to determine the contents of the MOF as preliminary studies suggested that MnTD may not be present. Results showed that MOF is present before catalysis occurs but disappears by the time 45 minutes of catalysis has ensued. Changes in the MOFs lattice parameters and location of electron density in the Fourier maps suggest attractions between the MOF and catalyst that may lead to MOF degradation. Fourier maps also revealed limited, if any, amounts of MnTD, even before catalysis occurred. Molecular manganese oxide may be the source of the high rate of water oxidation catalysis in the studied system.

  7. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: Identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thfoin, I. Reverdin, C.; Duval, A.; Leboeuf, X.; Lecherbourg, L.; Ross, B.; Hulin, S.; Batani, D.; Santos, J. J.; Vaisseau, X.; Fourment, C.; Giuffrida, L.; Szabo, C. I.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Brambrink, E.; Koenig, M.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Morace, A.

    2014-11-15

    Transmission crystal spectrometers (TCS) are used on many laser facilities to record hard X-ray spectra. During experiments, signal recorded on imaging plates is often degraded by a background noise. Monte-Carlo simulations made with the code GEANT4 show that this background noise is mainly generated by diffusion of MeV electrons and very hard X-rays. An experiment, carried out at LULI2000, confirmed that the use of magnets in front of the diagnostic, that bent the electron trajectories, reduces significantly this background. The new spectrometer SPECTIX (Spectromtre PETAL Cristal en TransmIssion X), built for the LMJ/PETAL facility, will include this optimized shielding.

  8. Design and Start-to-End Simulation of an X-Band RF Driven Hard X-Ray FEL with LCLS Injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

    2012-08-20

    In this note, it is briefly discussed the accelerator design and start-to-end 3D macro particles simulation (using ELEGANT and GENESIS) of an X-band RF driven hard X-ray FEL with LCLS injector. A preliminary design and LiTrack 1D simulation studies were presented before in an older publication [1]. In numerical simulations this X-band RF driven hard X-ray FEL achieves/exceeds LCLS-like performance in a much shorter overall length of 350 m, compared with 1200 m in the LCLS case. One key feature of this design is that it may achieve a higher final beam current of 5 kA plus a uniform energy profile, mainly due to the employment of stronger longitudinal wake fields in the last X-band RF linac [2].

  9. NuSTAR study of hard X-ray morphology and spectroscopy of PWN G21.50.9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nynka, Melania; Hailey, Charles J.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Mori, Kaya; Perez, Kerstin [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Reynolds, Stephen P. [Physics Department, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Baganoff, Frederick K. [Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Boggs, Steven E.; Krivonos, Roman; Zoglauer, Andreas [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Craig, William W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We present NuSTAR high-energy X-ray observations of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN)/supernova remnant G21.50.9. We detect integrated emission from the nebula up to ?40 keV, and resolve individual spatial features over a broad X-ray band for the first time. The morphology seen by NuSTAR agrees well with that seen by XMM-Newton and Chandra below 10 keV. At high energies, NuSTAR clearly detects non-thermal emission up to ?20 keV that extends along the eastern and northern rim of the supernova shell. The broadband images clearly demonstrate that X-ray emission from the North Spur and Eastern Limb results predominantly from non-thermal processes. We detect a break in the spatially integrated X-ray spectrum at ?9 keV that cannot be reproduced by current spectral energy distribution models, implying either a more complex electron injection spectrum or an additional process such as diffusion compared to what has been considered in previous work. We use spatially resolved maps to derive an energy-dependent cooling length scale, L(E)?E{sup m} with m = 0.21 0.01. We find this to be inconsistent with the model for the morphological evolution with energy described by Kennel and Coroniti. This value, along with the observed steepening in power-law index between radio and X-ray, can be quantitatively explained as an energy-loss spectral break in the simple scaling model of Reynolds, assuming particle advection dominates over diffusion. This interpretation requires a substantial departure from spherical magnetohydrodynamic, magnetic-flux-conserving outflow, most plausibly in the form of turbulent magnetic-field amplification.

  10. Expectations for the hard x-ray continuum and gamma-ray line fluxes from the typE IA supernova SN 2014J in M82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The, Lih-Sin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, SC 29634 (United States); Burrows, Adam, E-mail: tlihsin@clemson.edu, E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    The hard X-ray continuum and gamma-ray lines from a Type Ia supernova dominate its integrated photon emissions and can provide unique diagnostics of the mass of the ejecta, the {sup 56}Ni yield and spatial distribution, its kinetic energy and expansion speed, and the mechanism of explosion. Such signatures and their time behavior 'X-ray' the bulk debris field in direct fashion, and do not depend on the ofttimes problematic and elaborate UV, optical, and near-infrared spectroscopy and radiative transfer that have informed the study of these events for decades. However, to date no hard photons have ever been detected from a Type Ia supernova in explosion. With the advent of the supernova SN 2014J in M82, at a distance of ?3.5 Mpc, this situation may soon change. Both NuSTAR and INTEGRAL have the potential to detect SN 2014J, and, if spectra and light curves can be measured, would usefully constrain the various explosion models published during the last ?30 yr. In support of these observational campaigns, we provide predictions for the hard X-ray continuum and gamma-line emissions for 15 Type Ia explosion models gleaned from the literature. The model set, containing as it does deflagration, delayed detonation, merger detonation, pulsational delayed detonation, and sub-Chandrasekhar helium detonation models, collectively spans a wide range of properties, and hence signatures. We provide a brief discussion of various diagnostics (with examples), but importantly make the spectral and line results available electronically to aid in the interpretation of the anticipated data.

  11. Anomalous resistivity effect on multiple ion beam emission and hard x-ray generation in a Mather type plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behbahani, R. A.; Aghamir, F. M.

    2011-10-15

    Multi ion beam and hard x-ray emissions were detected in a high inductance (more than 100 nH) Mather type plasma focus (PF) device at different filling gas pressures and charging voltages. The signal analysis was performed through the current trace, as it is the fundamental signal from which all of the phenomena in a PF device can be extracted. Two different fitting processes were carried out according to Lee's computational (snow-plow) model. In the first process, only plasma dynamics and classical (Spitzer) resistances were considered as energy consumer parameters for plasma. This led to an unsuccessful fitting and did not answer the energy transfer mechanism into plasma. A second fitting process was considered through the addition of anomalous resistance, which provided the best fit. Anomalous resistance was the source of long decrease in current trace, and multi dips and multi peaks of high voltage probe. Multi-peak features were interpreted considering the second fitting process along with the mechanisms for ion beam production and hard x-ray emission. To show the important role of the anomalous resistance, the duration of the current drop was discussed.

  12. INTEGRAL SPI observations of Cygnus X-1 in the soft state: What about the jet contribution in hard X-rays?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.; Chauvin, M.

    2014-07-01

    During the first 7 yr of the INTEGRAL mission (2003-2009), Cyg X-1 has essentially been detected in its hard state (HS), with some incursions in intermediate HSs. This long, spectrally stable period allowed in particular the measurement of the polarization of the high-energy component that has long been observed above 200 keV in this peculiar object. This result strongly suggests that here we see the contribution of the jet, known to emit a strong synchrotron radio emission. In 2010 June, Cyg X-1 underwent a completed transition toward a soft state (SS). It gave us the unique opportunity to study in detail the corona emission in this spectral state, and to investigate in particular the behavior of the jet contribution. Indeed, during the SS, the hard X-ray emission decreases drastically, with its maximum energy shifted toward lower energy and its flux divided by a factor of ?5-10. Interestingly, the radio emission follows a similar drop, supporting the correlation between the jet emission and the hard component, even though the flux is too low to quantify the polarization characteristics.

  13. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, R.B.

    1996-05-21

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  14. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  15. SWIFT X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE. II. THE SUPER SOFT SOURCE SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Greg J.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Evans, P. A.; Beardmore, A. P.; Walter, Frederick M.; Andrew Helton, L.; Woodward, Charles E.; Bode, Mike; Starrfield, Sumner; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2011-12-01

    The Swift gamma-ray burst satellite is an excellent facility for studying novae. Its rapid response time and sensitive X-ray detector provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate the previously poorly sampled evolution of novae in the X-ray regime. This paper presents Swift observations of 52 Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae. We included the X-Ray Telescope (0.3-10 keV) instrument count rates and the UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (1700-8000 A) filter photometry. Also included in the analysis are the publicly available pointed observations of 10 additional novae the X-ray archives. This is the largest X-ray sample of Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae yet assembled and consists of 26 novae with Super Soft X-ray emission, 19 from Swift observations. The data set shows that the faster novae have an early hard X-ray phase that is usually missing in slower novae. The Super Soft X-ray phase occurs earlier and does not last as long in fast novae compared to slower novae. All the Swift novae with sufficient observations show that novae are highly variable with rapid variability and different periodicities. In the majority of cases, nuclear burning ceases less than three years after the outburst begins. Previous relationships, such as the nuclear burning duration versus t{sub 2} or the expansion velocity of the eject and nuclear burning duration versus the orbital period, are shown to be poorly correlated with the full sample indicating that additional factors beyond the white dwarf mass and binary separation play important roles in the evolution of a nova outburst. Finally, we confirm two optical phenomena that are correlated with strong, soft X-ray emission which can be used to further increase the efficiency of X-ray campaigns.

  16. CORONAL PROPERTIES OF THE SEYFERT 1.9 GALAXY MCG-05-23-016 DETERMINED FROM HARD X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY WITH NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balokovi?, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Esmerian, C. J.; Frst, F.; Walton, D. J.; Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Zoghbi, A.; Reynolds, C. S.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Fabian, A. C.; Parker, M. L.; Hailey, C. J.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-02-10

    Measurements of the high-energy cut-off in the coronal continuum of active galactic nuclei have long been elusive for all but a small number of the brightest examples. We present a direct measurement of the cut-off energy in the nuclear continuum of the nearby Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-05-23-016 with unprecedented precision. The high sensitivity of NuSTAR up to 79 keV allows us to clearly disentangle the spectral curvature of the primary continuum from that of its reflection component. Using a simple phenomenological model for the hard X-ray spectrum, we constrain the cut-off energy to 116{sub ?5}{sup +6} keV with 90% confidence. Testing for more complex models and nuisance parameters that could potentially influence the measurement, we find that the cut-off is detected robustly. We further use simple Comptonized plasma models to provide independent constraints for both the kinetic temperature of the electrons in the corona and its optical depth. At the 90% confidence level, we find kT{sub e} = 29 2 keV and ? {sub e} = 1.23 0.08 assuming a slab (disk-like) geometry, and kT{sub e} = 25 2 keV and ? {sub e} = 3.5 0.2 assuming a spherical geometry. Both geometries are found to fit the data equally well and their two principal physical parameters are correlated in both cases. With the optical depth in the ? {sub e} ? 1 regime, the data are pushing the currently available theoretical models of the Comptonized plasma to the limits of their validity. Since the spectral features and variability arising from the inner accretion disk have been observed previously in MCG-05-23-016, the inferred high optical depth implies that a spherical or disk-like corona cannot be homogeneous.

  17. A Hard X-ray Study of a Manganese-Terpyridine Dimer Catalyst in a Chromium-based Metal Organic Framework - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, Alexandra

    2015-08-25

    Cleaner forms of energy are needed, and H2 produced from water spliFng is a possible source. However, a robust catalyst is necessary to carry out the water oxidaKon reacKon. Plants uKlize Photosystem II to catalyze water oxidaKon as a part of photosynthesis, and many syntheKc water oxidaKon catalysts use Photosystem II as a model. In this study, the catalyst of interest was [(terpy)Mn(?-O)2Mn(terpy)]3+ (MnTD), which was synthesized in a chromium-based Metal Organic Framework (MOF) to avoid degradaKon of MnTD molecules. Hard X-ray powder diffracKon was the primary method of analysis. The diffracKon data was used to detect the presence of MOF in samples at different catalyKc stages, and laFce parameters were assigned to the samples containing MOF. Fourier maps were constructed to determine the contents of the MOF as preliminary studies suggested that MnTD may not be present. Results showed that MOF is present before catalysis occurs, but disappears in the iniKal stages of catalysis. Changes in the MOFs laFce parameters suggest aWracKve interacKons between the MOF and catalyst; these interacKons may lead to the observed MOF degradaKon. Fourier maps also reveal limited, if any, amounts of MnTD in the system. Molecular manganese oxide may be the source of the high rate of water oxidaKon catalysis in the studied system.

  18. Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry Friday, December 14, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL, Bldg. 137, room 322...

  19. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including film developing and scanning, and image plate scanning. Related images X-ray framing camera being loaded into the TIM in the Trident North Target Area. X-ray framing...

  20. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diagnostics X-Ray Diagnostics Maintenance of existing devices and development of advanced concepts Contact John Oertel (505) 665-3246 Email Hot, dense matter produced by intense laser interaction with a solid target often produces x-rays with energies from 100 eV to those exceeding 100 keV. A suite of diagnostics and methods have been deployed at Trident to diagnose the x-ray emission from laser-matter interaction experiments, or to use the x-rays as a probe of dense matter. These

  1. X-Ray Microscopy Capabilities | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) facility provides scanning fluorescence, scanning diffraction, and full-field transmission and tomographic imaging capabilities with a spatial...

  2. X-ray microscopy at CNM | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray microscopy at CNM X-Ray Nanoprobe Beamline 1 of 5 X-Ray Nanoprobe Beamline Jörg Maser (left) and Robert Winarski, of Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials, X-Ray Microscopy Group, at the hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline on Advanced Photon Source (APS) Sector 26. The nanoprobe uses brilliant X-rays with photon energies from 3 to 30 keV to probe the properties of nanoscale materials with a spatial resolution of 30 nm. The system provides a combination of scanning-probe and full-field

  3. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}; as-deposited amorphous, crystalline, and laser-reamorphized

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, Jan H. Tominaga, Junji; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alex V.; Ueda, Shigenori; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ishimaru, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2014-02-10

    We have investigated the electronic structure of as-deposited, crystalline, and laser-reamorphized Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} using high resolution, hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A shift in the Fermi level as well as a broadening of the spectral features in the valence band and the Ge 3d level between the amorphous and crystalline state is observed. Upon amorphization, Ge 3d and Sb 4d spectra show a surprisingly small breaking of resonant bonds and changes in the bonding character as evidenced by the very similar density of states in all cases.

  4. Chest x-Rays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica.

  5. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  6. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Stearns, Daniel S.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  7. X-ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawson, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

  8. Effects of electron recirculation on a hard x-ray source observed during the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with thin Au targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Courtois, C.; Lefebvre, E.; Bourgade, J. L.; Landoas, O.; Thorp, K.; Stoeckl, C.

    2013-12-15

    The interaction of a high intensity laser pulse on the preplasma of a high-Z solid target produced by the pulse's pedestal generates high-energy electrons. These electrons subsequently penetrate inside the solid target and produce bremsstrahlung photons, generating an x-ray source which can be used for photonuclear studies or to radiograph high area density objects. The source characteristics are compared for targets with thin (20 μm) and thick (100 μm) Au foils on the Omega EP laser at Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Simulations using the particle-in-cell code CALDER show that for a 20 μm thickness Au target, electrons perform multiple round-trips in the target under the effect of the laser ponderomotive potential and the target electrostatic potential. These relativistic electrons have random transverse displacements, with respect to the target normal, attributed to electrostatic fluctuation fields. As a result, the x-ray spot size is increased by a factor 2 for thin target compared to thick targets, in agreement with experimental results. In addition, the computed doses agree with the measured ones provided that electron recirculation in the thin target is taken into account. A dose increase by a factor 1.7 is then computed by allowing for recirculation. In the 100 μm target case, on the other hand, this effect is found to be negligible.

  9. X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  10. X-Ray Detection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ratio, I I on I off , recorded with plus (+, blue) and minus (-, red) x-ray helicities. This measurement was taken at -5 mA, which corresponds to a current...

  11. X-ray fluorescence mapping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy and Imaging: X-ray Fluorescence Mapping Of increasing scientific interest is the detection, quantification and mapping of elemental content of samples, often down...

  12. X-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, Eric N.; Keane, Denis T.

    2010-12-15

    In this tutorial, we describe X-ray microtomography as a technique to nondestructively characterize material microstructure in three dimensions at a micron level spatial resolution. While commercially available laboratory scale instrumentation is available, we focus our attention on synchrotron-based systems, where we can exploit a high flux, monochromatic X-ray beam to produce high fidelity three-dimensional images. A brief description of the physics and the mathematical analysis behind the technique is followed by example applications to specific materials characterization problems, with a particular focus on the utilization of three-dimensional image processing that can be used to extract a wide range of useful information.

  13. New BNL 3D-Trench Electrode Si Detectors for Radiation Hard Detectors for sLHC and for X-ray Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Z.

    2011-05-11

    A new international-patent-pending (PCT/US2010/52887) detector type, named here as 3D-Trench electrode Si detectors, is proposed in this work. In this new 3D electrode configuration, one or both types of electrodes are etched as trenches deep into the Si (fully penetrating with SOI or supporting wafer, or non-fully penetrating into 50-90% of the thickness), instead of columns as in the conventional ('standard') 3D electrode Si detectors. With trench etched electrodes, the electric field in the new 3D electrode detectors are well defined without low or zero field regions. Except near both surfaces of the detector, the electric field in the concentric type 3D-Trench electrode Si detectors is nearly radial with little or no angular dependence in the circular and hexangular (concentric-type) pixel cell geometries. In the case of parallel plate 3D trench pixels, the field is nearly linear (like the planar 2D electrode detectors), with simple and well-defined boundary conditions. Since each pixel cell in a 3D-Trench electrode detector is isolated from others by highly doped trenches, it is an electrically independent cell. Therefore, an alternative name 'Independent Coaxial Detector Array', or ICDA, is assigned to an array of 3D-Trench electrode detectors. The electric field in the detector can be reduced by a factor of nearly 10 with an optimal 3D-Trench configuration where the junction is on the surrounding trench side. The full depletion voltage in this optimal configuration can be up to 7 times less than that of a conventional 3D detector, and even a factor of two less than that of a 2D planar detector with a thickness the same as the electrode spacing in the 3D-Trench electrode detector. In the case of non-fully penetrating trench electrodes, the processing is true one-sided with backside being unprocessed. The charge loss due to the dead space associated with the trenches is insignificant as compared to that due to radiation-induced trapping in sLHC environment. Since the large electrode spacing (up to 500 {micro}m) can be realized in the 3D-Trench electrode detector due to their advantage of greatly reduced full depletion voltage, detectors with large pixel cells (therefore small dead volume) can be made for applications in photon science (e.g. X-ray).

  14. X-ray beam finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, H.W.

    1983-06-16

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  15. X-Ray Light Sources | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory The LCLS is the world's first hard x-ray free electron laser facility capable of producing x-rays that ...

  16. X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATIONS CONSTITUTING THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morihana, Kumiko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)] [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yoshida, Tessei, E-mail: morihana@crab.riken.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-03-20

    Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe K{alpha} emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

  17. ON THE RECENTLY DISCOVERED CORRELATIONS BETWEEN GAMMA-RAY AND X-RAY PROPERTIES OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2013-09-20

    Recently, many correlations between the prompt {gamma}-ray emission properties and the X-ray afterglow properties of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been inferred from a comprehensive analysis of the X-ray light curves of more than 650 GRBs measured with the Swift X-Ray Telescope (Swift/XRT) during the years 2004-2010. We show that these correlations are predicted by the cannonball (CB) model of GRBs. They result from the dependence of GRB observables on the bulk motion Lorentz factor and viewing angle of the jet of highly relativistic plasmoids (CBs) that produces the observed radiations by interaction with the medium through which it propagates. Moreover, despite their different physical origins, long GRBs (LGRBs) and short-hard bursts (SHBs) in the CB model share similar kinematic correlations, which can be combined into triple correlations satisfied by both LGRBs and SHBs.

