National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hard porous product

  1. Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-08-04

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

  2. Method for Producing Flame Retardant Porous Products and Products Produced Thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-08-04

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

  3. Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-08-04

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame. 1 fig.

  4. Hard Driving and Efficiency: iron production in 1890

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berck, Peter

    1977-01-01

    hard driving or the Solvay process--was rational for British2) neglect of the Solvay process for producing soda was

  5. Analytical Expressions for the Hard-Scattering Production of Massive Partons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheuk-Yin Wong

    2015-10-16

    We obtain explicit expressions for the two-particle differential cross section and the two-particle angular correlation function in the hard-scattering production of massive partons in order to exhibit the ``ridge" structure on the away side in the hard-scattering process. The single-particle production cross section is also obtained and compared with the ALICE experimental data for charm production in pp collisions at 7 TeV at LHC.

  6. Method for Developing Descriptions of Hard-to-Price Products: Results of the Telecommunications Product Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, F.; Tonn, B.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study to test a new method for developing descriptions of hard-to-price products. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (CPI). BLS accomplishes this task by sending field staff to places of business to price actual products. The field staff are given product checklists to help them determine whether products found today are comparable to products priced the previous month. Prices for non-comparable products are not included in the current month's price index calculations. A serious problem facing BLS is developing product checklists for dynamic product areas, new industries, and the service sector. It is difficult to keep checklists up-to-date and quite often simply to develop checklists for service industry products. Some people estimates that upwards of 50 % of US economic activity is not accounted for in the CPI

  7. Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Production and calibration of the first HEFT hard X-ray optics module Jason E. Koglina* , C. M California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA c Danish Space Research Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark d Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT), a balloon born mission that will observe a wide range of objects

  8. Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-05-21

    We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC).

  9. Process for casting hard-faced, lightweight camshafts and other cylindrical products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); Argetsinger, Edward R. (Albany, OR); Wilson, Rick D. (Corvallis, OR)

    1996-01-01

    A process for casting a hard-faced cylindrical product such as an automobile camshaft includes the steps of: (a) preparing a composition formed from a molten base metal and an additive in particle form and having a hardness value greater than the hardness value of the base metal; (b) introducing the composition into a flask containing a meltable pattern of a cylindrical product such as an automobile camshaft to be manufactured and encased in sand to allow the composition to melt the pattern and assume the shape of the pattern within the sand; and (c) rotating the flask containing the pattern about the longitudinal axes of both the flask and the pattern as the molten base metal containing the additive in particle form is introduced into the flask to cause particles of the additive entrained in the molten base metal to migrate by centrifugal action to the radial extremities of the pattern and thereby provide a cylindrical product having a hardness value greater at it's radial extremities than at its center when the molten base metal solidifies.

  10. Canada's natural resources industries (particularly oil sands production, hard rock mining and forestry) face local challenges and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen-Zvi, Michal

    Canada's natural resources industries (particularly oil sands production, hard rock mining and society. For example, oil sands production is pushing innovation in how and where oil can be produced costs, predict maintenance issues and increase safety and environmental performance. As oil sands

  11. Energy production rates in fluid mixtures of inelastic rough hard spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrés Santos; Gilberto M. Kremer; Vicente Garzó

    2010-07-16

    The aim of this work is to explore the combined effect of polydispersity and roughness on the partial energy production rates and on the total cooling rate of a granular fluid mixture. We consider a mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres of different number densities, masses, diameters, moments of inertia, and mutual coefficients of normal and tangential restitution. Starting from the first equation of the BBGKY hierarchy, the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational temperatures ($T_i^\\text{tr}$ and $T_i^\\text{rot}$) are expressed in terms of two-body average values. Next, those average values are estimated by assuming a velocity distribution function based on maximum-entropy arguments, allowing us to express the energy production rates and the total cooling rate in terms of the partial temperatures and the parameters of the mixture. Finally, the results are applied to the homogeneous cooling state of a binary mixture and the influence of inelasticity and roughness on the temperature ratios $T_1^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{rot}$, $T_2^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{tr}$, and $T_2^\\text{rot}/T_1^\\text{rot}$ is analyzed.

  12. Magnetically-Dominated Accretion Flows (MDAFs) and Jet Production in the Low/Hard STate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Meier

    2005-04-22

    In this paper I propose that the inner part of a black hole accretion inflow ($< 100 r_{g}$) may enter a magnetically-dominated, magnetosphere-like phase in which the strong, well-ordered fields play a more important role than weak, turbulent fields. In the low/hard state this flow is interior to the standard ADAF usually invoked to explain the observed hot, optically thin emission. Preliminary solutions for these new MDAFs are presented. Time-dependent X-ray and radio observations give considerable insight into these processes, and a new interpretation of the X-ray power spectrum (as arising from many disk radii) may be in order. While an evaporative ADAF model explains the noise power above 0.01 Hz, an inner MDAF is needed to explain the high frequency cutoff near 1 Hz, the presence of a QPO, and the production of a jet. The MDAF scenario also is consistent with the data-based, phemonenological models presented at this meeting by several authors.

  13. Heavy Quark Production at HERA as a Probe of Hard QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Shehzadi

    2009-03-31

    The study of heavy flavor production is a central topic of research at HERA and is an important testing ground for perturbative QCD. A selection of results for charm and beauty production in gamma p, using different experimental techniques and compared to different theoretical predictions, obtained by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations will be presented.

  14. Singular values for products of complex Ginibre matrices with a source: hard edge limit and phase transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter J. Forrester; Dang-Zheng Liu

    2015-03-27

    The singular values squared of the random matrix product $Y = G_r G_{r-1} \\cdots G_1 (G_0 + A)$, where each $G_j$ is a rectangular standard complex Gaussian matrix while $A$ is non-random, are shown to be a determinantal point process with correlation kernel given by a double contour integral. When all but finitely many eigenvalues of $A^*A$ are equal to $bN$, the corresponding correlation kernel is shown to admit a well-defined hard edge scaling, in which a critical value is established and a phase transition phenomenon is observed. More specifically, the limiting kernel in the subcritical regime of $0critical regime of $b=1$ allows for a double scaling limit by choosing $b =(1 - \\tau/\\sqrt{N})^{-1}$, and for this the critical kernel and outlier phenomenon are established, while a distribution corresponding to a finite product is proven to be the scaling limit in the supercritical regime of $b>1$ with two distinct scaling rates. In the simplest case $r=0$, which is closely related to non-intersecting squared Bessel paths, the latter gives rise to the finite LUE distribution. Similar results also hold true for the random matrix product $T_r T_{r-1} \\cdots T_1 (G_0 + A)$, with each $T_j$ being a truncated unitary matrix.

  15. NMRI methods for characterizing fluid flow in porous media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Xiaoli

    1997-01-01

    Many important processes such as petroleum production and catalytic chemical reactions involve the flow of fluids through porous media. The measurement of localized velocity can provide information about how fluid is transported in porous media...

  16. Fabrication and characterization of porous shape memory alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penrod, Luke Edward

    2004-09-30

    This work details an investigation into the production of porous shape memory alloys (SMAs) via hot isostatic press (HIP) from prealloyed powders. HIPing is one of three main methods for producing porous SMAs, the other two are conventional...

  17. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF POROUS MEDIA TO GAS-WETTING FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY AND INJECTIVITY IN GAS-LIQUID FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2003-12-01

    Wettability alteration to intermediate gas-wetting in porous media by treatment with FC-759, a fluoropolymer polymer, has been studied experimentally. Berea sandstone was used as the main rock sample in our work and its wettability before and after chemical treatment was studied at various temperatures from 25 to 93 C. We also studied recovery performance for both gas/oil and oil/water systems for Berea sandstone before and after wettability alteration by chemical treatment. Our experimental study shows that chemical treatment with FC-759 can result in: (1) wettability alteration from strong liquid-wetting to stable intermediate gas-wetting at room temperature and at elevated temperatures; (2) neutral wetting for gas, oil, and water phases in two-phase flow; (3) significant increase in oil mobility for gas/oil system; and (4) improved recovery behavior for both gas/oil and oil/water systems. This work reveals a potential for field application for improved gas-well deliverability and well injectivity by altering the rock wettability around wellbore in gas condensate reservoirs from strong liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting.

  18. Microjet formation and hard x-ray production from a liquid metal target irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lar'kin, A. Uryupina, D.; Ivanov, K.; Savel'ev, A.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Spohr, K.; Breil, J.; Chimier, B.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Leguay, P.-M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2014-09-15

    By using a liquid metal as a target one may significantly enhance the yield of hard x-rays with a sequence of two intense femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the time delay between the two pulses is studied experimentally and interpreted with numerical simulations. It was suggested that the first arbitrary weak pulse produces microjets from the target surface, while the second intense pulse provides an efficient electron heating and acceleration along the jet surface. These energetic electrons are the source of x-ray emission while striking the target surface. The microjet formation is explained based on the results given by both optical diagnostics and hydrodynamic modeling by a collision of shocks originated from two distinct zones of laser energy deposition.

  19. Tailored Porous Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

    1999-11-09

    Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

  20. Measurement of the dependence of transverse energy production at large rapidity on the hard scattering kinematics of proton–proton collisions at ?s = 2.76 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of hard processes in proton-lead (pPb) collisions provide the means to char- acterize the partonic structure of large nuclei. In centrality-selected pPb events, hard process rates probe the interplay between hard and soft processes, give insight into the geometric de- scription of these collisions, and may even reveal novel features of the proton wavefunction. We present measurements of jet production in 5.02 TeV pPb and 2.76 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The nuclear modification factor RpPb is presented for jets over broad rapidity (?2.1 energy of the jet, implying a dependence on the underlying parton-parton kinematics. A new control measurement of the hard scatter- ing kinematics-dependence of the mean transverse energy at large ra...

  1. Comparison of hard x-ray production from various targets in air using a short pulse kHz laser with photon production from a high power multifilament laser beam from the same targets in air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledingham, K W D; McCanny, T; Melone, J J; Spohr, K; Schramm, U; Kraft, S D; Wagner, A; Jochmann, A

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been much interest in the production of hard X-rays from various targets using a kHz short pulse laser at intensities above 1014Wcm-2 (A). Most of these studies have been carried out in vacuum and very many fewer studies have been carried out in air. Recently this lack has been partially addressed with the development of femtosecond laser micromachining. Another similar although apparently unconnected field (B) deals with the channelling of high power laser beam in filaments after passage through long distances in air. This has been largely driven by the construction of a mobile terawatt laser beam (Teramobile) for atmospheric studies. The laser beams in these two cases (A and B) have very different pulse energies (mJ against J) although the filaments in (B) have similar energies to (A) and are clamped at intensities less than 1014 Wcm-2. This paper has been written to compare the production of hard X-rays in these two cases. The conclusion is interesting that a focused sub T...

  2. Hard physics in PHENIX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Peressounko; for the PHENIX collaboration

    2005-12-08

    We review recent results on hard observables in p+p, d+A and A+A collisions obtained by the PHENIX experiment. Emphasis is put on those measurements that provide insight into the properties of hot QCD media expected to be created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC energies. Direct photon spectra, jet properties and heavy quarks production measured in p+p and d+Au collisions are compared to the same observables extracted in heavy ion collisions to find modifications due to the presence of hot QCD matter.

  3. Ventilation of porous media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neeper, D.A.

    1994-02-22

    Methods are presented for distributing gases throughout the interstices of porous materials and removing volatile substances from the interstices of porous materials. Continuous oscillation of pressures and flows results in increased penetration of the interstices by flowing gases and increased transport of gaseous components out of the interstices. The invention is particularly useful in soil vapor extraction. 10 figures.

  4. Ventilation of porous media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neeper, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Methods for distributing gases throughout the interstices of porous materials and removing volatile substances from the interstices of porous materials. Continuous oscillation of pressures and flows results in increased penetration of the interstices by flowing gases and increased transport of gaseous components out of the interstices. The invention is particularly useful in soil vapor extraction.

  5. Parameter Estimates for High-Level Nuclear Transport in Fractured Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Jr., Jim

    for the transport of a chain of radioactive waste products in certain fractured porous media. The formulation begins of radioactive waste prod- ucts in certain fractured porous media. The model is intended to be a reason- ablyParameter Estimates for High-Level Nuclear Transport in Fractured Porous Media Jim Douglas, Jr. #3

  6. Hard Probes 2012: Experimental Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Schukraft

    2012-10-17

    The 5th international Conference on Hard and Electromagnetic Probes in High-Energy Nuclear Collisions was held in May 2012 in Cagliari, Italy. This contribution summarises some of the experimental highlights presented at the meeting, concentrating on new results from LHC and RHIC on parton energy loss ('jet-quenching') and heavy quark meson production ('quarkonia suppression').

  7. Method for preparation of thermally and mechanically stable metal/porous substrate composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damle, Ashok S.

    2004-07-13

    A method is provided for the preparation of metal/porous substrate composite membranes by flowing a solution of metal to be plated over a first surface of a porous substrate and concurrently applying a pressure of gas on a second surface of the porous substrate, such that the porous substrate separates the solution of metal from the gas, and the use of the resulting membrane for the production of highly purified hydrogen gas.

  8. Preparation of asymmetric porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coker, Eric N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-08-07

    A method for preparing an asymmetric porous material by depositing a porous material film on a flexible substrate, and applying an anisotropic stress to the porous media on the flexible substrate, where the anisotropic stress results from a stress such as an applied mechanical force, a thermal gradient, and an applied voltage, to form an asymmetric porous material.

  9. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

  10. Measurement of the dependence of transverse energy production at large pseudorapidity on the hard scattering kinematics of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}= 2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between jet production in the central region and the underlying event activity in a pseudorapidity separated region is studied in 4.0 pb$^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76 TeV $pp$ events recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The hard scattering is characterised by the average transverse momentum and pseudorapidity of the two highest transverse momentum jets in the event. It is also presented as a function of the scaled longitudinal momenta of the hard-scattered partons in the target and projectile beam-protons Transverse energy production at large pseudorapidity is observed to vary strongly with the longitudinal momentum fraction in the target proton and only weakly with that in the projectile proton.

  11. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Adam F. (Los Angeles, CA); Vajo, John J. (West Hills, CA); Cumberland, Robert W. (Malibu, CA); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Salguero, Tina T. (Encino, CA)

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  12. Measurement of the dependence of transverse energy production at large pseudorapidity on the hard-scattering kinematics of proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV with ATLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between jet production in the central region and the underlying-event activity in a pseudorapidity-separated region is studied in $4.0$ pb$^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV $pp$ collision data recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The underlying event is characterised through measurements of the average value of the sum of the transverse energy at large pseudorapidity downstream of one of the protons, which are reported here as a function of hard-scattering kinematic variables. The hard scattering is characterised by the average transverse momentum and pseudorapidity of the two highest transverse momentum jets in the event. The dijet kinematics are used to estimate, on an event-by-event basis, the scaled longitudinal momenta of the hard-scattered partons in the target and projectile beam-protons moving toward and away from the region measuring transverse energy, respectively. Transverse energy production at large pseudorapidity is observed to decrease with a linear dependence on the long...

  13. Porous material neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diawara, Yacouba (Oak Ridge, TN); Kocsis, Menyhert (Venon, FR)

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

  14. Porous metallic bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1984-03-13

    Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a

  15. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  16. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  17. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arons, Richard M. (Wheaton, IL); Dusek, Joseph T. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  18. Porous polymer media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Highly crosslinked monolithic porous polymer materials for chromatographic applications. By using solvent compositions that provide not only for polymerization of acrylate monomers in such a fashion that a porous polymer network is formed prior to phase separation but also for exchanging the polymerization solvent for a running buffer using electroosmotic flow, the need for high pressure purging is eliminated. The polymer materials have been shown to be an effective capillary electrochromatographic separations medium at lower field strengths than conventional polymer media. Further, because of their highly crosslinked nature these polymer materials are structurally stable in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents and over a pH range of 2-12.

  19. Innovation incentives and competition in the hard disk drive industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xiaohua Sherry

    2011-01-01

    Firms in the hard disk drive industry are continually engaging in R & D and improving the quality of their products. We explore various determinants of the product innovation incentives for firms concerned with both their ...

  20. FLOW-THROUGH POROUS ELECTRODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trainham, III, James Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Wilhelm. HBoundary conditions of a flow reactor. 1i Chemicala Packed-Bed Electrochemical Flow Reactor." Journal ofRichard, and Brian Gracon. "Flow-Through Porous Electrodes."

  1. Fabrication of porous silicon membranes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yue, Wing Kong

    1988-01-01

    . Porous silicon layer is formed by the local dissolution which is initiated by the surface layer and is promoted by the hindrance layers composed of the silicic acid. Local etching or local dissolution is the cause of forming porous structure... of pores were 25 to 45 A with a mean value of 38 A. Microstructure of porous silicon studied by Besle et al. showed two distinct 17 patterns: the structure pattern of porous silicon film on heavily doped silicon and that on slightly doped silicon [26...

  2. FLOW-THROUGH POROUS ELECTRODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trainham, III, James Arthur

    2011-01-01

    configurations for flow redox battery applications: (i) theporous electrodes A flow-redox battery using flow-by poroustrue in battery applications, Flow..through porous

  3. Rigid porous filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas L. (Morgantown, WV); Dennis, Richard A. (Morgantown, WV)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  4. Plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using porous nickel plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oohara, W.; Maeda, T.; Higuchi, T.

    2011-09-15

    Hydrogen atomic pair ions, i.e., H{sup +} and H{sup -} ions, are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a porous nickel plate. Positive ions in a hydrogen plasma generated by dc arc discharge are irradiated to the porous plate, and pair ions are produced from the back of the irradiation plane. It becomes clear that the production quantity of pair ions mainly depends on the irradiation current of positive ions and the irradiation energy affects the production efficiency of H{sup -} ions.

  5. Influence of deposition parameters on the closed porous structure of magnetron sputtered amorphous silicon coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    silicon coatings J. Caballero-Hernández1 , R. Schierholz 1 , V. Godinho1 , M. Duchamp2 , R. Dunin approach for the production of amorphous porous silicon coatings with closed porosity by He driven and it allows preparing porous silicon coatings with tailored refractive index and over a wide range

  6. Pyrolysis in Porous Media: Part 2.1 Numerical Analysis and Comparison to Experiments.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , France17 Only limited studies are available experimentally to investigate18 hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis a better5 analysis of the fuel pyrolysis and of the products' formation.6 Keywords: Porous flow; Fuel of the fluid / solid (kg.m-3 )23 hal-00868587,version1-2Oct2013 #12;3/40 I. Introduction1 Studying porous flow

  7. BOOKSHELF Hard Disk Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benmei, Chen

    » BOOKSHELF Hard Disk Drive Servo Systems, 2nd edition by B.M. CHEN, T.H. LEE, K. PENG, and V at Seagate Research working on spinstand microactuator integration, and I continued to work at Sea- gate part 15% of track pitch 3 , leads to fundamental challenges in position detection, while pushing band

  8. Porous substrates filled with nanomaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael

    2014-08-19

    A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A porous substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the porous substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the porous substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.

  9. The Approximation of Nuclear Contaminant Transport in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Jr., Jim

    of a chain of radioactive waste products and to present the results of some typical simulationsThe Approximation of Nuclear Contaminant Transport in Porous Media Jim Douglas, Jr. #3; Chieh;ective and eÆcient numerical method for approximating the solution of equations that govern the transport

  10. Porous light-emitting compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, Thomas Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Bauer, Eve (Los Alamos, NM); Mueller, Alexander H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-04-17

    Light-emitting devices are prepared by coating a porous substrate using a polymer-assisted deposition process. Solutions of metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for metal precursor were coated onto porous substrates. The coated substrates were heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere. The result was a substrate with a conformal coating that did not substantially block the pores of the substrate.

  11. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  12. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  13. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 12, PAGES 1759-1762, JUNE 15, 2000 Mean Flow in Composite Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    - ical units. Deriving constant mean conductivity K from available hard data (measurements of K at points probabilities and statistics for the parameters of Darcy flows through saturated porous media composed of units this two-scaled model, we derive general formulae for the prob- ability distribution of hydraulic

  14. Formation of porous gas hydrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salamatin, Andrey N

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrates grown at gas-ice interfaces are examined by electron microscopy and found to have a submicron porous texture. Permeability of the intervening hydrate layers provides the connection between the two counterparts (gas and water molecules) of the clathration reaction and makes further hydrate formation possible. The study is focused on phenomenological description of principal stages and rate-limiting processes that control the kinetics of the porous gas hydrate crystal growth from ice powders. Although the detailed physical mechanisms involved in the porous hydrate formation still are not fully understood, the initial stage of hydrate film spreading over the ice surface should be distinguished from the subsequent stage which is presumably limited by the clathration reaction at the ice-hydrate interface and develops after the ice grain coating is finished. The model reveals a time dependence of the reaction degree essentially different from that when the rate-limiting step of the hydrate formation at...

  15. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sturcken, Edward F. (P.O. Box 900, Isle of Palms, SC 29451)

    1992-01-01

    A method for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF.sub.4 and HNO.sub.3 and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200.degree. C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

  16. Process of preparing tritiated porous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, S.W.

    1997-02-18

    A process of preparing tritiated porous silicon is described in which porous silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T{sub 2} gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the porous silicon. 1 fig.

  17. Hard (State) Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John A. Tomsick

    2008-12-16

    For microquasars, the one time when these systems exhibit steady and powerful jets is when they are in the hard state. Thus, our understanding of this state is key to learning about the disk/jet connection. Recent observational and theoretical results have led to questions about whether we really understand the physical properties of this state, and even our basic picture of this state is uncertain. Here, I discuss some of the recent developments and possible problems with our understanding of this state. Overall, it appears that the strongest challenge to the standard truncated disk picture is the detection of broad iron features in the X-ray spectra, and it seems that either there is a problem with the truncated disk picture or there is a problem with the relativistic reflection models used to explain the broad iron features.

  18. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from porous materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  19. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1992-10-13

    A method is described for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF[sub 4] and HNO[sub 3] and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200 C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

  20. Porous-electrode preparation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1981-09-17

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  1. Exchange-spring mechanism of soft and hard ferrite nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manjura Hoque, S.; Srivastava, C.; Kumar, V.; Venkatesh, N.; Das, H.N.; Saha, D.K.; Chattopadhyay, K.

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Exchange-spring behaviour of soft and hard ferrites was studied. • XRD patterns indicated soft and hard ferrites as fcc and hcp structure. • Hysteresis loops indicate wide difference in coercivity of soft and hard phases. • Nanocomposites produced convex hysteresis loop characteristic of single-phase. - Abstract: The paper reports exchange-spring soft and hard ferrite nanocomposites synthesized by chemical co-precipitation with or without the application of ultrasonic vibration. The composites contained BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} as the hard phase and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the soft phase. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples in the optimum calcined condition indicated the presence of soft ferrites as face-centred cubic (fcc) and hard ferrites as hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure respectively. Temperature dependence of magnetization in the range of 20–700 °C demonstrated distinct presence of soft and hard ferrites as magnetic phases which are characterized by wide difference in magnetic anisotropy and coercivity. Exchange-spring mechanism led these nanocomposite systems to exchange-coupled, which ultimately produced convex hysteresis loops characteristic of a single-phase permanent magnet. Fairly high value of coercivity and maximum energy product were observed for the samples in the optimum calcined conditions with a maximum applied field of 1600 kA/m (2 T)

  2. Acknowledgments Hard and Thermal Photon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acknowledgments Hard and Thermal Photon Absorption in a QGP Eric Palmerduca 1,2 Advisor: Dr. Rainer Fries 2 1 Colgate University 2 Cyclotron Institute, Department of Physics and...

  3. Gas sensor incorporating a porous framework

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M; Czaja, Alexander U; Wang, Bo; Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L; Furukawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure provides sensor for gas sensing including CO.sub.2 gas sensors comprising a porous framework sensing area for binding an analyte gas.

  4. Gas sensor incorporating a porous framework

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Czaja, Alexander U.; Wang, Bo; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L.

    2013-07-09

    The disclosure provides sensor for gas sensing including CO.sub.2 gas sensors comprising a porous framework sensing area for binding an analyte gas.

  5. Porous ceramic scaffolds with complex architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munch, Etienne

    2008-01-01

    2002, “Novel Hydroxyapatite Ceramics with an InterconnectiveTricalcium Phosphate Ceramics,” Biomaterials, 19, pp. 2147-2004, “Development of Porous Ceramics with Well-Controlled

  6. Porous and porous-nonporous composites for battery electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herscovici, C.

    1990-04-24

    This patent describes a zinc-bromide electrochemical cell. It comprises: a cathode element comprising a pressure-molded porous composite comprising electrically conductive particulate carbon selected from the group consisting of carbon black, graphite and mixtures thereof having a particle size distribution of 0 to 45 {mu}m and a thermoplastic resin, the carbon and the resin being in a weight ratio from about 1:5 to 1:1; the composite characterized by 80--95% porosity by volume and a pore size diameter distribution from about 5 microns to about 200 microns.

  7. Ceramic porous material and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Kim, Anthony Y. (Kennewick, WA); Virden, Jud W. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a mesoporous ceramic membrane having substantially uniform pore size. Additionally, the invention includes aqueous and non-aqueous processing routes to making the mesoporous ceramic membranes. According to one aspect of the present invention, inserting a substrate into a reaction chamber at pressure results in reaction products collecting on the substrate and forming a membrane thereon. According to another aspect of the present invention, a second aqueous solution that is sufficiently immiscible in the aqueous solution provides an interface between the two solutions whereon the mesoporous membrane is formed. According to a further aspect of the present invention, a porous substrate is placed at the interface between the two solutions permitting formation of a membrane on the surface or within the pores of the porous substrate. According to yet another aspect of the present invention, mesoporous ceramic materials are formed using a non-aqueous solvent and water-sensitive precursors.

  8. Ceramic porous material and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Kim, A.Y.; Virden, J.W.

    1997-07-08

    The invention is a mesoporous ceramic membrane having substantially uniform pore size. Additionally, the invention includes aqueous and non-aqueous processing routes to making the mesoporous ceramic membranes. According to one aspect of the present invention, inserting a substrate into a reaction chamber at pressure results in reaction products collecting on the substrate and forming a membrane thereon. According to another aspect of the present invention, a second aqueous solution that is sufficiently immiscible in the aqueous solution provides an interface between the two solutions whereon the mesoporous membrane is formed. According to a further aspect of the present invention, a porous substrate is placed at the interface between the two solutions permitting formation of a membrane on the surface or within the pores of the porous substrate. According to yet another aspect of the present invention, mesoporous ceramic materials are formed using a non-aqueous solvent and water-sensitive precursors. 21 figs.

  9. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Microfluidic...

  10. ZnO/porous-Si and TiO{sub 2}/porous-Si nanocomposite nanopillars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dong, E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Yan, Yong; Schaaf, Peter [Chair Materials for Electronics, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, TU Ilmenau, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Sharp, Thomas [Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology Ltd., Yatton, Bristol BS49 4AP (United Kingdom); Schönherr, Sven; Ronning, Carsten [Institute for Solid State Physics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Ji, Ran [SUSS MicroTec Lithography GmbH, Schleissheimer Str. 90, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Porous Si nanopillar arrays are used as templates for atomic layer deposition of ZnO and TiO{sub 2}, and thus, ZnO/porous-Si and TiO{sub 2}/porous-Si nanocomposite nanopillars are fabricated. The diffusion of the precursor molecules into the inside of the porous structure occurs via Knudsen diffusion and is strongly limited by the small pore size. The luminescence of the ZnO/porous-Si nanocomposite nanopillars is also investigated, and the optical emission can be changed and even quenched after a strong plasma treatment. Such nanocomposite nanopillars are interesting for photocatalysis and sensors.

  11. Porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jinxue; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xiao Chen, Haoxin

    2014-05-01

    In this manuscript, porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are prepared through a two-step approach which is composed of hydrothermal process and heating treatment as high performance anode for lithium-ion battery. Benefiting from the porous structure and 1-dimensional features, the product becomes robust and exhibits high reversible capability, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. - Graphical abstract: 1D porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • A two-step route has been applied to prepare 1D porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure. • Its porous feature facilitates the fast transport of electron and lithium ion. • Its porous structure endows it with capacities higher than its theoretical capacity. • 1D nanostructure can tolerate volume changes during lithation/delithiation cycles. • It exhibits high capacity, good cyclability and excellent rate performance.

  12. MATERIALS CHARACTERISATION Material properties such as strength, toughness or hardness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    factors. This paper presents an experimental evidence that hardness of rolled martensitic steel can of steel products, can be indirectly inferred from the ultrasonic measurements using theoretical in structures made of D6ac steel was used. Their method was based on the velocity measurement of surface waves

  13. The effect of the packing density on the indentation hardness of cohesive-frictional porous materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cariou, Sophie, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Natural composites in general and sedimentary rocks in particular are highly heterogeneous materials which defy a straightforward implementation of the materials science paradigm of microstructure-properties-performance ...

  14. Method for forming gold-containing catalyst with porous structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, Juergen; Hamza, Alex V; Baeumer, Marcus; Schulz, Christian; Jurgens, Birte; Biener, Monika M.

    2014-07-22

    A method for forming a gold-containing catalyst with porous structure according to one embodiment of the present invention includes producing a starting alloy by melting together of gold and at least one less noble metal that is selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, rhodium, palladium, and platinum; and a dealloying step comprising at least partial removal of the less noble metal by dissolving the at least one less noble metal out of the starting alloy. Additional methods and products thereof are also presented.

