National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hard x-ray free-electron

  1. Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Obara, Yuki; Misawa, Kazuhiko; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Kurahashi, Naoya; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Toshinori; Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198

    2013-09-23

    We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (?E/E ? 5 × 10{sup ?3}), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ?3 × 10{sup ?3}, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

  2. Spectrometer for Hard X-Ray Free Electron Laser Based on Diffraction Focusing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohn, V G; Vartanyants, I A

    2012-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) generate sequences of ultra-short, spatially coherent pulses of x-ray radiation. We propose the diffraction focusing spectrometer (DFS), which is able to measure the whole energy spectrum of the radiation of a single XFEL pulse with an energy resolution of $\\Delta E/E\\approx 2\\times 10^{-6}$. This is much better than for most modern x-ray spectrometers. Such resolution allows one to resolve the fine spectral structure of the XFEL pulse. The effect of diffraction focusing occurs in a single crystal plate due to dynamical scattering, and is similar to focusing in a Pendry lens made from the metamaterial with a negative refraction index. Such a spectrometer is easier to operate than those based on bent crystals. We show that the DFS can be used in a wide energy range from 5 keV to 20 keV.

  3. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; et al

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy ofmore »>1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of ?/?? > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.« less

  4. Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth Hard X-Ray Free-Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    one of the most promising methods to accomplish this. In the hard x-ray regime with high- energy electrons, this method requires a large magnetic chicane to match the path length...

  5. The History of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, C.; ,

    2012-06-28

    The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}, pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

  6. Sequential single shot X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at the SACLA free electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lehmkühler, Felix; Kwa?niewski, Pawe?; Roseker, Wojciech; Fischer, Birgit; Schroer, Martin A.; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Sprung, Michael; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; et al

    2015-11-27

    In this study, hard X-ray free electron lasers allow for the first time to access dynamics of condensed matter samples ranging from femtoseconds to several hundred seconds. In particular, the exceptional large transverse coherence of the X-ray pulses and the high time-averaged flux promises to reach time and length scales that have not been accessible up to now with storage ring based sources. However, due to the fluctuations originating from the stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process the application of well established techniques such as X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) is challenging. Here we demonstrate a single-shotmore »based sequential XPCS study on a colloidal suspension with a relaxation time comparable to the SACLA free-electron laser pulse repetition rate. High quality correlation functions could be extracted without any indications for sample damage. This opens the way for systematic sequential XPCS experiments at FEL sources.« less

  7. A compact x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barletta, W.A. . Center for Advanced Accelerators Physics Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Atac, M.; Cline, D.B.; Kolonko, J. . Center for Advanced Accelerators Physics); Bhowmik, A.; Bobbs, B.; Cover, R.A.; Dixon, F.P.; Rakowsky, G. . Rocketdyne Div.); Gallardo

    1988-01-01

    We present a design concept and simulation of the performance of a compact x-ray, free electron laser driven by ultra-high gradient rf-linacs. The accelerator design is based on recent advances in high gradient technology by a LLNL/SLAC/LBL collaboration and on the development of bright, high current electron sources by BNL and LANL. The GeV electron beams generated with such accelerators can be converted to soft x-rays in the range from 2--10 nm by passage through short period, high field strength wigglers as are being designed at Rocketdyne Linear light sources of this type can produce trains of picosecond (or shorter) pulses of extremely high spectral brilliance suitablee for flash holography of biological specimens in vivo and for studies of fast chemical reactions. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F. J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; et al

    2015-03-06

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitudemore »in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.« less

  9. Sensing the wavefront of x-ray free-electron lasers using aerosol spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loh, N.Duane; Starodub, Dimitri; Lomb, Lukas; Hampton, Christina Y.; Martin, Andrew V.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Barty, Anton; Aquila, Andrew; Schulz, Joachim; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Hartmann, Robert; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Rudek, Benedikt; Foucar, Lutz

    2014-04-22

    Characterizing intense, focused x-ray free electron laser (FEL) pulses is crucial for their use in diffractive imaging. We describe how the distribution of average phase tilts and intensities on hard x-ray pulses with peak intensities of 10 21 W/m2 can be retrieved from an ensemble of diffraction patterns produced by 70 nm-radius polystyrene spheres, in a manner that mimics wave-front sensors. Besides showing that an adaptive geometric correction may be necessary for diffraction data from randomly injected sample sources, the paper demonstrates the possibility of collecting statistics on structured pulses using only the diffraction patterns they generate and highlights the imperative to study its impact on single-particle diffractive imaging.

  10. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

    1984-11-29

    An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  11. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Edward M. (Pleasanton, CA); Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An operational X-ray laser (30) is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition X-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The X-ray laser (30) is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam (32) illuminates a free-standing thin foil (34) that may be associated with a substrate (36) for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the X-ray laser gain medium. The X-ray laser (30) may be driven by more than one optical laser beam (32, 44). The X-ray laser (30) has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  12. Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vartanyants, I.A.; /DESY /Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.; Singer, A.; Mancuso, A.P.; Yefanov, O.M.; /DESY; Sakdinawat, A.; Liu, Y.; Bang, E.; /UC, Berkeley; Williams, G.J.; /SLAC; Cadenazzi, G.; Abbey, B.; /Melbourne U.; Sinn, H.; /European XFEL, Hamburg; Attwood, D.; /UC, Berkeley; Nugent, K.A.; /Melbourne U.; Weckert, E.; /DESY; Wang, T.; Zhu, D.; Wu, B.; Graves, C.; Scherz, A.; Turner, J.J.; Schlotter, W.F.; /SLAC /LERMA, Ivry /Zurich, ETH /LBL, Berkeley /ANL, APS /Argonne /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore /Latrobe U. /SLAC /SLAC /European XFEL, Hamburg /SLAC /Hamburg U.

    2012-06-06

    Measurements of the spatial and temporal coherence of single, femtosecond x-ray pulses generated by the first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source, are presented. Single-shot measurements were performed at 780 eV x-ray photon energy using apertures containing double pinholes in 'diffract-and-destroy' mode. We determined a coherence length of 17 {micro}m in the vertical direction, which is approximately the size of the focused Linac Coherent Light Source beam in the same direction. The analysis of the diffraction patterns produced by the pinholes with the largest separation yields an estimate of the temporal coherence time of 0.55 fs. We find that the total degree of transverse coherence is 56% and that the x-ray pulses are adequately described by two transverse coherent modes in each direction. This leads us to the conclusion that 78% of the total power is contained in the dominant mode.

  13. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; et al

    2015-01-20

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarilymore »by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.« less

  14. Development of an X-ray pixel detector with multi-port charge-coupled device for X-ray free-electron laser experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kameshima, Takashi; Ono, Shun; Kudo, Togo; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kirihara, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Hatsui, Takaki; RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 ; Horigome, Toshio; Holland, Andrew; Holland, Karen; Burt, David; Murao, Hajime

    2014-03-15

    This paper presents development of an X-ray pixel detector with a multi-port charge-coupled device (MPCCD) for X-ray Free-Electron laser experiments. The fabrication process of the CCD was selected based on the X-ray radiation hardness against the estimated annual dose of 1.6 × 10{sup 14} photon/mm{sup 2}. The sensor device was optimized by maximizing the full well capacity as high as 5 Me- within 50 ?m square pixels while keeping the single photon detection capability for X-ray photons higher than 6 keV and a readout speed of 60 frames/s. The system development also included a detector system for the MPCCD sensor. This paper summarizes the performance, calibration methods, and operation status.

  15. The First Angstrom X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galayda, John; /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source produced its first x-ray laser beam on 10 April 2009. Today it is routinely producing x-ray pulses with energy >2 mJ across the operating range from 820-8,200 eV. The facility has begun operating for atomic/molecular/optical science experiments. Performance of the facility in its first user run (1 October - 21 December) and current machine development activities will be presented. Early results from the preparations for the start of the second user run is also reported.

  16. High Efficiency, Multi-Terawatt X-ray free electron lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emma, Claudio; Wu, Juhao; Pellegrini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We study high efficiency, multi-terawatt peak power, few angstrom wavelength, X-ray Free Electron Lasers (X-ray FELs). To obtain these characteristics we consider an optimized undulator design: superconducting, helical, with short period and built-in strong focusing. This design reduces the length of the breaks between modules, decreasing diffraction effects, and allows using a stronger transverse electron focusing. Both effects reduce the gain length and the overall undulator length. The peak power and efficiency depend on the transverse electron beam distribution and on time dependent effects, like synchrotron sideband growth. The last effect is identified as the main cause for reduction of electron beam microbunching and FEL peak power. We show that the optimal functional form for the undulator magnetic field tapering profile, yielding the maximum output power, depends significantly on these effects. The output power achieved when neglecting time dependent effects for an LCLS-like X-ray FEL with a 100 m lo...

  17. Pulse energy measurement at the hard x-ray laser in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Saito, N.; Kurosawa, T.; Richter, M.; Sorokin, A. A.; Tiedtke, K.; Kudo, T.; Yabashi, M.; Tono, K.; Ishikawa, T.

    2012-07-09

    The pulse energies of a free electron laser have accurately been measured in the hard x-ray spectral range. In the photon energy regime from 4.4 keV to 16.8 keV, pulse energies up to 100 {mu}J were obtained at the hard x-ray laser facility SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser). Two independent methods, using a cryogenic radiometer and a gas monitor detector, were applied and agreement within 3.3% was achieved. Based on our validated pulse energy measurement, a SACLA online monitor detector could be calibrated for all future experiments.

  18. Reconstructing Three-dimensional Helical Structure With an X-Ray Free Electron Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Uddin

    2015-06-29

    Recovery of three-dimensional structure from single particle X-ray scattering of completely randomly oriented diffraction patterns as predicted few decades back has been real due to advent of the new emerging X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) technology. As the world's first XFEL is in operation starting from June 2009 at SLAC National Lab at Stanford, the very first few experiments being conducted on larger objects such as viruses. Many of the important structures of nature such as helical viruses or deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) consist of helical repetition of biological subunits. Hence development of method for reconstructing helical structure from collected XFEL data has been a top priority research. In this work we have developed a method for solving helical structure such as TMV from a set of randomly oriented simulated diffraction patterns exploiting symmetry and Fourier space constraint of the diffraction volume.

  19. Ultrafast myoglobin structural dynamics observed with an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Levantino, Matteo; Schirò, Giorgio; Lemke, Henrik Till; Cottone, Grazia; Glownia, James Michael; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Mathieu; Ihee, Hyotcherl; KAIST, Daejeon; Cupane, Antonio; et al

    2015-04-02

    Light absorption can trigger biologically relevant protein conformational changes. The light induced structural rearrangement at the level of a photoexcited chromophore is known to occur in the femtosecond timescale and is expected to propagate through the protein as a quake-like intramolecular motion. Here we report direct experimental evidence of such ‘proteinquake’ observed in myoglobin through femtosecond X-ray solution scattering measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free-electron laser. An ultrafast increase of myoglobin radius of gyration occurs within 1 picosecond and is followed by a delayed protein expansion. As the system approaches equilibrium it undergoes damped oscillations withmore »a ~3.6-picosecond time period. Our results unambiguously show how initially localized chemical changes can propagate at the level of the global protein conformation in the picosecond timescale.« less

  20. Reconstructing Three-dimensional Helical Structure With an X-Ray Free Electron Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Uddin

    2015-11-21

    Recovery of three-dimensional structure from single particle X-ray scattering of completely randomly oriented diffraction patterns as predicted few decades back has been real due to the advent of the new emerging X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) technology. As the worlds first XFEL is in operation starting from June 2009 at SLAC National Lab at Stanford, the very first few experiments being conducted on larger objects such as viruses. Many of the important structures of nature such as helical viruses or deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) consist of helical repetition of biological subunits. Hence development of method for reconstructing helical structure from collected XFEL data has been a top priority research. In this work we have developed a method for solving helical structure such as TMV (tobacco mosaic virus) from a set of randomly oriented simulated diffraction patterns exploiting symmetry and Fourier space constraint of the diffraction volume.

  1. Direct and secondary nuclear excitation with x-ray free-electron lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunst, Jonas; Kumar, Naveen; Keitel, Christoph H; Pálffy, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The direct and secondary nuclear excitation produced by an x-ray free electron laser when interacting with a solid-state nuclear target is investigated theoretically. When driven at the resonance energy, the x-ray free electron laser can produce direct photoexcitation. However, the dominant process in that interaction is the photoelectric effect producing a cold and very dense plasma in which also secondary processes such as nuclear excitation by electron capture may occur. We develop a realistic model to quantify the temporal dynamics of the plasma and the magnitude of the secondary excitation therein. Numerical results show that depending on the nuclear transition energy and the temperature and charge states reached in the plasma, secondary nuclear excitation by electron capture may dominate the direct photoexcitation by several orders of magnitude, as it is the case for the 4.8 keV transition from the isomeric state of $^{93}$Mo, or it can be negligible, as it is the case for the 14.4 keV M\\"ossbauer trans...

  2. Spectrometer for X-ray emission experiments at FERMI free-electron-laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poletto, L., E-mail: poletto@dei.unipd.it; Frassetto, F.; Miotti, P. [CNR - Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR-IFN), via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Di Cicco, A.; Iesari, F. [Physics Division, School of Science and Technology, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Finetti, P. [ELETTRA - Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, S. S. 14 - km 163,5, I-34149, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Grazioli, C. [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); CNR-Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Kivimäki, A. [CNR-Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Stagira, S. [Politecnico di Milano – Department of Physics, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Coreno, M. [ELETTRA - Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, S. S. 14 - km 163,5, I-34149, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); CNR – Istituto di Struttura della Materia (CNR-ISM), UOS Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    A portable and compact photon spectrometer to be used for photon in-photon out experiments, in particular x-ray emission spectroscopy, is presented. The instrument operates in the 25–800 eV energy range to cover the full emissions of the FEL1 and FEL2 stages of FERMI. The optical design consists of two interchangeable spherical varied-lined-spaced gratings and a CCD detector. Different input sections can be accommodated, with/without an entrance slit and with/without an additional relay mirror, that allow to mount the spectrometer in different end-stations and at variable distances from the target area both at synchrotron and at free-electron-laser beamlines. The characterization on the Gas Phase beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron (Italy) is presented.

  3. Microwave and hard X-ray imaging observations of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    Microwave and hard X-ray imaging observations of energetic electrons in solar flares: event of 2003 to nonthermal energies are seen via microwave and hard X-ray emission from the solar corona. Imaging sophisticated and fully dedicated solar radio telescope operating at microwave frequencies (17 & 34 GHz) capable

  4. Compact X-ray Free Electron Laser from a Laser-plasma Accelerator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCELERATORS; ELECTRON BEAMS; ELECTRONS; FREE ELECTRON LASERS; LASERS; PERFORMANCE; PLASMA GUNS; RADIATIONS; WIGGLER MAGNETS...

  5. Soft x-ray free-electron laser induced damage to inorganic scintillators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burian, Tomáš; Hájková, V?ra; Chalupský, Jaromír; Vyšín, Lud?k; Bohá?ek, Pavel; P?e?ek, Martin; Wild, Jan; Özkan, Cigdem; Coppola, Nicola; Farahani, Shafagh Dastjani; et al

    2015-01-07

    An irreversible response of inorganic scintillators to intense soft x-ray laser radiation was investigated at the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) facility. Three ionic crystals, namely, Ce:YAG (cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet), PbWO4 (lead tungstate), and ZnO (zinc oxide), were exposed to single 4.6 nm ultra-short laser pulses of variable pulse energy (up to 12 ?J) under normal incidence conditions with tight focus. Damaged areas produced with various levels of pulse fluences, were analyzed on the surface of irradiated samples using differential interference contrast (DIC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effective beam area of 22.2 ± 2.2 ?m2 was determinedmore »by means of the ablation imprints method with the use of poly(methyl methacrylate) - PMMA. Applied to the three inorganic materials, this procedure gave almost the same values of an effective area. The single-shot damage threshold fluence was determined for each of these inorganic materials. The Ce:YAG sample seems to be the most radiation resistant under the given irradiation conditions, its damage threshold was determined to be as high as 660.8 ± 71.2 mJ/cm2. Contrary to that, the PbWO4 sample exhibited the lowest radiation resistance with a threshold fluence of 62.6 ± 11.9 mJ/cm2. The threshold for ZnO was found to be 167.8 ± 30.8 mJ/cm2. Both interaction and material characteristics responsible for the damage threshold difference are discussed in the article.« less

  6. R&D for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corlett, John; Attwood, David; Byrd, John; Denes, Peter; Falcone, Roger; Heimann, Phil; Leemans, Wim; Padmore, Howard; Prestemon, Soren; Sannibale, Fernando; Schlueter, Ross; Schroeder, Carl; Staples, John; Venturini, Marco; Warwick, Tony; Wells, Russell; Wilcox, Russell; Zholent, Alexander; Adolphsen, Chris; Arthur, John; Bergmann, Uwe; Cai, Yunhai; Colby, Eric; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Fox, John; Frisch, Josef; Galayda, John; Hettel, Robert; Huang, Zhirong; Phinney, Nan; Rabedeau, Tom; Raubenheimer, Tor; Reis, David; Schmerge, John; Stöhr, Joachim; Stupakov, Gennady; White, Bill; Xiang, Dao

    2009-06-08

    Several recent reports have identified the scientific requirements for a future soft x-ray light source, and a high-repetition-rate free-electron laser (FEL) facility that is responsive to these requirements is now on the horizon. R&D in some critical areas is needed, however, to demonstrate technical performance, thus reducing technical risks and construction costs. Such a facility most likely will be based on a CW superconducting linear accelerator with beam supplied by a high-brightness, high-repetition-rate photocathode electron gun operating in CW mode, and on an array of FELs to which the accelerated beam is distributed, each operating at high repetition rate and with even pulse spacing. Dependent on experimental requirements, the individual FELs can be configured for either self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), seeded, or oscillator mode of operation, including the use of high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG), echo-enhanced harmonic generation (EEHG), harmonic cascade, or other configurations. In this White Paper we identify the overall accelerator R&D needs, and highlight the most important pre-construction R&D tasks required to value-engineer the design configuration and deliverables for such a facility. In Section 1.4 we identify the comprehensive R&D ultimately needed. We identify below the highest-priority requirements for understanding machine performance and reduce risk and costs at this pre-conceptual design stage. Details of implementing the required tasks will be the subject of future evaluation. Our highest-priority R&D program is the injector, which must be capable of delivering a beam with bunches up to a nanocoulomb at MHz repetition rate and with normalized emittance {le} 1 mm {center_dot} mrad. This will require integrated accelerating structure, cathode, and laser systems development. Cathode materials will impact the choice of laser technology in wavelength and energy per pulse, as well as vacuum requirements in the accelerating structure. Demonstration experiments in advanced seeding techniques, such as EEHG, and other optical manipulations to enhance the FEL process are required to reduce technical risk in producing temporally coherent and ultrashort x-ray output using optical seed lasers. Success of EEHG in particular would result in reduced development and cost of laser systems and accelerator hardware for seeded FELs. With a 1.5-2.5 GeV linac, FELs could operate in the VUV-soft x-ray range, where the actual beam energy will be determined by undulator technology; for example, to use the lower energy would require the use of advanced designs for which undulator R&D is needed. Significant reductions in both unit costs and accelerator costs resulting from the lower electron beam energy required to achieve lasing at a particular wavelength could be obtained with undulator development. Characterization of the wakefields of the vacuum chambers in narrow-gap undulators will be needed to minimize risk in ability to deliver close to transform limited pulses. CW superconducting RF technology for an FEL facility with short bunches at MHz rate and up to mA average current will require selection of design choices in cavity frequency and geometry, higher order mode suppression and power dissipation, RF power supply and distribution, accelerating gradient, and cryogenics systems. R&D is needed to define a cost and performance optimum. Developments in laser technology are proceeding at rapid pace, and progress in high-power lasers, harmonic generation, and tunable sources will need to be tracked.

  7. The Ulysses Catalog of Solar Hard X-Ray Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tranquille, C.; Hurley, K.; Hudson, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Sturrock, P.A. (ed. ) Solar Flares: A Monograph from SkylabSmith E.V.P. : 1963, Solar Flares, Macmillan, New York.Catalog of Solar Hard X-Ray Flares Table 1 (Continued. )

  8. VISA: A Milestone on the Path towards X-Ray Free Electron Lasers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and saturation regime. Both, simulation and theory predict the intensity of the 3rd harmonic to be about 1% of the fundamental for an x-ray SASE FEL. This is about 8 orders of...

  9. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent scattering and speckle analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Schropp, Andreas; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg; Seiboth, Frank; Feng, Yiping; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Chollet, Matthieu; Lemke, Henrik T.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; et al

    2015-04-14

    X-ray focus optimization and characterization based on coherent scattering and quantitative speckle size measurements was demonstrated at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Its performance as a single-pulse free-electron laser beam diagnostic was tested for two typical focusing configurations. The results derived from the speckle size/shape analysis show the effectiveness of this technique in finding the focus' location, size and shape. In addition, its single-pulse compatibility enables users to capture pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in focus properties compared with other techniques that require scanning and averaging.

  10. Experimental Demonstration of a Soft X-ray Self-seeded Free-electron Laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ratner, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Abela, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Amann, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Behrens, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bohler, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bouchard, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bostedt, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Boyes, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chow, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cocco, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Decker, F. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ding, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Eckman, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Emma, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fairley, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Feng, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Field, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flechsig, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Gassner, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hastings, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Heimann, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kelez, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Krzywinski, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loos, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lutman, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Marinelli, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Marcus, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Maxwell, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Moeller, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Morton, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nuhn, H. D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rodes, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlotter, W. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Serkez, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stevens, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Walz, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Welch, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wu, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-06

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has added self-seeding capability to the soft x-ray range using a grating monochromator system. We report demonstration of soft x-ray self-seeding with a measured resolving power of 2000-5000, wavelength stability of 10-4, and an increase in peak brightness by a factor of 2-5 across the photon energy range of 500-1000 eV. By avoiding the need for a monochromator at the experimental station, the self-seeded beam can deliver as much as 50 fold higher brightness to users.

  11. Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    anticipate that continuous development on wedged MLLs will advance x-ray nanofocusing optics to new frontiers and enrich capabilities and opportunities for hard X-ray microscopy....

  12. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |production at aSciTech Connect Fe AtomicSciTechLaser: Application

  13. The Turn-on of LCLS: the X-Ray Free Electron Laser at SLAC ( Keynote - 2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Drell, Persis [SLAC Director

    2011-06-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. SLAC National Laboratory Director Persis Drell gives a keynote talk on "The Turn-on of LCLS: the X-Ray Free-Electron Laser at SLAC" at the 6th Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2011

  14. The Turn-on of LCLS: the X-Ray Free Electron Laser at SLAC ( Keynote - 2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drell, Persis [SLAC Director] [SLAC Director

    2011-03-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. SLAC National Laboratory Director Persis Drell gives a keynote talk on "The Turn-on of LCLS: the X-Ray Free-Electron Laser at SLAC" at the 6th Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2011

  15. Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Hattne, Johan; Brewster, Aaron S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.; Weis, William I.

    2015-03-17

    There is considerable potential for X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) to enable determination of macromolecular crystal structures that are difficult to solve using current synchrotron sources. Prior XFEL studies often involved the collection of thousands to millions of diffraction images, in part due to limitations of data processing methods. We implemented a data processing system based on classical post-refinement techniques, adapted to specific properties of XFEL diffraction data. When applied to XFEL data from three different proteins collected using various sample delivery systems and XFEL beam parameters, our method improved the quality of the diffraction data as well as themore »resulting refined atomic models and electron density maps. Moreover, the number of observations for a reflection necessary to assemble an accurate data set could be reduced to a few observations. These developments will help expand the applicability of XFEL crystallography to challenging biological systems, including cases where sample is limited.« less

  16. Comments on : Proposal for Raman x-ray free electron laser.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zholents, A.; Zolotorev, M. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS)); (LBNL)

    2011-05-01

    Equation 13 in this paper defines the force experienced by the electron moving in z direction with velocity v{sub z} due to the X-ray wave propagating in z direction with electric field E{sub 1} pointing in y direction and magnetic field B{sub 1} pointing in x direction as {rvec F}{sub 1}(t) = -eE{sub 1} cos({omega}{sub 1}t - k{sub 1}z){rvec e}{sub y}. In our opinion calculating this force one should also include the impact of the X-ray wave's magnetic field and obtain {rvec F}{sub 1}(t) = -e E{sub 1} = v{sub z}/c B{sub 1} cos({omega}{sub 1}t - k{sub 1}z){rvec e}{sub y} {approx} - eE{sub 1}/2{gamma}{sup 2} cos({omega}{sub 1}t - k{sub 1}z){rvec e}{sub y}. Here c is the speed of light and {gamma} is the electron relativistic factor. In result one would need to change E{sub 1} to E{sub 1}/2{gamma}{sup 2} in all the following equations in the cited paper (except wave propagation equations, Eqs. (23) and (34)). They believe that similar omission in the impact of the magnetic field appears in equation (28). Consequently, the formula for the gaion (Eq. (37) in the cited paper) should also include the factor 1/2{gamma}{sup 2}. This is a rather significant modification considering that relativistic electrons with values of {gamma} ranging from approximately 20 to approximately 300 are used in the numerical examples.

  17. A camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Alameda, J; Woods, B; Frank, M; Bogan, M J; Barty, A; Boutet, S; Marchesini, S; Hau-Riege, S P; Hajdu, J; Shapiro, D

    2007-09-24

    We describe a camera to record coherent scattering patterns with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser. The camera consists of a laterally-graded multilayer mirror which reflects the diffraction pattern onto a CCD detector. The mirror acts as a bandpass filter both for wavelength and angle, which isolates the desired scattering pattern from non-sample scattering or incoherent emission from the sample. The mirror also solves the particular problem of the extreme intensity of the FEL pulses, which are focused to greater than 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The strong undiffracted pulse passes through a hole in the mirror and propagates on to a beam dump at a distance behind the instrument rather than interacting with a beamstop placed near the CCD. The camera concept is extendable for the full range of the fundamental wavelength of the FLASH FEL (i.e. between 6 nm and 60 nm) and into the water window. We have fabricated and tested various multilayer mirrors for wavelengths of 32 nm, 16 nm, 13.5 nm, and 4.5 nm. At the shorter wavelengths mirror roughness must be minimized to reduce scattering from the mirror. We have recorded over 30,000 diffraction patterns at the FLASH free-electron laser with no observable mirror damage or degradation of performance.

  18. Bent crystal spectrometer for both frequency and wavenumber resolved x-ray scattering at a seeded free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zastrau, Ulf; Fletcher, Luke B.; Galtier, Eric Ch.; Gamboa, Eliseo; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Heimann, Philipp; Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Lee, Hae Ja; Förster, Eckhart; Marschner, Heike; Wehrhan, Ortrud

    2014-09-15

    We present a cylindrically curved GaAs x-ray spectrometer with energy resolution ?E/E = 1.1 ×?10{sup ?4} and wave-number resolution of ?k/k = 3 ×?10{sup ?3}, allowing plasmon scattering at the resolution limits of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser. It spans scattering wavenumbers of 3.6 to 5.2/Å in 100 separate bins, with only 0.34% wavenumber blurring. The dispersion of 0.418 eV/13.5??m agrees with predictions within 1.3%. The reflection homogeneity over the entire wavenumber range was measured and used to normalize the amplitude of scattering spectra. The proposed spectrometer is superior to a mosaic highly annealed pyrolytic graphite spectrometer when the energy resolution needs to be comparable to the LCLS seeded bandwidth of 1 eV and a significant range of wavenumbers must be covered in one exposure.

  19. Bent crystal spectrometer for both frequency and wavenumber resolved x-ray scattering at a seeded free-electron laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zastrau, Ulf; Foerster, Eckhart; Galtier, Eric Ch; Gamboa, Eliseo; Glenzer, Siegfried H; Heimann, Philipp; Marschner, Heike; Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Wehrhan, Ortrud; Lee, Hae Ja

    2014-01-01

    We present a cylindrically curved GaAs x-ray spectrometer with energy resolution $\\Delta E/E = 1.1\\cdot 10^{-4}$ and wave-number resolution of $\\Delta k/k = 3\\cdot 10^{-3}$, allowing plasmon scattering at the resolution limits of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser. It spans scattering wavenumbers of 3.6 to $5.2/$\\AA\\ in 100 separate bins, with only 0.34\\% wavenumber blurring. The dispersion of 0.418~eV/$13.5\\,\\mu$m agrees with predictions within 1.3\\%. The reflection homogeneity over the entire wavenumber range was measured and used to normalize the amplitude of scattering spectra. The proposed spectrometer is superior to a mosaic HAPG spectrometer when the energy resolution needs to be comparable to the LCLS seeded bandwidth of 1~eV and a significant range of wavenumbers must be covered in one exposure.

  20. Damage Threshold of Platinum Coating used for Optics for Self-Seeding of Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krzywinski, Jacek; Cocco, Daniele; Moeller, Stefan; Ratner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the experimental damage threshold of platinum coating on a silicon substrate illuminated by soft x-ray radiation at grazing incidence angle of 2.1 deg. The coating was the same as the blazed grating used for the soft X-ray self-seeding optics of the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. The irradiation condition was chosen such that the absorbed dose was similar to the maximum dose expected for the grating. The expected dose was simulated by solving the Helmholtz equation in non-homogenous media. The experiment was performed at 900 eV photon energy for both single pulse and multi-shot conditions. We have not observed single shot damage. This corresponds to a single shot damage threshold being higher than 3 J/cm2. The multiple shot damage threshold measured for 10 shots and about 600 shots was determined to be 0.95 J/cm2 and 0.75 J/cm2 respectively. The damage threshold occurred at an instantaneous dose which is higher that the melt dose of platinum.

  1. Damage Threshold of Platinum Coating used for Optics for Self-Seeding of Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krzywinski, Jacek; Cocco, Daniele; Moeller, Stefan; Ratner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the experimental damage threshold of platinum coating on a silicon substrate illuminated by soft x-ray radiation at grazing incidence angle of 2.1 deg. The coating was the same as the blazed grating used for the soft X-ray self-seeding optics of the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. The irradiation condition was chosen such that the absorbed dose was similar to the maximum dose expected for the grating. The expected dose was simulated by solving the Helmholtz equation in non-homogenous media. The experiment was performed at 900 eV photon energy for both single pulse and multi-shot conditions. We have not observed single shot damage. This corresponds to a single shot damage threshold being higher than 3 J/cm2. The multiple shot damage threshold measured for 10 shots and about 600 shots was determined to be 0.95 J/cm2 and 0.75 J/cm2 respectively. The damage threshold occurred at an instantaneous dose which is higher that the melt dose of platinum.

  2. Damage Threshold of Platinum Coating used for Optics for Self-Seeding of Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krzywinski, Jacek; Cocco, Daniele; Moeller, Stefan; Ratner, Daniel

    2015-02-23

    We investigated the experimental damage threshold of platinum coating on a silicon substrate illuminated by soft x-ray radiation at grazing incidence angle of 2.1 deg. The coating was the same as the blazed grating used for the soft X-ray self-seeding optics of the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. The irradiation condition was chosen such that the absorbed dose was similar to the maximum dose expected for the grating. The expected dose was simulated by solving the Helmholtz equation in non-homogenous media. The experiment was performed at 900 eV photon energy for both single pulse and multi-shot conditions. Wemore »have not observed single shot damage. This corresponds to a single shot damage threshold being higher than 3 J/cm2. The multiple shot damage threshold measured for 10 shots and about 600 shots was determined to be 0.95 J/cm2 and 0.75 J/cm2 respectively. The damage threshold occurred at an instantaneous dose which is higher that the melt dose of platinum.« less

  3. Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siddons, D.P.; Johnson, E.D.; Guckel, H.; Klein, J.L.

    1997-10-21

    An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures. 21 figs.

  4. Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siddons, David Peter (Shoreham, NY); Johnson, Erik D. (Ridge, NY); Guckel, Henry (Madison, WI); Klein, Jonathan L. (Madison, WI)

    1997-10-21

    An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures.

  5. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 Å wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definitionmore »of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating theRsplitvalue) of 3.15% to 1.46 Å resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 Å wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will generally increase the utility of the method for difficult cases.« less

  6. Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Extreme Ultraviolet and Hard X-ray ranges have provided for more powerful tools for the investigation of this phenomenon. Detection of hard X-rays in the 20 to 100...

  7. IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR FLARE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR...

  8. Constraints on jet X-ray emission in low/hard state X-ray binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas J. Maccarone

    2005-03-31

    We show that the combination of the similarities between the X-ray properties of low luminosity accreting black holes and accreting neutron stars, combined with the differences in their radio properties argues that the X-rays from these systems are unlikely to be formed in the relativistic jets. Specifically, the spectra of extreme island state neutron stars and low/hard state black holes are known to be indistinguishable, while the power spectra from these systems are known to show only minor differences beyond what would be expected from scaling the characteristic variability frequencies by the mass of the compact object. The spectral and temporal similarities thus imply a common emission mechanism that has only minor deviations from having all key parameters scaling linearly with the mass of the compact object, while we show that this is inconsistent with the observations that the radio powers of neutron stars are typically about 30 times lower than those of black holes at the same X-ray luminosity. We also show that an abrupt luminosity change would be expected when a system makes a spectral state transition from a radiatively inefficient jet dominated accretion flow to a thin disk dominated flow, but that such a change is not seen.

  9. Millimeter, Microwave, Hard X--ray and Soft X--ray Observations of Energetic Electron Populations in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    Millimeter, Microwave, Hard X--ray and Soft X--ray Observations of Energetic Electron Populations in Solar Flares M. R. Kundu 1 , S. M. White 1 , N. Gopalswamy 1 and J. Lim 1,2 1 Dept. of Astronomy, Univ. of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 2 Solar Astronomy 264--33, Caltech, Pasadena CA 91125 Submitted

  10. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D.; Markvardsen, Anders J.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Mattle, Daniel; Shoeman, Robert L.; Doak, R. Bruce; Boutet, Sébastien; et al

    2015-06-11

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport ofe.g.ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data revealmore »the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins.« less

  11. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D.; Markvardsen, Anders J.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Mattle, Daniel; Shoeman, Robert L.; Doak, R. Bruce; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin M.; Williams, Garth J.; Foucar, Lutz; Reinhard, Linda; Sitsel, Oleg; Gregersen, Jonas L.; Clausen, Johannes D.; Boesen, Thomas; Gotfryd, Kamil; Wang, Kai -Tuo; Olesen, Claus; Møller, Jesper V.; Nissen, Poul; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-06-11

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport ofe.g.ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data reveal the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins.

  12. X-ray-optical cross-correlator for gas-phase experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schorb, S.; Cryan, J. P.; Glownia, J. M.; Bionta, M. R.; Coffee, R. N.; Swiggers, M.; Carron, S.; Castagna, J.-C.; Bozek, J. D.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schlotter, W. F.; Bostedt, C. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, California 94309 (United States); Gorkhover, T. [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Erk, B.; Boll, R.; Schmidt, C.; Rudenko, A. [Max-Planck Advanced-Study-Group at CFEL, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut f. Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rolles, D. [Max-Planck Advanced-Study-Group at CFEL, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut f. med. Forschung, Jahnstr. 29, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Rouzee, A. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-19

    X-ray-optical pump-probe experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have so far been limited to a time resolution of 280 fs fwhm due to timing jitter between the accelerator-based free-electron laser (FEL) and optical lasers. We have implemented a single-shot cross-correlator for femtosecond x-ray and infrared pulses. A reference experiment relying only on the pulse arrival time information from the cross-correlator shows a time resolution better than 50 fs fwhm (22 fs rms) and also yields a direct measurement of the maximal x-ray pulse length. The improved time resolution enables ultrafast pump-probe experiments with x-ray pulses from LCLS and other FEL sources.

  13. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ?5 keV to ?10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  14. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE FLUX SPECTRA OF THE 2 NOVEMBER 1991 SOLAR FLARE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE FLUX SPECTRA OF THE 2 NOVEMBER 1991 SOLAR FLARE CHIK-YIN LEE1,2 and HAIMIN analysed the hard X-ray and microwave flux spectra of the solar flare (BATSE No. 1791) on 2 November 1991 for this study. This paper studies the hard X-ray and microwave spectra of the solar flare on 2 November 1991

  15. Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    optimized nonlinear bunch compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized nonlinear bunch...

  16. Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fein, J. R. Holloway, J. P.; Peebles, J. L.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P.

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-? x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

  17. Photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling; Kroll, Thomas; Chollet, Mathieu; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Kern, Jan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Nordlund, Dennis; et al

    2015-04-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) have opened unprecedented possibilities to study the structure and dynamics of matter at an atomic level and ultra-fast timescale. Many of the techniques routinely used at storage ring facilities are being adapted for experiments conducted at FELs. In order to take full advantage of these new sources several challenges have to be overcome. They are related to the very different source characteristics and its resulting impact on sample delivery, X-ray optics, X-ray detection and data acquisition. Here it is described how photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy techniques can be applied to study the electronic structure andmore »its dynamics of transition metal systems with ultra-bright and ultra-short FEL X-ray pulses. In particular, some of the experimental details that are different compared with synchrotron-based setups are discussed and illustrated by recent measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source.« less

  18. Hard X-rays from Emission Line Galaxies and the X-ray Background: A Test for Advection Dominated Accretion with Radio Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Insu Yi; Stephen P. Boughn

    1997-10-14

    Recent studies of the cosmic X-ray background (XRB) have suggested the possible existence of a population of relatively faint sources with hard X-ray spectra; however, the emission mechanism remains unclear. If the hard X-ray emission is from the radiatively inefficient, advection dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) around massive black holes in galactic nuclei, X-ray luminosity and radio luminosity satisfy the approximate relation $L_R\\sim 7\\times 10^{35}(\

  19. HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM PARTIALLY OCCULTED SOLAR FLARES Sam Krucker1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM PARTIALLY OCCULTED SOLAR FLARES Sa¨m Krucker1 and R. P. Lin1,2 krucker occulted by the solar limb provide diagnostics of coronal hard X-ray (HXR) emissions in the absence of generally much brighter emissions from footpoints of flare loops. In this paper, a statis- tical survey

  20. Regularized reconstruction of the differential emission measure from solar flare hard X-ray spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Michele

    Regularized reconstruction of the differential emission measure from solar flare hard X-ray spectra for solar flare hard X-rays, it is currently unclear whether the electron distribution responsible simulated data and real photon spectra recorded by RHESSI. Subject headings: Sun: flares 1. Introduction

  1. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF MICROFLARES Jiong Qiu,1, 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , we study solar microflares using the coordinated hard X-ray and microwave observations obtainedHARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF MICROFLARES Jiong Qiu,1, 2 Chang Liu,2 Dale E. Gary,2 Gelu by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI ) during its open-shutter operation mode

  2. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region I: Hard X-ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mori, Kaya; Krivonos, Roman; Hong, Jaesub; Ponti, Gabriele; Bauer, Franz; Perez, Kerstin; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Tomsick, John A; Alexander, David M; Baganoff, Frederick K; Barret, Didier; Barriere, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E; Canipe, Alicia M; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W; Grindlay, Jonathan E; Harrison, Fiona A; Hornstrup, Allan; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, Jason E; Luu, Vy; Madsen, Kristen K; Mao, Peter H; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Perri, Matteo; Pivovaroff, Michael J; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Stern, Daniel; Westergaard, Niels J; Zhang, William W; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456-2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). NuSTAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with $\\Gamma\\sim1.3$-$2.3$ up to ~50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). NuSTAR detects non-thermal X-ray continuum emission spatially correlated with the 6.4 keV Fe K$\\alpha$ fluorescence line emission associated with two Sgr A molecular clouds: MC1 and the Bridge. Broad-band X-ray spectral analysis with a Monte-Carlo based X-ray reflection model self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density ($\\sim10^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws wi...