  18. Ultrafast X-Ray Coherent Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, David

    2009-05-01

    This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent #12;eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di#11;racting properties of a x-ray di#11;racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti#12;c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the #12;eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's #12;rst hard x-ray free electron laser.

  19. Tunable X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  20. A combined capacitance-voltage and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterisation of metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As capacitor structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jun; Povey, Ian M.; Hurley, Paul K.; Walsh, Lee; Hughes, Greg; Woicik, Joseph C.; O'Regan, Terrance P.

    2014-07-14

    Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) characterization and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements have been used to study metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As capacitor structures with high (Ni) and low (Al) work function metals. The HAXPES measurements observe a band bending occurring prior to metal deposition, which is attributed to a combination of fixed oxide charges and interface states of donor-type. Following metal deposition, the Fermi level positions at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface move towards the expected direction as observed from HAXPES measurements. The In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As surface Fermi level positions determined from both the C-V analysis at zero gate bias and HAXPES measurements are in reasonable agreement. The results are consistent with the presence of electrically active interface states at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface and suggest an interface state density increasing towards the In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As valence band edge.

  1. In-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the impact of current compliance and switching cycles on oxygen and carbon defects in resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowinska, Malgorzata Bertaud, Thomas; Walczyk, Damian; Calka, Pauline; Walczyk, Christian; Thiess, Sebastian; Alff, Lambert; Schroeder, Thomas

    2014-05-28

    In this study, direct experimental materials science evidence of the important theoretical prediction for resistive random access memory (RRAM) technologies that a critical amount of oxygen vacancies is needed to establish stable resistive switching in metal-oxide-metal samples is presented. In detail, a novel in-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique is applied to non-destructively investigates the influence of the current compliance and direct current voltage sweep cycles on the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface chemistry and physics of resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells. These studies indeed confirm that current compliance is a critical parameter to control the amount of oxygen vacancies in the conducting filaments in the oxide layer during the RRAM cell operation to achieve stable switching. Furthermore, clear carbon segregation towards the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface under electrical stress is visible. Since carbon impurities impact the oxygen vacancy defect population under resistive switching, this dynamic carbon segregation to the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface is suspected to negatively influence RRAM device endurance. Therefore, these results indicate that the RRAM materials engineering needs to include all impurities in the dielectric layer in order to achieve reliable device performance.

  2. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  3. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  4. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED MONITORING OF THE BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARY GX 339-4 DURING 2002-2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buxton, Michelle M.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Capelo, Holly L.; Chatterjee, Ritaban; Dincer, Tolga; Kalemci, Emrah; Tomsick, John A.

    2012-06-15

    We present the optical/infrared (O/IR) light curve of the black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4 collected at the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope from 2002 to 2010. During this time the source has undergone numerous state transitions including hard-to-soft state transitions when we see large changes in the near-IR flux accompanied by modest changes in optical flux, and three rebrightening events in 2003, 2005, and 2007 after GX 339-4 transitioned from the soft state to the hard. All but one outburst show similar behavior in the X-ray hardness-intensity diagram. We show that the O/IR colors follow two distinct tracks that reflect either the hard or soft X-ray state of the source. Thus, either of these two X-ray states can be inferred from O/IR observations alone. From these correlations we have constructed spectral energy distributions of the soft and hard states. During the hard state, the near-IR data have the same spectral slope as simultaneous radio data when GX 339-4 was in a bright optical state, implying that the near-IR is dominated by a non-thermal source, most likely originating from jets. Non-thermal emission dominates the near-IR bands during the hard state at all but the faintest optical states, and the fraction of non-thermal emission increases with increasing optical brightness. The spectral slope of the optical bands indicate that a heated thermal source is present during both the soft and hard X-ray states, even when GX 339-4 is at its faintest optical state. We have conducted a timing analysis of the light curve for the hard and soft states and find no evidence of a characteristic timescale within the range of 4-230 days.

  5. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  6. X-Ray Science Education

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TV Network external link DNA Interactive external link Reciprocal Net external link X-ray Science Courses and Programs Various educational efforts are closely related to the...

  7. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  8. Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Techniques | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic Techniques Wednesday, September 5, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Gang Chen Seminar: Structures at atomic scales are traditionally determined through X-ray crystallography that amplifies scattering intensities by introducing spatial periodicity. For amorphous materials and many macromolecules, such as viruses, proteins and biofilms, it is hard to

  9. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  10. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) Title: X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) The primary interactions of ...

  11. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  12. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has...

  13. SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a well-established technique for simultaneous local geometric and electronic structure...

  14. X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naz, Yal; Petit, Vronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Owocki, Stan; Cohen, David; Ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ?60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres.

  15. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayon, Stephen E.

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  16. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  17. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  18. A computational study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources on the National Ignition Facility laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A computational study of x-ray emission...

  19. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  20. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.; Ables, Elden

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  1. X-ray Imaging Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory October 8-9, 2002 Organizers: John Miao & Keith Hodgson A workshop on "X-ray Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future" was held on October 8-9, 2002. This workshop, organized by John Miao (SSRL) and Keith Hodgson (SSRL) provided a forum to discuss the scientific applications of a variety of imaging and spectro-microscopic techniques, including photoemission

  2. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  3. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  4. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless...

  5. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods Print To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  6. SMB, X-ray Fluorescence Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam line 14-3b is a bending magnet side station dedicated to X-ray imaging and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biological, biomedical, materials, and geological samples. ...

  7. ABSOLUTE TIMING OF THE CRAB PULSAR WITH THE INTEGRAL/SPI TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molkov, S.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the pulse shape evolution of the Crab pulsar emission in the hard X-ray domain of the electromagnetic spectrum. In particular, we have studied the alignment of the Crab pulsar phase profiles measured in the hard X-rays and in other wavebands. To obtain the hard X-ray pulse profiles, we have used six years (2003-2009, with a total exposure of about 4 Ms) of publicly available data of the SPI telescope on-board the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory observatory, folded with the pulsar time solution derived from the Jodrell Bank Crab Pulsar Monthly Ephemeris. We found that the main pulse in the hard X-ray 20-100 keV energy band leads the radio one by 8.18 +- 0.46 milliperiods in phase, or 275 +- 15 mus in time. Quoted errors represent only statistical uncertainties. Our systematic error is estimated to be approx40 mus and is mainly caused by the radio measurement uncertainties. In hard X-rays, the average distance between the main pulse and interpulse on the phase plane is 0.3989 +- 0.0009. To compare our findings in hard X-rays with the soft 2-20 keV X-ray band, we have used data of quasi-simultaneous Crab observations with the proportional counter array monitor on-board the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer mission. The time lag and the pulses separation values measured in the 3-20 keV band are 0.00933 +- 0.00016 (corresponding to 310 +- 6 mus) and 0.40016 +- 0.00028 parts of the cycle, respectively. While the pulse separation values measured in soft X-rays and hard X-rays agree, the time lags are statistically different. Additional analysis show that the delay between the radio and X-ray signals varies with energy in the 2-300 keV energy range. We explain such a behavior as due to the superposition of two independent components responsible for the Crab pulsed emission in this energy band.

  8. Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron and X-ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering When used together, neutrons and high-energy x-rays provide a supremely powerful scientific tool for mining details about the structure of materials. Combining neutrons and high-energy x-rays to explore the frontiers of materials in extreme environments. Illuminating previously inaccessible time and spatial scales. Enabling in situ research to design, discover, and control materials. Get Expertise Donald Brown Email Pushing the limits of

  9. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  10. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  11. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  12. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  13. EVIDENCE OF NON-THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM HH 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lpez-Santiago, J.; Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P.; Bonito, R.; Miceli, M.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; De Castro, E.

    2013-10-20

    Protostellar jets appear at all stages of star formation when the accretion process is still at work. Jets travel at velocities of hundreds of km s{sup 1}, creating strong shocks when interacting with the interstellar medium. Several cases of jets have been detected in X-rays, typically showing soft emission. For the first time, we report evidence of hard X-ray emission possibly related to non-thermal processes not explained by previous models of the post-shock emission predicted in the jet/ambient interaction scenario. HH 80 is located at the south head of the jet associated with the massive protostar IRAS 18162-2048. It shows soft and hard X-ray emission in regions that are spatially separated, with the soft X-ray emission region situated behind the region of hard X-ray emission. We propose a scenario for HH 80 where soft X-ray emission is associated with thermal processes from the interaction of the jet with denser ambient matter and hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation at the front shock.

  14. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, Malcolm R.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

  15. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical...

  16. The cool component and the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of solar X-ray jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.; Robe, Dominic

    2013-06-01

    We present results from a study of 54 polar X-ray jets that were observed in coronal X-ray movies from the X-ray Telescope on Hinode and had simultaneous coverage in movies of the cooler transition region (T ? 10{sup 5} K) taken in the He II 304 band of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on Solar Dynamics Observatory. These dual observations verify the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of polar X-ray jets previously found primarily from XRT movies alone. In accord with models of blowout jets and standard jets, the AIA 304 movies show a cool (T ? 10{sup 5} K) component in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and in a small minority of standard X-ray jets, obvious lateral expansion in blowout X-ray jets but none in standard X-ray jets, and obvious axial rotation in both blowout X-ray jets and standard X-ray jets. In our sample, the number of turns of axial rotation in the cool-component standard X-ray jets is typical of that in the blowout X-ray jets, suggesting that the closed bipolar magnetic field in the jet base has substantial twist not only in all blowout X-ray jets but also in many standard X-ray jets. We point out that our results for the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of X-ray jets add credence to published speculation that type-II spicules are miniature analogs of X-ray jets, are generated by granule-size emerging bipoles, and thereby carry enough energy to power the corona and solar wind.

  17. Soft X-ray techniques to study mesoscale magnetism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortright, Jeffrey B.

    2003-06-26

    Heterogeneity in magnetization (M) is ubiquitous in modern systems. Even in nominally homogeneous materials, domains or pinning centers typically mediate magnetization reversal. Fundamental lengths determining M structure include the domain wall width and the exchange stiffness length, typically in the 4-400 nm range. Chemical heterogeneity (phase separation, polycrystalline microstructure, lithographic or other patterning, etc.) with length scales from nanometers to microns is often introduced to influence magnetic properties. With 1-2 nm wavelengths {lambda}, soft x-rays in principle can resolve structure down to {lambda}/2, and are well suited to study these mesoscopic length scales [1, 2]. This article highlights recent advances in resonant soft x-ray methods to resolve lateral magnetic structure [3], and discusses some of their relative merits and limitations. Only techniques detecting x-ray photons (rather than photo-electrons) are considered [4], since they are compatible with strong applied fields to probe relatively deeply into samples. The magneto-optical (MO) effects discovered by Faraday and Kerr were observed in the x-ray range over a century later, first at ''hard'' wavelengths in diffraction experiments probing interatomic magnetic structure [5]. In the soft x-ray range, magnetic linear [6] and circular [7] dichroism spectroscopies first developed that average over lateral magnetic structure. These large resonant MO effects enable different approaches to study magnetic structure or heterogeneity that can be categorized as microscopy or scattering [1]. Direct images of magnetic structure result from photo-emission electron microscopes [4, 8] and zone-plate microscopes [9, 10]. Scattering techniques extended into the soft x-ray include familiar specular reflection that laterally averages over structure but can provide depth-resolved information, and diffuse scattering and diffraction that provide direct information about lateral magnetic structure. Scattering techniques are further classified as partially for fully coherent according to the extent of transverse coherence of the incident beam.

  18. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  19. THE FERMI-GBM X-RAY BURST MONITOR: THERMONUCLEAR BURSTS FROM 4U 0614+09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linares, M.; Chakrabarty, D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Connaughton, V.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Preece, R. [CSPAR and Physics Department, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Jenke, P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A. [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Van der Horst, A. J. [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, NL-1090-GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M.; Paciesas, W. S. [Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Beklen, E. [Physics Department, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Von Kienlin, A. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-12-01

    Thermonuclear bursts from slowly accreting neutron stars (NSs) have proven difficult to detect, yet they are potential probes of the thermal properties of the NS interior. During the first year of a systematic all-sky search for X-ray bursts using the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope we have detected 15 thermonuclear bursts from the NS low-mass X-ray binary 4U 0614+09 when it was accreting at nearly 1% of the Eddington limit. We measured an average burst recurrence time of 12 {+-} 3 days (68% confidence interval) between 2010 March and 2011 March, classified all bursts as normal duration bursts and placed a lower limit on the recurrence time of long/intermediate bursts of 62 days (95% confidence level). We discuss how observations of thermonuclear bursts in the hard X-ray band compare to pointed soft X-ray observations and quantify such bandpass effects on measurements of burst radiated energy and duration. We put our results for 4U 0614+09 in the context of other bursters and briefly discuss the constraints on ignition models. Interestingly, we find that the burst energies in 4U 0614+09 are on average between those of normal duration bursts and those measured in long/intermediate bursts. Such a continuous distribution in burst energy provides a new observational link between normal and long/intermediate bursts. We suggest that the apparent bimodal distribution that defined normal and long/intermediate duration bursts during the last decade could be due to an observational bias toward detecting only the longest and most energetic bursts from slowly accreting NSs.

  20. X-Ray Diffraction > Analytical Resources > Research > The Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analytical Resources In This Section Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) Electron Microscopy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Diffraction...

  1. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1994-01-01

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  2. High speed x-ray beam chopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPherson, Armon; Mills, Dennis M.

    2002-01-01

    A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

  3. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-01-01

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  4. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-06-23

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  5. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are

  6. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  7. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  8. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    demonstrate for the first time a lensless x-ray imaging technique involving holographic principles and carried out in reflection (as opposed to transmission) geometry. The...

  9. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  10. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon; DiCicco, Darrell S.; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Sathre, Robert; Skinner, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  11. Some new schemes for producing high-accuracy elliptical X-ray mirrors by elastic bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmore, H.A.; Howells, M.R.; Irick, S.; Renner, T.; Sandler, R.; Koo, Y.-M.

    1996-08-01

    Although x-ray micro-foci can be produced by a variety of diffractive methods, grazing incidence mirrors are the only route to an achromatic focus. In this paper we describe our efforts to produce elliptically shaped mirrors with the very high figure accuracy necessary for producing a micro-focus. The motivation for this work is provided by the need to produce achromatic foci for a range of applications ranging from tunable micro-focus x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ({mu}-XPS) at soft x-ray energies to micro-focus white beam x-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD) at hard x-ray energies. We describe the methodology of beam bending, a practical example of a system we have produced for {mu}-XRD, and results demonstrating the production of a surface with micro-radian figure accuracy.

  12. X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich properties of the warm-hot intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ursino, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Huffenberger, K.

    2014-07-01

    We use numerical simulations to predict the soft X-ray ([0.4-0.6] keV) and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signal (at 150 GHz) from a large-scale structure in the universe and then compute two-point statistics to study the spatial distribution and time evolution of the signals. The average X-ray signal predicted for the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) is in good agreement with observational constraints that set it at about 10% of the total diffuse X-ray background. The characteristic angle computed with the autocorrelation function is of the order of some arcminutes and becomes smaller at higher redshift. The power spectrum peak of the SZ due to the WHIM is at l ∼ 10,000 and has an amplitude of ∼0.2 μK{sup 2}, about one order of magnitude below the signal measured with telescopes like Planck, Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and South Pole Telescope. Even if the high-redshift WHIM signal is too weak to be detected using X-rays only, the small-scale correlation between X-ray and SZ maps is dominated by the high-redshift WHIM. This makes the analysis of the SZ signal in support of X-rays a promising tool to study the early time WHIM.

  13. Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fluences (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences Authors: Schreck, Simon ; Beye, Martin ; Sellberg, Jonas A. ; McQueen, Trevor ; Laksmono, Hartawan ; Kennedy, Brian ; Eckert, Sebastian ; Schlesinger, Daniel ; Nordlund, Dennis ; Ogasawara, Hirohito ; Sierra, Raymond G. ; Segtnan,

  14. Development of an X-ray pixel detector with multi-port charge-coupled device for X-ray free-electron laser experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kameshima, Takashi; Ono, Shun; Kudo, Togo; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kirihara, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Hatsui, Takaki; RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 ; Horigome, Toshio; Holland, Andrew; Holland, Karen; Burt, David; Murao, Hajime

    2014-03-15

    This paper presents development of an X-ray pixel detector with a multi-port charge-coupled device (MPCCD) for X-ray Free-Electron laser experiments. The fabrication process of the CCD was selected based on the X-ray radiation hardness against the estimated annual dose of 1.6 × 10{sup 14} photon/mm{sup 2}. The sensor device was optimized by maximizing the full well capacity as high as 5 Me- within 50 μm square pixels while keeping the single photon detection capability for X-ray photons higher than 6 keV and a readout speed of 60 frames/s. The system development also included a detector system for the MPCCD sensor. This paper summarizes the performance, calibration methods, and operation status.

  15. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Erin Miller

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  16. The Coherent X-ray Imaging instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Mengning; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Montanez, Paul A.; Hayes, Matt; Milathianaki, Despina; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; et al

    2015-04-15

    The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument specializes in hard X-ray, in-vacuum, high power density experiments in all areas of science. Two main sample chambers, one containing a 100 nm focus and one a 1 µm focus, are available, each with multiple diagnostics, sample injection, pump–probe and detector capabilities. The flexibility of CXI has enabled it to host a diverse range of experiments, from biological to extreme matter.

  17. In situ X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials Tuesday, July 9, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Johanna Nelson, Stanford Postdoctoral Scholar, SSRL MSD Hard X-ray Department A key factor in the global move towards clean, renewable energy is the electrification of the automobile. Current battery technology limits EV (electric vehicles) to a short travel range, slow recharge, and costly price tag. Li-ion batteries promise the high

  18. The Coherent X-ray Imaging instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Mengning; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Montanez, Paul A.; Hayes, Matt; Milathianaki, Despina; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Schafer, Donald W.; Guillet, Serge; Busse, Armin; Bergan, Robert; Olson, William; Fox, Kay; Stewart, Nathaniel; Curtis, Robin; Miahnahri, Alireza Alan; Boutet, Sbastien

    2015-04-15

    The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument specializes in hard X-ray, in-vacuum, high power density experiments in all areas of science. Two main sample chambers, one containing a 100 nm focus and one a 1 m focus, are available, each with multiple diagnostics, sample injection, pumpprobe and detector capabilities. The flexibility of CXI has enabled it to host a diverse range of experiments, from biological to extreme matter.

  19. PROBING THE COSMIC X-RAY AND MeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION THROUGH THE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ANISOTROPY (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect PROBING THE COSMIC X-RAY AND MeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION THROUGH THE ANISOTROPY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROBING THE COSMIC X-RAY AND MeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION THROUGH THE ANISOTROPY While the cosmic soft X-ray background is very likely to originate from individual Seyfert galaxies, the origin of the cosmic hard X-ray and MeV gamma-ray background is not fully understood. It is expected that Seyferts including

  20. The MPI/AIT X-ray Imager (MAXI): High speed pn-CCD's for x-ray detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strueder, L.; Braeuninger, H.; Meier, M.; Predehl, P.; Reppin, C.; Sterzik, M.; Truemper, J. . Inst. fuer Astrophysik); Cattaneo, P.; Hauff, D.; Lutz, G.; Schuster, K.F.; Schwarz, A. . Werner-Heisenberg-Inst. fuer Physik); Kenziorra, E.; Staubert, A. (Tuebingen

    1989-06-01

    MAXI (MPI/AIT X-RAY Imager) is part of a proposal submitted to the European Space Agency (ESA) as focal plane instrumentation of the X-ray Multi Mission (XMM). Within a collaboration of 13 European institutes we have proposed a fully depleted (sensitive) pn CCD of 280 {mu}m thickness with a homogeneous sensitive area of 36 cm{sup 2} and a pixel size of 150 {times} 150 {mu}m{sup 2} which is well matched with the telescope's angular resolution of 30 arcsec, translating to a position resolution of approximately 1 mm in the focal plane. The X-ray sensitivity is higher than 90% from 250 eV up to 10 keV, the readout time in the full frame mode of the complete focal plane will be 2 ms with a readout noise of better than 5 e{sup {minus}} (rms). Prototypes of all individual components of the camera system have been fabricated and tested. The camera concept will be presented. The measured transfer properties of the CCD and the on-chip electronics will be treated. Taking into account the coupling of the on-chip amplifier to the following front-end electronics the expected performance will be derived.