  15. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Morris S. (Richland, WA); Schuster, George J. (Kennewick, WA); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

  16. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, M.S.; Schuster, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1997-07-08

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part. 12 figs.

  17. Multiphase flow in fractured porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firoozabadi, A.

    1995-02-01

    The major goal of this research project was to improve the understanding of the gas-oil two-phase flow in fractured porous media. In addition, miscible displacement was studied to evaluate its promise for enhanced recovery.

  18. Anomalous transport through porous and fractured media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Peter Kyungchul

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous transport, understood as the nonlinear scaling with time of the mean square displacement of transported particles, is observed in many physical processes, including contaminant transport through porous and fractured ...

  19. Charge Transfer Reactions in Porous Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell-Koch, Katie Rose

    2008-08-15

    Porous materials, such as sol-gels and zeolites, contain nanometer-scale spaces in which molecules are confined, leading to significant changes in their chemical dynamics. In this dissertation, the effects of confinement on chemical behavior...

  20. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindroth, David P. (Apple Valley, MN); Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN); Blair, James R. (Inver Grove Heights, MN)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  1. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

    1980-01-21

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  2. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, Moshe (Haifa, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Sheft, Irving (Oak Park, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  3. Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing

    2013-04-02

    A porous polymer, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene and its derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 are prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

  4. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  5. Hard Scattering Studies at Jlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harutyun Avagyan; Peter Bosted; Volker Burkert; Latifa Elouadrhiri

    2005-09-01

    We present current activities and future prospects for studies of hard scattering processes using the CLAS detector and the CEBAF polarized electron beam. Kinematic dependences of single and double spin asymmetries have been measured in a wide kinematic range at CLAS with a polarized NH{sub 3} and unpolarized liquid hydrogen targets. It has been shown that the data are consistent with factorization and observed target and beam asymmetries are in good agreement with measurements performed at higher energies, suggesting that the high energy-description of the semi-inclusive DIS process can be extended to the moderate energies of JLab measurements.

  6. Generalization of the van der Waals equation for anisotropic fluids in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myroslav Holovko; Volodymyr Shmotolokha

    2015-09-01

    The generalized van der Waals equation of state for anisotropic liquids in porous media consists of two terms.One of them is based on the equation of state for hard spherocylinders in random porous media obtained from the scaled particle theory.The second term is expressed in terms of the mean value of attractive intermolecular interactions.The obtained equation is used for the investigation of the gas-liquid-nematic phase behavior of a molecular system depending on the anisotropy of molecule shapes, anisotropy of attractive intermolecular interactions, and porosity of a porous medium.It is shown that the anisotropic phase is formed by the anisotropy of attractive intermolecular interactions and by the anisotropy of molecular shapes.The anisotropy of molecular shapes shifts the phase diagram to lower densities and higher temperatures.The anisotropy of attractive interactions widens significantly the coexistence region between the isotropic and anisotropic phases and shifts it to the region of lower densities and higher temperatures.It is shown that, for sufficiently long spherocylinders, the liquid-gas transition is localized completely within the nematic region.For all the considered cases, the decrease of the porosity shifts the phase diagram to the region of lower densities and lower temperatures.

  7. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  8. Characterization of porous carbon fibers and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-07-15

    This program was geared to support the Fossil Energy Material Sciences Program with respect to several areas of interest in efficient production and utilization of energy. Carbon molecular sieves have great potential for economically purifying gases; i.e. removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas without having to resort to cryogenic techniques. Microporous carbons can be tailored to serve as adsorbents for natural gas in on-board storage in automotive applications, avoiding high pressures and heavy storage tanks. This program is a laboratory study to evaluate production methodologies and activation processes to produce porous carbons for specific applications. The Carbon Materials Technology Group of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is engaged in developmental programs to produce activated carbon fibers (ACF) for applications in fixed beds and/or flowing reactors engineering applications.

  9. Virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Joe

    Virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media Subir for virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media is presented. The model involves solution of the advection­dispersion equation, which additionally considers virus

  10. Hard-gapped Holographic Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pallab Basu; Jianyang He; Anindya Mukherjee; Hsien-Hang Shieh

    2009-12-05

    In this work we discuss the zero temperature limit of a "p-wave" holographic superconductor. The bulk description consists of a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge fields minimally coupled to gravity. We numerically construct the zero temperature solution which is the gravity dual of the superconducting ground state of the "p-wave" holographic superconductors. The solution is a smooth soliton with zero horizon size and shows an emergent conformal symmetry in the IR. We found the expected superconducting behavior. Using the near horizon analysis we show that the system has a "hard gap" for the relevant gauge field fluctuations. At zero temperature the real part of the conductivity is zero for an excitation frequency less than the gap frequency. This is in contrast with what has been observed in similar scalar- gravity-gauge systems (holographic superconductors). We also discuss the low but finite temperature behavior of our solution.

  11. Porous ceramic scaffolds with complex architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saiz, Eduardo; Munch, Etienne; Franco, Jaime; Deville, Sylvain; Hunger, Phillip; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2008-03-15

    This work compares two novel techniques for the fabrication of ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with complex porosity: robocasting and freeze casting. Both techniques are based on the preparation of concentrated ceramic suspensions with suitable properties for the process. In robocasting, the computer-guided deposition of the suspensions is used to build porous materials with designed three dimensional (3-D) geometries and microstructures. Freeze casting uses ice crystals as a template to form porous lamellar ceramic materials. Preliminary results on the compressive strengths of the materials are also reported.

  12. Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Luping (Hoffman Estates, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yuan, Shengwen (Chicago, IL); Yang, Junbing (Westmont, IL)

    2011-12-13

    Porous polymers, tribenzohexazatriphenylene, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene, poly-tetraphenyl methane and their derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

  13. Bounds on Transport Coefficients of Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J G

    2005-03-21

    An analytical formulation of conductivity bounds by Bergman and Milton is used in a different way to obtain rigorous bounds on the real transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and/or fluid permeability) of a fluid-saturated porous medium. These bounds do not depend explicitly on the porosity, but rather on two formation factors--one associated with the pore space and the other with the solid frame. Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for transport in random polycrystals of porous-material laminates will also be discussed.

  14. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01

    Igari, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version56326 High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells Finalprototype high efficiency multijunction (MJ) solar cells use

  15. Rich n-heptane and diesel combustion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pastore, A.; Mastorakos, E. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Rich n-heptane and diesel flames in two-layer porous media are experimentally investigated in the context of syngas production. The stable operating points of n-heptane reforming have been determined and the mole fractions of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and light hydrocarbons have been measured in the exhaust gas at an equivalence ratio of 2 for different thermal input values. The reformer performance has been assessed also from the point of view of the heat losses and the mixture homogeneity. The pre-vapouriser produces an approximately uniform vapour-air mixture upstream of the flame front. The range of flow rates for stable flames decreased with increasing equivalence ratio. Heat losses were about 10% of the thermal input at high firing rates. A 77.2% of the equilibrium H{sub 2} was achieved at a flame speed of 0.82 m/s. The same reactor with a different porous matrix for the reforming stage demonstrates diesel reforming to syngas with a conversion efficiency of 77.3% for a flame speed of 0.65 m/s. (author)

  16. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics in porous media : battery degradation, and sorption and transport in porous materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinson, Matthew Bede

    2015-01-01

    Porous media offer many interesting problems in physics and engineering due to the interaction of phase transitions, surface effects and transport. In this thesis I examine two such problems: the degradation of lithium-ion ...

  17. Zein Recovery Using Non-Porous Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mairal, Anurag P. (Fremont, CA); Ng, Alvin (Palo Alto, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2005-01-25

    A membrane process for treating zein solutions to increase the zein concentration in the solution. The process uses a non-porous membrane that preferentially permeates the solvent and rejects the zein. Optionally, the process can be operated as a diafiltration process to yield a concentrate of high zein purity.

  18. Tensile & shear strength of porous dust agglomerates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Seizinger; Roland Speith; Wilhelm Kley

    2013-08-23

    Context.Within the sequential accretion scenario of planet formation, planets are build up through a sequence sticking collisions. The outcome of collisions between porous dust aggregates is very important for the growth from very small dust particles to planetesimals. In this work we determine the necessary material properties of dust aggregates as a function the porosity. Aims: Continuum models such as SPH that are capable of simulating collisions of macroscopic dust aggregates require a set of material parameters. Some of them such as the tensile and shear strength are ?difficult to obtain from laboratory experiments. The aim of this work is to determine these parameters from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations. Methods: We simulate the behavior of porous dust aggregates using a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains that includes adhesion forces, rolling, twisting, and sliding. Using different methods of preparing the samples we study the strength behavior of our samples with varying porosity and coordination number of the material. Results: For the tensile strength, we can reproduce data from laboratory experiments very well. For the shear strength, there are no experimental data available. The results from our simulations differ significantly from previous theoretical models, which indicates that the latter might not be sufficient to describe porous dust aggregates. Conclusions: We have provided functional behavior of tensile and shear strength of porous dust aggregates as a function of the porosity that can be directly applied in continuum simulations of these objects in planet formation scenarios.

  19. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, Timothy W. (Tempe, AZ); Sathe, Sanjeev B. (Tempe, AZ); Peck, Robert E. (Tempe, AZ)

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  20. Dynamics of osmosis in a porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, Silvana S. S.; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.

    2014-11-12

    –395. (doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2010.12.006) 10. Revil A, Leroy P. 2004 Constitutive equations for ionic transport in porous shales. J. Geophys. Res. 109, B03208. (doi:10.1029/2003JB002755) 11. Leroy P, Revil A, Titov K. 2005 Characterization of transport...

  1. Stretchable, Porous, and Conductive Energy Liangbing Hu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    energy. We demonstrate the loading of pseudocapacitor materials into these conductive textiles that leads new design opportunities for wearable electronics and energy storage applications. KEYWORDS EnergyStretchable, Porous, and Conductive Energy Textiles Liangbing Hu, Mauro Pasta, Fabio La Mantia, Li

  2. Open-cell glass crystalline porous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anshits, Alexander G.; Sharonova, Olga M.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana A.; Zykova, Irina D.; Revenko, Yurii A.; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Aloy, Albert S.; Lubtsev, Rem I.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Tranter, Troy J.; Macheret, Yevgeny

    2003-12-23

    An open-cell glass crystalline porous material made from hollow microspheres which are cenospheres obtained from fly ash, having an open-cell porosity of up to 90 vol. % is produced. The cenospheres are separated into fractions based on one or more of grain size, density, magnetic or non-magnetic, and perforated or non-perforated. Selected fractions are molded and agglomerated by sintering with a binder at a temperature below the softening temperature, or without a binder at a temperature about, or above, the softening temperature but below the temperature of liquidity. The porous material produced has an apparent density of 0.3-0.6 g/cm.sup.3, a compressive strength in the range of 1.2-3.5 MPa, and two types of openings: through-flow wall pores in the cenospheres of 0.1-30 micrometers, and interglobular voids between the cenospheres of 20-100 micrometers. The porous material of the invention has properties useful as porous matrices for immobilization of liquid radioactive waste, heat-resistant traps and filters, supports for catalysts, adsorbents and ion-exchangers.

  3. Effective Thermoviscoelasticity of a Saturated Porous Ground

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fields of mechanics because of many reasons: for example [4, 15], the enhanced recovery of gas, oil and geothermally heated water depends upon flow in porous strata; underwater acoustics involves propa- gation are distinguished in analysis, i.e., description of the thermomechanical system is fulfilled using microscale

  4. Open-cell glass crystalline porous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Sharonova, Olga M. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana A. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Zykova, Irina D. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Revenko, Yurii A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Lubtsev, Rem I. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Macheret, Yevgeny (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    An open-cell glass crystalline porous material made from hollow microspheres which are cenospheres obtained from fly ash, having an open-cell porosity of up to 90 vol. % is produced. The cenospheres are separated into fractions based on one or more of grain size, density, magnetic or non-magnetic, and perforated or non-perforated. Selected fractions are molded and agglomerated by sintering with a binder at a temperature below the softening temperature, or without a binder at a temperature about, or above, the softening temperature but below the temperature of liquidity. The porous material produced has an apparent density of 0.3-0.6 g/cm.sup.3, a compressive strength in the range of 1.2-3.5 MPa, and two types of openings: through-flow wall pores in the cenospheres of 0.1-30 micrometers, and interglobular voids between the cenospheres of 20-100 micrometers. The porous material of the invention has properties useful as porous matrices for immobilization of liquid radioactive waste, heat-resistant traps and filters, supports for catalysts, adsorbents and ion-exchangers.

  5. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1989-07-18

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

  6. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prince, James M. (Kennewick, WA); Dodson, Michael G. (Richland, WA); Lechelt, Wayne M. (Benton City, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis.

  7. MAKING JAVA HARD REALTIME Peter Puschner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MAKING JAVA HARD REAL­TIME Peter Puschner Institut fË?ur Technische Informatik Technische Universit,andyg@cs.york.ac.uk ABSTRACT Due to its portability and security the Java program­ ming language has become very popular. Standard Java is however not suited for programming hard real­time sys­ tems. To overcome this limitation

  8. Revisit of interfacial free energy of the hard sphere system near hard wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mingcheng Yang; Hongru Ma

    2008-06-23

    We propose a simple Monte Carlo method to calculate the interfacial free energy between the substrate and the material. Using this method we investigate the interfacial free energys of the hard sphere fluid and solid phases near a smooth hard wall. According to the obtained interfacial free energys of the coexisting fluid and solid phases and the Young equation we are able to determine the contact angle with high accuracy, cos$\\theta$ = 1:010(31), which indicates that a smooth hard wall can be wetted completely by the hard sphere crystal at the interface between the wall and the hard sphere fluid.

  9. Design and Characterization of Porous Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels for in vitro and in vivo Non-Viral DNA Delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokatlian, Talar

    2012-01-01

    synthetic chitosan–gelatin porous structures. BiotechnologyIkada Y. Fabrication of porous gelatin scaffolds for tissueJacobs PJS, et al. Porous gelatin cryogels as cell delivery

  10. Direct synthesis of porous NiO nanowall arrays on conductive substrates for supercapacitor application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jianhui; Jiang, Jian; Liu, Jingping; Ding, Ruimin; Ding, Hao; Feng, Yamin; Wei, Guangming; Huang, Xintang

    2011-03-15

    Porous NiO nanowall arrays (NWAs) grown on flexible Fe-Co-Ni alloy have been successfully synthesized by using nullaginite (Ni{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) as precursor and investigated as supercapacitor electrodes. In details, we adopted a simple hydrothermal method to realize Ni{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} NWAs and examined their robust mechanical adhesion to substrate via a long-time ultrasonication test. Porous NiO NWAs were then obtained by a post-calcination towards precursors at 500 {sup o}C in nitrogen atmosphere. Electrochemical properties of as-synthesized NiO NWAs were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge; porous NiO NWAs electrode delivered a specific capacitance of 270 F/g (0.67 A/g); even at high current densities, the electrode could still deliver a high capacitance up to 236 F/g (13.35 A/g). Meanwhile, it exhibited excellent cycle lifetime with {approx}93% specific capacitance kept after 4000 cycles. These results suggest that as-made porous NiO NWAs electrode is a promising candidate for future thin-film supercapacitors and other microelectronic systems. -- Graphical abstract: Porous NiO nanowall arrays (NWAs) grown on alloy substrate have been made using nullaginite as precursor and studied as supercapacitor electrodes. Porous nanowalls interconnected with each other resulting in the formation of extended-network architectures and exhibited excellent capacitor properties. NiO NWAs electrode delivered a capacitance of 270 F/g (0.67 A/g); even at high current density, the electrode could still deliver a high capacitance up to 236 F/g (13.35 A/g). Besides, it exhibited excellent cycle lifetime with {approx}93% capacitance kept after 4000 cycles. These remarkable results made it possible for mass production of NiO NWAs and future thin-film microelectronic applications. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Large-scale nullaginite (Ni{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) nanowall arrays (NWAs) have been synthesized on flexible alloy substrate by a facile hydrothermal method. {yields} Ultrasonication test has been conducted to demonstrate the robust mechanical adhesion between NWAs and substrate. {yields} As supercapacitor electrodes porous NiO NWAs obtained by a post-calcination towards Ni{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} precursors have exhibited excellent electrochemical properties.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Can hard coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Can hard coatings and lubricant anti-wear additives work together? Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Can hard coatings and lubricant anti-wear additives work together?...

  12. Microstructural Characterization of Hard Ceramics Rohrer, G. S. (2014). Microstructural Characterization of Hard Ceramics. In V.K.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructural Characterization of Hard Ceramics Rohrer, G. S. (2014). Microstructural Characterization of Hard Ceramics. In V.K. Sarin (Editor-in-Chief) & L #12;Microstructural Characterization of Hard Ceramics p. 2 4. Summary

  13. In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for High Performance Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeon, Ju Won; Sharma, Ronish; Meduri, Praveen; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lutkenhaus, Jodie; Lemmon, John P.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; McGrail, B. Peter; Nune, Satish K.

    2014-05-28

    Electrochemical performance of the existing state-of-the art capacitors is not very high, key scientific barrier is that its charge storage mechanism wholly depends on adsorption of electrolyte on electrode. We present a novel method for the synthesis of nitrogen -doped porous carbons and address the drawback by precisely controlling composition and surface area. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon was synthesized using a self-sacrificial template technique without any additional nitrogen and carbon sources. They exhibited exceptionally high capacitance (239 Fg-1) due to additional pseudocapacitance originating from doped nitrogen. Cycling tests showed no obvious capacitance decay even after 10,000 cycles, which meets the requirement of commercial supercapacitors. Our method is simple and highly efficient for the production of large quantities of nitrogen-doped porous carbons.

  14. Thermal hard-photons probing multifragmentation in nuclear collisions around the Fermi energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. G. d'Enterria; G. Martínez

    2000-07-06

    Hard-photon (E$_{\\gamma} >$ 30 MeV) emission issuing from proton-neutron bremsstrahlung collisions is investigated in four different heavy-ion reactions at intermediate bombarding energies ($^{36}$Ar+$^{197}$Au, $^{107}$Ag, $^{58}$Ni, $^{12}$C at 60{\\it A} MeV) coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle multidetectors covering more than 80% of the solid angle. The hard-photon spectra of the three heavier targets result from the combination of two distinct exponential distributions with different slope parameters, a result which deviates from the behaviour expected for hard-photon production just in first-chance proton-neutron collisions. The thermal origin of the steeper bremsstrahlung component is confirmed by the characteristics of its slope and angular distribution. Such thermal hard-photons convey undisturbed information of the thermodynamical state of hot and excited nuclear systems undergoing multifragmentation.

  15. Gas impermeable glaze for sealing a porous ceramic surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Scott T.; Stone, Ronald G.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Trudell, Daniel E.; Thoma, Steven G.

    2004-04-06

    A process for fabricating a gas impermeable seal on a porous ceramic surface using a thin, glass-based, pinhole free glaze. The process can be used to fabricate gas impermeable end seals on porous alumina tubes used as filter media. The porous alumina tubes can have an inorganic microporous thin film separation membrane on the inner surface, which can be used for high temperature gas separation processes.

  16. Porous silicon membranes as ultrafiltration devices: a feasibility study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Xiangrong

    1993-01-01

    in the integrated circuits. According to research results, porous silicon layers are formed by local dissolution of silicon during anodization in hydrofluoric acid solution. Memming and Schwandt (1966) proposed the following model for the etching process... results in the formation of the etched pores. Beale (1984) investigated the microstructure of porous silicon using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The studies show that the structure of porous silicon is not perfectly cylindrical...

  17. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  18. Product Design and Innovation Arthur L. Rosenthal, PhD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vajda, Sandor

    Draft by October 27 · 10/27 Risk Management - FMEA tool · AS12 Draft FMEA for Project Product - hard copy and PDF by Oct. 29 · 10/29 FMEA Workshop · AS13 Prepare Final Project Prodcut FMEA - hard copy

  19. Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks Gutierrez, Marte 54 ENVIRONMENTAL...

  20. Elastic properties of saturated porous rocks with aligned fractures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-12-02

    Elastic properties of fluid saturated porous media with aligned fractures can be studied using the ...... that are in hydraulic equilibrium with the fractures, the.

  1. Living Bacterial Sacrificial Porogens to Engineer Decellularized Porous Scaffolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Feng

    Decellularization and cellularization of organs have emerged as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread applications in tissue engineering, regenerative ...

  2. NMR studies of carbon dioxide sequestration in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussain, Rehan

    2015-06-09

    /liquid (air/water) interface for porous media consisting of glass bead and sand packs of different average particle size using quantitative MRI techniques....

  3. Porous coordination copolymers and methods for their production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matzger, Adam J. (Ann Arbor, MI); Wong-Foy, Antek G. (Ann Arbor, MI); Koh, Kyoungmoo (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2012-07-17

    A coordination polymer includes a plurality of metal atoms or metal clusters linked together by a plurality of organic linking ligands. Each linking ligand comprises a residue of a negatively charged polydentate ligand. Characteristically, the plurality of multidentate ligands include a first linking ligand having first hydrocarbon backbone and a second ligand having a second hydrocarbon backbone. The first hydrocarbon backbone is different than the second hydrocarbon backbone.

  4. Short-time transport properties of bidisperse suspensions and porous media: a Stokesian Dynamics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mu Wang; John F. Brady

    2014-12-28

    We present a comprehensive computational study of the short-time transport properties of bidisperse neutral colloidal suspensions and the corresponding porous media. Our study covers bidisperse particle size ratios up to $4$, and total volume fractions up to and beyond the monodisperse hard-sphere close packing limit. The many-body hydrodynamic interactions are computed using conventional Stokesian Dynamics (SD) via a Monte-Carlo approach. We address suspension properties including the short-time translational and rotational self-diffusivities, the instantaneous sedimentation velocity, the wavenumber-dependent partial hydrodynamic functions, and the high-frequency shear and bulk viscosities; and porous media properties including the permeability and the translational and rotational hindered diffusivities. We carefully compare the SD computations with existing theoretical and numerical results. For suspensions, we also explore the range of validity of various approximation schemes, notably the Pairwise Additive (PA) approximations with the Percus-Yevick structural input. We critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of the SD algorithm for various transport properties. For very dense systems, we discuss in detail the interplay between the hydrodynamic interactions and the structures due to the presence of a second species of a different size.

  5. Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-08-23

    Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated.

  6. Kernelization and Enumeration: New Approaches to Solving Hard Problems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Jie

    2011-08-08

    NP-Hardness is a well-known theory to identify the hardness of computational problems. It is believed that NP-Hard problems are unlikely to admit polynomial-time algorithms. However since many NP-Hard problems are of ...

  7. Electrode With Porous Three-Dimensional Support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Dauchier, Jean-Michel (Martignas, FR); Simonneau, Olivier (Dourdan, FR)

    1999-07-27

    Electrode including a paste containing particles of electrochemically active material and a conductive support consisting of a three-dimensional porous material comprising strands delimiting contiguous pores communicating via passages, characterized in that the average width L in .mu.m of said passages is related to the average diameter .O slashed. in .mu.m of said particles by the following equation, in which W and Y are dimensionless coefficients: wherein W=0.16 Y=1.69 X=202.4 .mu.m and Z=80 .mu.m

  8. A rigid porous filter and filtration method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  9. Porous Solids DOI: 10.1002/anie.200503950

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterloh, Frank

    solids have found technological applications as [*] N. N. Akl, X. Qi, J. Y. Kim, Prof. F. E. Osterloh in electrically conducting compo- sites,[14­17] as electrode materials for Li-battery applications,[18 mobile ions into porous structures.[8,9] We describe herein a novel approach to metallic porous solids

  10. Electronic Supplementary Material Scalable preparation of porous silicon nanoparticles and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Nano Res. Electronic Supplementary Material Scalable preparation of porous silicon nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxide Figure S2 TEM image of porous silicon nanoparticles after carbon coating and graphene wrapping. #12;www.theNanoResearch.comwww.Springer.com/journal/12274 | Nano R

  11. Field emission study of cobalt ion implanted porous silicon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongbiao

    1995-01-01

    as an electrode in field emission applications. In this project, the formation of a CoSi2, conducting layer on porous silicon by high dose ion implantation while preserving the pore structure and field emission properties of the underlying porous silicon...

  12. The Transport of Nuclear Contamination in Fractured Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Jr., Jim

    The Transport of Nuclear Contamination in Fractured Porous Media Jim Douglas, Jr. #3; Anna M and dispersion of nuclear contamination through a granitic medium having densely spaced fractures, Rochester, MI 48309-4485 1 #12; Nuclear Contamination in Fractured Porous Media 2 2 The Single Porosity

  13. Coated porous carbon cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Klett, James William [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Coated porous carbon cathodes for automotive lithium batteries are being developed with the goal of overcoming the problems with capacity fade and poor thermal management in conventional polymer-bonded cathodes. The active cathode material (lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles) is carbon-bonded to the porous carbon support material. Cathodes have been developed with high specific energy and power and with good cycling behavior.

  14. Development of an oxidized porous silicon vacuum microtriode 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Don Deewayne

    1994-01-01

    the requirements for a gigatron cathode. In the present work, a porous sihcon-based approach is evaluated. The use of porous silicon reduces the size of a single emitter to the manometer scale, and a true two-dimensional array geometry can be approached. A wide...

  15. Combustion fronts in porous media with two layers Steve Schecter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schecter, Stephen

    Combustion fronts in porous media with two layers layer 1 layer 2 Steve Schecter North Carolina Subject: Propagation of a combustion front through a porous medium with two parallel layers having different properties. · Each layer admits a traveling combustion wave. · The layers are coupled by heat

  16. TERMINATION OF THE POROUS WALL CONCEPT To: APEX GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    TERMINATION OF THE POROUS WALL CONCEPT To: APEX GROUP From: Anter El-Azab (anter@seas.ucla.edu) Re with Lithium will can not work and this concept should be terminated. For the case of vanadium alloy on this concept should be terminated. #12;TERMINATION OF THE POROUS WALL CONCEPT Best Regards, Anter #12;

  17. COMPARISON OF VARIOUS FORMULATIONS OF THREEPHASE FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , oil, and gas) flow in porous media, including phase, global, and pseudo­global pressure three­phase (e.g., water, oil, and gas) flow in porous media. We show that, under a so­called total­global pressure and two saturations without any assumption. However, it turns out that the phase and pseudo

  18. Loading rate dependence of permeability evolution in porous aeolian sandstones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loading rate dependence of permeability evolution in porous aeolian sandstones Ira O. Ojala, Bryne on the permeability of porous sandstones by carrying out triaxial compression tests at four different temperatures effective stress and axial strain for the Locharbriggs sandstone. The Clashach sandstone exhibits a linear

  19. Structural precursor to freezing in the hard-disk and hard-sphere systems Thomas M. Truskett,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Structural precursor to freezing in the hard-disk and hard-sphere systems Thomas M. Truskett,1, namely, the hard-disk and hard-sphere fluids, exhibit a structural precursor to the freezing transition of the two-dimensional fluid configurations in the vicinity of the freezing transition reveals

  20. Hard-thermal-loop QED thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nan Su; Jens O. Andersen; Michael Strickland

    2009-11-24

    The weak-coupling expansion for thermodynamic quantities in thermal field theories is poorly convergent unless the coupling constant is tiny. We discuss the calculation of the free energy for a hot gas of electrons and photons to three-loop order using hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt). We show that the hard-thermal-loop perturbation reorganization improves the convergence of the successive approximations to the QED free energy at large coupling, e ~ 2. The reorganization is gauge invariant by construction, and due to the cancellations among various contributions, we obtain a completely analytic result for the resummed thermodynamic potential at three loops.

  1. Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burrows, Richard W. (Conifer, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

  2. Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

    1993-04-13

    A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

  3. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Schumacher, Ray F. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  4. Multicomponent Gas Diffusion in Porous Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yeqing; Dutta, Abhijit; Mohanram, Aravind; Pietras, John D; Bazant, Martin Z

    2014-01-01

    Multicomponent gas transport is investigated with unprecedented precision by AC impedance analysis of porous YSZ anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells. A fuel gas mixture of H2-H2O-N2 is fed to the anode, and impedance data are measured across the range of hydrogen partial pressure (10-100%) for open circuit conditions at three temperatures (800C, 850C and 900C) and for 300mA applied current at 800C. For the first time, analytical formulae for the diffusion resistance (Rb) of three standard models of multicomponent gas transport (Fick, Stefan-Maxwell, and Dusty Gas) are derived and tested against the impedance data. The tortuosity is the only fitting parameter since all the diffusion coefficients are known. Only the Dusty Gas model leads to a remarkable data collapse for over twenty experimental conditions, using a constant tortuosity consistent with permeability measurements and the Bruggeman relation. These results establish the accuracy of the Dusty Gas model for multicomponent gas diffusion in porous med...

  5. Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fein, J. R. Holloway, J. P.; Peebles, J. L.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P.