  3. The Phoenix Deep Survey: the radio properties of the hard X-ray selected sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Georgakakis; A. M. Hopkins; J. Afonso; M. Sullivan; B. Mobasher; L. E. Cram

    2004-07-05

    The radio properties of hard (2-8keV) X-ray selected sources are explored by combining a single 50ks XMM-Newton pointing with the ultra-deep and homogeneous Phoenix radio (1.4GHz) survey (Hopkins et al. 2003). A total of 43 sources are detected above the X-ray flux limit f_X(2-8keV)=7.7e-15cgs with 14 of them exhibiting radio emission above ~40muJy (3sigma). The X-ray/radio matched population lies in the borderline between radio loud and quiet AGNs and comprises sources with both soft and hard X-ray spectral properties suggesting both obscured and unobscured systems. The spectroscopically identified sub-sample (total of 6 X-ray/radio matches) comprises narrow emission line AGNs (4) with hard X-ray spectral properties and broad line sources (2) with soft X-ray spectra. We find evidence that the fraction of X-ray/radio matches increases from ~20% for sources with rest-frame column density N_H1e22cm^-2 their combined spectrum exhibits a soft X-ray component that may be associated with star-formation activity, although other possibilities cannot be excluded. We also find that radio emitting AGNs make up about 13-20% of the hard-band X-ray background depending on the adopted normalisation.

  4. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chubar, Oleg; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2015-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6~meV and 0.25~nm$^{-1}$ spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1~meV and 0.02~nm$^{-1}$ are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about $7\\times 10^{12}$~ph/s in a $90$-$\\mu$e...

  5. Proposed (to) EXIST: Hard X-ray Imaging All Sky Survey/Monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. E. Grindlay; T. A. Prince; F. Harrison; N. Gehrels; C. J. Hailey; B. Ramsey; M. C. Weisskopf; G. K. Skinner; P. Ubertini

    1998-01-01

    The hard x-ray (10-600 keV) sky is inherently time variable and yet has neither been surveyed nor monitored with a sensitive imaging telescope. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a mission concept, proposed for MIDEX, which would conduct the first imaging all-sky hard x-ray survey as well as provide a sensitive all sky monitor. With $\\sim 60%$ sky coverage each orbit, and full sky coverage each 50 days, hard x-ray studies of gamma-ray bursts, AGN, galactic transients, x-ray binaries and accretion-powered pulsars can be conducted over a wide range of timescales. We summarize the scientific objectives of EXIST for both the survey and monitoring objectives. We describe the mission concept and the instrumentation approach, which would incorporate a large area array of Cd-Zn-Te (CZT) detectors, as well as some of our ongoing development of CZT array detectors.

  6. Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond Hard X-ray pulses with Optimized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond Hard X-ray pulses with Optimized Nonlinear Bunch Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond...

  7. HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF A JET AND ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Lin, R. P.; Krucker, Saem, E-mail: glesener@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Science Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We report the first hard X-ray observation of a solar jet on the limb with flare footpoints occulted, so that faint emission from accelerated electrons in the corona can be studied in detail. In this event on 2003 August 21, RHESSI observed a double coronal hard X-ray source in the pre-impulsive phase at both thermal and nonthermal energies. In the impulsive phase, the first of two hard X-ray bursts consists of a single thermal/nonthermal source coinciding with the lower of the two earlier sources, and the second burst shows an additional nonthermal, elongated source, spatially and temporally coincident with the coronal jet. Analysis of the jet hard X-ray source shows that collisional losses by accelerated electrons can deposit enough energy to generate the jet. The hard X-ray time profile above 20 keV matches that of the accompanying Type III and broadband gyrosynchrotron radio emission, indicating both accelerated electrons escaping outward along the jet path and electrons trapped in the flare loop. The double coronal hard X-ray source, the open field lines indicated by Type III bursts, and the presence of a small post-flare loop are consistent with significant electron acceleration in an interchange reconnection geometry.

  8. DEDUCING ELECTRON PROPERTIES FROM HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Michele

    , University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, U.S.A. 9 Dipartimento di Informatica, Universit`a di Verona-ray polarization measurements have imposed significant new constraints on the degree of anisotropy distribution 42 5.5 X-ray polarization and electr

  9. Using X-ray free-electron lasers for probing of complex interaction dynamics of ultra-intense lasers with solid matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kluge, T., E-mail: t.kluge@hzdr.de; Huang, L. G.; Metzkes, J.; Bussmann, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., D-01328 Dresden (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Gutt, C. [Universität Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)] [Universität Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Schramm, U.; Cowan, T. E. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., D-01328 Dresden (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    We demonstrate the potential of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) to advance the understanding of complex plasma dynamics by allowing for the first time nanometer and femtosecond resolution at the same time in plasma diagnostics. Plasma phenomena on such short timescales are of high relevance for many fields of physics, in particular in the ultra-intense ultra-short laser interaction with matter. Highly relevant yet only partially understood phenomena become directly accessible in experiment. These include relativistic laser absorption at solid targets, creation of energetic electrons and electron transport in warm dense matter, including the seeding and development of surface and beam instabilities, ambipolar expansion, shock formation, and dynamics at the surfaces or at buried layers. In this paper, we focus on XFEL plasma probing for high power laser matter interactions based on quantitative calculations using synthesized data and evaluate the feasibility of various imaging and scattering techniques with special focus on the small angle X-ray scattering technique.

  10. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street Lighting Host Site: City ofNovelQ3:Q3:

  11. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street Lighting Host Site: City

  12. Maximizing spectral flux from self-seeding hard x-ray free electron lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom theHighI _s - "U N C-

  13. A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministrationTechnicalTechnicalScience.govWSRC-MS-g8-00318 Heat(Journal Article) |

  14. A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563 LLNL(Technicalentanglements for linearAoffromGalerkin

  15. Exploring the Wavefront of Hard X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Radiation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |production at a linear collider (Conference) |

  16. Single shot speckle and coherence analysis of the hard X-ray free electron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback System in the CERN SPS (Conference)

  17. Toward a Single Mode Free Electron Laser for Coherent Hard X-Ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaon and Pion

  18. Toward a Single Mode Free Electron Laser for Coherent Hard X-Ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaon and PionExperiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

  19. Correlation of hard X-ray and white light emission in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhar, Matej; Oliveros, Juan Carlos Martínez; Battaglia, Marina; Kleint, Lucia; Casadei, Diego; Hudson, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    A statistical study of the correlation between hard X-ray and white light emission in solar flares is performed in order to search for a link between flare-accelerated electrons and white light formation. We analyze 43 flares spanning GOES classes M and X using observations from RHESSI (Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) and HMI (Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager). We calculate X-ray fluxes at 30 keV and white light fluxes at 6173 \\r{A} summed over the hard X-ray flare ribbons with an integration time of 45 seconds around the peak hard-X ray time. We find a good correlation between hard X-ray fluxes and excess white light fluxes, with a highest correlation coefficient of 0.68 for photons with energy of 30 keV. Assuming the thick target model, a similar correlation is found between the deposited power by flare-accelerated electrons and the white light fluxes. The correlation coefficient is found to be largest for energy deposition by electrons above ~50 keV. At higher electron energies the co...

  20. Hard X-ray and ultraviolet emission during the 2011 June 7 solar flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inglis, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between X-ray and UV emission during flares, particularly in the context of quasi-periodic pulsations, remains unclear. To address this, we study the X-ray and UV emission during the eruptive flare of 2011 June 7 utilising X-ray imaging from RHESSI and UV 1700A imaging from SDO/AIA. This event is associated with synchronous quasi-periodic pulsations in both the X-ray and UV emission, as well as substantial motion of the hard X-ray footpoints. The motion of the footpoint associated with the left-hand flare ribbon is shown to reverse direction along the flare ribbons on at least two occasions. Over the same time interval, the footpoints also gradually move apart at v ~ 12 km/s. This is consistent with the measured plane-of-sky thermal X-ray source outward velocity of ~ 14 km/s, and matches the gradual outward expansion of the UV ribbons. However, there is no associated short-timescale motion of the UV bright regions. We find that the locations of the brightest X-ray and UV regions are different...

  1. Hard X-ray spatial array diagnostics on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, D. W.; Chen, Z. Y. Luo, Y. H.; Tong, R. H.; Yan, W.; Jin, W.; Zhuang, G.

    2014-11-15

    A spatially distributed hard X-ray detection array has been developed to diagnose the loss of runaway electron with toroidal and poloidal resolution. The hard X-ray radiation in the energy ranges of 0.3–1 MeV resulted from runaway electrons can be measured. The detection array consists of 12 CdTe detectors which are arranged surrounding the tokamak. It is found that most runaway electrons which transport to plasma boundary tend to loss on limiters. The application of electrode biasing probe resulted in enhancement of local runaway loss. Resonant magnetic perturbations enhanced the runaway electrons diffusion and showed an asymmetric poloidal loss rate.

  2. Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Conley, Raymond; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Macrander, Albert; Maser, Jorg; Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Harder, Ross; et al

    2015-05-04

    We report on the fabrication and the characterization of a wedged multilayer Laue lens for x-ray nanofocusing. The lens was fabricated using a sputtering deposition technique, in which a specially designed mask was employed to introduce a thickness gradient in the lateral direction of the multilayer. X-ray characterization shows an efficiency of 27% and a focus size of 26 nm at 14.6 keV, in a good agreement with theoretical calculations. These results indicate that the desired wedging is achieved in the fabricated structure. We anticipate that continuous development on wedged MLLs will advance x-ray nanofocusing optics to new frontiers andmore »enrich capabilities and opportunities for hard X-ray microscopy.« less

  3. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H.; Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T.

    2014-05-15

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  4. Hard X-rays from Ultra-Compact HII Regions in W49A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, M; Feigelson, E D; Getman, K V; Broos, P S

    2006-01-01

    We report the Chandra detection of hard X-ray emission from the Welch ring in W49A, an organized structure of ultra-compact (UC) HII regions containing a dozen nascent early-type stars. Two UC HII regions are associated with hard X-ray emission in a deep Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer image exposed for 96.7 ks. One of the two X-ray sources has no near-infrared counterpart and is extended by ~5 arcsec, or ~0.3 pc, at a distance of ~11.4 kpc, which is spatially aligned with the cometary radio continuum emission associated with the UC HII region. The X-ray spectrum of the emission, when fit with a thermal model, indicates a heavily absorbed plasma with extinction of \\~5x10^{23}/cm^{2}, temperature of ~7 keV, and X-ray luminosity in the 3.0-8.0 keV band of ~3x10^{33} ergs/s. Both the luminosity and the size of the emission resemble the extended hard emission found in UC HII regions in Sagittarius B2, yet they are smaller by an order of magnitude than the emission found in massive star clusters such as NGC 3603...

  5. Transverse pulse shaping and optimization of a tapered hard X...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transverse pulse shaping and optimization of a tapered hard X-ray free electron laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transverse pulse shaping and optimization...

  6. Study of runaway electrons with Hard X-ray spectrometry of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shevelev, A.; Chugunov, I.; Khilkevitch, E.; Gin, D.; Doinikov, D.; Naidenov, V. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Polytechnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Kiptily, V. [EURATOM / CCFE Fusion Association, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Plyusnin, V. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Associação EURATOM-IST, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Collaboration: EFDA-JET Contributors

    2014-08-21

    Hard-X-ray spectrometry is a tool widely used for diagnostic of runaway electrons in existing tokamaks. In future machines, ITER and DEMO, HXR spectrometry will be useful providing information on runaway electron energy, runaway beam current and its profile during disruption.

  7. Science Highlight December 2010 Electrochemical Surface Science: Hard X-rays Probe Fuel Cell Model Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Science Highlight ­ December 2010 Electrochemical Surface Science: Hard X-rays Probe Fuel Cell. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are promising power sources since they can generate distribution network. Large-scale deployment of fuel cells, however, has been hampered by cost and performance

  8. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

  9. Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module Jason E. Koglina* , C. M California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA c Danish Space Research Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark d Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT), a balloon born mission that will observe a wide range of objects

  10. Multilayer coating facility for the HEFT hard X-ray telescope Carsten P. Jensena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Christensena , Hubert Chenb , Erik B. W.Smitta , Eric Zieglerc a Danish Space Research Institute (Denmark); b) for the production coating of depth graded multilayers on the thermally slumped glass segments which form the basis, Hard X-ray telescope 1. INTRODUCTION The High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) is a balloon borne

  11. ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE VISIBILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Michele

    ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE a new method for imaging spectroscopy analysis of hard X-ray emission during solar flares. The method the method to a solar flare observed on 2002 February 20 by the RHESSI instrument. The event is characterized

  12. STEREOSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE HARD X-RAY SOURCE IN THE GIANT SOLAR FLARE ON 2003 NOVEMBER 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McTiernan, James M.

    STEREOSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE HARD X-RAY SOURCE IN THE GIANT SOLAR FLARE ON 2003 NOVEMBER 4 S. R Received 2004 June xx; accepted 2004 xxxx xx ABSTRACT The hard X-ray source in the "giant" solar flare on 4 indicated that, in each of the eleven solar flares, the 20 keV non-thermal electrons at the Sun dissipated

  13. Optical identification of hard X-ray source IGRJ18257-0707

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Burenin; I. F. Bikmaev; M. G. Revnivtsev; J. A. Tomsick; S. Yu. Sazonov; M. N. Pavlinskiy; R. A. Sunyaev

    2008-10-14

    We present the results of the optical identification of hard X-ray source IGRJ18257-0707 trough the spectroscopic observations of its optical counterpart with RTT150 telescope. Accurate position of the X-ray source, determined using Chandra observations, allowed us to associate this source with the faint optical object (m_R=~20.4), which shows broad H_\\alpha emission line in its optical spectrum. Therefore we conclude that the source IGRJ18257-0707 is a type 1 Seyfert galaxy at redshift z=0.037.

  14. Resonantly excited betatron hard X-Rays from Ionization Injected Electron Beam in a Laser Plasma Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, K; Li, Y F; Li, D Z; Tao, M Z; Mirzaie, M; Ma, Y; Zhao, J R; Li, M H; Chen, M; Hafz, N; Sokollik, T; Sheng, Z M; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    A new scheme for bright hard x-ray emission from laser wakefield electron accelerator is reported, where pure nitrogen gas is adopted. Intense Betatron x-ray beams are generated from ionization injected K-shell electrons of nitrogen into the accelerating wave bucket. The x-ray radiation shows synchrotron-like spectrum with total photon yield 8$\\times$10$^8$/shot and $10^8$ over 110keV. In particular, the betatron hard x-ray photon yield is 10 times higher compared to the case of helium gas under the same laser parameters. Particle-in-cell simulation suggests that the enhancement of the x-ray yield results from ionization injection, which enables the electrons to be quickly accelerated to the driving laser region for subsequent betatron resonance. Employing the present scheme,the single stage nitrogen gas target could be used to generate stable high brightness betatron hard x-ray beams.

  15. Hard X-rays from Ultra-Compact HII Regions in W49A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; T. Hosokawa; E. D. Feigelson; K. V. Getman; P. S. Broos

    2006-11-03

    We report the Chandra detection of hard X-ray emission from the Welch ring in W49A, an organized structure of ultra-compact (UC) HII regions containing a dozen nascent early-type stars. Two UC HII regions are associated with hard X-ray emission in a deep Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer image exposed for 96.7 ks. One of the two X-ray sources has no near-infrared counterpart and is extended by ~5 arcsec, or ~0.3 pc, at a distance of ~11.4 kpc, which is spatially aligned with the cometary radio continuum emission associated with the UC HII region. The X-ray spectrum of the emission, when fit with a thermal model, indicates a heavily absorbed plasma with extinction of \\~5x10^{23}/cm^{2}, temperature of ~7 keV, and X-ray luminosity in the 3.0-8.0 keV band of ~3x10^{33} ergs/s. Both the luminosity and the size of the emission resemble the extended hard emission found in UC HII regions in Sagittarius B2, yet they are smaller by an order of magnitude than the emission found in massive star clusters such as NGC 3603. Three possibilities are discussed for the cause of the hard extended emission in the Welch ring: an ensemble of unresolved point sources, shocked interacting winds of the young O stars, and a wind-blown bubble interacting with ambient cold matter.

  16. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawate, T. [Kwasan and Hida Observatory, Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nishizuka, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Oi, A. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Ohyama, M. [Faculty of Education, Shiga University, 2-5-1 Hiratsu, Otsu, Shiga 1-1, Baba Hikone city, Siga 522-8522 (Japan); Nakajima, H., E-mail: kawate@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, NAOJ, Nobeyama, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2012-03-10

    We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

  17. HX-POL - A Balloon-Borne Hard X-Ray Polarimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Krawczynski; A. Garson III; Q. Li; M. Beilicke; P. Dowkontt; E. Wulf; J. Kurfess; E. Novikova; G. De Geronimo; M. G. Baring; A. K. Harding; J. Grindlay; J. S. Hong

    2010-06-03

    We report on the design and estimated performance of a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter called HX-POL. The experiment uses a combination of Si and Cadmium Zinc Telluride detectors to measure the polarization of 50 keV-400 keV X-rays from cosmic sources through the dependence of the angular distribution of Compton scattered photons on the polarization direction. On a one-day balloon flight, HX-POL would allow us to measure the polarization of bright Crab-like sources for polarization degrees well below 10%. On a longer (15-30 day) flight from Australia or Antarctica, HX-POL would be be able to measure the polarization of bright galactic X-ray sources down to polarization degrees of a few percent. Hard X-ray polarization measurements provide unique venues for the study of particle acceleration processes by compact objects and relativistic outflows. In this paper, we discuss the overall instrument design and performance. Furthermore, we present results from laboratory tests of the Si and CZT detectors.

  18. EXIST: A High Sensitivity Hard X-ray Imaging Sky Survey Mission for ISS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Grindlay; L. Bildsten; D. Chakrabarty; M. Elvis; A. Fabian; F. Fiore; N. Gehrels; C. Hailey; F. Harrison; D. Hartmann; T. Prince; B. Ramsey; R. Rothschild; G. Skinner; S. Woosley

    1999-12-18

    A deep all-sky imaging hard x-ray survey and wide-field monitor is needed to extend soft (ROSAT) and medium (ABRIXAS2) x-ray surveys into the 10-100 keV band (and beyond) at comparable sensitivity (~0.05 mCrab). This would enable discovery and study of >3000 obscured AGN, which probably dominate the hard x-ray background; detailed study of spectra and variability of accreting black holes and a census of BHs in the Galaxy; Gamma-ray bursts and associated massive star formation (PopIII) at very high redshift and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters throughout the Local Group; and a full galactic survey for obscured supernova remnants. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed array of 8 x 1m^2 coded aperture telescopes fixed on the International Space Station (ISS) with 160deg x 40deg field of view which images the full sky each 90 min orbit. EXIST has been included in the most recent NASA Strategic Plan as a candidate mission for the next decade. An overview of the science goals and mission concept is presented.

  19. Self-standing quasi-mosaic crystals for focusing hard X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo; Bellucci, Valerio; Neri, Ilaria; Frontera, Filippo; Jentschel, Michael

    2013-05-15

    A quasi mosaic bent crystal for high-resolution diffraction of X and {gamma} rays has been realized. A net curvature was imprinted to the crystal thanks to a series of superficial grooves to keep the curvature without external devices. The crystal highlights very high diffraction efficiency due to quasi mosaic curvature. Quasi mosaic crystals of this kind are proposed for the realization of a high-resolution focusing Laue lens for hard X-rays.

  20. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaudin, J.; Fourment, C.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Galtier, E.; Harmand, M.; Leguay, P. M.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Ozkan, C.; Störmer, M.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, Th.; Heimann, P. A.; Dorchies, F.

    2014-04-17

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called “molecular movie” within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level of the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.

  1. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaudin, J.; Fourment, C.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Galtier, E.; Harmand, M.; Leguay, P. M.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; et al

    2014-04-17

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called “molecular movie” within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level ofmore »the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.« less

  2. Hard x-ray tomographic studies of the destruction of an energetic electron ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.

    2013-05-15

    A tomography system was designed and built at the Large Plasma Device to measure the spatial distribution of hard x-ray (100 KeV-3 MeV) emissivity. The x-rays were generated when a hot electron ring was significantly disrupted by a shear Alfven wave. The plasma is pulsed at 1 Hz (1 shot/s). A lead shielded scintillator detector with an acceptance angle defined by a lead pinhole is mounted on a rotary gimbal and used to detect the x-rays. The system measures one chord per plasma shot using only one detector. A data plane usually consists of several hundred chords. A novel Dot by Dot Reconstruction (DDR) method is introduced to calculate the emissivity profile from the line integrated data. In the experiments, there are often physical obstructions, which make measurements at certain angles impossible. The DDR method works well even in this situation. The method was tested with simulated data, and was found to be more effective than previously published methods for the specific geometry of this experiment. The reconstructed x-ray emissivity from experimental data by this method is shown.

  3. Maximizing Spectral Flux from Self-Seeding Hard X-ray FELs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Fully coherent x-rays can be generated by self-seeding x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Self-seeding by a forward Bragg diffraction (FBD) monochromator has been recently proposed [1] and demonstrated [2]. Characteristic time To of FBD determines the power, spectral, and time characteristics of the FBD seed [3]. Here we show that for a given electron bunch with duration sigma_e the spectral flux of the self-seeding XFEL can be maximized, and the spectral bandwidth can be respectively minimized by choosing To ~ sigma_e/pi and by optimizing the electron bunch delay tau_e. The choices of To and tau_e are not unique. In all cases, the maximum value of the spectral flux and the minimum bandwidth are primarily determined by sigma_e. Two-color seeding takes place To >> sigma_e/\\pi. The studies are performed, for a Gaussian electron bunch distribution with the parameters, close to those used in the short-bunch (sigma_e ~ 5 fs) and long-bunch (sigma_e ~ 20 fs) operation modes of the LCLS XFEL.

  4. Resolving the Hard X-ray Emission of GX 5-1 with INTEGRAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Paizis; K. Ebisawa; T. Tikkanen; J. Rodriguez; J. Chenevez; E. Kuulkers; O. Vilhu; T. J. -L. Courvoisier

    2005-07-15

    We present the study of one year of INTEGRAL data on the neutron star low mass X-ray binary GX 5-1. Thanks to the excellent angular resolution and sensitivity of INTEGRAL, we are able to obtain a high quality spectrum of GX 5-1 from ~5 keV to ~100 keV, for the first time without contamination from the nearby black hole candidate GRS 1758-258 above 20 keV. During our observations, GX 5-1 is mostly found in the horizontal and normal branch of its hardness intensity diagram. A clear hard X-ray emission is observed above ~30 keV which exceeds the exponential cut-off spectrum expected from lower energies. This spectral flattening may have the same origin of the hard components observed in other Z sources as it shares the property of being characteristic to the horizontal branch. The hard excess is explained by introducing Compton up-scattering of soft photons from the neutron star surface due to a thin hot plasma expected in the boundary layer. The spectral changes of GX 5-1 downward along the "Z" pattern in the hardness intensity diagram can be well described in terms of monotonical decrease of the neutron star surface temperature. This may be a consequence of the gradual expansion of the boundary layer as the mass accretion rate increases.

  5. Hard x-ray transmission crystal spectrometer at the OMEGA-EP laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seely, J. F.; Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.

    2010-10-15

    The transmission crystal spectrometer (TCS) is approved for taking data at the OMEGA-EP laser facility since 2009 and will be available for the OMEGA target chamber in 2010. TCS utilizes a Cauchois type cylindrically bent transmission crystal geometry with a source to crystal distance of 600 mm. Spectral images are recorded by image plates in four positions, one IP on the Rowland circle and three others at 200, 400, and 600 mm beyond the Rowland circle. An earlier version of TCS was used at LULI on experiments that determined the x-ray source size from spectral line broadening on one IP positioned behind the Rowland circle. TCS has recorded numerous backlighter spectra at EP for point projection radiography and for source size measurements. Hard x-ray source size can be determined from the source broadening of both K shell emission lines and from K absorption edges in the bremsstrahlung continuum, the latter being a new way to measure the spatial extent of the hard x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum.

  6. Relations between concurrent hard X-ray sources in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marina Battaglia; Arnold O. Benz

    2006-06-14

    Context: Solar flares release a large fraction of their energy into non-thermal electrons, but it is not clear where and how. Bremsstrahlung X-rays are observed from the corona and chromosphere. Aims: We aim to characterize the acceleration process by the coronal source and its leakage toward the footpoints in the chromosphere. The relations between the sources reflect the geometry and constrict the configuration of the flare. Methods: We studied solar flares of GOES class larger than M1 with three or more hard X-ray sources observed simultaneously in the course of the flare. The events were observed with the X-ray satellite RHESSI from February 2002 until July 2005. We used imaging spectroscopy methods to determine the spectral evolution of each source in each event. The images of all of the five events show two sources visible only at high energies (footpoints) and one source only visible at low energies (coronal or looptop source, in two cases situated over the limb). Results: We find soft-hard-soft behavior in both, coronal source and footpoints. The coronal source is nearly always softer than the footpoints. The footpoint spectra differ significantly only in one event out of five. Conclusions: The observations are consistent with acceleration in the coronal source and an intricate connection between the corona and chromosphere.

  7. Hard x-ray emission spectroscopy: a powerful tool for the characterization of magnetic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rovezzi, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to introduce the x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) techniques to the materials scientist working with magnetic semiconductors (e.g. semiconductors doped with 3d transition metals) for applications in the field of spin-electronics. We focus our attention on the hard part of the x-ray spectrum (above 3 keV) in order to demonstrate a powerful element- and orbital-selective characterization tool in the study of bulk electronic structure. XES and RIXS are photon-in/photon-out second order optical processes described by the Kramers-Heisenberg formula. Nowadays, the availability of third generation synchrotron radiation sources permits to apply such techniques also to dilute materials, opening the way for a detailed atomic characterization of impurity-driven materials. We present the K{\\ss} XES as a tool to study the occupied valence states (directly, via valence-to-core transitions) and to probe the local spin angular momentum (indirectly, via intra-at...

  8. Phase-matched generation of coherent soft and hard X-rays using IR lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Bahabad, Alon; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2013-06-11

    Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation of soft and hard X-rays is accomplished using infrared driving lasers in a high-pressure non-linear medium. The pressure of the non-linear medium is increased to multi-atmospheres and a mid-IR (or higher) laser device provides the driving pulse. Based on this scaling, also a general method for global optimization of the flux of phase-matched high-order harmonic generation at a desired wavelength is designed.

  9. Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

    2013-01-25

    The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

  10. Long-term Hard X-ray Monitoring of 2S 0114+65 with INTEGRAL/IBIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) We present the results of the long-term hard X-ray monitoring of the high mass X-ray binary 2S 0114+65 with INTEGRAL/IBIS from 2003 to 2008. 2S 0114+65 is a variable hard X-ray source, when 2S 0114+65 was bright, we found a pulse period evolution of $\\sim 2.67$ hour to 2.63 hour from 2003 -- 2008, with a spin-up rate of the neutron star $\\sim 1.09\\times 10^{-6}$ s s$^{-1}$. Compared with the previous reported spin-up rate, the spin-up rate of the neutron star in 2S 0114+65 is accelerating. The spectral properties of 2S 0114+65 in the band of 18 -- 100 keV which changed with the orbital phases. The variation of the power-law photon index over orbital phase anticorrelates with hard X-ray flux, and the variation of $E_{\\rm cut}$ has a positive correlation with the hard X-ray flux, implying that the harder spectrum at the maximum of the light curve. The variations of spectral properties over orbital phase suggested 2S 0114+65 as a highly obscured binary system. In some observational revolutions, hard X...

  11. Hard X-ray Spectra and Positions of Solar Flares observed by RHESSI: photospheric albedo, directivity and electron spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kasparova; E. P. Kontar; J. C. Brown

    2007-01-30

    We investigate the signature of the photospheric albedo contribution in solar flare hard X-ray spectra, the effect of low energy cutoffs in electron spectra, and the directivity of hard X-ray emission. Using Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) flare data we perform a statistical analysis of spatially integrated spectra and positions of solar flares. We demonstrate clear centre-to-limb variation of photon spectral indices in the 15-20 keV energy range and a weaker dependency in the 20-50 keV range which is consistent with photospheric albedo as the cause. The results also suggest that low-energy cutoffs sometimes inferred in mean electron spectra are an artefact of albedo. We also derive the anisotropy (ratio of downward/observer directed photons) of hard X-ray emission in the 15-20 keV range for various heliocentric angles.

  12. Looptop Hard X-Ray Emission in Solar Flares: Images and Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahe' Petrosian; Timothy Q. Donaghy; James M. McTiernan

    2001-12-14

    The discovery of hard X-ray sources near the top of a flaring loop by the HXT instrument on board the YOHKOH satellite represents a significant progress towards the understanding of the basic processes driving solar flares. In this paper we extend the previous study of limb flares by Masuda (1994) by including all YOHKOH observations up through August 1998. We report that from October 1991 to August 1998, YOHKOH observed 20 X-ray bright limb flares (where we use the same selection criteria as Masuda), of which we have sufficient data to analyze 18 events, including 8 previously unanalyzed flares. Of these 18 events, 15 show detectable impulsive looptop emission. Considering that the finite dynamic range (about a decade) of the detection introduces a strong bias against observing comparatively weak looptop sources, we conclude that looptop emission is a common feature of all flares. We summarize the observations of the footpoint to looptop flux ratio and the spectral indices. We present light curves and images of all the important newly analyzed limb flares. Whenever possible we present results for individual pulses in multipeak flares and for different loops for multiloop flares. We then discuss the statistics of the fluxes and spectral indices of the looptop and footpoint sources taking into account observational selection biases. The importance of these observations (and those expected from the scheduled HESSI satellite with its superior angular spectral and temporal resolution) in constraining acceleration models and parameters is discussed briefly.

  13. Polarimetry in the hard X-ray domain with INTEGRAL SPI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chauvin, M.; Roques, J. P.; Jourdain, E. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Clark, D. J., E-mail: maxime.chauvin@irap.omp.eu [Createc Ltd., Unit 8, Derwent Mill Commercial Park, Cockermouth, Cumbria CA13 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-01

    We present recent improvements in polarization analysis with the INTEGRAL SPI data. The SPI detector plane consists of 19 independent Ge crystals and can operate as a polarimeter. The anisotropy characteristics of Compton diffusions can provide information on the polarization parameters of the incident flux. By including the physics of the polarized Compton process in the instrument simulation, we are able to determine the instrument response for a linearly polarized emission at any position angle. We compare the observed data with the simulation sets by a minimum ?{sup 2} technique to determine the polarization parameters of the source (angle and fraction). We have tested our analysis procedure with Crab Nebula observations and find a position angle similar to those previously reported in the literature, with a comfortable significance. Since the instrument response depends on the incident angle, each exposure in the SPI data requires its own set of simulations, calculated for 18 polarization angles (from 0° to 170° in steps of 10°) and unpolarized emission. The analysis of a large number of observations for a given source, required to obtain statistically significant results, represents a large amount of computing time, but it is the only way to access this complementary information in the hard X-ray regime. Indeed, major scientific advances are expected from such studies since the observational results will help to discriminate between the different models proposed for the high energy emission of compact objects like X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei or gamma-ray bursts.

  14. Looptop and Footpoint Impulsive Hard X-Rays and Stochastic Electron Acceleration in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahé Petrosian

    2002-07-22

    The discovery of hard X-rays from tops of flaring loops by the HXT of YOHKOH represents a significant progress in the understanding of solar flares. This report describes the properties of 20 limb flares observed by YOHKOH from October 1991 to August 1998, 15 of which show detectable impulsive looptop emission. Considering the finite dynamic range (about a decade) of the detection it can be concluded that looptop emission is a common feature of all flares. The light curves and images of a representative flare are presented and the statistical properties of the footpoint and looptop fluxes and spectral indexes are summarized. The importance of these observations, and those expected from RHESSI with its superior angular, spectral and temporal resolution, in constraining the acceleration models and parameters is discussed. briefly.

  15. Suzaku monitoring of hard X-ray emission from ? Carinae over a single binary orbital cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Yuasa, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu; Pittard, Julian M.; Russell, Christopher M. P.

    2014-11-10

    The Suzaku X-ray observatory monitored the supermassive binary system ? Carinae 10 times during the whole 5.5 yr orbital cycle between 2005 and 2011. This series of observations presents the first long-term monitoring of this enigmatic system in the extremely hard X-ray band between 15 and 40 keV. During most of the orbit, the 15-25 keV emission varied similarly to the 2-10 keV emission, indicating an origin in the hard energy tail of the kT ? 4 keV wind-wind collision (WWC) plasma. However, the 15-25 keV emission declined only by a factor of three around periastron when the 2-10 keV emission dropped by two orders of magnitude due probably to an eclipse of the WWC plasma. The observed minimum in the 15-25 keV emission occurred after the 2-10 keV flux had already recovered by a factor of ?3. This may mean that the WWC activity was strong, but hidden behind the thick primary stellar wind during the eclipse. The 25-40 keV flux was rather constant through the orbital cycle, at the level measured with INTEGRAL in 2004. This result may suggest a connection of this flux component to the ?-ray source detected in this field. The helium-like Fe K? line complex at ?6.7 keV became strongly distorted toward periastron as seen in the previous cycle. The 5-9 keV spectra can be reproduced well with a two-component spectral model, which includes plasma in collision equilibrium and a plasma in non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) with ? ? 10{sup 11} cm{sup –3} s{sup –1}. The NEI plasma increases in importance toward periastron.

  16. Suzaku Spectroscopy Study of Hard X-Ray Emission in the Arches Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; Y. Hyodo; K. Koyama

    2006-11-03

    We present the results of a Suzaku study of the Arches cluster. A high S/N spectrum in the 3-12 keV band was obtained with the XIS. We found that the spectrum consists of a thermal plasma, a hard power-law tail, and two Gaussian lines. The plasma component (kT~2.2 keV) is established from the presence of CaXIX and FeXXV K alpha lines as well as the absence of FeXXVI K alpha line. The two Gaussian lines represent the K alpha and beta lines from iron at lower ionization stages. Both the line centers and the intensity ratio of these two lines are consistent with the neutral iron. The hard power-law tail (index~0.7) was found to have no pronounced iron K edge feature. In comparison with the published Chandra spectra, we conclude that the thermal component is from the ensemble of point-like sources plus thermal diffuse emission concentrated at the cluster center, while the Gaussian and the hard tail components are from the non-thermal diffuse emission extended in a larger scale. In the band-limited XIS images, the distribution of the 7.5-10.0 keV emission resembles that of the 6.4 keV emission. This strongly suggests that the power-law emission is related to the 6.4 and 7.1 keV lines in the underlying physics. We discuss two ideas to explain both the hard continuum and the lines: (1) X-ray photoionization that produces fluorescence lines and the Thomson scattering continuum and (2) non-thermal electron impact ionization of iron atoms and bremsstrahlung continuum. But whichever scenario is adopted, the photon or particle flux from the Arches cluster is too low to account for the observed line and continuum intensity.

  17. Covariance mapping of two-photon double core hole states in C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 6 produced by an x-ray free electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mucke, M; Zhaunerchyk, V; Frasinski, L J; Squibb, R J; Siano, M; Eland, J H D; Linusson, P; Salén, P; Meulen, P v d; Thomas, R D; et al

    2015-07-01

    Few-photon ionization and relaxation processes in acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6) were investigated at the linac coherent light source x-ray free electron laser (FEL) at SLAC, Stanford using a highly efficient multi-particle correlation spectroscopy technique based on a magnetic bottle. The analysis method of covariance mapping has been applied and enhanced, allowing us to identify electron pairs associated with double core hole (DCH) production and competing multiple ionization processes including Auger decay sequences. The experimental technique and the analysis procedure are discussed in the light of earlier investigations of DCH studies carried out at the same FEL and at thirdmore »generation synchrotron radiation sources. In particular, we demonstrate the capability of the covariance mapping technique to disentangle the formation of molecular DCH states which is barely feasible with conventional electron spectroscopy methods.« less

  18. The design and flight performance of the PoGOLite Pathfinder balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chauvin, M; Jackson, M; Kamae, T; Kawano, T; Kiss, M; Kole, M; Mikhalev, V; Moretti, E; Olofsson, G; Rydström, S; Takahashi, H; Lind, J; Strömberg, J -E; Welin, O; Iyudin, A; Shifrin, D; Pearce, M

    2015-01-01

    In the 50 years since the advent of X-ray astronomy there have been many scientific advances due to the development of new experimental techniques for detecting and characterising X-rays. Observations of X-ray polarisation have, however, not undergone a similar development. This is a shortcoming since a plethora of open questions related to the nature of X-ray sources could be resolved through measurements of the linear polarisation of emitted X-rays. The PoGOLite Pathfinder is a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter operating in the 25 - 240 keV energy band from a stabilised observation platform. Polarisation is determined using coincident energy deposits in a segmented array of plastic scintillators surrounded by a BGO anticoincidence system and a polyethylene neutron shield. The PoGOLite Pathfinder was launched from the SSC Esrange Space Centre in July 2013. A near-circumpolar flight was achieved with a duration of approximately two weeks. The flight performance of the Pathfinder design is discussed for the...