  1. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  2. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore » data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  3. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be reconstructed by a single Fourier transform; this is known as Fourier transform holography. The problem of getting sufficiently coherent x-rays onto and off of the sample in a...

  4. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

  5. X-ray image intensifier phosphor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1975-12-01

    Y/sub 1-x/Gd/sub x/.PO$sub 4$:Tb$sup 3+$ is an effective phosphor for use in X-ray intensifier screens and in nuclear radiation detection systems.

  6. Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography Authors: Chapman, H.N., Fromme, P., Barty, A., White, T.A., Kirian, R.A., Aquila, A., Hunter, M.S., Schulz, J., DePonte, D.P.,...

  7. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  8. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  9. X-ray grid-detector apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boone, John M.; Lane, Stephen M.

    1998-01-27

    A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

  10. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-20

    An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

  11. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http:spie.orgOP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA...

  12. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

  13. Femtosecond Time-Delay X-ray Holography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Delay X-ray Holography X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) will produce photon pulses with a unique and desirable combination of properties. Their short X-ray wavelengths allow...

  14. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  15. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  16. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  17. SIMULTANEOUS X-RAY AND ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF THE SW SEXTANTIS STAR DW URSAE MAJORIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.; Lu, Ting-Ni; Knigge, Christian; Homer, Lee; Szkody, Paula; Still, M.; Long, Knox S.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2010-11-15

    We present the first pointed X-ray observation of DW Ursae Majoris, a novalike cataclysmic variable (CV) and one of the archetype members of the SW Sextantis class, obtained with the XMM-Newton satellite. These data provide the first detailed look at an SW Sex star in the X-ray regime (with previous X-ray knowledge of the SW Sex stars limited primarily to weak or non-detections in the ROSAT All Sky Survey). It is also one of only a few XMM-Newton observations (to date) of any high mass transfer rate novalike CV, and the only one in the evolutionarily important 3-4 hr orbital period range. The observed X-ray spectrum of DW UMa is very soft, with {approx}95% of the detected X-ray photons at energies <2 keV. The spectrum can be fit equally well by a one-component cooling flow model, with a temperature range of 0.2-3.5 keV, or a two-component, two-temperature thermal plasma model, containing hard ({approx}5-6 keV) and soft ({approx}0.8 keV) components. The X-ray light curve of DW UMa shows a likely partial eclipse, implying X-ray reprocessing in a vertically extended region, and an orbital modulation, implying a structural asymmetry in the X-ray reprocessing site (e.g., it cannot be a uniform corona). We also obtained a simultaneous near-ultraviolet light curve of DW UMa using the Optical Monitor on XMM-Newton. This light curve is similar in appearance to published optical-UV light curves of DW UMa and shows a prominent deep eclipse. Regardless of the exact nature of the X-ray reprocessing site in DW UMa, the lack of a prominent hard X-ray total eclipse and very low fraction of high energy X-rays point to the presence of an optically and geometrically thick accretion disk that obscures the boundary layer and modifies the X-ray spectrum emitted near the white dwarf.

  18. In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2007-06-15

    We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radial x-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup of ALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a sample in a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser while probing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cell is placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to the beam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while the sample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparent boron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of (Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observed above 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress.

  19. Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression ...

  20. Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in ... September 3, 2016 Title: Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in ...

  1. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko ...

  2. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ... Title: Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ...

  3. Category:X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) page? For detailed information on...

  4. X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization of Limestone Aggregate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for...

  5. X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sprays X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ... More Documents & Publications X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of ...

  6. Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Biological Systems Title: Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of ...

  7. Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray transmissionmicros...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray transmissionmicroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray ...

  8. X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray transient ...

  9. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae Prev Next Title: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence ...

  10. Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R.

    1997-12-01

    Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

  11. Hard x-ray nanotomography of amorphous aluminosilicate cements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provis, J. L.; Rose, V.; Winarski, R. P.; van Deventer, J. S. J.

    2011-08-01

    Nanotomographic reconstruction of a sample of low-CO{sub 2} 'geopolymer' cement provides the first three-dimensional view of the pore structure of the aluminosilicate geopolymer gel, as well as evidence for direct binding of geopolymer gel onto unreacted fly ash precursor particles. This is central to understanding and optimizing the durability of concretes made using this new class of binder, and demonstrates the value of nanotomography in providing a three-dimensional view of nanoporous inorganic materials.

  12. X-ray technology behind NASA's black-hole hunter (NuSTAR)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Craig, Bill

    2014-05-22

    Livermore Lab astrophysicist Bill Craig describes his team's role in developing X-ray imaging technology for the NASA Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission. The black-hole-hunting spacecraft bagged its first 10 supermassive black holes this week

  13. X-ray technology behind NASA's black-hole hunter (NuSTAR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Bill

    2013-09-10

    Livermore Lab astrophysicist Bill Craig describes his team's role in developing X-ray imaging technology for the NASA Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission. The black-hole-hunting spacecraft bagged its first 10 supermassive black holes this week

  14. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, M.S.; Jacobsen, C.

    1997-03-18

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 {micro}m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holographic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required. 15 figs.

  15. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, Malcolm S.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1997-01-01

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 .mu.m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holgraphic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required.

  16. X-Ray Data from the X-Ray Data Booklet Online

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Thompson, Albert C.; Attwood, David T.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Underwood, James H.; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kirz, Janos; Lindau, Ingolf; Pianetta, Piero; Winick, Herman; Williams, Gwyn P.; Scofield, James H.

    The original X-Ray Data Booklet, published in 1985, became a classic reference source. The online version has been significantly revised and updated to reflect today's science. Hundreds of pages of authoritative data provide the x-ray properties of elements, information on synchrotron radiation, scattering processes, optics and detectors, and other related calculations, formulas, and data tables.

  17. PROPX: An X-ray Manipulation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyrala, G.A.

    1992-05-01

    An interactive micro-computer program that performs some manipulations on an input x-ray spectrum is introduced and described. The program is used to calculate the effect of absorption of filters, transmission through fibers, responsivity of photocathodes, responsivity of absorptive detectors, folding of responses, plotting of cross sections, and calculation, as a function of electron temperature, of the response due to a bremsstrahlung spectrum. Fluorescence from the targets is not included. Two different x-ray libraries are offered, one covers the x-ray range 30--10,000 eV with 288 energy points, and the other covers the energy range 10 eV to 1 MeV with 250 energy points per decade. 7 refs.

  18. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon; Skinner, Charles H.; Rosser, Roy

    1993-01-01

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  19. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2014-07-01

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  20. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  1. X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Links: May 2005 Headlines TIP Article Press Release Walters Art Museum SSRL Home Page SLAC Home Page Stanford Home Page Tuesday, 31 May 2005 X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text (contact: Uwe Bergmann, bergmann@slac.stanford.edu) Archimedes Figure Image provided by Will Noel, The Walters Art Museum An early transcription of Archimedes' mathematical theories has been brought to light through the probing of high-intensity x-rays at SSRL's BL6-2. The text contains part of the Method of

  2. Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M.; Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich ; Barber, W. C.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Seo, Y.; Alhassen, F.

    2013-05-13

    Although compatible with polychromatic radiation, the sensitivity in X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer is strongly dependent on the X-ray spectrum. We used an energy resolving detector to quantitatively investigate the dependency of the noise from the spectral bandwidth and to consequently optimize the system-by selecting the best energy band matching the experimental conditions-with respect to sensitivity maximization and, eventually, dose. Further, since theoretical calculations of the spectrum are usually limited due to non-ideal conditions, an energy resolving detector accurately quantifies the spectral changes induced by the interferometer including flux reduction and beam hardening.

  3. Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Yong [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Hutt, Julie A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Padilla, Mabel T. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Gott, Katherine M. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-02-01

    There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

  4. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F. J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; et al

    2015-03-06

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitudemore » in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.« less

  5. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F. J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Vetter, S.; Maxwell, T. J.; Ding, Y.; Coffee, R.; Wakatsuki, S.; Huang, Z.

    2015-03-06

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.

  6. X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Hubert W.

    1985-07-30

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  7. X-ray spectroscopy of manganese clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grush, M.M.

    1996-06-01

    Much of this thesis represents the groundwork necessary in order to probe Mn clusters more productively than with conventional Mn K-edge XAS and is presented in Part 1. Part 2 contains the application of x-ray techniques to Mn metalloproteins and includes a prognosis at the end of each chapter. Individual Mn oxidation states are more readily distinguishable in Mn L-edge spectra. An empirical mixed valence simulation routine for determining the average Mn oxidation state has been developed. The first Mn L-edge spectra of a metalloprotein were measured and interpreted. The energy of Mn K{beta} emission is strongly correlated with average Mn oxidation state. K{beta} results support oxidation states of Mn(III){sub 2}(IV){sub 2} for the S{sub 1} state of Photosystem II chemical chemically reduced preparations contain predominantly Mn(II). A strength and limitation of XAS is that it probes all of the species of a particular element in a sample. It would often be advantageous to selectively probe different forms of the same element. The first demonstration that chemical shifts in x-ray fluorescence energies can be used to obtain oxidation state-selective x-ray absorption spectra is presented. Spin-dependent spectra can also be used to obtain a more simplified picture of local structure. The first spin-polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure using Mn K{beta} fluorescence detection is shown.

  8. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, Peter A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

  9. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., q.sub.max /q.sub.min.congruent.100.

  10. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs.

  11. SLAC All Access: X-ray Microscope

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Liu, Yijin

    2014-06-13

    SLAC physicists Johanna Nelson and Yijin Liu give a brief overview of the X-ray microscope at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that is helping improve rechargeable-battery technology by letting researchers peek into the inner workings of batteries as they operate.

  12. Bandpass x-ray diode and x-ray multiplier detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1982-09-27

    An absorption-edge of an x-ray absorption filter and a quantum jump of a photocathode determine the bandpass characteristics of an x-ray diode detector. An anode, which collects the photoelectrons emitted by the photocathode, has enhanced amplification provided by photoelectron-multiplying means which include dynodes or a microchannel-plate electron-multiplier. Suppression of undesired high frequency response for a bandpass x-ray diode is provided by subtracting a signal representative of energies above the passband from a signal representative of the overall response of the bandpass diode.

  13. SOLAR POLAR X-RAY JETS AND MULTIPLE BRIGHT POINTS: EVIDENCE FOR SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco; Poletto, Giannina; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2012-02-15

    We present an analysis of X-ray bright points (BPs) and X-ray jets observed by Hinode/X-Ray Telescope on 2007 November 2-4, within the solar northern polar coronal hole. After selecting small subregions that include several BPs, we followed their brightness evolution over a time interval of a few hours, when several jets were observed. We find that most of the jets occurred in close temporal association with brightness maxima in multiple BPs: more precisely, most jets are closely correlated with the brightening of at least two BPs. We suggest that the jets result from magnetic connectivity changes that also induce the BP variability. We surmise that the jets and implied magnetic connectivity we describe are small-scale versions of the active-region-scale phenomenon, whereby flares and eruptions are triggered by interacting bipoles.

  14. X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for extended X-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraenkel, Ben; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, A. Lane; Stodiek, Wolfgang; von Goeler, Schweickhard E.

    2001-01-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokomak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters using the imaging properties for Bragg angles near 45. For a Bragg angle of 45.degree., the spherical crystal focuses a bundle of near parallel X-rays (the cross section of which is determined by the cross section of the crystal) from the plasma to a point on a detector, with parallel rays inclined to the main plain of diffraction focused to different points on the detector. Thus, it is possible to radially image the plasma X-ray emission in different wavelengths simultaneously with a single crystal.

  15. The X-ray Pump–Probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chollet, Matthieu; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Cammarata, Marco; Damiani, Daniel; Defever, Jim; Delor, James T.; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Langton, J. Brian; Nelson, Silke; et al

    2015-04-21

    The X-ray Pump–Probe instrument achieves femtosecond time-resolution with hard X-ray methods using a free-electron laser source. It covers a photon energy range of 4–24 keV. A femtosecond optical laser system is available across a broad spectrum of wavelengths for generating transient states of matter. The instrument is designed to emphasize versatility and the scientific goals encompass ultrafast physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the transformation of matter and transfer of energy at the atomic scale.

  16. The X-ray PumpProbe instrument at the LinacCoherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chollet, Matthieu; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Cammarata, Marco; Damiani, Daniel; Defever, Jim; Delor, James T.; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Langton, J. Brian; Nelson, Silke; Ramsey, Kelley; Robert, Aymeric; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Stefanescu, Daniel; Srinivasan, Venkat; Zhu, Diling; Lemke, Henrik T.; Fritz, David M.

    2015-04-21

    The X-ray PumpProbe instrument achieves femtosecond time-resolution with hard X-ray methods using a free-electron laser source. It covers a photon energy range of 424 keV. A femtosecond optical laser system is available across a broad spectrum of wavelengths for generating transient states of matter. The instrument is designed to emphasize versatility and the scientific goals encompass ultrafast physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the transformation of matter and transfer of energy at the atomic scale.

  17. Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  18. Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  19. X-ray radiography for container inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Jonathan I.; Morris, Christopher L.

    2011-06-07

    Arrangements of X-ray inspection systems are described for inspecting high-z materials in voluminous objects such as containers. Inspection methods may involve generating a radiographic image based on detected attenuation corresponding to a pulsed beams of radiation transmitted through a voluminous object. The pulsed beams of radiation are generated by a high-energy source and transmitted substantially downward along an incident angle, of approximately 1.degree. to 30.degree., to a vertical axis extending through the voluminous object. The generated radiographic image may be analyzed to detect on localized high attenuation representative of high-z materials and to discriminate high-z materials from lower and intermediate-z materials on the basis of the high density and greater attenuation of high-z material for higher energy (3-10 MeV) X-rays, and the compact nature of threatening masses of fissionable materials.

  20. A NEW COSMOLOGICAL DISTANCE MEASURE USING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS X-RAY VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franca, Fabio La; Bianchi, Stefano; Branchini, Enzo; Matt, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universit Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy); Ponti, Gabriele, E-mail: lafranca@fis.uniroma3.it [Max-Planck-Institut fr Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei Mnchen (Germany)

    2014-05-20

    We report the discovery of a luminosity distance estimator using active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We combine the correlation between the X-ray variability amplitude and the black hole (BH) mass with the single-epoch spectra BH mass estimates which depend on the AGN luminosity and the line width emitted by the broad-line region. We demonstrate that significant correlations do exist that allow one to predict the AGN (optical or X-ray) luminosity as a function of the AGN X-ray variability and either the H? or the Pa? line widths. In the best case, when the Pa? is used, the relationship has an intrinsic dispersion of ?0.6dex. Although intrinsically more disperse than supernovae Ia, this relation constitutes an alternative distance indicator potentially able to probe, in an independent way, the expansion history of the universe. With respect to this, we show that the new mission concept Athena should be able to measure the X-ray variability of hundreds of AGNs and then constrain the distance modulus with uncertainties of 0.1mag up to z ? 0.6. We also discuss how our estimator has the prospect of becoming a cosmological probe even more sensitive than the current supernovae Ia samples by using a new dedicated wide-field X-ray telescope able to measure the variability of thousands of AGNs.

  1. Sample holder for X-ray diffractometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hesch, Victor L.

    1992-01-01

    A sample holder for use with X-ray diffractometers with the capability to rotate the sample, as well as to adjust the position of the sample in the x, y, and z directions. Adjustment in the x direction is accomplished through loosening set screws, moving a platform, and retightening the set screws. Motion translators are used for adjustment in the y and z directions. An electric motor rotates the sample, and receives power from the diffractometer.

  2. X-ray and ?-ray studies of the millisecond pulsar and possible X-ray binary/radio pulsar transition object PSR J1723-2837

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Esposito, Paolo; Crawford III, Fronefield; Possenti, Andrea; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Freire, Paulo

    2014-01-20

    We present X-ray observations of the 'redback' eclipsing radio millisecond pulsar (MSP) and candidate radio pulsar/X-ray binary transition object PSR J1723-2837. The X-ray emission from the system is predominantly non-thermal and exhibits pronounced variability as a function of orbital phase, with a factor of ?2 reduction in brightness around superior conjunction. Such temporal behavior appears to be a defining characteristic of this variety of peculiar MSP binaries and is likely caused by a partial geometric occultation by the main-sequence-like companion of a shock within the binary. There is no indication of diffuse X-ray emission from a bow shock or pulsar wind nebula associated with the pulsar. We also report on a search for point source emission and ?-ray pulsations in Fermi Large Area Telescope data using a likelihood analysis and photon probability weighting. Although PSR J1723-2837 is consistent with being a ?-ray point source, due to the strong Galactic diffuse emission at its position a definitive association cannot be established. No statistically significant pulsations or modulation at the orbital period are detected. For a presumed detection, the implied ?-ray luminosity is ?5% of its spin-down power. This indicates that PSR J1723-2837 is either one of the least efficient ?-ray producing MSPs or, if the detection is spurious, the ?-ray emission pattern is not directed toward us.

  3. In Situ X-Ray Probing Reveals Fingerprints of Surface Platinum Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friebel, Daniel

    2011-08-24

    In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Pt L{sub 3} edge is a useful probe for Pt-O interactions at polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. We show that XAS using the high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode, applied to a well-defined monolayer Pt/Rh(111) sample where the bulk penetrating hard x-rays probe only surface Pt atoms, provides a unique sensitivity to structure and chemical bonding at the Pt-electrolyte interface. Ab initio multiple-scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code and complementary extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results indicate that the commonly observed large increase of the white-line at high electrochemical potentials on PEMFC cathodes originates from platinum oxide formation, whereas previously proposed chemisorbed oxygen-containing species merely give rise to subtle spectral changes.

  4. In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron X-ray diffraction ina diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk,Hans-Rudolf

    2007-06-29

    We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radialx-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup ofALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a samplein a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser whileprobing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cellis placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to thebeam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while thesample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparentboron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of(Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observedabove 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress.

  5. Sequential single shot X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at the SACLA free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehmkühler, Felix; Kwaśniewski, Paweł; Roseker, Wojciech; Fischer, Birgit; Schroer, Martin A.; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Sprung, Michael; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Glownia, James; Chollet, Matthieu; Nelson, Silke; Robert, Aymeric; Gutt, Christian; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Grübel, Gerhard

    2015-11-27

    In this study, hard X-ray free electron lasers allow for the first time to access dynamics of condensed matter samples ranging from femtoseconds to several hundred seconds. In particular, the exceptional large transverse coherence of the X-ray pulses and the high time-averaged flux promises to reach time and length scales that have not been accessible up to now with storage ring based sources. However, due to the fluctuations originating from the stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process the application of well established techniques such as X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) is challenging. Here we demonstrate a single-shot based sequential XPCS study on a colloidal suspension with a relaxation time comparable to the SACLA free-electron laser pulse repetition rate. High quality correlation functions could be extracted without any indications for sample damage. This opens the way for systematic sequential XPCS experiments at FEL sources.

  6. NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  7. X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex Core Motion in Circular Permalloy Disks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray imaging of ...

  8. Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & workshops IXN Group Useful Links Current APS status ESAF System GUP System X-Ray Science Division My APS Portal Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering Sector 3 is...

  9. Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XSD-IXN XSD-IXN Home Staff Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering The Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering group operates beamlines at APS Sectors 3, 9 and 30....

  10. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that can be controlled by varying the properties of the optical control beam. Problems arise, however, when the probe pulse lies in the x-ray regime because x rays interact...

  11. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

  12. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing...