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-? x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

  6. PLASTIC RESINS INDUSTRY HIT HARD BY GLOBAL ECONOMIC RECESSION IN 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    PLASTIC RESINS INDUSTRY HIT HARD BY GLOBAL ECONOMIC RECESSION IN 2008 The US plastic resins in the second half of the year. According to the American Chemistry Council (ACC) Plastics Industry Producers deficit in plastic products deteriorated from a $1.21 billion deficit in 2007 to a $2.36 billion deficit

  7. Multilayer coating facility for the HEFT hard X-ray telescope Carsten P. Jensena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Christensena , Hubert Chenb , Erik B. W.Smitta , Eric Zieglerc a Danish Space Research Institute (Denmark); b) for the production coating of depth graded multilayers on the thermally slumped glass segments which form the basis, Hard X-ray telescope 1. INTRODUCTION The High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) is a balloon borne

  8. Effects of plasma and vacuum-ultraviolet exposure on the mechanical properties of low-k porous organosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, X.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Jakes, J. E. [Performance Enhanced Biopolymers, USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin 53726 (United States); Banna, S. [Applied Materials, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States); Nishi, Y. [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    The effects of plasma exposure and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on the mechanical properties of low-k porous organosilicate glass (SiCOH) dielectric films were investigated. Nanoindentation measurements were made on SiCOH films before and after exposure to an electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma or a monochromatic synchrotron VUV beam, to determine the changes of film hardness, elastic modulus, and crack threshold due to these exposures. This permits the effects of ion bombardment and photon bombardment to be analyzed separately. The role of energetic ions was examined with a variety of inert plasma-exposure conditions. The role of VUV photons was analyzed as a function of synchrotron photon energy. It was found that both energetic ions and VUV photons with energies larger than the bond energy of the Si-O bond cause a significant increase in film hardness along with a smaller increase in elastic modulus and crack threshold. Differential Fourier transform infrared spectra and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results show that the energetic ions affect the SiCOH properties mainly through physical bombardment, during which the ions transfer their momentum to the Si-O-Si backbone and transform them into more energetically stable Si-O-Si network structures. This results in the Si-O-Si network structures becoming densified. VUV photons assist reaction that increase the number of bridging O{sub 3}?Si-O-Si?O{sub 3} bonds and deplete nonbridging O{sub 3}?Si-O and C-Si?O{sub 3} bonds. This increased degree of cross linking in porous organosilicate dielectrics can substantially enhance their hardness and elastic modulus while showing no significant film shrinkage or densification.

  9. HARD CLAM HYBRIDS FOR FLORIDAAQUACULTURE: HATCHERY CULTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    . Larvae culture was performed in 400L tanks using standard hard clam hatchery protocols: water changed daily, fed once daily at 50-100K cells T- ISO/mL, salinity 30 ppt, temp 24-28oC (Fig 2a). Setting T-ISO and the diatom Chaetoceros sp. and water changed every other day. Tissue (gill, mantle, and

  10. Permeability decline due to flow of dilute suspensions through porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasr-El-Din, H.A. [Lab R& D Center, Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    Suspension flow in porous media is encountered in many industrial applications. In the oil industry, suspended solids present in injected waters cart cause significant damage around the wellbore or deep in the formation. Depending on tire physical properties of tire solid particles, the porous medium, and operating conditions, solids can form external or internal filter cake, or just flow through the media without causing any damage. External filter cake formation causes a fast and sharp drop in permeability or injectivity of the formation. Reversing the flow direction can recover some of the damaged permeability. Internal filter cake formation cases a gradual or steady drop in permeability. Reversing the flow direction will not recover tire damaged permeability. Increasing solids concentration or particle size will cause more damage to formation. Injection of low-salinity water into sandstone reservoirs can trigger fines migration and clay swelling. Both factors can damage the formation. Injection of water that is incompatible with the formation brine may cause precipitation of insoluble sulfates that cart plug the formation. Stimulation (or acidizing) the formation cart also produce solid particles that can damage the formation. Corrosion by-products (e.g., iron sulfide) cart block the flow paths and reduce the permeability of the formation. Many experimental and modeling studies to predict formation damage due to flow of suspensions in porous media are discussed in this chapter. Solids can be present in injected waters or be generated in the formation. More research is needed to predict flow of suspensions in porous media when solid particles invade and are generated in tire formation simultaneously. 71 refs., 19 figs.

  11. ForPeerReview Hybrid structures of porous silicon and conjugated polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asscher, Micha

    called "third generation solar cells [11]). A porous matrix, particularly a porous silicon (PS) matrixForPeerReview Hybrid structures of porous silicon and conjugated polymers for photovoltaic of Jerusalem, Physics Keywords: Porous silicon, conjugated polymers, photovoltaics Wiley-VCH physica status

  12. Theory of Sound Propagation in Superfluid Solutions Filled Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sh. E. Kekutia; N. D. Chkhaidze

    2005-02-10

    A theory of the propagation of acoustic waves in a porous medium filled with superfluid solution is developed. The elastic coefficients in the system of equations are expressed in terms of physically measurable quantities. The equations obtained describe all volume modes that can propagate in a porous medium saturated with superfluid solution. Finally, derived equations are applied to the most important particular case when the normal fluid component is locked inside a highly porous media (aerogel) by viscous forces and the velocities of two longitudinal sound modes are calculated.

  13. Porous silicon ring resonator for compact, high sensitivity biosensing applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Gilberto A.; Hu, Shuren; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2015-01-01

    A ring resonator is patterned on a porous silicon slab waveguide to produce a compact, high quality factor biosensor with a large internal surface area available for enhanced recognition of biological and chemical molecules. The porous nature of the ring resonator allows molecules to directly interact with the guided mode. Quality factors near 10,000 were measured for porous silicon ring resonators with a radius of 25 ?m. A bulk detection sensitivity of 380 nm/RIU was measured upon exposure to salt water solutions. Specific detection of nucleic acid molecules was demonstrated with a surface detection sensitivity of 4 pm/nM.

  14. Fabrication and testing of oxidized porous silicon field emitter strips 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madduri, Vasanta Bhanu

    1992-01-01

    28 30 15. Reaction Cell for Anodization 32 16. 17. Cross-section of a Porous Silicon Field Emitting Strip Ctoss-section of the Anode Tester 34 36 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Figure 18. Testing Set-up for the Diode Arrays 19. I-V Curves... electrolyte in place of HF. In this process of oxide formation the oxide is formed at the bottom of the porous layer. The top PS layer can be recrystallized by high temperature annealing or laser processing. Light Emitting Porous Silicon Attempts to use...

  15. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-14

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  16. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  17. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  18. Method for forming porous platinum films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A method for forming a platinum film includes providing a substrate, sputtering a crystalline platinum oxide layer over at least a portion of the substrate, and reducing the crystalline platinum oxide layer to form the platinum film. A device includes a non-conductive substrate and a platinum layer having a density of between about 2 and 5 g/cm.sup.3 formed over at least a portion of the non-conductive substrate. The platinum films produced in accordance with the present invention provide porous films suitable for use as electrodes, yet require few processing steps. Thus, such films are less costly. Such films may be formed on both conductive and non-conductive substrates. While the invention has been illustrated with platinum, other metals, such as noble metals, that form a low density oxide when reactively sputtered may also be used.

  19. Porous Alumina Based Capacitive MEMS RH Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juhasz, L; Timar-Horvath, Veronika; Desmulliez, Marc; Dhariwal, Resh

    2008-01-01

    The aim of a joint research and development project at the BME and HWU is to produce a cheap, reliable, low-power and CMOS-MEMS process compatible capacitive type relative humidity (RH) sensor that can be incorporated into a state-of-the-art, wireless sensor network. In this paper we discuss the preparation of our new capacitive structure based on post-CMOS MEMS processes and the methods which were used to characterize the thin film porous alumina sensing layer. The average sensitivity is approx. 15 pF/RH% which is more than a magnitude higher than the values found in the literature. The sensor is equipped with integrated resistive heating, which can be used for maintenance to reduce drift, or for keeping the sensing layer at elevated temperature, as an alternative method for temperature-dependence cancellation.

  20. Heat pipe effect in porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, M.

    1992-12-01

    In this thesis a parametric study of the thermal and hydrologic characteristics of the fractured porous tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada was conducted. The effects of different fracture and matrix properties including permeability, thermal conductivity, specific heat, porosity, and tortuosity on heat pipe performance in the vicinity of the waste package were observed. Computer simulations were carried out using TOUGH code on a Cray YMP-2 supercomputer. None of the fracture parameters affected the heat pipe performance except the mobility of the liquid in the fracture. Matrix permeability and thermal conductivity were found to have significant effect on the heat pipe performance. The effect of mass injection was studied for liquid water and air injected at the fracture boundary. A high rate of mass injection was required to produce any effect on the heat pipe. The fracture-matrix equilibrium is influenced by the matrix permeability and the matrix thermal conductivity.

  1. Leading twist nuclear shadowing phenomena in hard processes with nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonid Frankfurt, Vadim Guzey, Mark Strikman

    2012-03-01

    We present and discuss the theory and phenomenology of the leading twist theory of nuclear shadowing which is based on the combination of the generalization of Gribov-Glauber theory, QCD factorization theorems, and HERA QCD analysis of diffraction in lepton-proton deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We apply this technique for the analysis of a wide range of hard processes with nuclei-inclusive DIS on deuterons, medium-range and heavy nuclei, coherent and incoherent diffractive DIS with nuclei, and hard diffraction in proton-nucleus scattering - and make predictions for the effect of nuclear shadowing in the corresponding sea quark and gluon parton distributions. We also analyze the role of the leading twist nuclear shadowing in generalized parton distributions in nuclei and certain characteristics of final states in nuclear DIS. We discuss the limits of applicability of the leading twist approximation for small x scattering off nuclei and the onset of the black disk regime and methods of detecting it. It will be possible to check many of our predictions in the near future in the studies of the ultraperipheral collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Further checks will be possible in pA collisions at the LHC and forward hadron production at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Detailed tests will be possible at an Electon-Ion Collider (EIC) in USA and at the Large Hadron-Electron Collider (LHeC) at CERN.

  2. An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood Products Industry Working Paper #1 Louisiana Forest Director Louisiana Furnishings Industry Association Ponchatoula, LA Dr. O. Victor Harding Assistant secondary wood products industry is underway at the Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory, Louisiana State

  3. Hard and soft probe - medium interactions in a 3D hydro+micro approach at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bass, S A; Ruppert, J; Nonaka, C

    2007-01-01

    We utilize a 3D hybrid hydro+micro model for a comprehensive and consistent description of soft and hard particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. In the soft sector we focus on the dynamics of (multi-)strange baryons, where a clear strangeness dependence of their collision rates and freeze-out is observed. In the hard sector we study the radiative energy loss of hard partons in a soft medium in the multiple soft scattering approximation. While the nuclear suppression factor $R_{AA}$ does not reflect the high quality of the medium description (except in a reduced systematic uncertainty in extracting the quenching power of the medium), the hydrodynamical model also allows to study different centralities and in particular the angular variation of $R_{AA}$ with respect to the reaction plane, allowing for a controlled variation of the in-medium path-length.

  4. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, W. II; Balooch, M.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10--20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode. 12 figs.

  5. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Siekhaus, Wigbert J. (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10-20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode.

  6. Hard Bottom Substrate Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hard Bottom Substrate Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Annual Status Report 2003 #12;Hard Bottom Substrate Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Annual Status Report 2003 Published: 14 May 2004

  7. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical...

  8. Hard and soft spectral states of ULXs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soria, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    I discuss some differences between the observed spectral states of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) and the canonical scheme of spectral states defined in Galactic black holes. The standard interpretation of ULXs with a curved spectrum, or a moderately steep power-law with soft excess and high-energy downturn, is that they are an extension of the very high state, up to luminosities ~ 1 to 3 L_{Edd}. Two competing models are Comptonization in a warm corona, and slim disk; I suggest bulk motion Comptonization in the radiatively-driven outflow as another possibility. The interpretation of ULXs with a hard power-law spectrum is more problematic. Some of them remain in that state over a large range of luminosities; others switch directly to a curved state without going through a canonical high/soft state. I suggest that those ULXs are in a high/hard state not seen in Galactic black holes; that state may overlap with the low/hard state at lower accretion rates, and extend all the way to Eddington accretion rates....

  9. Composition suitable for decontaminating a porous surface contaminated with cesium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Finck, Martha R.; Mertz, Carol J.

    2010-06-15

    A method of decontaminating porous surfaces contaminated with water soluble radionuclides by contacting the contaminated porous surfaces with an ionic solution capable of solubilizing radionuclides present in the porous surfaces followed by contacting the solubilized radionuclides with a gel containing a radionuclide chelator to bind the radionuclides to the gel, and physically removing the gel from the porous surfaces. A dry mix is also disclosed of a cross-linked ionic polymer salt, a linear ionic polymer salt, a radionuclide chelator, and a gel formation controller present in the range of from 0% to about 40% by weight of the dry mix, wherein the ionic polymer salts are granular and the non cross-linked ionic polymer salt is present as a minor constituent.

  10. Porous hydroxyapatite-based obturation materials for dentistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    of Advanced Polymers & Optimized Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University Laboratory of Advanced Polymers & Optimized Materials, Department of Materials Science and EngineeringPorous hydroxyapatite-based obturation materials for dentistry Witold Brostowa) Laboratory

  11. Modelling Flow through Porous Media under Large Pressure Gradients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Shriram

    2013-11-01

    The most interesting and technologically important problems in the study of flow through porous media involve very high pressures and pressure gradients in the flow do- main such as enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide ...

  12. Gasification and combustion modeling for porous char particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Simcha Lev

    2012-01-01

    Gasification and combustion of porous char particles occurs in many industrial applications. Reactor-scale outputs of importance depend critically on processes that occur at the particle-scale. Because char particles often ...

  13. Acoustics in Porous Media. JUAN E. SANTOS - Department of ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    robiel

    Blue regions represent water, yellow regions hydrocarbon and the void .... Time histories for a porous rock saturated by gas (top left), water (top right) and periodic gas-water (bottom). 0 ..... groundwater flow and contamination among others.

  14. Burning Rate of Liquid Fuel on Carpet (Porous Media) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Tingguang; Olenick, Stephen M; Klassen, Michael S; Roby, Richard J; Torero, Jose L

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of a liquid fuel burning on carpet has been involved in many incendiary and accidental fires. While the research on a liquid fuel fire on carpet is still limited, much work on porous media has been ...

  15. Simulation of filtration for suspension transport in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yun Sung, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of a novel method for analyzing the filtration of particles transported through a granular porous medium. The proposed analysis considers the deposition of particles ...

  16. Effective hydraulic conductivity of bounded, strongly heterogeneous porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    Effective hydraulic conductivity of bounded, strongly heterogeneous porous media Evangelos K of Arizona, Tucson Abstract. We develop analytical expressions for the effective hydraulic conductivity Ke boundaries. The log hydraulic conductivity Y forms a Gaussian, statistically homogeneous and anisotropic

  17. Porous material and process development for electrospray propulsion applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arestie, Steven Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ion electrospray propulsion devices rely on the transportation of ionic liquid propellant to emission regions where ions are extracted at high velocities. One such method involves the use of porous substrates to passively ...

  18. Commercial applications of nanostructures created with ordered porous alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Brendan Christopher, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    In the drive from microfabrication to nanofabrication, porous alumina templates may play a key role in technological evolution. Under the right processing conditions, ordered pores can grow in anodic aluminum oxide, which ...

  19. Uncertainty quantification using multiscale methods for porous media flows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dostert, Paul Francis

    2009-05-15

    In this dissertation we discuss numerical methods used for uncertainty quantifi- cation applications to flow in porous media. We consider stochastic flow equations that contain both a spatial and random component which ...

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive charging and desalination by porous electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by supercapacitors, water desalination and purification by ...

  1. Overlimiting Current and Shock Electrodialysis in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Daosheng

    Most electrochemical processes, such as electrodialysis, are limited by diffusion, but in porous media, surface conduction and electroosmotic flow also contribute to ionic flux. In this article, we report experimental ...

  2. A bias assessment for in-situ ultrasonic hardness testing of steel fasteners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratiu, M.D.; Moisidis, N.T.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of sub-standard and/or mismarked installed fasteners has received broad attention in quality control standard and largely discussed in technical publications and in public press. The Industrial Fastener Institute (IFI, 1988) released a detailed documented inspection program to ensure the delivery and the usage of appropriate fasteners, imposing mandatory traceability of the manufacturer marking and quality certification reports. For the billions of the existing installed bolts without reliable lot identification and/or quality certification, IFI recommends in-situ control using non-destructive testing and/or hardness measurements with portable testers. The ultrasonic indentation hardness (HU) with the Krautkramer portable tester--operating on the ultrasonic contact impedance method described by Kleesattel (Jankowski D.M., 1990)--is one of the more frequent equipment used in the in-situ control of steel products and machine elements. The advantages of the ultrasonic tester--low weight, direct hardness reading, easy to operate--have determined to be included also for the in-situ control of installed fasteners. However, the bias of this method was not analyzed; the practiced calibration of standard blocks is not conclusive for the comparison of the in-situ measured hardness with the standard reference value obtained using laboratory Rockwell hardness (HR) tester. The purpose of this paper is to point out the specific consistent/systematic differences between HU results and the reference standard HR, which defines the ruggedness and the bias of the ultrasonic method.

  3. WATER REQUIREMENTSWATER REQUIREMENTSWATER REQUIREMENTSWATER REQUIREMENTS of Hard Red Spring Wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    WATER REQUIREMENTSWATER REQUIREMENTSWATER REQUIREMENTSWATER REQUIREMENTS of Hard Red Spring Wheat C. Hopkins #12;Estimating Water Requirements of Hard Red Spring Wheat for Final Irrigations 2 Introductiond water use Producers of hard red spring wheat know that inadequate water reduces yield and quality

  4. Standard test methods for Rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines\tAnnex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines\tAnnex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters\tAnnex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks\tAnnex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece\tAnnex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces\tAnnex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength\tAppendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty\tAppendi...

  5. Porous coolant tube holder for fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guthrie, Robin J. (East Hartford, CT)

    1981-01-01

    A coolant tube holder for a stack of fuel cells is a gas porous sheet of fibrous material adapted to be sandwiched between a cell electrode and a nonporous, gas impervious flat plate which separates adjacent cells. The porous holder has channels in one surface with coolant tubes disposed therein for carrying coolant through the stack. The gas impervious plate is preferably bonded to the opposite surface of the holder, and the channel depth is the full thickness of the holder.

  6. Gas phase fractionation method using porous ceramic membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Reid A. (Madison, WI); Hill, Jr., Charles G. (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1996-01-01

    Flaw-free porous ceramic membranes fabricated from metal sols and coated onto a porous support are advantageously used in gas phase fractionation methods. Mean pore diameters of less than 40 .ANG., preferably 5-20 .ANG. and most preferably about 15 .ANG., are permeable at lower pressures than existing membranes. Condensation of gases in small pores and non-Knudsen membrane transport mechanisms are employed to facilitate and increase membrane permeability and permselectivity.

  7. Porous Elasticity: Lectures on the elasticity of porous materials as an application of the theory of mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, Ray M.

    2014-01-22

    This work was originally planned as a textbook exploiting the structure of the Theory of Mixtures as the basis for the study of porous elasticity. The decision to write this book was made approximately thirty years ago! ...

  8. Foam Transport in Porous Media - A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhong, Lirong

    2009-11-11

    Amendment solutions with or without surfactants have been used to remove contaminants from soil. However, it has drawbacks such that the amendment solution often mobilizes the plume, and its movement is controlled by gravity and preferential flow paths. Foam is an emulsion-like, two-phase system in which gas cells are dispersed in a liquid and separated by thin liquid films called lamellae. Potential advantages of using foams in sub-surface remediation include providing better control on the volume of fluids injected, uniformity of contact, and the ability to contain the migration of contaminant laden liquids. It is expected that foam can serve as a carrier of amendments for vadose zone remediation, e.g., at the Hanford Site. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s EM-20 program, a numerical simulation capability will be added to the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) flow simulator. The primary purpose of this document is to review the modeling approaches of foam transport in porous media. However, as an aid to understanding the simulation approaches, some experiments under unsaturated conditions and the processes of foam transport are also reviewed. Foam may be formed when the surfactant concentration is above the critical micelle concentration. There are two main types of foams – the ball foam (microfoam) and the polyhedral foam. The characteristics of bulk foam are described by the properties such as foam quality, texture, stability, density, surface tension, disjoining pressure, etc. Foam has been used to flush contaminants such as metals, organics, and nonaqueous phase liquids from unsaturated soil. Ball foam, or colloidal gas aphrons, reportedly have been used for soil flushing in contaminated site remediation and was found to be more efficient than surfactant solutions on the basis of weight of contaminant removed per gram of surfactant. Experiments also indicate that the polyhedral foam can be used to enhance soil remediation. The transport of foam in porous media is complicated in that the number of lamellae present governs flow characteristics such as viscosity, relative permeability, fluid distribution, and interactions between fluids. Hence, foam is a non-Newtonian fluid. During transport, foam destruction and formation occur. The net result of the two processes determines the foam texture (i.e., bubble density). Some of the foam may be trapped during transport. According to the impacts of the aqueous and gas flow rates, foam flow generally has two regimes – weak and strong foam. There is also a minimum pressure gradient to initiate foam flow and a critical capillary for foam to be sustained. Similar to other fluids, the transport of foam is described by Darcy’s law with the exception that the foam viscosity is variable. Three major approaches to modeling foam transport in porous media are the empirical, semi-empirical, and mechanistic methods. Mechanistic approaches can be complete in principal but may be difficult to obtain reliable parameters, whereas empirical and semi-empirical approaches can be limited by the detail used to describe foam rheology and mobility. Mechanistic approaches include the bubble population-balance model, the network/percolation theory, the catastrophe theory, and the filtration theory. Among these methods, all were developed for modeling polyhedral foam with the exception that the method based on the filtration theory was for the ball foam (microfoam).

  9. Pseudorandom Generator Based on Hard Lattice Problem This paper studies how to construct a pseudorandom generator using hard lattice prob-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Pseudorandom Generator Based on Hard Lattice Problem Cheng Kuan Abstract This paper studies how to construct a pseudorandom generator using hard lattice prob- lems. We use a variation of the classical hard the same, we construct a pseudorandom generator using the method in [GKL93]. Also, we construct

  10. Porous platinum-based catalysts for oxygen reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Jonah D; Snyder, Joshua D

    2014-11-25

    A porous metal that comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A fuel cell includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and an electrolyte arranged between the first and the second electrodes. At least one of the first and second electrodes is coated with a porous metal catalyst for oxygen reduction, and the porous metal catalyst comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A method of producing a porous metal according to an embodiment of the current invention includes producing an alloy consisting essentially of platinum and nickel according to the formula Pt.sub.xNi.sub.1-x, where x is at least 0.01 and less than 0.3; and dealloying the alloy in a substantially pH neutral solution to reduce an amount of nickel in the alloy to produce the porous metal.

  11. Flow adjustment and interior flow associated with a rectangular porous obstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rominger, Jeffrey Tsaros

    The flow at the leading edge and in the interior of a rectangular porous obstruction is described through experiments and scaling. The porous obstruction consists of an emergent, rectangular array of cylinders in shallow ...

  12. Discrete particle transport in porous media : discrete observations of physical mechanisms influencing particle behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Joon Sik, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    An understanding of how discrete particles in the micron to submicron range behave in porous media is important to a number of environmental problems. Discrete particle behavior in the interior of a porous medium is complex ...

  13. An Investigation of In Situ Gelation of a Polyacrylamide/Chromium(III) System in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes, Antonio

    1992-04-01

    Crosslinked polymer systems are used in enhanced oil recovery treatments. To further understand the behavior of such systems in porous media, the flow of a chromium(H[)-polyacrylamide gel system has been studied in unconsolidated porous media...

  14. Study of gas flow dynamics in porous and granular media with laser-polarized ¹²?Xe NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ruopeng, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of gas flow dynamics in porous and granular media by using laser-polarized ¹²?Xe . Two different physical processes, the gas transport in porous rock cores and ...

  15. Phenomenological study of Au and Pt nanowires grown in porous alumina scaffolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Yong Cheol, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Porous anodic aluminum oxide, commonly known as AAO, has been widely used as a scaffold to synthesize nanowires and nanotubes. The porous alumina structure can be obtained from a simple electrochemical oxidation process, ...

  16. A Study of Porous Transitions of Layer-By-Layer Thin Films and Patterning Multilayers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Chungyeon

    2013-05-24

    of this thesis focuses on patterning polyelectrolyte multilayers that are able to undergo transitions from continuous films to porous materials by using hydrogel stamps. The stamping process is able to locally etch and pattern the porous transition in the Lb...

  17. Microstructural Contol of the Porous Si3N4 Ceramics Consisted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contol of the Porous Si3N4 Ceramics Consisted of 3-Dimensionally Intermingled Rod-like Grains Microstructural Contol of the Porous Si3N4 Ceramics Consisted of 3-Dimensionally...

  18. Factors controlling permeability of cataclastic deformation bands and faults in porous sandstone reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossen, Haakon

    Factors controlling permeability of cataclastic deformation bands and faults in porous sandstone March 2015 Available online 18 April 2015 Keywords: Cataclastic band Permeability Porous sandstone Fluid and their petrophysical properties is essential for realistic characterization of deformed sandstone reservoirs

  19. Porous siliconformation and etching process for use in silicon micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guilinger, Terry R. (Albuquerque, NM); Kelly, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Jr., Samuel B. (Albuquerque, NM); Stevenson, Joel O. (Albuquerque, NM); Tsao, Sylvia S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A reproducible process for uniformly etching silicon from a series of micromechanical structures used in electrical devices and the like includes providing a micromechanical structure having a silicon layer with defined areas for removal thereon and an electrochemical cell containing an aqueous hydrofluoric acid electrolyte. The micromechanical structure is submerged in the electrochemical cell and the defined areas of the silicon layer thereon are anodically biased by passing a current through the electrochemical cell for a time period sufficient to cause the defined areas of the silicon layer to become porous. The formation of the depth of the porous silicon is regulated by controlling the amount of current passing through the electrochemical cell. The micromechanical structure is then removed from the electrochemical cell and submerged in a hydroxide solution to remove the porous silicon. The process is subsequently repeated for each of the series of micromechanical structures to achieve a reproducibility better than 0.3%.

  20. Enhanced densification under shock compression in porous silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lane, J. Matthew; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Vogler, Tracy

    2014-10-27

    Under shock compression, most porous materials exhibit lower densities for a given pressure than that of a full-dense sample of the same material. However, some porous materials exhibit an anomalous, or enhanced, densification under shock compression. The mechanism driving this behavior was not completely determined. We present evidence from atomistic simulation that pure silicon belongs to this anomalous class of materials and demonstrate the associated mechanisms responsible for the effect in porous silicon. Atomistic response indicates that local shear strain in the neighborhood of collapsing pores catalyzes a local solid-solid phase transformation even when bulk pressures are below the thermodynamicmore »phase transformation pressure. This metastable, local, and partial, solid-solid phase transformation, which accounts for the enhanced densification in silicon, is driven by the local stress state near the void, not equilibrium thermodynamics. This mechanism may also explain the phenomenon in other covalently bonded materials.« less

  1. Dialysis on microchips using thin porous polymer membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup K. (San Francisco, CA); Kirby, Brian J. (San Francisco, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-04

    Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and form a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

  2. Method for dialysis on microchips using thin porous polymer membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup K. (San Francisco, CA); Kirby, Brian J. (San Francisco, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-05-19

    Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and forms a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

  3. Formation and properties of porous GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmuki, P.; Lockwood, D.J.; Fraser, J.W.; Graham, M.J.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1996-06-01

    Porous structures on n-type GaAs (100) can be grown electrochemically in chloride-containing solutions. Crystallographic etching of the sample is a precursor stage of the attack. Polarization curves reveal the existanece of a critical onset potential for por formation (PFP). PFP is strongly dependent on the doping level of the sample and presence of surface defects. Good agreement between PFP and breakdown voltage of the space charge layer is found. Surface analysis by EDX, AES, and XPS show that the porous structure consists mainly of GaAs and that anion uptake in the structure can only observed after attackhas been initiated. Photoluminescence measurements reveal (under certain conditions) visible light emission from the porous structure.

  4. Manipulation of surface chemistry and nanostructure in porous silicon-based chemical sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruminski, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    version 2006; Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH,Abstract Porous silicon nanostructures attract much interest for chemical and

  5. Design and manipulation of 1-D rugate photonic crystals of porous silicon for chemical sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Brian Henry

    2010-01-01

    by inclusion of a palladium hydrogen trap in the porousPalladium Composite Film for Optical Interferometric Sensing of Hydrogen.

  6. Hard turning micro-machine tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVor, Richard E; Adair, Kurt; Kapoor, Shiv G

    2013-10-22

    A micro-scale apparatus for supporting a tool for hard turning comprises a base, a pivot coupled to the base, an actuator coupled to the base, and at least one member coupled to the actuator at one end and rotatably coupled to the pivot at another end. A tool mount is disposed on the at least one member. The at least one member defines a first lever arm between the pivot and the tool mount, and a second lever arm between the pivot and the actuator. The first lever arm has a length that is less than a length of the second lever arm. The actuator moves the tool mount along an arc.

  7. Renormalon Phenomena in Jets and Hard Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. R. Webber

    1997-12-02

    The `renormalon' or `dispersive' method for estimating non-perturbative corrections to QCD observables is reviewed. The corrections are power-suppressed, i.e. of the form $A/Q^p$ where $Q$ is the hard process momentum scale. The renormalon method exploits the connection between divergences of the QCD perturbation series and low-momentum dynamics to predict the power, $p$. The further assumption of an approximately universal low-energy effective strong coupling leads to relationships between the coefficients $A$ for different observables. Results on $1/Q^2$ corrections to deep inelastic structure functions and $1/Q$ corrections to event shapes are presented and compared with experiment. Shape variables that could be free of $1/Q$ and $\\as(Q^2)/Q$ corrections are suggested.