  19. Wide Field Hard X-ray Survey Telescope: ProtoEXIST1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Hong; J. E. Grindlay; N. Chammas; B. Allen; A. Copete; B. Said; M. Burke; J. Howell; T. Gauron; R. G. Baker; S. D. Barthelmy; S. Sheikh; N. Gehrels; W. R. Cook; J. A. Burnham; F. A. Harrison; J. Collins; S. Labov; A. Garson III; H. Krawczynski

    2007-09-17

    We report our progress on the development of pixellated imaging CZT detector arrays for our first-generation balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray (20 - 600 keV) telescope, ProtoEXIST1. Our ProtoEXIST program is a pathfinder for the High Energy Telescope (HET) on the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey telescope (EXIST), a proposed implementation of the Black Hole Finder Probe. ProtoEXIST1 consists of four independent coded-aperture telescopes with close-tiled (~0.4 mm gaps) CZT detectors that preserve their 2.5mm pixel pitch. Multiple shielding/field-of-view configurations are planned to identify optimal geometry for the HET in EXIST. The primary technical challenge in ProtoEXIST is the development of large area, close-tiled modules of imaging CZT detectors (1000 cm2 for ProtoEXIST1), with all readout and control systems for the ASIC readout vertically stacked. We describe the overall telescope configuration of ProtoEXIST1 and review the current development status of the CZT detectors, from individual detector crystal units (DCUs) to a full detector module (DM). We have built the first units of each component for the detector plane and have completed a few Rev2 DCUs (2x2 cm2), which are under a series of tests. Bare DCUs (pre-crystal bonding) show high, uniform ASIC yield (~70%) and ~30% reduction in electronics noise compared to the Rev1 equivalent. A Rev1 DCU already achieved ~1.2% FWHM at 662 keV, and preliminary analysis of the initial radiation tests on a Rev2 DCU shows ~ 4 keV FWHM at 60 keV (vs. 4.7 keV for Rev1). We therefore expect about <~1% FWHM at 662 keV with the Rev2 detectors.

  20. Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth Hard X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation FederatedInformationTITLE:Connect Transportation(Journal

  1. Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth Hard X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation FederatedInformationTITLE:Connect

  2. Inner-Shell Multiple Ionization of Polyatomic Molecules With an Intense X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Studied By Coincident Ion Momentum Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erk, B. [Max Planck Advanced Study Group and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Rolles, D. [Max Planck Advanced Study Group and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Medical Rearch, Heidelburg (Germany); Foucar, L. [Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Medical Rearch, Heidelburg (Germany); Rudek, B. [Max Planck Advanced Study Group and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Epp, S. W. [Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics; Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Cryle, M. [Max Planck Inst. for Medical Rearch, Heidelburg (Germany); Bostedt, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source; Schorb, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source; Technical Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Optic and Atomic Physics; Bozek, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source; Rouzee, A. [Max Born Inst., Berlin (Germany); Hundertmark, A. [Max Born Inst., Berlin (Germany); Marchenko, T. [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, Paris (France); Simon, M. [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, Paris (France); Filsinger, F. [Fritz Haber Inst. for Max Planck Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany); Christensen, L. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; De, S. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry; Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); Trippel, S. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg (Germany); Küpper, J. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) and Univ. of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Physics, Center for Ultrafast Imaging; Stapelfeldt, H. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry; Wada, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source; Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan), Dept. of Physical Science; Ueda, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). IMRAM; Swiggers, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source; Messerschmidt, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source; Schröter, C. D. [Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Moshammer, R. [Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics; Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Schlichting, I. [Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Medical Rearch, Heidelburg (Germany); Ullrich, J. [Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics; Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); National Institute for Physics and Technology, Braunschweig (Germany); Rudenko, A. [Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics; Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-08-28

    The ionization and fragmentation of two selenium containing hydrocarbon molecules, methylselenol (CH3SeH) and ethylselenol (C2H5SeH), by intense (>1017 W cm-2 ) 5 fs x-ray pulses with photon energies of 1.7 and 2 keV has been studied by means of coincident ion momentum spectroscopy. Measuring charge states and ion kinetic energies, we find signatures of charge redistribution within the molecular environment. Furthermore, by analyzing fragment ion angular correlations, we can determine the laboratory-frame orientation of individual molecules and thus investigate the fragmentation dynamics in the molecular frame. This allows distinguishing protons originating from different molecular sites along with identifying the reaction channels that lead to their emission.

  3. Inner-Shell Multiple Ionization of Polyatomic Molecules With an Intense X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Studied By Coincident Ion Momentum Imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Erk, B.; Rolles, D.; Foucar, L.; Rudek, B.; Epp, S. W.; Cryle, M.; Bostedt, C.; Schorb, S.; Bozek, J.; Rouzee, A.; et al

    2013-08-28

    The ionization and fragmentation of two selenium containing hydrocarbon molecules, methylselenol (CH3SeH) and ethylselenol (C2H5SeH), by intense (>1017 W cm-2 ) 5 fs x-ray pulses with photon energies of 1.7 and 2 keV has been studied by means of coincident ion momentum spectroscopy. Measuring charge states and ion kinetic energies, we find signatures of charge redistribution within the molecular environment. Furthermore, by analyzing fragment ion angular correlations, we can determine the laboratory-frame orientation of individual molecules and thus investigate the fragmentation dynamics in the molecular frame. This allows distinguishing protons originating from different molecular sites along with identifying the reactionmore »channels that lead to their emission.« less

  4. KAPPA DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR HARD X-RAY CORONAL SOURCES OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Krucker, S.; Lin, R. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-02-10

    Solar flares produce hard X-ray emission, the photon spectrum of which is often represented by a combination of thermal and power-law distributions. However, the estimates of the number and total energy of non-thermal electrons are sensitive to the determination of the power-law cutoff energy. Here, we revisit an 'above-the-loop' coronal source observed by RHESSI on 2007 December 31 and show that a kappa distribution model can also be used to fit its spectrum. Because the kappa distribution has a Maxwellian-like core in addition to a high-energy power-law tail, the emission measure and temperature of the instantaneous electrons can be derived without assuming the cutoff energy. Moreover, the non-thermal fractions of electron number/energy densities can be uniquely estimated because they are functions of only the power-law index. With the kappa distribution model, we estimated that the total electron density of the coronal source region was {approx}2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. We also estimated without assuming the source volume that a moderate fraction ({approx}20%) of electrons in the source region was non-thermal and carried {approx}52% of the total electron energy. The temperature was 28 MK, and the power-law index {delta} of the electron density distribution was -4.3. These results are compared to the conventional power-law models with and without a thermal core component.

  5. Hard X-ray emission and {sup 44}Ti line features of the Tycho supernova remnant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Zhuo, E-mail: wangwei@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: zhuo.li@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-07-10

    A deep hard X-ray survey of the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) satellite has detected for the first time non-thermal emission up to 90 keV in the Tycho supernova (SN) remnant. Its 3-100 keV spectrum is fitted with a thermal bremsstrahlung of kT ? 0.81 ± 0.45 keV plus a power-law model of ? ? 3.01 ± 0.16. Based on diffusive shock acceleration theory, this non-thermal emission, together with radio measurements, implies that the Tycho remnant may not accelerate protons up to >PeV but to hundreds TeV. Only heavier nuclei may be accelerated to the cosmic ray spectral 'knee'. In addition, using INTEGRAL, we search for soft gamma-ray lines at 67.9 and 78.4 keV that come from the decay of radioactive {sup 44}Ti in the Tycho remnant. A bump feature in the 60-90 keV energy band, potentially associated with the {sup 44}Ti line emission, is found with a marginal significance level of ?2.6?. The corresponding 3? upper limit on the {sup 44}Ti line flux amounts to 1.5 × 10{sup –5} photon cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. Implications on the progenitor of the Tycho SN, considered to be a Type Ia SN prototype, are discussed.

  6. Hard X-ray Emission During Flares and Photospheric Field Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burtseva, O; Petrie, G J D; Pevtsov, A A

    2015-01-01

    We study the correlation between abrupt permanent changes of magnetic field during X-class flares observed by the GONG and HMI instruments, and the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed by RHESSI, to relate the photospheric field changes to the coronal restructuring and investigate the origin of the field changes. We find that spatially the early RHESSI emission corresponds well to locations of the strong field changes. The field changes occur predominantly in the regions of strong magnetic field near the polarity inversion line (PIL). The later RHESSI emission does not correspond to significant field changes as the flare footpoints are moving away from the PIL. Most of the field changes start before or around the start time of the detectable HXR signal, and they end at about the same time or later than the detectable HXR flare emission. Some of the field changes propagate with speed close to that of the HXR footpoint at a later phase of the flare. The propagation of the field changes often takes place after the...

  7. Balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimetry with PoGOLite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01

    PoGOLite is a hard X-ray polarimeter operating in the 25-100 keV energy band. The instrument design is optimised for the observation of compact astrophysical sources. Observations are conducted from a stabilised stratospheric balloon platform at an altitude of approximately 40 km. The primary targets for first balloon flights of a reduced effective area instrument are the Crab and Cygnus-X1. The polarisation of incoming photons is determined using coincident Compton scattering and photo-absorption events reconstructed in an array of plastic scintillator detector cells surrounded by a bismuth germanate oxide (BGO) side anticoincidence shield and a polyethylene neutron shield. A custom attitude control system keeps the polarimeter field-of-view aligned to targets of interest, compensating for sidereal motion and perturbations such as torsional forces in the balloon rigging. An overview of the PoGOLite project is presented and the outcome of the ill-fated maiden balloon flight is discussed.

  8. NuSTAR DETECTION OF HARD X-RAY PHASE LAGS FROM THE ACCRETING PULSAR GS 0834–430

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Harrison, Fiona A.; Fürst, Felix; Bellm, Eric C.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Walton, Dominic J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chakrabarty, Deepto [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chenevez, Jerome; Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Natalucci, Lorenzo [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, Roma I-00133 (Italy); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST, UMBC, and NASA GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wilms, Jörn, E-mail: miyasaka@srl.caltech.edu [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); and others

    2013-09-20

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array hard X-ray telescope observed the transient Be/X-ray binary GS 0834–430 during its 2012 outburst—the first active state of this system observed in the past 19 yr. We performed timing and spectral analysis and measured the X-ray spectrum between 3-79 keV with high statistical significance. We find the phase-averaged spectrum to be consistent with that observed in many other magnetized, accreting pulsars. We fail to detect cyclotron resonance scattering features that would allow us to constrain the pulsar's magnetic field in either phase-averaged or phase-resolved spectra. Timing analysis shows a clearly detected pulse period of ?12.29 s in all energy bands. The pulse profiles show a strong, energy-dependent hard phase lag of up to 0.3 cycles in phase, or about 4 s. Such dramatic energy-dependent lags in the pulse profile have never before been reported in high-mass X-ray binary pulsars. Previously reported lags have been significantly smaller in phase and restricted to low energies (E < 10 keV). We investigate the possible mechanisms that might produce this energy-dependent pulse phase shift. We find the most likely explanation for this effect is a complex beam geometry.

  9. Ultrafast X-Ray Coherent Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, David

    2009-05-01

    This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent #12;eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di#11;racting properties of a x-ray di#11;racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti#12;c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the #12;eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's #12;rst hard x-ray free electron laser.

  10. CORONAL THICK TARGET HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS AND RADIO EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jeongwoo [Physics Department, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Lim, Daye; Choe, G. S.; Kim, Kap-Sung [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Minhwan [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-20

    A distinctive class of hard X-ray (HXR) sources located in the corona was recently found, which implies that the collisionally thick target model (CTTM) applies even to the corona. We investigated whether this idea can be independently verified by microwave radiations which have been known as the best companion to HXRs. This study is conducted on the GOES M2.3 class flare which occurred on 2002 September 9 and was observed by the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and the Owens Valley Solar Array. Interpreting the observed energy-dependent variation of HXR source size under the CTTM, the coronal density should be as high as 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} over a distance of up to 12''. To explain the cutoff feature of the microwave spectrum at 3 GHz, however, we require a density no higher than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Additional constraints must be placed on the temperature and magnetic field of the coronal source in order to reproduce the microwave spectrum as a whole. First, a spectral feature called the Razin suppression requires a magnetic field in a range of 250-350 G along with high viewing angles around 75 Degree-Sign . Second, to avoid excess fluxes at high frequencies due to the free-free emission that was not observed, we need a high temperature {>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K. These two microwave spectral features, Razin suppression and free-free emissions, become more significant at regions of high thermal plasma density and are essential for validating and determining additional parameters of the coronal HXR sources.

  11. Faint Coronal Hard X-rays From Accelerated Electrons in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glesener, Lindsay Erin

    2012-01-01

    Energetics and Heating in a Solar Plasma and AIA 5.1to the Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager 6.1 ScientificSoftware . . . . . . . . . Energy Solar Spectroscopic

  12. A seven-crystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokaras, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Nordlund, D.; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Rabedeau, T.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Bergmann, U.

    2013-05-15

    We present a multicrystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer ({approx}5-18 keV) recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The instrument is set at the wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two liquid nitrogen cooled monochromators - Si(111) and Si(311) - as well as collimating and focusing optics. The spectrometer consists of seven spherically bent crystal analyzers placed on intersecting vertical Rowland circles of 1 m of diameter. The spectrometer is scanned vertically capturing an extended backscattering Bragg angular range (88 Degree-Sign -74 Degree-Sign ) while maintaining all crystals on the Rowland circle trace. The instrument operates in atmospheric pressure by means of a helium bag and when all the seven crystals are used (100 mm of projected diameter each), has a solid angle of about 0.45% of 4{pi} sr. The typical resolving power is in the order of (E/{Delta}E){approx}10 000. The spectrometer's high detection efficiency combined with the beamline 6-2 characteristics permits routine studies of x-ray emission, high energy resolution fluorescence detected x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of very diluted samples as well as implementation of demanding in situ environments.

  13. Fresnel zone plate stacking in the intermediate field for high efficiency focusing in the hard X-ray regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Wojcik, Michael; Liu, Jie; Roehrig, Chris; Cummings, Marvin; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Li, Kenan; Lai, Barry; Shu, Deming; Vogt, Stefan

    2014-11-05

    Focusing efficiency of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) for X-rays depends on zone height, while the achievable spatial resolution depends on the width of the finest zones. FZPs with optimal efficiency and sub-100-nm spatial resolution require high aspect ratio structures which are difficult to fabricate with current technology especially for the hard X-ray regime. A possible solution is to stack several zone plates. To increase the number of FZPs within one stack, we first demonstrate intermediate-field stacking and apply this method by stacks of up to five FZPs with adjusted diameters. Approaching the respective optimum zone height, we maximized efficiencies formore »high resolution focusing at three different energies, 10, 11.8, and 25 keV.« less

  14. Ultra-bright, ultra-broadband hard x-ray driven by laser-produced energetic electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Yin; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Wenpeng; Ji, Liangliang; Zhang, Lingang; Xu, Jiancai; Yu, Yahong; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yi, Longqing; Xu, Tongjun; Xu, Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-09-15

    We propose a new method of obtaining a compact ultra-bright, ultra-broadband hard X-ray source. This X-ray source has a high peak brightness in the order of 10{sup 22} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1\\%BW), an ultrashort duration (10 fs), and a broadband spectrum (flat distribution from 0.1 MeV to 4 MeV), and thus has wide-ranging potential applications, such as in ultrafast Laue diffraction experiments. In our scheme, laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) provide driven electron beams. A foil target is placed oblique to the beam direction so that the target normal sheath field (TNSF) is used to provide a bending force. Using this TNSF-kick scheme, we can fully utilize the advantages of current LPAs, including their high charge, high energy, and low emittance.

  15. Microjet formation and hard x-ray production from a liquid metal target irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lar'kin, A. Uryupina, D.; Ivanov, K.; Savel'ev, A.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Spohr, K.; Breil, J.; Chimier, B.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Leguay, P.-M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2014-09-15

    By using a liquid metal as a target one may significantly enhance the yield of hard x-rays with a sequence of two intense femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the time delay between the two pulses is studied experimentally and interpreted with numerical simulations. It was suggested that the first arbitrary weak pulse produces microjets from the target surface, while the second intense pulse provides an efficient electron heating and acceleration along the jet surface. These energetic electrons are the source of x-ray emission while striking the target surface. The microjet formation is explained based on the results given by both optical diagnostics and hydrodynamic modeling by a collision of shocks originated from two distinct zones of laser energy deposition.

  16. Observation of polarised hard X-ray emission from the Crab by the PoGOLite Pathfinder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chauvin, M; Jackson, M; Kamae, T; Kawano, T; Kiss, M; Kole, M; Mikhalev, V; Moretti, E; Olofsson, G; Rydström, S; Takahashi, H; Iyudin, A; Arimoto, M; Fukazawa, Y; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Mizuno, T; Ryde, F; Tajima, H; Takahashi, T; Pearce, M

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the linear polarisation of hard X-ray emission from the Crab in a previously unexplored energy interval, 20-120 keV. The introduction of two new observational parameters, the polarisation fraction and angle stands to disentangle geometrical and physical effects, thereby providing information on the pulsar wind geometry and magnetic field environment. Measurements are conducted using the PoGOLite Pathfinder - a balloon-borne polarimeter. Polarisation is determined by measuring the azimuthal Compton scattering angle of incident X-rays in an array of plastic scintillators housed in an anticoincidence well. The polarimetric response has been characterised prior to flight using both polarised and unpolarised calibration sources. We address possible systematic effects through observations of a background field. The measured polarisation fraction for the integrated Crab light-curve is ($18.4^{+9.8}_{-10.6}$)%, corresponding to an upper limit (99% credibility) of 42.4%, for a polarisation angle of ($...

  17. The soft and hard X-rays thermal emission from star cluster winds with a supernova explosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castellanos-Ramirez, A; Esquivel, A; Toledo-Roy, J C; Olivares, J; Velazquez, P F

    2015-01-01

    Massive young star clusters contain dozens or hundreds of massive stars that inject mechanical energy in the form of winds and supernova explosions, producing an outflow which expands into their surrounding medium, shocking it and forming structures called superbubbles. The regions of shocked material can have temperatures in excess of 10$^6$ K, and emit mainly in thermal X-rays (soft and hard). This X-ray emission is strongly affected by the action of thermal conduction, as well as by the metallicity of the material injected by the massive stars. We present three-dimensional numerical simulations exploring these two effects, metallicity of the stellar winds and supernova explosions, as well as thermal conduction.

  18. SWIFT/BAT DETECTION OF HARD X-RAYS FROM TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT: EVIDENCE FOR TITANIUM-44

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troja, E.; Baumgartner, W.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Segreto, A.; La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G. [INAF—IASF Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Hartmann, D., E-mail: eleonora.troja@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29631-0978 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    We report Swift/Burst Alert Telescope survey observations of the Tycho's supernova remnant, performed over a period of 104 months since the mission's launch. The remnant is detected with high significance (>10?) below 50 keV. We detect significant hard X-ray emission in the 60-85 keV band, above the continuum level predicted by a simple synchrotron model. The location of the observed excess is consistent with line emission from radioactive titanium-44, so far reported only for Type II supernova explosions. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the galactic supernova rate, and nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernova.

  19. Hard X-Ray Imaging of Individual Spectral Components in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M; Krucker, Säm

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analytical technique, combining Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations, to visualize solar flare emission as a function of spectral component (e.g., isothermal temperature) rather than energy. This computationally inexpensive technique is applicable to all spatially-invariant spectral forms and is useful for visualizing spectroscopically-determined individual sources and placing them in context, e.g., comparing multiple isothermal sources with nonthermal emission locations. For example, while extreme ultraviolet images can usually be closely identified with narrow temperature ranges, due to the emission being primarily from spectral lines of specific ion species, X-ray images are dominated by continuum emission and therefore have a broad temperature response, making it difficult to identify sources of specific temperatures regardless of the energy band of the image. We combine RHESSI calibrated X-ray visibilities wi...

  20. The hard X-ray emission of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 as observed by NuSTAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puccetti, S; Bauer, F E; Brandt, W N; Fiore, F; Harrison, F A; Luo, B; Stern, D; Urry, C M; Alexander, D M; Annuar, A; Arévalo, P; Balokovi?, M; Boggs, S E; Brightman, M; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Gandhi, P; Hailey, C J; Koss, M J; La Massa, S; Marinucci, A; Ricci, C; Walton, D J; Zappacosta, L; Zhang, W

    2015-01-01

    We present a broad-band (~0.3-70 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of NuSTAR observations of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240, combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton and BeppoSAX data. NGC 6240 is a galaxy in a relatively early merger state with two distinct nuclei separated by ~1."5. Previous Chandra observations have resolved the two nuclei, showing that they are both active and obscured by Compton-thick material. Although they cannot be resolved by NuSTAR, thanks to the unprecedented quality of the NuSTAR data at energies >10 keV, we clearly detect, for the first time, both the primary and the reflection continuum components. The NuSTAR hard X-ray spectrum is dominated by the primary continuum piercing through an absorbing column density which is mildly optically thick to Compton scattering (tau ~ 1.2, N_H ~ 1.5 x 10^(24) cm^-2). We detect moderate hard X-ray (> 10 keV) flux variability up to 20% on short (15-20 ksec) timescales. The amplitude of the variability is maximum at ~30 keV and is like...

  1. Regularized energy-dependent solar flare hard x-ray spectral index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduard P. Kontar; Alexander L. MacKinnon

    2005-06-05

    The deduction from solar flare X-ray photon spectroscopic data of the energy dependent model-independent spectral index is considered as an inverse problem. Using the well developed regularization approach we analyze the energy dependency of spectral index for a high resolution energy spectrum provided by Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The regularization technique produces much smoother derivatives while avoiding additional errors typical of finite differences. It is shown that observations imply a spectral index varying significantly with energy, in a way that also varies with time as the flare progresses. The implications of these findings are discussed in the solar flare context.

  2. Ultra-stable sub-meV monochromator for hard X-rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Toellner, T. S.; Collins, J.; Goetze, K.; Hu, M. Y.; Preissner, C.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Yan, L.

    2015-07-17

    A high-resolution silicon monochromator suitable for 21.541 keV synchrotron radiation is presented that produces a bandwidth of 0.27 meV. The operating energy corresponds to a nuclear transition in 151Eu. The first-of-its-kind, fully cryogenic design achieves an energy-alignment stability of 0.017 meV r.m.s. per day, or a 100-fold improvement over other meV-monochromators, and can tolerate higher X-ray power loads than room-temperature designs of comparable resolution. This offers the potential for significantly more accurate measurements of lattice excitation energies using nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy if combined with accurate energy calibration using, for example, high-speed Doppler shifting. The design of the monochromator alongmore »with its performance and impact on transmitted beam properties are presented.« less

  3. Hard X-ray emitting energetic electrons and photospheric electric currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musset, Sophie; Bommier, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The energy released during solar flares is believed to be stored in non-potential magnetic fields associated with electric currents flowing in the corona. While no measurements of coronal electric currents are presently available, maps of photospheric electric currents can now be derived from SDO/HMI observations. Photospheric electric currents have been shown to be the tracers of the coronal electric currents. Particle acceleration can result from electric fields associated with coronal electric currents. We revisit here some aspects of the relationship between particle acceleration in solar flares and electric currents in the active region. We study the relation between the energetic electron interaction sites in the solar atmosphere, and the magnitudes and changes of vertical electric current densities measured at the photospheric level, during the X2.2 flare on February 15 2011 in AR NOAA 11158. X-ray images from RHESSI are overlaid on magnetic field and electric current density maps calculated from the s...

  4. Constraining Hot Plasma in a Non-flaring Solar Active Region with FOXSI Hard X-ray Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Christe, Steven; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Brooks, David H; Williams, David R; Shimojo, Masumi; Sako, Nobuharu; Krucker, Sam

    2015-01-01

    We present new constraints on the high-temperature emission measure of a non-flaring solar active region using observations from the recently flown Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager sounding rocket payload. FOXSI has performed the first focused hard X-ray (HXR) observation of the Sun in its first successful flight on 2012 November 2. Focusing optics, combined with small strip detectors, enable high-sensitivity observations with respect to previous indirect imagers. This capability, along with the sensitivity of the HXR regime to high-temperature emission, offers the potential to better characterize high-temperature plasma in the corona as predicted by nanoflare heating models. We present a joint analysis of the differential emission measure (DEM) of active region 11602 using coordinated observations by FOXSI, Hinode/XRT and Hinode/EIS. The Hinode-derived DEM predicts significant emission measure between 1 MK and 3 MK, with a peak in the DEM predicted at 2.0-2.5 MK. The combined XRT and EIS DEM also shows emi...

  5. Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond x-ray pulses in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers Abstract is...

  6. Turbulent pitch-angle scattering and diffusive transport of hard X-ray-producing electrons in flaring coronal loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kontar, Eduard P.; Bian, Nicolas H.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Vilmer, Nicole E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu

    2014-01-10

    Recent observations from RHESSI have revealed that the number of non-thermal electrons in the coronal part of a flaring loop can exceed the number of electrons required to explain the hard X-ray-emitting footpoints of the same flaring loop. Such sources cannot, therefore, be interpreted on the basis of the standard collisional transport model, in which electrons stream along the loop while losing their energy through collisions with the ambient plasma; additional physical processes, to either trap or scatter the energetic electrons, are required. Motivated by this and other observations that suggest that high-energy electrons are confined to the coronal region of the source, we consider turbulent pitch-angle scattering of fast electrons off low-frequency magnetic fluctuations as a confinement mechanism, modeled as a spatial diffusion parallel to the mean magnetic field. In general, turbulent scattering leads to a reduction of the collisional stopping distance of non-thermal electrons along the loop, and hence to an enhancement of the coronal hard X-ray source relative to the footpoints. The variation of source size L with electron energy E becomes weaker than the quadratic behavior pertinent to collisional transport, with the slope of L(E) depending directly on the mean free path ? associated with the non-collisional scattering mechanism. Comparing the predictions of the model with observations, we find that ? ? (10{sup 8}-10{sup 9}) cm for ?30 keV, less than the length of a typical flaring loop and smaller than, or comparable to, the size of the electron acceleration region.

  7. EXTENDED HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE VELA PULSAR WIND NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattana, F.; Terrier, R.; Zurita Heras, J. A.; Goetz, D.; Caballero, I.; Soldi, S.; Schanne, S.; Ponti, G.; Falanga, M.; Renaud, M.

    2011-12-10

    The nebula powered by the Vela pulsar is one of the best examples of an evolved pulsar wind nebula, allowing access to the particle injection history and the interaction with the supernova ejecta. We report on the INTEGRAL discovery of extended emission above 18 keV from the Vela nebula. The northern side has no known counterparts and it appears larger and more significant than the southern one, which is in turn partially coincident with the cocoon, the soft X-ray, and TeV filament toward the center of the remnant. We also present the spectrum of the Vela nebula in the 18-400 keV energy range as measured by IBIS/ISGRI and SPI on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The apparent discrepancy between IBIS/ISGRI, SPI, and previous measurements is understood in terms of the point-spread function, supporting the hypothesis of a nebula more diffuse than previously thought. A break at {approx}25 keV is found in the spectrum within 6' from the pulsar after including the Suzaku XIS data. Interpreted as a cooling break, this points out that the inner nebula is composed of electrons injected in the last {approx}2000 years. Broadband modeling also implies a magnetic field higher than 10 {mu}G in this region. Finally, we discuss the nature of the northern emission, which might be due to fresh particles injected after the passage of the reverse shock.

  8. Optics fabrication and metrology for nanofocusing of hard x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macrander, A. T.; Liu, C.; Conley, R.; Assoufid, L.; Khounsary, A.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C. M.; X-Ray Science Division

    2006-01-01

    Progress in the fabrication and metrology of both Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) and Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) mirrors at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is on-going as part of the world-wide race to achieve ever smaller focusing. Successful MLLs require multilayer depositions consisting of many layers. Focusing to 30 nm for 19.5 keV has been demonstrated at APS beamlines with a WSi2/Si MLL having 728 layers made at the APS. These same techniques were used to achieve a partial linear zone plate structure having a 5-nm outer most zone width and consisting of 1588 total layers as discussed below. Achromatic focusing to 80 nm of x-rays in the range {approx}7 to 22 keV by an elliptically figured K-B mirror has been demonstrated at the APS with a mirror coated at the APS. The mirror was made by profile coating a substrate with Au to achieve the elliptical surface shape. The elliptical mirror was made starting from a flat substrate. To make further progress, non-x-ray-based metrology data for real mirrors will need to be incorporated into simulations. This is being done using Fourier Optics methods as detailed below. Multilayer Laue Lens with 5-nm outermost zone - A scanning electron micrograph of a cross section of a 5-nm MLL structure is shown in Fig.1, below. The bilayer structure was WSi{sub 2}/Si and a total of 1588 layers were sputter deposited at the APS. The micrograph was read to obtain the data plotted in Fig. 2. Here the d-spacing as a function of position in the lens is shown, where the d-spacing is twice the individual layer spacing A linear behavior in 1/d vs. position is needed to satisfy the zone plate law. (Owing to limited SEM resolution, the thinnest layers were subject to greater uncertainty.) This lens was used to obtain a linear focus of 19.3 nm at 19.5 keV at beamline 12-BM at the APS. Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors and Fourier Optics Simulations - Elliptically shaped mirrors have been made by profile coating at the APS. A program to simulate the performance of such mirrors by means of Fourier Optics has recently been started. Mirror aberrations away from a perfect ellipse will be incorporated into a complex pupil function. In the absence of any aberrations, spherical waves emanating from a point source will be reflected to produce spherical waves directed to a focus. The resultant Fraunhofer diffraction pattern near the focal plane is shown in Fig. 3. Subsequent introduction of mirror aberrations will be simulated with this procedure.

  9. Suzaku Spectroscopy Study of Hard X-Ray Emission in the Arches Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, M; Koyama, K

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of a Suzaku study of the Arches cluster. A high S/N spectrum in the 3-12 keV band was obtained with the XIS. We found that the spectrum consists of a thermal plasma, a hard power-law tail, and two Gaussian lines. The plasma component (kT~2.2 keV) is established from the presence of CaXIX and FeXXV K alpha lines as well as the absence of FeXXVI K alpha line. The two Gaussian lines represent the K alpha and beta lines from iron at lower ionization stages. Both the line centers and the intensity ratio of these two lines are consistent with the neutral iron. The hard power-law tail (index~0.7) was found to have no pronounced iron K edge feature. In comparison with the published Chandra spectra, we conclude that the thermal component is from the ensemble of point-like sources plus thermal diffuse emission concentrated at the cluster center, while the Gaussian and the hard tail components are from the non-thermal diffuse emission extended in a larger scale. In the band-limited XIS images, the...

  10. Revealing a hard X-ray spectral component reverberating within one light hour of the central Supermassive Black Hole in Ark 564

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giustini, M; Reeves, J N; Miller, L; Legg, E; Kraemer, S B; George, I M

    2015-01-01

    Ark 564 (z=0.0247) is an X-ray bright NLS1. By using advanced X-ray timing techniques, Legg et al. (2012) discovered an excess of "delayed" emission in the hard X-ray band (4-7.5 keV) following about 1000 seconds after "flaring" light in the soft X-ray band (0.4-1 keV). We report on the X-ray spectral analysis of eight XMM-Newton and one Suzaku observation of Ark 564. High-resolution spectroscopy was performed with the RGS in the soft X-ray band, while broad-band spectroscopy was performed with the EPIC-pn and XIS/PIN instruments. We analysed time-averaged, flux-selected, and time-resolved spectra. Despite the large variability in flux, the broad band spectral shape of Ark 564 is not dramatically varying and can be reproduced either by a superposition of a power law and a blackbody emission, or by a Comptonized power law emission model. High resolution spectroscopy revealed the presence of ionised gas along the line of sight at the systemic redshift of the source, with a low column density and a range of ioni...

  11. Dawn of x-ray nonlinear optics | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dawn of x-ray nonlinear optics Wednesday, July 8, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: David Reis, PULSE Program Description X-ray free electron lasers...

  12. XES Nanoprobe for Hard X-Ray Region: Mitigating Degradation in Ni-ZEBRA Batteries Research Team: Mark Bowden, Kyle Alvine, Nancy Hess, Guosheng Li, Tamas Varga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    XES Nanoprobe for Hard X-Ray Region: Mitigating Degradation in Ni-ZEBRA Batteries Research Team scientific understanding of link between Ni-NiCl2 ZEBRA battery cycle degradation and FeS additive Chemical battery performance by poisoning Ni surfaces ­ optimizing Ni/NiCl2 distributions and conductive pathways

  13. On the Properties of Inner Cool Disks in the Hard State of Black Hole X-Ray Transient Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronald E. Taam; B. F. Liu; F. Meyer; E. Meyer-Hofmeister

    2008-07-22

    The formation of a cool disk in the innermost regions of black hole X-ray transient systems in the low hard state is investigated. Taking into account the combined cooling associated with the Compton and conductive energy transport processes in a corona, the radial structure of a disk is described for a range of mass accretion rates. The mass flow in an optically thick inner region can be maintained by the condensation of matter from a corona with the disk temperature and luminosity varying continuously as a function of the accretion rate. Although such a disk component can be present, the contribution of the optically thick disk component to the total luminosity can be small since the mass flow due to condensation in the optically thick disk underlying the corona can be significantly less than the mass flow rate in the corona. The model is applied to the observations of the low quiescent state of the black hole source GX 339-4 at luminosities of around $0.01 L_{Edd}$ and is able to explain the temperature of the thermal component at the observed luminosities. Since conductive cooling dominates Compton cooling at low mass accretion rates, the luminosity corresponding to the critical mass accretion rate above which a weak thermal disk component can be present in the low hard state is estimated to be as low as $0.001 L_{Edd}$.

  14. ESTIMATING THE PROPERTIES OF HARD X-RAY SOLAR FLARES BY CONSTRAINING MODEL PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ireland, J. [ADNET Systems, Inc. at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tolbert, A. K.; Schwartz, R. A. [Catholic University of America at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Holman, G. D.; Dennis, B. R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We wish to better constrain the properties of solar flares by exploring how parameterized models of solar flares interact with uncertainty estimation methods. We compare four different methods of calculating uncertainty estimates in fitting parameterized models to Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager X-ray spectra, considering only statistical sources of error. Three of the four methods are based on estimating the scale-size of the minimum in a hypersurface formed by the weighted sum of the squares of the differences between the model fit and the data as a function of the fit parameters, and are implemented as commonly practiced. The fourth method is also based on the difference between the data and the model, but instead uses Bayesian data analysis and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to calculate an uncertainty estimate. Two flare spectra are modeled: one from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite X1.3 class flare of 2005 January 19, and the other from the X4.8 flare of 2002 July 23. We find that the four methods give approximately the same uncertainty estimates for the 2005 January 19 spectral fit parameters, but lead to very different uncertainty estimates for the 2002 July 23 spectral fit. This is because each method implements different analyses of the hypersurface, yielding method-dependent results that can differ greatly depending on the shape of the hypersurface. The hypersurface arising from the 2005 January 19 analysis is consistent with a normal distribution; therefore, the assumptions behind the three non-Bayesian uncertainty estimation methods are satisfied and similar estimates are found. The 2002 July 23 analysis shows that the hypersurface is not consistent with a normal distribution, indicating that the assumptions behind the three non-Bayesian uncertainty estimation methods are not satisfied, leading to differing estimates of the uncertainty. We find that the shape of the hypersurface is crucial in understanding the output from each uncertainty estimation technique, and that a crucial factor determining the shape of hypersurface is the location of the low-energy cutoff relative to energies where the thermal emission dominates. The Bayesian/MCMC approach also allows us to provide detailed information on probable values of the low-energy cutoff, E{sub c} , a crucial parameter in defining the energy content of the flare-accelerated electrons. We show that for the 2002 July 23 flare data, there is a 95% probability that E{sub c} lies below approximately 40 keV, and a 68% probability that it lies in the range 7-36 keV. Further, the low-energy cutoff is more likely to be in the range 25-35 keV than in any other 10 keV wide energy range. The low-energy cutoff for the 2005 January 19 flare is more tightly constrained to 107 {+-} 4 keV with 68% probability. Using the Bayesian/MCMC approach, we also estimate for the first time probability density functions for the total number of flare-accelerated electrons and the energy they carry for each flare studied. For the 2002 July 23 event, these probability density functions are asymmetric with long tails orders of magnitude higher than the most probable value, caused by the poorly constrained value of the low-energy cutoff. The most probable electron power is estimated at 10{sup 28.1} erg s{sup -1}, with a 68% credible interval estimated at 10{sup 28.1}-10{sup 29.0} erg s{sup -1}, and a 95% credible interval estimated at 10{sup 28.0}-10{sup 30.2} erg s{sup -1}. For the 2005 January 19 flare spectrum, the probability density functions for the total number of flare-accelerated electrons and their energy are much more symmetric and narrow: the most probable electron power is estimated at 10{sup 27.66{+-}0.01} erg s{sup -1} (68% credible intervals). However, in this case the uncertainty due to systematic sources of error is estimated to dominate the uncertainty due to statistical sources of error.

  15. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors.

  16. Hard x-ray broad band Laue lenses (80 - 600 keV): building methods and performances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virgilli, E; Rosati, P; Liccardo, V; Squerzanti, S; Carassiti, V; Caroli, E; Auricchio, N; Stephen, J B

    2015-01-01

    We present the status of the laue project devoted to develop a technology for building a 20 meter long focal length Laue lens for hard x-/soft gamma-ray astronomy (80 - 600 keV). The Laue lens is composed of bent crystals of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs, 220) and Germanium (Ge, 111), and, for the first time, the focusing property of bent crystals has been exploited for this field of applications. We show the preliminary results concerning the adhesive employed to fix the crystal tiles over the lens support, the positioning accuracy obtained and possible further improvements. The Laue lens petal that will be completed in a few months has a pass band of 80 - 300 keV and is a fraction of an entire Laue lens capable of focusing X-rays up to 600 keV, possibly extendable down to 20 - 30 keV with suitable low absorption crystal materials and focal length. The final goal is to develop a focusing optics that can improve the sensitivity over current telescopes in this energy band by 2 orders of magnitude.

  17. Observation of 2011-02-15 X2.2 flare in Hard X-ray and Microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuroda, Natsuha; Gary, Dale E

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the energy release mechanism of some solar flares follow the Standard magnetic-reconnection model, but the detailed properties of high-energy electrons produced in the flare are still not well understood. We conducted a unique, multi-wavelength study that discloses the spatial, temporal and energy distributions of the accelerated electrons in the X2.2 solar flare on 2011, Feb. 15. We studied the source locations of seven distinct temporal peaks observed in hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) lightcurves using the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) in 50 to 75 keV channels and Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) in 34 GHz, respectively. We found that the seven emission peaks did not come from seven spatially distinct sites in HXR and MW, but rather in HXR we observed a sudden change in location only between the second and the third peak, with the same pattern occurring, but evolving more slowly in MW. Comparison between the HXR lightcurve and the temporal...