  13. X-ray Science Division (XSD) | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XSD Groups XSD Safety and Training XSD Strategic Plan XSD Visitor Program XSD Intranet X-ray Science Division (XSD) XSD enables world-class research using x-rays by developing...

  14. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Thursday, 21 May 2015 11:16 Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in...

  15. Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enabling X-ray ...

  16. X-ray crystallographic analysis of adipocyte fatty acid binding...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray crystallographic analysis of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) modified with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray crystallographic ...

  17. NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Abstract not provided. Authors: Fournier, K. B. 1 + ...

  18. Periodicities in the X-ray emission from the solar corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Jain, Rajmal; Awasthi, Arun K. E-mail: parthares@gmail.com E-mail: awasthi@prl.res.in

    2013-11-20

    We have studied the time series of full disk integrated soft and hard X-ray emission from the solar corona during 2004 January to 2008 December, covering the entire descending phase of solar cycle 23 from a global point of view. We employ the daily X-ray index derived from 1 s cadence X-ray observations from the Si and CZT detectors of the 'Solar X-ray Spectrometer' mission in seven different energy bands ranging between 6 and 56 keV. X-ray data in the energy bands 6-7, 7-10, 10-20, and 4-25 keV from the Si detector are considered, while 10-20, 20-30, and 30-56 keV high energy observations are taken from the CZT detector. The daily time series is subjected to power spectrum analysis after appropriate correction for noise. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram technique has shown prominent periods of ?13.5 days, ?27 days, and a near-Rieger period of ?181 days and ?1.24 yr in all energy bands. In addition to this, other periods like ?31, ?48, ?57, ?76, ?96, ?130, ?227, and ?303 days are also detected in different energy bands. We discuss our results in light of previous observations and existing numerical models.

  19. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  20. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  1. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  2. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  3. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  4. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  5. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  6. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  7. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  8. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  9. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Henke, B. L.; Gullikson, E. M.; Davis, J. C.

    The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented.

  10. Femtosecond laser-electron x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Barty, Chris P.; Gibson, David J.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2004-04-20

    A femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source. A high-brightness relativistic electron injector produces an electron beam pulse train. A system accelerates the electron beam pulse train. The femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source includes a high intra-cavity power, mode-locked laser and an x-ray optics system.

  11. X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

    1999-05-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.

  12. Digital X-ray Pipe Inspector Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-10-29

    The Digital X-ray Pipe Inspector software requires a digital x-ray image of a pipe as input to the program, such as the image in Attachment A Figure 1. The image may be in a variety of software formats such as bitmap, jpeg, tiff, DICOM or DICONDE. The software allows the user to interactively select a region of interest from the image for analysis. This software is used to analyze digital x-ray images of pipes tomore » evaluate loss of wall thickness. The software specifically provides tools to analyze the image in (a) the pipe walls, (b) between the pipe walls. Traditional software uses only the information at the pipe wall while this new software also evaluates the image between the pipewalls. This makes the inspection process faster, more thorough, more efficient, and reduces expensive reshots. Attachment A Figure 2 shows a region of interest (a green box) drawn by the user around an anomaly in the pipe wall. This area is automatically analyzed by the external pipe wall tool with the result shown in Attachment A Figure 3. The edges of the pipe wall are detected and highlighted in yellow and areas where the wall thickness in less the the minimum wall threshold are shown in red. These measurements are typically made manually in other software programs, which lead to errors and inconsistency because the location of the edges are estimated by the user. Attachment A Figure 4 shows a region of interest (a green box) drawn by the user between the pipe walls. As can be seen there are intensity anomalies that correspond to wall defects. However, this information is not used directly by other software programs. In order to fully investigate these anomalies, the pipe would be reinspected in a different orientation to attempt to obtain a view of the anomaly in the pipe wall rather than the interior of the pipe. The pipe may need to be x-rayed a number of times to obtain the correct orientation. This is very costly and time consuming. The new software can perform the analysis directly on the intensity information in the original image. Figures 5 through 9 in Attachment A show wall defects in red for various percents of wall thickness loss. For example, Figure 5 show defects (in red) where the wall thickness is 95% or less than the nominal wall thickness (or a 5% or greater wall thickness loss). Wall thicknesses can be given in absolute terms as well.« less

  13. Holographic Methods in X-ray Crystallography

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-28

    The holographic method makes use of partially modeled electron density and experimentally-measured structure factor amplitudes to recover electron density corresponding to the unmodeled part of a crystal structure. This paper describes a fast algorithm that makes it possible to apply the holographic method to sizable crystallographic problems. The algorithm uses positivity constraints on the electron density, and can incorporate a target electron density, making it similar to solvent flattening. Using both synthetic and experimental data,more » we assess the potential for applying the holographic method to macromolecular x-ray crystallography.« less

  14. Subject: Ames Blue Alert - X-ray Shutter Maintenance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Blue Alert - X-ray Shutter Maintenance Statement: This lesson learned involves an Ames Laboratory x-ray system. Prior to starting x- ray experiments checking the operability of safety interlocks and x-ray shutter systems will decrease the likelihood of an unplanned exposure incident. Discussion: At the end of a sample run the shutter for an x-ray system at the Ames Laboratory did not close automatically as expected. The researcher followed the approved safety procedures and did not access

  15. Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, Peter A.

    1991-10-08

    A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for minitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency.

  16. Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1991-10-08

    A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for monitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency. 2 figures.

  17. Small-angle X-ray Scattering from Magnetic Clusters and Structural Grains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Magnetic Recording Media | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Small-angle X-ray Scattering from Magnetic Clusters and Structural Grains in Magnetic Recording Media Friday, July 31, 2015 Historically, areal density increases in longitudinal hard disk drive media technology have been driven by reduction of grain size. However, since its introduction in 2006, the perpendicular magnetic recording media grain size has remained more or less constant at around 9 nm. Perpendicular

  18. SWIFT X-RAY AND ULTRAVIOLET MONITORING OF THE CLASSICAL NOVA V458 VUL (NOVA VUL 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, J.-U. [European Space Astronomy Centre, P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Drake, J. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beardmore, A. P.; Evans, P. A.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Boyd, D. [BAA VSS, 5 Silver Lane, West Challow, Wantage, OX12 9TX (United Kingdom); Bode, M. F. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Brady, S. [AAVSO, 5 Melba Drive, Hudson, NH 03051 (United States); Gaensicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kitamoto, S.; Takei, D. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Knigge, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Miller, I. [BAA VSS, Furzehill House, Ilston, Swansea SA2 7LE (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Gil, P. [Isaac Newton Group, PO Ap. de Correos 321, 38700 Sta. Cruz de la Palma (Spain); Schwarz, G. [Department of Geology and Astronomy, West Chester University, West Chester, PA 19383 (United States); Staels, B. [CBA Flanders, Alan Guth Observatory, Koningshofbaan 51, Hofstade, Aalst (Belgium); Tsujimoto, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wesson, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: juness@sciops.esa.int (and others)

    2009-05-15

    We describe the highly variable X-ray and UV emission of V458 Vul (Nova Vul 2007), observed by Swift between 1 and 422 days after outburst. Initially bright only in the UV, V458 Vul became a variable hard X-ray source due to optically thin thermal emission at kT = 0.64 keV with an X-ray band unabsorbed luminosity of 2.3 x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} during days 71-140. The X-ray spectrum at this time requires a low Fe abundance (0.2{sup +0.3} {sub -0.1} solar), consistent with a Suzaku measurement around the same time. On day 315 we find a new X-ray spectral component which can be described by a blackbody with temperature of kT = 23{sup +9} {sub -5} eV, while the previous hard X-ray component has declined by a factor of 3.8. The spectrum of this soft X-ray component resembles those typically seen in the class of supersoft sources (SSS) which suggests that the nova ejecta were starting to clear and/or that the white dwarf photosphere is shrinking to the point at which its thermal emission reaches into the X-ray band. We find a high degree of variability in the soft component with a flare rising by an order of magnitude in count rate in 0.2 days. In the following observations on days 342.4-383.6, the soft component was not seen, only to emerge again on day 397. The hard component continued to evolve, and we found an anticorrelation between the hard X-ray emission and the UV emission, yielding a Spearman rank probability of 97%. After day 397, the hard component was still present, was variable, and continued to fade at an extremely slow rate but could not be analyzed owing to pile-up contamination from the bright SSS component.

  19. Exploring hardness enhancement in superhard tungsten tetraboride-based

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solid solutions using radial X-ray diffraction (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Exploring hardness enhancement in superhard tungsten tetraboride-based solid solutions using radial X-ray diffraction Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 29, 2016 Title: Exploring hardness enhancement in superhard tungsten tetraboride-based solid solutions using radial X-ray diffraction Authors: Xie, Miao [1] ; Mohammadi, Reza [2] ; Turner, Christopher L. [1]

  20. Exploring hardness enhancement in superhard tungsten tetraboride-based

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solid solutions using radial X-ray diffraction (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Exploring hardness enhancement in superhard tungsten tetraboride-based solid solutions using radial X-ray diffraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exploring hardness enhancement in superhard tungsten tetraboride-based solid solutions using radial X-ray diffraction In this work, we explore the hardening mechanisms in WB{sub 4}-based solid solutions upon addition of Ta, Mn, and Cr using in situ

  1. A transient supergiant X-ray binary in IC 10: An extragalactic SFXT?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laycock, Silas; Cappallo, Rigel; Oram, Kathleen; Balchunas, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    We report the discovery of a large amplitude (factor of ?100) X-ray transient (IC 10 X-2, CXOU J002020.99+591758.6) in the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy IC 10 during our Chandra monitoring project. Based on the X-ray timing and spectral properties, and an optical counterpart observed with Gemini, the system is a high-mass X-ray binary consisting of a luminous blue supergiant and a neutron star. The highest measured luminosity of the source was 1.8 10{sup 37} erg s{sup 1}during an outburst in 2003. Observations before, during, and after a second outburst in 2010 constrain the outburst duration to be less than 3 months (with no lower limit). The X-ray spectrum is a hard power law (? = 0.3) with fitted column density (N{sub H} = 6.3 10{sup 21} atom cm{sup 2}), consistent with the established absorption to sources in IC 10. The optical spectrum shows hydrogen Balmer lines strongly in emission at the correct blueshift (-340 km s{sup 1}) for IC 10. The N III triplet emission feature is seen, accompanied by He II [4686] weakly in emission. Together these features classify the star as a luminous blue supergiant of the OBN subclass, characterized by enhanced nitrogen abundance. Emission lines of He I are seen, at similar strength to H?. A complex of Fe II permitted and forbidden emission lines are seen, as in B[e] stars. The system closely resembles galactic supergiant fast X-ray transients, in terms of its hard spectrum, variability amplitude, and blue supergiant primary.

  2. Gray scale x-ray mask

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Gonzales, Marcela

    2006-03-07

    The present invention describes a method for fabricating an embossing tool or an x-ray mask tool, providing microstructures that smoothly vary in height from point-to-point in etched substrates, i.e., structure which can vary in all three dimensions. The process uses a lithographic technique to transfer an image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist and then etching the silicon substrate. Importantly, the photoresist is variably exposed so that when developed some of the resist layer remains. The remaining undeveloped resist acts as an etchant barrier to the reactive plasma used to etch the silicon substrate and therefore provides the ability etch structures of variable depths.

  3. Gated monochromatic x-ray imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J.A.; Archuleta, T.; Clark, L.

    1995-09-01

    We have recently developed a gated monochromatic x-ray imaging diagnostic for the national Inertial-Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This new imaging system will be one of the primary diagnostics to be utilized on University of Rochester`s Omega laser fusion facility. The new diagnostic is based upon a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope dispersed by diffraction crystals, as first described by Marshall and Su. The dispersed images are gated by four individual proximity focused microchannel plates and recorded on film. Spectral coverage is tunable up to 8 keV, spectral resolution has been measured at 20 eV, temporal resolution is 80 ps, and spatial resolution is better than 10 {mu}m.

  4. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Edward M.; Rosen, Mordecai D.

    1989-01-01

    An operational X-ray laser (30) is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition X-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The X-ray laser (30) is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam (32) illuminates a free-standing thin foil (34) that may be associated with a substrate (36) for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the X-ray laser gain medium. The X-ray laser (30) may be driven by more than one optical laser beam (32, 44). The X-ray laser (30) has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  5. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.

    1995-01-17

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.

  6. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

    1991-03-26

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

  7. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

    1984-11-29

    An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  8. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, Richard M.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Skulina, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

  9. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1991-01-01

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

  10. Gamma-ray burst flares: X-ray flaring. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, C. A.; Roming, P. W. A., E-mail: cswenson@astro.psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We present a catalog of 498 flaring periods found in gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves taken from the online Swift X-Ray Telescope GRB Catalogue. We analyzed 680 individual light curves using a flare detection method developed and used on our UV/optical GRB Flare Catalog. This method makes use of the Bayesian Information Criterion to analyze the residuals of fitted GRB light curves and statistically determines the optimal fit to the light curve residuals in an attempt to identify any additional features. These features, which we classify as flares, are identified by iteratively adding additional 'breaks' to the light curve. We find evidence of flaring in 326 of the analyzed light curves. For those light curves with flares, we find an average number of ?1.5 flares per GRB. As with the UV/optical, flaring in our sample is generally confined to the first 1000 s of the afterglow, but can be detected to beyond 10{sup 5} s. Only ?50% of the detected flares follow the 'classical' definition of ?t/t ? 0.5, with many of the largest flares exceeding this value.

  11. Workshops on Science Enabled by a Coherent, CW, Synchrotron X-ray Source, June 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brock, Joel

    2012-01-03

    In June of 2011 we held six two-day workshops called "XDL-2011: Science at the Hard X-ray Diffraction Limit". The six workshops covered (1) Diffraction-based imaging techniques, (2) Biomolecular structure from non-crystalline materials, (3) Ultra-fast science, (4) High-pressure science, (5) Materials research with nano-beams and (6) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS), In each workshop, invited speaker from around the world presented examples of novel experiments that require a CW, diffraction-limited source. During the workshop, each invited speaker provided a one-page description of the experiment and an illustrative graphic. The experiments identified by the workshops demonstrate the broad and deep scientific case for a CW coherent synchrotron x-ray source. The next step is to perform detailed simulations of the best of these ideas to test them quantitatively and to guide detailed x-ray beam-line designs. These designs are the first step toward developing detailed facility designs and cost estimates.

  12. Legacy of the X-Ray Laser Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J.

    1993-08-06

    The X-Ray Laser Program has evolved from a design effort focusing on developing a Strategic Defense Initiative weapon that protects against Soviet ICBMs to a scientific project that is producing new technologies for industrial and medical research. While the great technical successes and failures of the X-ray laser itself cannot be discussed, this article presents the many significant achievements made as part of the X-ray laser effort that are now being used for other applications at LLNL.

  13. Ultra-short wavelength x-ray system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald; He, Fei; Lau, Yue-Ying

    2008-01-22

    A method and apparatus to generate a beam of coherent light including x-rays or XUV by colliding a high-intensity laser pulse with an electron beam that is accelerated by a synchronized laser pulse. Applications include x-ray and EUV lithography, protein structural analysis, plasma diagnostics, x-ray diffraction, crack analysis, non-destructive testing, surface science and ultrafast science.

  14. X-ray transmission movies of spontaneous dynamic events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Holmes, M.; Novak, A.; Oschwald, D.; Dolgonos, P.; Qualls, B.

    2014-11-15

    We describe a new x-ray radiographic imaging system which allows for continuous x-ray transmission imaging of spontaneous dynamic events. We demonstrate this method on thermal explosions in three plastic bonded formulations of the energetic material octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. We describe the x-ray imaging system and triggering developed to enable the continuous imaging of a thermal explosion.

  15. X-ray interferometry with spherically bent crystals (abstract)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in manufacturing high-quality spherically bent crystals allows highly monochromatic x-ray beams to be produced, and allows efficient x-ray imaging with {mu}m-scale resolution. This article explores some of the constraints for x-ray interferometry utilizing spherically bent crystals and laser-produced plasma sources, and discusses several shearing interferometer concepts that might be experimentally investigated.

  16. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for high energy density physics and light source experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically

  17. 14.05.14 RH Synchrotron X-ray - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Throughput Synchrotron X-Ray Experimentation for Combinatorial Phase Matching Gregoire, J. M. et al. High-throughput synchrotron X-ray diffraction for combinatorial phase mapping. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 21, 1262-1268, DOI: 10.1107/s1600577514016488 (2014). Scientific Achievement Development of new synchrotron X-ray diffraction and fluorescence methods for rapid characterization of material libraries. Significance & impact First demonstration of prototype facility capable of

  18. Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering Monday, September 10, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Keoki Seu Seminar: With the advent of free electron lasers there has been interest in using coherent x-rays to probe condensed matter systems. Resonant scattering with x-rays allow elemental specificity with magnetic contrast, and coherent light leads to speckle in the scattered pattern due to interference from waves exiting the sample.

  19. ANL CT Reconstruction Algorithm for Utilizing Digital X-ray

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-05-01

    Reconstructs X-ray computed tomographic images from large data sets known as 16-bit binary sinograms when using a massively parallelized computer architecture such as a Beowuif cluster by parallelizing the X-ray CT reconstruction routine. The algorithm uses the concept of generation of an image from carefully obtained multiple 1-D or 2-D X-ray projections. The individual projections are filtered using a digital Fast Fourier Transform. The literature refers to this as filtered back projection.

  20. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Wednesday, 29 August 2007 00:00 Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic

  1. High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL); Knapp, Gordon S. (Cupertino, CA); Westbrook, Edwin M. (Chicago, IL); Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

  2. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prev Next Title: X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Authors: Turner, Joshua J. ; Huang, Xiaojing ; Krupin, Oleg ; Seu, Keoki A. ; Parks, Daniel ; Kevan,...

  3. Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated Phonons in Fcc ... Sponsoring Org: DOE - BASIC ENERGY SCIENCESUNIVERSITY Country of Publication: United ...

  4. XRMS: X-Ray Spectroscopy of Magnetic Solids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XRMS: X-Ray Spectroscopy of Magnetic Solids October 22-23, 2011 SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA More information...

  5. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes

  6. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methods (see previous highlight, "Demonstration of Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging"). Experimental diffraction data used as input to the difference map algorithm....

  7. X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Marchesini, Stefano

    2015-03-16

    X-ray diffraction pattern of a sample of 50 nm colloidal gold particles, recorded at a wavelength of 2.1 nm.

  8. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) typically performed using a SEM or EPMA, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses. Rock Lab Analysis Core Analysis Cuttings Analysis Isotopic...

  9. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme...

  10. Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    X-ray powder diffraction, which has traditionally been used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline...

  11. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    under investigation. X-ray powder diffraction is widely used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline substances...

  12. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were able to directly observe redox processes in thin-film iron and cobalt perovskite oxide electrocatalysts using surface-sensitive, x-ray absorption spectroscopy while...

  13. Stimulated X-Ray Emission for Spectroscopy | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Room 108A Speaker: Clemens Weninger, Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems Program Description The recent advance of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs)...

  14. Femtosecond nanocrystallography using X-ray lasers for membrane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Authors: Fromme, P., and Spence, J. C. H. Title: Femtosecond nanocrystallography using X-ray lasers for membrane protein structure determination Source: Current Opinion in ...

  15. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the microscopic world, can have unwanted consequences for the materials they probe. Radiation damage due to x-ray absorption is, for instance, an unwanted consequence of using...

  16. Staff Research Physicist (X-Ray Spectroscopy) | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of X-ray spectrometers for high energy density plasma at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, Livermore, California). In...

  17. Diagnostics Implemented on NIF - X-ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray Diagnostics Diagnostic acronym Diangostic Port location Built and commisioned by Description of function Published references ARIANE Active Readout in a Neutron Environment (gated x-ray imager) 90-89 (but uses DIM) LLNL ARIANE is a gated x-ray detector measuring x-ray output at yields up to ~1E16 neutrons from TCC. ARIANE uses gated MCP technology adapted to operate in this neutron regime by moving the detector to a position just outside of the target chamber wall. ARIANE is typically used

  18. X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vortex Core Motion in Circular Permalloy Disks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex Core Motion in ...