  8. Ordering and Dynamics of Vibrated Hard Squares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee Walsh; Narayanan Menon

    2015-10-02

    We study an experimental system of hard granular squares in two dimensions, energized by vibration. The interplay of order in the orientations and positions of anisotropic particles allows for a rich set of phases. We measure the structure and dynamics of steady states as a function of particle density. This allows us to identify a progression of phases in which a low density isotropic fluid gives way to a phase with tetratic orientational order, short-range translational correlations, and slowed rotational dynamics. In this range of density we also observe a coupling between the orientational order and bond-orientational order. At higher densities, the particles freeze into a translationally and orientationally ordered square crystalline phase in which translational diffusion is suppressed.

  9. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Emerson, John Allen; Bahr, David F.; Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas; Adams, David Price; Yeager,John; Nyugen, Thao D.; Corona, Edmundo; Kennedy, Marian S.; Cordill, Megan J.

    2009-09-01

    Development of flexible thin film systems for biomedical, homeland security and environmental sensing applications has increased dramatically in recent years [1,2,3,4]. These systems typically combine traditional semiconductor technology with new flexible substrates, allowing for both the high electron mobility of semiconductors and the flexibility of polymers. The devices have the ability to be easily integrated into components and show promise for advanced design concepts, ranging from innovative microelectronics to MEMS and NEMS devices. These devices often contain layers of thin polymer, ceramic and metallic films where differing properties can lead to large residual stresses [5]. As long as the films remain substrate-bonded, they may deform far beyond their freestanding counterpart. Once debonded, substrate constraint disappears leading to film failure where compressive stresses can lead to wrinkling, delamination, and buckling [6,7,8] while tensile stresses can lead to film fracture and decohesion [9,10,11]. In all cases, performance depends on film adhesion. Experimentally it is difficult to measure adhesion. It is often studied using tape [12], pull off [13,14,15], and peel tests [16,17]. More recent techniques for measuring adhesion include scratch testing [18,19,20,21], four point bending [22,23,24], indentation [25,26,27], spontaneous blisters [28,29] and stressed overlayers [7,26,30,31,32,33]. Nevertheless, sample design and test techniques must be tailored for each system. There is a large body of elastic thin film fracture and elastic contact mechanics solutions for elastic films on rigid substrates in the published literature [5,7,34,35,36]. More recent work has extended these solutions to films on compliant substrates and show that increasing compliance markedly changes fracture energies compared with rigid elastic solution results [37,38]. However, the introduction of inelastic substrate response significantly complicates the problem [10,39,40]. As a result, our understanding of the critical relationship between adhesion, properties, and fracture for hard films on compliant substrates is limited. To address this issue, we integrated nanomechanical testing and mechanics-based modeling in a program to define the critical relationship between deformation and fracture of nanoscale films on compliant substrates. The approach involved designing model film systems and employing nano-scale experimental characterization techniques to isolate effects of compliance, viscoelasticity, and plasticity on deformation and fracture of thin hard films on substrates that spanned more than two orders of compliance magnitude exhibit different interface structures, have different adhesion strengths, and function differently under stress. The results of this work are described in six chapters. Chapter 1 provides the motivation for this work. Chapter 2 presents experimental results covering film system design, sample preparation, indentation response, and fracture including discussion on the effects of substrate compliance on fracture energies and buckle formation from existing models. Chapter 3 describes the use of analytical and finite element simulations to define the role of substrate compliance and film geometry on the indentation response of thin hard films on compliant substrates. Chapter 4 describes the development and application of cohesive zone model based finite element simulations to determine how substrate compliance affects debond growth. Chapter 5 describes the use of molecular dynamics simulations to define the effects of substrate compliance on interfacial fracture of thin hard tungsten films on silicon substrates. Chapter 6 describes the Workshops sponsored through this program to advance understanding of material and system behavior.

  10. Transverse pulse shaping and optimization of a tapered hard X...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transverse pulse shaping and optimization of a tapered hard X-ray free electron laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transverse pulse shaping and optimization...

  11. Adaptive Rejection of Narrow Band Disturbance in Hard Disk Drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Qixing

    2009-01-01

    on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Monterey, CA, pp.13-C. Bi. Hard Disk Drive: Mechatronics and Control. CRC Press,new servo method in mechatronics. Trans. Of Japanese Society

  12. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Raj N. (Downers Grove, IL); Dusek, Joseph T. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1983-06-21

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H.sub.2 and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55-65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  13. Deposition of polyaniline film onto porous silicon layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhutik, V.P.; Martinez-Duart, J.M. [Univ. of Madrid, (Spain); Callegja, R.D.; Matveeva, E.M. [Polytechnical Univ. of Valencia, (Spain)

    1993-12-31

    Presently porous silicon (PS) layers are being considered a promising visible light emitting sources. Current research concentrates on the understanding of the nature of the light emission and the development of practical luminescent devices. The last goal is to find an appropriate solid contact to the rough surface of PS layers to ensure high electric conductivity and transparency. The aim of this work is to study the deposition of polyaniline (PANI) films onto porous silicon layers as an alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) as the electrode.

  14. Oxide-dispersion strengthening of porous powder metalurgy parts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthening of porous metal articles includes the incorporation of dispersoids of metallic oxides in elemental metal powder particles. Porous metal articles, such as filters, are fabricated using conventional techniques (extrusion, casting, isostatic pressing, etc.) of forming followed by sintering and heat treatments that induce recrystallization and grain growth within powder grains and across the sintered grain contact points. The result is so-called "oxide dispersion strengthening" which imparts, especially, large increases in creep (deformation under constant load) strength to the metal articles.

  15. Kolmogorov Dispersion for Turbulence in Porous Media: A Conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bikas K. Chakrabarti

    2006-12-26

    We will utilise the self-avoiding walk (SAW) mapping of the vortex line conformations in turbulence to get the Kolmogorov scale dependence of energy dispersion from SAW statistics, and the knowledge of the disordered fractal geometries on the SAW statistics. These will give us the Kolmogorov energy dispersion exponent value for turbulence in porous media in terms of the size exponent for polymers in the same. We argue that the exponent value will be somewhat less than 5/3 for turbulence in porous media.

  16. Displacement of oil from porous material with carbonated water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yadav, Jagjit Singh

    1967-01-01

    DISPLACEMENT OF OIL FROM POROUS MATERIAL WITH CARBONATED WATER A Thesis By JAGJIT S. YADAV Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1967 Ma/or Sub)act; Petroleum Engineering DISPLACEMENT OF OIL FROM POROUS MATERIAL WITH CARBONATED WATER A Thesis By JAGJIT ST YADAV Approved as to style and content by: ( ai an of Committee) cZ&-& 3~ ~" (Head of Department) (Member) (Member...

  17. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, S.W.

    1997-02-25

    Disclosed is an illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

  18. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, S.W.

    1998-06-16

    An illumination source is disclosed comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

  19. Bending Creep Test to Measure the Viscosity of Porous Materials during Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messing, Gary L.

    Bending Creep Test to Measure the Viscosity of Porous Materials during Sintering Sang-Ho Lee creep test is proposed for measuring the change in viscosity of a porous material during densification be measured. Experiments with porous Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 beams were used to illustrate the bending creep test

  20. Contractional deformation of porous sandstone: Insights from the Aztec Sandstone, SE Nevada, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossen, Haakon

    Contractional deformation of porous sandstone: Insights from the Aztec Sandstone, SE Nevada, USA Available online 19 March 2015 Keywords: Sevier thrusting Porous sandstone deformation Deformation bands Contractional deformation a b s t r a c t Contractional deformation of highly porous sandstones is poorly

  1. Reheating and Cosmic String Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao-Jun Feng; Xian Gao; Miao Li; Wei Song; Yushu Song

    2008-01-04

    We compute the string production rate at the end of inflation, using the string spectrum obtained in \\lss in a near-de Sitter space. Our result shows that highly excited strings are hardly produced, thus the simple slow-roll inflation alone does not offer a cosmic string production mechanism.

  2. Microwave and hard X-ray imaging observations of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    Microwave and hard X-ray imaging observations of energetic electrons in solar flares: event of 2003 to nonthermal energies are seen via microwave and hard X-ray emission from the solar corona. Imaging sophisticated and fully dedicated solar radio telescope operating at microwave frequencies (17 & 34 GHz) capable

  3. Protection of porous carbon fuel particles from boudouard corrosion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2015-05-26

    A system for producing energy that includes infusing porous carbon particles produced by pyrolysis of carbon-containing materials with an off-eutectic salt composition thus producing pore-free carbon particles, and reacting the carbon particles with oxygen in a fuel cell according to the reaction C+O.sub.2=CO.sub.2 to produce electrical energy.

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Conditional simulations of wateroil flow in heterogeneous porous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhiming

    . The log-transformed intrinsic permeability, soil pore size distribution parameter, and van Genuchten of these processes in order to conduct risk assess- ment and design of cost-efficient remediation (e.g. Abriola 1989 is a complicated mixture of hydrocarbon fluids, brine, porous rock and fractures. The structure of the void space

  5. Bioremediation of Waste in a Porous Medium Changsheng Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chadam, John

    .g., water and carbon dioxide). Bioremediation was first systematically studied by Borden and BedientBioremediation of Waste in a Porous Medium Changsheng Chen Yahoo! Inc., Sunnyvale, CA 94089 and their co-workers [1, 2]. A discussion of the techological and practical aspects of bioremediation can

  6. Phasefield Modeling of Graphite Single Particles And Porous Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    Abstract Graphite is the most commonly used anode material in lithiumion batteries because of excellent Phasefield Modeling of Graphite Single Particles And Porous Electrodes Singlelayer regular of the layered graphite material. We use the same model to fit both singleparticle experimental data

  7. A Java Reinforcement Learning Module for the Recursive Porous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    A Java Reinforcement Learning Module for the Recursive Porous Agent Simulation Toolkit Facilitating Evaluation of free java-libraries for social- scientific agent based simulation, Tobias and Hoffman, 2004 in Repast Genetic Algorithm demo model OpenForecast demo model Java Object Oriented Neural Engine (JOONE

  8. AN ANALYSIS FOR A FORMULATION OF THE POROUS MEDIUM EQUATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fadimba, Koffi B.

    a porous medium, with S the saturation of the invading fluid. In this model, one assumption (the wet phase and the dry phase) occupying entirely the pores of the medium, e.g. water and oil, so , we make the assumption that n = 0, (1..4) where n is the outward unit normal vector to the boundary

  9. Mechanical Properties of Porous-Matrix Ceramic Composites**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zok, Frank

    requirements of high-temperature components for future gas turbine engine technologies becomes realizable composites (CFCCs) in one of two ways. The more conventional approach involves the use of fiber coat- ings, obviating the need for a fiber coating (Fig. 1b). This approach can be viewed as an extension of the porous

  10. Method for the preparation of ferrous low carbon porous material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Curtis Jack

    2014-05-27

    A method for preparing a porous metal article using a powder metallurgy forming process is provided which eliminates the conventional steps associated with removing residual carbon. The method uses a feedstock that includes a ferrous metal powder and a polycarbonate binder. The polycarbonate binder can be removed by thermal decomposition after the metal article is formed without leaving a carbon residue.

  11. Acoustic wave propagation in two-phase heterogeneous porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. I. Osypik; N. I. Pushkina; Ya. M. Zhileikin

    2015-03-19

    The propagation of an acoustic wave through two-phase porous media with spatial variation in porosity is studied. The evolutionary wave equation is derived, and the propagation of an acoustic wave is numerically analyzed in application to marine sediments with various physical parameters.

  12. Infiltration in Porous Media with Dynamic Capillary Pressure: Travelling Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hulshof, Joost

    Infiltration in Porous Media with Dynamic Capillary Pressure: Travelling Waves C. Cuesta # , C to gravity, results in a pseudo­parabolic Burgers type equation. We give a rigorous study of global of study in this paper. We confine ourselves to the particular case of unsaturated groundwater flow, where

  13. Infiltration through porous media W. Hwang and S. Redner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redner, Sidney

    2000; published 24 January 2001 We study the kinetics of infiltration in which contaminant particlesInfiltration through porous media W. Hwang and S. Redner Center for BioDynamics, Center for Polymer Studies, and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 Received 6 September

  14. Numerical assessment of 3-D macrodispersion in heterogeneous porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . [1] Hydrodynamic dispersion is a key controlling factor of solute transport in heterogeneous porous.20206. 1. Introduction [2] Hydrodynamic dispersion is a major component of solute transport; Freeze, 1975; Gelhar and Axness, 1983]. The logarithm of permeability Y xð Þ ¼ ln K xð Þð Þ follows

  15. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  16. Author's personal copy Porous layered oxide/Nafion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    fuel cell applications Yeny Hudiono a , Sunho Choi b , Shu Shu a , William J. Koros a , Michael transport through membranes for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. Ó 2008 Elsevier Inc. All September 2008 Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) Polyelectrolyte exchange membrane (PEM) Porous

  17. Microstructured Porous Silica Obtained via Colloidal Crystal Templates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velev, Orlin D.

    Microstructured Porous Silica Obtained via Colloidal Crystal Templates O. D. Velev,* T. A. Jede, R modified colloidal crystals as templates for silica polymerization is reported. 3D close-packed crystals, representing a negative replica of the original colloidal crystal. The size of the pores can be controlled

  18. High-strength porous carbon and its multifunctional applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wojtowicz, Marek A; Rubenstein, Eric P; Serio, Michael A; Cosgrove, Joseph E

    2013-12-31

    High-strength porous carbon and a method of its manufacture are described for multifunctional applications, such as ballistic protection, structural components, ultracapacitor electrodes, gas storage, and radiation shielding. The carbon is produced from a polymer precursor via carbonization, and optionally by surface activation and post-treatment.

  19. Crossover from anomalous to normal diffusion in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. D. A. Aarao Reis; Dung di Caprio

    2015-06-16

    Random walks (RW) of particles adsorbed in the internal walls of porous deposits produced by ballistic-type growth models are studied. The particles start at the external surface of the deposits and enter their pores, in order to simulate an external flux of a species towards a porous solid. For short times, the walker concentration decays as a stretched exponential of the depth z, but a crossover to long time normal diffusion is observed in most samples. The anomalous concentration profile remains at long times in very porous solids if the walker steps are restricted to nearest neighbors and is accompanied with subdiffusion features. These findings are correlated with a decay of the explored area with z. The study of RW of tracer particles left at the internal part of the solid rules out an interpretation by diffusion equations with position-dependent coefficients. A model of RW in a tube of decreasing cross section explains those results by showing long crossovers from an effective subdiffusion regime to an asymptotic normal diffusion. The crossover position and density are analytically calculated for a tube with area decreasing exponentially with z and show good agreement with numerical data. The anomalous decay of the concentration profile is interpreted as a templating effect of the tube shape on the total number of diffusing particles at each depth, while the volumetric concentration in the actually explored porous region may not have significant decay. These results may explain the anomalous diffusion of metal atoms in porous deposits observed in recent works. They also confirm the difficulty in interpreting experimental or computational data on anomalous transport reported in recent works, particularly if only the concentration profiles are measured.

  20. Taxonomy, Anatomy, and Biology of theTaxonomy, Anatomy, and Biology of the Hard ClamHard Clam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Taxonomy, Anatomy, and Biology of theTaxonomy, Anatomy, and Biology of the Hard ClamHard Clam Shellfish Aquaculture Extension Program Cedar Key, FLy, LNST@ufl.edu #12;TaxonomyTaxonomy Kingdom: Animalia in sediment #12;Clam Taxonomy Subclass Heterodonta ­ clam-like with large hinge teeth Order Veneroidae

  1. Aerosol Spray Synthesis of Porous Molybdenum Sulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    catalyst in the petroleum industry.[3] MoS2 has a layered structure with a repeating motif of S, the desulfurization activity of MoS2 is greatly affected by the synthetic technique employed in its production the desulfurization properties. MATERIALS · Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (NH4)2MoS4 from Aldrich (99.97%); used

  2. Boundary layer modeling of reactive flow over a porous surface with angled injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shiling; Fotache, Catalin G.; Hautman, Donald J.; Ochs, Stuart S. [United Technologies Research Center, MS 129-29, 411 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06108 (United States); Chao, Beei-Huan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    An analytical model was developed to investigate the dynamics of nonpremixed flames in a shear layer established between a mainstream flow of fuel-rich combustion products and a porous surface with an angled injection of air. In the model, a one-step overall chemical reaction was employed, together with boundary layer conservation equations solved using similarity solutions. Parametric studies were performed to understand the effects of equivalence ratio, temperature, and mass flow rate of the fuel and air streams on the flame standoff distance, surface temperature, and heat flux at the surface. The analytical model predictions were compared with computational fluid dynamics results obtained using the FLUENT commercial code for both the laminar and the turbulent flow models. Qualitative agreement in surface temperature was observed. Finally, the flame stability limits predicted by the model were compared with available experimental data and found to agree qualitatively, as well. (author)

  3. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-10-22

    The direct gap of the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloy system extends continuously from InN (0.7 eV, in the near IR) to GaN (3.4 eV, in the mid-ultraviolet). This opens the intriguing possibility of using this single ternary alloy system in single or multi-junction (MJ) solar cells of the type used for space-based surveillance satellites. To evaluate the suitability of In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N as a material for space applications, high quality thin films were grown with molecular beam epitaxy and extensive damage testing with electron, proton, and alpha particle radiation was performed. Using the room temperature photoluminescence intensity as a indirect measure of minority carrier lifetime, it is shown that In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N retains its optoelectronic properties at radiation damage doses at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than the damage thresholds of the materials (GaAs and GaInP) currently used in high efficiency MJ cells. This indicates that the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N is well-suited for the future development of ultra radiation-hard optoelectronics. Critical issues affecting development of solar cells using this material system were addressed. The presence of an electron-rich surface layer in InN and In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N (0 < x < 0.63) was investigated; it was shown that this is a less significant effect at large x. Evidence of p-type activity below the surface in Mg-doped InN was obtained; this is a significant step toward achieving photovoltaic action and, ultimately, a solar cell using this material.

  4. Heat treatment optimization in the manufacture of Wilson Rockwell steel hardness test blocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Vincent Tandean

    2009-01-01

    The heat-treatment process in the manufacture of Wilson Rockwell steel hardness test blocks often produces parts which are inconsistent in the mean hardness and hardness uniformity. In this thesis, the sources of variation ...

  5. Nonlinear Dynamics of Capacitive Charging and Desalination by Porous Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biesheuvel, P M

    2009-01-01

    The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by super-capacitors, water desalination and purification by capacitive deionization (or desalination), and capacitive extraction of renewable energy from a salinity difference. Here, we present a unified mean-field theory for capacitive charging and desalination by ideally polarizable porous electrodes (without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions) in the limit of thin double layers (compared to typical pore dimensions). We illustrate the theory in the case of a dilute, symmetric, binary electrolyte using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model of the double layer, for which simple formulae are available for salt adsorption and capacitive charging of the diffuse part of the double layer. We solve the full GCS mean-field theory numerically for realistic parameters in capacitive deionization, and we derive reduced models for two limiting regimes wi...

  6. Modeling Methane Adsorption in Interpenetrating Porous Polymer Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, RL; Shahrak, MN; Swisher, JA; Simon, CM; Sculley, JP; Zhou, HC; Smit, B; Haranczyk, M

    2013-10-03

    Porous polymer networks (PPNs) are a class of porous materials of particular interest in a variety of energy-related applications because of their stability, high surface areas, and gas uptake capacities. Computationally derived structures for five recently synthesized PPN frameworks, PPN-2, -3, -4, -5, and -6, were generated for various topologies, optimized using semiempirical electronic structure methods, and evaluated using classical grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. We show that a key factor in modeling the methane uptake performance of these materials is whether, and how, these material frameworks interpenetrate and demonstrate a computational approach for predicting the presence, degree, and nature of interpenetration in PPNs that enables the reproduction of experimental adsorption data.

  7. Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep (Bozeman, MT) [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  8. Methods for making a porous nuclear fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L; Williams, Brian E; Benander, Robert E

    2014-12-30

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  9. Porous protective solid phase micro-extractor sheath

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, Brian D.; Randich, Erik

    2005-03-29

    A porous protective sheath for active extraction media used in solid phase microextraction (SPME). The sheath permits exposure of the media to the environment without the necessity of extending a fragile coated fiber from a protective tube or needle. Subsequently, the sheath can pierce and seal with GC-MS septums, allowing direct injection of samples into inlet ports of analytical equipment. Use of the porous protective sheath, within which the active extraction media is contained, mitigates the problems of: 1) fiber breakage while the fiber is extended during sampling, 2) active media coating loss caused by physical contact of the bare fiber with the sampling environment; and 3) coating slough-off during fiber extension and retraction operations caused by rubbing action between the fiber and protective needle or tube.

  10. The Uniaxial Tensile Response of Porous and Microcracked Ceramic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Amit; Shyam, Amit; Watkins, Thomas R; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Stafford, Randall; Hemker, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The uniaxial tensile stress-strain behavior of three porous ceramic materials was determined at ambient conditions. Test specimens in the form of thin beams were obtained from the walls of diesel particulate filter honeycombs and tested using a microtesting system. A digital image correlation technique was used to obtain full-field 2D in-plane surface displacement maps during tensile loading, and in turn, the 2D strains obtained from displacement fields were used to determine the Secant modulus, Young s modulus and initial Poisson s ratio of the three porous ceramic materials. Successive unloading-reloading experiments were performed at different levels of stress to decouple the linear elastic, anelastic and inelastic response in these materials. It was found that the stress-strain response of these materials was non-linear and that the degree of nonlinearity is related to the initial microcrack density and evolution of damage in the material.

  11. Pool resolution is NP-hard to recognize

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buss, Samuel R.

    2009-01-01

    2001) 11. Van Gelder, A. : Pool resolution and its relationvariables x 1 , . . . , x k . Pool resolution is NP-hard towill prove that R is a valid pool resolution refutation iff

  12. The Ulysses Catalog of Solar Hard X-Ray Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tranquille, C.; Hurley, K.; Hudson, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Sturrock, P.A. (ed. ) Solar Flares: A Monograph from SkylabSmith E.V.P. : 1963, Solar Flares, Macmillan, New York.Catalog of Solar Hard X-Ray Flares Table 1 (Continued. )

  13. Multi-Scale Indentation Hardness Testing; A Correlation and Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Damon W.

    2010-01-20

    broad hardness range. Initially, this research may impact the pipeline division of the petroleum industry by providing a correlation to the Vickers scale for nanoindentation testing of microstructural features. This thesis may also provide a research...

  14. Swimming Upstream: The Hard Politics of Health Reform in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelman, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The Hard Politics of Health Reform in California June 2009Report on State Health Access Reform,” Health Affairs, WebPolicy in State Health Reform,” Zelman, W. A. , and Melamed,

  15. Buoyancy driven dispersion in a layered porous rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farcas, Adrian; Woods, Andrew W.

    2015-02-12

    for example from a radioactive leak in a geological waste repository (Woods and Norris, 2010). One key challenge associated with modelling buoyancy driven flows in real rocks is the complex layering, on a range of length scales. In order to describe flows... ) Scaling, self-similarity and intermediate asymptotics. CUP, Cambridge. Bear, J. (1972) Dynamics of fluids in porous media. Elsevier. Bear, J., and Cheng A.H.-D (2010) Modeling groundwater flow and contaminant transport. Springer. Bijelic, J., Muggeridge A...

  16. ENCAPSULATION OF PALLADIUM IN POROUS WALL HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heung, L; George Wicks, G; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-09

    A new encapsulation method was investigated in an attempt to develop an improved palladium packing material for hydrogen isotope separation. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres (PWHGMs) were produced by using a flame former, heat treating and acid leaching. The PWHGMs were then filled with palladium salt using a soak-and-dry process. The palladium salt was reduced at high temperature to leave palladium inside the microspheres.

  17. Flow of pH-responsive microcapsules in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gun, Wei Jin; Routh, Alexander F.

    2014-11-20

    blocked. 2 Keywords: Encapsulation; Enhanced oil recovery; Triggered release; Porous media 1.Introduction Micro-capsules are micron-sized particles. They comprise a shell, encapsulating an active ingredient, in the core. The shell acts as a barrier... ). Other examples include the encapsulation of astaxanthin, a food supplement, which showed minimal heat degradation compared to free astaxanthin(Tachaprutinun et al., 2009). Encapsulation is also important in the digital display industry, for example...

  18. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H.; Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T.

    2014-05-15

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  19. Characterizing the noise produced by hard disk drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherniak, Bruce Marshall

    1991-01-01

    CHARACTERIZING THE NOISE PRODUCED BY HARD DISK DRIVES A Thesis by BRUCE MARSHALL CHERNIAK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1991 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering CHARACTERIZING THE NOISE PRODUCED BY HARD DISK DRIVES A Thesis by BRUCE MARSHALL CHERNIAK Approved as to style and content by: Karan L. Watson (Chair of Committee) Hosame Abu-Amara (Member...

  20. Uranium Oxide Aerosol Transport in Porous Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Gerlach, David C.; Scheele, Randall D.; Stewart, Mark L.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Brown, Charles C.; Iovin, Cristian; Delegard, Calvin H.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Buck, Edgar C.; Riley, Brian J.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-23

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the transport of uranium oxide particles that may be present in carbon dioxide (CO2) gas coolant, into the graphite blocks of gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. The transport of uranium oxide in the coolant system, and subsequent deposition of this material in the graphite, of such reactors is of interest because it has the potential to influence the application of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The GIRM is a technology that has been developed to validate the declared operation of graphite moderated reactors. GIRM exploits isotopic ratio changes that occur in the impurity elements present in the graphite to infer cumulative exposure and hence the reactor’s lifetime cumulative plutonium production. Reference Gesh, et. al., for a more complete discussion on the GIRM technology.

  1. Characterizing the acoustic noise generated by hard disk drives and a scheme for detecting noisy hard drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Seuk Bo

    1992-01-01

    to nearly all personal computer systems, and has been identified as one of the more noisy elements in the system. " The research limited its scope on pattern recognition and characteristic feature selection of noise signals for hard disl& drives...

  2. Glass formation in a mixture of hard disks and hard ellipses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen-Sheng Xu; Xiaozheng Duan; Zhao-Yan Sun; Li-Jia An

    2015-05-26

    We present an event-driven molecular dynamics study of glass formation in two-dimensional binary mixtures composed of hard disks and hard ellipses, where both types of particles have the same area. We demonstrate that characteristic glass-formation behavior appears upon compression under appropriate conditions in such systems. In particular, while a rotational glass transition occurs only for the ellipses, both types of particles undergo a kinetic arrest in the translational degrees of freedom at a single density. The translational dynamics for the ellipses is found to be faster than that for the disks within the same system, indicating that shape anisotropy promotes the translational motion of particles. We further examine the influence of mixture's composition and aspect ratio on the glass formation. For the mixtures with an ellipse aspect ratio of $k=2$, both translational and rotational glass transition densities decrease with increasing the disk concentration at a similar rate and hence, the two glass transitions remain close to each other at all concentrations investigated. By elevating $k$, however, the rotational glass transition density diminishes at a faster rate than the translational one, leading to the formation of an orientational glass for the ellipses between the two transitions. Our simulations imply that mixtures of particles with different shapes emerge as a promising model for probing the role of particle shape in determining the properties of glass-forming liquids. Furthermore, our work illustrates the potential of using knowledge concerning the dependence of glass-formation properties on mixture's composition and particle shape to assist in the rational design of amorphous materials.

  3. Pore-Scale Simulation Of Experimentally Realizable, Oscillatory Flow In Porous Rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, John F.

    1999-01-01

    We report new simulations of oscillating flow in porous rock. Our goal is to better understand the frequency dependence of pore-scale fluid motion, which should ultimately

  4. Chemically modified and nanostructured porous silicon as a drug delivery material and device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anglin, Emily Jessica

    2007-01-01

    Sealed Source for Cancer Brachytherapy. Abstracts of Porousnovel approach to brachytherapy in hepatocellular carcinomaSealed Source for Cancer Brachytherapy. Abstracts of Porous

  5. A Numerical Algorithm for Single Phase Fluid Flow in Elastic Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, Richard E.

    algorithm. KEYWORDS: geomechanics, uid ow, elastic deformation, porous media 1 Introduction Mechanical, petroleum, and environmental engineering for several decades. While considering the impact of the rock

  6. High Performance Computing linear algorithms for two-phase flow in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    High Performance Computing linear algorithms for two-phase flow in porous media Robert Eymard High Performance Computing techniques. This implies to handle the difficult problem of solving

  7. Transport in Porous Media 50: 267305, 2003. 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    recovery, exploitation of geothermal energy, storage of radioactive waste, soil pollution, etc. MostTransport in Porous Media 50: 267­305, 2003. © 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed

  8. Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

  9. Monash researchers led by Dr. Dan Li have developed a novel method for converting natural graphite into highly porous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albrecht, David

    natural graphite into highly porous graphene film for advanced applications. Figure 1: illustrates the conversion of inexpensive & abundant graphite into highly porous, mechanically robust conductive films (eg capacitors, batteries and fuel cells) n LCD displays and photovoltaic devices n Composites

  10. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawate, T. [Kwasan and Hida Observatory, Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nishizuka, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Oi, A. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Ohyama, M. [Faculty of Education, Shiga University, 2-5-1 Hiratsu, Otsu, Shiga 1-1, Baba Hikone city, Siga 522-8522 (Japan); Nakajima, H., E-mail: kawate@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, NAOJ, Nobeyama, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2012-03-10

    We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

  11. Metal-assisted chemical etch porous silicon formation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiuling; Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2004-09-14

    A thin discontinuous layer of metal such as Au, Pt, or Au/Pd is deposited on a silicon surface. The surface is then etched in a solution including HF and an oxidant for a brief period, as little as a couple seconds to one hour. A preferred oxidant is H.sub.2 O.sub.2. Morphology and light emitting properties of porous silicon can be selectively controlled as a function of the type of metal deposited, Si doping type, silicon doping level, and/or etch time. Electrical assistance is unnecessary during the chemical etching of the invention, which may be conducted in the presence or absence of illumination.