  18. SN 2010jl: Optical to hard X-ray observations reveal an explosion embedded in a ten solar mass cocoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Zoglauer, Andreas; Boggs, Steven E.; Barriére, Nicolas M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Reynolds, Stephen P. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Fryer, Chris L.; Even, Wesley [CCS Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Harrison, Fiona A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Bellm, Eric; Grefenstette, Brian [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Christensen, Finn [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 538 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Laher, Russ [Spitzer Science Center, MS 314-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2014-01-20

    Some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the interaction of the SN ejecta with a large amount of circumstellar matter (CSM). However, quantitative estimates of the CSM mass around such SNe are missing when the CSM material is optically thick. Specifically, current estimators are sensitive to uncertainties regarding the CSM density profile and the ejecta velocity. Here we outline a method to measure the mass of the optically thick CSM around such SNe. We present new visible-light and X-ray observations of SN 2010jl (PTF 10aaxf), including the first detection of an SN in the hard X-ray band using NuSTAR. The total radiated luminosity of SN 2010jl is extreme—at least 9 × 10{sup 50} erg. By modeling the visible-light data, we robustly show that the mass of the circumstellar material within ?10{sup 16} cm of the progenitor of SN 2010jl was in excess of 10 M {sub ?}. This mass was likely ejected tens of years prior to the SN explosion. Our modeling suggests that the shock velocity during shock breakout was ?6000 km s{sup –1}, decelerating to ?2600 km s{sup –1} about 2 yr after maximum light. Furthermore, our late-time NuSTAR and XMM spectra of the SN presumably provide the first direct measurement of SN shock velocity 2 yr after the SN maximum light—measured to be in the range of 2000-4500 km s{sup –1} if the ions and electrons are in equilibrium, and ? 2000 km s{sup –1} if they are not in equilibrium. This measurement is in agreement with the shock velocity predicted by our modeling of the visible-light data. Our observations also show that the average radial density distribution of the CSM roughly follows an r {sup –2} law. A possible explanation for the ? 10 M {sub ?} of CSM and the wind-like profile is that they are the result of multiple pulsational pair instability events prior to the SN explosion, separated from each other by years.

  19. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: Identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thfoin, I. Reverdin, C.; Duval, A.; Leboeuf, X.; Lecherbourg, L.; Rossé, B.; Hulin, S.; Batani, D.; Santos, J. J.; Vaisseau, X.; Fourment, C.; Giuffrida, L.; Szabo, C. I.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Brambrink, E.; Koenig, M.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Morace, A.

    2014-11-15

    Transmission crystal spectrometers (TCS) are used on many laser facilities to record hard X-ray spectra. During experiments, signal recorded on imaging plates is often degraded by a background noise. Monte-Carlo simulations made with the code GEANT4 show that this background noise is mainly generated by diffusion of MeV electrons and very hard X-rays. An experiment, carried out at LULI2000, confirmed that the use of magnets in front of the diagnostic, that bent the electron trajectories, reduces significantly this background. The new spectrometer SPECTIX (Spectromètre PETAL à Cristal en TransmIssion X), built for the LMJ/PETAL facility, will include this optimized shielding.

  20. Transition of an X-ray binary to the hard ultraluminous state in the blue compact dwarf galaxy VII Zw 403

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brorby, Matthew; Feng, Hua

    2015-01-01

    We examine the X-ray spectra of VII Zw 403, a nearby low-metallicity blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy. The galaxy has been observed to contain an X-ray source, likely a high mass X-ray binary (HMXB), with a luminosity of 1.3-23x10^38 erg s^-1 in the 0.3-8 keV energy range. A new Suzaku observation shows a transition to a luminosity of 1.7x10^40 erg s^-1 [0.3-8 keV], higher by a factor of 7-130. The spectra from the high flux state are hard, best described by a disk plus Comptonization model, and exhibit curvature at energies above 5 keV. This is consistent with many high-quality ultraluminous X-ray source spectra which have been interpreted as stellar mass black holes (StMBH) accreting at super-Eddington rates. However, this lies in contrast to another HMXB in a low-metallicity BCD, I Zw 18, that exhibits a soft spectrum at high flux, similar to Galactic black hole binaries and has been interpreted as a possible intermediate mass black hole. Determining the spectral properties of HMXBs in BCDs has important im...

  1. The X-ray Pump–Probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chollet, Matthieu; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Cammarata, Marco; Damiani, Daniel; Defever, Jim; Delor, James T.; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Langton, J. Brian; Nelson, Silke; et al

    2015-04-21

    The X-ray Pump–Probe instrument achieves femtosecond time-resolution with hard X-ray methods using a free-electron laser source. It covers a photon energy range of 4–24 keV. A femtosecond optical laser system is available across a broad spectrum of wavelengths for generating transient states of matter. The instrument is designed to emphasize versatility and the scientific goals encompass ultrafast physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the transformation of matter and transfer of energy at the atomic scale.

  2. Fast and Furious: Shock heated gas as the origin of spatially resolved hard X-ray emission in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy merger NGC 6240

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Junfeng; Nardini, Emanuele; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Karovska, Margarita; Elvis, Martin; Risaliti, Guido; Zezas, Andreas [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pellegrini, Silvia [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universitá di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Max, Claire [Center for Adaptive Optics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); U, Vivian, E-mail: jfwang@northwestern.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    We have obtained a deep, subarcsecond resolution X-ray image of the nuclear region of the luminous galaxy merger NGC 6240 with Chandra, which resolves the X-ray emission from the pair of active nuclei and the diffuse hot gas in great detail. We detect extended hard X-ray emission from kT ? 6 keV (?70 MK) hot gas over a spatial scale of 5 kpc, indicating the presence of fast shocks with a velocity of ?2200 km s{sup –1}. For the first time, we obtain the spatial distribution of this highly ionized gas emitting Fe XXV, which shows a remarkable correspondence to the large-scale morphology of H{sub 2}(1-0) S(1) line emission and H? filaments. Propagation of fast shocks originating in the starburst-driven wind into the ambient dense gas can account for this morphological correspondence. With an observed L {sub 0.5-8} {sub keV} = 5.3 × 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}, the diffuse hard X-ray emission is ?100 times more luminous than that observed in the classic starburst galaxy M82. Assuming a filling factor of 1% for the 70 MK temperature gas, we estimate its total mass (M {sub hot} = 1.8 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ?}) and thermal energy (E {sub th} = 6.5 × 10{sup 57} erg). The total iron mass in the highly ionized plasma is M {sub Fe} = 4.6 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ?}. Both the energetics and the iron mass in the hot gas are consistent with the expected injection from the supernovae explosion during the starburst that is commensurate with its high star formation rate. No evidence for fluorescent Fe I emission is found in the CO filament connecting the two nuclei.

  3. NuSTAR STUDY OF HARD X-RAY MORPHOLOGY AND SPECTROSCOPY OF PWN G21.5–0.9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nynka, Melania

    We present NuSTAR high-energy X-ray observations of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN)/supernova remnant G21.5–0.9. We detect integrated emission from the nebula up to ~40 keV, and resolve individual spatial features over a broad ...

  4. NuSTAR study of hard X-ray morphology and spectroscopy of PWN G21.5–0.9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nynka, Melania; Hailey, Charles J.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Mori, Kaya; Perez, Kerstin [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Reynolds, Stephen P. [Physics Department, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Baganoff, Frederick K. [Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Boggs, Steven E.; Krivonos, Roman; Zoglauer, Andreas [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Craig, William W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We present NuSTAR high-energy X-ray observations of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN)/supernova remnant G21.5–0.9. We detect integrated emission from the nebula up to ?40 keV, and resolve individual spatial features over a broad X-ray band for the first time. The morphology seen by NuSTAR agrees well with that seen by XMM-Newton and Chandra below 10 keV. At high energies, NuSTAR clearly detects non-thermal emission up to ?20 keV that extends along the eastern and northern rim of the supernova shell. The broadband images clearly demonstrate that X-ray emission from the North Spur and Eastern Limb results predominantly from non-thermal processes. We detect a break in the spatially integrated X-ray spectrum at ?9 keV that cannot be reproduced by current spectral energy distribution models, implying either a more complex electron injection spectrum or an additional process such as diffusion compared to what has been considered in previous work. We use spatially resolved maps to derive an energy-dependent cooling length scale, L(E)?E{sup m} with m = –0.21 ± 0.01. We find this to be inconsistent with the model for the morphological evolution with energy described by Kennel and Coroniti. This value, along with the observed steepening in power-law index between radio and X-ray, can be quantitatively explained as an energy-loss spectral break in the simple scaling model of Reynolds, assuming particle advection dominates over diffusion. This interpretation requires a substantial departure from spherical magnetohydrodynamic, magnetic-flux-conserving outflow, most plausibly in the form of turbulent magnetic-field amplification.

  5. Expectations for the hard x-ray continuum and gamma-ray line fluxes from the typE IA supernova SN 2014J in M82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The, Lih-Sin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, SC 29634 (United States); Burrows, Adam, E-mail: tlihsin@clemson.edu, E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    The hard X-ray continuum and gamma-ray lines from a Type Ia supernova dominate its integrated photon emissions and can provide unique diagnostics of the mass of the ejecta, the {sup 56}Ni yield and spatial distribution, its kinetic energy and expansion speed, and the mechanism of explosion. Such signatures and their time behavior 'X-ray' the bulk debris field in direct fashion, and do not depend on the ofttimes problematic and elaborate UV, optical, and near-infrared spectroscopy and radiative transfer that have informed the study of these events for decades. However, to date no hard photons have ever been detected from a Type Ia supernova in explosion. With the advent of the supernova SN 2014J in M82, at a distance of ?3.5 Mpc, this situation may soon change. Both NuSTAR and INTEGRAL have the potential to detect SN 2014J, and, if spectra and light curves can be measured, would usefully constrain the various explosion models published during the last ?30 yr. In support of these observational campaigns, we provide predictions for the hard X-ray continuum and gamma-line emissions for 15 Type Ia explosion models gleaned from the literature. The model set, containing as it does deflagration, delayed detonation, merger detonation, pulsational delayed detonation, and sub-Chandrasekhar helium detonation models, collectively spans a wide range of properties, and hence signatures. We provide a brief discussion of various diagnostics (with examples), but importantly make the spectral and line results available electronically to aid in the interpretation of the anticipated data.

  6. Computation of the off-axis effective area of the New Hard X-ray Mission modules by means of an analytical approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, D

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important parameters determining the sensitivity of X-ray telescopes is their effective area as a function of the X-ray energy. The computation of the effective area of a Wolter-I mirror, with either a single layer or multilayer coating, is a very simple task for a source on-axis at astronomical distance. Indeed, when the source moves off-axis the calculation is more complicated, in particular for new hard X-ray imaging telescopes (NuSTAR, ASTRO-H, NHXM, IXO) beyond 10 keV, that will make use of multilayer coatings to extend the reflectivity band in grazing incidence. Unlike traditional single-layer coatings (in Ir or Au), graded multilayer coatings exhibit an oscillating reflectivity as a function of the incidence angle, which makes the effective area not immediately predictable for a source placed off-axis within the field of view. For this reason, the computation of the off-axis effective area has been so far demanded to ray- tracing codes, able to sample the incidence of photons onto the m...

  7. Spectral differences between the radio-loud and radio-quiet low-hard states of GRS 1915+105: possible detection of synchrotron radiation in X-rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Vadawale; A. R. Rao; S. K. Chakrabarti

    2001-04-23

    The Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 exhibits several episodes of steady X-ray emission characterized by a hard power-law spectrum and intense Quasi Periodic Oscillations. It is known that there are two types of such low-hard states, one with steady radio emission and the other without any significant radio emission. We present the results of a detailed X-ray spectroscopic study of GRS 1915+105, using data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer obtained during various episodes of the low-hard states of the source. We show that there are distinct X-ray spectral differences between the radio-quiet and radio-loud low-hard states of the source. The X-ray spectra of the radio-quiet low-hard state is best described by a model consisting ofa multicolor disk-blackbody and a Comptonized component, whereas the X-ray spectra of radio-loud low-hard state requires a model consisting of three components: a multicolor disk-blackbody, a Comptonized component and a power-law, for statistically and physically acceptable fits. We attempt to model the presence of this additional power-law component as due to synchrotronradiation which is responsible for the radio and infrared radiation from thesource. We show that a simple adiabatically expanding jet model for the synchrotron radiation can account for the observed X-ray flux for reasonable values of the magnetic field and the mass outflow rate. This is the first report of detection of the synchrotron radiation in the X-ray band for this source.

  8. Measurement of coherence length and incoherent source size of hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, So Yeong; Hong, Chung Ki [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jun, E-mail: limjun@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    We measured the spatial coherence length and incoherent source size of a hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II, the stored electron energy of which has been increased from 2.5 GeV to 3 GeV. The coherence length was determined by single-slit measurement of the visibility of the Fresnel diffraction pattern. The correlated incoherent source size was cross-checked for three different optics: the single slit, beryllium parabolic compound refractive lenses, and the Fresnel zone plate. We concluded that the undulator beamline has an effective incoherent source size (FWHM) of 540 ?m (horizontal) × 50 ?m (vertical)

  9. Characterization and Application of Hard X-Ray Betatron Radiation Generated by Relativistic Electrons from a Laser-Wakefield Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnell, Michael; Uschmann, Ingo; Jansen, Oliver; Kaluza, Malte Christoph; Spielmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The necessity for compact table-top x-ray sources with higher brightness, shorter wavelength and shorter pulse duration has led to the development of complementary sources based on laser-plasma accelerators, in contrast to conventional accelerators. Relativistic interaction of short-pulse lasers with underdense plasmas results in acceleration of electrons and in consequence in the emission of spatially coherent radiation, which is known in the literature as betatron radiation. In this article we report on our recent results in the rapidly developing field of secondary x-ray radiation generated by high-energy electron pulses. The betatron radiation is characterized with a novel setup allowing to measure the energy, the spatial energy distribution in the far-field of the beam and the source size in a single laser shot. Furthermore, the polarization state is measured for each laser shot. In this way the emitted betatron x-rays can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to retrieve very subtle information of t...

  10. Reliable before-fabrication forecasting of expected surface slope distributions for x-ray optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yashchuk, Yekaterina V.

    2013-01-01

    of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc.beamlines and diagnostics at LCLS,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A

  11. Three years of Fermi GBM Earth Occultation Monitoring: Observations of Hard X-ray/Soft Gamma-Ray Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenke, P; Case, Gary L; Cherry, Michael L; Rodi, James; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Chaplin, Vandiver; Beklen, Elif; Finger, Mark H; Bhat, Narayana; Briggs, Michael S; Connaughto, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; Kippen, R Marc; Meegan, Charles A; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been providing continuous data to the astronomical community since 2008 August 12. We will present the results of the analysis of the first three years of these continuous data using the Earth occultation technique to monitor a catalog of 209 sources. Although the occultation technique is in principle quite simple, in practice there are many complications including the dynamic instrument response, source confusion, and scattering in the Earth's atmosphere, which will be described. We detect 99 sources, including 40 low-mass X-ray binary/neutron star systems, 31 high-mass X-ray binary/neutron star systems, 12 black hole binaries, 12 active galaxies, 2 other sources, plus the Crab Nebula and the Sun. Nine of these sources are detected in the 100-300 keV band, including seven black-hole binaries, the active galaxy Cen A, and the Crab. The Crab and Cyg X-1 are also detected in the 300-500 keV band. GBM provides complementary data to ot...

  12. Three years of Fermi GBM Earth Occultation Monitoring: Observations of Hard X-ray/Soft Gamma-Ray Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Cherry, Michael L; Rodi, James; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Jenke, Peter; Chaplin, Vandiver; Beklen, Elif; Finger, Mark; Bhat, Narayan; Briggs, Michael S; Connaughton, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; Kippen, R Marc; Meegan, Charles A; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board Fermi has been providing continuous data to the astronomical community since 2008 August 12. In this paper we present the results of the analysis of the first three years of these continuous data using the Earth occultation technique to monitor a catalog of 209 sources. From this catalog, we detect 102 sources, including 41 low-mass X-ray binary/neutron star systems, 33 high-mass X-ray binary neutron star systems, 12 black hole binaries, 12 active galaxies, 2 other sources, plus the Crab Nebula, and the Sun. Nine of these sources are detected in the 100-300 keV band, including seven black-hole binaries, the active galaxy Cen A, and the Crab. The Crab and Cyg X-1 are also detected in the 300-500 keV band. GBM provides complementary data to other sky-monitors below 100 keV and is the only all-sky monitor above 100 keV. Up-to-date light curves for all of the catalog sources can be found at http://heastro.phys.lsu.edu/gbm/.

  13. Analysis of hard X-ray/high energy data from LS I +61{\\deg}303 based on implications from its 4.6 yr periodicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmermann, L; Massi, M; Wilms, J

    2011-01-01

    The most peculiar radio characteristics of the TeV emitting high-mass X-ray binary LS I +61{\\deg}303 are two periodicities: A large periodic outburst which exhibits the same period as the orbit (phase \\Phi) and a second periodicity of 1667 days (phase \\Theta) which modulates the orbital phase and amplitude of the large outburst. Recent analysis of the radio spectral index present strong evidence for the presence of the critical transition from optically thick emission (related to a steady jet) to an optically thin outburst (related to a transient jet) as in other microquasars. In parallel, a switch from a low/hard X-ray state to a transitional state (e.g.) steep power law state would be expected. We show how the critical transition from optically thick emission to an optically thin outburst is modulated by \\Theta. Folding over a too large \\Theta interval mixes up important information about the outbursts and can yield a false picture of the emission behaviour of the source along the orbit. We therefore analys...

  14. Hard X-ray Morphological and Spectral Studies of The Galactic Center Molecular Cloud Sgr B2: Constraining Past Sgr A* Flaring Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Shuo; Mori, Kaya; Clavel, Maïca; Terrier, Régis; Ponti, Gabriele; Goldwurm, Andrea; Bauer, Franz E; Boggs, Steven E; Craig, William W; Christensen, Finn E; Harrison, Fiona A; Hong, Jaesub; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Soldi, Simona; Tomsick, John A; Zhang, William W

    2015-01-01

    Galactic Center (GC) molecular cloud Sgr B2 is the best manifestation of an X-ray reflection nebula (XRN) reprocessing a past giant outburst from the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. Alternatively, Sgr B2 could be illuminated by low-energy cosmic ray electrons (LECRe) or protons (LECRp). In 2013, NuSTAR for the first time resolved Sgr B2 hard X-ray emission on sub-arcminute scales. Two prominent features are detected above 10 keV - a newly emerging cloud G0.66-0.13 and the central 90" radius region containing two compact cores Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N) surrounded by diffuse emission. It is inconclusive whether the remaining level of Sgr B2 emission is still decreasing or has reached a constant background level. A decreasing Fe K$\\alpha$ emission can be best explained by XRN while a constant background emission can be best explained by LECRp. In the XRN scenario, the 3-79 keV Sgr B2 spectrum can well constrain the past Sgr A* outburst, resulting in an outburst spectrum with a peak luminosity of $L_{3-79\\rm~keV} \\...

  15. X-ray irradiation in XTE J1817-330 and the inner radius of the truncated disc in the hard state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek Gierlinski; Chris Done; Kim Page

    2008-05-07

    The key aspect of the very successful truncated disc model for the low/hard X-ray spectral state in black hole binaries is that the geometrically thin disc recedes back from the last stable orbit at the transition to this state. This has recently been challenged by direct observations of the low/hard state disc from CCD data. We reanalyze the Swift and RXTE campaign covering the 2006 outburst of XTE J1817-330 and show that these data actually strongly support the truncated disc model as the transition spectra unambiguously show that the disc begins to recede as the source leaves the disc dominated soft state. The disc radius inferred for the proper low/hard state is less clear-cut, but we show that the effect of irradiation from the energetically dominant hot plasma leads to an underestimate of the disc radius by a factor of 2-3 in this state. This may also produce the soft excess reported in some hard-state spectra. The inferred radius becomes still larger when the potential difference in stress at the inner boundary, increased colour temperature correction from incomplete thermalization of the irradiation, and loss of observable disc photons from Comptonization in the hot plasma are taken into account. We conclude that the inner disc radius in XTE J1817-330 in the low/hard spectral state is at least 6-8 times that seen in the disc dominated high/soft state, and that recession of the inner disc is the trigger for the soft--hard state transition, as predicted by the truncated disc models.

  16. INTEGRAL SPI observations of Cygnus X-1 in the soft state: What about the jet contribution in hard X-rays?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.; Chauvin, M.

    2014-07-01

    During the first 7 yr of the INTEGRAL mission (2003-2009), Cyg X-1 has essentially been detected in its hard state (HS), with some incursions in intermediate HSs. This long, spectrally stable period allowed in particular the measurement of the polarization of the high-energy component that has long been observed above 200 keV in this peculiar object. This result strongly suggests that here we see the contribution of the jet, known to emit a strong synchrotron radio emission. In 2010 June, Cyg X-1 underwent a completed transition toward a soft state (SS). It gave us the unique opportunity to study in detail the corona emission in this spectral state, and to investigate in particular the behavior of the jet contribution. Indeed, during the SS, the hard X-ray emission decreases drastically, with its maximum energy shifted toward lower energy and its flux divided by a factor of ?5-10. Interestingly, the radio emission follows a similar drop, supporting the correlation between the jet emission and the hard component, even though the flux is too low to quantify the polarization characteristics.

  17. Optical Studies of Thirteen Hard X-ray Selected Cataclysmic Binaries from the Swift-BAT Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halpern, J P

    2015-01-01

    From a set of thirteen cataclysmic binaries that were discovered in the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey, we conducted time-resolved optical spectroscopy and/or time-series photometry of eleven, with the goal of measuring their orbital periods and searching for spin periods. Seven of the objects in this study are new optical identifications. Orbital periods are found for seven targets, ranging from 81 minutes to 20.4 hours. PBC J0706.7+0327 is an AM Herculis star (polar) based on its emission-line variations and large amplitude photometric modulation on the same period. Swift J2341.0+7645 may be a polar, although the evidence here is less secure. Coherent pulsations are detected from two objects, Swift J0503.7-2819 (975 s) and Swift J0614.0+1709 (1412 s and 1530 s, spin and beat periods, respectively), indicating that they are probable intermediate polars (DQ Herculis stars). For two other stars, longer spin periods are tentatively suggested. We also present the discovery of a 2.00 hour X-ray modulati...

  18. Research on pinches driven by SPPED 2 generator hard X-ray and neutron emission in plasma focus configuration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sánchez-Soto, L L; Silva, P; Sylvester, G S; Zambra, M; Pavez, C; Raspa, V; Castillo, F; Kies, W; Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, Jose; Silva, Patricio; Sylvester, Gustavo; Zambra, Marcelo; Pavez, Cristian; Raspa, Veronica; Castillo, Fermin; Kies, Walter

    2004-01-01

    SPEED2 is a generator based on Marx technology and was designed in the University of Dusseldorf. SPEED2 consists on 40 +/- Marx modules connected in parallel (4.1 mF equivalent Marx generator capacity, 300 kV, 4 MA in short circuit, 187 kJ, 400 ns rise time, dI/dt~1013 A/s). Currently the SPEED2 is operating at the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN, Chile, being the most powerful and energetic device for dense transient plasma in the Southern Hemisphere. Most of the previous works developed in SPEED2 at Dusseldorf were done in a plasma focus configuration for soft X-ray emission and the neutron emission from SPEED2 was not completely studied. The research program at CCHEN considers experiments in different pinch configurations (plasma focus, gas puffed plasma focus, gas embedded Z-pinch, wire arrays) at current of hundred of kiloamperes to mega-amperes, using the SPEED2 generator. The Chilean operation has begun implementing and developing diagnostics in a conventional plasma focus configuration oper...

  19. A TRACE White Light and RHESSI Hard X-Ray Study of Flare Energetics This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    is available Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience #12;A TRACE WHITE LIGHT AND RHESSIA TRACE White Light and RHESSI Hard X-Ray Study of Flare Energetics This article has been 2006 October 26 ABSTRACT In this paper we investigate the formation of the white-light (WL) continuum

  20. X-ray Observations of Mrk 231

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Turner

    1998-08-10

    This paper presents new X-ray observations of Mrk 231, an active galaxy of particular interest due to its large infrared luminosity and the presence of several blueshifted broad absorption line (BAL) systems, a phenomenon observed in a small fraction of QSOs. A ROSAT HRI image of Mrk 231 is presented, this shows an extended region of soft X-ray emission, covering several tens of kpc, consistent with the extent of the host galaxy. An ASCA observation of Mrk 231 is also presented. Hard X-rays are detected but the data show no significant variability in X-ray flux. The hard X-ray continuum is heavily attenuated and X-ray column estimates range from ~ 2 x 10^{22} - 10^{23} cm^{-2} depending on whether the material is assumed to be neutral or ionized, and on the model assumed for the extended X-ray component. These ASCA data provide only the second hard X-ray spectrum of a BAL AGN presented to date. The broad-band spectral-energy-distribution of the source is discussed. While Mrk 231 is X-ray weak compared to Seyfert 1 galaxies, it has an optical-to-X-ray spectrum typical of a QSO.

  1. A SUZAKU DISCOVERY OF A SLOWLY VARYING HARD X-RAY CONTINUUM FROM THE TYPE I SEYFERT GALAXY NGC 3516

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noda, Hirofumi [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Makishima, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro [Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamada, Shin'ya [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2013-07-10

    The bright type I Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516 was observed by Suzaku twice, in 2005 October 12-15 and 2009 October 28-November 2, for a gross time coverage of 242 and 544 ks and a net exposure of 134 and 255 ks, respectively. The 2-10 keV luminosity was 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} in 2005 and 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} in 2009. The 1.4-1.7 keV and 1.7-10 keV count rates both exhibited peak-to-peak variations of a factor of {approx}2 in 2005 and {approx}4 in 2009. In both observations, the 15-45 keV count rate was less variable. The 2-10 keV spectrum in 2005 was significantly more convex than that in 2009. Through a count-count plot technique, the 2-45 keV signals in both sets of data were successfully decomposed in a model-independent way into two distinct broadband components. One is a variable emission with a featureless spectral shape, and the other is a non-varying hard component accompanied by a prominent Fe-K emission line at 6.33 keV (6.40 keV in the rest frame). The former was successfully fitted by an absorbed power-law model, while the latter requires a new hard continuum in addition to a reflection component from distant materials. The spectral and variability differences between the two observations are mainly attributed to long-term changes of this new hard continuum, which was stable on timescales of several hundreds of kiloseconds.

  2. Performance study of a soft X-ray harmonic generation FEL seeded with an EUV laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gullans, M.; Wurtele, J.S.; Penn, G.; Zholents, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray Harmonic Generation FEL Seeded with an EUV Laser PulseX-ray harmonic generation FEL seeded with an EUV laser pulseof a free electron laser (FEL) using a low-power extreme

  3. X-ray emission from O stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David H. Cohen

    2008-02-01

    Young O stars are strong, hard, and variable X-ray sources, properties which strongly affect their circumstellar and galactic environments. After ~1 Myr, these stars settle down to become steady sources of soft X-rays. I use high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and MHD modeling to show that young O stars like theta-1 Ori C are well explained by the magnetically channeled wind shock scenario. After their magnetic fields dissipate, older O stars produce X-rays via shock heating in their unstable stellar winds. Here too I use X-ray spectroscopy and numerical modeling to confirm this scenario. In addition to elucidating the nature and cause of the O star X-ray emission, modeling of the high-resolution X-ray spectra of O supergiants provides strong evidence that mass-loss rates of these O stars have been overestimated.

  4. The Accreting Black Hole Swift J1753.5-0127 from Radio to Hard X-Ray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomsick, John A; Kolehmainen, Mari; Miller-Jones, James; Fuerst, Felix; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Corbel, Stephane; Coriat, Mickael; Done, Chris; Gandhi, Poshak; Harrison, Fiona A; Huang, Kuiyun; Kaaret, Philip; Kalemci, Emrah; Kanda, Yuka; Migliari, Simone; Miller, Jon M; Moritani, Yuki; Stern, Daniel; Uemura, Makoto; Urata, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    (abridged) We report on multi-wavelength measurements of Swift J1753.5-0127 in the hard state at L=2.7e36 erg/s (assuming d=3 kpc) in 2014. The radio emission is optically thick synchrotron, presumably from a compact jet. We take advantage of the low extinction and model the near-IR to UV emission with a multi-temperature disk model. Assuming a BH mass of M_BH=5 Msun and a system inclination of 40 deg, the fits imply an inner radius for the disk of Rin/Rg>212 d_3 (5Msun/M_BH). The outer radius is R_out/R_g=90,000 d_3 (5Msun/M_BH), which corresponds to 6.6e10 d_3 cm, consistent with the expected size of the disk. The 0.5-240 keV spectrum measured by Swift/XRT, Suzaku, and NuSTAR is relatively well characterized by a power-law with a photon index of Gamma=1.722+/-0.003, but a significant improvement is seen when a second continuum component is added. Reflection is a possibility, but no iron line is detected, implying a low iron abundance. We are able to fit the entire SED with a multi-temperature disk component...

  5. Catalac free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Swenson, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Jr., Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  6. Suzaku observations of two diffuse hard X-ray source regions, G22.0+0.0 and G23.5+0.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamauchi, Shigeo; Bamba, Aya

    2015-01-01

    G22.0+0.0 and G23.5+0.1 are diffuse hard X-ray sources discovered in the ASCA Galactic Plane Survey. We present Suzaku results of spectral analysis for these sources. G22.0+0.0 is confirmed to be a largely extended emission. The spectra were represented by a highly absorbed power-law model with a photon index of 1.7+/-0.3 and a moderately absorbed thermal emission with a temperature of 0.34^{+0.11}_{-0.08} keV. The difference in the N_{H} values between the two components suggests that the thermal component is unrelated with the power-law component and is a foreground emission located in the same line-of-sight. G23.5+0.1 is an extended source with a size of 3'.5. The spectra were fitted with an absorbed power-law model with a photon index of 2.4^{+0.5}_{-0.4}. The spatial and spectral properties show that both are candidates of old pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). In addition to the extended sources, we analyzed spectra of three point sources found in the observed fields. Based on the spectral features, we discuss...

  7. Accurate classification of 75 counterparts of objects detected in the 54 month Palermo Swift/BAT hard X-ray catalogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parisi, P; Rojas, A F; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Chavushyan, V; Palazzi, E; Bassani, L; Bazzano, A; Bird, A J; Galaz, G; Minniti, D; Morelli, L; Ubertini, P

    2013-01-01

    Through an optical campaign performed at 4 telescopes located in the northern and the southern hemispheres, we have obtained optical spectroscopy for 75 counterparts of unclassified or poorly studied hard X-ray emitting objects detected with Swift/BAT and listed in the 54 month Palermo BAT catalogue. All these objects have also observations taken with Swift/XRT, ROSAT or Chandra satellites which allowed us to reduce the high energy error box and pinpoint the most likely optical counterpart/s. We find that 69 sources in our sample are Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs); of them, 35 are classified as type 1 (with broad and narrow emission lines), 33 are classified as type 2 (with only narrow emission lines) and one is an high redshift QSO; the remaining 6 objects are galactic cataclysmic variables (CVs). Among type 1 AGNs, 32 are objects of intermediate Seyfert type (1.2-1.9) and one is Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy; for 29 out of 35 type 1 AGNs, we have been able to estimate the central black hole mass and the Eddin...

  8. Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    McQueen, Trevor ; Laksmono, Hartawan ; Kennedy, Brian ; Eckert, Sebastian ; Schlesinger, Daniel ; Nordlund, Dennis ; Ogasawara, Hirohito ; Sierra, Raymond G. ; Segtnan, Vegard H....

  9. Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeedingConnect PulseSummary (ProgrambatteriesLi- and Mn-Rich

  10. In situ X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scholar, SSRL MSD Hard X-ray Department A key factor in the global move towards clean, renewable energy is the electrification of the automobile. Current battery technology...

  11. CHANDRA X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE FOCUSED WIND IN THE CYGNUS X-1 SYSTEM. I. THE NONDIP SPECTRUM IN THE LOW/HARD STATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanke, Manfred

    We present analyses of a 50 ks observation of the supergiant X-ray binary system Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1)/HDE226868 taken with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). Cyg X-1 was in its spectrally ...

  12. X-ray Point Source Populations Constituting the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morihana, Kumiko; Yoshida, Tessei; Ebisawa, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of the X-ray astronomy, which is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra Bulge Field (Revnivtsev et al., 2009,2011), we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard band continuum and Fe K\\alpha line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-...

  13. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}; as-deposited amorphous, crystalline, and laser-reamorphized

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, Jan H. Tominaga, Junji; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alex V.; Ueda, Shigenori; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ishimaru, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2014-02-10

    We have investigated the electronic structure of as-deposited, crystalline, and laser-reamorphized Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} using high resolution, hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A shift in the Fermi level as well as a broadening of the spectral features in the valence band and the Ge 3d level between the amorphous and crystalline state is observed. Upon amorphization, Ge 3d and Sb 4d spectra show a surprisingly small breaking of resonant bonds and changes in the bonding character as evidenced by the very similar density of states in all cases.

  14. A split-beam probe-pump-probe scheme for femtosecond time resolved protein X-ray crystallography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van Thor, Jasper J.; Madsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In order to exploit the femtosecond pulse duration of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFEL) operating in the hard X-ray regime for ultrafast time-resolved protein crystallography experiments, critical parameters that determine the crystallographic signal-to-noise (I/?I) must be addressed. For single-crystal studies under low absorbed dose conditions, it has been shown that the intrinsic pulse intensity stability as well as mode structure and jitter of this structure, significantly affect the crystallographic signal-to-noise. Here, geometrical parameters are theoretically explored for a three-beam scheme: X-ray probe, optical pump, X-ray probe (or “probe-pump-probe”) which will allow experimental determination of the photo-induced structure factor amplitude differences, ?F,more »in a ratiometric manner, thereby internally referencing the intensity noise of the XFEL source. In addition to a non-collinear split-beam geometry which separates un-pumped and pumped diffraction patterns on an area detector, applying an additional convergence angle to both beams by focusing leads to integration over mosaic blocks in the case of well-ordered stationary protein crystals. Ray-tracing X-ray diffraction simulations are performed for an example using photoactive yellow protein crystals in order to explore the geometrical design parameters which would be needed. The specifications for an X-ray split and delay instrument that implements both an offset angle and focused beams are discussed, for implementation of a probe-pump-probe scheme at the European XFEL. We discuss possible extension of single crystal studies to serial femtosecond crystallography, particularly in view of the expected X-ray damage and ablation due to the first probe pulse.« less

  15. A split-beam probe-pump-probe scheme for femtosecond time resolved protein X-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Thor, Jasper J.; Madsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In order to exploit the femtosecond pulse duration of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFEL) operating in the hard X-ray regime for ultrafast time-resolved protein crystallography experiments, critical parameters that determine the crystallographic signal-to-noise (I/?I) must be addressed. For single-crystal studies under low absorbed dose conditions, it has been shown that the intrinsic pulse intensity stability as well as mode structure and jitter of this structure, significantly affect the crystallographic signal-to-noise. Here, geometrical parameters are theoretically explored for a three-beam scheme: X-ray probe, optical pump, X-ray probe (or “probe-pump-probe”) which will allow experimental determination of the photo-induced structure factor amplitude differences, ?F, in a ratiometric manner, thereby internally referencing the intensity noise of the XFEL source. In addition to a non-collinear split-beam geometry which separates un-pumped and pumped diffraction patterns on an area detector, applying an additional convergence angle to both beams by focusing leads to integration over mosaic blocks in the case of well-ordered stationary protein crystals. Ray-tracing X-ray diffraction simulations are performed for an example using photoactive yellow protein crystals in order to explore the geometrical design parameters which would be needed. The specifications for an X-ray split and delay instrument that implements both an offset angle and focused beams are discussed, for implementation of a probe-pump-probe scheme at the European XFEL. We discuss possible extension of single crystal studies to serial femtosecond crystallography, particularly in view of the expected X-ray damage and ablation due to the first probe pulse.

  16. The hard X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy IRAS 18325-5926: cool corona, reflection from an ionized disk and variable iron K emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Iwasawa; J. C. Lee; A. J. Young; C. S. Reynolds; A. C. Fabian

    2003-09-16

    We report our analysis of X-ray spectra of the Seyfert galaxy IRAS 18325-5926 (=Fairall 49) obtained from various X-ray observatories prior to XMM-Newton, including new results from two RXTE and one BeppoSAX observations. A relatively steep continuum slope (photon-index of ~2.2) in the 2-15 keV band is confirmed. The continuum spectrum observed with the BeppoSAX PDS shows a possible roll-over at energies above 30 keV, indicating a Comptonizing corona cooler than in other Seyfert nuclei. The X-ray spectrum above 2 keV is best explained with a model including reflection from a highly ionized disk with significant relativistic blurring. The iron K-alpha emission feature is then mainly due to FeXXV. The recent seven observations shows that the iron K emission flux appears to follow the continuum between the observations separated by a few months to years, although some exceptions suggest that the line strength may be determined in a more complex way.

  17. Chest x-Rays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica.

  18. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel S. (Mountain View, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  19. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  20. Comparison of hard x-ray production from various targets in air using a short pulse kHz laser with photon production from a high power multifilament laser beam from the same targets in air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledingham, K W D; McCanny, T; Melone, J J; Spohr, K; Schramm, U; Kraft, S D; Wagner, A; Jochmann, A

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been much interest in the production of hard X-rays from various targets using a kHz short pulse laser at intensities above 1014Wcm-2 (A). Most of these studies have been carried out in vacuum and very many fewer studies have been carried out in air. Recently this lack has been partially addressed with the development of femtosecond laser micromachining. Another similar although apparently unconnected field (B) deals with the channelling of high power laser beam in filaments after passage through long distances in air. This has been largely driven by the construction of a mobile terawatt laser beam (Teramobile) for atmospheric studies. The laser beams in these two cases (A and B) have very different pulse energies (mJ against J) although the filaments in (B) have similar energies to (A) and are clamped at intensities less than 1014 Wcm-2. This paper has been written to compare the production of hard X-rays in these two cases. The conclusion is interesting that a focused sub T...

  1. X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  2. Free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa, Francesco (Alameda, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A high gain, single-pass free electron laser formed of a high brilliance electron injector source, a linear accelerator which imparts high energy to the electron beam, and an undulator capable of extremely high magnetic fields, yet with a very short period. The electron injector source is the first stage (gap) of the linear accelerator or a radial line transformer driven by fast circular switch. The linear accelerator is formed of a plurality of accelerating gaps arranged in series. These gaps are energized in sequence by releasing a single pulse of energy which propagates simultaneously along a plurality of transmission lines, each of which feeds the gaps. The transmission lines are graduated in length so that pulse power is present at each gap as the accelerated electrons pass therethrough. The transmission lines for each gap are open circuited at their ends. The undualtor has a structure similar to the accelerator, except that the transmission lines for each gap are substantially short circuited at their ends, thus converting the electric field into magnetic field. A small amount of resistance is retained in order to generate a small electric field for replenishing the electron bunch with the energy lost as it traverses through the undulator structure.