  19. Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow core levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering involving shallow core levels Authors: ...

  20. Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable Mirrors at X-Ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable Mirrors at X-Ray Beamlines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable ...

  1. Normal incidence x-ray mirror for chemical microanalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, M.J.; Romig, A.D. Jr.

    1987-08-05

    An x-ray mirror for both electron column instruments and micro x-ray fluorescence instruments for making chemical, microanalysis comprises a non-planar mirror having, for example, a spherical reflecting surface for x-rays comprised of a predetermined number of alternating layers of high atomic number material and low atomic number material contiguously formed on a substrate and whose layers have a thickness which is a multiple of the wavelength being reflected. For electron column instruments, the wavelengths of interest lie above 1.5nm, while for x-ray fluorescence instruments, the range of interest is below 0.2nm. 4 figs.

  2. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, Luiz B.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; Stone, Gary F.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source.

  3. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Fitch, J.P.; Everett, M.J.; Colston, B.W.; Stone, G.F.

    1999-06-15

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. 25 figs.

  4. Advances in X-Ray Diagnostics of Diesel Fuel Sprays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recent advances in high-speed X-ray imaging has shown several distinct behaviors of commercial fuel injectors that cannot be seen with more conventional techniques.

  5. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ...

  6. X-ray laser system, x-ray laser and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    London, Richard A.; Rosen, Mordecai D.; Strauss, Moshe

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is an x-ray laser system comprising a laser containing generating means for emitting short wave length radiation, and means external to said laser for energizing said generating means, wherein when the laser is in an operative mode emitting radiation, the radiation has a transverse coherence length to width ratio of from about 0.05 to 1. Also disclosed is a method of adjusting the parameters of the laser to achieve the desired coherence length to laser width ratio.

  7. Laboratory-based x-ray reflectometer for multilayer characterization in the 15150 keV energy band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windt, David L.

    2015-04-15

    A laboratory-based X-ray reflectometer has been developed to measure the performance of hard X-ray multilayer coatings at their operational X-ray energies and incidence angles. The instrument uses a sealed-tube X-ray source with a tungsten anode that can operate up to 160 kV to provide usable radiation in the 15150 keV energy band. Two sets of adjustable tungsten carbide slit assemblies, spaced 4.1 m apart, are used to produce a low-divergence white beam, typically set to 40 ?m 800 ?m in size at the sample. Multilayer coatings under test are held flat using a vacuum chuck and are mounted at the center of a high-resolution goniometer used for precise angular positioning of the sample and detector; additionally, motorized linear stages provide both vertical and horizontal adjustments of the sample position relative to the incident beam. A CdTe energy-sensitive detector, located behind a third adjustable slit, is used in conjunction with pulse-shaping electronics and a multi-channel analyzer to capture both the incident and reflected spectra; the absolute reflectance of the coating under test is computed as the ratio of the two spectra. The instruments design, construction, and operation are described in detail, and example results are presented obtained with both periodic, narrow-band and depth-graded, wide-band hard X-ray multilayer coatings.

  8. Long-term optical observations of the Be/X-ray binary X Per

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hui; Yan, Jingzhi; Zhou, Jianeng; Liu, Qingzhong

    2014-12-01

    We present optical spectroscopic observations of X Per from 1999 to 2013 with the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong Station and the 2.4 m telescope at Lijiang Station, National Astronomical Observatories of China. Combining these observations with the public optical photometric data, we find certain epochs of anti-correlations between the optical brightness and the intensity of the H? and He I 6678 lines, which may be attributed to the mass ejections from the Be star; however, alternative explanations are also possible. The variability of the Fe II 6317 line in the spectra of X Per might also be caused by the shocked waves formed after the mass ejections from the Be star. The X-ray activities of the system might also be connected with the mass ejection events from the Be star. When the ejected materials were transported from the surface of the Be star to the orbit of the neutron star, an X-ray flare could be observed in its X-ray light curves. We use the neutron star as a probe to constrain the motion of the ejected material in the circumstellar disk. With the diffusion time of the ejected material from the surface of the Be star to the orbit of neutron star, the viscosity parameter ? of the circumstellar disk is estimated to be 0.39 and 0.28 for the different times, indicating that the disk around the Be star may be truncated by the neutron star at the 2:1 resonance radius and that a Type I X-ray outburst is unlikely to be observed in X Per.

  9. ON THE ROLE OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD ON JET EMISSION IN X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, P.; Pe'er, A.

    2009-09-20

    Radio and X-ray fluxes of accreting black holes in their hard state are known to correlate over several orders of magnitude. This correlation, however, shows a large scatter: black hole candidates with very similar X-ray luminosity, spectral energy distribution, and variability show rather different radio luminosities. This challenges theoretical models that aim at describing both the radio and the X-ray fluxes in terms of radiative emission from a relativistic jet. More generally, it opens important questions on how similar accretion flows can produce substantially different outflows. Here we present a possible explanation for this phenomenon based on the strong dependence of the jet spectral energy distribution on the magnetic field strength and on the idea that the strength of the jet magnetic field varies from source to source. Because of the effect of radiative losses, sources with stronger jet magnetic field values would have lower radio emission. We discuss the implications of this scenario, the main one being that the radio flux does not necessarily provide a direct measure of the jet power. We further discuss how a variable jet magnetic field, reaching a critical value, can qualitatively explain the observed spectral transition out of the hard state.

  10. A paediatric X-ray exposure chart

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Stephen P

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies – body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-seconds (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior–posterior (AP)/posterior–anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes.

  11. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays From the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detect or such that each one of the of semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction.

  12. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, D.R.

    1995-07-18

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays from the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detector such that each one of the semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction. 5 figs.

  13. Chromatic X-ray magnifying method and apparatus by Bragg reflective planes on the surface of Abbe sphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoe, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing sharp, chromatic, magnified images of X-ray emitting objects, are provided. The apparatus, which constitutes an X-ray microscope or telescope, comprises a connected collection of Bragg reflecting planes, comprised of either a bent crystal or a synthetic multilayer structure, disposed on and adjacent to a locus determined by a spherical surface. The individual Bragg planes are spatially oriented to Bragg reflect radiation from the object location toward the image location. This is accomplished by making the Bragg planes spatially coincident with the surfaces of either a nested series of prolate ellipsoids of revolution, or a nested series of spheres. The spacing between the Bragg reflecting planes can be tailored to control the wavelengths and the amount of the X-radiation that is Bragg reflected to form the X-ray image.

  14. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Eric H.; Legros, Mark; Madden, Norm W.; Goulding, Fred; Landis, Don

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  15. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  16. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for electrochemical reactions in ordinary solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masuda, Takuya; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency , 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 333-0012 ; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobata, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Noguchi, Hidenori; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency , 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 333-0012; Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810; International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics , National Institute for Materials Science , Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 ; Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Uosaki, Kohei; Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810; International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics , National Institute for Materials Science , Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044

    2013-09-09

    In situ electrochemical X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) apparatus, which allows XPS at solid/liquid interfaces under potential control, was constructed utilizing a microcell with an ultra-thin Si membrane, which separates vacuum and a solution. Hard X-rays from a synchrotron source penetrate into the Si membrane surface exposed to the solution. Electrons emitted at the Si/solution interface can pass through the membrane and be analyzed by an analyzer placed in vacuum. Its operation was demonstrated for potential-induced Si oxide growth in water. Effect of potential and time on the thickness of Si and Si oxide layers was quantitatively determined at sub-nanometer resolution.

  17. FIRST IMAGES FROM THE FOCUSING OPTICS X-RAY SOLAR IMAGER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krucker, Sm; Glesener, Lindsay; Turin, Paul; McBride, Stephen; Glaser, David; Fermin, Jose; Lin, Robert; Christe, Steven; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Saito, Shinya; Tanaka, Takaaki; White, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload flew for the first time on 2012 November2, producing the first focused images of the Sun above 5keV. To enable hard X-ray (HXR) imaging spectroscopy via direct focusing, FOXSI makes use of grazing-incidence replicated optics combined with fine-pitch solid-state detectors. On its first flight, FOXSI observed several targets that included active regions, the quiet Sun, and a GOES-class B2.7 microflare. This Letter provides an introduction to the FOXSI instrument and presents its first solar image. These data demonstrate the superiority in sensitivity and dynamic range that is achievable with a direct HXR imager with respect to previous, indirect imaging methods, and illustrate the technological readiness for a spaceborne mission to observe HXRs from solar flares via direct focusing optics.

  18. Photosphere emission in the X-ray flares of swift gamma-ray bursts and implications for the fireball properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Lu, Rui-Jing; Zhang, Bing [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Relativistic Astrophysics, the Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wang, Xiang-Yu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hou, Shu-Jin [Institute of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Normal College, Nanyang 473061 (China); Zhang, Jin, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn, E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-11-10

    X-ray flares of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are usually observed in the soft X-ray range and the spectral coverage is limited. In this paper, we present an analysis of 32 GRB X-ray flares that are simultaneously observed by both Burst Alert Telescope and X-Ray Telescope on board the Swift mission, so that a joint spectral analysis with a wider spectral coverage is possible. Our results show that the joint spectra of 19 flares are fitted with the absorbed single power law or the Band function models. More interestingly, the joint spectra of the other 13 X-ray flares are fitted with the absorbed single power-law model plus a blackbody component. Phenomenally, the observed spectra of these 13 flares are analogous to several GRBs with a thermal component, but only with a much lower temperature of kT = 1 ? 3 keV. Assuming that the thermal emission is the photosphere emission of the GRB fireball, we derive the fireball properties of the 13 flares that have redshift measurements, such as the bulk Lorentz factor ?{sub ph} of the outflow. The derived ?{sub ph} range from 50 to 150 and a relation of ?{sub ph} to the thermal emission luminosity is found. It is consistent with the ?{sub 0} L {sub iso} relations that are derived for the prompt gamma-ray emission. We discuss the physical implications of these results within the content of jet composition and the radiation mechanism of GRBs and X-ray flares.

  19. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, C.K.; Boyer, K.; Solem, J.C.; Haddad, W.S.

    1990-09-11

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced. 7 figs.

  20. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Charles K.; Boyer, Keith; Solem, Johndale C.; Haddad, Waleed S.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced.

  1. THE NUCLEAR SPECTROSCOPIC TELESCOPE ARRAY (NuSTAR) HIGH-ENERGY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NUCLEAR SPECTROSCOPIC TELESCOPE ARRAY (NuSTAR) HIGH-ENERGY X-RAY MISSION Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE NUCLEAR SPECTROSCOPIC TELESCOPE ARRAY (NuSTAR) HIGH-ENERGY...

  2. Soft-x-ray spectroscopy study of nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, J.-H.

    2005-07-30

    The ability to control the particle size and morphology of nanoparticles is of crucial importance nowadays both from a fundamental and industrial point of view considering the tremendous amount of high-tech applications. Controlling the crystallographic structure and the arrangement of atoms along the surface of nanostructured material will determine most of its physical properties. In general, electronic structure ultimately determines the properties of matter. Soft X-ray spectroscopy has some basic features that are important to consider. X-ray is originating from an electronic transition between a localized core state and a valence state. As a core state is involved, elemental selectivity is obtained because the core levels of different elements are well separated in energy, meaning that the involvement of the inner level makes this probe localized to one specific atomic site around which the electronic structure is reflected as a partial density-of-states contribution. The participation of valence electrons gives the method chemical state sensitivity and further, the dipole nature of the transitions gives particular symmetry information. The new generation synchrotron radiation sources producing intensive tunable monochromatized soft X-ray beams have opened up new possibilities for soft X-ray spectroscopy. The introduction of selectively excited soft X-ray emission has opened a new field of study by disclosing many new possibilities of soft X-ray resonant inelastic scattering. In this paper, some recent findings regarding soft X-ray absorption and emission studies of various nanostructured systems are presented.

  3. NEW X-RAY DETECTIONS OF WNL STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Guedel, Manuel; Schmutz, Werner; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2012-05-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that putatively single nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet stars (WN stars) without known companions are X-ray sources. However, almost all WN star X-ray detections so far have been of earlier WN2-WN6 spectral subtypes. Later WN7-WN9 subtypes (also known as WNL stars) have proved more difficult to detect, an important exception being WR 79a (WN9ha). We present here new X-ray detections of the WNL stars WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). These new results, when combined with previous detections, demonstrate that X-ray emission is present in WN stars across the full range of spectral types, including later WNL stars. The two WN8 stars observed to date (WR 16 and WR 40) show unusually low X-ray luminosities (L{sub x} ) compared to other WN stars, and it is noteworthy that they also have the lowest terminal wind speeds (v{sub {infinity}}). Existing X-ray detections of about a dozen WN stars reveal a trend of increasing L{sub x} with wind luminosity L{sub wind} = (1/2)M-dot v{sup 2}{sub {infinity}}, suggesting that wind kinetic energy may play a key role in establishing X-ray luminosity levels in WN stars.

  4. High-energy X-ray imaging of the pulsar wind nebula MSH 1552: constraints on particle acceleration and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Hongjun; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-10-01

    We present the first images of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MSH 1552 in the hard X-ray band (?8 keV), as measured with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Overall, the morphology of the PWN as measured by NuSTAR in the 3-7 keV band is similar to that seen in Chandra high-resolution imaging. However, the spatial extent decreases with energy, which we attribute to synchrotron energy losses as the particles move away from the shock. The hard-band maps show a relative deficit of counts in the northern region toward the RCW 89 thermal remnant, with significant asymmetry. We find that the integrated PWN spectra measured with NuSTAR and Chandra suggest that there is a spectral break at 6 keV, which may be explained by a break in the synchrotron-emitting electron distribution at ?200 TeV and/or imperfect cross calibration. We also measure spatially resolved spectra, showing that the spectrum of the PWN softens away from the central pulsar B150958, and that there exists a roughly sinusoidal variation of spectral hardness in the azimuthal direction. We discuss the results using particle flow models. We find non-monotonic structure in the variation with distance of spectral hardness within 50'' of the pulsar moving in the jet direction, which may imply particle and magnetic-field compression by magnetic hoop stress as previously suggested for this source. We also present two-dimensional maps of spectral parameters and find an interesting shell-like structure in the N {sub H} map. We discuss possible origins of the shell-like structure and their implications.

  5. A split-beam probe-pump-probe scheme for femtosecond time resolved protein X-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Thor, Jasper J.; Madsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In order to exploit the femtosecond pulse duration of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFEL) operating in the hard X-ray regime for ultrafast time-resolved protein crystallography experiments, critical parameters that determine the crystallographic signal-to-noise (I/σI) must be addressed. For single-crystal studies under low absorbed dose conditions, it has been shown that the intrinsic pulse intensity stability as well as mode structure and jitter of this structure, significantly affect the crystallographic signal-to-noise. Here, geometrical parameters are theoretically explored for a three-beam scheme: X-ray probe, optical pump, X-ray probe (or “probe-pump-probe”) which will allow experimental determination of the photo-induced structure factor amplitude differences, ΔF, in a ratiometric manner, thereby internally referencing the intensity noise of the XFEL source. In addition to a non-collinear split-beam geometry which separates un-pumped and pumped diffraction patterns on an area detector, applying an additional convergence angle to both beams by focusing leads to integration over mosaic blocks in the case of well-ordered stationary protein crystals. Ray-tracing X-ray diffraction simulations are performed for an example using photoactive yellow protein crystals in order to explore the geometrical design parameters which would be needed. The specifications for an X-ray split and delay instrument that implements both an offset angle and focused beams are discussed, for implementation of a probe-pump-probe scheme at the European XFEL. We discuss possible extension of single crystal studies to serial femtosecond crystallography, particularly in view of the expected X-ray damage and ablation due to the first probe pulse.

  6. A split-beam probe-pump-probe scheme for femtosecond time resolved protein X-ray crystallography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van Thor, Jasper J.; Madsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In order to exploit the femtosecond pulse duration of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFEL) operating in the hard X-ray regime for ultrafast time-resolved protein crystallography experiments, critical parameters that determine the crystallographic signal-to-noise (I/σI) must be addressed. For single-crystal studies under low absorbed dose conditions, it has been shown that the intrinsic pulse intensity stability as well as mode structure and jitter of this structure, significantly affect the crystallographic signal-to-noise. Here, geometrical parameters are theoretically explored for a three-beam scheme: X-ray probe, optical pump, X-ray probe (or “probe-pump-probe”) which will allow experimental determination of the photo-induced structure factor amplitude differences, ΔF,more » in a ratiometric manner, thereby internally referencing the intensity noise of the XFEL source. In addition to a non-collinear split-beam geometry which separates un-pumped and pumped diffraction patterns on an area detector, applying an additional convergence angle to both beams by focusing leads to integration over mosaic blocks in the case of well-ordered stationary protein crystals. Ray-tracing X-ray diffraction simulations are performed for an example using photoactive yellow protein crystals in order to explore the geometrical design parameters which would be needed. The specifications for an X-ray split and delay instrument that implements both an offset angle and focused beams are discussed, for implementation of a probe-pump-probe scheme at the European XFEL. We discuss possible extension of single crystal studies to serial femtosecond crystallography, particularly in view of the expected X-ray damage and ablation due to the first probe pulse.« less

  7. The 2011 outburst of recurrent nova T Pyx: X-ray observations expose the white dwarf mass and ejection dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chomiuk, Laura; Nelson, Thomas; Mukai, Koji; Rupen, Michael P.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Krauss, Miriam I.; Page, Kim L.; Osborne, Julian P.; Kuulkers, Erik; Roy, Nirupam

    2014-06-20

    The recurrent nova T Pyx underwent its sixth historical outburst in 2011, and became the subject of an intensive multi-wavelength observational campaign. We analyze data from the Swift and Suzaku satellites to produce a detailed X-ray light curve augmented by epochs of spectral information. X-ray observations yield mostly non-detections in the first four months of outburst, but both a super-soft and hard X-ray component rise rapidly after Day 115. The super-soft X-ray component, attributable to the photosphere of the nuclear-burning white dwarf, is relatively cool (∼45 eV) and implies that the white dwarf in T Pyx is significantly below the Chandrasekhar mass (∼1 M {sub ☉}). The late turn-on time of the super-soft component yields a large nova ejecta mass (≳ 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉}), consistent with estimates at other wavelengths. The hard X-ray component is well fit by a ∼1 keV thermal plasma, and is attributed to shocks internal to the 2011 nova ejecta. The presence of a strong oxygen line in this thermal plasma on Day 194 requires a significantly super-solar abundance of oxygen and implies that the ejecta are polluted by white dwarf material. The X-ray light curve can be explained by a dual-phase ejection, with a significant delay between the first and second ejection phases, and the second ejection finally released two months after outburst. A delayed ejection is consistent with optical and radio observations of T Pyx, but the physical mechanism producing such a delay remains a mystery.

  8. Characterization of X-ray generator beam profiles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Dean J; Harding, Lee T.; Thoreson, Gregory G.; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Parmeter, John Ethan; Thompson, Kyle Richard

    2013-07-01

    T to compute the radiography properties of various materials, the flux profiles of X-ray sources must be characterized. This report describes the characterization of X-ray beam profiles from a Kimtron industrial 450 kVp radiography system with a Comet MXC-45 HP/11 bipolar oil-cooled X-ray tube. The empirical method described here uses a detector response function to derive photon flux profiles based on data collected with a small cadmium telluride detector. The flux profiles are then reduced to a simple parametric form that enables computation of beam profiles for arbitrary accelerator energies.