  12. Method of preparing thin porous sheets of ceramic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swarr, Thomas E. (South Windsor, CT); Nickols, Richard C. (East Hartford, CT); Krasij, Myron (Avon, CT)

    1987-03-24

    A method of forming thin porous sheets of ceramic material for use as electrodes or other components in a molten carbonate fuel cell is disclosed. The method involves spray drying a slurry of fine ceramic particles in liquid carrier to produce generally spherical agglomerates of high porosity and a rough surface texture. The ceramic particles may include the electrode catalyst and the agglomerates can be calcined to improve mechanical strength. After slurrying with suitable volatile material and binder tape casting is used to form sheets that are sufficiently strong for further processing and handling in the assembly of a high temperature fuel cell.

  13. Damage due to salt crystallization in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh Bonn; Francois Bertrand; Daniel Bonn

    2009-06-13

    We investigate salt crystallization in porous media that can lead to their disintegration. For sodium sulfate we show for the first time experimentally that when anhydrous crystals are wetted with water, there is very rapid growth of the hydrated form of sulfate in clusters that nucleate on anhydrous salt micro crystals. The molar volume of the hydrated crystals being four times bigger, the growth of these clusters can generate stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone and lead therefore to damage.

  14. Method of preparing thin porous sheets of ceramic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swarr, T.E.; Nickols, R.C.; Krasij, M.

    1984-05-23

    A method of forming thin porous sheets of ceramic material for use as electrodes or other components in a molten carbonate fuel cell is disclosed. The method involves spray drying a slurry of fine ceramic particles in liquid carrier to produce generally spherical agglomerates of high porosity and a rough surface texture. The ceramic particles may include the electrode catalyst and the agglomerates can be calcined to improve mechanical strength. After slurrying with suitable volatile material and binder tape casting is used to form sheets that are sufficiently strong for further processing and handling in the assembly of a high temperature fuel cell.

  15. NMR studies of metallic tin confined within porous matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charnaya, E. V.; Tien, Cheng; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2007-04-01

    {sup 119}Sn NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin confined within synthetic opal and porous glass. Tin was embedded into nanoporous matrices in the melted state under pressure. The Knight shift for liquid confined tin was found to decrease with decreasing pore size. Correlations between NMR line shapes, Knight shift, and pore filling were observed. The melting and freezing phase transitions of tin under confinement were studied through temperature dependences of NMR signals upon warming and cooling. Melting of tin within the opal matrix agreed well with the liquid skin model suggested for small isolated particles. The influence of the pore filling on the melting process was shown.

  16. The effect of water content on solute transport in unsaturated porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The effect of water content on solute transport in unsaturated porous media Ingrid Y. Padilla, T, Tucson Abstract. The effect of water content on NaCl transport in unsaturated porous media was investigated under steady state flow conditions for water contents ranging between full saturation and 15

  17. Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-97 Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium J. C. Moulu'importance relative des forces de viscosité et des forces capillaires. Abstract. 2014 The velocity of oil ganglia residual oil phase by water injection in a porous medium [1, 2]. These studies have demonstrated

  18. A Markov Random Field model of contamination source identification in porous media flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    A Markov Random Field model of contamination source identification in porous media flow Jingbo Wang A contamination source identification problem in constant porous media flow is addressed by solving the advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a hierarchical Bayesian computation method backward through time. The contaminant

  19. Projectile propulsion through a porous supersonic nozzle with application to airguns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Ronnie David

    1996-01-01

    and DIANA RWS 34, are analyzed to examine the commercially available airgun technologies, and to determine the advantages that may be achieved using a porous barrel. A water analogy experiment shows that a porous barrel can serve as a supersonic nozzle...

  20. Porous Doped Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Anode with Long Cycle Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    for energy storage. Here, we report both experimental and theoretical studies of porous doped silicon in energy storage has stimulated significant interest in lithium ion battery research. The lithium ionPorous Doped Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Anode with Long Cycle Life Mingyuan Ge

  1. Effective Chemical Processes in Porous Media C. Conca, J. I. Diaz, C. Timofte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Díaz, Jesús Ildefonso

    Effective Chemical Processes in Porous Media C. Conca, J. I. D´iaz, C. Timofte Abstract In the book of some chemical processes involving adsorption and reactions arising in porous media. Rigorous proofs of the convergence results are given in the case of linear adsorption rates and linear chemical reactions. The author

  2. Plastic yield surfaces of anisotropic porous materials in terms of effective electric conductivities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevostianov, Igor

    Plastic yield surfaces of anisotropic porous materials in terms of effective electric University, 204 Anderson Hall, Medford, MA 02155, USA Received 10 December 2004 Abstract Plastic yield analysis of a plastic flow in a porous material. Interna- tional Journal of Plasticity 18, 1649­1659] show

  3. On the Effect of Porous Layers on Melting Heat Transfer in an Enclosure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    : melting, porous media, thermal energy storage, natural convection INTRODUCTION Latent heat thermal energy-change materials used in such thermal energy storage devices have a relatively low thermal conductivity, means investigated in detail. The presence of the porous medium can considerably reduce the thermal energy storage

  4. Synthesis of hollow porous nanospheres of hydroxyl titanium oxalate and their topotactic conversion to anatase titania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Synthesis of hollow porous nanospheres of hydroxyl titanium oxalate and their topotactic conversion-step wet chemistry route has been explored to synthesize hollow hydroxyl titanium oxalate nanoscale spheres hydroxyl titanium oxalate nano- spheres and their corresponding non-hollow porous anatase TiO2 nanospheres

  5. Electrochimica Acta 52 (2007) 43174324 Porous current collectors for passive direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    2007-01-01

    Electrochimica Acta 52 (2007) 4317­4324 Porous current collectors for passive direct methanol fuel methanol fuel cell (DMFC) with its cathode current collector made of porous metal foam was investigated did the cell having the conventional perforated-plate current collector with high methanol

  6. Migration mechanism for atomic hydrogen in porous carbon materials Badri Narayanan,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciobanu, Cristian

    Migration mechanism for atomic hydrogen in porous carbon materials Badri Narayanan,1 Yufeng Zhao,2 May 2012) To explain the fast kinetics of H in porous carbon, we propose that the migration relies that the chemisorbed H atoms in car- bon migrate relatively easily, with kinetics much faster than that have been

  7. Effects of Combustor Rig Exposure on a Porous-Matrix Oxide Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zok, Frank

    Effects of Combustor Rig Exposure on a Porous-Matrix Oxide Composite Michael A. Mattoni, James Y composite. The material consists of a porous mullite­alumina matrix and Nextel 720 fibers in an eight for aircraft engines have spurred the development of continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs). Ma- terials

  8. Effects of Thermal Aging on the Mechanical Properties of a Porous-Matrix Ceramic Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zok, Frank

    Effects of Thermal Aging on the Mechanical Properties of a Porous-Matrix Ceramic Composite Eric A of 1000­1200°C in air. The composite of interest derives its damage tolerance from a highly porous matrix-fiber-reinforced ceramic composites (CFCCs). Among the various ceramic com- posites that have been developed to date

  9. Modeling Reactive Flows in Porous Media Peter Lichtner (lead PI), Los Alamos National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Richard

    and reactive transport in porous media. Apply it to field-scale studies of Geologic CO2 sequestrationModeling Reactive Flows in Porous Media Peter Lichtner (lead PI), Los Alamos National Laboratory NCCS Users Meeting March 28, 2007 #12;Introduction Companion to SciDAC-II project, "Modeling

  10. A SHARP INTERFACE REDUCTION FOR MULTIPHASE TRANSPORT IN A POROUS FUEL CELL ELECTRODE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    A SHARP INTERFACE REDUCTION FOR MULTIPHASE TRANSPORT IN A POROUS FUEL CELL ELECTRODE KEITH exchange membrane fuel cell is a highly porous material which acts to distribute reactant gases uniformly perturbation, fuel cell electrodes, free surface. AMS subject classifications. 35B40, 35K55, 76R99, 76S05 1

  11. Retention and entrainment effects: Experiments and theory for porous spheres settling in sharply stratified fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    Retention and entrainment effects: Experiments and theory for porous spheres settling in sharply OF FLUIDS 25, 081701 (2013) Retention and entrainment effects: Experiments and theory for porous spheres of the sphere but does not capture the retention time at the density transition quantitatively. Entrainment

  12. Permeability evolution during progressive development of deformation bands in porous sandstones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Permeability evolution during progressive development of deformation bands in porous sandstones B carried out on large (0.1 m) diameter cores of a porous sandstone in order to investigate the evolution from measured bulk parameters. In a test of the model for Clashach sandstone, the parameters vary

  13. CRYSTAL PRECIPITATION AND DISSOLUTION IN A POROUS MEDIUM: EFFECTIVE EQUATIONS AND NUMERICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    CRYSTAL PRECIPITATION AND DISSOLUTION IN A POROUS MEDIUM: EFFECTIVE EQUATIONS AND NUMERICAL expansions to derive a macroscopic law for crystal dissolution and precipitation in a porous medium and precipitation, are of practical importance in many physical, biological and chemical applications. Macroscopic

  14. Controlling Mechanical Properties of Porous Mullite/Alumina Mixtures Via Precursor-Derived Alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zok, Frank

    Controlling Mechanical Properties of Porous Mullite/Alumina Mixtures Via Precursor-Derived Alumina- ity of a precursor-derived alumina (PDA) in controlling both the modulus and the toughness of mullite on porous mullite/alumina compacts with varying amounts of precursor-derived alumina (PDA) and com- parisons

  15. Use of a porous membrane for gas bubble removal in microfluidic channels: physical mechanisms and design criteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jie; Attinger, Daniel; 10.1007/s10404-010-0592-5

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate and explain a simple and efficient way to remove gas bubbles from liquid-filled microchannels, by integrating a hydrophobic porous membrane on top of the microchannel. A prototype chip is manufactured in hard, transparent polymer with the ability to completely filter gas plugs out of a segmented flow at rates up to 7.4 microliter/s per mm2 of membrane area. The device involves a bubble generation section and a gas removal section. In the bubble generation section, a T-junction is used to generate a train of gas plugs into a water stream. These gas plugs are then transported towards the gas removal section, where they slide along a hydrophobic membrane until complete removal. The system has been successfully modeled and four necessary operating criteria have been determined to achieve a complete separation of the gas from the liquid. The first criterion is that the bubble length needs to be larger than the channel diameter. The second criterion is that the gas plug should stay on the membrane fo...

  16. Transport Coefficients for the Hard Sphere Granular Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aparna Baskaran; James W. Dufty; J. Javier Brey

    2006-12-15

    In the preceding paper, linear response methods have been applied to obtain formally exact expressions for the parameters of Navier-Stokes order hydrodynamics. The analysis there is general, applying to both normal and granular fluids with a wide range of collision rules. Those results are specialized here to the case of smooth, inelastic hard spheres with constant coefficient of normal restitution, for further elaboration. Explicit expressions for the cooling rate, pressure, and the transport coefficients are given and compared with the corresponding expressions for a system of elastic hard spheres. The scope of the results for further analytical explorations and possible numerical evaluation is discussed.

  17. Factors Which May Affect the Hardness of Cottonseed Cake. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Marrs, C. D. (Cecil Douglas)

    1936-01-01

    are shown in Table 19. These results confirm the conclusion that there is no relation between the schleroscope hardness and the crushing strength of the cake. The Impact Test The impact test (5) is made by dropping a standard weight upon the specimen... Impact Machine with the hardness as measured by the ball and crushing tests. The Page Impact Machine is designed to measure the toughness of rock and gravel used for paving roads. The machine is so constructed that a 2 kg. weight is raised and dropped...

  18. JGI Lab Ergo Products Catalog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandre, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Low-temperature thermoplastic pellets mold together quicklymicrowave oven. The thermoplastic will stick to most porous

  19. Graphene Enhances Li Storage Capacity of Porous Single-crystalline Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.; Han, W.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrated that graphene significantly enhances the reversible capacity of porous silicon nanowires used as the anode in Li-ion batteries. We prepared our experimental nanomaterials, viz., graphene and porous single-crystalline silicon nanowires, respectively, using a liquid-phase graphite exfoliation method and an electroless HF/AgNO{sub 3} etching process. The Si porous nanowire/graphene electrode realized a charge capacity of 2470 mAh g{sup -1} that is much higher than the 1256 mAh g{sup -1} of porous Si nanowire/C-black electrode and 6.6 times the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite. This relatively high capacity could originate from the favorable charge-transportation characteristics of the combination of graphene with the porous Si 1D nanostructure.

  20. Multicomponent, multiphase flow in porous media with temperature variation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wingard, J.S.; Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1990-10-01

    Recovery of hydrocarbons from porous media is an ongoing concern. Advanced techniques augment conventional recovery methods by injecting fluids that favorably interact with the oil. These fluids interact with the oil by energy transfer, in the case of steam injection, or by mass transfer, as in a miscible gas flood. Often both thermal and compositional considerations are important. An understanding of these injection methods requires knowledge of how temperature variations, phase equilibrium and multiphase flow in porous media interact. The material balance for each component and energy balance are cast as a system of non-strictly hyperbolic partial differential equations. This system of equations is solved using the method of characteristics. The model takes into account the phase behavior by using the Peng-Robinson equation of state to partition the individual components into different phases. Temperature effects are accounted for by the energy balance. Flow effects are modelled by using fractional flow curves and a Stone's three phase relative permeability model. Three problems are discussed. The first problem eliminates the phase behavior aspect of the problem by studying the flow of a single component as it undergoes an isothermal phase change. The second couples the effects of temperature and flow behavior by including a second component that is immiscible with the original component. Phase behavior is added by using a set of three partially miscible components that partition into two or three separate phases. 66 refs., 54 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Hydraulic properties of adsorbed water films in unsaturated porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.

    2009-03-01

    Adsorbed water films strongly influence residual water saturations and hydraulic conductivities in porous media at low saturations. Hydraulic properties of adsorbed water films in unsaturated porous media were investigated through combining Langmuir's film model with scaling analysis, without use of any adjustable parameters. Diffuse double layer influences are predicted to be important through the strong dependence of adsorbed water film thickness (f) on matric potential ({Psi}) and ion charge (z). Film thickness, film velocity, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity are predicted to vary with z{sup -1}, z{sup -2}, and z{sup -3}, respectively. In monodisperse granular media, the characteristic grain size ({lambda}) controls film hydraulics through {lambda}{sup -1} scaling of (1) the perimeter length per unit cross sectional area over which films occur, (2) the critical matric potential ({Psi}{sub c}) below which films control flow, and (3) the magnitude of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity when {Psi} < {Psi}{sub c}. While it is recognized that finer textured sediments have higher unsaturated hydraulic conductivities than coarser sands at intermediate {Psi}, the {lambda}{sup -1} scaling of hydraulic conductivity predicted here extends this understanding to very low saturations where all pores are drained. Extremely low unsaturated hydraulic conductivities are predicted under adsorbed film-controlled conditions (generally < 0.1 mm y{sup -1}). On flat surfaces, the film hydraulic diffusivity is shown to be constant (invariant with respect to {Psi}).

  2. Direct Imaging of Soft-Hard Interfaces Enabled by Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frenklach, Michael

    Direct Imaging of Soft-Hard Interfaces Enabled by Graphene Zonghoon Lee,*, Ki-Joon Jeon,*, Albert. We show that graphene, a single atomic layer of sp2 -bonded carbon atoms, can be employed capability. Our findings reveal the unique potential of graphene as an ideal support film for atomic

  3. Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS Steven van Dijk Dirk Thierens Mark de in Geographical Information Systems (GIS's). The framework is especially suited for geographical problems since as well. 1 Introduction Geographic Information Systems (GIS's for short) combine a geographical database

  4. Genomes containing Duplicates are Hard to compare (Extended abstract)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chauve, Cedric

    1 Genomes containing Duplicates are Hard to compare (Extended abstract) Cedric Chauve LaCIM, CGL, D and Applications, IWBRA 2006, volume 3992 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 783--790. #12; Genomes)similarity measures between two genomes when they contain duplicated genes. In that case, there are usually two main

  5. GRB 060313: A New Paradigm for Short-Hard Bursts?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roming, P W A; Palshin, V D; Pagani, C; Norris, J; Kumar, P; Krimm, H; Holland, S T; Gronwall, C; Blustin, A J; Zhang, B; Schady, P; Sakamoto, T; Osborne, J P; Nousek, J A; Marshall, F E; Mészáros, P; Golenetskii, S V; Gehrels, N; Frederiks, D D; Campana, S; Burrows, D N; Boyd, P T; Barthelmy, S; Aptekar, R L; Roming, Peter W. A.; Berk, Daniel Vanden; Palshin, Valentin; Pagani, Claudio; Norris, Jay; Kumar, Pawan; Krimm, Hans; Holland, Stephen T.; Gronwall, Caryl; Zhang, Bing; Schady, Patricia; Sakamoto, Takanori; Osborne, Julian P.; Nousek, John A.; Marshall, Frank E.; Meszaros, Peter; Golenetskii, Sergey V.; Gehrels, Neil; Frederiks, Dmitry D.; Campana, Sergio; Burrows, David N.; Boyd, Patricia T.; Barthelmy, Scott

    2006-01-01

    We report the simultaneous observations of the prompt emission in the gamma-ray and hard X-ray bands by the Swift-BAT and the KONUS-Wind instruments of the short-hard burst, GRB 060313. The observations reveal multiple peaks in both the gamma-ray and hard X-ray suggesting a highly variable outflow from the central explosion. We also describe the early-time observations of the X-ray and UV/Optical afterglows by the Swift XRT and UVOT instruments. The combination of the X-ray and UV/Optical observations provide the most comprehensive lightcurves to date of a short-hard burst at such an early epoch. The afterglows exhibit complex structure with different decay indices and flaring. This behavior can be explained by the combination of a structured jet, radiative loss of energy, and decreasing microphysics parameters occurring in a circum-burst medium with densities varying by a factor of approximately two on a length scale of 10^17 cm. These density variations are normally associated with the environment of a mass...

  6. Why is hard to patent an invention? , W. Bein 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bein, Wolfgang

    Why is hard to patent an invention? D. Bein 1 , W. Bein 2 , M. P. Brut 3 and A. M. Cazacu 4 1 employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power

  7. An Improved Pseudorandom Generator Based on Hardness of Factoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    An Improved Pseudorandom Generator Based on Hardness of Factoring Nenad Dediâ??c Boston University@eecs.harvard.edu August 26, 2002 Abstract We present a simple to implement and e#cient pseudorandom generator based base and an exponent shorter than n/2 bits. Our generator is based on results by HÅ¡astad, Schrift

  8. An Improved Pseudorandom Generator Based on Hardness of Factoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    An Improved Pseudorandom Generator Based on Hardness of Factoring Nenad Dedi´c Boston University@eecs.harvard.edu August 26, 2002 Abstract We present a simple to implement and efficient pseudorandom generator based base and an exponent shorter than n/2 bits. Our generator is based on results by H°astad, Schrift

  9. Lyapunov Modes in HardDisk Systems April 2, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyapunov Modes in Hard­Disk Systems April 2, 2004 Jean­Pierre Eckmann 1,2 , Christina Forster 3 the Lyapunov spectrum near the vanishing Lyapunov exponents. To this spectrum are associated ``eigen­directions'', called Lyapunov modes. We carefully analyze these modes and show how they are naturally associated

  10. Knoop Hardness - Apparent Yield Stress Relationship in Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swab, Jeffrey J; LaSalvia, Jerry; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Strong, Kevin T; Danna, Dominic; Ragan, Meredith E; Ritt, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    In Tabor's classical studies of the deformation of metals, the yield stress (Y) and hardness (H) were shown to be related according to H/Y {approx} 3 for complete or fully plastic deformation. Since then it has been anecdotally shown for ceramics that this ratio is <3. Interest exists to explore this further so Hertzian indentation was used to measure the apparent yield stress of numerous ceramics and metals and their results were compared with each material's load-dependent Knoop hardness. The evaluated ceramics included standard reference materials for hardness (silicon nitride and tungsten carbide), silicon carbide, alumina, and glass. Several steel compositions were also tested for comparison. Knoop hardness measurements at 19.6 N (i.e., toward 'complete or fully plastic deformation'), showed that 2 < H/Y < 3 for the metals and 0.8 < H/Y < 1.8 for the glasses and ceramics. Being that H/Y {ne} 3 for the ceramics indicates that Tabor's analysis is either not applicable to ceramics or that full plastic deformation is not achieved with a Knoop indentation or both.

  11. SUSPENSION VIBRATION COMPENSATION USING A MEMS MICROACTUATOR IN HARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horowitz, Roberto

    SUSPENSION VIBRATION COMPENSATION USING A MEMS MICROACTUATOR IN HARD DISK DRIVES Tsung-Lin Chen Kenn Oldham Yunfeng Li Roberto Horowitz ,1,2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of a prototype MEMS microactuator and vibration sensors, and controller design for suspension vibration

  12. On the Hardness of Pricing Loss-leaders Preyas Popat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yi

    their margin cost. It is shown in [BB06, BBCH07] that by pricing some of the items below cost, the maximumOn the Hardness of Pricing Loss-leaders Preyas Popat New York University popat@cs.nyu.edu Yi Wu IBM Almaden wuyi@us.ibm.com September 30, 2011 Abstract Consider the problem of pricing n items under

  13. Porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells with enhanced anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping, E-mail: zjuwuping@njnu.edu.cn; Shi, Huimin; Lou, Feijian; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Tongge; Zhou, Yiming, E-mail: zhouyiming@njnu.edu.cn; Lu, Tianhong

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • In situ magnesiothermic reduction route for the formation of porous Si@C spheres. • Unique microstructural characteristics of both porous sphere and carbon matrix. • Enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel type of porous Si–C micro/nano-hybrids, i.e., porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells (porous Si@C spheres), has been constructed through the pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and subsequent magnesiothermic reduction methodology by using SiO{sub 2} spheres as precursors. The as-synthesized porous Si@C spheres have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and exhibit enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability compared with bare Si spheres. For example, the porous Si@C spheres are able to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 900.0 mA h g{sup ?1} after 20 cycles at a current density of 0.05 C (1 C = 4200 mA g{sup ?1}), which is much higher than that of bare Si spheres (430.7 mA h g{sup ?1})

  14. Enhancement of thermal stability of porous bodies comprised of stainless steel or an alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bischoff, Brian L. (Knoxville, TN); Sutton, Theodore G. (Kingston, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Adcock, Kenneth D. (Harriman, TN)

    2010-11-09

    A method for treating a porous item constructed of metal powder, such as a powder made of Series 400 stainless steel, involves a step of preheating the porous item to a temperature of between about 700 and 900.degree. C. degrees in an oxidizing atmosphere and then sintering the body in an inert or reducing atmosphere at a temperature which is slightly below the melting temperature of the metal which comprises the porous item. The thermal stability of the resulting item is enhanced by this method so that the item retains its porosity and metallic characteristics, such as ductility, at higher (e.g. near-melting) temperatures.

  15. Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing Zones in Porous Media – Subsurface Biogeochemical Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colwell, Frederick; Wildenschild, Dorthe; Wood, Brian; Gerlach, Robin; Redden, George

    2014-08-29

    The goal for this research was to understand how best to add compounds to receptive microbial communities in porous media in order to achieve optimal calcite precipitation in a volumetrically significant space and to understand the physiological health of the cells that are responsible for the calcite precipitation. The specific objectives were to: (1) develop better tools for visually examining biofilms in porous media and calcium carbonate precipitation being mediated by microbes in porous media, and (2) demonstrate the effectiveness of using that tool within a flow cell model system.

  16. Supercritical carbon dioxide behavior in porous silica aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciccariello, Salvino [Universita di Padova; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the tails of the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) intensities relevant to samples formed by porous silica and carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 0 to 20 MPa and at temperatures of 308 and 353 K confirms that the CO2 fluid must be treated as a two-phase system. The first of these phases is formed by the fluid closer to the silica wall than a suitable distance [delta] and the second by the fluid external to this shell. The sample scattering-length densities and shell thicknesses are determined by the Porod invariants and the oscillations observed in the Porod plots of the SANS intensities. The resulting matter densities of the shell regions (thickness 15-35 {angstrom}) are approximately equal, while those of the outer regions increase with pressure and become equal to the bulk CO2 at the higher pressures only in the low-temperature case.

  17. Simulation of a Heat Transfer in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juergen Geiser

    2012-05-11

    We are motivated to model a heat transfer to a multiple layer regime and their optimization for heat energy resources. Such a problem can be modeled by a porous media with different phases (liquid and solid). The idea arose of a geothermal energy reservoir which can be used by cities, e.g. Berlin. While hot ground areas are covered to most high populated cites, the energy resources are important and a shift to use such resources are enormous. We design a model of the heat transport via the flow of water through the heterogeneous layer of the underlying earth sediments. We discuss a multiple layer model, based on mobile and immobile zones. Such numerical simulations help to economize on expensive physical experiments and obtain control mechanisms for the delicate heating process.

  18. Centrifuge Techniques and Apparatus for Transport Experiments in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earl D. Mattson; Carl D. Paler; Robert W. Smith; Markus Flury

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes experimental approaches and apparatus that we have developed to study solute and colloid transport in porous media using Idaho National Laboratory's 2-m radius centrifuge. The ex-perimental techniques include water flux scaling with applied acceleration at the top of the column and sub-atmospheric pressure control at the column base, automation of data collection, and remote experimental con-trol over the internet. These apparatus include a constant displacement piston pump, a custom designed liquid fraction collector based on switching valve technology, and modified moisture monitoring equipment. Suc-cessful development of these experimental techniques and equipment is illustrated through application to transport of a conservative tracer through unsaturated sand column, with centrifugal acceleration up to 40 gs. Development of such experimental equipment that can withstand high accelerations enhances the centrifuge technique to conduct highly controlled unsaturated solute/colloid transport experiments and allows in-flight liquid sample collection of the effluent.

  19. Heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous cathodes of solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Y; Bertei, A; Qi, C; Mohanram, A; Pietras, J D; Bazant, M Z

    2014-01-01

    A general physics-based model is developed for heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous electrodes and used to predict and interpret the impedance of solid oxide fuel cells. This model describes the coupled processes of oxygen gas dissociative adsorption and surface diffusion of the oxygen intermediate to the triple phase boundary, where charge transfer occurs. The model accurately captures the Gerischer-like frequency dependence and the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the impedance of symmetric cathode cells. Digital image analysis of the microstructure of the cathode functional layer in four different cells directly confirms the predicted connection between geometrical properties and the impedance response. As in classical catalysis, the electrocatalytic activity is controlled by an effective Thiele modulus, which is the ratio of the surface diffusion length (mean distance from an adsorption site to the triple phase boundary) to the surface boundary layer length (square root of surface diffusivity div...

  20. Gravity currents in a porous medium at an inclined plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vella, D; Huppert, Herbert E.; Vella, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    We consider the release from a point source of relatively heavy fluid into a porous saturated medium above an impermeable slope. We consider the case where the volume of the resulting gravity current increases with time like $t^\\alpha$ and show that for $\\alpha3$, this situation is reversed with spreading occurring predominantly downslope for short times. The governing equations admit similarity solutions whose scaling behaviour we determine, with the full similarity form being evaluated by numerical computations of the governing partial differential equation. We find that the results of these analyses are in good quantitative agreement with a series of laboratory experiments. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of our work for the sequestration of carbon dioxide in aquifers with a sloping, impermeable cap.

  1. Fuel cell with interdigitated porous flow-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is formed with an improved system for distributing gaseous reactants to the membrane surface. A PEM fuel cell has an ionic transport membrane with opposed catalytic surfaces formed thereon and separates gaseous reactants that undergo reactions at the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The fuel cell may also include a thin gas diffusion layer having first and second sides with a first side contacting at least one of the catalytic surfaces. A macroporous flow-field with interdigitated inlet and outlet reactant channels contacts the second side of the thin gas diffusion layer for distributing one of the gaseous reactants over the thin gas diffusion layer for transport to an adjacent one of the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The porous flow field may be formed from a hydrophilic material and provides uniform support across the backside of the electrode assembly to facilitate the use of thin backing layers.

  2. Fuel cell with interdigitated porous flow-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, M.S.

    1997-06-24

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is formed with an improved system for distributing gaseous reactants to the membrane surface. A PEM fuel cell has an ionic transport membrane with opposed catalytic surfaces formed thereon and separates gaseous reactants that undergo reactions at the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The fuel cell may also include a thin gas diffusion layer having first and second sides with a first side contacting at least one of the catalytic surfaces. A macroporous flow-field with interdigitated inlet and outlet reactant channels contacts the second side of the thin gas diffusion layer for distributing one of the gaseous reactants over the thin gas diffusion layer for transport to an adjacent one of the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The porous flow field may be formed from a hydrophilic material and provides uniform support across the backside of the electrode assembly to facilitate the use of thin backing layers. 9 figs.