  3. Bendable Focusing X-Ray Optics for the ALS and the LCLS/FEL: Design, Metrology, and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yashchuk, V. V.

    2010-01-01

    Optics for the ALS and the LCLS/FEL: Design, Metrology, andwas performed in support of the AMO/LCLS project at SLAC. *Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser (FEL)

  4. Bendable Focusing X-Ray Optics for the ALS and the LCLS/FEL: Design, Metrology, and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yashchuk, V. V.

    2010-01-01

    Optics for the ALS and the LCLS/FEL: Design, Metrology, andLCLS) x-ray free electron laser (FEL) at the Stanford LinearKB mirrors used at the SLAC/FEL AMO beamline. Two mirrors

  5. X-rays from magnetically channeled winds of OB stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David H. Cohen

    2008-01-30

    OB stars with strong radiation-driven stellar winds and large-scale magnetic fields generate strong and hard X-ray emission via the Magnetically Channeled Wind Shock (MCWS) mechanism. In this brief paper, I describe four separate X-ray diagnostics of the MCWS mechanism in OB stars, with applications to the prototype young O star, theta-1 Ori C.

  6. X-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, Eric N.; Keane, Denis T.

    2010-12-15

    In this tutorial, we describe X-ray microtomography as a technique to nondestructively characterize material microstructure in three dimensions at a micron level spatial resolution. While commercially available laboratory scale instrumentation is available, we focus our attention on synchrotron-based systems, where we can exploit a high flux, monochromatic X-ray beam to produce high fidelity three-dimensional images. A brief description of the physics and the mathematical analysis behind the technique is followed by example applications to specific materials characterization problems, with a particular focus on the utilization of three-dimensional image processing that can be used to extract a wide range of useful information.

  7. Rf Feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Swenson, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Jr., Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  8. X-ray emission properties of galaxies in Abell 3128

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell J. Smith

    2003-07-15

    We use archival Chandra X-ray Observatory data to investigate X-ray emission from early-type galaxies in the rich z=0.06 cluster Abell 3128. By combining the X-ray count-rates from an input list of optically-selected galaxies, we obtain a statistical detection of X-ray flux, unbiased by X-ray selection limits. Using 87 galaxies with reliable Chandra data, X-ray emission is detected for galaxies down to M_B ~ -19.0, with only an upper limit determined for galaxies at M_B ~ -18.3. The ratio of X-ray to optical luminosities is consistent with recent determinations of the low-mass X-ray binary content of nearby elliptical galaxies. Taken individually, in contrast, we detect significant (3sigma) flux for only six galaxies. Of these, one is a foreground galaxy, while two are optically-faint galaxies with X-ray hardness ratios characteristic of active galactic nuclei. The remaining three detected galaxies are amongst the optically-brightest cluster members, and have softer X-ray spectra. Their X-ray flux is higher than that expected from X-ray binaries, by a factor 2-10; the excess suggests these galaxies have retained their hot gaseous haloes. The source with the highest L_X / L_B ratio is of unusual optical morphology with prominent sharp-edged shells. Notwithstanding these few exceptions, the cluster population overall exhibits X-ray properties consistent with their emission being dominated by X-ray binaries. We conclude that in rich cluster environments, interaction with the ambient intra-cluster medium acts to strip most galaxies of their hot halo gas.

  9. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; et al

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  10. X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATIONS CONSTITUTING THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morihana, Kumiko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)] [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yoshida, Tessei, E-mail: morihana@crab.riken.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-03-20

    Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe K{alpha} emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

  11. X-Ray Data Booklet X-RAY DATA BOOKLET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X-Ray Data Booklet X-RAY DATA BOOKLET Center for X-ray Optics and Advanced Light Source Lawrence Electromagnetic Relations Radioactivity and Radiation Protection Useful Formulas CXRO Home | ALS Home | LBL Home in PDF format Data Booklet Authors CXRO Home | ALS Home | LBL Home Privacy and Security Notice Please

  12. Crystallographic data processing for free-electron laser sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Thomas A. Barty, Anton; Stellato, Francesco; Holton, James M.; Kirian, Richard A.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Chapman, Henry N.

    2013-07-01

    A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A detailed analysis of the nature and impact of indexing ambiguities is presented. Simulations of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, which accounts for the partially recorded nature of the diffraction intensities, are presented and show that the integration of partial reflections could be made to converge more quickly if the bandwidth of the X-rays were to be increased by a small amount or if a slight convergence angle were introduced into the incident beam.

  13. Design Alternatives for a Free Electron Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, K; Bosch, R A; Eisert, D; Fisher, M V; Green, M A; Keil, R G; Kleman, K J; Kulpin, J G; Rogers, G C; Wehlitz, R; Chiang, T; Miller, T J; Lawler, J E; Yavuz, D; Legg, R A

    2012-07-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison is continuing design efforts for a vacuum ultraviolet/X-ray Free Electron Laser facility. The design incorporates seeding the FEL to provide fully coherent photon output at energies up to {approx}1 keV. The focus of the present work is to minimize the cost of the facility while preserving its performance. To achieve this we are exploring variations in the electron beam driver for the FEL, in undulator design, and in the seeding mechanism. Design optimizations and trade-offs between the various technologies and how they affect the FEL scientific program will be presented.

  14. Tunable X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyce, James R. (Williamsburg, VA)

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  15. Application of a PWFA to an X-ray FEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Israeli, Yasmine; Reiche, Sven; Pedrozzi, Marco; Muggli, Patric

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing demand for X-ray Free-electron lasers (FELs) in various science fields, in particular for those with short pulses, larger photon fluxes and shorter wavelengths. The level of X-ray power and the pulse energy depend on the amount of electron bunch energy. Increasing the latter will increase the power of the radiating X-rays. Using numerical simulations we explore the possibility of using a plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) scheme to increase the electron beam energy of an existing FEL facility without significantly increasing the accelerator length. In this paper we use parameters of the SwissFEL beam. The simulations are carried out in 2D cylindrical symmetry using the code OSIRIS. Initial results show an energy gain of ~2 GeV after propagation of 0.5 m in the plasma with a relative energy spread of ~1%.

  16. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  17. A combined capacitance-voltage and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterisation of metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As capacitor structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jun; Povey, Ian M.; Hurley, Paul K.; Walsh, Lee; Hughes, Greg; Woicik, Joseph C.; O'Regan, Terrance P.

    2014-07-14

    Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) characterization and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements have been used to study metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As capacitor structures with high (Ni) and low (Al) work function metals. The HAXPES measurements observe a band bending occurring prior to metal deposition, which is attributed to a combination of fixed oxide charges and interface states of donor-type. Following metal deposition, the Fermi level positions at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface move towards the expected direction as observed from HAXPES measurements. The In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As surface Fermi level positions determined from both the C-V analysis at zero gate bias and HAXPES measurements are in reasonable agreement. The results are consistent with the presence of electrically active interface states at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface and suggest an interface state density increasing towards the In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As valence band edge.

  18. In-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the impact of current compliance and switching cycles on oxygen and carbon defects in resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowinska, Malgorzata Bertaud, Thomas; Walczyk, Damian; Calka, Pauline; Walczyk, Christian; Thiess, Sebastian; Alff, Lambert; Schroeder, Thomas

    2014-05-28

    In this study, direct experimental materials science evidence of the important theoretical prediction for resistive random access memory (RRAM) technologies that a critical amount of oxygen vacancies is needed to establish stable resistive switching in metal-oxide-metal samples is presented. In detail, a novel in-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique is applied to non-destructively investigates the influence of the current compliance and direct current voltage sweep cycles on the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface chemistry and physics of resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells. These studies indeed confirm that current compliance is a critical parameter to control the amount of oxygen vacancies in the conducting filaments in the oxide layer during the RRAM cell operation to achieve stable switching. Furthermore, clear carbon segregation towards the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface under electrical stress is visible. Since carbon impurities impact the oxygen vacancy defect population under resistive switching, this dynamic carbon segregation to the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface is suspected to negatively influence RRAM device endurance. Therefore, these results indicate that the RRAM materials engineering needs to include all impurities in the dielectric layer in order to achieve reliable device performance.

  19. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0PhotosPresentationsWorld's largest singleX-Ray

  20. X-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markowicz, A.A.; Van Grieken, R.E.

    1986-04-01

    In the period under review, i.e, through 1984 and 1985, some 600 articles on XRS (X-ray spectrometry) were published; most of these have been scanned and the most fundamental ones are discussed. All references will refer to English-language articles, unless states otherwise. Also general books have appeared on quantitative EPXMA (electron-probe X-ray microanalysis) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) as well as an extensive review on the application of XRS to trace analysis of environmental samples. In the period under review no radically new developments have been seen in XRS. However, significant improvements have been made. Gain in intensities has been achieved by more efficient excitation, higher reflectivity of dispersing media, and better geometry. Better understanding of the physical process of photon- and electron-specimen interactions led to complex but more accurate equations for correction of various interelement effects. Extensive use of micro- and minicomputers now enables fully automatic operation, including qualitative analysis. However, sample preparation and presentation still put a limit to further progress. Although some authors find XRS in the phase of stabilization or even stagnation, further gradual developments are expected, particularly toward more dedicated equipment, advanced automation, and image analysis systems. Ways are outlined in which XRS has been improved in the 2 last years by excitation, detection, instrumental, methodological, and theoretical advances. 340 references.

  1. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  2. Efficient electronic structure calculation for molecular ionization dynamics at high x-ray intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao, Yajiang; Hanasaki, Kota; Son, Sang-Kil; Santra, Robin

    2015-01-01

    We present the implementation of an electronic-structure approach dedicated to ionization dynamics of molecules interacting with x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses. In our scheme, molecular orbitals for molecular core-hole states are represented by linear combination of numerical atomic orbitals that are solutions of corresponding atomic core-hole states. We demonstrate that our scheme efficiently calculates all possible multiple-hole configurations of molecules formed during XFEL pulses. The present method is suitable to investigate x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics and accompanying nuclear dynamics, providing essential information on the chemical dynamics relevant for high-intensity x-ray imaging.

  3. Self-detection of x-ray Fresnel transmittivity using photoelectron-induced gas ionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoupin, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Electric response of an x-ray mirror enclosed in a gas flow ionization chamber was studied under the conditions of total external reflection for hard x-rays. It is shown that the electric response of the system as a function of the incidence angle is defined by x-ray Fresnel transmittivity and photon-electron attenuation properties of the mirror material. A simple interpretation of quantum yield of the system is presented. The approach provides non-invasive in-situ diagnostics of hard x-ray optics, easy access to complementary x-ray transmittivity data in x-ray reflectivity experiments and can also pave the way to novel schemes for angle and energy resolving x-ray detectors.

  4. Numerical Modeling on Thermal Loading of Diamond Crystal in X-ray FEL Oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Meiqi; Guo, Yuhang; Li, Kai; Deng, Haixiao

    2015-01-01

    Due to high reflectivity and high resolution to X-ray pulse, diamond is one of the most popular Bragg crystals serving as the reflecting mirror and mono-chromator in the next generation free electrons lasers (FELs). The energy deposition of X-rays will result in thermal heating, and thus lattice expanding of diamond crystal, which may degrade the performance of X-ray FELs. In this paper, the thermal loading effect of diamond crystal for X-ray FEL oscillator has been systematically studied by the combined simulation of Geant4 and ANSYS, and its dependence on the environment temperature, crystal size, X-ray pulse repetition rate and pulse energy are presented.

  5. Single-shot Femtosecond X-Ray Holography Using Extended References D. Gauthier,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fienup, James R.

    of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 14627, USA 3 PULSE Institut for Ultrafast Energy Science, Stanford Linear potential in recent years especially with new ultrafast coherent x-ray sources, the free electron laser (FEL algorithm, namely, an inverse Fourier transform of the hologram. This is a valuable alternative

  6. Three New Long Period X-ray Pulsars Discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. J. Macomb; D. W. Fox; R. C. Lamb; T. A. Prince

    2003-01-04

    The Small Magellanic Cloud is increasingly an invaluable laboratory for studying accreting and isolated X-ray pulsars. We add to the class of compact SMC objects by reporting the discovery of three new long period X-ray pulsars detected with the {\\it Chandra X-ray Observatory}. The pulsars, with periods of 152, 304 and 565 seconds, all show hard X-ray spectra over the range from 0.6 - 7.5 keV. The source positions of the three pulsars are consistent with known H-alpha emission sources, indicating they are likely to be Be type X-ray binary star systems.

  7. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Jeffrey A. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  8. The ASTRO-H X-ray Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kelley, Richard; Aharonian, Henri AartsFelix; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steve; Anabuki, Naohisa; Angelini, Lorella; Arnaud, Keith; Asai, Makoto; Audard, Marc; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Azzarello, Philipp; Baluta, Chris; Bamba, Aya; Bando, Nobutaka; Bautz, Mark; Blandford, Roger; Boyce, Kevin; Brown, Greg; Cackett, Ed; Chernyakova, Maria; Coppi, Paolo; Costantini, Elisa; de Plaa, Jelle; Herder, Jan-Willem den; DiPirro, Michael; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Doty, John; Ebisawa, Ken; Eckart, Megan; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew; Ferrigno, Carlo; Foster, Adam; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Funk, Stefan; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gallo, Luigi; Gandhi, Poshak; Gendreau, Keith; Gilmore, Kirk; Haas, Daniel; Haba, Yoshito; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoshino, Akio; Hughes, John; Hwang, Una; Iizuka, Ryo; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ishida, Manabu; Ishimura, Kosei; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Ito, Masayuki; Iwata, Naoko; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Timothy; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Kawahara, Hajime; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Shigeo; Khangaluyan, Dmitry; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kimura, Masashi; Kinugasa, Kenzo; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Kosaka, Tatsuro; Koujelev, Alex; Koyama, Katsuji; Krimm, Hans; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; LaMassa, Stephanie; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, Francois; Leutenegger, Maurice; Limousin, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox; Lumb, David; Madejski, Grzegorz; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Makishima, Kazuo; Marchand, Genevieve; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; McCammon, Dan; McNamara, Brian; Miller, Jon; Miller, Eric; Mineshige, Shin; Minesugi, Kenji; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Hideyuki; Mori, Koji; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Mushotzky, Richard; Nagano, Housei; Nagino, Ryo; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Namba, Yoshiharu; Natsukari, Chikara; Nishioka, Yusuke; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Nomachi, Masaharu; Dell, Steve O'; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Mina; Ogi, Keiji; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Okajima, Takashi; Okamoto, Atsushi; Okazaki, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, Stephane; Parmar, Arvind; Petre, Robert; Pohl, Martin; Porter, F Scott; Ramsey, Brian; Reis, Rubens; Reynolds, Christopher; Russell, Helen; Safi-Harb, Samar; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Sanders, Jeremy; Sato, Goro; Sato, Rie; Sato, Yoichi; Sato, Kosuke; Sawada, Makoto; Serlemitsos, Peter; Seta, Hiromi; Shibano, Yasuko; Shida, Maki; Shimada, Takanobu; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Shirron, Peter; Simionescu, Aurora; Simmons, Cynthia; Smith, Randall; Sneiderman, Gary; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Lukasz; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takeda, Shin-ichiro; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Takayuki; Tamura, Keisuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yoko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Uchiyama, Hideki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Shiro; Uno, Shinichiro; Urry, Meg; Ursino, Eugenio; de Vries, Cor; Wada, Atsushi; Watanabe, Shin; Werner, Norbert; White, Nicholas; Yamada, Takahiro; Yamada, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamasaki, Noriko; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yuasa, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe via a suite of four instruments, covering a very wide energy range, from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. These instruments include a high-resolution, high-throughput spectrometer sensitive over 0.3-2 keV with high spectral resolution of Delta E < 7 eV, enabled by a micro-calorimeter array located in the focal plane of thin-foil X-ray optics; hard X-ray imaging spectrometers covering 5-80 keV, located in the focal plane of multilayer-coated, focusing hard X-ray mirrors; a wide-field imaging spectrometer sensitive over 0.4-12 keV, with an X-ray CCD camera in the focal plane of a soft X-ray telescope; and a non-focusing Compton-camera type soft gamma-ray detector, sensitive in the 40-600 keV band. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution, will enable the pursuit o...

  9. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sébastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; Nass, Karol; Shoeman, Robert L.; Timneanu, Nicusor; Santra, Robin; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N.

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  10. Optical Klystron Enhancement to SASE X-ray FELs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Yuantao; Emma, Paul; Huang, Zhirong; Kumar, Vinit

    2006-04-07

    The optical klystron enhancement to self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free electron lasers (FELs) is studied in theory and in simulations. In contrast to a seeded FEL, the optical klystron gain in a SASE FEL is not sensitive to any phase mismatch between the radiation and the microbunched electron beam. The FEL performance with the addition of four optical klystrons located at the undulator long breaks in the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) shows significant improvement if the uncorrelated energy spread at the undulator entrance can be controlled to a very small level. In addition, FEL saturation at shorter x-ray wavelengths (around 1.0 A) within the LCLS undulator length becomes possible. We also discuss the application of the optical klystron in a compact x-ray FEL design that employs relatively low electron beam energy together with a shorter-period undulator.

  11. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sébastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; et al

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting schememore »is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.« less

  12. X-ray fluorescence mapping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single goldWindX-RayX-Ray ScienceX-Ray

  13. Operational properties of fluctuation X-ray scattering data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malmerberg, Erik; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Zwart, Petrus H.

    2015-03-20

    X-ray scattering images collected on timescales shorter than rotation diffusion times using a (partially) coherent beam result in a significant increase in information content in the scattered data. These measurements, named fluctuation X-ray scattering (FXS), are typically performed on an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and can provide fundamental insights into the structure of biological molecules, engineered nanoparticles or energy-related mesoscopic materials beyond what can be obtained with standard X-ray scattering techniques. In order to understand, use and validate experimental FXS data, the availability of basic data characteristics and operational properties is essential, but has been absent up to this point.more »In this communication, an intuitive view of the nature of FXS data and their properties is provided, the effect of FXS data on the derived structural models is highlighted, and generalizations of the Guinier and Porod laws that can ultimately be used to plan experiments and assess the quality of experimental data are presented.« less

  14. following an electron bunch for free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    A video artist's ultra-slow-motion impression of an APEX-style electron gun firing a continuous train of electron bunches into a superconducting linear accelerator (in reality this would happen a million times a second). As they approach the speed of light the bunches contract, maintaining beam quality. After acceleration, the electron bunches are diverted into one or more undulators, the key components of free electron lasers. Oscillating back and forth in the changing magnetic field, they create beams of structured x-ray pulses. Before entering the experimental areas the electron bunches are diverted to a beam dump. (Animation created by Illumina Visual, http://www.illuminavisual.com/, for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Music for this excerpt, "Feeling Dark (Behind The Mask)" is by 7OOP3D http://ccmixter.org/files/7OOP3D/29126 and is licensed under a Creative Commons license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/)

  15. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  16. Accurate macromolecular structures using minimal measurements from X-ray free-electron lasers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hattne, Hattne

    Diffraction patterns from thermolysin microcrystals and one dark run, collected in December 2011. This data was used for metrology calibration and general cctbx.xfel development.

  17. Accurate macromolecular structures using minimal measurements from X-ray free-electron lasers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hattne, Hattne

    2014-03-04

    Diffraction patterns from thermolysin microcrystals and one dark run, collected in December 2011. This data was used for metrology calibration and general cctbx.xfel development.

  18. Goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography with X-ray free electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; González, Ana; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brewster, Aaron S.; Brunger, Axel T.; Calero, Guillermo; Chang, Joseph F.; Chollet, Matthieu; Ehrensberger, Paul; Eriksson, Thomas L.; Feng, Yiping; Hattne, Johan; Hedman, Britt; Hollenbeck, Michael; Holton, James M.; Keable, Stephen; Kobilka, Brian K.; Kovaleva, Elena G.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Lemke, Henrik T.; Lin, Guowu; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Manglik, Aashish; Mathews, Irimpan I.; McPhillips, Scott E.; Nelson, Silke; Peters, John W.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Smith, Clyde A.; Song, Jinhu; Stevenson, Hilary P.; Tsai, Yingssu; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Vinetsky, Vladimir; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Weis, William I.; Zadvornyy, Oleg A.; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Zhu, Diling; Hodgson, Keith O.

    2014-10-31

    The emerging method of femtosecond crystallography (FX) may extend the diffraction resolution accessible from small radiation-sensitive crystals and provides a means to determine catalytically accurate structures of acutely radiation-sensitive metalloenzymes. Automated goniometer-based instrumentation developed for use at the Linac Coherent Light Source enabled efficient and flexible FX experiments to be performed on a variety of sample types. In the case of rod-shaped Cpl hydrogenase crystals, only five crystals and about 30 min of beam time were used to obtain the 125 still diffraction patterns used to produce a 1.6-Å resolution electron density map. With smaller crystals, high-density grids were used to increase sample throughput; 930 myoglobin crystals mounted at random orientation inside 32 grids were exposed, demonstrating the utility of this approach. Screening results from cryocooled crystals of ?2-adrenoreceptor and an RNA polymerase II complex indicate the potential to extend the diffraction resolution obtainable from very radiation-sensitive samples beyond that possible with undulator-based synchrotron sources.

  19. Femtosecond dark-field imaging with an X-ray free electron laser (CXIDB ID 19)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Martin, A. V.

    2012-08-25

    This data was collected as part of the same experiment as the data deposited in [ID16](id-16.html). Experiment details are given in [Loh, N.D. et al.](http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11222)

  20. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser (CXIDB ID 3)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chapman, H. N.

    2011-02-23

    The diffraction pattern of this entry corresponds to the one shown in **figure 2a** of the corresponding citation.

  1. Femtosecond dark-field imaging with an X-ray free electron laser (CXIDB ID 19)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Martin, A. V.

    This data was collected as part of the same experiment as the data deposited in [ID16](id-16.html). Experiment details are given in [Loh, N.D. et al.](http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11222)

  2. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser (CXIDB ID 3)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chapman, H. N.

    The diffraction pattern of this entry corresponds to the one shown in **figure 2a** of the corresponding citation.

  3. R&D for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staples, John

    2009-01-01

    resolution electron beam diagnostics. • Radiation protectionelectron source, beam instrumentation and diagnostics andand diagnostics equipment to characterize the electron beam.

  4. R&D for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staples, John

    2009-01-01

    22(4): p. 1972. 23. D. H. Dowell, S.Z. Bethel, and K.D.2004) p. 330. 14. D. H. Dowell, et al. , Proc. of the 20071995). 10. E. Colby, D. Dowell, et al, “An Injector Test

  5. Experimental demonstration of a soft x-ray self-seeded free-electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States) Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)...

  6. Design Studies for a VUV--Soft X-ray Free-Electron Laser Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corlett, J.

    2010-01-01

    bunch arrival time in the LCLS, and another system that willFERMI@Elettra and 100 fs for LCLS, both requiring about 200-

  7. R&D for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staples, John

    2009-01-01

    2007). 41. P. Emma for the LCLS commissioning team, PAC2009Test Facility for the LCLS”, SLAC-TN-07-005, (2007). John N.Professional/Academic Director, LCLS Strategic Projects

  8. Design Studies for a VUV--Soft X-ray Free-Electron Laser Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corlett, J.

    2010-01-01

    0.75 MV at Q 0 (kW) Peak wall power density at 0.75 MV (W/cmlarge and the power density on the walls is small and

  9. Goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography with X-ray free electron lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; González, Ana; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brewster, Aaron S.; Brunger, Axel T.; et al

    2014-10-31

    The emerging method of femtosecond crystallography (FX) may extend the diffraction resolution accessible from small radiation-sensitive crystals and provides a means to determine catalytically accurate structures of acutely radiation-sensitive metalloenzymes. Automated goniometer-based instrumentation developed for use at the Linac Coherent Light Source enabled efficient and flexible FX experiments to be performed on a variety of sample types. In the case of rod-shaped Cpl hydrogenase crystals, only five crystals and about 30 min of beam time were used to obtain the 125 still diffraction patterns used to produce a 1.6-Å resolution electron density map. With smaller crystals, high-density grids were usedmore »to increase sample throughput; 930 myoglobin crystals mounted at random orientation inside 32 grids were exposed, demonstrating the utility of this approach. Screening results from cryocooled crystals of ?2-adrenoreceptor and an RNA polymerase II complex indicate the potential to extend the diffraction resolution obtainable from very radiation-sensitive samples beyond that possible with undulator-based synchrotron sources.« less

  10. R&D for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staples, John

    2009-01-01

    for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, 1998 SPIElaser systems for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Early

  11. De novo protein crystal structure determination from X-ray free-electron laser data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Barends, Thomas, R.M.

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) data of microcrystals of a lysozyme gadolinium derivative. The data was used to demonstrate de-novo phasing by single anomalous dispersion.

  12. De novo protein crystal structure determination from X-ray free-electron laser data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Barends, Thomas, R.M.

    2013-11-25

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) data of microcrystals of a lysozyme gadolinium derivative. The data was used to demonstrate de-novo phasing by single anomalous dispersion.

  13. R&D for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staples, John

    2009-01-01

    efforts of the International Linear Collider Global Designfrom the International Linear Collider R&D program, the LCLSlinac of the International Linear Collider and the DOE-

  14. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    , STEFANO MARCHESINI1,2 , BRUCE W. WOODS1 , SASA BAJT1 , W. HENRY BENNER1 , RICHARD A. LONDON1,2 , ELKE PL Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park

  15. R&D for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staples, John

    2009-01-01

    of Directors: Positive Light Incorporated, Los Gatos, CA.Light Incorporated, Los Gatos, CA. Consultant: Spectra-Light Incorporated, Los Gatos, CA. Involved in all aspects

  16. The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser: A Progress Report | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for development of imaging detectors, of instruments and of the ancillary facilities, with involvement of external laboratories and institutes in Europe, shall also be described...

  17. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser beam diagnostic was tested for two typical focusing configurations. The results derived from the speckle sizeshape analysis show the effectiveness of this technique in...

  18. The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser: A Progress Report | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar FuelTechnologyTel: Name: Rm. Tel:Test1TheDaleThe End

  19. Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar FuelTechnologyTel:February 25, 2015 |7 Dlaser Time-resolved

  20. Experimental demonstration of a soft x-ray self-seeded free-electron laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street Lighting HostDISCLAIMERlinac

  1. Compact X-ray Free Electron Laser from a Laser-plasma Accelerator using a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: Achievements ofCOMPOSITION OF VAPORS FROMSciDACReport) |Transverse Gradient

  2. Compact X-ray Free Electron Laser from a Laser-plasma Accelerator using a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collider Tests of the LittleJournal Article:in

  3. Compact X-ray Free-Electron Laser from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Using a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collider Tests of the LittleJournal Article:inTransverse-Gradient

  4. Compact x-ray free electron laser from a laser-plasma accelerator using a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collider Tests of the LittleJournal

  5. Compact x-ray free electron laser from a laser-plasma accelerator using a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collider Tests of the LittleJournaltransverse gradient undulator

  6. Experimental demonstration of a soft x-ray self-seeded free-electron laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal(Patent)pressure|the typEsilica

  7. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |production atmeasurementComparisonArticle) |(Conference) |

  8. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |production atmeasurementComparisonArticle) |(Conference) |scattering

  9. Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |productionPatent:Compression (Journal Article) |Nonlinearlasers

  10. Goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography with X-ray free electron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)

  11. Goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography with X-ray free electron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect González, Ana ; Aguila,

  12. Goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography with X-ray free electron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect González, Ana ;

  13. VISA: A Milestone on the Path towards X-Ray Free Electron Lasers | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewing system forPortal.1 - March

  14. The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings for Specific Measures (April U.S.First

  15. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesofExtransScientificEnergyBattlefieldFemtosecond

  16. Science Driver Requirements for Seeded Soft X-ray Free Electron Lasers |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque| Stanford SynchrotronVideo-Contest Sign56ScienceOpensStanford

  17. Feasibility considerations of a soft-x-ray distributed feedback laser pumped by an X-FEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Feasibility considerations of a soft-x-ray distributed feedback laser pumped by an X-FEL Jean feedback laser (DFL) pumped by an x- ray free electron laser (X-FEL). The DFL under consideration is a Mg/SiC bi-layered Bragg reflector pumped by a single X-FEL bunch at 57.4 eV, stimulating the Mg L2

  18. A Chandra Deep X-ray Exposure on the Galactic Plane and Near Infrared Identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Ebisawa; A. Paizis; T. J. -L. Couvoisier; P. Dubath; M. Tsujimoto; K. Hamaguchi; V. Beckmann; A. Bamba; A. Senda; M. Ueno; H. Kaneda; Y. Maeda; G. Sato; S. Yamauchi; R. Cutri; E. Nishihara

    2004-07-09

    Using the Chandra ACIS-I instruments, we have carried out a deep X-ray observation on the Galactic plane region at (l,b) ~ (28.5, 0.0), where no discrete X-ray sources have been known previously. We have detected, as well as strong diffuse emission, 274 new point X-ray sources (4 sigma confidence) within two partially overlapping fields (~250 arcmin^2 in total) down to the flux limit ~3 x 10^{-15} $ erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} (2 -- 10 keV) and ~ 7 x 10^{-16} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} (0.5 -- 2 keV). We clearly resolved point sources and the Galactic diffuse emission, and found that ~ 90 % of the flux observed in our field of view originates from diffuse emission. Many point sources are detected either in the soft X-ray band (below 2 keV) or in the hard band (above 2 keV), and only a small number of sources are detected in both energy bands. On the other hand, most soft X-ray sources are considered to be nearby X-ray active stars. We have carried out a follow-up near-infrared (NIR) observation using SOFI at ESO/NTT. Most of the soft X-ray sources were identified, whereas only a small number of hard X-ray sources had counterparts in NIR. Using both X-ray and NIR information, we can efficiently classify the point X-ray sources detected in the Galactic plane. We conclude that most of the hard X-ray sources are background Active Galactic Nuclei seen through the Milky Way, whereas majority of the soft X-ray sources are nearby X-ray active stars.

  19. Beam Dynamics Study of X-Band Linac Driven X-Ray FELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adolphsen, C.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Wu, J.; /SLAC; Sun, Y.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    Several linac driven X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) are being developed to provide high brightness photon beams with very short, tunable wavelengths. In this paper, three XFEL configurations are proposed that achieve LCLS-like performance using X-band linac drivers. These linacs are more versatile, efficient and compact than ones using S-band or C-band rf technology. For each of the designs, the overall accelerator layout and the shaping of the bunch longitudinal phase space are described briefly. During the last 40 years, the photon wavelengths from linac driven FELs have been pushed shorter by increasing the electron beam energy and adopting shorter period undulators. Recently, the wavelengths have reached the X-ray range, with FLASH (Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg) and LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) successfully providing users with soft and hard X-rays, respectively. FLASH uses a 1.2 GeV L-band (1.3 GHz) superconducting linac driver and can deliver 10-70 fs FWHM long photon pulses in a wavelength range of 44 nm to 4.1 nm. LCLS uses the last third of the SLAC 3 km S-band (2.856 GHz) normal-conducting linac to produce 3.5 GeV to 15 GeV bunches to generate soft and hard X-rays with good spatial coherence at wavelengths from 2.2 nm to 0.12 nm. Newer XFELs (at Spring8 and PSI) use C-band (5.7 GHz) normal-conducting linac drivers, which can sustain higher acceleration gradients, and hence shorten the linac length, and are more efficient at converting rf energy to bunch energy. The X-band (11.4 GHz) rf technology developed for NLC/GLC offers even higher gradients and efficiencies, and the shorter rf wavelength allows more versatility in longitudinal bunch phase space compression and manipulation. In the following sections, three different configurations of X-band linac driven XFELs are described that operate from 6 to 14 GeV. The first (LOW CHARGE DESIGN) has an electron bunch charge of only 10 pC; the second (OPTICS LINEARIZATION DESIGN) is based on optics linearization of the longitudinal phase space in the first stage bunch compressor and can operate with either a high (250 pC) or low (20 pC) bunch charge; and the third (LCLS INJECTOR DESIGN) is similar to LCLS but uses an X-band linac after the first stage bunch compressor at 250 MeV to achieve a final beam energy up to 14 GeV. Compared with LCLS, these X-band linacs are at least a factor of three shorter.

  20. The European XFEL Free Electron Laser at DESY

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Weise, Hans [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Germany

    2009-09-01

    The European X-ray Free-Electron laser Facility (XFEL) is going to be built in an international collaboration at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Germany, and the Technical Design Report was published in 2006. The official project is expected for summer 2007. This new facility will offer photon beams at wavelengths as short as 1 angstrom with highest peak brilliance being more than 100 million times higher than present day synchrotron radiation sources. The radiation has a high degree of transverse coherence and the pulse duration is reduced from {approx}100 picoseconds (typ. for SR light sources) down to the {approx}10 femtosecond time domain. The overall layout of the XFEL will be described. This includes the envisaged operation parameters for the linear accelerator using superconducting TESLA technology. The complete design is based on the actually operated FLASH free-electron laser at DESY. Experience with the operation during first long user runs at wavelengths from 30 to 13 nm will be described in detail.

  1. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore »resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  2. Ultrafast X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Neil

    2010-04-19

    Since before the scattering of X-rays off of DNA led to the first understanding of the double helix structure, sources of X-rays have been an essential tool for scientists examining the structure and interactions of matter. The resolution of a microscope is proportional to the wavelength of light so x-rays can see much finer structures than visible light, down to single atoms. In addition, the energy of X-rays is resonant with the core atomic levels of atoms so with appropriate wavelengths the placement of specific atoms in a large molecule can be determined. Over 10,000 scientists use synchrotron sources, storage rings of high energy electrons, each year worldwide. As an example of such use, virtually every picture of a protein or drug molecule that one sees in the scientific press is a reconstruction based on X-ray scattering of synchrotron light from the crystallized form of that molecule. Unfortunately those pictures are static and proteins work through configuration (shape) changes in response to energy transfer. To understand how biological systems work requires following the energy flow to these molecules and tracking how shape changes drive their interaction with other molecules. We'd like to be able to freeze the action of these molecules at various steps along the way with an X-ray strobe light. How fast does it have to be? To actually get a picture of a molecule in a fixed configuration requires X-ray pulses as short as 30 femtoseconds (1/30 of a millionth of a millionth of a second). To capture the energy flow through changes in electronic levels requires a faster strobe, less than 1 femtosecond! And to acquire such information in smaller samples with higher accuracy demands brighter and brighter X-rays. Unfortunately modern synchrotrons (dubbed 3rd Generation Light Sources) cannot deliver such short bright pulses of X-rays. An entirely new approach is required, linear-accelerator (linac-)-based light sources termed 4th or Next Generation Light Sources (NGLSs). Although NGLSs will not displace synchrotrons from their role they do offer exciting new capabilities which can be understood from the physics of the light production in each device.

  3. X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Owocki, Stan; Cohen, David; Ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ?60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres.

  4. An X-ray Reprocessing Model of Disk Thermal Emission in Type 1 Seyfert Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Chiang

    2002-02-12

    Using a geometry consisting of a hot central Comptonizing plasma surrounded by a thin accretion disk, we model the optical through hard X-ray spectral energy distributions of the type 1 Seyfert galaxies NGC 3516 and NGC 7469. As in the model proposed by Poutanen, Krolik, & Ryde for the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 and later applied to Seyfert galaxies by Zdziarski, Lubi\\'nski, & Smith, feedback between the radiation reprocessed by the disk and the thermal Comptonization emission from the hot central plasma plays a pivotal role in determining the X-ray spectrum, and as we show, the optical and ultraviolet spectra as well. Seemingly uncorrelated optical/UV and X-ray light curves, similar to those which have been observed from these objects can be explained by variations in the size, shape, and temperature of the Comptonizing plasma. Furthermore, by positing a disk mass accretion rate which satisfies a condition for global energy balance between the thermal Comptonization luminosity and the power available from accretion, one can predict the spectral properties of the hard X-ray continuum above $\\sim 50$ keV in type 1 Seyfert galaxies. Forthcoming measurements of the hard X-ray continuum by more sensitive hard X-ray and soft $\\gamma$-ray telescopes, in conjunction with simultaneous optical, UV, and soft X-ray monitoring, will allow the mass accretion rates to be directly constrained for these sources in the context of this model.

  5. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  6. An X-ray Imaging Study of the Stellar Population in RCW49

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; E. D. Feigelson; L. K. Townsley; P. S. Broos; K. V. Getman; J. Wang; G. P. Garmire; D. Baba; T. Nagayama; M. Tamura; E. B. Churchwell

    2007-05-04

    We present the results of a high-resolution X-ray imaging study of the stellar population in the Galactic massive star-forming region RCW49 and its central OB association Westerlund 2. We obtained a 40 ks X-ray image of a 17'x17' field using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and deep NIR images using the Infrared Survey Facility in a concentric 8'3x8'3 region. We detected 468 X-ray sources and identified optical, NIR, and Spitzer Space Telescope MIR counterparts for 379 of them. The unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity of the X-ray image, enhanced by optical and infrared imaging data, yielded the following results: (1) The central OB association Westerlund 2 is resolved for the first time in the X-ray band. X-ray emission is detected from all spectroscopically-identified early-type stars in this region. (2) Most (86%) X-ray sources with optical or infrared identifications are cluster members in comparison with a control field in the Galactic Plane. (3) A loose constraint (2--5 kpc) for the distance to RCW49 is derived from the mean X-ray luminosity of T Tauri stars. (4) The cluster X-ray population consists of low-mass pre--main-sequence and early-type stars as obtained from X-ray and NIR photometry. About 30 new OB star candidates are identified. (5) We estimate a cluster radius of 6'--7' based on the X-ray surface number density profiles. (6) A large fraction (90%) of cluster members are identified individually using complimentary X-ray and MIR excess emission. (7) The brightest five X-ray sources, two Wolf-Rayet stars and three O stars, have hard thermal spectra.

  7. Observing heme doming in myoglobin with femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Levantino, M.; Lemke, H. T.; Schirò, G.; Glownia, M.; Cupane, A.; Cammarata, M.

    2015-07-01

    We report time-resolved X-ray absorption measurements after photolysis of carbonmonoxy myoglobin performed at the LCLS X-ray free electron laser with nearly 100 fs (FWHM) time resolution. Data at the Fe K-edge reveal that the photoinduced structural changes at the heme occur in two steps, with a faster (~70 fs) relaxation preceding a slower (~400 fs) one. We tentatively attribute the first relaxation to a structural rearrangement induced by photolysis involving essentially only the heme chromophore and the second relaxation to a residual Fe motion out of the heme plane that is coupled to the displacement of myoglobin F-helix.