  9. Spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas at X-ray wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, A., E-mail: a-physics2001@yahoo.com; Tibai, Z. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary)] [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary); Hebling, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary) [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary); Szentagothai Research Centre, University of Pecs, Pecs-7624 (Hungary); Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-03-15

    Using a finite curvature beam, we investigate here the spatiotemporal focusing dynamics of a laser pulse in plasmas at X-ray wavelength. We trace the dependence of curvature parameter on the focusing of laser pulse and recognize that the self-focusing in plasma is more intense for the X-ray laser pulse with curved wavefront than with flat wavefront. The simulation results demonstrate that spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas can be controlled with the appropriate choice of beam-plasma parameters to explore the high intensity effects in X-ray regime.

  10. Laser-Produced Coherent X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Umstadter

    2007-01-31

    We study the generation of x-rays from the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-intense laser pulse either directly or via laser generated ion channels. The laser pulse acts as the accelerator and wiggler leading to an all-optical synchrotron-like x-ray source. The mm sized accelerator and micron-sized wiggler leads to a compact source of high brightness, ultrafast x-rays with applications in relativistic nonlinear optics, ultrafast chemistry, biology, inner-shell electronic processes and phase transitions.

  11. X-ray backscatter imaging of nuclear materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Gunning, John E; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Shedlock, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    The energy of an X-ray beam and critical depth are selected to detect structural discontinuities in a material having an atomic number Z of 57 or greater. The critical depth is selected by adjusting the geometry of a collimator that blocks backscattered radiation so that backscattered X-ray originating from a depth less than the critical depth is not detected. Structures of Lanthanides and Actinides, including nuclear fuel rod materials, can be inspected for structural discontinuities such as gaps, cracks, and chipping employing the backscattered X-ray.

  12. Resonant x-ray magnetic scattering in holmium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, D.

    1991-01-01

    We review the results of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering experiments on the rare earth metal holmium. When the incident incident x-ray energy is tuned near the L{sub III} absorption edge, large resonant enhancements of the magnetic scattering and resonant integer harmonics are observed. These results are analyzed within the theory of x-ray resonance exchange scattering assuming electric dipole (2p {yields} 5d) and quadrupole (2p {yields} 4f) transitions among atomic orbitals. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Tomographic analysis of the nonthermal x-ray bursts during disruption instability in the T-10 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savrukhin, P. V.; Ermolaeva, A. I.; Shestakov, E. A.; Khramenkov, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    Non-thermal x-ray radiation (E{sub ?} up to 150 keV) is measured in the T-10 tokamaks during disruption instability using two sets of CdTe detectors (10 vertical and 7 horizontal view detectors). Special narrow cupper tubes collimators with lead screening and CdTe detectors integrated with amplifiers inside metallic containers provides enhanced spatial resolution of the system (r ~ 3 cm) and assures protection from the parasitic hard x-ray (E{sub ?} up to 1.5 MeV) and electromagnetic loads during disruption. Spatial localization of the nonthermal x-ray emissivity is reconstructed using tomographic Cormack technique with SVD matrix inversion. Analysis indicated appearance of an intensive non-thermal x-ray bursts during initial stage of the disruptions at high density. The bursts are characterized by repetitive spikes (23 kHz) of the x-ray emissivity from the plasma core area. Analysis indicated that the spikes can be connected with acceleration of the non-thermal electrons in enhanced longitudinal electric fields induced during energy quench at the disruption instability.

  14. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornasini, Francesca M. [Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Rahoui, Farid [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Mnchen (Germany); Gotthelf, Eric V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofsica, Facultad de Fsica, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2 0.8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ?20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ?3? confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ?50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to f{sub X} ? 10{sup 14} erg cm{sup 2} s{sup 1}, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  15. X-ray photonic microsystems for the manipulation of synchrotron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Techniques (Wiley, 2002). 14. Als-Nielsen, J. & McMorrow, D. Elements of Modern X-ray Physics 2nd Ed. 207-237 (Wiley, 2011). 15. Kubby, J. A. (Ed) Adaptive Optics for ...

  16. Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable Mirrors at X-Ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: X-ray Adaptive Optics, San Diego, CA, United States, Aug 14 - Aug 14, 2012 ...

  17. Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aigeldinger, Georg; Skala, Dawn M.; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Talin, Albert Alec; Losey, Matthew W.; Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter

    2009-10-27

    The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

  18. X-ray Diffraction from Membrane Protein Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray Diffraction from Membrane Protein Nanocrystals Authors: Hunter, M.S., DePonte, D.P., Shapiro, D.A., Kirian, R.A., Wang, X., Starodub, D., Marchesini, S., Weierstall, U.,...

  19. X-ray Microscopy and Imaging (XSD-XMI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and (c) technical R&D in collaborations with other groups on nano-focusing x-ray optics, image contrast mechanisms, phase-retrieval methodology, detectors and data...

  20. Soft x-ray capabilities for investigating the strongly correlated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soft x-ray capabilities for investigating the strongly correlated electron materials Friday, September 14, 2012 - 1:00pm SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Jun-Sik Lee Seminar One of the...

  1. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures by X-ray Spectro...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J. Lning, W. F. Schlotter and J. Sthr (SSRL) The unprecedented properties of X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) under development world wide will open the door for entirely...

  2. Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    attoseconds pulse, 1 nm coherent X-ray radiation using a 60 A electron beam out of the linac and 200 nm laser seed. Both the final wavelength and the radiation pulse length in the ...

  3. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and angles of x rays scattered from the sample rather than transmitted through it). Shapiro et al. have now chimed in with the first lensless imaging of a sample as complex as a...

  4. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscop...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    28, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 322 SSRL Presents Kevin Stone X-ray absorption spectroscopy has become an important tool in understanding the electronic structure...

  5. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What It Can Do for You X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What It Can Do for You Presentation given at DEER ...

  6. X-ray imaging reveals secrets in battery materials | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray imaging reveals secrets in battery materials June 22, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Imaging and data analysis techniques offer new approach to probing material properties In a new...

  7. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with...

  8. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vice versa. At the ALS, researchers were able to directly observe redox processes in thin-film iron and cobalt perovskite oxide electrocatalysts using surface-sensitive, x-ray...

  9. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the...

  10. In situ Nanotomography and Operando Transmission X-ray Microscopy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Operando Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Micron-sized Ge Particles in Battery Anodes Friday, August 29, 2014 Ge fig1 Figure 1. Schematic of the irreversible...

  11. Development Of a Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ion-temperature (Ti) And Rotation-velocity (v) Profiles in ITER Citation Details ... Ion-temperature (Ti) And Rotation-velocity (v) Profiles in ITER Imaging x-ray crystal ...

  12. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the XMLD signal across the Ni L2,3 edges was determined by rotating the orientation of x-ray polarization E and external magnetic field H relative to the crystalline axes. ...

  13. Detecting rare, abnormally large grains by x-ray diffraction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Detecting rare, abnormally large grains by x-ray diffraction large-grains The theme of the Nanomechanics and Nanometallurgy of Boundaries project at Sandia National Labs is to ...

  14. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Work performed on ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 Citation: J.J. Turner et al., "X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures," Phys....

  15. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray energies up to 22 keV Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals ...

  16. High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1995-01-01

    An x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury.

  17. X-ray mask and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2004-10-26

    The present invention describes a method for fabricating an x-ray mask tool which is a contact lithographic mask which can provide an x-ray exposure dose which is adjustable from point-to-point. The tool is useful in the preparation of LIGA plating molds made from PMMA, or similar materials. In particular the tool is useful for providing an ability to apply a graded, or "stepped" x-ray exposure dose across a photosensitive substrate. By controlling the x-ray radiation dose from point-to-point, it is possible to control the development process for removing exposed portions of the substrate; adjusting it such that each of these portions develops at a more or less uniformly rate regardless of feature size or feature density distribution.

  18. Systems and methods for detecting x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

  19. High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1995-05-23

    Disclosed are an x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury. 4 Figs.

  20. Effect of a synchrotron X-ray microtomography imaging experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of a synchrotron X-ray microtomography imaging experiment on the amino acid content of a CM chondrite Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of a synchrotron ...

  1. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many ?? you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with associated preamplifiers; these detectors surpassed the performance we expected to get from the Ketek detectors, however they are housed in a sealed module, which does not offer the ease of repair and expandability we??d hoped to achieve with the Ketek SDD??s. Our packaging efforts were quite successful, as we came up with a very compact way to mount the detector and to house the associated electronics, as well as a very effective way to reliably take out the heat (from the electronics as well as the detector??s Peltier coolers) without risk of condensation and without external airflow or vibration, which could create problems for the target applications. While we were able to design compact processing electronics that fit into the detector assembly, they are still at the prototype stage, and would require a significant redesign to achieve product status. We have not yet tested this detector at a synchrotron facility; we do still plan on working with some close contacts at the nearby Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to get some testing with the beam (using existing commercial electronics for readout, as the integrated processor is not ready for use).

  2. The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth J.; ,

    2011-08-16

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has become the first ever operational hard X-ray Free Electron Laser in 2009. It will operate as a user facility capable of delivering unique research opportunities in multiple fields of science. The LCLS and the LCLS Ultrafast Science Instruments (LUSI) construction projects are developing instruments designed to make full use of the capabilities afforded by the LCLS beam. One such instrument is being designed to utilize the LCLS coherent beam to image with high resolution any sub-micron object. This instrument is called the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument. This instrument will provide a flexible optical system capable of tailoring key beam parameters for the users. A suite of shot-to-shot diagnostics will also be provided to characterize the beam on every pulse. The provided instrumentation will include multi-purpose sample environments, sample delivery and a custom detector capable of collecting 2D data at 120 Hz. In this article, the LCLS will be briefly introduced along with the technique of Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging (CXDI). A few examples of scientific opportunities using the CXI instrument will be described. Finally, the conceptual layout of the instrument will be presented along with a description of the key requirements for the overall system and specific devices required.

  3. Sequential single shot X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at the SACLA free electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lehmkühler, Felix; Kwaśniewski, Paweł; Roseker, Wojciech; Fischer, Birgit; Schroer, Martin A.; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Sprung, Michael; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; et al

    2015-11-27

    In this study, hard X-ray free electron lasers allow for the first time to access dynamics of condensed matter samples ranging from femtoseconds to several hundred seconds. In particular, the exceptional large transverse coherence of the X-ray pulses and the high time-averaged flux promises to reach time and length scales that have not been accessible up to now with storage ring based sources. However, due to the fluctuations originating from the stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process the application of well established techniques such as X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) is challenging. Here we demonstrate a single-shotmore » based sequential XPCS study on a colloidal suspension with a relaxation time comparable to the SACLA free-electron laser pulse repetition rate. High quality correlation functions could be extracted without any indications for sample damage. This opens the way for systematic sequential XPCS experiments at FEL sources.« less

  4. Absorption and Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging in Paleontology Using Laboratory and Synchrotron Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bidola, Pidassa; Stockmar, Marco; Achterhold, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Franz; Pacheco, Mirian L.A.F.; Soriano, Carmen; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia

    2015-10-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) is commonly used for imaging of samples in biomedical or materials science research. Owing to the ability to visualize a sample in a nondestructive way, X-ray CT is perfectly suited to inspect fossilized specimens, which are mostly unique or rare. In certain regions of the world where important sedimentation events occurred in the Precambrian geological time, several fossilized animals are studied to understand questions related to their origin, environment, and life evolution. This article demonstrates the advantages of applying absorption and phase-contrast CT on the enigmatic fossil Corumbella werneri, one of the oldest known animals capable of building hard parts, originally discovered in Corumba (Brazil). Different tomographic setups were tested to visualize the fossilized inner structures: a commercial laboratory-based CT device, two synchrotron-based imaging setups using conventional absorption and propagation-based phase contrast, and a commercial X-ray microscope with a lens-coupled detector system, dedicated for radiography and tomography. Based on our results we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different imaging setups for paleontological studies.

  5. Dose optimization in cardiac x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gislason-Lee, Amber J.; McMillan, Catherine; Cowen, Arnold R.; Davies, Andrew G.

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to optimize x-ray image quality to dose ratios in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. This study examined independently the effects of peak x-ray tube voltage (kVp), copper (Cu), and gadolinium (Gd) x-ray beam filtration on the image quality to radiation dose balance for adult patient sizes.Methods: Image sequences of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms representing two adult patient sizes were captured using a modern flat panel detector based x-ray imaging system. Tin and copper test details were used to simulate iodine-based contrast medium and stents/guide wires respectively, which are used in clinical procedures. Noise measurement for a flat field image and test detail contrast were used to calculate the contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Entrance surface dose (ESD) and effective dose measurements were obtained to calculate the figure of merit (FOM), CNR{sup 2}/dose. This FOM determined the dose efficiency of x-ray spectra investigated. Images were captured with 0.0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.9 mm Cu filtration and with a range of gadolinium oxysulphide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S) filtration.Results: Optimum x-ray spectra were the same for the tin and copper test details. Lower peak tube voltages were generally favored. For the 20 cm phantom, using 2 Lanex Fast Back Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S screens as x-ray filtration at 65 kVp provided the highest FOM considering ESD and effective dose. Considering ESD, this FOM was only marginally larger than that from using 0.4 mm Cu at 65 kVp. For the 30 cm phantom, using 0.25 mm copper filtration at 80 kVp was most optimal; considering effective dose the FOM was highest with no filtration at 65 kVp.Conclusions: These settings, adjusted for x-ray tube loading limits and clinically acceptable image quality, should provide a useful option for optimizing patient dose to image quality in cardiac x-ray imaging. The same optimal x-ray beam spectra were found for both the tin and copper details, suggesting that iodine contrast based imaging and visualization of interventional devices could potentially be optimized for dose using similar x-ray beam spectra.

  6. Combinatorial Screening of Advanced Scintillators for High Resolution X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Shifan; Tao, Dejie; Lynch, Michael; Yuan, Xianglong; Li, Yiqun

    2008-05-12

    The lack of efficient scintillators is a major problem for developing powerful x-ray detectors that are widely used in homeland security, industrial and scientific research. Intematix has developed and applied a high throughput screening process and corresponding crystal growth technology to significantly speed up the discovery process for new efficient scintillators. As a result, Intematix has invented and fabricated three new scintillators both in powder and bulk forms, which possess promising properties such as better radiation hardness and better matching for silicon diode.

  7. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  8. Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    biological systems from a limited number of crystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals Authors: Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin ; Zeldin, Oliver B. ; Lyubimov, Artem Y. ; Hattne, Johan Search SciTech Connect for

  9. Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Spectroscopy provides valuable information about the temperature and density of a compressed pellet in a plasma. Elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals are used as components for spectrometers. Their elliptical geometry gives several

  10. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been calibrated photometrically in the range of 5.5 to 16 keV. The

  11. Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    involving shallow core levels (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering involving shallow core levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering involving shallow core levels Authors: Wray, L. Andrew ; Yang, Wanli ; Eisaki, Hiroshi ; Hussain, Zahid ; Chuang, Yi-De Publication Date: 2012-11-19 OSTI Identifier: 1101794 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal

  12. New Directions in X-Ray Light Sources

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Falcone, Roger

    2010-01-08

    July 15, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Molecular movies of chemical reactions and material phase transformations need a strobe of x-rays, the penetrating light that reveals how atoms and molecules assemble in chemical and biological systems and complex materials. Roger Falcone, Director of the Advanced Light Source,will discuss a new generation of x ray sources that will enable a new science of atomic dynamics on ultrafast timescales.

  13. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - X-Ray and UV Photoelectron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy X-Ray and UV Photoelectron Spectroscopy Example of graph made with cluster tool; plots counts (Y-axis) vs. binding energy (X-axis) for PET Carbon 1S. High-resolution XPS spectra of carbon 1s from polyethylene terephthalate backsheet material, showing excellent quantitative agreement between measured and predicted peak area ratios. Subtle differences in polymer functionality are assessed by deviations from stoichiometry. In photoemission techniques, we use either X-rays or

  14. New focusing multilayer structures for X-ray plasma spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibishkin, M S; Luchin, V I; Salashchenko, N N; Chernov, V V; Chkhalo, N I; Kazakov, E D; Shevelko, A P

    2008-02-28

    New focusing short-period multilayer structures are developed which opens up wide possibilities for X-ray and VUV spectroscopy. Multilayer structures are deposited on a flat surface of a mica crystal which is then bent to a small-radius cylinder. The use of this structure in a von Hamos spectrometer for X-ray laser plasma diagnostics is demonstrated. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  15. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  16. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  17. 15.05.29 RH Operando X-ray - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of a Semiconductor/Liquid Junction by Operando X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Lichterman , M. F. et al. Direct Observation of the Energetics at a Semiconductor/Liquid Junction by Operando X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Energy Environ. Sci ., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C5EE01014D (2015). Scientific Achievement We demonstrated that the operando XPS technique, applied to a semiconductor/liquid junction, can directly measure the positions of the electronic states of the

  18. Self-cleaning rotating anode X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulikas, Arvydas P.

    1989-01-01

    A self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source comprising an evacuable housing, a rotatable cylindrical anode within the housing, a source of electrons within the housing which electrons are caused to impinge upon the anode to produce x-rays, and means for ionizing residual particles within the housing and accelerating such ions so as to impinge upon the anode to sputter impurities from the surface thereof.

  19. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  20. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  1. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  2. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  3. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Thursday, 21 May 2015 11:16 Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab

  4. Self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulikas, A.P.

    1987-06-02

    A self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source comprising and evacuable housing, a rotatable cylindrical anode within the housing, a source of electrons within the housing which electrons are caused to impinge upon the anode to produce x-rays, and means for ionizing residual particles within the housing and accelerating such ions so as to impinge upon the anode to sputter impurities from the surface thereof. 2 figs.

  5. X-ray tube with magnetic electron steering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Kim W. (Albuquerque, NM); Turman, Bobby N. (Albuquerque, NM); Kaye, Ronald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Larry X. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An X-ray tube uses a magnetic field to steer electrons. The magnetic field urges electrons toward the anode, increasing the proportion of electrons emitted from the cathode that reach desired portions of the anode and consequently contribute to X-ray production. The magnetic field also urges electrons reflected from the anode back to the anode, further increasing the efficiency of the tube.

  6. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print Wednesday, 31 October 2012 00:00 The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film

  7. Frontiers in imaging magnetism with polarized x-rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fischer, Peter

    2015-01-08

    Although magnetic imaging with polarized x-rays is a rather young scientific discipline, the various types of established x-ray microscopes have already taken an important role in state-of-the-art characterization of the properties and behavior of spin textures in advanced materials. The opportunities ahead will be to obtain in a unique way indispensable multidimensional information of the structure, dynamics and composition of scientifically interesting and technologically relevant magnetic materials.

  8. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  9. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  10. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  11. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  12. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning

  13. X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation Authors: Harpham, M. R. ; Nguyen, S. C. ; Hou, Z. ; Grossman, J. C. ; Harris, C. B. ; Mara, M. W. ; Stickrath, A. B. ; Kanai, Y. ;

  14. A New Scheme for Stigmatic X-ray Imaging with Large Magnification...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    F; Beiersdorfer, P; Wang, E; Sanchez del Rio, M; Caughey, T A 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY X-ray Imaging X-ray Imaging This paper describes a new x-ray scheme for...

  15. Characterisation of a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray source produced from a high intensity laser for high areal density object radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courtois, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Bazzoli, S.; Bourgade, J. L.; Gazave, J.; Lagrange, J. M.; Landoas, O.; Dain, L. Le; Pichoff, N.; Edwards, R.; Aedy, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Pien, G.; Stoeckl, C.