  3. Steam drying of products containing solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pothmann, E.; Schluender, E.U. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1995-12-31

    Drying experiments with single, porous spheres wetted with mixtures of 2-propanol and water were performed using superheated steam, air, or steam-air mixtures as drying agent. Both the drying rate and the moisture composition were determined experimentally for different temperatures and compositions of the drying agent and for different initial compositions of the moisture. It is shown that evaporation of 2-propanol is enhanced by using superheated steam as drying agent instead of air due to steam condensing on the sample. While the overall drying rate increases with rising steam temperature, the evaporation rate of 2-propanol is hardly affected. When drying samples containing mixtures of 2-propanol and water, internal boiling can occur depending on the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Vapor generated inside the sample may cause mechanical dewatering of the sample which greatly increases the drying rate.

  4. Development of diesel particulate filter made of porous metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunuma, Kenji; Ihara, Tomohiko; Hanamoto, Yuichi; Nakajima, Shiro; Okamoto, Satoru

    1996-09-01

    Pollution is worsening in cities. The exhaust gas from vehicles is the main cause of air pollution in cities. The major drawback of the diesel engine is the Particulate Matter (PM) contained in the exhaust fumes which is also said to lead to cancer. For about 20 years many tests have been conducted in order to reduce PM in diesel exhaust gas. However the exhaust gas in present diesel engines contains a significant amount of PM. This is because there is no practical material for the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Conventional ceramic materials have problems such as cracking and melting during regeneration and conventional metal materials lack adequate corrosion resistance for practical use. The authors present a new type of DPF made of metal porous matter (Celmet) which is designed with a thermal construction and simple control system in order to solve the problem of diesel exhaust gas. As metal porous matter has low pressure loss per unit filter area during filtering, two-cylinder filters have similar trapping performance to the honeycomb type filter such as pressure loss and trapping efficiency, In this paper, 2,800--3,400cc diesel engines were used. Then a cycle of collection and regeneration with an electric heater and 12V battery was performed under several conditions on the engine bench and trapping efficiency and pressure loss were measured. It was confirmed that this new type DPF has good practical use in automobiles. Tests on forklifts were also performed. In a simple control system, this DPF can be applied to practical use. It is trouble-free for 6 months. The total performance of DPF for vehicles such as forklifts and heavy duty vehicles and the possibilities for other practical uses was mainly discussed.

  5. Conductive porous scaffolds as potential neural interface materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedberg-Dirk, Elizabeth L.; Cicotte, Kirsten N.; Buerger, Stephen P.; Reece, Gregory; Dirk, Shawn M.; Lin, Patrick P.

    2011-11-01

    Our overall intent is to develop improved prosthetic devices with the use of nerve interfaces through which transected nerves may grow, such that small groups of nerve fibers come into close contact with electrode sites, each of which is connected to electronics external to the interface. These interfaces must be physically structured to allow nerve fibers to grow through them, either by being porous or by including specific channels for the axons. They must be mechanically compatible with nerves such that they promote growth and do not harm the nervous system, and biocompatible to promote nerve fiber growth and to allow close integration with biological tissue. They must exhibit selective and structured conductivity to allow the connection of electrode sites with external circuitry, and electrical properties must be tuned to enable the transmission of neural signals. Finally, the interfaces must be capable of being physically connected to external circuitry, e.g. through attached wires. We have utilized electrospinning as a tool to create conductive, porous networks of non-woven biocompatible fibers in order to meet the materials requirements for the neural interface. The biocompatible fibers were based on the known biocompatible material poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) as well as a newer biomaterial developed in our laboratories, poly(butylene fumarate) (PBF). Both of the polymers cannot be electrospun using conventional electrospinning techniques due to their low glass transition temperatures, so in situ crosslinking methodologies were developed to facilitate micro- and nano-fiber formation during electrospinning. The conductivity of the electrospun fiber mats was controlled by controlling the loading with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Fabrication, electrical and materials characterization will be discussed along with initial in vivo experimental results.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  8. Improving Hardness and Toughness of Boride Composites Based on AIMgB14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Justin Steven Peters

    2007-12-01

    The search for new super-hard materials has usually focused on strongly bonded, highly symmetric crystal structures similar to diamond. The two hardest single-phase materials, diamond and cubic boron nitride (cBN), are metastable, and both must be produced at high temperatures and pressures, which makes their production costly. In 2000, a superhard composite based on a low-symmetry, boron-rich compound was reported. Since then, many advances have been made in the study of this AlMgB{sub 14}-TiB{sub 2} composite. The composite has been shown to exhibit hardness greater than either of its constituent phases, relying on its sub-micron microstructure to provide hardening and strengthening mechanisms. With possible hardness around 40 GPa, an AlMgB{sub 14} - 60 vol% TiB{sub 2} approaches the hardness of cBN, yet is amenable to processing under ambient pressure conditions. There are interesting aspects of both the AlMgB{sub 14} and TiB{sub 2} phases. AlMgB{sub 14} is comprised of a framework of boron, mostly in icosahedral arrangements. It is part of a family of 12 known compounds with the same boron lattice, with the metal atoms replaced by Li, Na, Y or a number of Lanthanides. Another peculiar trait of this family of compounds is that every one contains a certain amount of intrinsic vacancies on one or both of the metal sites. These vacancies are significant, ranging from 3 to 43% of sites depending on the composition. TiB{sub 2} is a popular specialty ceramic material due to its high hardness, moderate toughness, good corrosion resistance, and high thermal and electrical conductivity. The major drawback is the difficulty of densification of pure TiB2 ceramics. A combination of sintering aids, pressure, and temperatures of 1800 C are often required to achieve near full density articles. The AlMgB{sub 14} - TiB{sub 2} composites can achieve 99% density from hot-pressing at 1400 C. This is mostly due to the preparation of powders by a high-energy milling technique known as mechanical alloying. The resulting fine powders have high activity, and Fe from wear debris acts as a sintering aid. Mechanical alloying improves the sinterability of the composite material, it has the same effect on pure TiB{sub 2}. TiB{sub 2} processed by high-energy milling has been found to achieve 99% theoretical density at 1400 C with the addition of {approx}1 wt% Fe. Both the AlMgB{sub 14} - TiB{sub 2} composites and pure TiB{sub 2} produced from these methods have enhanced mechanical properties due to their fine microstructures. These materials show exceptional promise in the field of wear resistance. This includes cutting tools, erosion resistant coatings, and low-friction sliding contacts to name a few. Under certain wear conditions, the composite material can show performance on par with that of current high-end cBN and WC materials tailored for wear resistance. The composite material also exhibits low reactivity with Ti alloys, a pre-requisite for effective machining of these alloys, a trait that few hard materials possess.

  9. The Consistent Kinetics Porosity (CKP) Model: A Theory for the Mechanical Behavior of Moderately Porous Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRANNON,REBECCA M.

    2000-11-01

    A theory is developed for the response of moderately porous solids (no more than {approximately}20% void space) to high-strain-rate deformations. The model is consistent because each feature is incorporated in a manner that is mathematically compatible with the other features. Unlike simple p-{alpha} models, the onset of pore collapse depends on the amount of shear present. The user-specifiable yield function depends on pressure, effective shear stress, and porosity. The elastic part of the strain rate is linearly related to the stress rate, with nonlinear corrections from changes in the elastic moduli due to pore collapse. Plastically incompressible flow of the matrix material allows pore collapse and an associated macroscopic plastic volume change. The plastic strain rate due to pore collapse/growth is taken normal to the yield surface. If phase transformation and/or pore nucleation are simultaneously occurring, the inelastic strain rate will be non-normal to the yield surface. To permit hardening, the yield stress of matrix material is treated as an internal state variable. Changes in porosity and matrix yield stress naturally cause the yield surface to evolve. The stress, porosity, and all other state variables vary in a consistent manner so that the stress remains on the yield surface throughout any quasistatic interval of plastic deformation. Dynamic loading allows the stress to exceed the yield surface via an overstress ordinary differential equation that is solved in closed form for better numerical accuracy. The part of the stress rate that causes no plastic work (i.e-, the part that has a zero inner product with the stress deviator and the identity tensor) is given by the projection of the elastic stressrate orthogonal to the span of the stress deviator and the identity tensor.The model, which has been numerically implemented in MIG format, has been exercised under a wide array of extremal loading and unloading paths. As will be discussed in a companion sequel report, the CKP model is capable of closely matching plate impact measurements for porous materials.

  10. Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Extreme Ultraviolet and Hard X-ray ranges have provided for more powerful tools for the investigation of this phenomenon. Detection of hard X-rays in the 20 to 100...

  11. Texas-New Mexico Power Company - Residential, Hard-to-Reach,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Texas-New Mexico Power Company - Residential, Hard-to-Reach, and High-Performance New Homes Programs Texas-New Mexico Power Company - Residential, Hard-to-Reach, and...

  12. IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR FLARE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR...

  13. Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do December 29, 2011 - 1:12pm Addthis Researchers at Argonne National Lab have recently...

  14. GRB 060313: A New Paradigm for Short-Hard Bursts?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter W. A. Roming; Daniel Vanden Berk; Valentin Palshin; Claudio Pagani; Jay Norris; Pawan Kumar; Hans Krimm; Stephen T. Holland; Caryl Gronwall; A lex J. Blustin; Bing Zhang; Patricia Schady; Takanori Sakamoto; Julian P. Osborne; John A. Nousek; Frank E. Marshall; Peter Meszaros; Sergey V. Golenetskii; Neil Gehrels; Dmitry D. Frederiks; Sergio Campana; David N. Burrows; Patricia T. Boyd; Scott Barthelmy; R. L. Aptekar

    2006-08-03

    We report the simultaneous observations of the prompt emission in the gamma-ray and hard X-ray bands by the Swift-BAT and the KONUS-Wind instruments of the short-hard burst, GRB 060313. The observations reveal multiple peaks in both the gamma-ray and hard X-ray bands suggesting a highly variable outflow from the central explosion. We also describe the early-time observations of the X-ray and UV/Optical afterglows by the Swift XRT and UVOT instruments. The combination of the X-ray and UV/Optical observations provide the most comprehensive lightcurves to date of a short-hard burst at such an early epoch. The afterglows exhibit complex structure with different decay indices and flaring. This behavior can be explained by the combination of a structured jet, radiative loss of energy, and decreasing microphysics parameters occurring in a circum-burst medium with densities varying by a factor of approximately two on a length scale of 10^17 cm. These density variations are normally associated with the environment of a massive star and inhomogeneities in its windy medium. However, the mean density of the observed medium (n approximately 10^?4 cm^3) is much less than that expected for a massive star. Although the collapse of a massive star as the origin of GRB 060313 is unlikely, the merger of a compact binary also poses problems for explaining the behavior of this burst. Two possible suggestions for explaining this scenario are: some short bursts may arise from a mechanism that does not invoke the conventional compact binary model, or soft late-time central engine activity is producing UV/optical but no X-ray flaring.

  15. Flash Memory Garbage Collection in Hard Real-Time Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Chien-An

    2012-10-19

    , B.S., National Taiwan University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Riccardo Bettati Due to advances in capacity, speed, and economics, NAND-based ash memory technology is increasingly integrated into all types of computing systems, ranging from... enterprise servers to embedded devices. However, due to its unpredictable up- date behavior and time consuming garbage collection mechanism, NAND-based ash memory is di cult to integrate into hard-real-time embedded systems. In this thesis, I propose a...

  16. Wheat Production in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Lahr, Keith; Merkle, Owen G.; Futrell, M. C.

    1960-01-01

    of the land after har- This permits penetration of summer rains illing of weeds and volunteer wheat. Leav- le stubble as a mulch aids in preventing erosion. These practices fit well into both uous and fallow wheat production. Another I is that of delayed... races of leaf and stem rust. The spikes are awnless and the glumes white. Several other soft wheat varieties are grown on small acreages. These include Atlas 66, Coker 47-27, Austin, Clarkan, Vigo, Blackhawk and KanQueen. HARD RED SPRING WHEAT...

  17. Freezing of parallel hard cubes with rounded edges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthieu Marechal; Urs Zimmermann; Hartmut Löwen

    2012-02-09

    The freezing transition in a classical three-dimensional system of parallel hard cubes with rounded edges is studied by computer simulation and fundamental-measure density functional theory. By switching the rounding parameter s from zero to one, one can smoothly interpolate between cubes with sharp edges and hard spheres. The equilibrium phase diagram of rounded parallel hard cubes is computed as a function of their volume fraction and the rounding parameter s. The second order freezing transition known for oriented cubes at s = 0 is found to be persistent up to s = 0.65. The fluid freezes into a simple-cubic crystal which exhibits a large vacancy concentration. Upon a further increase of s, the continuous freezing is replaced by a first-order transition into either a sheared simple cubic lattice or a deformed face-centered cubic lattice with two possible unit cells: body-centered orthorhombic or base-centered monoclinic. In principle, a system of parallel cubes could be realized in experiments on colloids using advanced synthesis techniques and a combination of external fields.

  18. Mixing-induced precipitation and porosity evolution in porous media Simon Emmanuel, Brian Berkowitz *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Emmanuel

    remain. Such deposi- tional patterns are commonly observed in fractured and high porosity carbonate precipitation in geological formations, the physical parameters that characterize the porous matrix. All rights reserved. Keywords: Reactive transport; Fractures; Specific surface area 1. Introduction

  19. Augmentation of Power Output of Axisymmetric Ducted Wind Turbines by Porous Trailing Edge Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    widnall, sheila

    2014-06-30

    This paper presents analytical and experimental results that demonstrated that the power output from a ducted wind turbine can be dramatically increased by the addition of a trailing edge device such as a porous disk. In ...

  20. Multiscale Methods for Fluid-Structure Interaction with Applications to Deformable Porous Media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald

    2012-10-19

    In this dissertation we study multiscale methods for slowly varying porous media, fluid and solid coupling, and application to geomechanics. The thesis consists of three closely connected results. We outline them and their ...

  1. Electrochemistry and capacitive charging of porous electrodes in asymmetric multicomponent electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biesheuvel, P. M.

    We present porous electrode theory for the general situation of electrolytes containing mixtures of mobile ions of arbitrary valencies and diffusion coefficients (mobilities). We focus on electrodes composed of primary ...

  2. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  3. Porous Carbon Powders Prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Sara E. Skrabalak and Kenneth S. Suslick*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Porous Carbon Powders Prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Sara E. Skrabalak and Kenneth S to the destruction of (relatively) expensive templates. Here, we use ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP)6, after pyrolysis, the

  4. Light emitting diode with porous SiC substrate and method for fabricating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting; Ibbetson, James; Keller, Bernd

    2005-12-06

    A method and apparatus for forming a porous layer on the surface of a semiconductor material wherein an electrolyte is provided and is placed in contact with one or more surfaces of a layer of semiconductor material. The electrolyte is heated and a bias is introduced across said electrolyte and the semiconductor material causing a current to flow between the electrolyte and the semiconductor material. The current forms a porous layer on the one or more surfaces of the semiconductor material in contact with the electrolyte. The semiconductor material with its porous layer can serve as a substrate for a light emitter. A semiconductor emission region can be formed on the substrate. The emission region is capable of emitting light omnidirectionally in response to a bias, with the porous layer enhancing extraction of the emitting region light passing through the substrate.

  5. Bottom-up model of adsorption and transport in multiscale porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    We develop a model of transport in multiscale porous media which accounts for adsorption in the different porosity scales. This model employs statistical mechanics to upscale molecular simulation and describe adsorption ...

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of ion concentration polarization in porous media: The leaky membrane model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dydek, E. Victoria

    The conductivity of highly charged membranes is nearly constant, due to counterions screening pore surfaces. Weakly charged porous media, or “leaky membranes,” also contain a significant concentration of coions, whose ...

  7. Fabrication and characterization of porous NiTi Shape Memory Alloy by elevated pressure sintering 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vandygriff, Eric Layton

    2002-01-01

    have not been adequately developed. Currently, three methods are commonly used for producing porous NiTi SMAs from elemental powders. These methods include conventional sintering, Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS), and sintering...

  8. 3D simulations of an injection test done into an unsaturated porous and fractured limestone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    slopes or the sealing of underground storage sites (hydrocarbon, radioactive and industrial waste to characterize porous and fractured rock environments in which CO2 could be stored. This program focuses

  9. Analytical Solutions for Multicomponent, Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media with Double Contact Discontinuities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orr, F. M. Jr

    This paper presents the first instance of a double contact discontinuity in analytical solutions for multicomponent, two-phase flow in porous media. We use a three-component system with constant equilibrium ratios and fixed ...

  10. The structure and evolution of small-displacement strike-slip faults in porous sandstone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schafer, Kirk Wyatt

    2002-01-01

    The early-evolution of fault structure is inferred from analysis of detailed maps of portions of strike-slip faults with uniform displacements ranging from mm to decimeter in porous quartzose sandstone. Emphasis is on ...

  11. Imaging studies of peripheral nerve regeneration induced by porous collagen biomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tzeranis, Dimitrios Spyridon

    2013-01-01

    There is urgent need to develop treatments for inducing regeneration in injured organs. Porous collagen-based scaffolds have been utilized clinically to induce regeneration in skin and peripheral nerves, however still there ...

  12. Process for forming a porous silicon member in a crystalline silicon member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA); Raley, Norman F. (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  13. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA); Raley, Norman F. (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  14. Porous compaction in transient creep regime and implications for melt, petroleum, and CO2 circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminski, Edouard

    Porous compaction in transient creep regime and implications for melt, petroleum, and CO2 in transient creep regime and implications for melt, petroleum, and CO2 circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B

  15. Macromolecular coatings on porous silicon : applications in drug delivery, biosensing, and composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perelman, Loren Avery

    2008-01-01

    hybrid’ s OT returns to its original value, demonstrating the reversibility of the system through heating-system Figure 4.4 Optical thickness changes of a porous SiO 2 /poly(NIPAM) hybrid upon three consecutive heating/

  16. Porous GaN nanowires synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    nanotube-confined reaction [4], arc discharge [5], laser ablation [6], sublimation [7], pyrolysis [8O3)/ carbons with NH3 produced the large-quantity porous GaN nanowires on the iron (Fe)/nickel (Ni

  17. Charge transfer kinetics at the solid–solid interface in porous electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, Peng

    Interfacial charge transfer is widely assumed to obey the Butler–Volmer kinetics. For certain liquid–solid interfaces, the Marcus–Hush–Chidsey theory is more accurate and predictive, but it has not been applied to porous ...

  18. Geometric Multigrid Methods for Flow Problems in Highly Heterogeneous Porous Media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Youli

    2014-06-05

    In this dissertation, we develop geometric multigrid methods for the finite element approximation of flow problems (e:g:, Stokes, Darcy and Brinkman models) in highly heterogeneous porous media. Our method is based on ...

  19. FLOW AND REACTIVE TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA INDUCED BY WELL INJECTION: SIMILARITY SOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FLOW AND REACTIVE TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA INDUCED BY WELL INJECTION: SIMILARITY SOLUTION C.J. VAN from laboratory batch experiments. Typical examples of isotherms are (see e.g. Freeze and Cherry [FC

  20. Experimental studies on pore wetting and displacement of fluid by CO2 in porous media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xingxun

    2015-06-29

    The study of multiphase flow in porous media is highly relevant to many problems of great scientific importance, such as CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery. Even though significant progress has been made in these ...

  1. A Model for Wave Propagation in a Porous Medium Saturated by a ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Let us consider a porous medium saturated by a mixture of oil and water, and. let So = So(x) and Sw = Sw(x) denote the oil and water saturations, respectively.

  2. Application of spatial correlation functions in permeability estimation of deformation bands in porous rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossen, Haakon

    localization structures in porous sandstones, known as deformation bands, are reported to perturb functions to estimate the porosity and specific surface area in deformed sandstones from high anisotropy with regard to petrophysical properties in deformed sandstones, and demonstrated variations

  3. Effects of mineral spatial distribution on reaction rates in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    on reaction rates in porous media. Pore-scale network models were constructed to represent sandstones mineral phases, with some minerals more reactive than others. For example, many sandstones contain

  4. Facile one-pot synthesis of porphyrin based porous polymer networks...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Facile one-pot synthesis of porphyrin based porous polymer networks (PPNs) as biomimetic catalysts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Facile one-pot synthesis of porphyrin...

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and analysis for determination of porous media properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uh, Jinsoo

    2007-04-25

    Advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging methodologies have been developed to determine porous media properties associated with fluid flow processes. This dissertation presents the development of NMR experimental and analysis methodologies...

  6. Ductile Binder Phase For Use With Almgb14 And Other Hard Ceramic Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Bruce A. (Ankeny, IA); Russell, Alan (Ames, IA); Harringa, Joel (Ames, IA)

    2005-07-26

    This invention relates to a ductile binder phase for use with AlMgB14 and other hard materials. The ductile binder phase, a cobalt-manganese alloy, is used in appropriate quantities to tailor good hardness and reasonable fracture toughness for hard materials so they can be used suitably in industrial machining and grinding applications.

  7. A HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM FOR FORMULATION OF BCS CLASS II DRUGS IN HARD GELATIN CAPSULES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Yun

    A HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM FOR FORMULATION OF BCS CLASS II DRUGS IN HARD GELATIN CAPSULES Gunjan in hard gelatin cap- sules. Several significant challenges are involved in drug- formulation: the active of drug formulations for hard gelatin capsules can present significant challenges [4]. Some

  8. Uniform hardness vs. randomness tradeo#s for ArthurMerlin games Dan Gutfreund

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ta-Shma, Amnon

    , 69978 amnon@post.tau.ac.il. Abstract Impagliazzo and Wigderson proved a uniform hard­ ness vs sequence of results uses the ''Hard­ ness versus Randomness'' paradigm, first suggested by Blum and Micali survey paper on derandomization for more details [21]. All the above mentioned Hardness vs. Random­ ness

  9. Super hard cubic phases of period VI transition metal nitrides: First principles investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khare, Sanjay V.

    and shear modulus for stable phases, potential hard coating materials for cutting tools have been identified July 2008 Keywords: Coatings Elastic properties Hardness Nitrides We report a systematic study B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Hard coatings of many transition metal nitrides have

  10. MEASURE-EENT OF WATER CONTENT I N POROUS MEDIA UNDER GEOTHERMAL FLUID FLOW CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    MEASURE-EENT OF WATER CONTENT I N POROUS MEDIA UNDER GEOTHERMAL FLUID FLOW CONDITIONS for t h e i n - s i t u measurement of water content i n porous media, expressed as a volume f r a c t i o n of t h e pore space; ( 2 ) t o measure water content i n t h e two-phase geothermal f l u i d flow

  11. Electronically and ionically conductive porous material and method for manufacture of resin wafers therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, YuPo J. (Naperville, IL); Henry, Michael P. (Batavia, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

    2008-11-18

    An electrically and ionically conductive porous material including a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material. The thermoplastic binder immobilizes the moieties with respect to each other but does not substantially coat the moieties and forms the electrically conductive porous material. A wafer of the material and a method of making the material and wafer are disclosed.

  12. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy to fluids in porous media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandava, Shanthi Sree

    1991-01-01

    and resolution of those saturations were developed with regards to the imaging method employed. The estimates so developed show that MRI can effectively monitor dynamic displacements for quantitative property estimation. An NMR spin-echo technique... in porous media was conducted with NMR Spectroscopy. A study of the effect of surrounding physical barriers on the diffusion of fluids in porous media was attempted. A Pulsed Gradient Spin-Echo sequence was developed to determine apparent self...

  13. The characterization of porous media by porosity, permeability, formation factor, and mercury injection capillary 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLallen, Dewitt Liggett

    1959-01-01

    , foraetion factor, ead the aercury injection capillary pressure - seturatioa relstioaship. Such correlstioas are of interest not only ia the charecterisetioa of porous asdie froa a theoretical steadpoiat, but else as sa eid ia the iater- pretetion..., it is possible to derive reletioas betweea porosity, poraeebility, foraetioa factor, ead s capillary pressure persaeter. These ideal relstioas differ frca thosecccurring iu actual porous uedia by a faster, er factors, depeudiug ou the deviatiou of the pere...

  14. Electronically and ionically conductive porous material and method for manufacture of resin wafers therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, YuPo J. (Naperville, IL); Henry, Michael P. (Batavia, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

    2011-07-12

    An electrically and ionically conductive porous material including a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material. The thermoplastic binder immobilizes the moieties with respect to each other but does not substantially coat the moieties and forms the electrically conductive porous material. A wafer of the material and a method of making the material and wafer are disclosed.

  15. Photoinitiated grafting of porous polymer monoliths and thermoplastic polymers for microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frechet, Jean M. J. (Oakland, CA); Svec, Frantisek (Alameda, CA); Rohr, Thomas (Leiden, NL)

    2008-10-07

    A microfluidic device preferably made of a thermoplastic polymer that includes a channel or a multiplicity of channels whose surfaces are modified by photografting. The device further includes a porous polymer monolith prepared via UV initiated polymerization within the channel, and functionalization of the pore surface of the monolith using photografting. Processes for making such surface modifications of thermoplastic polymers and porous polymer monoliths are set forth.

  16. The effect of hydrocarbons on the electrochemical potential across porous media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCall, Charles Mark

    1970-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF HYDROCARBONS ON THE ELECTROCHEMICAL POTENTIAL ACROSS POROUS MEDIA A Thesis by CHARLES M. McCALL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1970 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF HYDROCARBONS ON THE ELECTROCHEMlCAL POTENTIAL ACROSS POROUS MEDIA A Thesis by CHARLES M. McCALL Approved as to style and content by: (Head of Committee) (Me be r...

  17. Effect of pore geometry in porous media on the miscibility of crude oil and carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkhosh, Hamed

    1977-01-01

    EFFECT OF PORE GEOMETRY IN POROUS MEDIA ON THE MISCIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL AND CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by HAMED SARKHOSH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECT OF PORE GEOMETRY IN POROUS MEDIA ON THE MISCIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL AND CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by HAMED SARKHOSH Approved as to styie and content by Chai, an of Committee Head...

  18. Syngas production from heavy liquid fuel reforming in inert porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pastore, Andrea

    2010-11-16

    Figure 1.1: U.S. Primary Energy Flow by Source and Sector [1]. els have been investigated, such as biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen, boron, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), Fischer-Tropsch fuel and solar fuels. One of these is hydrogen, the most... be noted that higher energy efficiency itself leads to a reduction in emissions. The absence of mechanical steps also leads to other advantages such as the minimum require- ment of rotating accessories pumps and motors demonstrating a low level of noise...

  19. Composite Pd and Pd Alloy Porous Stainless Steel Membranes for Hydrogen Production and Process Intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Hua Ma; Nikolaos Kazantzis; Ivan Mardilovich; Federico Guazzone; Alexander Augustine; Reyyan Koc

    2011-11-06

    The synthesis of composite Pd membranes has been modified by the addition of a Al(OH){sub 3} graded layer and sequential annealing at high temperatures to obtain membranes with high permeance and outstanding selectivity stability for over 4000 hours at 450°C. Most of the membranes achieved in this work showed H{sub 2} flux well above 2010 DOE targets and in some case, also above 2015 DOE targets. Similar composite membranes were tested in water gas shift reaction atmospheres and showed to be stable with high CO conversion and high hydrogen recovery for over 1000 hours. The H{sub 2} permeance of composite Pd-Au membranes was studied as well as its resistance in H{sub 2}S containing atmospheres. H{sub 2}S poisoning of Pd-based membranes was reduced by the addition of Au and the loss undergone by membranes was found to be almost totally recoverable with 10-30 wt%Au. PSA technique was studied to test the possibility of H{sub 2}S and COS removal from feed stream with limited success since the removal of H{sub 2}S also led to the removal of a large fraction of the CO{sub 2}. The economics of a WGS bundle reactor, using the information of the membranes fabricated under this project and integrated into an IGCC plant were studied based on a 2D reactor modeling. The calculations showed that without a government incentive to impose a CO{sub 2} tax, application of WGS membrane reactors in IGCC would be not as economically attractive as regular pulverized coal plants.

  20. Reactive multilayer synthesis of hard ceramic foils and films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hard ceramic materials such as carbides, borides nd aluminides, particularly in the form of coatings provided on another material so as to improve the wear and abrasion performance of machine tools, for example. The method involves the sputter deposition of alternating layers of reactive metals with layers of carbon, boron, or aluminum and the subsequent reaction of the multilayered structure to produce a dense crystalline ceramic. The material can be coated on a substrate or formed as a foil which can be coild as a tape for later use.

  1. Anisotropic flow generated by hard partons in medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomasik, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Hard partons which are produced copiously in nuclear collisions at the LHC, deposit most of their energy and momentum into the surrounding quark-gluon plasma. We show that this generates streams in the plasma and contributes importantly to flow anisotropies. With the help of event-by-event three-dimensional perfect hydrodynamic simulations we calculate the observable azimuthal anisotropies of hadronic distributions and show that the proposed mechanism is capable of generating non-negligible part of the observed signal. Hence, it must be taken into account in quantitative studies in which one tries to extract the values of viscosities from the comparison of simulated results with measured data.