  8. Measurements of Ionic Structure in Shock Compressed Lithium Hydride from Ultrafast X-Ray Thomson Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kritcher, A. L. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Neumayer, P.; Doeppner, T.; Landen, O. L.; Glenzer, S. H. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Brown, C. R. D. [Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); AWE plc., Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Davis, P. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Falcone, R. W.; Lee, H. J. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; Wuensch, K. [CFSA, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Gregori, G. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Holst, B.; Redmer, R. [Universitaet Rostock, Institut fuer Physik, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Morse, E. C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Pelka, A.; Roth, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-12-11

    We present the first ultrafast temporally, spectrally, and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measurements from shock-compressed matter. The experimental spectra yield the absolute elastic and inelastic scattering intensities from the measured density of free electrons. Laser-compressed lithium-hydride samples are well characterized by inelastic Compton and plasmon scattering of a K-alpha x-ray probe providing independent measurements of temperature and density. The data show excellent agreement with the total intensity and structure when using the two-species form factor and accounting for the screening of ion-ion interactions.

  9. Observing heme doming in myoglobin with femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopya)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Levantino, M.; Lemke, H. T.; Schirò, G.; Glownia, M.; Cupane, A.; Cammarata, M.

    2015-07-01

    We report time-resolved X-ray absorption measurements after photolysis of carbonmonoxy myoglobin performed at the LCLS X-ray free electron laser with nearly 100 fs (FWHM) time resolution. Data at the Fe K-edge reveal that the photoinduced structural changes at the heme occur in two steps, with a faster (~70 fs) relaxation preceding a slower (~400 fs) one. We tentatively attribute the first relaxation to a structural rearrangement induced by photolysis involving essentially only the heme chromophore and the second relaxation to a residual Fe motion out of the heme plane that is coupled to the displacement of myoglobin F-helix.

  10. The X-ray correlation spectroscopy instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Caronna, Chiara; Chollet, Matthieu; Curtis, Robin; Damiani, Daniel S.; Defever, Jim; Feng, Yiping; Flath, Daniel L.; Glownia, James M.; Lee, Sooheyong; et al

    2015-03-03

    The X-ray Correlation Spectroscopy instrument is dedicated to the study of dynamics in condensed matter systems using the unique coherence properties of free-electron lasers. It covers a photon energy range of 4–25 keV. The intrinsic temporal characteristics of the Linac Coherent Light Source, in particular the 120 Hz repetition rate, allow for the investigation of slow dynamics (milliseconds) by means of X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Double-pulse schemes could probe dynamics on the picosecond timescale. In addition, a description of the instrument capabilities and recent achievements is presented.

  11. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary I. (Sunnyvale, CA); Maccagno, Pierre (Stanford, CA)

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  12. Soft X-ray microflares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirzoeva, I K

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray solar bursts are studied. Weak bursts with powers up to 10-8 W/m2 were detected. All the events were confirmed by GOES observations. Parameters of these microflares are determined. A physical mechanism for the low-intensity solar events is discussed.

  13. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  14. Thin optic surface analysis for high resolution X-ray telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akilian, Mireille

    2004-01-01

    The art of glass developed throughout the years has covered artifacts ranging from crude ornaments to high precision optics used in flat panel displays, hard disk drives, and x-ray telescopes. Methods for manufacturing ...

  15. X-ray vs. water maser emission in AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castangia, P; Kadler, M; Henkel, C; Greenhill, L; Tueller, J

    2009-01-01

    Correlations between X-ray and water maser emission in AGN have been recently reported. However, the lack of systematic studies affects the confidence level of these results. In the following, we introduce a project aimed at studying all the water maser sources believed to be associated with AGN activity through X-ray data obtained with the XRT and BAT instruments on-board the Swift satellite. Preliminary results of this work indicate a promising rate of XRT detections allowing us to refine follow-up observing strategies focused on investigating the nuclei of individual galaxies and deriving, on statistical basis, the main characteristics of water maser hosts. In addition, a cross-correlation between our sample and the BAT 22-months all-sky survey provides an exceptionally high detection rate at hard X-ray energies when compared to other AGN-related catalogs.

  16. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical...

  17. Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat April 10, 2006 Free-Electron Laser Scientists Rox Anderson, right, and Free-Electron Laser Scientist Steve Benson, left, discuss laser beam...

  18. Observation of solar high energy gamma and X-ray emission and solar energetic particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struminsky, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    We considered 18 solar flares observed between June 2010 and July 2012, in which high energy >100 MeV {\\gamma}-emission was registered by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard FermiGRO. We examined for these {\\gamma}-events soft X-ray observations by GOES, hard X-ray observations by the Anti-Coincidence Shield of the SPectrometer aboard INTEGRAL (ACS SPI) and the Gamma-Ray burst Monitor (GBM) aboard FermiGRO. Hard X-ray and {\\pi}0-decay {\\gamma}-ray emissions are used as tracers of electron and proton acceleration, respectively. Bursts of hard X-ray were observed by ACS SPI during impulsive phase of 13 events. Bursts of hard X-ray >100 keV were not found during time intervals, when prolonged hard {\\gamma}-emission was registered by LAT/FermiGRO. Those events showing prolonged high-energy gamma-ray emission not accompanied by >100 keV hard X-ray emission are interpreted as an indication of either different acceleration processes for protons and electrons or as the presence of a proton population accelerated du...

  19. EVIDENCE OF NON-THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM HH 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    López-Santiago, J.; Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P.; Bonito, R.; Miceli, M.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; De Castro, E.

    2013-10-20

    Protostellar jets appear at all stages of star formation when the accretion process is still at work. Jets travel at velocities of hundreds of km s{sup –1}, creating strong shocks when interacting with the interstellar medium. Several cases of jets have been detected in X-rays, typically showing soft emission. For the first time, we report evidence of hard X-ray emission possibly related to non-thermal processes not explained by previous models of the post-shock emission predicted in the jet/ambient interaction scenario. HH 80 is located at the south head of the jet associated with the massive protostar IRAS 18162-2048. It shows soft and hard X-ray emission in regions that are spatially separated, with the soft X-ray emission region situated behind the region of hard X-ray emission. We propose a scenario for HH 80 where soft X-ray emission is associated with thermal processes from the interaction of the jet with denser ambient matter and hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation at the front shock.

  20. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  1. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  2. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  3. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  4. The X-ray emission of the gamma Cassiopiae stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Myron A; Motch, C

    2015-01-01

    Long considered as the "odd man out" among X-ray emitting Be stars, \\gamma Cas (B0.5e\\,IV) is now recognized as the prototype of a class of stars that emit hard thermal X-rays. Our classification differs from the historical use of the term "gamma Cas stars" defined from optical properties alone. The luminosity output of this class contributes significantly to the hard X-ray production of massive stars in the Galaxy. The gamma Cas stars have light curves showing variability on a few broadly-defined timescales and spectra indicative of an optically thin plasma consisting of one or more hot thermal components. By now 9--13 Galactic \\approx B0-1.5e main sequence stars are judged to be members or candidate members of the \\gc\\ class. Conservative criteria for this designation are for a \\approxB0-1.5e III-V star to have an X-ray luminosity of 10^{32}--10^{33} ergs s^{-1}, a hot thermal spectrum containing the short wavelength Ly \\alpha FeXXV and FeXXVI lines and the fluorescence FeK feature all in emission. If therm...

  5. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.; and others

    2014-08-15

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses.

  6. Optical module HEW simulations for the X-ray telescopes SIMBOL-X, EDGE and XEUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, D

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important parameters defining the angular resolution of an X-ray optical module is its Half-Energy Width (HEW) as a function of the photon energy. Future X-ray telescopes with imaging capabilities (SIMBOL-X, Constellation-X, NeXT, EDGE, XEUS,...) should be characterized by a very good angular resolution in soft ( 10 keV) X-rays. As a consequence, an important point in the optics development for these telescopes is the simulation of the achievable HEW for a system of X-ray mirrors. This parameter depends on the single mirror profile and nesting accuracy, but also on the mirrors surface microroughness that causes X-ray Scattering (XRS). In particular, owing to its dependence on the photon energy, XRS can dominate the profile errors in hard X-rays: thus, its impact has to be accurately evaluated in every single case, in order to formulate surface finishing requirements for X-ray mirrors. In this work we provide with some simulations of the XRS term of the HEW for some future soft and hard X-ray t...

  7. Time-delayed beam splitting with energy separation of x-ray channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stetsko, Yuri P.; Shvyd'ko, Yuri V.; Brian Stephenson, G. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-10-21

    We introduce a time-delayed beam splitting method based on the energy separation of x-ray photon beams. It is implemented and theoretically substantiated on an example of an x-ray optical scheme similar to that of the classical Michelson interferometer. The splitter/mixer uses Bragg-case diffraction from a thin diamond crystal. Another two diamond crystals are used as back-reflectors. Because of energy separation and a minimal number (three) of optical elements, the split-delay line has high efficiency and is simple to operate. Due to the high transparency of diamond crystal, the split-delay line can be used in a beam sharing mode at x-ray free-electron laser facilities.

  8. Chandra Deep X-ray Observation of a Typical Galactic Plane Region and Near-Infrared Identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Ebisawa; M. Tsujimoto; A. Paizis; K. Hamaguchi; A. Bamba; R. Cutri; H. Kaneda; Y. Maeda; G. Sato; A. Senda; M. Ueno; S. Yamauchi; V. Beckmann; T. J. -L. Courvoisier; P. Dubath; E. Nishihara

    2005-07-07

    Using the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer Imaging array (ACIS-I), we have carried out a deep hard X-ray observation of the Galactic plane region at (l,b) ~ (28.5, 0.0), where no discrete X-ray source had been reported previously. We have detected 274 new point X-ray sources (4 sigma confidence) as well as strong Galactic diffuse emission within two partially overlapping ACIS-I fields (~250 arcmin^2in total). Sum of all the detected point source fluxes accounts for only ~ 10 % of the total X-ray flux in the field of view. Even hypothesizing a new population of much dimmer and numerous Galactic point sources, the total observed X-ray flux cannot be explained. Therefore, we conclude that X-ray emission from the Galactic plane has truly diffuse origin. Only 26 point sources were detected both in the soft and hard bands, indicating that there are two distinct classes of the X-ray sources distinguished by the spectral hardness ratio. Surface number density of the hard sources is only slightly higher than that measured at the high Galactic latitude regions, indicating that majority of the hard sources are background AGNs. Following up the Chandra observation, we have performed a near-infrared (NIR) survey with SOFI at ESO/NTT. Almost all the soft X-ray sources have been identified in NIR and their spectral types are consistent with main-sequence stars, suggesting most of them are nearby X-ray active stars. On the other hand, only 22 % of the hard sources had NIR counterparts, which are presumably Galactic. From X-ray and NIR spectral study, they are most likely to be quiescent cataclysmic variables. We have also carried out a precise spectral study of the Galactic diffuse X-ray emission excluding the point sources.

  9. Free Electron Lasers Seeded by ir Laser Driven High-order Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Juhao; Bolton, Paul R.; /SLAC; Murphy, James B.; /BNL, NSLS; Zhong, Xinming; /Beijing Normal U.

    2007-03-12

    Coherent x-ray production by a seeded free electron laser (FEL) is important for next generation synchrotron light sources. We examine the feasibility and features of FEL emission seeded by a high-order harmonic of an infrared laser (HHG). In addition to the intrinsic FEL chirp, the longitudinal profile and spectral bandwidth of the HHG seed are modified significantly by the FEL interaction well before saturation. This smears out the original attosecond pulselet structure. We introduce criteria for this smearing effect on the pulselet and the stretching effect on the entire pulse. We discuss the noise issue in such a seeded FEL.

  10. X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella; Carron, Sebastian; Dragone, Angelo; Freytag, Dietrich; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Hasi, Jasmine; Herbst, Ryan; et al

    2015-04-21

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is presented and the various cameras in use at SLAC are described for the benefit of users planning experiments or analysts looking at data. Features and operation of the CSPAD camera, which is currently deployed at LCLS, are discussed, and the ePix family, a newmore »generation of cameras under development at SLAC, is introduced.« less

  11. Combination free electron and gaseous laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Stein, William E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    A multiple laser having one or more gaseous laser stages and one or more free electron stages. Each of the free electron laser stages is sequentially pumped by a microwave linear accelerator. Subsequently, the electron beam is directed through a gaseous laser, in the preferred embodiment, and in an alternative embodiment, through a microwave accelerator to lower the energy level of the electron beam to pump one or more gaseous lasers. The combination laser provides high pulse repetition frequencies, on the order of 1 kHz or greater, high power capability, high efficiency, and tunability in the synchronous production of multiple beams of coherent optical radiation.

  12. X-ray Imaging Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single goldWindX-Ray ImagingInImaging and

  13. X-ray spectral states of microquasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien Malzac; Renaud Belmont

    2008-10-25

    We discuss the origin of the dramatically different X-ray spectral shapes observed in the Low Hard State (LHS: dominated by thermal comptonisation) and the High Soft State (HSS: dominated by the accretion disc thermal emission and non-thermal comptonisation in the corona). We present numerical simulations using a new code accounting for the so-called synchrotron boiler effect. These numerical simulations when compared to the data allow us to constrain the magnetic field and temperature of the hot protons in the corona. For the hard state of Cygnus X-1 we find a magnetic field below equipartition with radiation, suggesting that the corona is not powered through magnetic field dissipation (as assumed in most accretion disc corona models). On the other hand, our results also point toward proton temperatures that are substantially lower than typical temperatures of the ADAF models. Finally, we show that in both spectral states Comptonising plasma could be powered essentially through power-law acceleration of non-thermal electrons, which are then partly thermalised by the synchrotron and Coulomb boiler. This suggests that, contrary to current beliefs, the corona of the HSS and that of the LHS could be of very similar nature. The differences between the LHS and HSS coronal spectra would then be predominantly caused by the strong disc soft cooling emission which is present in the HSS and absent in the LHS.

  14. Soft X-ray techniques to study mesoscale magnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kortright, Jeffrey B.

    2003-01-01

    X-Ray Techniques to Study Mesoscale Magnetism Jeffrey B.X-Ray Techniques to Study Mesoscale Magnetism Jeffrey B.

  15. The X-ray nebula around the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC4388

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Iwasawa; A. S. Wilson; A. C. Fabian; A. J. Young

    2003-06-06

    We report on X-ray emission from the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC4388 observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. A hard X-ray peak is found at the position of the active nucleus suggested by optical and radio observations. Extended soft X-ray emission correlates well with the ionization cone found in optical line emission. A large soft X-ray extension is found up to 16 kpc to the north of the galaxy. Photoionized gas with low ionization parameters (xi<3) appears to be the likely explanation of this emission. The same ionized gas clouds could be responsible for the optical [OIII] emission. Fe K line emission from cold material is found to be extended by a few kpc.

  16. Some new schemes for producing high-accuracy elliptical X-ray mirrors by elastic bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmore, H.A.; Howells, M.R.; Irick, S.; Renner, T.; Sandler, R.; Koo, Y.-M.

    1996-08-01

    Although x-ray micro-foci can be produced by a variety of diffractive methods, grazing incidence mirrors are the only route to an achromatic focus. In this paper we describe our efforts to produce elliptically shaped mirrors with the very high figure accuracy necessary for producing a micro-focus. The motivation for this work is provided by the need to produce achromatic foci for a range of applications ranging from tunable micro-focus x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ({mu}-XPS) at soft x-ray energies to micro-focus white beam x-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD) at hard x-ray energies. We describe the methodology of beam bending, a practical example of a system we have produced for {mu}-XRD, and results demonstrating the production of a surface with micro-radian figure accuracy.

  17. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  18. Analysis of microroughness evolution in X-ray astronomical multilayer mirrors by surface topography with the MPES program and by X-ray scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canestrari, R; Pareschi, G

    2015-01-01

    Future hard X-ray telescopes (e.g. SIMBOL-X and Constellation-X) will make use of hard X-ray optics with multilayer coatings, with angular resolutions comparable to the achieved ones in the soft X-rays. One of the crucial points in X-ray optics, indeed, is multilayer interfacial microroughness that causes effective area reduction and X-Ray Scattering (XRS). The latter, in particular, is responsible for image quality degradation. Interfacial smoothness deterioration in multilayer deposition processes is commonly observed as a result of substrate profile replication and intrinsic random deposition noise. For this reason, roughness growth should be carefully investigated by surface topographic analysis, X-ray reflectivity and XRS measurements. It is convenient to express the roughness evolution in terms of interface Power Spectral Densities (PSD), that are directly related to XRS and, in turn, in affecting the optic HEW (Half Energy Width). In order to interpret roughness amplification and to help us to predict ...

  19. Optical Identification of the Hardest X-ray Source in the ASCA Large Sky Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Akiyama; K. Ohta; T. Yamada; M. Eracleous; J. P. Halpern; N. Kashikawa; M. Yagi; W. Kawasaki; M. Sakano; T. Tsuru; Y. Ueda; T. Takahashi

    1998-01-18

    We report the optical identification of the hardest X-ray source (AX J131501+3141) detected in an unbiased wide-area survey in the 0.5--10 keV band, the ASCA Large Sky Survey. The X-ray spectrum of the source is very hard and is well reproduced by a power-law component (Gamma = 1.5^+0.7_-0.6) with N_H = 6^+4_-2 *10^22 cm^-2 (Sakano et al. 1998). We have found a galaxy with R=15.62 mag near the center of the error circle for the X-ray source. The optical spectrum of the galaxy shows only narrow emission lines whose ratios correspond to those of a type 2 Seyfert galaxy at z = 0.072, implying an absorption-corrected X-ray luminosity of 2*10^43 erg sec^-1 (2--10 keV) and M_B = -20.93 mag. A radio point source is also associated with the center of the galaxy. We thus identify the X-ray source with this galaxy as an obscured AGN. The hidden nature of the nucleus of the galaxy in the optical band is consistent with the X-ray spectrum. These results support the idea that the obscured AGNs/QSOs contribute significantly to the cosmic X-ray background in the hard band at the faint flux level.

  20. Testing a model of variability of X-ray reprocessing features in Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. T. Zycki; A. Rozanska

    2001-02-13

    A number of recent results from X-ray observations of Active Galactic Nuclei involving the Fe K alpha line (reduction of line variability compared to the X-ray continuum variability, the X-ray ``Baldwin effect'') were attributed to a presence of a hot, ionized skin of an accretion disc, suppressing emission of the line. The ionized skin appears as a result of the thermal instability of X-ray irradiated plasma. We test this hypothesis by computing the Thomson thickness of the hot skin on top of the 'alpha P_tot' Shakura-Sunyaev disc, by simultaneously solving the vertical structure of both the hot skin and the disc. We then compute a number of relations between observable quantities, e.g. the hard X-ray flux, amplitude of the observed reprocessed component, relativistic smearing of the K alpha line, the r.m.s. variability of the hard X-rays. These relations can be compared to present and future observations. We point out that this mechanism is unlikely to explain the behaviour of the X-ray source in MCG-6-30-15, where there is a number of arguments against the existence of a thick hot skin, but it can work for some other Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  1. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  2. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 ?m FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore »data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  3. The Coherent X-ray Imaging instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Mengning; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Montanez, Paul A.; Hayes, Matt; Milathianaki, Despina; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; et al

    2015-04-15

    The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument specializes in hard X-ray, in-vacuum, high power density experiments in all areas of science. Two main sample chambers, one containing a 100 nm focus and one a 1 µm focus, are available, each with multiple diagnostics, sample injection, pump–probe and detector capabilities. The flexibility of CXI has enabled it to host a diverse range of experiments, from biological to extreme matter.

  4. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-06-23

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  5. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); DiCicco, Darrell S. (Plainsboro, NJ); Hirschberg, Joseph G. (Coral Gables, FL); Meixler, Lewis D. (East Windsor, NJ); Sathre, Robert (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  6. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R. (Berkeley, CA); Cahn, Robert (Walnut Creek, CA); Cederstrom, Bjorn (Traellborg, SE); Danielsson, Mats (Stocksund, SE); Vestlund, Jonas (Stockholm, SE)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  7. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0PhotosPresentationsWorld's largestX-RayX-RayX-RayX-Ray

  8. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/?E of order 10?000 and spatial resolution better than 10 ?m. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  9. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dell'Angela, M.; Anniyev, T.; Beye, M.; Coffee, R.; Föhlisch, A.; Gladh, J.; Kaya, S.; Katayama, T.; Krupin, O.; Nilsson, A.; et al

    2015-03-01

    Vacuum space charge-induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES) have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL) for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001). We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse.

  10. X-ray spectroscopy of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krauss, Miriam Ilana

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, I present work spanning a variety of topics relating to neutron star lowmass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and utilize spectral information from X-ray observations to further our understanding of these sources. ...

  11. HEW simulations and quantification of the microroughness requirements for X-ray telescopes by means of numerical and analytical methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, D; Pareschi, G

    2015-01-01

    Future X-ray telescopes like SIMBOL-X will operate in a wide band of the X-ray spectrum (from 0.1 to 80 keV); these telescopes will extend the optical performances of the existing soft X-ray telescopes to the hard X-ray band, and in particular they will be characterized by a angular resolution (conveniently expressed in terms of HEW, Half-Energy- Width) less than 20 arcsec. However, it is well known that the microroughness of the reflecting surfaces of the optics causes the scattering of X-rays. As a consequence, the imaging quality can be severely degraded. Moreover, the X-ray scattering can be the dominant problem in hard X-rays because its relevance is an increasing function of the photon energy. In this work we consistently apply a numerical method and an analytical one to evaluate the X-ray scattering impact on the HEW of an X-ray optic, as a function of the photon energy: both methods can also include the effects of figure errors in determining the final HEW. A comparison of the results obtained with th...

  12. X-ray reflection spectra from ionized slabs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. R. Ross; A. C. Fabian; A. J. Young

    1999-02-23

    X-ray reflection spectra are an important component in the X-ray spectra of many active galactic nuclei and Galactic black hole candidates. It is likely that reflection takes place from highly ionized surfaces of the accretion disc in some cases. This can lead to strong Comptonization of the emergent iron, and other, absorption and emission features. We present such reflection spectra here, computed in a self-consistent manner with the method described by Ross and Fabian. In particular we emphasise the range where the ionization parameter (the flux to density ratio) \\xi is around and above 10^4. Such spectra may be relevant to the observed spectral features found in black hole candidates such as Cygnus X-1 in the low/hard state.

  13. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Erin Miller

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  14. SWIFT X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE. II. THE SUPER SOFT SOURCE SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Greg J.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Evans, P. A.; Beardmore, A. P.; Walter, Frederick M.; Andrew Helton, L.; Woodward, Charles E.; Bode, Mike; Starrfield, Sumner; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2011-12-01

    The Swift gamma-ray burst satellite is an excellent facility for studying novae. Its rapid response time and sensitive X-ray detector provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate the previously poorly sampled evolution of novae in the X-ray regime. This paper presents Swift observations of 52 Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae. We included the X-Ray Telescope (0.3-10 keV) instrument count rates and the UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (1700-8000 A) filter photometry. Also included in the analysis are the publicly available pointed observations of 10 additional novae the X-ray archives. This is the largest X-ray sample of Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae yet assembled and consists of 26 novae with Super Soft X-ray emission, 19 from Swift observations. The data set shows that the faster novae have an early hard X-ray phase that is usually missing in slower novae. The Super Soft X-ray phase occurs earlier and does not last as long in fast novae compared to slower novae. All the Swift novae with sufficient observations show that novae are highly variable with rapid variability and different periodicities. In the majority of cases, nuclear burning ceases less than three years after the outburst begins. Previous relationships, such as the nuclear burning duration versus t{sub 2} or the expansion velocity of the eject and nuclear burning duration versus the orbital period, are shown to be poorly correlated with the full sample indicating that additional factors beyond the white dwarf mass and binary separation play important roles in the evolution of a nova outburst. Finally, we confirm two optical phenomena that are correlated with strong, soft X-ray emission which can be used to further increase the efficiency of X-ray campaigns.

  15. An Efficient Microwave Power Source: Free-electron Laser Afterburner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, C.

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of Intense Microwave Pulses (SPIE, Los Angeles,Physics An Efficient Microwave Power Source: Free-Electron4 UC-414 An Efficient Microwave Power Source: Free-electron

  16. Efficiency Enhancement in a Tapered Free Electron Laser by Varying...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a Tapered Free Electron Laser by Varying the Electron Beam Radius Energy extraction efficiency of a free electron laser (FEL) can be increased when the undulator is tapered after...

  17. Simulation of a Standing-Wave Free-Electron Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    potential shortcoming of the standing- wa.ve FEL. ReferencesPREPRINT SIMULATION OF A STANDING-WAVE FREE-ELECTRON LASERauthor. SIMULATION OF A STANDING·WAVE FREE-ELECTRON LASEr

  18. X-rays from Hot Subdwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mereghetti, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to the high sensitivity of the instruments on board the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites, it has become possible to explore the properties of the X-ray emission from hot subdwarfs. The small but growing sample of hot subdwarfs detected in X-rays includes binary systems, in which the X-rays result from wind accretion onto a compact companion (white dwarf or neutron star), as well as isolated sdO stars in which X-rays are probably due to shock instabilities in the wind. X-ray observations of these low mass stars provide information which can be useful also for our understanding of the winds of more luminous and massive early-type stars and can lead to the discovery of particularly interesting binary systems.

  19. High Energy Vision: Processing X-rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DePasquale, Joseph; Edmonds, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy is by nature a visual science. The high quality imagery produced by the world's observatories can be a key to effectively engaging with the public and helping to inspire the next generation of scientists. Creating compelling astronomical imagery can, however, be particularly challenging in the non-optical wavelength regimes. In the case of X-ray astronomy, where the amount of light available to create an image is severely limited, it is necessary to employ sophisticated image processing algorithms to translate light beyond human vision into imagery that is aesthetically pleasing while still being scientifically accurate. This paper provides a brief overview of the history of X-ray astronomy leading to the deployment of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, followed by an examination of the specific challenges posed by processing X-ray imagery. The authors then explore image processing techniques used to mitigate such processing challenges in order to create effective public imagery for X-ray astronomy. ...

  20. A Lack of Radio Emission from Neutron Star Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael P. Muno; Tomaso Belloni; Vivek Dhawan; Edward H. Morgan; Ronald A. Remillard; Michael P. Rupen

    2004-11-11

    We report strict upper limits to the radio luminosities of three neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries obtained with the Very Large Array while they were in hard X-ray states as observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer: 1E 1724-307, 4U 1812-12, and SLX 1735-269. We compare these upper limits to the radio luminosities of several black hole binaries in very similar hard states, and find that the neutron star systems are as faint as or fainter than all of the black hole candidates. The differences in luminosities can partly be attributed to the lower masses of the neutron star systems, which on theoretical and observational grounds are expected to decrease the radio luminosities as M^0.8. However, there still remains a factor of 30 scatter in the radio luminosities of black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries, particularly at X-ray luminosities of a few percent Eddington. We find no obvious differences in the X-ray timing and spectral properties that can be correlated with the radio luminosity. We discuss the implications of these results on current models for the relationship between accretion and jets.

  1. Free electron laser with masked chicane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlsten, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A free electron laser (FEL) is provided with an accelerator for outputting electron beam pulses; a buncher for modulating each one of the electron beam pulses to form each pulse into longitudinally dispersed bunches of electrons; and a wiggler for generating coherent light from the longitudinally dispersed bunches of electrons. The electron beam buncher is a chicane having a mask for physically modulating the electron beam pulses to form a series of electron beam bunches for input to the wiggler. In a preferred embodiment, the mask is located in the chicane at a position where each electron beam pulse has a maximum dispersion.

  2. SIMULTANEOUS X-RAY AND ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF THE SW SEXTANTIS STAR DW URSAE MAJORIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lu, Ting-Ni [Institute of Astronomy, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Knigge, Christian [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Homer, Lee; Szkody, Paula [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Still, M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Long, Knox S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dhillon, V. S., E-mail: hoard@ipac.caltech.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    We present the first pointed X-ray observation of DW Ursae Majoris, a novalike cataclysmic variable (CV) and one of the archetype members of the SW Sextantis class, obtained with the XMM-Newton satellite. These data provide the first detailed look at an SW Sex star in the X-ray regime (with previous X-ray knowledge of the SW Sex stars limited primarily to weak or non-detections in the ROSAT All Sky Survey). It is also one of only a few XMM-Newton observations (to date) of any high mass transfer rate novalike CV, and the only one in the evolutionarily important 3-4 hr orbital period range. The observed X-ray spectrum of DW UMa is very soft, with {approx}95% of the detected X-ray photons at energies <2 keV. The spectrum can be fit equally well by a one-component cooling flow model, with a temperature range of 0.2-3.5 keV, or a two-component, two-temperature thermal plasma model, containing hard ({approx}5-6 keV) and soft ({approx}0.8 keV) components. The X-ray light curve of DW UMa shows a likely partial eclipse, implying X-ray reprocessing in a vertically extended region, and an orbital modulation, implying a structural asymmetry in the X-ray reprocessing site (e.g., it cannot be a uniform corona). We also obtained a simultaneous near-ultraviolet light curve of DW UMa using the Optical Monitor on XMM-Newton. This light curve is similar in appearance to published optical-UV light curves of DW UMa and shows a prominent deep eclipse. Regardless of the exact nature of the X-ray reprocessing site in DW UMa, the lack of a prominent hard X-ray total eclipse and very low fraction of high energy X-rays point to the presence of an optically and geometrically thick accretion disk that obscures the boundary layer and modifies the X-ray spectrum emitted near the white dwarf.

  3. Do X-ray Binary Spectral State Transition Luminosities Vary?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas J. Maccarone

    2003-08-02

    We tabulate the luminosities of the soft-to-hard state transitions of all X-ray binaries for which there exist good X-ray flux measurements at the time of the transition, good distance estimates, and good mass estimates for the compact star. We show that the state transition luminosities are at about 1-4% of the Eddington rate, markedly smaller than those typically quoted in the literature, with a mean value of 2%. Only the black hole candidate GRO J~1655-40 and the neutron star systems Aql X-1 and 4U 1728-34 have measured state transition luminosities inconsistent with this value at the 1$\\sigma$ level. GRO J~1655-40, in particular, shows a state transition luminosity below the mean value for the other sources at the $4\\sigma$ level. This result, combined with the known inner disk inclination angle (the disk is nearly parallel to the line of sight) from GRO J~1655-40's relativistic jets suggest that the hard X-ray emitting region in GRO J~1655-40 can have a velocity of no more than about $\\beta=0.68$, with a most likely value of about $\\beta=0.52$, and a minimum speed of $\\beta=0.45$, assuming that the variations in state transition luminosities are solely due to relativistic beaming effects. The variance in the state transition luminosities suggests an emission region with a velocity of $\\sim0.2c$. The results are discussed in terms of different emission models for the low/hard state. We also discuss the implications for measuring the dimensionless viscosity parameter $\\alpha$. We also find that if its state transitions occur at typical luminosities, then GX 339-4 is likely to be at a distance of at least 7.6 kpc, much further than typically quoted estimates.

  4. Temporal structure of X-ray radiation pulses of picosecond laser plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belyaev, V S; Kovkov, D V; Matafonov, A P; Karabadzhak, G F; Raikunov, G G [Central Research Institute of Machine Building, Korolev, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, S A; Skobelev, I Yu; Pikuz, T A; Fokin, D A; Fortov, V E [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ignat'ev, G N; Kapitanov, S V; Krapiva, P S; Korotkov, K E [All-Russian Institute of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-30

    The shape of the X-ray pulse generated by picosecond laser plasma is experimentally studied. The unusual phenomenon was experimentally observed for the first time for targets made of moderate-heavy chemical elements, namely, the pulse of hard X-ray radiation generated by laser plasma at the laser radiation flux of ?10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2} had a longer duration than the pulse of softer X-ray radiation. A simple kinetic model is suggested for explaining this fact. We have suggested a method for controlling the temporal shape of X-ray pulse emitted by laser plasma by varying the contrast of laser pulse. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  5. Following the dynamics of matter with femtosecond precision using the X-ray streaking method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    David, C.; Karvinen, P.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Vartiainen, I.; Milne, C. J.; Mozzanica, A.; Kayser, Y.; Diaz, A.; Mohacsi, I.; et al

    2015-01-06

    X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) can produce extremely intense and very short pulses, down to below 10 femtoseconds (fs). Among the key applications are ultrafast time-resolved studies of dynamics of matter by observing responses to fast excitation pulses in a pump-probe manner. Detectors with sufficient time resolution for observing these processes are not available. Therefore, such experiments typically measure a sample's full dynamics by repeating multiple pump-probe cycles at different delay times. This conventional method assumes that the sample returns to an identical or very similar state after each cycle. Here we describe a novel approach that can provide amore »time trace of responses following a single excitation pulse, jitter-free, with fs timing precision. We demonstrate, in an X-ray diffraction experiment, how it can be applied to the investigation of ultrafast irreversible processes.« less

  6. Size dependence of solar X-ray flare properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marina Battaglia; Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-05-09

    Non-thermal and thermal parameters of 85 solar flares of GOES class B1 to M6 (background subtracted classes A1 to M6) have been compared to each other. The hard X-ray flux has been measured by RHESSI and a spectral fitting provided flux and spectral index of the non-thermal emission, as well as temperature and emission measure of the thermal emission. The soft X-ray flux was taken from GOES measurements. We find a linear correlation in a double logarithmic plot between the non-thermal flux and the spectral index. The higher the acceleration rate of a flare, the harder the non-thermal electron distribution. The relation is similar to the one found by a comparison of the same parameters from several sub-peaks of a single flare. Thus small flares behave like small subpeaks of large flares. Thermal flare properties such as temperature, emission measure and the soft X-ray flux also correlate with peak non-thermal flux. A large non-thermal peak flux entails an enhancement in both thermal parameters. The relation between spectral index and the non-thermal flux is an intrinsic feature of the particle acceleration process, depending on flare size. This property affects the reported frequency distribution of flare energies.

  7. X-ray phase-contrast methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lider, V. V., E-mail: lider@ns.crys.ras.ru; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    This review is devoted to a comparative description of the methods for forming X-ray phase-contrast images of weakly absorbing (phase) objects. These include the crystal interferometer method, the Talbot interferometer method, diffraction-enhanced X-ray imaging, and the in-line method. The potential of their practical application in various fields of science and technology is discussed. The publications on the development and optimization of X-ray phase-contrast methods and the experimental study of phase objects are analyzed.

  8. X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single goldWindX-RayX-RayX-ray

  9. Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Whitney; George Neil

    2007-02-01

    The goal of 100 kilowatts (kW) of directed energy from an airborne tactical platform has proved challenging due to the size and weight of most of the options that have been considered. However, recent advances in Free-Electron Lasers appear to offer a solution along with significant tactical advantages: a nearly unlimited magazine, time structures for periods from milliseconds to hours, radar like functionality, and the choice of the wavelength of light that best meets mission requirements. For an Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser (ATFEL) on a platforms such as a Lockheed C-130J-30 and airships, the two most challenging requirements, weight and size, can be met by generating the light at a higher harmonic, aggressively managing magnet weights, managing cryogenic heat loads using recent SRF R&D results, and using FEL super compact design concepts that greatly reduce the number of components. The initial R&D roadmap for achieving an ATFEL is provided in this paper. Performing this R&D is expected to further reduce the weight, size and power requirements for the FELs the Navy is currently developing for shipboard applications, as well as providing performance enhancements for the strategic airborne MW class FELs. The 100 kW ATFEL with its tactical advantages may prove sufficiently attractive for early advancement in the queue of deployed FELs.

  10. Absolute pulse energy measurements of soft x-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tiedtke, K.; Sorokin, A. A.; Jastrow, U.; Jurani?, P.; Kreis, S.; Gerken, N.; Richter, M.; Arp, U.; Feng, Y.; Nordlund, D.; et al

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports novel measurements of x-ray optical radiation on an absolute scale from the intense and ultra-short radiation generated in the soft x-ray regime of a free electron laser. We give a brief description of the detection principle for radiation measurements which was specifically adapted for this photon energy range. We present data characterizing the soft x-ray instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) with respect to the radiant power output and transmission by using an absolute detector temporarily placed at the downstream end of the instrument. This provides an estimation of the reflectivity of all x-ray opticalmore »elements in the beamline and provides the absolute photon number per bandwidth per pulse. This parameter is important for many experiments that need to understand the trade-offs between high energy resolution and high flux, such as experiments focused on studying materials via resonant processes. Furthermore, the results are compared with the LCLS diagnostic gas detectors to test the limits of linearity, and observations are reported on radiation contamination from spontaneous undulator radiation and higher harmonic content.« less

  11. Swift X-ray and UV monitoring of the Classical Nova V458 Vul (Nova Vul 2007)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ness, J -U; Beardmore, A P; Boyd, D; Bode, M F; Brady, S; Evans, P A; Gänsicke, B T; Kitamoto, S; Knigge, C; Miller, I; Osborne, J P; Page, K L; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Schwarz, G; Staels, B; Steeghs, D; Takei, D; Tsujimoto, M; Wesson, R; Zijlstra, A

    2009-01-01

    We describe the highly variable X-ray and UV emission of V458 Vul (Nova Vul 2007), observed by Swift between 1 and 422 days after outburst. Initially bright only in the UV, V458 Vul became a variable hard X-ray source due to optically thin thermal emission at kT=0.64 keV with an X-ray band unabsorbed luminosity of 2.3x10^{34} erg s^{-1} during days 71-140. The X-ray spectrum at this time requires a low Fe abundance (0.2^{+0.3}_{-0.1} solar), consistent with a Suzaku measurement around the same time. On day 315 we find a new X-ray spectral component which can be described by a blackbody with temperature of kT=23^{+9}_{-5} eV, while the previous hard X-ray component has declined by a factor of 3.8. The spectrum of this soft X-ray component resembles those typically seen in the class of supersoft sources (SSS) which suggests that the nova ejecta were starting to clear and/or that the WD photosphere is shrinking to the point at which its thermal emission reaches into the X-ray band. We find a high degree of varia...

  12. Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article) |different scalesTHEScalejitter-free

  13. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  14. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instruments and Methods X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods Print To be held as part of SPIE. http:spie.orgOP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA...

  15. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

  16. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-20

    An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

  17. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  18. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  19. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  20. X-ray laser driven gold targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrova, Tz. B., E-mail: lina.petrova@nrl.navy.mil; Whitney, K. G.; Davis, J. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    The femtosecond population dynamics of gold irradiated by a coherent high-intensity (>10{sup 17}?W/cm{sup 2}) x-ray laser pulse is investigated theoretically. There are two aspects to the assembled model. One is the construction of a detailed model of platinum-like gold inclusive of all inner-shell states that are created by photoionization of atomic gold and decay either by radiative or Auger processes. Second is the computation of the population dynamics that ensues when an x-ray pulse is absorbed in gold. The hole state generation depends on the intensity and wavelength of the driving x-ray pulse. The excited state populations reached during a few femtosecond timescales are high enough to generate population inversions, whose gain coefficients are calculated. These amplified lines in the emitted x-ray spectrum provide important diagnostics of the radiation dynamics and also suggest a nonlinear way to increase the frequency of the coherent output x-ray pulses relative to the frequency of the driver input x-ray pulse.