    2013-08-15

    Results of an experiment to characterise a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray emission created by a short (<10 ps) pulse, high intensity (1.4 × 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser are presented. X-ray emission is characterized using several diagnostics; nuclear activation measurements, a calibrated hard x-ray spectrometer, and dosimeters. Results from the reconstructed x-ray energy spectra are consistent with numerical simulations using the PIC and Monte Carlo codes between 0.3 and 30 MeV. The intense Bremsstrahlung x-ray source is used to radiograph an image quality indicator (IQI) heavily filtered with thick tungsten absorbers. Observations suggest that internal features of the IQI can be resolved up to an external areal density of 85 g/cm{sup 2}. The x-ray source size, inferred by the radiography of a thick resolution grid, is estimated to be approximately 400 μm (full width half maximum of the x-ray source Point Spread Function)

  16. Evaluation of partial coherence correction in X-ray ptychography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burdet, Nicolas; Shi, Xiaowen; Parks, Daniel; Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Kevan, Stephen D.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2015-02-23

    Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging (CDI) and X-ray ptychography both heavily rely on the high degree of spatial coherence of the X-ray illumination for sufficient experimental data quality for reconstruction convergence. Nevertheless, the majority of the available synchrotron undulator sources have a limited degree of partial coherence, leading to reduced data quality and a lower speckle contrast in the coherent diffraction patterns. It is still an open question whether experimentalists should compromise the coherence properties of an X-ray source in exchange for a higher flux density at a sample, especially when some materials of scientific interest are relatively weak scatterers. Amoreprevious study has suggested that in CDI, the best strategy for the study of strong phase objects is to maintain a high degree of coherence of the illuminating X-rays because of the broadening of solution space resulting from the strong phase structures. In this article, we demonstrate the first systematic analysis of the effectiveness of partial coherence correction in ptychography as a function of the coherence properties, degree of complexity of illumination (degree of phase diversity of the probe) and sample phase complexity. We have also performed analysis of how well ptychographic algorithms refine X-ray probe and complex coherence functions when those variables are unknown at the start of reconstructions, for noise-free simulated data, in the case of both real-valued and highly-complex objects.less

  17. X-rays from a microsecond X-pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appartaim, R. K.

    2013-08-28

    The characteristics of x-rays emitted by X-pinches driven by discharging a current of ∼320 kA with a quarter period of 1 μs in crossed 25 μm wires have been investigated. The x-ray emissions are studied using filtered silicon photodiodes, diamond radiation detectors, and pinhole cameras. The results show that predominantly x-rays from the microsecond X-pinch tend to be emitted in two distinct sets of bursts. The first is predominantly “soft,” i.e., with photon energy hν < 5 keV, followed by a second set of bursts beginning up to 100 ns following the initial bursts, and usually consisting of higher photon energies. Our results show, however, that the x-ray emissions do not contain a significant component with hν > 10 keV as might be expected from electron beam activity within the plasma or from the X-pinch diode. High-resolution images obtained with the observed x-rays suggest a well-defined small source of soft x-rays that demonstrates the potential of the microsecond X-pinch.

  18. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA)more » laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.« less

  19. Normal incidence X-ray mirror for chemical microanalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Martin J.; Romig, Jr., Alton D.

    1990-01-01

    A non-planar, focusing mirror, to be utilized in both electron column instruments and micro-x-ray fluorescence instruments for performing chemical microanalysis on a sample, comprises a concave, generally spherical base substrate and a predetermined number of alternating layers of high atomic number material and low atomic number material contiguously formed on the base substrate. The thickness of each layer is an integral multiple of the wavelength being reflected and may vary non-uniformly according to a predetermined design. The chemical analytical instruments in which the mirror is used also include a predetermined energy source for directing energy onto the sample and a detector for receiving and detecting the x-rays emitted from the sample; the non-planar mirror is located between the sample and detector and collects the x-rays emitted from the sample at a large solid angle and focuses the collected x-rays to the sample. For electron column instruments, the wavelengths of interest lie above 1.5 nm, while for x-ray fluorescence instruments, the range of interest is below 0.2 nm. Also, x-ray fluorescence instruments include an additional non-planar focusing mirror, formed in the same manner as the previously described m The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under contract with the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789, and the United States Government has rights in the invention pursuant to this contract.

  20. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.

  1. X-RAY SPECTRAL COMPONENTS OBSERVED IN THE AFTERGLOW OF GRB130925A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Forster, Karl; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Perley, Daniel A.; Rana, Vikram R.; Barrire, Nicolas M.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Bhalerao, Varun; Cenko, S. Bradley; Christensen, Finn E.; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Horesh, Assaf; Ofek, Eran O.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Stern, Daniel; and others

    2014-04-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at >4? significance, and its spectral shape varies between two observation epochs at 2 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6}s after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. A broad, resolved Gaussian absorption feature of several keV width improves the fit, but it is poorly constrained in the second epoch. An additive blackbody or second power-law component provide better fits. Both are challenging to interpret: the blackbody radius is near the scale of a compact remnant (10{sup 8}cm), while the second power-law component requires an unobserved high-energy cutoff in order to be consistent with the non-detection by Fermi/Large Area Telescope.

  2. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIO AND X-RAY MODELING AND DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE: REVEALING FLARE COMPLEXITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2015-02-01

    Many problems in solar physics require analysis of imaging data obtained in multiple wavelength domains with differing spatial resolution in a framework supplied by advanced three-dimensional (3D) physical models. To facilitate this goal, we have undertaken a major enhancement of our IDL-based simulation tools developed earlier for modeling microwave and X-ray emission. The enhanced software architecture allows the user to (1) import photospheric magnetic field maps and perform magnetic field extrapolations to generate 3D magnetic field models; (2) investigate the magnetic topology by interactively creating field lines and associated flux tubes; (3) populate the flux tubes with user-defined nonuniform thermal plasma and anisotropic, nonuniform, nonthermal electron distributions; (4) investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio and X-ray emission calculated from the model; and (5) compare the model-derived images and spectra with observational data. The package integrates shared-object libraries containing fast gyrosynchrotron emission codes, IDL-based soft and hard X-ray codes, and potential and linear force-free field extrapolation routines. The package accepts user-defined radiation and magnetic field extrapolation plug-ins. We use this tool to analyze a relatively simple single-loop flare and use the model to constrain the magnetic 3D structure and spatial distribution of the fast electrons inside this loop. We iteratively compute multi-frequency microwave and multi-energy X-ray images from realistic magnetic flux tubes obtained from pre-flare extrapolations, and compare them with imaging data obtained by SDO, NoRH, and RHESSI. We use this event to illustrate the tool's use for the general interpretation of solar flares to address disparate problems in solar physics.

  3. BRIGHTEST X-RAY CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES IN THE CFHTLS WIDE FIELDS: CATALOG AND OPTICAL MASS ESTIMATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirkazemi, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Lerchster, M.; Erfanianfar, G.; Seitz, S.; Pereira, M. J.; Egami, E.; Tanaka, M.; Brimioulle, F.; Kettula, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Kneib, J. P.; Rykoff, E.; Erben, T.; Taylor, J. E.

    2015-01-20

    The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) presents a unique data set for weak-lensing studies, having high-quality imaging and deep multiband photometry. We have initiated an XMM-CFHTLS project to provide X-ray observations of the brightest X-ray-selected clusters within the wide CFHTLS area. Performance of these observations and the high quality of CFHTLS data allow us to revisit the identification of X-ray sources, introducing automated reproducible algorithms, based on the multicolor red sequence finder. We have also introduced a new optical mass proxy. We provide the calibration of the red sequence observed in the Canada-France-Hawaii filters and compare the results with the traditional single-color red sequence and photo-z. We test the identification algorithm on the subset of highly significant XMM clusters and identify 100% of the sample. We find that the integrated z-band luminosity of the red sequence galaxies correlates well with the X-ray luminosity, with a surprisingly small scatter of 0.20 dex. We further use the multicolor red sequence to reduce spurious detections in the full XMM and ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) data sets, resulting in catalogs of 196 and 32 clusters, respectively. We made spectroscopic follow-up observations of some of these systems with HECTOSPEC and in combination with BOSS DR9 data. We also describe the modifications needed to the source detection algorithm in order to maintain high purity of extended sources in the shallow X-ray data. We also present the scaling relation between X-ray luminosity and velocity dispersion.

  4. Towards three-dimensional and attosecond x-ray imaging at the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x-ray wavelength appears desirable to achieve maximal spatial resolution in x-ray diffraction experiments, longer wavelengths turns out to enable the identification of...

  5. High brightness--multiple beamlets source for patterned X-ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    source for patterned X-ray production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High brightness--multiple beamlets source for patterned X-ray production Techniques for ...

  6. Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process and Diesel Sprays Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection ...

  7. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The affects of x-ray and nuclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are ... Resource Relation: Related Information: Invention Disclosure. Title X-ray Imaging Crystal ...

  8. X-ray micro-diffraction studies of heterogeneous interfaces between...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article: X-ray micro-diffraction studies of heterogeneous interfaces between cementitious materials and geological formations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray ...

  9. Five-element Johann-type x-ray emission spectrometer with a single-photon-counting pixel detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleymenov, Evgeny; Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van; David, Christian; Janousch, Markus; Studer, Marco; Willimann, Markus; Bergamaschi, Anna; Henrich, Beat; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Glatzel, Pieter; Alonso-Mori, Roberto

    2011-06-15

    A Johann-type spectrometer with five spherically bent crystals and a pixel detector was constructed for a range of hard x-ray photon-in photon-out synchrotron techniques, covering a Bragg-angle range of 60 deg. - 88 deg. The spectrometer provides a sub emission line width energy resolution from sub-eV to a few eV and precise energy calibration, better than 1.5 eV for the full range of Bragg angles. The use of a pixel detector allows fast and easy optimization of the signal-to-background ratio. A concentration detection limit below 0.4 wt% was reached at the Cu K{alpha}{sub 1} line. The spectrometer is designed as a modular mobile device for easy integration in a multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamline, such as the SuperXAS beamline at the Swiss Light Source.

  10. The History of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, C.; ,

    2012-06-28

    The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}, pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

  11. New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.; Lanzirotti, A.; Newville, M.; Proslier, T.; Stodolna, J.; Sutton, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Westphal, A.J.; Zasadzinski, J. (UCB)

    2012-03-13

    Quantification of synchrotron XRF analyses is typically done through comparisons with measurements on the NIST SRM 1832/1833 thin film standards. Unfortunately, these standards are inhomogeneous on small scales at the tens of percent level. We are synthesizing new homogeneous multilayer standards using the Atomic Layer Deposition technique and characterizing them using multiple analytical methods, including ellipsometry, Rutherford Back Scattering at Evans Analytical, Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) Beamline 13-ID, Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.1 and by electron microscopy techniques. Our motivation for developing much-needed cross-calibration of synchrotron techniques is borne from coordinated analyses of particles captured in the aerogel of the NASA Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). The Stardust Interstellar Dust Preliminary Examination (ISPE) team have characterized three sub-nanogram, {approx}1{micro}m-sized fragments considered as candidates to be the first contemporary interstellar dust ever collected, based on their chemistries and trajectories. The candidates were analyzed in small wedges of aerogel in which they were extracted from the larger collector, using high sensitivity, high spatial resolution >3 keV synchrotron x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) and <2 keV synchrotron x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) during Stardust ISPE. The ISPE synchrotron techniques have complementary capabilities. Hard X-ray SXRF is sensitive to sub-fg mass of elements Z {ge} 20 (calcium) and has a spatial resolution as low as 90nm. X-ray Diffraction data were collected simultaneously with SXRF data. Soft X-ray STXM at ALS beamline 11.0.2 can detect fg-mass of most elements, including cosmochemically important oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, which are invisible to SXRF in this application. ALS beamline 11.0.2 has spatial resolution better than 25 nm. Limiting factors for Stardust STXM analyses were self-imposed limits of photon dose due to radiation damage concerns, and significant attenuation of <1500 eV X-rays by {approx}80{micro}m thick, {approx}25 mg/cm{sup 3} density silica aerogel capture medium. In practice, the ISPE team characterized the major, light elements using STXM (O, Mg, Al, Si) and the heavier minor and trace elements using SXRF. The two data sets overlapped only with minor Fe and Ni ({approx}1% mass abundance), providing few quantitative cross-checks. New improved standards for cross calibration are essential for consortium-based analyses of Stardust interstellar and cometary particles, IDPs. Indeed, they have far reaching application across the whole synchrotron-based analytical community. We have synthesized three ALD multilayers simultaneously on silicon nitride membranes and silicon and characterized them using RBS (on Si), XRF (on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and STXM/XAS (holey Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). The systems we have started to work with are Al-Zn-Fe and Y-Mg-Er. We have found these ALD multi-layers to be uniform at {micro}m- to nm scales, and have found excellent consistency between four analytical techniques so far. The ALD films can also be used as a standard for e-beam instruments, eg., TEM EELS or EDX. After some early issues with the consistency of coatings to the back-side of the membrane windows, we are confident to be able to show multi-analytical agreement to within 10%. As the precision improves, we can use the new standards to verify or improve the tabulated cross-sections.

  12. Internal energy dissipation of gamma-ray bursts observed with Swift: Precursors, prompt gamma-rays, extended emission, and late X-ray flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, You-Dong; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Peng, Fang-Kun; Lu, Rui-Jing; Lü, Lian-Zhong; Zhang, Bing E-mail: Zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-07-10

    We jointly analyze the gamma-ray burst (GRB) data observed with Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and X-ray Telescope on board the Swift mission to present a global view on the internal energy dissipation processes in GRBs, including precursors, prompt gamma-ray emission, extended soft gamma-ray emission, and late X-ray flares. The Bayesian block method is utilized to analyze the BAT light curves to identify various emission episodes. Our results suggest that these emission components likely share the same physical origin, which is the repeated activation of the GRB central engine. What we observe in the gamma-ray band may be a small part of more extended underlying activities. The precursor emission, which is detected in about 10% of Swift GRBs, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a massive star core-collapse origin. The soft extended emission tail, on the other hand, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a compact star merger origin. Bright X-ray emission is detected during the BAT quiescent phases prior to subsequent gamma-ray peaks, implying that X-ray emission may be detectable prior the BAT trigger time. Future GRB alert instruments with soft X-ray capability are essential for revealing the early stages of GRB central engine activities, and shedding light on jet composition and the jet launching mechanism in GRBs.

  13. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

    1987-08-04

    An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

  14. X-Ray Diffraction Project Final Report, Fiscal Year 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dane V. Morgan

    2006-10-01

    An x-ray diffraction diagnostic system was developed for determining real-time shock-driven lattice parameter shifts in single crystals at the gas gun at TA-IV at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The signal-to-noise ratio and resolution of the system were measured using imaging plates as the detector and by varying the slit width. This report includes tests of the x-ray diffraction system using a phosphor coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera by a coherent fiber-optic bundle. The system timing delay was measured with a newly installed transistor-transistor logic (TTL) bypass designed to reduce the x-ray delay time. The axial misalignment of the Bragg planes was determined with respect to the optical axis for a set of eight LiF [lithium fluoride] crystals provided by SNL to determine their suitability for gas gun experiments.

  15. Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamboa, E.J.; Huntington, C.M.; Trantham, M.R.; Keiter, P.A; Drake, R.P.; Montgomery, David; Benage, John F.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    2012-05-04

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  16. Data fusion in neutron and X-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrapp, Michael J.; Goldammer, Matthias; Schulz, Michael; Issani, Siraj; Bhamidipati, Suryanarayana; Böni, Peter

    2014-10-28

    We present a fusion methodology between neutron and X-ray computed tomography (CT). On the one hand, the inspection by X-ray CT of a wide class of multimaterials in non-destructive testing applications suffers from limited information of object features. On the other hand, neutron imaging can provide complementary data in such a way that the combination of both data sets fully characterizes the object. In this contribution, a novel data fusion procedure, called Fusion Regularized Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique, is developed where the X-ray reconstruction is modified to fulfill the available data from the imaging with neutrons. The experiments, which were obtained from an aluminum profile containing a steel screw, and attached carbon fiber plates demonstrate that the image quality in CT can be significantly improved when the proposed fusion method is used.

  17. X-ray radiography with highly charged ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marrs, Roscoe E. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An extremely small (1-250 micron FWHM) beam of slow highly charged ions deexciting on an x-ray production target generates x-ray monochromatic radiation that is passed through a specimen and detected for imaging. The resolution of the x-ray radiograms is improved and such detection is achieved with relatively low dosages of radiation passing through the specimen. An apparatus containing an electron beam ion trap (and modifications thereof) equipped with a focusing column serves as a source of ions that generate radiation projected onto an image detector. Electronic and other detectors are able to detect an increased amount of radiation per pixel than achieved by previous methods and apparati.

  18. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, Charles R. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rockett, Paul D. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1987-01-01

    An x-ray source having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events.

  19. Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shapiro, D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A. M.; et al

    2005-10-25

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffractionmore » microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.« less

  20. Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray transmissionmicroscopy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray transmissionmicroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray transmissionmicroscopy No abstract prepared. Authors: Fischer, Peter Publication Date: 2006-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 922805 Report Number(s): LBNL--60390 Journal ID: ISSN 0018-9197; IEJQA7; R&D Project: 509201; BnR: KC0202030; TRN: US200803%%455 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231

  1. Bragg x-ray survey spectrometer for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varshney, S. K.; Jakhar, S. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Barnsley, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); O'Mullane, M. G. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Several potential impurity ions in the ITER plasmas will lead to loss of confined energy through line and continuum emission. For real time monitoring of impurities, a seven channel Bragg x-ray spectrometer (XRCS survey) is considered. This paper presents design and analysis of the spectrometer, including x-ray tracing by the Shadow-XOP code, sensitivity calculations for reference H-mode plasma and neutronics assessment. The XRCS survey performance analysis shows that the ITER measurement requirements of impurity monitoring in 10 ms integration time at the minimum levels for low-Z to high-Z impurity ions can largely be met.

  2. The First Angstrom X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galayda, John; /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source produced its first x-ray laser beam on 10 April 2009. Today it is routinely producing x-ray pulses with energy >2 mJ across the operating range from 820-8,200 eV. The facility has begun operating for atomic/molecular/optical science experiments. Performance of the facility in its first user run (1 October - 21 December) and current machine development activities will be presented. Early results from the preparations for the start of the second user run is also reported.

  3. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1996-04-16

    A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

  4. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1996-01-01

    A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

  5. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Liang, Mengning; Boutet, Sbastien; Coe, Jesse; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Fromme, Petra; Cherezov, Vadim; Hogue, Brenda G.

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  6. Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies Print Thursday, 11 September 2014 15:18 Sometimes, the spins in a magnetic material will form tiny swirls that can move around like particles. The spins themselves stay put-it's the pattern that moves. These quasiparticles have been dubbed "skyrmions," after British physicist Tony Skyrme, who described their mathematics in a series of papers in the early 1960s. Now, over 50 years later,

  7. Cooling for a rotating anode X-ray tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for cooling a rotating anode X-ray tube. An electromagnetic motor is provided to rotate an X-ray anode with cooling passages in the anode. These cooling passages are coupled to a cooling structure located adjacent the electromagnetic motor. A liquid metal fills the passages of the cooling structure and electrical power is provided to the motor to rotate the anode and generate a rotating magnetic field which moves the liquid metal through the cooling passages and cooling structure.

  8. High resolution collimator system for X-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W.; Cain, Dallas E.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution in an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) inspection system is achieved by using a collimator/detector combination to limit the beam width of the X-ray beam incident on a detector element to the desired resolution width. In a detector such as a high pressure Xenon detector array, a narrow tapered collimator is provided above a wide detector element. The collimator slits have any desired width, as small as a few mils at the top, the slit width is easily controlled, and they are fabricated on standard machines. The slit length determines the slice thickness of the CT image.

  9. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; et al

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  10. Enhanced Electron Efficiency in an X-ray Diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Sun, L. MacNeil

    2010-05-20

    The goal for this research is to optimize the XRD structure and usage configurations and increase the efficiency of the XRD. This research was successful in optimizing the XRD structure and usage configurations, thus creating a high efficiency XRD. Best efficiency occurs when there is an angle between the photocathode and incident X-rays.

  11. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser (10) is formed of a vanadium (12) and titanium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions (32).

  12. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, J.

    1992-05-26

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser is formed of a vanadium and titanium foil combination that is driven by two beams of intense line focused optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions. 4 figs.