  2. Anisotropic flow generated by hard partons in medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris Tomasik; Martin Schulc

    2015-01-05

    Hard partons which are produced copiously in nuclear collisions at the LHC, deposit most of their energy and momentum into the surrounding quark-gluon plasma. We show that this generates streams in the plasma and contributes importantly to flow anisotropies. With the help of event-by-event three-dimensional perfect hydrodynamic simulations we calculate the observable azimuthal anisotropies of hadronic distributions and show that the proposed mechanism is capable of generating non-negligible part of the observed signal. Hence, it must be taken into account in quantitative studies in which one tries to extract the values of viscosities from the comparison of simulated results with measured data.

  3. The Capacity-Cost Function of a Hard-Constrained In this paper we consider hard-constrained costly channels. By using the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopes, Artur Oscar

    1 The Capacity-Cost Function of a Hard-Constrained Channel Abstract: In this paper we consider hard-constrained costly channels. By using the thermodynamic formalism, we prove thats its capacity-cost function strictly convex and some other related properties. We also obtain estimates for the variations of the cost

  4. Oil displacement through a porous medium with a temperature gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliveira, C L N; Herrmann, H J

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a temperature gradient on oil recovery in a two-dimensional pore-network model. The oil viscosity depends on temperature as, $\\mu_o=exp(B/T)$, where $B$ is a physico-chemical parameter depending on the type of oil, and $T$ is the temperature. A temperature gradient is applied across the medium in the flow direction. Initially, the porous medium is saturated with oil and, then, another fluid is injected. We have considered two cases representing different injection strategies. In the first case, the invading fluid viscosity is constant (finite viscosity ratio) while in the second one, the invading fluid is inviscid (infinite viscosity ratio). Our results show that, for the case of finite viscosity ratio, recovery increases with $\\Delta T$ independently on strength or sign of the gradient. For an infinite viscosity ratio, a positive temperature gradient is necessary to enhance recovery. Moreover, we show that, for $\\Delta T>0$, the percentage of oil recovery generally decreases (inc...

  5. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governingmore »equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.« less

  6. Colloid suspension stability and transport through unsaturated porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGraw, M.A.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1997-04-01

    Contaminant transport is traditionally modeled in a two-phase system: a mobile aqueous phase and an immobile solid phase. Over the last 15 years, there has been an increasing awareness of a third, mobile solid phase. This mobile solid phase, or mobile colloids, are organic or inorganic submicron-sized particles that move with groundwater flow. When colloids are present, the net effect on radionuclide transport is that radionuclides can move faster through the system. It is not known whether mobile colloids exist in the subsurface environment of the Hanford Site. Furthermore, it is not known if mobile colloids would likely exist in a plume emanating from a Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal site. No attempt was made in this study to ascertain whether colloids would form. Instead, experiments and calculations were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that colloids, if formed, would remain in suspension and move through saturated and unsaturated sediments. The objectives of this study were to evaluate three aspects of colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides as they specifically relate to the LLW Performance Assessment. These objectives were: (1) determine if the chemical conditions likely to exist in the near and far field of the proposed disposal site are prone to induce flocculation (settling of colloids from suspension) or dispersion of naturally occurring Hanford colloids, (2) identify the important mechanisms likely involved in the removal of colloids from a Hanford sediment, and (3) determine if colloids can move through unsaturated porous media.

  7. Combustion performance of porous silicon-based energetic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Benjamin Aaron; Son, Steve F; Asay, Blaine W; Cho, Kevin Y

    2009-01-01

    The combustion performance of oxidizer filled porous silicon(PSi) was studied. PSi samples with diameters of 2.54 cm were fabricated by electrochemical etching. The % porosity of the samples ranged from 55 to 82%. The samples were cut into 3-5 mm strips and filled with the oxidizers NaClO{sub 4} x 1H{sub 2}O, Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} x 4H{sub 2}O, S and perfluoropolyether (PFPE). The filled PSi was then burned by igniting the sample with a hot NiChrome{trademark} wire. The burns were recorded using high speed photography from which bring rates were calculated. That burning rates showed a strong dependency on quality of the oxidizer loading. The % porosity did not appear to have a direct affect on the burning rates for those studied. PSi loaded with NaClO{sub 4} x 1H{sub 2}O produced burning rates that ranged from 216-349 cm/s. PSi loaded with Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub x}x 4 H{sub 2}O had burning rates of 154-285 cm/s. An S filled PSi sample burned a rate of 16 to 290 cm/s, and perfluoropolyether loaded PSi burned at a rate of 1.4 cm/s.

  8. High Temperature Tolerant Ceramic Composites Having Porous Interphases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kriven, Waltraud M. (Champaign, IL); Lee, Sang-Jin (Chonnam, KR)

    2005-05-03

    In general, this invention relates to a ceramic composite exhibiting enhanced toughness and decreased brittleness, and to a process of preparing the ceramic composite. The ceramic composite comprises a first matrix that includes a first ceramic material, preferably selected from the group including alumina (Al2O3), mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2), yttrium aluminate garnet (YAG), yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), celsian (BaAl2Si2O8) and nickel aluminate (NiAl2O4). The ceramic composite also includes a porous interphase region that includes a substantially non-sinterable material. The non-sinterable material can be selected to include, for example, alumina platelets. The platelets lie in random 3-D orientation and provide a debonding mechanism, which is independent of temperature in chemically compatible matrices. The non-sinterable material induces constrained sintering of a ceramic powder resulting in permanent porosity in the interphase region. For high temperature properties, addition of a sinterable ceramic powder to the non-sinterable material provides sufficiently weak debonding interphases. The ceramic composite can be provided in a variety of forms including a laminate, a fibrous monolith, and a fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix. In the laminated systems, intimate mixing of strong versus tough microstructures were tailored by alternating various matrix-to-interphase thickness ratios to provide the bimodal laminate.

  9. Hydrogen Isotope Exchange Properties of Porous Solids Containing Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HEUNG, LEUNGK.

    2004-08-18

    Porous solids such as activated alumina, silica and molecular sieves generally contain significant amounts of hydrogen atoms in the form of H2O or OH even at high temperature and low humidity environment. A significant amount of this hydrogen is available for reversible isotopic exchange. This exchange reaction is slow under normal conditions and does not render itself to practical applications. But if the exchange kinetics is improved this reaction has the potential to be used for tritium removal from gas streams or for hydrogen isotopic separation.The use of catalysts to improve the exchange kinetics between hydrogen isotope in the gas phase and that in the solid phase was investigated. Granules of alumina, silica and molecular sieve were coated with platinum or palladium as the catalyst. The granules were packed in a 2-cm diameter column for isotope exchange tests. Gas streams containing different concentrations of deuterium in nitrogen or argon were fed through the protium saturated column. Isotope concentration in column effluent was monitored to generate isotope break-through curves. The curves were analyzed to produce information on the kinetics and capacity of the material. The results showed that all materials tested provided some extent of isotope exchange but some were superior both in kinetics and capacity. This paper will present the test results.

  10. Porous media compressed air energy storage (PM-CAES): Theory and simulation of the coupled wellbore-reservoir system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    compressed air energy storage (CAES), Energy, 32, 120-127.compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock cavernsflow within aquifer reservoirs of CAES plants, Trans. Porous

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  12. Structure and kinetics in the freezing of nearly hard spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jade Taffs; Stephen R. Williams; Hajime Tanaka; C. Patrick Royall

    2012-06-24

    We consider homogeneous crystallisation rates in confocal microscopy experiments on colloidal nearly hard spheres at the single particle level. These we compare with Brownian dynamics simuations by carefully modelling the softness in the interactions with a Yukawa potential, which takes account of the electrostatic charges present in the experimental system. Both structure and dynamics of the colloidal fluid are very well matched between experiment and simulation, so we have confidence that the system simulated is close to that in the experiment. In the regimes we can access, we find reasonable agreement in crystallisation rates between experiment and simulations, noting that the larger system size in experiments enables the formation of critical nuclei and hence crystallisation at lower supersaturations than the simulations. We further examine the structure of the metastable fluid with a novel structural analysis, the topological cluster classification. We find that at densities where the hard sphere fluid becomes metastable, the dominant structure is a cluster of m=10 particles with five-fold symmetry. At a particle level, we find three regimes for the crystallisation process: metastable fluid (dominated by m=10 clusters), crystal and a transition region of frequent hopping between crystal-like environments and other (m\

  13. Percolation in suspensions of hard nanoparticles: From spheres to needles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanja Schilling; Mark Miller; Paul van der Schoot

    2015-07-07

    We investigate geometric percolation and scaling relations in suspensions of nanorods, covering the entire range of aspect ratios from spheres to extremely slender needles. A new version of connectedness percolation theory is introduced and tested against specialized Monte Carlo simulations. The theory accurately predicts percolation thresholds for aspect ratios as low as 10. The percolation threshold for rod-like particles of aspect ratios below 1000 deviates significantly from the inverse aspect ratio scaling prediction, thought to be valid in the limit of infinitely slender rods and often used as a rule of thumb for nano-fibers in composite materials. Hence, most fibers that are currently used as fillers in composite materials cannot be regarded as practically infinitely slender for the purposes of percolation theory. Comparing percolation thresholds of hard rods and new benchmark results for ideal rods, we find that (i) for large aspect ratios, they differ by a factor that is inversely proportional to the connectivity distance between the hard cores, and (ii) they approach the slender rod limit differently.

  14. Product Design for Energy: An Inverted Pyramid Approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalakrishnan, B.; Alkadi, N. M.; Plummer, R. W.

    2002-01-01

    bgopalak@mall.wvu.edu ABSTRACT The product design function is important within the spectrum of the product life cycle. Manufacturing processes are likely to consume much energy, as evidenced in aluminium and steel industries. The product design... materials such as aluminium and cast iron lend themselves to casting more easily than machining on account of their properties. Greater the hardness of the material more difficult it may be to machine. The product geometry may be critical in terms...

  15. Fluid Dynamic Aspects of the Porous Wetted Wall Protection Scheme for Inertial Fusion Energy Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, S.; Abdelall, F.; Juric, D.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Yoda, M.; Sadowski, D. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)

    2003-05-15

    A numerical and experimental investigation has been conducted to analyze the fluid dynamic aspects of the porous wetted wall protection scheme for inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactor first walls. A level contour reconstruction method has been used to track the three-dimensional evolution of the liquid film surface on porous downward-facing walls with different initial film thickness, liquid injection velocity through the porous wall, surface disturbance amplitude, configuration and mode number, liquid properties, and surface inclination angle. Generalized charts for the computed droplet detachment time, detached droplet equivalent diameter, and minimum film thickness during the transient for various design parameters and coolant properties are presented.In order to validate the numerical results over a wide range of parameters, an experimental test facility has been designed and constructed to simulate the hydrodynamics of downward-facing porous wetted walls. Nondimensionalization of the model shows that water can be adequately used as a simulant to validate the numerical results. Preliminary experimental results show good agreement with model predictions. The results of this investigation should allow designers of conceptual IFE reactors to identify appropriate 'windows' for successful operation of the porous wetted wall protection concept for different coolants.

  16. J/psi production and elliptic flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Taesoo; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Xu, Jun.

    2011-01-01

    Using the two-component model for charmonium production, which includes contributions from both initial hard nucleon-nucleon scattering and from regeneration in the quark-gluon plasma, we study the nuclear modification ...

  17. Issues in strategic management of large-scale software product line development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nivoit, Jean-Baptiste (Jean-Baptiste Henri)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reflects on the issues and challenges large software product engineering managers face. Software is hard to engineer on a small scale, but at a larger scale, engineering and management tasks are even more ...

  18. PROCESS MODELING IN RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING AS A METHOD TO ENHANCE PRODUCT QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    PROCESS MODELING IN RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING AS A METHOD TO ENHANCE PRODUCT QUALITY W.K. Chui, 1 J Transfer Molding (RTM) has drawn interest in recent years as an attractive technique for the manufacture. resin transfer molding (RTM), composite materials, mathematical modeling, porous media flow AMS subject

  19. Formation of Porous Layers by Electrochemical Etching of Germanium and Gallium Arsenide for Cleave Engineered Layer Transfer (CELT) Application in High Efficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fong, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    technique for LM triple junction solar cell grown on porousAnother common triple-junction solar cell utilizes a GaAstechnique for LM triple junction solar cell grown on porous

  20. Dynamic fracture of inorganic glasses by hard spherical and conical projectiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhri, M. Munawar

    2015-02-23

    stream_source_info Chaudhri_Dynamic fracture of inorganic glasses by hard spherical and conical projectiles_2015_Philisophical Transactions A..pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 81626 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream... _name Chaudhri_Dynamic fracture of inorganic glasses by hard spherical and conical projectiles_2015_Philisophical Transactions A..pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Dynamic fracture of inorganic glasses by hard spherical and conical...

  1. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE FLUX SPECTRA OF THE 2 NOVEMBER 1991 SOLAR FLARE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE FLUX SPECTRA OF THE 2 NOVEMBER 1991 SOLAR FLARE CHIK-YIN LEE1,2 and HAIMIN analysed the hard X-ray and microwave flux spectra of the solar flare (BATSE No. 1791) on 2 November 1991 for this study. This paper studies the hard X-ray and microwave spectra of the solar flare on 2 November 1991

  2. Phase Behavior of a Family of Truncated Hard Cubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anjan P. Gantapara; Joost de Graaf; René van Roij; Marjolein Dijkstra

    2014-12-08

    In continuation of our work in [A.P. Gantapara et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 015501 (2013)], we investigate here the thermodynamic phase behavior of a family of truncated hard cubes, for which the shape evolves smoothly from a cube via a cuboctahedron to an octahedron. We used Monte Carlo simulations and free-energy calculations to establish the full phase diagram. This phase diagram exhibits a remarkable richness in crystal and mesophase structures, depending sensitively on the precise particle shape. In addition, we examined in detail the nature of the plastic crystal (rotator) phases that appear for intermediate densities and levels of truncation. Our results allow us to probe the relation between phase behavior and building-block shape and to further the understanding of rotator phases. Furthermore, the phase diagram presented here should prove instrumental for guiding future experimental studies on similarly-haped nanoparticles and the creation of new materials.

  3. Fourth virial coefficients of asymmetric nonadditive hard-disc mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franz Saija; Andrés Santos; Santos B. Yuste; Mariano López de Haro

    2012-05-16

    The fourth virial coefficient of asymmetric nonadditive binary mixtures of hard disks is computed with a standard Monte Carlo method. Wide ranges of size ratio ($0.05\\leq q\\leq 0.95$) and nonadditivity ($-0.5\\leq \\Delta\\leq 0.5$) are covered. A comparison is made between the numerical results and those that follow from some theoretical developments. The possible use of these data in the derivation of new equations of state for these mixtures is illustrated by considering a rescaled virial expansion truncated to fourth order. The numerical results obtained using this equation of state are compared with Monte Carlo simulation data in the case of a size ratio $q=0.7$ and two nonadditivities $\\Delta=\\pm 0.2$.

  4. Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHargue, Carl J. (Farragut, TN)

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: A tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

  5. Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHargue, C.J.

    1981-10-21

    In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: a tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

  6. Bent-housing turbodrills improve hard-formation directional drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koot, L.; Koole, K. (Shell U.K. Exploration and Production, Lowestoft (United Kingdom)); Gaynor, T. (Neyrfor-Weir Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

    1993-02-15

    Improvements in the design of turbine-powered downhole motors allowed steerable drilling in a hard formation at a high rate of penetration (ROP). Drilling in this dolomite formation with the rotary or with positive-displacement motors (PDMs) was slow during steering operations. Shell's solution to the steering penetration rate problems was to change the well plans if suitable directional drilling tools weren't available. Where possible, the wells were designed with the Zechstein interval drilled as a tangent section with non-steerable turbodrills. However, a better solution was the use of a steerable turbodrill-a tool unavailable on the market at that time. The paper describes motor development, a field test, and the design and operation of the motor.

  7. Lyapunov Mode Dynamics in Hard-Disk Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. J. Robinson; G. P. Morriss

    2007-09-20

    The tangent dynamics of the Lyapunov modes and their dynamics as generated numerically - {\\it the numerical dynamics} - is considered. We present a new phenomenological description of the numerical dynamical structure that accurately reproduces the experimental data for the quasi-one-dimensional hard-disk system, and shows that the Lyapunov mode numerical dynamics is linear and separate from the rest of the tangent space. Moreover, we propose a new, detailed structure for the Lyapunov mode tangent dynamics, which implies that the Lyapunov modes have well-defined (in)stability in either direction of time. We test this tangent dynamics and its derivative properties numerically with partial success. The phenomenological description involves a time-modal linear combination of all other Lyapunov modes on the same polarization branch and our proposed Lyapunov mode tangent dynamics is based upon the form of the tangent dynamics for the zero modes.

  8. From Lyapunov modes to the exponents for hard disk systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tony Chung; Daniel Truant; Gary P. Morriss

    2009-04-08

    We demonstrate the preservation of the Lyapunov modes by the underlying tangent space dynamics of hard disks. This result is exact for the zero modes and correct to order $\\epsilon$ for the transverse and LP modes where $\\epsilon$ is linear in the mode number. For sufficiently large mode numbers the dynamics no longer preserves the mode structure. We propose a Gram-Schmidt procedure based on orthogonality with respect to the centre space that determines the values of the Lyapunov exponents for the modes. This assumes a detailed knowledge of the modes, but from that predicts the values of the exponents from the modes. Thus the modes and the exponents contain the same information.

  9. Radiation-hard electrical coil and method for its fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grieggs, R.J.; Blake, R.D.; Gac, F.D.

    1982-06-29

    A radiation-hard insulated electrical coil and method for making the same are disclosed. In accordance with the method, a conductor, preferably copper, is wrapped with an aluminum strip and then tightly wound into a coil. The aluminum-wrapped coil is then annealed to relax the conductor in the coiled configuration. The annealed coil is then immersed in an alkaline solution to dissolve the aluminum strip, leaving the bare conductor in a coiled configuration with all of the windings closely packed yet uniformly spaced from one another. The coil is then insulated with a refractory insulating material. In the preferred embodiment, the coil is insulated by coating it with a vitreous enamel and subsequently potting the enamelled coil in a castable ceramic concrete. The resulting coil is substantially insensitive to radiation and may be operated continuously in high radiation environments for long periods of time.

  10. Acoustic wave propagation in a macroscopically inhomogeneous porous medium saturated by a fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent De Ryck; Jean-Philippe Groby; Philippe Leclaire; Walter Lauriks; Armand Wirgin; Claude Dépollier; Zine El Abidine Fellah

    2006-06-08

    The equations of motion in a macroscopically inhomogeneous porous medium saturated by a fluid are derived. As a first verification of the validity of these equations, a two-layer rigid frame porous system considered as one single porous layer with a sudden change in physical properties is studied. A simple wave equation is derived and solved for this system. The reflection and transmission coefficients are calculated numerically using a wave splitting-Green's function approach (WS-GF). The reflected and transmitted wave time histories are also simulated. Experimental results obtained for materials saturated by air are compared to the results given by this approach and to those of the classical transfer matrix method (TMM).

  11. Porous electrode apparatus for electrodeposition of detailed metal structures or microelectronic interconnections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Stewart K. (Danville, CA); Nilson, Robert H. (Cardiff, CA); Hruby, Jill M. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and procedure for performing microfabrication of detailed metal structures by electroforming metal deposits within small cavities. Two primary areas of application are: the LIGA process which manufactures complex three-dimensional metal parts and the damascene process used for electroplating line and via interconnections of microelectronic devices. A porous electrode held in contact or in close proximity with a plating substrate or mold top to ensure one-dimensional and uniform current flow into all mold cavities is used. Electrolyte is pumped over the exposed surface of the porous electrode to ensure uniform ion concentrations at this external surface. The porous electrode prevents electrolyte circulation within individual mold cavities, avoiding preferential enhancement of ion transport in cavities having favorable geometries. Both current flow and ion transport are one-dimensional and identical in all mold cavities, so all metal deposits grow at the same rate eliminating nonuniformities of the prior art.

  12. Formation of bubbly horizon in liquid-saturated porous medium by surface temperature oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2015-01-01

    We study non-isothermal diffusion transport of a weakly-soluble substance in a liquid-saturated porous medium being in contact with the reservoir of this substance. The surface temperature of the porous medium half-space oscillates in time, which results in a decaying solubility wave propagating deep into the porous medium. In such a system, the zones of saturated solution and non-dissolved phase coexist with the zones of undersaturated solution. The effect is firstly considered for the case of annual oscillation of the surface temperature of water-saturated ground being in contact with atmosphere. We reveal the phenomenon of formation of a near-surface bubbly horizon due to the temperature oscillation. An analytical theory of the phenomenon is developed. Further, the treatment is extended to the case of higher frequency oscillations and case of weakly-soluble solids and liquids.

  13. Formation of bubbly horizon in liquid-saturated porous medium by surface temperature oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis S. Goldobin; Pavel V. Krauzin

    2015-10-08

    We study non-isothermal diffusion transport of a weakly-soluble substance in a liquid-saturated porous medium being in contact with the reservoir of this substance. The surface temperature of the porous medium half-space oscillates in time, which results in a decaying solubility wave propagating deep into the porous medium. In such a system, the zones of saturated solution and non-dissolved phase coexist with the zones of undersaturated solution. The effect is firstly considered for the case of annual oscillation of the surface temperature of water-saturated ground being in contact with atmosphere. We reveal the phenomenon of formation of a near-surface bubbly horizon due to the temperature oscillation. An analytical theory of the phenomenon is developed. Further, the treatment is extended to the case of higher frequency oscillations and case of weakly-soluble solids and liquids.

  14. Effect of flow oscillations on axial energy transport in a porous material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, R. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (USA))

    1987-02-01

    It has been shown analytically and experimentally that flow oscillations of a fluid within a channel can enhance the axial transfer of energy. The transport arises from an axial gradient in fluid temperature resulting from having reservoirs at different temperatures at either end of the channel. The present analysis develops relations for axial energy diffusion in a porous medium with oscillating flow. In some devices, such as the Sterling engine, there are regenerators with oscillating flow. Axial transport in the regenerator provides an energy loss; hence it is desirable to determine what factors can limit this diffusion. A regenerator in the form of a porous medium is difficult to model since the flow is continually disrupted by the irregularities of the porous structure. The formulation here will employ an internal heat transfer coefficient that couples the fluid and solid temperatures. The final result shows how the diffusion depends on the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient and the maximum fluid displacement.

  15. A multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for convection heat transfer in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Q; Li, Q

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is developed for simulating convection heat transfer in porous media at the representative elementary volume scale. In the model, a MRT-LB equation is used to simulate the flow field, while another MRT-LB equation is employed to simulate the temperature field. The effect of the porous media is considered by introducing the porosity into the equilibrium moments, and adding a forcing term to the MRT-LB equation of the flow field in the moment space. The proposed MRT-LB model is validated by numerical simulations of several two-dimensional convection problems in porous media. The numerical results predicted by the present MRT-LB model agree well with those reported in the literature.

  16. Preparation and electrochemical properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes-nickel oxide porous composite for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Yanzhen; Zhang Milin . E-mail: dhyzyz@yahoo.com.cn; Gao Peng

    2007-09-04

    Porous nickel oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NiO/MWNTs) composite material was synthesized using sodium dodecyl phenyl sulfate as a soft template and urea as hydrolysis-controlling agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that the as-prepared nickel oxide nanoflakes aggregate to form a submicron ball shape with a porous structure, and the MWNTs with entangled and cross-linked morphology are well dispersed in the porous nickel oxide. The composite shows an excellent cycle performance at a high current of 2 A g{sup -1} and keeps a capacitance retention of about 89% over 200 charge/discharge cycles. A specific capacitance approximate to 206 F g{sup -1} has been achieved with NiO/MWNTs (10 wt.%) in 2 M KOH electrolyte. The electrical conductivity and the active sites for redox reaction of nickel oxide are significantly improved due to the connection of nickel nanoflakes by the long entangled MWNTs.

  17. Evaluation of a robust, diimide-based, porous organic polymer (POP) as a high-capacity sorbent for representative chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of a robust, diimide-based, porous organic polymer (POP) as a high-capacity sorbent A previously described porous organic polymer (NU-POP-1) was evaluated against four representative chemical an activated, impregnated carbon. The ability to remove the highly volatile toxic chemicals ammonia

  18. Two-Sided Comb Poly(amic ester)Poly(propylene oxide) Graft Copolymers as Porous Polyimide Precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Kenneth

    Two-Sided Comb Poly(amic ester)­Poly(propylene oxide) Graft Copolymers as Porous Polyimide. These polymers were thermally cured to produce polyimide/PPO composites. The thermolysis of these polyimide/ PPO composites yielded porous polyimide films with porosities ranging of 4­22.5%. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  19. Catalytic Porous Ceramic Prepared In-Situ by Sol-Gelation for Butane-to-Syngas Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Catalytic Porous Ceramic Prepared In-Situ by Sol-Gelation for Butane-to-Syngas Processing­1859, 2009 Keywords: catalytic porous ceramic, butane-to-syngas processing, catalytic foam, sol-gelation, Rh containing cat- alytic Rh/ceria/zirconia nanoparticles is tested by its catalytic performance for butane

  20. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Liquid Piston Compressor/Expander Using Porous Media Inserts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    or a compressor for compressed natural gas (CNG). Highlights · Porous medias role to improve compres- sor is the predominant contribution to im- provements Keywords: Liquid piston, porous media, gas compression / expansion combined with natural gas in a gas turbine to boost9 combustion e ciency. As a storage device, its e -10

  1. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres as a medium or substrate for storage and formation of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G; Serkiz, Steven M.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Heung, Leung K.

    2014-06-24

    Porous wall hollow glass microspheres are provided as a template for formation of nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, In addition, the carbon nanotubes in combination with the porous wall hollow glass microsphere provides an additional reaction template with respect to carbon nanotubes.

  2. Porous Asphalt Pavement for Stormwater Management The UNH Stormwater Center Web: www.unh.edu/erg/cstev/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porous Asphalt Pavement for Stormwater Management The UNH Stormwater Center Web: www.unh.edu/erg/cstev/ Benefits and Uses Porous Asphalt can be used in replace of traditional stormwater management measures given Quality Treatment 3. Recharges Groundwater to Underlying Aquifers 4. Allows for Reduction of Stormwater

  3. Enhanced room temperature oxidation in silicon and porous silicon under 10 keV x-ray irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Sharon

    Enhanced room temperature oxidation in silicon and porous silicon under 10 keV x-ray irradiation been suggested that gamma irradiation accelerates oxidation of porous silicon.5 Irradiation silicon samples that occurs over three decades of 10 keV x-ray irradiation. II. SAMPLE PREPARATION Silicon

  4. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 40, 35503555, doi:10.1002/grl.50676, 2013 Elastic envelopes of porous sandstones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortin, Jérôme

    of porous sandstones Yves Guéguen1 and Jérôme Fortin1 Received 23 April 2013; revised 11 June 2013; accepted 14 June 2013; published 19 July 2013. [1] In this paper we focus on the case of sandstones for which: Guéguen, Y., and J. Fortin (2013), Elastic envelopes of porous sandstones, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 3550

  5. CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION ASSISTED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION for the first time to monocrystalline Si thin-film solar cells from the porous silicon (PSI) layer transfer for manufacturing high efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells. Industrially feasible epitaxy systems therefore

  6. AIR LUBRICATION IN HARD DISK DRIVE Mechanics of Contact and Lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müftü, Sinan

    AIR LUBRICATION IN HARD DISK DRIVE Mechanics of Contact and Lubrication Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Northeastern University Boston, MA 02115 ...................................................................................................................... 6 3. Lubrication

  7. Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    anticipate that continuous development on wedged MLLs will advance x-ray nanofocusing optics to new frontiers and enrich capabilities and opportunities for hard X-ray microscopy....

  8. High-temperature hardness of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-base ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krell, A.; Bakun, O.V.

    1986-07-01

    The hardness of sintered Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ + ZrO/sub 2/ ceramics has been investigated between 20 and 1600/sup 0/C. Starting at room temperature, all structures exhibit a monotonous decrease of hardness which reflects a twofold influence of grain boundaries: up to 1000-1300/sup 0/C grain boundaries restrict dislocation activity and hardness with decreasing grain size. At higher temperatures, grain boundary sliding and separation results in an intensified decrease of hardness which shows a tendency to be promoted by porosity.

  9. Nano-scale positioning, control and motion planning in hard disk drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    C. Bi. Hard disk drive: mechatronics and control. Automationdrive tracking servos. Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactionsin dual-stage hdds. Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on,

  10. Advanced Control Algorithms for Discrete Linear Repetitive Processes in Self-servowriting of Hard Disk Drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Feng Dan

    2011-01-01

    IEEE/ASME Trans. On Mechatronics, 4(3):312323, 1999. [41] J.in hard disk drives. Mechatronics . 20(1):53-58, 2009. [86

  11. Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    optimized nonlinear bunch compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized nonlinear bunch...

  12. New porous titanium–niobium oxide for photocatalytic degradation of bromocresol green dye in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaleshtori, Maryam Zarei, E-mail: mzarei@utep.edu [Materials Research and Technology Institute (MRTI), University of Texas at El Paso, 500W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Hosseini, Mahsa; Edalatpour, Roya [Materials Research and Technology Institute (MRTI), University of Texas at El Paso, 500W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Masud, S.M. Sarif [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, 500W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Chianelli, Russell R., E-mail: chianell@utep.edu [Materials Research and Technology Institute (MRTI), University of Texas at El Paso, 500W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic activity of different porous titanium–niobium oxides was evaluated toward degradation of bromocresol green (BG) under UV light. A better catalytic activity was observed for all samples at lower pH. Catalysts have a stronger ability for degradation of BG in acid media than in alkaline media. - Highlights: • Different highly structured titanium–niobium oxides have been prepared using improved methods of synthesis. • Photo-degradation of bromocresol green dye (BG) with nanostructure titanium–niobium oxide catalysts was carried out under UV light. • The photo-catalytic activity of all catalysts was higher in lower pH. • Titanium–niobium oxide catalysts are considerably stable and reusable. - Abstract: In this study, high surface area semiconductors, non porous and porous titanium–niobium oxides derived from KTiNbO{sub 5} were synthesized, characterized and developed for their utility as photocatalysts for decontamination with sunlight. These materials were then used in the photocatalytic degradation of bromocresol green dye (BG) in aqueous solution using UV light and their catalytic activities were evaluated at various pHs. For all catalysts, the photocatalytic degradation of BG was most efficient in acidic solutions. Results show that the new porous oxides have large porous and high surface areas and high catalytic activity. A topotactic dehydration treatment greatly improves catalyst performance at various pHs. Stability and long term activity of porous materials (topo and non-topo) in photocatalysis reactions was also tested. These results suggest that the new materials can be used to efficiently purify contaminated water.

  13. Pottery Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Paul T. Nicholson. ) Pottery Production, Nicholson, UEE 2009Short Citation: Nicholson 2009, Pottery Production. UEE.Paul T. , 2009, Pottery Production. In Willeke Wendrich (

  14. Cordage Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veldmeijer, André J.

    2009-01-01

    294: fig. 15-3). Cordage Production, Veldmeijer, UEE 2009Short Citation: Veldmeijer, 2009, Cordage Production. UEE.André J. , 2009, Cordage Production. In Willeke Wendrich (

  15. Glass Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shortland, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    40, pp. 162 - 186. Glass Production, Shortland, UEE 2009AINES Short Citation: Shortland 2009, Glass Production. UEE.Andrew, 2009, Glass Production. In Willeke Wendrich (ed. ),

  16. A simple model of gas flow in a porous powder compact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shugard, Andrew D.; Robinson, David B.

    2014-04-01

    This report describes a simple model for ideal gas flow from a vessel through a bed of porous material into another vessel. It assumes constant temperature and uniform porosity. Transport is treated as a combination of viscous and molecular flow, with no inertial contribution (low Reynolds number). This model can be used to fit data to obtain permeability values, determine flow rates, understand the relative contributions of viscous and molecular flow, and verify volume calibrations. It draws upon the Dusty Gas Model and other detailed studies of gas flow through porous media.

  17. Mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Qinjin; Wang, Moran; Mukherjee, Partha P; Lichtner, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    We present our recent progress on mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media based on the lattice Boltzmann method. Simulation examples include injection of CO{sub 2} saturated brine into a limestone rock, two-phase behavior and flooding phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and electroosmosis in homogeneously charged porous media. It is shown that the lattice Boltzmann method can account for multiple, coupled physicochemical processes in these systems and can shed some light on the underlying physics occuning at the fundamental scale. Therefore, it can be a potential powerful numerical tool to analyze multi-physicochemical processes in various energy, earth, and environmental systems.

  18. Method of immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds on a capillary-porous carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich (Moscow, RU); Timofeev, Eduard Nikolaevich (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Igor Borisovich (Moscow, RU); Florentiev, Vladimir Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich (Moscow, RU)

    1998-01-01

    The method for immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds to capillary-porous carrier comprises application of solutions of water-soluble bioorganic compounds onto a capillary-porous carrier, setting the carrier temperature equal to or below the dew point of the ambient air, keeping the carrier till appearance of water condensate and complete swelling of the carrier, whereupon the carrier surface is coated with a layer of water-immiscible nonluminescent inert oil and is allowed to stand till completion of the chemical reaction of bonding the bioorganic compounds with the carrier.

  19. Theory of water desalination by porous electrodes with fixed chemical charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biesheuvel, P M; Hamelers, H V M

    2015-01-01

    Water desalination by capacitive deionization (CDI) is performed via electrochemical cells consisting of two porous carbon electrodes. Upon transferring charge from one electrode to the other, ions are removed from the feedwater by electrosorption into electrical double layers (EDLs) within the micropores of the porous carbon. When using electrodes containing fixed chemical charge in the micropores, various counterintuitive observations have been made, such as "inverted CDI" where upon charging, ions are released from the electrode, and the feedwater is only desalinated when the cell is discharging. We set up an EDL model including chemical charge that explains these observations and makes predictions for a working range of enhanced desalination by CDI.

  20. Wave-induced pore pressure and effective stresses in a porous seabed with variable permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeng, D.S.; Seymour, B.R.

    1996-12-31

    An evaluation of wave-induced soil response is particularly useful for geotechnical and coastal engineers involved in the design of foundations for offshore structures. To simplify the mathematical procedure, most theories available for the wave/seabed interaction problem have assumed a porous seabed with uniform permeability, despite strong evidence of variable permeability. This paper proposes an analytical solution for the wave induced soil response in a porous seabed with variable permeability. Verification is available through reduction to the simple case of uniform permeability. The numerical results indicate that the effect of variable soil permeability on pore pressure and effective stresses is significant.

  1. The displacement of oil from porous media by in-situ combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corcoran, John Thomas

    1970-01-01

    THE DISPLACEMENT OF OIL FROM POROUS MEDIA BY IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by JOHN T. CORCORAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AgcM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... f970 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING TIRE DISPLACEMENT OF OIL FROM POROUS MEDIA BY IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis JOHN T. CORCORAN Approved as to style and content by: (C i man of Committee) ( em er (Hea. d of Department (Member) December...

  2. Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

    2014-08-12

    Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

  3. Structural Evolving Sequence and Porous Ba6Zr2Nb8O30 Ferroelectric Ceramics with Ultrahigh Breakdown Field and Zero Strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Structural Evolving Sequence and Porous Ba6Zr2Nb8O30 Ferroelectric Ceramics with Ultrahigh of relaxor ferroelectric Ba6Zr2Nb8O30 (BZN) ceramics has been investigated and dis- cussed. Porous BZN, which refinements determine the atomic positions and confirm that the porous ceramics has tetragonal tungsten bronze

  4. From QCD-based hard-scattering to nonextensive statistical mechanical descriptions of transverse momentum spectra in high-energy $pp$ and $p\\bar p$ collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheuk-Yin Wong; Grzegorz Wilk; Leonardo J. L. Cirto; Constantino Tsallis

    2015-05-08

    Transverse spectra of both jets and hadrons obtained in high-energy $pp$ and $p\\bar p $ collisions at central rapidity exhibit power-law behavior of $1/p_T^n$ at high $p_T$. The power index $n$ is 4-5 for jet production and is 6-10 for hadron production. Furthermore, the hadron spectra spanning over 14 orders of magnitude down to the lowest $p_T$ region in $pp$ collisions at LHC can be adequately described by a single nonextensive statistical mechanical distribution that is widely used in other branches of science. This suggests indirectly the possible dominance of the hard-scattering process over essentially the whole $p_T$ region at central rapidity in high-energy $pp$ and $p \\bar p$ collisions. We show here direct evidences of such a dominance of the hard-scattering process by investigating the power indices of UA1 and ATLAS jet spectra over an extended $p_T$ region and the two-particle correlation data of the STAR and PHENIX Collaborations in high-energy $pp$ and $p \\bar p$ collisions at central rapidity. We then study how the showering of the hard-scattering product partons alters the power index of the hadron spectra and leads to a hadron distribution that may be cast into a single-particle nonextensive statistical mechanical distribution. Because of such a connection, the nonextensive statistical mechanical distribution may be considered as a lowest-order approximation of the hard-scattering of partons followed by the subsequent process of parton showering that turns the jets into hadrons, in high energy $pp$ and $p\\bar p$ collisions.

  5. From QCD-based hard-scattering to nonextensive statistical mechanical descriptions of transverse momentum spectra in high-energy $pp$ and $p\\bar p$ collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz; Cirto, Leonardo J. L.; Tsallis, Constantino

    2015-01-01

    Transverse spectra of both jets and hadrons obtained in high-energy $pp$ and $p\\bar p $ collisions at central rapidity exhibit power-law behavior of $1/p_T^n$ at high $p_T$. The power index $n$ is 4-5 for jet production and is slightly greater for hadron production. Furthermore, the hadron spectra spanning over 14 orders of magnitude down to the lowest $p_T$ region in $pp$ collisions at LHC can be adequately described by a single nonextensive statistical mechanical distribution that is widely used in other branches of science. This suggests indirectly the dominance of the hard-scattering process over essentially the whole $p_T$ region at central rapidity in $pp$ collisions at LHC. We show here direct evidences of such a dominance of the hard-scattering process by investigating the power index of UA1 jet spectra over an extended $p_T$ region and the two-particle correlation data of the STAR and PHENIX Collaborations in high-energy $pp$ and $p \\bar p$ collisions at central rapidity. We then study how the showering of the hard-scattering product partons alters the power index of the hadron spectra and leads to a hadron distribution that can be cast into a single-particle non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution. Because of such a connection, the non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution can be considered as a lowest-order approximation of the hard-scattering of partons followed by the subsequent process of parton showering that turns the jets into hadrons, in high energy $pp$ and $p\\bar p$ collisions.

  6. Model Order Reduction in Porous Media Flow Simulation and Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghasemi, Mohammadreza

    2015-05-06

    Subsurface flow modeling and simulation is ubiquitous in many energy related processes, including oil and gas production. These models are usually large scale and simulating them can be very computationally demanding, particularly in work...

  7. Nonmonotonic Magnetic Susceptibility of Dipolar Hard-Spheres at Low Temperature and Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    component favoring the head-to-tail arrangement of the particles and the formation, at low T, of linearNonmonotonic Magnetic Susceptibility of Dipolar Hard-Spheres at Low Temperature and Density Sofia, the magnetic response of a dipolar hard sphere fluid at low temperatures and densities, in the region of strong

  8. On the Cryptographic Hardness of Finding a Nash Equilibrium Nir Bitansky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    On the Cryptographic Hardness of Finding a Nash Equilibrium Nir Bitansky Omer Paneth Alon Rosen January 1, 2015 Abstract We prove that finding a Nash equilibrium of a game is hard, assuming that lies in the complexity class PPAD, for which finding Nash equilibrium is known to be complete. Previous

  9. Computational Investigation of Hardness Evolution During Friction-Stir Welding of AA5083 and AA2139

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Computational Investigation of Hardness Evolution During Friction-Stir Welding of AA5083 and AA2139 coupled thermo-mechanical finite-element analysis of the friction-stir welding (FSW) process developed, finite-element analysis, friction- stir welding, hardness prediction 1. Introduction Having a more mobile

  10. Binary hard-sphere crystals with the cesium chloride structure A. B. Schofield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Andrew B.

    Binary hard-sphere crystals with the cesium chloride structure A. B. Schofield Department The possibility of binary hard-sphere colloids crystallizing with the cesium chloride CsCl structure was examined compressed exceeds the value, /3& 0.74, which applies to fully compressed one-component systems. For cesium

  11. HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM PARTIALLY OCCULTED SOLAR FLARES Sam Krucker1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM PARTIALLY OCCULTED SOLAR FLARES Sa¨m Krucker1 and R. P. Lin1,2 krucker occulted by the solar limb provide diagnostics of coronal hard X-ray (HXR) emissions in the absence of generally much brighter emissions from footpoints of flare loops. In this paper, a statis- tical survey

  12. Structure characterization of hard sphere packings in amorphous and crystalline states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luding, Stefan

    Structure characterization of hard sphere packings in amorphous and crystalline states Vitaliy. A com- mon microstructural feature is observed in crystalline and glassy jammed states, suggesting with the nucleation and growth of the crystalline phase11. Hard-sphere models are known to successfully reproduce

  13. How hard can it be to pitch a wind turbine blade? Moment of inertia approximately

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    How hard can it be to pitch a wind turbine blade? Moment of inertia approximately as a small car (1 ton) on 7 m arm Morten Hartvig Hansen Wind Energy Department Risø, DTU #12;How hard can it be to pitch a wind turbine blade? Hydraulic pitch actuator for the virtual NREL 5 MW turbine · Motivation · Actuator

  14. Hard superconducting nitrides Xiao-Jia Chen*, Viktor V. Struzhkin*, Zhigang Wu*, Maddury Somayazulu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    Hard superconducting nitrides Xiao-Jia Chen*, Viktor V. Struzhkin*, Zhigang Wu*, Maddury Somayazulu, and hardness of selected superconducting transition-metal nitrides reveals inter- esting correlations among with the neutron scattering data. The cubic -NbN superconducting phase possesses a bulk modulus of 348 GPa

  15. Regularized reconstruction of the differential emission measure from solar flare hard X-ray spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Michele

    Regularized reconstruction of the differential emission measure from solar flare hard X-ray spectra for solar flare hard X-rays, it is currently unclear whether the electron distribution responsible simulated data and real photon spectra recorded by RHESSI. Subject headings: Sun: flares 1. Introduction

  16. Lyapunov instability of rough hard-disk fluids Jacobus A. van Meel*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posch, Harald A.

    Lyapunov instability of rough hard-disk fluids Jacobus A. van Meel* FOM Institute for Atomic The dynamical instability of rough hard-disk fluids in two dimensions is characterized through the Lyapunov, measured by the maximum Lyapunov exponent, is only enhanced by the rotational degrees of freedom for high

  17. Optical bus waveguide metallic hard mold fabrication with opposite 45 micro-mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Optical bus waveguide metallic hard mold fabrication with opposite 45º micro-mirrors Xinyuan Doua In this paper, 3-to-3 metallic hard mold for optical bus waveguide with opposite 45º micro-mirrors was successfully fabricated using electroplating method. The optical bus waveguide pre-mold with 45º surfaces

  18. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF MICROFLARES Jiong Qiu,1, 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , we study solar microflares using the coordinated hard X-ray and microwave observations obtainedHARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF MICROFLARES Jiong Qiu,1, 2 Chang Liu,2 Dale E. Gary,2 Gelu by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI ) during its open-shutter operation mode

  19. MICROWAVE AND HARD XRAY OBSERVATIONS OF FOOTPOINT EMISSION FROM SOLAR FLARES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    MICROWAVE AND HARD X­RAY OBSERVATIONS OF FOOTPOINT EMISSION FROM SOLAR FLARES M. R. KUNDU Dept radio and X­ray imaging data for two solar flares in order to test the idea that asymmetric microwaves and hard x­rays (HXR) has been known to exist for a long time. This connection is manifested

  20. Assessing Guest Diffusivities in Porous Hosts from Transient Concentration Profiles Lars Heinke,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    deviate from the ideal textbook structure, with the possibility that these devia- tions (pore blockageAssessing Guest Diffusivities in Porous Hosts from Transient Concentration Profiles Lars Heinke,1 of mutual passages of the guest molecules in the chains of pore segments, thus quantifying departure from

  1. Perturbation-based moment equation approach for flow in heterogeneous porous media: applicability range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Dongxiao

    with the uncertainty brought about by incomplete knowledge of the reservoir properties. Stochastic models of reservoir equations; Uncertainty analysis; Statistical moments; Monte Carlo simulation; Heterogeneous porous media range and analysis of high-order terms Liyong Li a , Hamdi A. Tchelepi a,*, Dongxiao Zhang b a Chevron

  2. Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated environmental crises such as global warming and ocean acidication, efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) capture As CO2 capture mate- rials, numerous solid adsorbents such as silica5 and carbon materials,6 metal

  3. Effect of pore distribution on the statistics of peak stress and overall properties of porous material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevostianov, Igor

    material Peak stress Pore distribution Statistics of extreme values Effective properties a b s t r a c-uniform distribution of inhomogeneities on the material properties. Analysis of physical processes in materialsEffect of pore distribution on the statistics of peak stress and overall properties of porous

  4. Large-Scale Fabrication, 3D Tomography, and Lithium-Ion Battery Application of Porous Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Large-Scale Fabrication, 3D Tomography, and Lithium-Ion Battery Application of Porous Silicon, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Recently, silicon-based lithium-ion battery anodes have for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries with enhanced capacity and energy density. KEYWORDS: Cost

  5. An Experimental Study of Oil Secondary Migration in a Three Dimensional Tilted Porous Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toussaint, Renaud

    . With the buoyancy as a primary driven force, a vertical cylindrical shape of oil migration pathway was observedAn Experimental Study of Oil Secondary Migration in a Three Dimensional Tilted Porous Medium secondary migration under an impermeable inclined cap. Light colored oil was released continuously at a slow

  6. A one-dimensional model of vertical gas plume migration through a heterogeneous porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    A one-dimensional model of vertical gas plume migration through a heterogeneous porous medium Buoyancy Countercurrent flow Plume migration a b s t r a c t This work is motivated by the growing interest or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leakage from primary storage. Even

  7. Photoluminescence and reflectance measurements on annealed porous silicon implanted with nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photoluminescence and reflectance measurements on annealed porous silicon implanted with nitrogen and 1000 °C. Photoluminescence (PL) and reflectance measurements on the implanted samples for wavelengths. After annealing, the reflectance decreased in the UV region up to 600 °C. Above 800 °C

  8. Highly porous chemically modified carbon cryogels and their coherent nanocomposites for energy applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    the pores, porous media for natural gas (methane) storage at reduced pressure, and scaffolds for hydride such as a Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA b Intel Labs of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China d

  9. Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks efficient systems to capture carbon dioxide. Additionally, we have a long-standing collaboration with BASF, and carbon dioxide isotherm measurements were performed at 1-85 bar and 77-298 K on the evacuated forms

  10. A ThreeDimensional Finite Element Simulation for Transport of Nuclear Waste Contamination in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, Richard E.

    A Three­Dimensional Finite Element Simulation for Transport of Nuclear Waste Contamination­waste contamination in three­dimensional porous media are presented with a description of linearization techniques contamination involving the transport of fluid, heat, brine, and trace­species radionuclides by logically

  11. A Multifunctional 3D Ferroelectric and NLO-Active Porous Metal-Organic Zhengang Guo,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    A Multifunctional 3D Ferroelectric and NLO-Active Porous Metal-Organic Framework Zhengang Guo, Rong, second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) materials have also undergone rapid development owing of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences

  12. Effective Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity for Computing One-Dimensional Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effective Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity for Computing One-Dimensional Flow in Heterogeneous-dimensional unsaturated flow in vertically stratified porous media are examined. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and the alpha parameter of the exponential hydraulic conductivity function were assumed to vary from soil layer

  13. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600790 Forming Antifouling Organic Multilayers on Porous Silicon Rugate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilian, Kristopher A.

    crystals with unprecedented control.[9] Porous silicon is formed by anodic etching of silicon in ethanolic (Australia) E-mail: m.gal@unsw.edu.au Prof. J. J. Gooding, K. A. Kilian, Dr. T. Böcking School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales Sydney 2052 (Australia) E-mail: justin.gooding@unsw.edu.au Dr. K. Gaus, Prof. W

  14. On perfectly plastic flow in porous material T.I. Zohdi*,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevostianov, Igor

    On perfectly plastic flow in porous material T.I. Zohdi*,a , M. Kachanovb , I. Sevostianovc in final revised form 15 December 2001 Abstract Experimental observations suggest that for perfectly-plastic of the pores and their orientation. The underlying microscale mechanism is that local plastic ``pockets'' near

  15. Transport in Porous Media 53: 3950, 2003. 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beresnev, Igor

    and Beresnev, 1999). It is known that the natural pressure in an oil reservoir generally #12;40 DAVID TSIKLAURI to produce due to its naturally low mobility, and the enhanced oil recovery operations are used to increase reasons for studying the dynamics of fluid in porous media under oscillatory pressure gradient and os

  16. Preparation and characterization of porous silica xerogel film for low dielectric application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Moon-Ho

    microelectronics precursors [2]. In particular, one of the porous SiO2 gels, aerogels, has extremely high por aerogel can be applied to IMD [3­5]. In our previous work, we obtained SiO2 aerogel thin film with good, an ambient drying method for the preparation of SiO2 aerogel film was studied and recently reported by Pra

  17. Fabrication and spectral characterization of the porous dielectric THz waveguides using microstructured molding technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dupuis, A; Desevedavy, F; Rosé, M; Skorobogatiy, M

    2010-01-01

    We report two novel fabrication techniques, as well as spectral transmission and propagation loss measurements of the subwavelength plastic wires with highly porous (up to 86%) and non-porous transverse geometries. The two fabrication techniques we describe are based on the microstructured molding approach. In one technique the mold is made completely from silica by stacking and fusing silica capillaries to the bottom of a silica ampoule. The melted material is then poured into the silica mold to cast the microstructured preform. Another approach uses microstructured mold made of plastic which is co-drawn with a cast preform. Material of the mold is then dissolved after fiber drawing. We also describe a novel THz-TDS setup with an easily adjustable optical path length, designed to perform cutback measurements using THz fibers of up to 50 cm in length. We find that while both porous and non-porous subwavelength fibers of the same outside diameter have low propagation losses (\\alpha \\leg 0.02cm-1), however, the...

  18. Synthesis of Highly Porous Catalytic Layers for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Based on Carbon Aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Aerogels J. Mariea , S. Berthon-Fabrya , P. Acharda , M. Chatenetb , E. Chainetb , R. Pirardc , N. Cornetd and characterized carbon aerogels which exhibit high surface area, high porous volume and adjustable pore carbon aerogels with 2 different Nafion loadings. Finally, we characterized the structure

  19. Evaporation-driven Transport and Precipitation of NaCl in Porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    First Results Outlook Slide 2/49 #12;Overview Motivation Theory Model Concept First Results Outlook, M., 2007 Motivation Slide 5/49 #12;Motivation Soil salinization problem across the world Motivation Motivation Slide 7/49 #12;Interface Processes solid fluid gas porous medium free flow mass exchange energy

  20. Diffuse charge and Faradaic reactions in porous electrodes P.M. Biesheuvel,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    .g. for high-porosity metallic foams (macropores >50 nm), and (ii) a "modified Donnan model" for strongly be brought together in intimate contact, as in most fuel cells and rechargeable batteries, only a porous reducing the electrode overpotential (or interfacial resistance), as in fuel cell applications [5

  1. Thermal Transport in Porous Media with Application to Fuel Cell Diffusion Media and Metal Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Thermal Transport in Porous Media with Application to Fuel Cell Diffusion Media and Metal Foams to Fuel Cell Diffusion Media and Metal Foams by Ehsan Sadeghi B.Sc., Sharif University of Technology, Iran of thermal transport phenomena in fuel cell gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and metal foams and describes new

  2. High propylene/propane adsorption selectivity in a copper(catecholate)-decorated porous organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High propylene/propane adsorption selectivity in a copper(catecholate)-decorated porous organic and propane isotherms measured at ambient temperatures and ideal adsorption solution theory (IAST) calculations revealed increasing propylene/propane selectivities with increasing pressures. The eld of highly

  3. Chemical reduction of a diimide based porous polymer for selective uptake of carbon dioxide versus methanew

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    distillation, membrane separation, chemical absorption, and physical adsorption. The pressure swing adsorption accommodate large quantities of gas and is easily regenerated.3 Separations with porous materials storage10 and catalytic applications11 in addition to their gas separation capabilities. Recently we

  4. A Semi-Empirical Model for Porous Media Heat Exchanger Design Richard A. Wirtz1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirtz, Richard A.

    A Semi-Empirical Model for Porous Media Heat Exchanger Design Richard A. Wirtz1 Mechanical-dimensional temperature Introduction Compact heat exchangers invariably incorporate heat transfer augmentation technology matrix at the fluid-solid interface of a compact heat exchanger will also enhance performance

  5. FLOW OF A FLUID THROUGH A POROUS SOLID DUE TO HIGH PRESSURE GRADIENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonito, Andrea

    applications involving the flow of fluids through a porous media, like the problems of enhanced oil recovery technical problem where such high pressure differentials are involved is that of extracting unconventional oil deposits such as shale which is becoming ever so important now. In this study, we show

  6. Capillary pressure in a porous medium with distinct pore surface and pore volume fractal dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deinert, Mark

    Capillary pressure in a porous medium with distinct pore surface and pore volume fractal dimensions been substantiated by assuming that capillary pressure is directly related to the pore radius. When capillary pressure and pore volume are directly propor- tional to the pore radius. If a system's pore space

  7. On pore fluid pressure and effective solid stress in the mixture theory of porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, I-Shih

    On pore fluid pressure and effective solid stress in the mixture theory of porous media I-Shih Liu, pore fluid pressure, effective solid stress and Darcy's law in this paper. Dedicated to Krzysztof Wilma fraction, pore fluid pressure, effective solid stress, etc., as reinterpretations of the results of mixture

  8. Numerical Methods for Transport{Dominated Flows in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Jr., Jim

    reservoir; the numerical methods discussed here are also appropriate for the simulation of unsaturated saturation; K the absolute permeability (which we assume, for simplicity, to be a scalar) of the porous the boundary of the reservoir to be impermeable and require the normal components of both water and oil uxes

  9. Society of Petroleum Engineers Simulation of Foam Transport in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Society of Petroleum Engineers SPE 26402 Simulation of Foam Transport in Porous Media A.R. Kovscek, T.W. Patzek, and C.J. Radke, U. of California SPE Members Copyright 1993, Society of Petroleum and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers held in Houston, Texas, 3-6 October 1993. This paper

  10. Study of a numerical scheme for miscible two-phase flow in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    holds for CO2 storage, gas pro- duction, and other situations. For x and t [0, T], we consider Schleper November 21, 2013 Abstract We study the convergence of a finite volume scheme for a model of miscible two-phase flow in porous media. In this model, one phase can dissolve into the other one

  11. Excitations of superfluid 4 He in porous media: Aerogel and Vycor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glyde, Henry R.

    Excitations of superfluid 4 He in porous media: Aerogel and Vycor O. Plantevin and B. Fa structure factor S(Q, ) and the elementary excitations of liquid 4 He immersed in aerogel and Vycor. In both and superfluid density, S(T), of liquid 4 He in aerogel and Vycor have been made over the past 30 years.1

  12. Dependence of Up-scaled Reaction Rate on Flow Rate in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    to inherent heterogeneities in structure, mineral placement and fluid velocity in rock, bulk reaction rates1 Dependence of Up-scaled Reaction Rate on Flow Rate in Porous Media D. Kim · W. B. Lindquist model simulations of anorthite and kaolinite reactions in two sandstone pore networks under acidic

  13. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF CHANNEL POROUS LAYER INTERFACES IN PEM FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF CHANNEL ­ POROUS LAYER INTERFACES IN PEM FUEL CELLS M. EHRHARDT, J, Germany ABSTRACT In proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, the transport of the fuel to the active diffusion layers. In order to improve existing mathematical and numerical models of PEM fuel cells, a deeper

  14. Quantitative comparison of segmentation algorithms for FIB-SEM images of porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    media. In the present study, we analyse three of these approaches by comparing their performance based the problems of imaging porous materials. However, epoxy resin infiltration is not possible for closed pores and might be even problematic for open pores since the process of infiltration might alter the underlying

  15. Porous polymer film calcium ion chemical sensor and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Porter, M.D.; Chau, L.K.

    1991-02-12

    A method of measuring calcium ions is disclosed wherein a calcium sensitive reagent, calcichrome, is immobilized on a porous polymer film. The reaction of the calcium sensitive reagent to the Ca(II) is then measured and concentration determined as a function of the reaction. 1 figure.

  16. Synthesis, Structure, and Metalation of Two New Highly Porous Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Synthesis, Structure, and Metalation of Two New Highly Porous Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks cuboctahedral units linked by either porphyrin (MOF-525) or cruciform (MOF-535). Another zirconium) based on the zirconium(IV) cuboctahedral secondary building unit (SBU), Zr6O4(OH)4(CO2)12 (Figure 1A

  17. High strength porous support tubes for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rossing, Barry R. (Churchill, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having an electrode and a solid electrolyte disposed on a porous, sintered support material containing thermally stabilized zirconia powder particles and from about 3 wt. % to about 45 wt. % of thermally stable oxide fibers.

  18. A Boundary Condition for Porous Electrodes Venkat R. Subramanian,a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    on the electrolyte or solid-state concen- tration, (iv) nonlinear dependence of open-circuit potential on the solid on the electrolyte concentration, (vi) dependence of solid-state diffusion coefficient on the solid- state Carolina 29208, USA A boundary condition for electrolyte concentration at the porous electrode

  19. Transp Porous Med DOI 10.1007/s11242-012-9977-0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daripa, Prabir

    in the displacement processes during enhanced oil recovery by SP-flooding (Sur- factant­Polymer). In particular, we consider a flooding process involving displacement of a viscous fluid in porous media by a less viscous fluid containing polymer and surfactant over a finite length which in turn is displaced by a even less

  20. Hybrid solar cells based on porous Si and copper phthalocyanine derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Euler, William B.

    Hybrid solar cells based on porous Si and copper phthalocyanine derivatives I. A. Levitskya 25 October 2004) We demonstrate a solar cell based on n-type nanoporous Si (PSi) filled with copper of the PSi structure and pore filling on the solar cell performance is discussed. © 2004 American Institute