  1. Short pulse free electron laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlitt, Leland G. (Livermore, CA); Szoke, Abraham (Fremont, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for amplification of a laser pulse in a free electron laser amplifier where the laser pulse duration may be a small fraction of the electron beam pulse duration used for amplification. An electron beam pulse is passed through a first wiggler magnet and a short laser pulse to be amplified is passed through the same wiggler so that only the energy of the last fraction, f, (f<1) of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplifying the laser pulse. After suitable delay of the electron beam, the process is repeated in a second wiggler magnet, a third, . . . , where substantially the same fraction f of the remainder of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplification of the given short laser pulse in each wiggler magnet region until the useful electron beam energy is substantially completely consumed by amplification of the laser pulse.

  2. Rippled beam free electron laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlsten, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A free electron laser amplifier provides a scalloping annular electron beam that interacts with the axial electric field of a TM.sub.0n mode. A waveguide defines an axial centerline and, a solenoid arranged about the waveguide produces an axial constant magnetic field within the waveguide. An electron beam source outputs a annular electron beam that interacts with the axial magnetic field to have an equilibrium radius and a ripple radius component having a variable radius with a ripple period along the axial centerline. An rf source outputs an axial electric field that propagates within the waveguide coaxial with the electron beam and has a radial mode that interacts at the electron beam at the equilibrium radius component of the electron beam.

  3. Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R.

    1997-12-01

    Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

  4. Accelerator Design Study for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kur, E.

    2010-01-01

    Newsletter, N38, Ed. I.S. Ko. Dowell D. H. , Hayward T. D. ,compression can be achieved [Dowell et al. ] by correcting

  5. Multicolor operation and spectral control in a gain-modulated x-ray free-electron laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Coherent Light Source (LCLS, at SLAC) [1], SACLA (RIKEN) [experimental demonstration at LCLS. FIG. 1 (color online).demonstrated experimentally at LCLS. The experimental beam

  6. Accelerator Design Study for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kur, E.

    2010-01-01

    and Phase Diagnostics, SLAC Report LCLS-TN-00-12. Emma P.al. 2009, First Results of the LCLS Laser-Heater System, PACLinac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Conceptual Design Report,

  7. Pixel array detector for X-ray free electron laser experiments Hugh T. Philipp a,, Marianne Hromalik c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Laboratory [3]. The detector features 14-bit in-pixel digitization Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The PAD was made by fabricating custom CMOS electronics using a commercial 0

  8. Multiphoton above-threshold ionization in superintense free-electron x-ray laser fields: Beyond the dipole approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Zhongyuan; Chu, Shih-I

    2013-02-13

    maximum value kM , and the probability of the electron is negligible when the electron momentum is greater than kM . Thus the wave function of an electron can be calculated within a finite P space with a simple zero-boundary condition as long... as the boundary is set at a properly large kM . *zyzhou@uga.edu †sichu@ku.edu This approximation has been successfully used to study the multiphoton above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of a hydrogen atom in longer-wavelength and shorter-pulse laser fields...

  9. Repeated X-ray Flaring Activity in Sagittarius A*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Belanger; Andrea Goldwurm; Fulvio Melia; Farah Yusef-Zadeh; Philippe Ferrando; Delphine Porquet; Nicolas Grosso; Robert Warwick

    2005-08-19

    Investigating the spectral and temporal characteristics of the X-rays coming from Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) is essential to our development of a more complete understanding of the emission mechanisms in this supermassive black hole located at the center of our Galaxy. Several X-ray flares with varying durations and spectral features have already been observed from this object. Here we present the results of two long XMM-Newton observations of the Galactic nucleus carried out in 2004, for a total exposure time of nearly 500 ks. During these observations we detected two flares from Sgr A* with peak 2-10 keV luminosities about 40 times (L ~ 9x10^34 erg s?1) above the quiescent luminosity: one on 2004 March 31 and another on 2004 August 31. The first flare lasted about 2.5 ks and the second about 5 ks. The combined fit on the Epic spectra yield photon indeces of about 1.5 and 1.9 for the first and second flare respectively. This hard photon index strongly suggests the presence of an important population of non-thermal electrons during the event and supports the view that the majority of flaring events tend to be hard and not very luminous.

  10. Spectro-temporal shaping of seeded free-electron laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gauthier, David; De Ninno, Giovanni; Allaria, Enrico; Cinquegrana, Paolo; Danailov, Miltcho Boyanov; Demidovich, Alexander; Ferrari, Eugenio; Giannessi, Luca; Mahieu, Benoît; Penco, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability to control and shape the spectro-temporal content of extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulses produced by a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). The control over the spectro-temporal properties of XUV light was achieved by precisely manipulating the linear frequency chirp of the seed laser. Our results agree with existing theory, which allows retrieving the temporal properties (amplitude and phase) of the FEL pulse from measurements of the spectra as a function of the FEL operating parameters. Furthermore, we show the first direct evidence of the full temporal coherence of FEL light and generate Fourier limited pulses by fine-tuning the FEL temporal phase. The possibility to tailor the spectro-temporal content of intense short-wavelength pulses represents the first step towards efficient nonlinear optics in the XUV to X-ray spectral region and will enable precise manipulation of core-electron excitations using the methods of coherent quantum control.

  11. An optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier for seeding high repetition rate free-electron lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Höppner, H.; Hage, A.; Tanikawa, T.; Schulz, M.; Riedel, R.; Teubner, U.; Prandolini, M. J.; Faatz, B.; Tavella, F.

    2015-05-15

    High repetition rate free-electron lasers (FEL), producing highly intense extreme ultraviolet and x-ray pulses, require new high power tunable femtosecond lasers for FEL seeding and FEL pump-probe experiments. A tunable, 112 W (burst mode) optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) is demonstrated with center frequencies ranging from 720–900 nm, pulse energies up to 1.12 mJ and a pulse duration of 30 fs at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. Since the power scalability of this OPCPA is limited by the OPCPA-pump amplifier, we also demonstrate a 6.7–13.7 kW (burst mode) thin-disk OPCPA-pump amplifier, increasing the possible OPCPA output power to manymore »hundreds of watts. Furthermore, third and fourth harmonic generation experiments are performed and the results are used to simulate a seeded FEL with high-gain harmonic generation.« less

  12. New insights into the quasi-periodic X-ray burster GS 0836-429

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aranzana, E; Kuulkers, E

    2015-01-01

    GS 0836-429 is a neutron star X-ray transient that displays Type-I X-ray bursts. In 2003 and 2004 it experienced two outbursts in X-rays. We present here an analysis of the system bursting properties during these outbursts. We studied the evolution of the 2003-2004 outbursts in soft X-rays using RXTE (2.5-12 keV; ASM), and in hard X-rays with INTEGRAL (17-80 keV, IBIS/ISGRI). Using data from the JEM-X monitor onboard INTEGRAL we detected 61 Type-I X-ray bursts, and confirm that the source displayed a quasi-periodic burst recurrence time of about 2.3 hours. We improve the characterization of the fuel composition, as well as the description of the typical burst durations and fluences. We estimate the average value of $\\alpha$ to be $49\\pm\\,3$. This value together with the observed burst profiles indicate a regime of a mixed He/H runaway triggered by unstable helium ignition. In addition, we report the detection of four series of double bursts, with burst recurrence times of $\\leq\\,20$ minutes. The measured recu...

  13. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2014-07-01

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  14. Pyroelectric crystal-based X-ray diffractometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Louis Edward

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the use of an Amptek Cool-X X-ray Generator for an instructional tool in the physics of x-rays, as well as a source for x-rays for crystal diffraction experiments. The x-ray source is a solid-state two-phase ...

  15. Purified self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron lasers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Purified self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron lasers with slippage-boosted filtering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Purified self-amplified spontaneous...

  16. Electron bunch energy and phase feed-forward stabilization system for the Mark V RF-linac free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadmack, M. R.; Kowalczyk, J. M. D.; Lienert, B. R.; Madey, J. M. J.; Szarmes, E. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Jacobson, B. T. [RadiaBeam Technologies, Santa Monica, California 90404 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    An amplitude and phase compensation system has been developed and tested at the University of Hawai'i for the optimization of the RF drive system to the Mark V free-electron laser. Temporal uniformity of the RF drive is essential to the generation of an electron beam suitable for optimal free-electron laser performance and the operation of an inverse Compton scattering x-ray source. The design of the RF measurement and compensation system is described in detail and the results of RF phase compensation are presented. Performance of the free-electron laser was evaluated by comparing the measured effects of phase compensation with the results of a computer simulation. Finally, preliminary results are presented for the effects of amplitude compensation on the performance of the complete system.

  17. Oscillations During Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tod E. Strohmayer

    2001-01-12

    High amplitude, nearly coherent X-ray brightness oscillations during thermonuclear X-ray bursts were discovered with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in early 1996. Spectral and timing evidence strongly supports the conclusion that these oscillations are caused by rotational modulation of the burst emission and that they reveal the spin frequency of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries, a long sought goal of X-ray astronomy. Studies carried out over the past year have led to the discovery of burst oscillations in four new sources, bringing to ten the number with confirmed burst oscillations. I review the status of our knowledge of these oscillations and indicate how they can be used to probe the physics of neutron stars. For a few burst oscillation sources it has been proposed that the strongest and most ubiquitous frequency is actually the first overtone of the spin frequency and hence that two nearly antipodal hot spots are present on the neutron star. This inference has important implications for both the physics of thermonuclear burning as well as the mass - radius relation for neutron stars, so its confirmation is crucial. I discuss recent attempts to confirm this hypothesis for 4U 1636-53, the source for which a signal at the putative fundamental (290 Hz) has been claimed.

  18. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, M.S.; Jacobsen, C.

    1997-03-18

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 {micro}m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holographic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required. 15 figs.

  19. In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries Johanna Information ABSTRACT: Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for high not well understood. In this Article, these changes in Li-S batteries are studied in operando by X

  20. X-Ray Data from the X-Ray Data Booklet Online

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Thompson, Albert C.; Attwood, David T.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Underwood, James H.; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kirz, Janos; Lindau, Ingolf; Pianetta, Piero; Winick, Herman; Williams, Gwyn P.; Scofield, James H.

    The original X-Ray Data Booklet, published in 1985, became a classic reference source. The online version has been significantly revised and updated to reflect today's science. Hundreds of pages of authoritative data provide the x-ray properties of elements, information on synchrotron radiation, scattering processes, optics and detectors, and other related calculations, formulas, and data tables.

  1. Low-Mass X-Ray Binary MAXI J1421-613 Observed by MAXI GSC and Swift XRT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serino, Motoko; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Matsuoka, Masaru; Negoro, Hitoshi; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Kennea, Jamie A; Fukushima, Kosuke; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Monitor of All sky X-ray Image (MAXI) discovered a new outburst of an X-ray transient source named MAXI J1421-613. Because of the detection of three X-ray bursts from the source, it was identified as a neutron star low-mass X-ray binary. The results of data analyses of the MAXI GSC and the Swift XRT follow-up observations suggest that the spectral hardness remained unchanged during the first two weeks of the outburst. All the XRT spectra in the 0.5-10 keV band can be well explained by thermal Comptonization of multi-color disk blackbody emission. The photon index of the Comptonized component is $\\approx$ 2, which is typical of low-mass X-ray binaries in the low/hard state. Since X-ray bursts have a maximum peak luminosity, it is possible to estimate the (maximum) distance from its observed peak flux. The peak flux of the second X-ray burst, which was observed by the GSC, is about 5 photons cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. By assuming a blackbody spectrum of 2.5 keV, the maximum distance to the source is estimated as 7 kpc...

  2. X-ray Clusters at High Redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Gioia

    1997-11-30

    As the largest gravitationally bound structures known, clusters provide clear constraints on the formation of structure and on the composition of the universe. Despite their extreme importance for cosmology the number of clusters at high redshift (z > 0.75) is rather small. There are only a few X-ray emitting examples reported and a handful of optically-selected ones. These clusters can provide stringent constrains on theories of large scale structure formation, if they are massive enough. I will review the status of these distant X-ray selected clusters. These objects are of special importance because their X-ray emission implies that they are massive, comparable to low redshift examples, and their existence is problematic for some theories of structure formation.

  3. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-08-11

    Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (more »to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (« less

  4. W-band free-electron masers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, H. P. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States); Jackson, R. H.; Danly, B. G.; Levush, B. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    Theoretical analyses of high power W-band (i.e., {approx_equal}94 GHz) free-electron maser amplifiers are presented for a helical wiggler/cylindrical waveguide configuration using the three-dimensional slow-time-scale ARACHNE simulation code [9]. The geometry treated by ARACHNE is that of an electron beam propagating through the cylindrical waveguide subject to a helical wiggler and an axial guide magnetic field. Two configurations are discussed. The first is the case of a reversed-guide field geometry where the guide field is oriented antiparallel to the helicity of the wiggler field. Using a 330 kV/20 A electron beam, efficiencies of the order of 7% are calculated with a bandwidth (FWHM) of 5 GHz. The second example employs a strong guide field of 20 kG oriented parallel to the helicity of the wiggler. Here, efficiencies of greater than 8% are possible with a FWHM bandwidth of 4.5 GHz using a 300 kV/20 A electron beam. A normalized emittance of 95 mm-mrad is assumed in both cases, and no beam losses are observed for either case. Both cases assume interaction with the fundamental TE{sub 11} mode, which has acceptably low losses in the W-band.

  5. Strongly aligned gas-phase molecules at Free-Electron Lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kierspel, Thomas; Mullins, Terry; Robinson, Joseph; Aquila, Andy; Barty, Anton; Bean, Richard; Boll, Rebecca; Boutet, Sébastien; Bucksbaum, Philip; Chapman, Henry N; Christensen, Lauge; Fry, Alan; Hunter, Mark; Koglin, Jason E; Liang, Mengning; Mariani, Valerio; Morgan, Andrew; Natan, Adi; Petrovic, Vladimir; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Schnorr, Kirsten; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Stern, Stephan; Thøgersen, Jan; Yoon, Chun Hong; Wang, Fenglin; Trippel, Sebastian; Küpper, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel experimental implementation to strongly align molecules at full repetition rates of free-electron lasers. We utilized the available in-house laser system at the coherent x-ray imaging beamline at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Chirped laser pulses, i. e., the direct output from the regenerative amplifier of the Ti:Sa chirped pulse amplification laser system, were used to strongly align 2,5-diiodothiophene molecules in a molecular beam. The alignment laser pulses had pulse energies of a few mJ and a pulse duration of 94 ps. A degree of alignment of $\\left$ = 0.85 was measured, limited by the intrinsic temperature of the molecular beam rather than by the available laser system. With the general availability of synchronized chirped-pulse-amplified near-infrared laser systems at short-wavelength laser facilities, our approach allows for the universal preparation of molecules tightly fixed in space for experiments with x-ray pulses.

  6. Hard x-ray nanotomography of amorphous aluminosilicate cements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provis, J. L.; Rose, V.; Winarski, R. P.; van Deventer, J. S. J.

    2011-08-01

    Nanotomographic reconstruction of a sample of low-CO{sub 2} 'geopolymer' cement provides the first three-dimensional view of the pore structure of the aluminosilicate geopolymer gel, as well as evidence for direct binding of geopolymer gel onto unreacted fly ash precursor particles. This is central to understanding and optimizing the durability of concretes made using this new class of binder, and demonstrates the value of nanotomography in providing a three-dimensional view of nanoporous inorganic materials.

  7. Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Yong [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Hutt, Julie A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Padilla, Mabel T. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Gott, Katherine M. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-02-01

    There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

  8. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp GraduateResidentialLensless Imaging of WholeX-Ray Imaging inX-Ray

  9. MICROWAVE AND HARD XRAY OBSERVATIONS OF FOOTPOINT EMISSION FROM SOLAR FLARES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    MICROWAVE AND HARD X­RAY OBSERVATIONS OF FOOTPOINT EMISSION FROM SOLAR FLARES M. R. KUNDU Dept radio and X­ray imaging data for two solar flares in order to test the idea that asymmetric microwaves and hard x­rays (HXR) has been known to exist for a long time. This connection is manifested

  10. Laser wakefield generated X-ray probe for femtosecond time-resolved measurements of ionization states of warm dense aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mo, M. Z.; Chen, Z.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Fedosejevs, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Fourmaux, S.; Saraf, A.; Otani, K.; Kieffer, J. C. [INRS-EMT, Université du Québec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada)] [INRS-EMT, Université du Québec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Ng, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    We have developed a laser wakefield generated X-ray probe to directly measure the temporal evolution of the ionization states in warm dense aluminum by means of absorption spectroscopy. As a promising alternative to the free electron excited X-ray sources, Betatron X-ray radiation, with femtosecond pulse duration, provides a new technique to diagnose femtosecond to picosecond transitions in the atomic structure. The X-ray probe system consists of an adjustable Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope for focusing the Betatron emission to a small probe spot on the sample being measured, and a flat Potassium Acid Phthalate Bragg crystal spectrometer to measure the transmitted X-ray spectrum in the region of the aluminum K-edge absorption lines. An X-ray focal spot size of around 50 ?m was achieved after reflection from the platinum-coated 10-cm-long KB microscope mirrors. Shot to shot positioning stability of the Betatron radiation was measured resulting in an rms shot to shot variation in spatial pointing on the sample of 16 ?m. The entire probe setup had a spectral resolution of ?1.5 eV, a detection bandwidth of ?24 eV, and an overall photon throughput efficiency of the order of 10{sup ?5}. Approximately 10 photons were detected by the X-ray CCD per laser shot within the spectrally resolved detection band. Thus, it is expected that hundreds of shots will be required per absorption spectrum to clearly observe the K-shell absorption features expected from the ionization states of the warm dense aluminum.

  11. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-08-11

    Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 µl) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called `fixed-target' sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 Å) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. In addition, the features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs.

  12. Broadband Quasi-Periodic Radio and X-ray Pulsations in a Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. D. Fleishman; T. S. Bastian; D. E. Gary

    2008-04-25

    We describe microwave and hard X-ray observations of strong quasiperiodic pulsations from the GOES X1.3 solar flare on 15 June 2003. The radio observations were made jointly by the Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA), the Nobeyama Polarimeter (NoRP), and the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH). Hard X-ray observations were made by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Using Fourier analysis, we study the frequency- and energy-dependent oscillation periods, differential phase, and modulation amplitudes of the radio and X-ray pulsations. Focusing on the more complete radio observations, we also examine the modulation of the degree of circular polarization and of the radio spectral index. The observed properties of the oscillations are compared with those derived from two simple models for the radio emission. In particular, we explicitly fit the observed modulation amplitude data to the two competing models. The first model considers the effects of MHD oscillations on the radio emission. The second model considers the quasi-periodic injection of fast electrons. We demonstrate that quasiperiodic acceleration and injection of fast electrons is the more likely cause of the quasiperiodic oscillations observed in the radio and hard X-ray emission, which has important implications for particle acceleration and transport in the flaring sources.

  13. Goniometer-based femtosecond X-ray diffraction of mutant 30S ribosomal subunit crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dao, E. Han; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Coey, Aaron; Larsen, Kevin; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; et al

    2015-04-30

    In this work, we collected radiation-damage-free data from a set of cryo-cooled crystals for a novel 30S ribosomal subunit mutant using goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography. Crystal quality assessment for these samples was conducted at the X-ray Pump Probe end-station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) using recently introduced goniometer-based instrumentation. These 30S subunit crystals were genetically engineered to omit a 26-residue protein, Thx, which is present in the wild-type Thermus thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit. We are primarily interested in elucidating the contribution of this ribosomal protein to the overall 30S subunit structure. To assess the viability of this study, femtosecondmore »X-ray diffraction patterns from these crystals were recorded at the LCLS during a protein crystal screening beam time. During our data collection, we successfully observed diffraction from these difficult-to-grow 30S ribosomal subunit crystals. Most of our crystals were found to diffract to low resolution, while one crystal diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. These data suggest the feasibility of pursuing high-resolution data collection as well as the need to improve sample preparation and handling in order to collect a complete radiation-damage-free data set using an X-ray Free Electron Laser.« less

  14. ASCA Discovery of Diffuse 6.4 keV Emission Near the Sgr C Complex: A New X-ray Reflection Nebula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Murakami; K. Koyama; M. Tsujimoto; Y. Maeda; M. Sakano

    2000-12-14

    We present an ASCA discovery of diffuse hard X-ray emission from the Sgr C complex with its peak in the vicinity of the molecular cloud core. The X-ray spectrum is characterized by a strong 6.4-keV line and large absorption. These properties suggest that Sgr C is a new X-ray reflection nebula which emits fluorescent and scattered X-rays via irradiation from an external X-ray source. We found no adequately bright source in the immediate Sgr C vicinity to fully account for the fluorescence. The irradiating source may be the Galactic nucleus Sgr A*, which was brighter in the past than it is now as is suggested from observations of the first X-ray reflection nebula Sgr B2.

  15. Catalog of supersoft X-ray sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Greiner

    2000-05-11

    This catalog comprises an up-to-date (December 1999) list of luminous (>10^36 erg/s), binary supersoft X-ray sources. This electronic version (including the accompannying Web-pages) supersedes the printed version of Greiner (1996).

  16. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs.

  17. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, Peter A. (Arvada, CO)

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

  18. SLAC All Access: X-ray Microscope

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Liu, Yijin

    2014-06-13

    SLAC physicists Johanna Nelson and Yijin Liu give a brief overview of the X-ray microscope at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that is helping improve rechargeable-battery technology by letting researchers peek into the inner workings of batteries as they operate.

  19. X-ray Spontaneous Emission Control By 1D-PBG Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andre, Jean-Michel; Jonnard, Philippe [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matiere et Rayonnement, CNRS, Universite Paris 6, UMR 7614, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris CEDEX 05 (France)

    2010-04-06

    The control of the decay rate of an excited atom through the photonic mode density (PMD) was pointed out at radiofrequency by Purcell in 1946. Nowadays the development of sophisticated photonic band structures makes it possible to monitor the PMD at shorter radiation wavelengths and then to manipulate the spontaneous emission of atoms in the hard region of the electromagnetic spectrum especially in the visible domain. In this communication we study the possibility of monitoring the x-ray emission by means of one-dimensional photonic band structures such as periodic multilayer systems. Enhancement or inhibition of soft x-ray emissions seems now to be feasible by means of the state-of-the art in x-ray optics.

  20. In Situ X-Ray Probing Reveals Fingerprints of Surface Platinum Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friebel, Daniel

    2011-08-24

    In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Pt L{sub 3} edge is a useful probe for Pt-O interactions at polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. We show that XAS using the high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode, applied to a well-defined monolayer Pt/Rh(111) sample where the bulk penetrating hard x-rays probe only surface Pt atoms, provides a unique sensitivity to structure and chemical bonding at the Pt-electrolyte interface. Ab initio multiple-scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code and complementary extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results indicate that the commonly observed large increase of the white-line at high electrochemical potentials on PEMFC cathodes originates from platinum oxide formation, whereas previously proposed chemisorbed oxygen-containing species merely give rise to subtle spectral changes.

  1. Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  2. X-Ray Synchrotron Emitting Fe-Rich Ejecta in SNR RCW 86

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeonghee Rho; Kristy K. Dyer; Kazimierz J. Borkowski; Stephen P. Reynolds

    2002-07-31

    Supernova remnants may exhibit both thermal and nonthermal X-ray emission. We present Chandra observations of RCW 86. Striking differences in the morphology of X-rays below 1 keV and above 2 keV point to a different physical origin. Hard X-ray emission is correlated fairly well with the edges of regions of radio emission, suggesting that these are the locations of shock waves at which both short-lived X-ray emitting electrons, and longer-lived radio-emitting electrons, are accelerated. Soft X-rays are spatially well-correlated with optical emission from nonradiative shocks, which are almost certainly portions of the outer blast wave. These soft X-rays are well fit with simple thermal plane-shock models. Harder X-rays show Fe K alpha emission and are well described with a similar soft thermal component, but a much stronger synchrotron continuum dominating above 2 keV, and a strong Fe K alpha line. Quantitative analysis of this line and the surrounding continuum shows that it cannot be produced by thermal emission from a cosmic-abundance plasma; the ionization time is too short, as shown both by the low centroid energy (6.4 keV) and the absence of oxygen lines below 1 keV. Instead, a model of a plane shock into Fe-rich ejecta, with a synchrotron continuum, provides a natural explanation. This requires that reverse shocks into ejecta be accelerating electrons to energies of order 50 TeV. We show that maximum energies of this order can be produced by radiation-limited diffusive shock acceleration at the reverse shocks.

  3. X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for extended X-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitter, Manfred L. (Princeton, NJ); Fraenkel, Ben (Jerusalem, IL); Gorman, James L. (Bordentown, NJ); Hill, Kenneth W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Roquemore, A. Lane (Cranbury, NJ); Stodiek, Wolfgang (Princeton, NJ); von Goeler, Schweickhard E. (Princeton, NJ)

    2001-01-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokomak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters using the imaging properties for Bragg angles near 45. For a Bragg angle of 45.degree., the spherical crystal focuses a bundle of near parallel X-rays (the cross section of which is determined by the cross section of the crystal) from the plasma to a point on a detector, with parallel rays inclined to the main plain of diffraction focused to different points on the detector. Thus, it is possible to radially image the plasma X-ray emission in different wavelengths simultaneously with a single crystal.

  4. A Study of the Populations of X-ray Sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud with ASCA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Yokogawa; Kensuke Imanishi; Masahiro Tsujimoto; Mamiko Nishiuchi; Katsuji Koyama; Fumiaki Nagase; Robin H. D. Corbet

    2000-02-08

    The Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) has made multiple observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). X-ray mosaic images in the soft (0.7--2.0 keV) and hard (2.0--7.0 keV) bands are separately constructed, and the latter provides the first hard X-ray view of the SMC. We extract 39 sources from the two-band images with a criterion of S/N>5, and conduct timing and spectral analyses for all of these sources. Coherent pulsations are detected from 12 X-ray sources; five of which are new discoveries. Most of the 12 X-ray pulsars are found to exhibit long-term flux variabilities, hence they are likely to be X-ray binary pulsars (XBPs). On the other hand, we classify four supernova remnants (SNRs) as thermal SNRs, because their spectra exhibit emission lines from highly ionized atoms. We find that XBPs and thermal SNRs in the SMC can be clearly separated by their hardness ratio (the ratio of the count rate between the hard and soft bands). Using this empirical grouping, we find many XBP candidates in the SMC, although no pulsations have yet been detected from these sources. Possible implications on the star-formation history and evolution of the SMC are presented by a comparison of the source populations in the SMC and our Galaxy.

  5. X-Ray and Optical Observations of A 0535+26

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camero-Arranz, A; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Jenke, P; Steele, I; Coe, M J; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Kretschmar, P; Caballero, I; Case, G; Cherry, M L; Yan, J; Suso, J; Rodríguez, J; Guiriec, S; McBride, V A

    2011-01-01

    We present recent contemporaneous X-ray and optical observations of the Be/X-ray binary system A 0535+26 with the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and several ground-based observatories. These new observations are put into the context of the rich historical data and discussed in terms of the neutron star Be-disk interaction. The Be circumstellar disk was exceptionally large just before the 2009 December giant outburst, which may explain the origin of the unusual recent X-ray activity of this source. We found a peculiar evolution of the pulse profile during this giant outburst, with the two main components evolving in opposite ways with energy. A hard 30-70 mHz X-ray QPO was detected with GBM during this 2009 December giant outburst. It becomes stronger with increasing energy and disappears at energies below 25 keV. In the long-term a strong optical/X-ray correlation was found for this system, however in the medium-term the H{\\alpha} EW and the V-band brightness showed an anti-correlation after \\sim2002 Aug...

  6. IKT 16: the first X-ray confirmed composite SNR in the SMC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maitra, Chandreyee; Filipovic, Miroslav; Haberl, Frank; Tiengo, Andrea; Grieve, Kevin; Roper, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: IKT 16 is an X-ray and radio-faint supernova remnant (SNR) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). A detailed X-ray study of this SNR with XMM-Newton confirmed the presence of a hard X-ray source near its centre, indicating the detection of the first composite SNR in the SMC. With a dedicated Chandra observation we aim to resolve the point source and confirm its nature. We also acquire new ATCA observations of the source at 2.1 GHz with improved flux density estimates and resolution. Methods: We perform detailed spatial and spectral analysis of the source. With the highest resolution X-ray and radio image of the centre of the SNR available today, we resolve the source and confirm its pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature. Further, we constrain the geometrical parameters of the PWN and perform spectral analysis for the point source and the PWN separately. We also test for the radial variations of the PWN spectrum and its possible east west asymmetry. Results: The X-ray source at the centre of IKT 16 can be resolv...

  7. Periodicities in the X-ray emission from the solar corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Jain, Rajmal; Awasthi, Arun K. E-mail: parthares@gmail.com E-mail: awasthi@prl.res.in

    2013-11-20

    We have studied the time series of full disk integrated soft and hard X-ray emission from the solar corona during 2004 January to 2008 December, covering the entire descending phase of solar cycle 23 from a global point of view. We employ the daily X-ray index derived from 1 s cadence X-ray observations from the Si and CZT detectors of the 'Solar X-ray Spectrometer' mission in seven different energy bands ranging between 6 and 56 keV. X-ray data in the energy bands 6-7, 7-10, 10-20, and 4-25 keV from the Si detector are considered, while 10-20, 20-30, and 30-56 keV high energy observations are taken from the CZT detector. The daily time series is subjected to power spectrum analysis after appropriate correction for noise. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram technique has shown prominent periods of ?13.5 days, ?27 days, and a near-Rieger period of ?181 days and ?1.24 yr in all energy bands. In addition to this, other periods like ?31, ?48, ?57, ?76, ?96, ?130, ?227, and ?303 days are also detected in different energy bands. We discuss our results in light of previous observations and existing numerical models.

  8. Ignition feedback regenerative free electron laser (FEL) amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Kwang-Je (Burr Ridge, IL); Zholents, Alexander (Walnut Creek, CA); Zolotorev, Max (Oakland, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An ignition feedback regenerative amplifier consists of an injector, a linear accelerator with energy recovery, and a high-gain free electron laser amplifier. A fraction of the free electron laser output is coupled to the input to operate the free electron laser in the regenerative mode. A mode filter in this loop prevents run away instability. Another fraction of the output, after suitable frequency up conversion, is used to drive the photocathode. An external laser is provided to start up both the amplifier and the injector, thus igniting the system.

  9. X-ray properties of UV-selected star forming galaxies at z~1 in the Hubble Deep Field North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laird, E S; Adelberger, K L; Steidel, C C; Reddy, N A

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray emission from a large sample of ultraviolet (UV) selected, star forming galaxies with 0.74X-ray emission in the 2 Ms Chandra observation we are able to examine the properties of galaxies for which the emission in both UV and X-ray is expected to be predominantly due to star formation. Stacking the X-ray flux from 216 galaxies in the soft and hard bands produces significant detections. The derived mean 2-10 keV rest-frame luminosity is 2.97+/-0.26x10^(40) erg/s, corresponding to an X-ray derived star formation rate (SFR) of 6.0+/-0.6 Msolar/yr. Comparing the X-ray value with the mean UV derived SFR, uncorrected for attenuation, we find that the average UV attenuation correction factor is \\~3. By binning the galaxy sample according to UV magnitude and colour, correlations between UV and X-ray emission are also examined. We find a strong positive correlation between ...

  10. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing...

  11. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    times science has used high-brilliance x-rays to look so closely at these reactions. Lead author Dr. David Mueller at the ALS using x-rays to characterize working fuel cells....

  12. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Schemes that use one light...

  13. A World's Top-10 X-ray Crystal Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A World's Top-10 X-ray Crystal Structure October 7, 2014 Bookmark and Share Philip Coppens An x-ray crystal structure solved by Philip Coppens has been chosen as one of the world's...

  14. Staff Research Physicist (X-Ray Spectroscopy) | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    position to work on X-ray spectroscopy, atomic physics, X-ray instrumentation, and high energy density physics. Near-term research goals include participating in the design,...

  15. The spectral evolution of impulsive solar X-ray flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

    2004-07-20

    The time evolution of the spectral index and the non-thermal flux in 24 impulsive solar hard X-ray flares of GOES class M was studied in RHESSI observations. The high spectral resolution allows for a clean separation of thermal and non-thermal components in the 10-30 keV range, where most of the non-thermal photons are emitted. Spectral index and flux can thus be determined with much better accuracy than before. The spectral soft-hard-soft behavior in rise-peak-decay phases is discovered not only in the general flare development, but even more pronounced in subpeaks. An empirically found power-law dependence between the spectral index and the normalization of the non-thermal flux holds during the rise and decay phases of the emission peaks. It is still present in the combined set of all flares. We find an asymmetry in this dependence between rise and decay phases of the non-thermal emission. There is no delay between flux peak and spectral index minimum. The soft-hard-soft behavior appears to be an intrinsic signature of the elementary electron acceleration process.

  16. X-ray mammography with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burattini, E. (CNR and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy)); Gambaccini, M.; Marziani, M.; Rimondi, O. (Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita and Sezione INFN di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy)); Indovina, P.L. (Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell'Universita and Sezione INFN di Napoli, Naples (Italy)); Pocek, M.; Simonetti, G. (Istituto di Radiologia, Ospedale Sant'Eugenio, Universita di Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)); Benassi, M.; Tirelli, C. (Istituto Nazionale del Cancro, Regina Elena, Rome (Italy)); Passariello, R. (Cattedra di Radiologia, Universita dell'Aquila, L'Aquila (Italy))

    1992-01-01

    For the first time in the literature, radiographs of breast phantoms were obtained using several monochromatic synchrotron radiation x-ray beams of selected energy in the range from 14 to 26 keV. In addition, after optimization of the photon energy as a function of the phantom thickness, several mammographs were obtained on surgically removed human breast specimens containing cancer nodules. Comparison between radiographs using a conventional x-ray unit and those obtained of the same specimens utilizing synchrotron monochromatic beams clearly shows that higher contrast and better resolution can be achieved with synchrotron radiation. These results demonstrate the possibility of obtaining radiographs of excised human breast tissue containing a greater amount of radiological information using synchrotron radiation.

  17. X-ray radiography for container inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Jonathan I. (Clayton, MO); Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-07

    Arrangements of X-ray inspection systems are described for inspecting high-z materials in voluminous objects such as containers. Inspection methods may involve generating a radiographic image based on detected attenuation corresponding to a pulsed beams of radiation transmitted through a voluminous object. The pulsed beams of radiation are generated by a high-energy source and transmitted substantially downward along an incident angle, of approximately 1.degree. to 30.degree., to a vertical axis extending through the voluminous object. The generated radiographic image may be analyzed to detect on localized high attenuation representative of high-z materials and to discriminate high-z materials from lower and intermediate-z materials on the basis of the high density and greater attenuation of high-z material for higher energy (3-10 MeV) X-rays, and the compact nature of threatening masses of fissionable materials.

  18. Free electron laser using Rf coupled accelerating and decelerating structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Swenson, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Jr., Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A free electron laser and free electron laser amplifier using beam transport devices for guiding an electron beam to a wiggler of a free electron laser and returning the electron beam to decelerating cavities disposed adjacent to the accelerating cavities of the free electron laser. Rf energy is generated from the energy depleted electron beam after it emerges from the wiggler by means of the decelerating cavities which are closely coupled to the accelerating cavities, or by means of a second bore within a single set of cavities. Rf energy generated from the decelerated electron beam is used to supplement energy provided by an external source, such as a klystron, to thereby enhance overall efficiency of the system.

  19. Jefferson Lab's upgraded Free-Electron Laser produces first ligh...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Navy's goals and expectations and we expect no less from the upgraded FEL." The Free-Electron Laser upgrade project is funded by the Department of Defense's Office of...

  20. X-rays from Supernova Remnants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Aschenbach

    2002-08-28

    A summary of X-ray observations of supernova remnants is presented including the explosion fragment A of the Vela SNR, Tycho, N132D, RX J0852-4622, the Crab Nebula and the 'bulls eye', and SN 1987A, high-lighting the progress made with Chandra and XMM-Newton and touching upon the questions which arise from these observations and which might inspire future research.

  1. Model atmospheres and X-ray spectra of iron-rich bursting neutron stars. II. Iron rich Comptonized Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Majczyna; J. Madej; P. C. Joss; A. Rozanska

    2004-12-28

    This paper presents the set of plane-parallel model atmosphere equations for a very hot neutron star (X-ray burst source). The model equations assume both hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium, and the equation of state of an ideal gas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The equation of radiative transfer includes terms describing Compton scattering of photons on free electrons in fully relativistic thermal motion, for photon energies approaching m_e *c^2. Model equations take into account many bound-free and free-free energy-dependent opacities of hydrogen, helium, and the iron ions, and also a dozen bound-bound opacities for the highest ions of iron. We solve model equations by partial linearisation and the technique of variable Eddington factors. Large grid of H-He-Fe model atmospheres of X-ray burst sources has been computed for 10^7 neutron stars from observational data.

  2. Time-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques for real-time studies of interfacial charge transfer dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shavorskiy, Andrey; Hertlein, Marcus; Guo Jinghua; Tyliszczak, Tolek [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Cordones, Amy; Vura-Weis, Josh [Department of Chemistry, University of California Berkeley (United States); Siefermann, Katrin; Slaughter, Daniel; Sturm, Felix; Weise, Fabian; Khurmi, Champak; Belkacem, Ali; Weber, Thorsten; Gessner, Oliver [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Bluhm, Hendrik [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Strader, Matthew; Cho, Hana; Coslovich, Giacomo; Kaindl, Robert A. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Lin, Ming-Fu [Department of Chemistry, University of California Berkeley (United States); Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); and others

    2013-04-19

    X-ray based spectroscopy techniques are particularly well suited to gain access to local oxidation states and electronic dynamics in complex systems with atomic pinpoint accuracy. Traditionally, these techniques are applied in a quasi-static fashion that usually highlights the steady-state properties of a system rather than the fast dynamics that often define the system function on a molecular level. Novel x-ray spectroscopy techniques enabled by free electron lasers (FELs) and synchrotron based pump-probe schemes provide the opportunity to monitor intramolecular and interfacial charge transfer processes in real-time and with element and chemical specificity. Two complementary time-domain xray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques are presented that are applied at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study charge transfer processes in N3 dye-sensitized ZnO semiconductor nanocrystals, which are at the heart of emerging light-harvesting technologies.

  3. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Kuster; H. Bräuninger; S. Cébrian; M. Davenport; C. Elefteriadis; J. Englhauser; H. Fischer; J. Franz; P. Friedrich; R. Hartmann; F. H. Heinsius; D. H. H. Hoffmann; G. Hoffmeister; J. N. Joux; D. Kang; K. Königsmann; R. Kotthaus; T. Papaevangelou; C. Lasseur; A. Lippitsch; G. Lutz; J. Morales; A. Rodríguez; L. Strüder; J. Vogel; K. Zioutas

    2007-05-10

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

  4. Portable Parallel Beam X-Ray Diffraction System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    than 50 pounds, and uses about 50 watts of power. The X-Beam uses polycapillary x-ray optics to collect x-rays over a large solid angle from a low-power x-ray source and to form...

  5. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Laboratory Learning Experiences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meagher, Mary

    .A. & Svergun D.I. (1987). Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering. NY: Plenum PressSmall Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Laboratory Learning Experiences o - Use of small angle X-ray scattering instrumentation o - Programs that you will use SAXS (BRUKER AXS) PRIMUS (Konarev, Volkov, Koch

  6. Femtosecond laser-electron x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Barty, Chris P.; Gibson, David J.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2004-04-20

    A femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source. A high-brightness relativistic electron injector produces an electron beam pulse train. A system accelerates the electron beam pulse train. The femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source includes a high intra-cavity power, mode-locked laser and an x-ray optics system.

  7. Single electron beam rf feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, C.A.; Stein, W.E.; Rockwood, S.D.

    1981-02-11

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which uses rf feedback to enhance efficiency are described. Rf energy is extracted from a single electron beam by decelerating cavities and energy is returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns, such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, resonant feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to reduce the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  8. Monitoring x-ray beam damage on lipid films by an integrated Brewster angle microscope/x-ray diffractometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ka Yee C.

    Polyunsaturated lipids with conjugated tails are easily dam- aged by x-ray irradiation in the presence of oxygen samples and thin films has been detected since the beginning of x-ray studies. Dam- age to lipid samples

  9. Macroparticle Theory of a Standing Wave Free-Electron Laser Two-Beam Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takayama, K.

    2008-01-01

    Macroparticle Theory of a Standing Wave Free-Electron LaserMacroparticle Theory of a Standing Wave Free-Electron LaserMacroparticle Theory of a Standing Wave Free-Electron Laser

  10. Phase stability of a standing-wave free-electron laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    J. S. Wurtele, "Simulation of a Standing-Wave Free-ElectronPhase Stability of a Standing-Wave Free-Electron Laser W. M.Phase stability of a standing-wave free-electron laser W. M.

  11. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Henke, B. L.; Gullikson, E. M.; Davis, J. C.

    The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented.

  12. Experimental investigation of beam heating in a soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Experimental investigation of beam heating in a soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscope and an accuracy of Æ1 C has been fabricated for scanning transmission X-ray microscopes (STXM). Here we describe at temperatures near their respective melting points as a means of checking for possible sample heating caused

  13. X-Ray Spectral and Timing Evolution During the Decay of the 1998 Outburst from the Recurrent X-Ray Transient 4U 1630-47

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John A. Tomsick; Philip Kaaret

    2000-02-03

    We report on the X-ray spectral and timing behavior of the recurrent X-ray transient 4U 1630-47 for 51 RXTE observations made during the decay of its 1998 outburst. The observations began when the source was still relatively bright, and, during one of the early observations, a QPO with a non-Lorentzian profile occurred near 6 Hz. As the source decayed, the X-ray flux dropped exponentially with an e-folding time of 14.4 d. The exponential decay was interrupted by an increase in the X-ray flux, and a secondary maximum occurred 89 d after the onset of the outburst. A transition marked by significant changes in the timing and spectral properties of the source occurred 104 d after the start of the outburst. The transition is similar to soft-to-hard state transitions observed in other black hole candidate X-ray binaries. Most of the changes associated with the transition occurred in less than 2 d. The timing changes include an increase in the continuum noise level from less than 4% RMS to greater than 10% RMS and the appearance of a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) at 3.4 Hz with an RMS amplitude of 7.3% in the 2-21 keV energy band. At the transition, the energy spectrum also changed with an abrupt drop in the soft component flux in the RXTE band pass. A change in the power-law photon index from 2.3 to 1.8, also associated with the transition, occurred over a time period of 8 d. After the transition, the source flux continued to decrease, and the QPO frequency decayed gradually from 3.4 Hz to about 0.2 Hz.

  14. SWIFT X-RAY AND ULTRAVIOLET MONITORING OF THE CLASSICAL NOVA V458 VUL (NOVA VUL 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, J.-U. [European Space Astronomy Centre, P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Drake, J. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beardmore, A. P.; Evans, P. A.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Boyd, D. [BAA VSS, 5 Silver Lane, West Challow, Wantage, OX12 9TX (United Kingdom); Bode, M. F. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Brady, S. [AAVSO, 5 Melba Drive, Hudson, NH 03051 (United States); Gaensicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kitamoto, S.; Takei, D. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Knigge, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Miller, I. [BAA VSS, Furzehill House, Ilston, Swansea SA2 7LE (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Gil, P. [Isaac Newton Group, PO Ap. de Correos 321, 38700 Sta. Cruz de la Palma (Spain); Schwarz, G. [Department of Geology and Astronomy, West Chester University, West Chester, PA 19383 (United States); Staels, B. [CBA Flanders, Alan Guth Observatory, Koningshofbaan 51, Hofstade, Aalst (Belgium); Tsujimoto, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wesson, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: juness@sciops.esa.int (and others)

    2009-05-15

    We describe the highly variable X-ray and UV emission of V458 Vul (Nova Vul 2007), observed by Swift between 1 and 422 days after outburst. Initially bright only in the UV, V458 Vul became a variable hard X-ray source due to optically thin thermal emission at kT = 0.64 keV with an X-ray band unabsorbed luminosity of 2.3 x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} during days 71-140. The X-ray spectrum at this time requires a low Fe abundance (0.2{sup +0.3} {sub -0.1} solar), consistent with a Suzaku measurement around the same time. On day 315 we find a new X-ray spectral component which can be described by a blackbody with temperature of kT = 23{sup +9} {sub -5} eV, while the previous hard X-ray component has declined by a factor of 3.8. The spectrum of this soft X-ray component resembles those typically seen in the class of supersoft sources (SSS) which suggests that the nova ejecta were starting to clear and/or that the white dwarf photosphere is shrinking to the point at which its thermal emission reaches into the X-ray band. We find a high degree of variability in the soft component with a flare rising by an order of magnitude in count rate in 0.2 days. In the following observations on days 342.4-383.6, the soft component was not seen, only to emerge again on day 397. The hard component continued to evolve, and we found an anticorrelation between the hard X-ray emission and the UV emission, yielding a Spearman rank probability of 97%. After day 397, the hard component was still present, was variable, and continued to fade at an extremely slow rate but could not be analyzed owing to pile-up contamination from the bright SSS component.

  15. ROSAT X-ray Spectral Properties of Nearby Young Associations: TW Hydrae, Tucana-Horologium, and the beta Pic Moving Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joel H. Kastner; Lara Crigger; Margaret Rich; David A. Weintraub

    2002-11-15

    We present archival ROSAT data for three recently identified, nearby (DPic Moving Group. The distributions of ROSAT X-ray hardness ratios (HR1, HR2) for these three groups, whose membership is dominated by low-mass, weak-lined T Tauri stars, are tightly clustered and very similar to one another. The value of HR1 for TW Hya itself -- the only bona fide classical T Tauri star in any of the nearby groups -- is clearly anomalous among these nearby young stars. We compare the hardness ratio distributions of stars in the three nearby groups with those of T Tauri stars, the Hyades, and main sequence dwarfs in the field. This comparison demonstrates that the X-ray spectra of F through M stars soften with age, and that F and G stars evolve more rapidly in X-ray spectral hardness than do K and M stars. It is as yet unclear whether this trend can be attributed to age-dependent changes in the intrinsic X-ray spectra of stars of type F and later, to a decrease in the column density of circumstellar gas (e.g., in residual protoplanetary disks), or to the diminishing contributions of star-disk interactions to X-ray emission. Regardless, these results demonstrate that analysis of archival ROSAT X-ray spectral data can help both to identify nearby, young associations and to ascertain the X-ray emission properties of members of known associations.

  16. Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1991-10-08

    A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for monitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency. 2 figures.

  17. HgMn Stars as apparent X-ray emitters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubrig, S; Mathys, G

    1998-01-01

    In the ROSAT all-sky survey 11 HgMn stars were detected as soft X-ray emitters (Berghoefer, Schmitt & Cassinelli 1996). Prior to ROSAT, X-ray observations with the Einstein Observatory had suggested that stars in the spectral range B5-A7 are devoid of X-ray emission. Since there is no X-ray emitting mechanism available for these stars (also not for HgMn stars), the usual argument in the case of an X-ray detected star of this spectral type is the existence of an unseen low-mass companion which is responsible for the X-ray emission. The purpose of the present work is to use all available data for our sample of X-ray detected HgMn stars and conclude on the nature of possible companions.

  18. X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

    1999-05-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.

  19. Metrology for the advancement of x-ray optics at the ALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    S. Yuan et al. , X-ray Optics and Instrumentation 2010,in X-ray and Neutron Optics, Springer, Berlin S. G. AlcockX-ray beam metrology and X-ray optic alignment by Hartmann

  20. A transient supergiant X-ray binary in IC 10: An extragalactic SFXT?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laycock, Silas; Cappallo, Rigel; Oram, Kathleen; Balchunas, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    We report the discovery of a large amplitude (factor of ?100) X-ray transient (IC 10 X-2, CXOU J002020.99+591758.6) in the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy IC 10 during our Chandra monitoring project. Based on the X-ray timing and spectral properties, and an optical counterpart observed with Gemini, the system is a high-mass X-ray binary consisting of a luminous blue supergiant and a neutron star. The highest measured luminosity of the source was 1.8 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}during an outburst in 2003. Observations before, during, and after a second outburst in 2010 constrain the outburst duration to be less than 3 months (with no lower limit). The X-ray spectrum is a hard power law (? = 0.3) with fitted column density (N{sub H} = 6.3 × 10{sup 21} atom cm{sup –2}), consistent with the established absorption to sources in IC 10. The optical spectrum shows hydrogen Balmer lines strongly in emission at the correct blueshift (-340 km s{sup –1}) for IC 10. The N III triplet emission feature is seen, accompanied by He II [4686] weakly in emission. Together these features classify the star as a luminous blue supergiant of the OBN subclass, characterized by enhanced nitrogen abundance. Emission lines of He I are seen, at similar strength to H?. A complex of Fe II permitted and forbidden emission lines are seen, as in B[e] stars. The system closely resembles galactic supergiant fast X-ray transients, in terms of its hard spectrum, variability amplitude, and blue supergiant primary.

  1. Renewed activity from the X-ray transient SAXJ 1810.8-2609 with INTEGRAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Fiocchi; L. Natalucci; J. Chenevez; A. Bazzano; A. Tarana; P. Ubertini; S. Brandt; V. Beckmann; M. Federici; R. Galis; R. Hudec

    2008-11-07

    We report on the results of INTEGRAL observations of the neutron star low mass X-ray binary SAX J1810.8-2609 during its latest active phase in August 2007. The current outburst is the first one since 1998 and the derived luminosity is 1.1-2.6x10^36 erg s-1 in the 20-100 keV energy range. This low outburst luminosity and the long-term time-average accretion rate of ~5x10^-12Msolar/yr suggest that SAXJ 1810.8-2609 is a faint soft X-ray transient. During the flux increase, spectra are consistent with a thermal Comptonization model with a temperature plasma of ~23-30 keV and an optical depth of ~1.2-1.5, independent from luminosity of the system. This is a typical low hard spectral state for which the X-ray emission is attributed to the upscattering of soft seed photons by a hot, optically thin electron plasma. During the decay, spectra have a different shape, the high energy tail being compatible with a single power law. This confirm similar behavior observed by BeppoSAX during the previous outburst, with absence of visible cutoff in the hard X-ray spectrum. INTEGRAL/JEM-X instrument observed four X-ray bursts in Fall 2007. The first one has the highest peak flux (~3.5Crab in 3--25 keV) giving an upper limit to the distance of the source of about 5.7 kpc, for a LEdd~3.8x10^38 erg s^-1. The observed recurrence time of ~1.2 days and the ratio of the total energy emitted in the persistent flux to that emitted in the bursts (~73) allow us to conclude that the burst fuel was composed by mixed hydrogen and helium with X>0.4.

  2. X-ray Selected Clusters of Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isabella M. Gioia

    1996-01-21

    This paper given at the meeting on "Mapping, Measuring and Modelling the Universe" presents three topics: 1) the study of the clusters and groups of galaxies found serendipitously in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) region of the ROSAT all-sky survey; 2) the highest redshift clusters found in the EMSS (up to z=0.82) and the cosmological implications of their very existence; 3) the gravitational lensing in the EMSS X-ray selected clusters of galaxies observed by the Hubble Space Telescope.

  3. SMB, Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein1-0845*RV 14800Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Home »

  4. SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein1-0845*RV 14800Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Home

  5. SMB, X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein1-0845*RV 14800Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

  6. SMB, X-ray Fluorescence Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein1-0845*RV 14800Small Angle X-Ray

  7. X-Ray Microscopy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single goldWindX-Ray ImagingIn the

  8. X-ray Microscopy and Imaging: FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single goldWindX-Ray

  9. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp GraduateResidentialLensless Imaging of WholeX-Ray Imaging in

  10. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp GraduateResidentialLensless Imaging of WholeX-Ray Imaging

  11. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H N I CLensless X-Ray Imaging in

  12. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H N I CLensless X-Ray Imaging

  13. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H N I CLensless X-Ray ImagingLensless

  14. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H N I CLensless X-Ray

  15. X-Ray spectra from protons illuminating a neutron star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Deufel; C. P. Dullemond; H. C. Spruit

    2001-08-28

    We consider the interaction of a slowly rotating unmagnetized neutron star with a hot (ion supported, ADAF) accretion flow. The virialized protons of the ADAF penetrate into the neutron star atmosphere, heating a surface layer. Detailed calculations are presented of the equilibrium between heating by the protons, electron thermal conduction, bremsstrahlung and multiple Compton scattering in this layer. Its temperature is of the order 40-70 keV. Its optical depth increases with the incident proton energy flux, and is of the order unity for accretion at $10^{-2}$--$10^{-1}$ of the Eddington rate. At these rates, the X-ray spectrum produced by the layer has a hard tail extending to 100 keV, and is similar to the observed spectra of accreting neutron stars in their hard states. The steep gradient at the base of the heated layer gives rise to an excess of photons at the soft end of the spectrum (compared to a blackbody) through an `inverse photosphere effect'. The differences with respect to previous studies of similar problems are discussed, they are due mostly to a more accurate treatment of the proton penetration process and the vertical structure of the heated layer.

  16. Hydrodynamic and radiative transfer modeling of X-ray emission from colliding WR winds: WR 140 & the Galactic center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Christopher M P; Cuadra, Jorge; Owocki, Stanley P; Wang, Q Daniel; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Pollock, Andrew M T; Kallman, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Colliding Wolf-Rayet (WR) winds produce thermal X-ray emission widely observed by X-ray telescopes. In wide WR+O binaries, such as WR 140, the X-ray flux is tied to the orbital phase, and is a direct probe of the winds' properties. In the Galactic center, $\\sim$30 WRs orbit the super massive black hole (SMBH) within $\\sim$10", leading to a smorgasbord of wind-wind collisions. To model the X-ray emission of WR 140 and the Galactic center, we perform 3D hydrodynamic simulations to trace the complex gaseous flows, and then carry out 3D radiative transfer calculations to compute the variable X-ray spectra. The model WR 140 RXTE light curve matches the data well for all phases except the X-ray minimum associated with periastron, while the model spectra agree with the RXTE hardness ratio and the shape of the Suzaku observations throughout the orbit. The Galactic center model of the Chandra flux and spectral shape match well in the region r$<$3", but the model flux falls off too rapidly beyond this radius.

  17. The 3D-architecture of individual free silver nanoparticles captured by X-ray scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barke, Ingo; Hartmann, Hannes; Rupp, Daniela; Flückiger, Leonie; Sauppe, Mario; Adolph, Marcus; Schorb, Sebastian; Bostedt, Christoph; Treusch, Rolf; Peltz, Christian; et al

    2015-02-04

    The diversity of nanoparticle shapes generated by condensation from gaseous matter reflects the fundamental competition between thermodynamic equilibration and the persistence of metastable configurations during growth. In the kinetically limited regime, intermediate geometries that are favoured only in early formation stages can be imprinted in the finally observed ensemble of differently structured specimens. Here we demonstrate that single-shot wide-angle scattering of femtosecond soft X-ray free-electron laser pulses allows three-dimensional characterization of the resulting metastable nanoparticle structures. For individual free ?silver particles, which can be considered frozen in space for the duration of photon exposure, both shape and orientation are uncoveredmore »from measured scattering images. We identify regular shapes, including species with fivefold symmetry and surprisingly large aspect ratio up to particle radii of the order of 100 nm. Our approach includes scattering effects beyond Born’s approximation and is remarkably efficient—opening up new routes in ultrafast nanophysics and free-electron laser science« less

  18. X-Ray Emitting Blast Wave from the Recurrent Nova RS Ophiuchi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. Sokoloski; G. J. M. Luna; K. Mukai; Scott J. Kenyon

    2006-05-30

    Stellar explosions such as novae and supernovae produce most of the heavy elements in the Universe. Although the onset of novae from runaway thermonuclear fusion reactions on the surface of a white dwarf in a binary star system is understood[1], the structure, dynamics, and mass of the ejecta are not well known. In rare cases, the white dwarf is embedded in the wind nebula of a red-giant companion; the explosion products plow through the nebula and produce X-ray emission. Early this year, an eruption of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi[2,3] provided the first opportunity to perform comprehensive X-ray observations of such an event and diagnose conditions within the ejecta. Here we show that the hard X-ray emission from RS Ophiuchi early in the eruption emanates from behind a blast wave, or outward-moving shock wave, that expanded freely for less than 2 days and then decelerated due to interaction with the nebula. The X-rays faded rapidly, suggesting that the blast wave deviates from the standard spherical shell structure[4-6]. The early onset of deceleration indicates that the ejected shell had a low mass, the white dwarf has a high mass[7], and that RS Ophiuchi is a progenitor of the type of supernova integral to studies of the expansion of the universe.

  19. Performance of CID camera X-ray imagers at NIF in a harsh neutron environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, N. E. [LLNL; Schneider, M. B. [LLNL; Bell, P. M. [LLNL; Piston, K. W. [LLNL; Moody, J. D. [LLNL; James, D. L. [LLNL; Ness, R. A. [LLNL; Haugh, M. J. [NSTec; Lee, J. J. [NSTec; Romano, E. D. [NSTec

    2013-09-01

    Charge-injection devices (CIDs) are solid-state 2D imaging sensors similar to CCDs, but their distinct architecture makes CIDs more resistant to ionizing radiation.1–3 CID cameras have been used extensively for X-ray imaging at the OMEGA Laser Facility4,5 with neutron fluences at the sensor approaching 109 n/cm2 (DT, 14 MeV). A CID Camera X-ray Imager (CCXI) system has been designed and implemented at NIF that can be used as a rad-hard electronic-readout alternative for time-integrated X-ray imaging. This paper describes the design and implementation of the system, calibration of the sensor for X-rays in the 3 – 14 keV energy range, and preliminary data acquired on NIF shots over a range of neutron yields. The upper limit of neutron fluence at which CCXI can acquire useable images is ~ 108 n/cm2 and there are noise problems that need further improvement, but the sensor has proven to be very robust in surviving high yield shots (~ 1014 DT neutrons) with minimal damage.

  20. Workshops on Science Enabled by a Coherent, CW, Synchrotron X-ray Source, June 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brock, Joel

    2012-01-03

    In June of 2011 we held six two-day workshops called "XDL-2011: Science at the Hard X-ray Diffraction Limit". The six workshops covered (1) Diffraction-based imaging techniques, (2) Biomolecular structure from non-crystalline materials, (3) Ultra-fast science, (4) High-pressure science, (5) Materials research with nano-beams and (6) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS), In each workshop, invited speaker from around the world presented examples of novel experiments that require a CW, diffraction-limited source. During the workshop, each invited speaker provided a one-page description of the experiment and an illustrative graphic. The experiments identified by the workshops demonstrate the broad and deep scientific case for a CW coherent synchrotron x-ray source. The next step is to perform detailed simulations of the best of these ideas to test them quantitatively and to guide detailed x-ray beam-line designs. These designs are the first step toward developing detailed facility designs and cost estimates.

  1. Survey on solar X-ray flares and associated coherent radio emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold O. Benz; Paolo Grigis; Andre Csillagy; Pascal Saint-Hilaire

    2004-10-19

    The radio emission during 201 X-ray selected solar flares was surveyed from 100 MHz to 4 GHz with the Phoenix-2 spectrometer of ETH Zurich. The selection includes all RHESSI flares larger than C5.0 jointly observed from launch until June 30, 2003. Detailed association rates of radio emission during X-ray flares are reported. In the decimeter wavelength range, type III bursts and the genuinely decimetric emissions (pulsations, continua, and narrowband spikes) were found equally frequently. Both occur predominantly in the peak phase of hard X-ray (HXR) emission, but are less in tune with HXRs than the high-frequency continuum exceeding 4 GHz, attributed to gyrosynchrotron radiation. In 10% of the HXR flares, an intense radiation of the above genuine decimetric types followed in the decay phase or later. Classic meter-wave type III bursts are associated in 33% of all HXR flares, but only in 4% they are the exclusive radio emission. Noise storms were the only radio emission in 5% of the HXR flares, some of them with extended duration. Despite the spatial association (same active region), the noise storm variations are found to be only loosely correlated in time with the X-ray flux. In a surprising 17% of the HXR flares, no coherent radio emission was found in the extremely broad band surveyed. The association but loose correlation between HXR and coherent radio emission is interpreted by multiple reconnection sites connected by common field lines.

  2. Rate equations for nitrogen molecules in ultrashort and intense x-ray pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ji-Cai; Cederbaum, Lorenz S; Cryan, James P; Glownia, James M; Schafer, Kenneth J; Buth, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We study theoretically the molecular dynamics of nitrogen molecules (N$_2$) exposed to x rays at a wavelength of 1.1 nm (1100 eV photon energy) from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free electron laser. Molecular rate equations are derived to describe the intertwined photoionization, decay, and dissociation processes occurring for N2 in intense and ultrafast x rays from LCLS. This model complements our earlier phenomenological approaches, the single-atom, symmetric-sharing, and fragmentation-matrix models of J. Chem. Phys. $\\mathbf{136}$, 214310 (2012). Our rate-equations are used to obtain the effective pulse energy at the sample and the time scale for the dissociation of the metastable dication N$_2^{2+}$. This leads to a very good agreement between the theoretically and experimentally obtained ion yields and, consequently, the average charge states. The effective pulse energy is found to decrease with shortening pulse duration. This variation in the effective pulse energy together with a change in th...

  3. ASCA Discovery of a Be X-Ray Pulsar in the SMC: AX J0051-733

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kensuke Imanishi; Jun Yokogawa; Masahiro Tsujimoto; Katsuji Koyama

    1999-10-27

    ASCA observed the central region of the Small Magellanic Cloud, and found a hard X-ray source, AX J0051-733, at the position of the ROSAT source RX J0050.8-7316, which has an optical counterpart of a Be star. Coherent X-ray pulsations of 323.1 +/- 0.3 s were discovered from AX J0051-733. The pulse profile shows several sub-peaks in the soft (0.7-2.0 keV) X-ray band, but becomes nearly sinusoidal in the harder (2.0-7.0 keV) X-ray band. The X-ray spectrum was found to be hard, and is well fitted by a power-law model with a photon index of 1.0 +/- 0.4. The long-term flux history was examined with the archival data of Einstein observatory and ROSAT; a flux variability with a factor > 10 was found.

  4. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, Andrew M. (2708 Rembrandt Pl., Modesto, CA 95356); Seppala, Lynn G. (7911 Mines Rd., Livermore, CA 94550)

    1991-01-01

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

  5. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Skulina, Kenneth M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

  6. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.

    1995-01-17

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.

  7. The Chandra Local Volume Survey I: The X-ray Point Source Populations of NGC 55, NGC 2403, and NGC 4214

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binder, B; Eracleous, M; Plucinsky, P P; Gaetz, T J; Anderson, S F; Skillman, E D; Dalcanton, J J; Kong, A K H; Weisz, D R

    2015-01-01

    We present comprehensive X-ray point source catalogs of NGC~55, NGC~2403, and NGC~4214 as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. The combined archival observations have effective exposure times of 56.5 ks, 190 ks, and 79 ks for NGC~55, NGC~2403, and NGC~4214, respectively. When combined with our published catalogs for NGC 300 and NGC 404, our survey contains 629 X-ray sources total down to a limiting unabsorbed luminosity of $\\sim5\\times10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in the 0.35-8 keV band in each of the five galaxies. We present X-ray hardness ratios, spectral analysis, radial source distributions, and an analysis of the temporal variability for the X-ray sources detected at high significance. To constrain the nature of each X-ray source, we carried out cross-correlations with multi-wavelength data sets. We searched overlapping Hubble Space Telescope observations for optical counterparts to our X-ray detections to provide preliminary classifications for each X-ray source as a likely X-ray binary, background AGN, su...

  8. Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allaria, Enrico; Diviacco, Bruno; Callegari, Carlo; Finetti, Paola; Mahieu, Benoît; Viefhaus, Jens; Zangrando, Marco; De Ninno, Giovanni; Lambert, Guillaume; Ferrari, Eugenio; Buck, Jens; Ilchen, Markus; Vodungbo, Boris; Mahne, Nicola; Svetina, Cristian; Spezzani, Carlo; Di Mitri, Simone; Penco, Giuseppe; Trovó, Mauro; Fawley, William M.; Rebernik, Primoz R.; Gauthier, David; Grazioli, Cesare; Coreno, Marcello; Ressel, Barbara; Kivimäki, Antti; Mazza, Tommaso; Glaser, Leif; Scholz, Frank; Seltmann, Joern; Gessler, Patrick; Grünert, Jan; De Fanis, Alberto; Meyer, Michael; Knie, André; Moeller, Stefan P.; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Capotondi, Flavio; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Plekan, Oksana; Danailov, Miltcho B.; Demidovich, Alexander; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Abrami, Alessandro; Gautier, Julien; Lüning, Jan; Zeitoun, Philippe; Giannessi, Luca

    2014-12-02

    The two single-pass, externally seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) of the FERMI user facility are designed around Apple-II-type undulators that can operate at arbitrary polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet-to-soft x-ray spectral range. Furthermore, within each FEL tuning range, any output wavelength and polarization can be set in less than a minute of routine operations. We report the first demonstration of the full output polarization capabilities of FERMI FEL-1 in a campaign of experiments where the wavelength and nominal polarization are set to a series of representative values, and the polarization of the emitted intense pulses is thoroughly characterized by three independent instruments and methods, expressly developed for the task. The measured radiation polarization is consistently >90% and is not significantly spoiled by the transport optics; differing, relative transport losses for horizontal and vertical polarization become more prominent at longer wavelengths and lead to a non-negligible ellipticity for an originally circularly polarized state. The results from the different polarimeter setups validate each other, allow a cross-calibration of the instruments, and constitute a benchmark for user experiments.

  9. Operational Radiation Protection in Synchrotron Light and Free Electron Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Vylet, Vaclav; /Jefferson Lab

    2009-12-11

    The 3rd generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are storage ring based facilities with many insertion devices and photon beamlines, and have low injection beam power (< few tens of watts), but extremely high stored beam power ({approx} 1 GW). The 4th generation x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities are based on an electron Linac with a long undulator and have high injection beam power (a few kW). Due to its electron and photon beam characteristics and modes of operation, storage ring and photon beamlines have unique safety aspects, which are the main subjects of this paper. The shielding design limits, operational modes, and beam losses are first reviewed. Shielding analysis (source terms and methodologies) and interlocked safety systems for storage ring and photon beamlines (including SR and gas bremsstrahlung) are described. Specific safety issues for storage ring top-off injection operation and FEL facilities are discussed. The operational safety program, e.g., operation authorization, commissioning, training, and radiation measurements, for SR facilities is also presented.

  10. Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Allaria, Enrico; Diviacco, Bruno; Callegari, Carlo; Finetti, Paola; Mahieu, Benoît; Viefhaus, Jens; Zangrando, Marco; De Ninno, Giovanni; Lambert, Guillaume; Ferrari, Eugenio; et al

    2014-12-02

    The two single-pass, externally seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) of the FERMI user facility are designed around Apple-II-type undulators that can operate at arbitrary polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet-to-soft x-ray spectral range. Furthermore, within each FEL tuning range, any output wavelength and polarization can be set in less than a minute of routine operations. We report the first demonstration of the full output polarization capabilities of FERMI FEL-1 in a campaign of experiments where the wavelength and nominal polarization are set to a series of representative values, and the polarization of the emitted intense pulses is thoroughly characterized by three independentmore »instruments and methods, expressly developed for the task. The measured radiation polarization is consistently >90% and is not significantly spoiled by the transport optics; differing, relative transport losses for horizontal and vertical polarization become more prominent at longer wavelengths and lead to a non-negligible ellipticity for an originally circularly polarized state. The results from the different polarimeter setups validate each other, allow a cross-calibration of the instruments, and constitute a benchmark for user experiments.« less

  11. Reversible Electron Beam Heating for Suppression of Microbunching Instabilities at Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrens, Christopher; /DESY; Huang, Zhirong; Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-05-30

    The presence of microbunching instabilities due to the compression of high-brightness electron beams at existing and future x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) results in restrictions on the attainable lasing performance and renders beam imaging with optical transition radiation impossible. The instability can be suppressed by introducing additional energy spread, i.e., heating the electron beam, as demonstrated by the successful operation of the laser heater system at the Linac Coherent Light Source. The increased energy spread is typically tolerable for self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs but limits the effectiveness of advanced FEL schemes such as seeding. In this paper, we present a reversible electron beam heating system based on two transverse deflecting radio-frequency structures (TDSs) upstream and downstream of a magnetic bunch compressor chicane. The additional energy spread is introduced in the first TDS, which suppresses the microbunching instability, and then is eliminated in the second TDS. We show the feasibility of the microbunching gain suppression based on calculations and simulations including the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation. Acceptable electron beam and radio-frequency jitter are identified, and inherent options for diagnostics and on-line monitoring of the electron beam's longitudinal phase space are discussed.

  12. Three-dimensional simulation of efficiency enhancement in free-electron laser with prebunched electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitsazi, Mahboobeh; Maraghechi, B.; Rouhani, M. H.

    2010-10-15

    The effect of prebunching of the electron beam and tapering of the wiggler amplitude on the harmonic upconversion in free-electron laser amplifier is studied in three dimensions. A set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equations that describe the three-dimensional simulation of the system is solved numerically. This set of equation describes self-consistently the longitudinal spatial dependence of radiation waists, curvatures, and amplitudes together with the evaluation of the electron beam. The analysis is related to extreme ultraviolet and x-ray emission. In addition to uniform beam, prebunched electron beam has also been studied. The effect of sinusoidal distribution of entry times for the electron beam on the evolution of radiation is compared with uniform distribution. It is shown that prebunching reduces the saturation length substantially. For efficiency enhancement, the wiggler is set to decrease linearly when the radiation of the third harmonic saturates. The optimum starting point and the slope of tapering of the amplitude of the wiggler are found by a successive run of the code. It was found that tapering can increase the saturated power of the third harmonic considerably.

  13. ISOCAM Photometry of Narrow-Line X-ray Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. Law-Green; A. Zezas; M. J. Ward; C. Boisson

    1998-12-23

    Mid-infrared photometry of the hosts of Narrow-Line X-ray Galaxies at 6 microns and 12 microns has been attempted with ISOCAM. No conclusive detections have been made. This implies that these are quiescent objects with little or no active star-formation. Neither X-ray binaries nor starburst-driven superwinds are consistent explanations for the X-ray emission in these objects. We conclude that these NLXGs are predominantly AGN-powered.

  14. X-ray transmission movies of spontaneous dynamic events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Holmes, M.; Novak, A.; Oschwald, D.; Dolgonos, P.; Qualls, B.

    2014-11-15

    We describe a new x-ray radiographic imaging system which allows for continuous x-ray transmission imaging of spontaneous dynamic events. We demonstrate this method on thermal explosions in three plastic bonded formulations of the energetic material octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. We describe the x-ray imaging system and triggering developed to enable the continuous imaging of a thermal explosion.

  15. X-ray interferometry with spherically bent crystals (abstract)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in manufacturing high-quality spherically bent crystals allows highly monochromatic x-ray beams to be produced, and allows efficient x-ray imaging with {mu}m-scale resolution. This article explores some of the constraints for x-ray interferometry utilizing spherically bent crystals and laser-produced plasma sources, and discusses several shearing interferometer concepts that might be experimentally investigated.

  16. Legacy of the X-Ray Laser Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J.

    1993-08-06

    The X-Ray Laser Program has evolved from a design effort focusing on developing a Strategic Defense Initiative weapon that protects against Soviet ICBMs to a scientific project that is producing new technologies for industrial and medical research. While the great technical successes and failures of the X-ray laser itself cannot be discussed, this article presents the many significant achievements made as part of the X-ray laser effort that are now being used for other applications at LLNL.

  17. Ultra-short wavelength x-ray system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald (Ann Arbor, MI); He, Fei (Ann Arbor, MI); Lau, Yue-Ying (Potomac, MD)

    2008-01-22

    A method and apparatus to generate a beam of coherent light including x-rays or XUV by colliding a high-intensity laser pulse with an electron beam that is accelerated by a synchronized laser pulse. Applications include x-ray and EUV lithography, protein structural analysis, plasma diagnostics, x-ray diffraction, crack analysis, non-destructive testing, surface science and ultrafast science.

  18. X-ray outbursts of ESO 243-49 HLX-1: comparison with Galactic low-mass X-ray binary transients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Zhen; Soria, Roberto; Altamirano, Diego; Yu, Wenfei

    2015-01-01

    We studied the outburst properties of the hyper-luminous X-ray source ESO 243-49 HLX-1, using the full set of Swift monitoring observations. We quantified the increase in the waiting time, recurrence time and e-folding rise timescale along the outburst sequence, and the corresponding decrease in outburst duration, total radiated energy, and e-folding decay timescale, which confirms previous findings. HLX-1 spends less and less time in outburst and more and more time in quiescence, but its peak luminosity remains approximately constant. We compared the HLX-1 outburst properties with those of bright Galactic low-mass X-ray binary transients (LMXBTs). Our spectral analysis strengthens the similarity between state transitions in HLX-1 and those in Galactic LMXBTs. We also found that HLX-1 follows the nearly linear correlations between the hard-to-soft state transition luminosity and the peak luminosity, and between the rate of change of X-ray luminosity during the rise phase and the peak luminosity, which indicat...

  19. X-ray micromodulated luminescence tomography in dual-cone ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-07-01

    Jul 16, 2014 ... source, a polycapillary lens, and an electron multiplying charge coupled device ... sources generate x-rays by accelerating electrons into high-z.

  20. X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sprays X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerpowell.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  1. Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic Techniques Wednesday, September 5, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Gang Chen Seminar:...

  2. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of...

  3. Dissociation of strong acid revisited: X-ray photoelectron spectroscop...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations of HNO3 in water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dissociation of strong acid revisited:...

  4. Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable Mirrors at X-Ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: X-ray Adaptive Optics, San Diego, CA, United States, Aug 14 - Aug 14, 2012 Research Org: Lawrence Livermore...

  5. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscop...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopy has become an important tool in understanding the electronic structure of materials. Resonant absorption edges in the soft x-ray regime are especially interesting...

  6. A Record Run for the APS X-ray Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    signals that comprise radiation interlock systems protecting personnel and equipment; * Beam diagnostics controlling multiple x-ray beams simultaneously while utilizing more than...

  7. Insight into obscure transition uncovered by X-rays | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of X-ray techniques. This transition has ramifications for material design for electronics and sensors. The transition between being electrically conductive (metallic) at...

  8. Advances in X-Ray Diagnostics of Diesel Fuel Sprays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recent advances in high-speed X-ray imaging has shown several distinct behaviors of commercial fuel injectors that cannot be seen with more conventional techniques.

  9. X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Marchesini, Stefano

    X-ray diffraction pattern of a sample of 50 nm colloidal gold particles, recorded at a wavelength of 2.1 nm.

  10. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were able to directly observe redox processes in thin-film iron and cobalt perovskite oxide electrocatalysts using surface-sensitive, x-ray absorption spectroscopy while...

  11. Electronic structure of titania aerogels: Soft x-ray absorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Electronic structure of titania aerogels: Soft x-ray absorption study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic structure of titania aerogels: Soft...

  12. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Fitch, J.P.; Everett, M.J.; Colston, B.W.; Stone, G.F.

    1999-06-15

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. 25 figs.

  13. X-ray Emission from Isolated Be Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David H. Cohen

    2000-08-22

    I discuss the X-ray observations of Be stars, and how their properties compare to non-emission B stars. I focus on several specific stars that show high flux levels and variability but also report on several interesting survey results. The Be X-ray properties are discussed in the context of wind-shock X-ray emission from normal OB stars as well as in the context of general mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the Be phenomenon. Finally, I conclude with a discussion of the spectral diagnostics that will be available from the new generation of X-ray telescopes.

  14. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA); Everett, Matthew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Colston, Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source.

  15. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  16. X-ray microscopy at CNM | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single goldWindX-RayX-Ray ScienceX-RayX-ray

  17. nova.tex, 781996. SCATTERING OF LIGHT BY FREE ELECTRONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    nova.tex, 7­8­1996. SCATTERING OF LIGHT BY FREE ELECTRONS as a Test of Quantum Theory \\Lambda E. T. RELATIVISTIC BASIS OF THE SCHR ¨ ODINGER EQUATION 9 8. NON--ARISTOTELIAN SCATTERING OF LIGHT BY ELECTRONS 10 9 dominates every home and office. But on the other hand, this very fact makes it seem strange that a meeting

  18. Two-dimensional optimization of free electron laser designs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prosnitz, Donald (Walnut Creek, CA); Haas, Roger A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a "synchronous electron" at an optimal transverse radius r>0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  19. Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.

    1982-05-04

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  20. Resonator design for a visible wavelength free-electron laser (*)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhowmik, A.; Lordi, N. . Rocketdyne Div.); Ben-Zvi, I.; Gallardo, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Design requirements for a visible wavelength free-electron laser being developed at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented along with predictions of laser performance from 3-D numerical simulations. The design and construction of the optical resonator, its alignment and control systems are also described. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.