  13. Soft x-ray diagnostics for pulsed power machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idzorek, G.C.; Coulter, W.L.; Walsh, P.J.; Montoya, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    A variety of soft x-ray diagnostics are being fielded on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus and Procyon pulsed power systems and also being fielded on joint US/Russian magnetized target fusion experiments known as MAGO (Magnitoye Obzhatiye). The authors have designed a low-cost modular photoemissive detector designated the XRD-96 that uses commercial 1100 series aluminum for the photocathode. In addition to photocathode detectors a number of designs using solid state silicon photodiodes have been designed and fielded. They also present a soft x-ray time-integrated pinhole camera system that uses standard type TMAX-400 photographic film that obviates the need for expensive and no longer produced zero-overcoat soft x-ray emulsion film. In a typical experiment the desired spectral energy cuts, signal intensity levels, and desired field of view will determine diagnostic geometry and x-ray filters selected. The authors have developed several computer codes to assist in the diagnostic design process and data deconvolution. Examples of the diagnostic design process and data analysis for a typical pulsed power experiment are presented.

  14. X-ray characterization of solid small molecule organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billinge, Simon; Shankland, Kenneth; Shankland, Norman; Florence, Alastair

    2014-06-10

    The present invention provides, inter alia, methods of characterizing a small molecule organic material, e.g., a drug or a drug product. This method includes subjecting the solid small molecule organic material to x-ray total scattering analysis at a short wavelength, collecting data generated thereby, and mathematically transforming the data to provide a refined set of data.

  15. X-rays at Solid-Liquid Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosch, Helmut (Max Planck Institute for Metals Research) [Max Planck Institute for Metals Research

    2007-05-02

    Solid-liquid interfaces play an important role in many areas of current and future technologies, and in our biosphere. They play a key role in the development of nanofluidics and nanotribology, which sensitively depend on our knowledge of the microscopic structures and phenomena at the solid-liquid interface. The detailed understanding of how a fluid meets a wall is also a theoretical challenge. In particular, the phenomena at repulsive walls are of interest, since they affect many different phenomena, such as water-repellent surfaces or the role of the hydrophobic interaction in protein folding. Recent x-ray reflectivity studies of various solid-liquid interfaces have disclosed rather intriguiing phenomena, which will be discussed in this lecture: premelting of ice in contact with silica; liquid Pb in contact with Si; water in contact with hydrophobic surfaces. These experiments, carried out with high-energy x-ray microbeams, reveal detailed insight into the liquid density profile closest to the wall. A detailed insight into atomistic phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is also a prerequisite in the microscopic control of electrochemical reactions at interfaces. Recent x-ray studies show the enormous future potential of such non-destructive analytical tools for the in situ observation of (electro-)chemical surface reactions. This lecture will review recent x-ray experiments on solid-liquid interfaces.

  16. Lensless imaging of nanoporous glass with soft X-rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, Joshua J.; Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Jacobsen, Chris

    2013-06-01

    Coherent soft X-ray diffraction has been used to image nanoporous glass structure in two dimensions using different methods. The merit of the reconstructions was judged using a new method of Fourier phase correlation with a final, refined image. The porous structure was found to have a much larger average size then previously believed.

  17. Crystal defect studies using x-ray diffuse scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    Microscopic lattice defects such as point (single atom) defects, dislocation loops, and solute precipitates are characterized by local electronic density changes at the defect sites and by distortions of the lattice structure surrounding the defects. The effect of these interruptions of the crystal lattice on the scattering of x-rays is considered in this paper, and examples are presented of the use of the diffuse scattering to study the defects. X-ray studies of self-interstitials in electron irradiated aluminum and copper are discussed in terms of the identification of the interstitial configuration. Methods for detecting the onset of point defect aggregation into dislocation loops are considered and new techniques for the determination of separate size distributions for vacancy loops and interstitial loops are presented. Direct comparisons of dislocation loop measurements by x-rays with existing electron microscopy studies of dislocation loops indicate agreement for larger size loops, but x-ray measurements report higher concentrations in the smaller loop range. Methods for distinguishing between loops and three-dimensional precipitates are discussed and possibilities for detailed studies considered. A comparison of dislocation loop size distributions obtained from integral diffuse scattering measurements with those from TEM show a discrepancy in the smaller sizes similar to that described above.

  18. X-ray Emission from Thunderstorms and Lightning

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Joseph [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, United States

    2010-01-08

    How lightning is initiated in the relatively low electric fields inside thunderclouds and how it can then propagate for tens of kilometers through virgin air are two of the great unsolved problems in the atmospheric sciences.  Until very recently it was believed that lightning was entirely a conventional discharge, involving only low-energy (a few eV) electrons.  This picture changed completely a few years ago with the discovery of intense x-ray emission from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning.  This energetic emission cannot be produced by a conventional discharge, and so the presence of x-rays strongly implies that runaway breakdown plays a role in lightning processes.  During runaway breakdown, electrons are accelerated through air to nearly the speed of light by strong electric fields.  These runaway electrons then emit bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma-rays during collisions with air.  Indeed, the x-ray and gamma-ray emission produced by runaway breakdown near the tops of thunderstorms is bright enough to be seen from outer space, 600 km away.  As a result, the physics used for decades to describe thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharges is incomplete and needs to be revisited. 

  19. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope Control Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-08-05

    User Interface and control software or C++ to run on specifically equipped computer running Windows Operating Systems. Program performs specific control functions required to operate Interferometer controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at ALS beamlines 532 and 11.0.2. Graphical user interface facilitates control, display images and spectra.

  20. Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

    2012-12-01

    This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

  1. X-ray divergent-beam (Kossel) technique: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lider, V. V.

    2011-03-15

    The development of the X-ray divergent-beam (Kossel) technique over the last 50 years is traced. The fundamentals of this technique and ways to implement it experimentally are considered, and its potential for studying the real structure of crystals is analyzed in detail.

  2. Operational properties of fluctuation X-ray scattering data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malmerberg, Erik; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Zwart, Petrus H.

    2015-03-20

    X-ray scattering images collected on timescales shorter than rotation diffusion times using a (partially) coherent beam result in a significant increase in information content in the scattered data. These measurements, named fluctuation X-ray scattering (FXS), are typically performed on an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and can provide fundamental insights into the structure of biological molecules, engineered nanoparticles or energy-related mesoscopic materials beyond what can be obtained with standard X-ray scattering techniques. In order to understand, use and validate experimental FXS data, the availability of basic data characteristics and operational properties is essential, but has been absent up to this point.more » In this communication, an intuitive view of the nature of FXS data and their properties is provided, the effect of FXS data on the derived structural models is highlighted, and generalizations of the Guinier and Porod laws that can ultimately be used to plan experiments and assess the quality of experimental data are presented.« less

  3. X-ray ablation measurements and modeling for ICF applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.T.

    1996-09-01

    X-ray ablation of material from the first wall and other components of an ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) chamber is a major threat to the laser final optics. Material condensing on these optics after a shot may cause damage with subsequent laser shots. To ensure the successful operation of the ICF facility, removal rates must be predicted accurately. The goal for this dissertation is to develop an experimentally validated x-ray response model, with particular application to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate knowledge of the x-ray and debris emissions from ICF targets is a critical first step in the process of predicting the performance of the target chamber system. A number of 1-D numerical simulations of NIF targets have been run to characterize target output in terms of energy, angular distribution, spectrum, and pulse shape. Scaling of output characteristics with variations of both target yield and hohlraum wall thickness are also described. Experiments have been conducted at the Nova laser on the effects of relevant x-ray fluences on various materials. The response was diagnosed using post-shot examinations of the surfaces with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope instruments. Judgments were made about the dominant removal mechanisms for each material. Measurements of removal depths were made to provide data for the modeling. The finite difference ablation code developed here (ABLATOR) combines the thermomechanical response of materials to x-rays with models of various removal mechanisms. The former aspect refers to energy deposition in such small characteristic depths ({approx} micron) that thermal conduction and hydrodynamic motion are significant effects on the nanosecond time scale. The material removal models use the resulting time histories of temperature and pressure-profiles, along with ancillary local conditions, to predict rates of surface vaporization and the onset of conditions that would lead to spallation.

  4. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jeon, Insu; Jung, Jin-Ho; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb

    2014-09-15

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  5. Automatic tool alignment in a backscatter x-ray scanning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garretson, Justin; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas S.; Monda, Mark J.

    2015-06-16

    Technologies pertaining to backscatter x-ray scanning systems are described herein. The backscatter x-ray scanning system includes an x-ray source, which directs collimated x-rays along a plurality of output vectors towards a target. A detector detects diffusely reflected x-rays subsequent to respective collimated x-rays impacting the target, and outputs signals indicative of parameters of the detected x-rays. An image processing system generates an x-ray image based upon parameters of the detected x-rays, wherein each pixel in the image corresponds to a respective output vector. A user selects a particular portion of the image, and a tool is positioned such that its directional axis is coincident with the output vector corresponding to at least one pixel in the portion of the image.

  6. Automatic tool alignment in a backscatter X-ray scanning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garretson, Justin; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas S.; Monda, Mark J.

    2015-11-17

    Technologies pertaining to backscatter x-ray scanning systems are described herein. The backscatter x-ray scanning system includes an x-ray source, which directs collimated x-rays along a plurality of output vectors towards a target. A detector detects diffusely reflected x-rays subsequent to respective collimated x-rays impacting the target, and outputs signals indicative of parameters of the detected x-rays. An image processing system generates an x-ray image based upon parameters of the detected x-rays, wherein each pixel in the image corresponds to a respective output vector. A user selects a particular portion of the image, and a medical device is positioned such that its directional axis is coincident with the output vector corresponding to at least one pixel in the portion of the image.

  7. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr₂IrO₄ using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, X.; Dean, M. P. M.; Liu, J.; Chiuzbaian, S. G.; Jaouen, N.; Nicolaou, A.; Yin, W. G.; Rayan Serrao, C.; Ramesh, R.; Ding, H.; et al

    2015-04-28

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin-orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr₂IrO₄, where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edgemore » RIXS energy resolutions in the hard X-ray region is usually poor.« less

  8. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor; Goodman, Claude A.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels.

  9. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Goodman, C.A.

    1996-08-20

    Apparatus is disclosed for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels. 12 figs.

  10. Kinematics of Compton backscattering x-ray source for angiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumberg, L.N.

    1992-05-01

    Calculations of X-Ray production rates, energy spread, and spectrum of Compton-backscattered photons from a Free Electron Laser on an electron beam in a low energy (136-MeV) compact (8.5-m circumference) storage ring indicate that an X-Ray intensity of 34.6 10{sup 7} X-Ray photons per 0.5-mm {times} 0.5-mm pixel for Coronary Angiography near the 33.169-keV iodine K-absorption edge can be achieved in a 4-msec pulse within a scattering cone of 1-mrad half angle. This intensity, at 10-m from the photon-electron interaction point to the patient is about a factor of 10 larger than presently achieved from a 4.5-T superconducting wiggler source in the NSLS 2.5-GeV storage ring and over an area about 5 times larger. The 2.2-keV energy spread of the Compton-backscattered beam is, however, much larger than the 70-eV spread presently attained form the wiggler source and use of a monochromator. The beam spot at the 10-m interaction point-to-patient distance is 20-mm diameter; larger spots are attainable at larger distances but with a corresponding reduction in X-Ray flux. Such a facility could be an inexpensive clinical alternative to present methods of non-invasive Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA), small enough to be deployed in an urban medical center, and could have other medical, industrial and aerospace applications. Problems with the Compton backscattering source include laser beam heating of the mirror in the FEL oscillator optical cavity, achieving a large enough X-Ray beam spot at the patient, and obtaining radiation damping of the transverse oscillations and longitudinal emittance dilution of the storage ring electron beam resulting from photon-electron collisions without going to higher electron energy where the X-Ray energy spread becomes excessive for DSA. 38 refs.

  11. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sébastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; et al

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting schememore » is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.« less

  12. A compact x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barletta, W.A. . Center for Advanced Accelerators Physics Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Atac, M.; Cline, D.B.; Kolonko, J. . Center for Advanced Accelerators Physics); Bhowmik, A.; Bobbs, B.; Cover, R.A.; Dixon, F.P.; Rakowsky, G. . Rocketdyne Div.); Gallardo

    1988-01-01

    We present a design concept and simulation of the performance of a compact x-ray, free electron laser driven by ultra-high gradient rf-linacs. The accelerator design is based on recent advances in high gradient technology by a LLNL/SLAC/LBL collaboration and on the development of bright, high current electron sources by BNL and LANL. The GeV electron beams generated with such accelerators can be converted to soft x-rays in the range from 2--10 nm by passage through short period, high field strength wigglers as are being designed at Rocketdyne Linear light sources of this type can produce trains of picosecond (or shorter) pulses of extremely high spectral brilliance suitablee for flash holography of biological specimens in vivo and for studies of fast chemical reactions. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hailey, Charles J.; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    1992-01-01

    X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation.

  14. X-ray calibration of Kodak Direct Exposure film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.B.; Burkhalter, P.G.; Rockett, P.D.; Bird, C.R.; Hailey, C.J.; Sullivan, D.

    1985-08-15

    Kodak Direct Exposure film (DEF) has replaced Kodak No-Screen film for use in x-ray diffraction analysis and in autoradiography. DEF is a double-emulsion film which has been found to have improved radio-graphic characteristics over No-Screen. A set of H-D curves has been generated for DEF at five photon energies: 0.930, 1.49, 1.74, 4.51/4.93, and 6.93 keV. The KMSF x-ray calibration facility was utilized to study the absolute sensitivity of this film over its full dynamic range. Physical examination of the film was followed by theoretical modeling, which adequately reproduced the measured curves.

  15. X-ray mask and method for providing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Skala, Dawn M.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention describes a method for fabricating an x-ray mask tool which can achieve pattern features having lateral dimension of less than 1 micron. The process uses a thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask to transfer an trace image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is then anisotropically etched to provide an etched image of the trace image pattern consisting of a series of channels in the silicon having a high depth-to-width aspect ratio. These channels are then filled by depositing a metal such as gold to provide an inverse image of the trace image and thereby providing a robust x-ray mask tool.

  16. Chandra X-ray Observations of WZ Sge in Superoutburst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheatley, P J; Mauche, C W

    2004-10-13

    We present seven separate Chandra observations of the 2001 superoutburst of WZ Sge. The high-energy outburst was dominated by intense EUV emission lines, which we interpret as boundary layer emission scattered into our line of sight in an accretion disc wind. The direct boundary layer emission was hidden from view, presumably by the accretion disc. The optical outburst orbital hump was detected in the EUV, but the common superhump was not, indicating a geometric mechanism in the former and a dissipative mechanism in the latter. X-rays detected during outburst were not consistent with boundary layer emission and we argue that there must be a second source of X-rays in dwarf novae in outburst.

  17. Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Roussel-Dupre', Diane; Smith, Barham W.

    1992-01-01

    Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

  18. Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P.

    1992-06-02

    X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation. 6 figs.

  19. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sbastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; Nass, Karol; Shoeman, Robert L.; Timneanu, Nicusor; Santra, Robin; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N.

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  20. Phase Effects on Mesoscale Object X-ray Absorption Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, Jr., H E; Aufderheide, M B; Barty, A; Lehman, S K; Kozioziemski, B J; Schneberk, D J

    2004-09-24

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of 'mesoscale' objects.[Martz and Albrecht 2003] We define mesoscale objects as objects that have mm extent with {micro}m features. Here we confine our discussions to x-ray imaging methods applicable to mesoscale object characterization. The goal is object recovery algorithms including phase to enable emerging high-spatial resolution x-ray imaging methods to ''see'' inside or image mesoscale-size materials and objects. To be successful our imaging characterization effort must be able to recover the object function to one micrometer or better spatial resolution over a few millimeters field-of-view with very high contrast.

  1. X-ray mask and method for providing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M. (Pleasanton, CA); Skala, Dawn M. (Fremont, CA)

    2004-09-28

    The present invention describes a method for fabricating an x-ray mask tool which can achieve pattern features having lateral dimension of less than 1 micron. The process uses a thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask to transfer an trace image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is then anisotropically etched to provide an etched image of the trace image pattern consisting of a series of channels in the silicon having a high depth-to-width aspect ratio. These channels are then filled by depositing a metal such as gold to provide an inverse image of the trace image and thereby providing a robust x-ray mask tool.

  2. Inelastic X-ray Scattering from Shocked Liquid Deuterium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Regan, S. P.; Falk, K.; Gregori, G.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Boehly, T. R.; Crowley, B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O.; Gericke, D. O.; et al

    2012-12-28

    The Fermi-degenerate plasma conditions created in liquid deuterium by a laser-ablation—driven shock wave were probed with noncollective, spectrally resolved, inelastic x-ray Thomson scattering employing Cl Lyα line emission at 2.96 keV. Thus, these first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of the microscopic properties of shocked deuterium show an inferred spatially averaged electron temperature of 8±5 eV, an electron density of 2.2(±0.5)×1023 cm-3, and an ionization of 0.8 (-0.25, +0.15). Our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using equation-of-state models suited for the extreme parameters occurring in inertial confinement fusion research and planetary interiors are consistent with the experimental results.

  3. A New Gated X-Ray Detector for the Orion Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, David D.; Aragonez, Robert J.; Archuleta, Thomas N.; Fatherley, Valerie E.; Hsu, Albert H.; Jorgenson, H. J.; Mares, Danielle; Oertel, John A.; Oades, Kevin; Kemshall, Paul; Thomas, Philip; Young, Trevor; Pederson, Neal

    2012-08-08

    Gated X-Ray Detectors (GXD) are considered the work-horse target diagnostic of the laser based inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program. Recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has constructed three new GXDs for the Orion laser facility at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom. What sets these three new instruments apart from the what has previously been constructed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is: improvements in detector head microwave transmission lines, solid state embedded hard drive and updated control software, and lighter air box design and other incremental mechanical improvements. In this paper we will present the latest GXD design enhancements and sample calibration data taken on the Trident laser facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the newly constructed instruments.

  4. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow

  5. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow

  6. X-ray Induced Quasiparticles: New Window on Unconventional

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconductivity | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) X-ray Induced Quasiparticles: New Window on Unconventional Superconductivity Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594

  7. Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International Workshop on the Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses with Matter (SLAC, January 23-24, 1997) During the last five years studies have been conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg concerning the feasibility of driving an Angstrom-wavelength Free-Electron Laser (FEL) with a high energy rf linac. Recent promising advances in linac, rf gun, and insertion device technologies make it seem likely

  8. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  9. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  10. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  11. Breakthrough in femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Objective The Science Center Publications Graduate Research opportunities Undergraduate research opportunities EFRC-501 graduate class Seminar schedules Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Breakthrough in femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography 4 Feb 2011 Professor Petra Fromme, a Principal Investigator of Subtask 2 at the Center, and members of her lab, Ingo Grotjohan and Raimund Fromme, have recently

  12. Type I X-ray burst simulation code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    dAGILE is an astrophysical code that simulates accretion of matter onto a neutron star and the subsequent x-ray burst. It is a one-dimensional time-dependent spherically symmetric code with generalized nuclear reaction networks, diffusive radiation/conduction, realistic boundary conditions, and general relativistic hydrodynamics. The code is described in more detail in Astrophysical Journal 650(2006)332 and Astrophysical Journal Supplements 174(2008)261.

  13. Achieving atomistic understanding of solvation dynamics from X-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    free-electron laser measurements | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Achieving atomistic understanding of solvation dynamics from X-ray free-electron laser measurements Wednesday, April 6, 2016 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Kasper, Kjaer, PULSE Program Description The efficiency, selectivity, and rate of chemical reactions depend critically on the reaction environment. Solvation, the local organization of the solvent molecules around a solute, plays a

  14. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  15. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  16. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  17. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  18. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  19. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow

  20. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow