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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

ARM - CERA COPS Data  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |NovemberARMContactsARMFacilitiesCERA COPS Data CERA COPS Data

2

ARM - COPS Update, April 2009  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |NovemberARMContactsARMFacilitiesCERA COPS DataGermanyCOPS

3

Cop$c Language Guy Halawi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are they? · Copts are an Egyp$an Chris$an group · Largest Chris$an group' is adapta$on of the Greek word "" (Egyp$an) #12;Copts - Popula$on · Total popula of the Egyp$an Arabic · Cop$c word in other languages: Hebrew) - crocodile

Dershowitz, Nachum

4

COP5621 Project Phase 4 Code Generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COP5621 Project Phase 4 Code Generator Purpose: This project is intended to give you experience in the text and in class. Project Summary: Your task is to write a code generator, the final phase of your the same task. Predefined Functions in PASC: You should write your own predefined procedures and functions

Yuan, Xin

5

IES version 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

IES version 2013 Tax Deduction Qualified Software calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

6

Sandia National Laboratories: IES  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive SolarEducationStation Technology InfrastructureIEEE Sandian SelectedIES

7

Chu at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu addresses the U.S. Center in Cancun on the need to build a sustainable energy future as part of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP-16. In his...

8

IE  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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9

*** Draft: do not cite or distribute -COP7 Bioenergy Document: October 18, 2001 *** Address Correspondence to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

*** Draft: do not cite or distribute - COP7 Bioenergy Document: October 18, 2001 *** Address;*** Draft: do not cite or distribute - COP7 Bioenergy Document: October 18, 2001 *** 10/23/01 Page 2 of 111 omasera@ate.oikos.unam.mx #12;*** Draft: do not cite or distribute - COP7 Bioenergy Document: October 18

Kammen, Daniel M.

10

Sugar++: A SAT-Based MAX-CSP/COP Solver Tomoya Tanjo1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sugar++: A SAT-Based MAX-CSP/COP Solver Tomoya Tanjo1 , Naoyuki Tamura2 , and Mutsunori Banbara2 1 describes some features of Sugar++, a SAT-based MAX- CSP/COP solver entering the Third International CSP Solver Competition. In our approach, a MAX-CSP is translated into a Constraint Optimization Problem (COP

Banbara, Mutsunori

11

CAREL connectivity solutions ,,Improvement of the seasonal COP of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency Seasonal efficiencySeasonal efficiency Full load rating Partial load ratingPartial load rating match the partial load giving an extremely high unit efficiency due to... ...the improved efficiency of the compressor at partial load as motor performance and basic COP... ... together with improved efficiency

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

12

IES version 6.1  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On this page you'll find information about the IES version 6.1 qualified computer software (buildings.energy.gov/qualified_software.html), which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

13

IES version 6.3  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On this page you'll find information about the IES version 6.3 qualified computer software (buildings.energy.gov/qualified_software.html), which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

14

Retail: EPRI/IES award  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kruger Designs Light does many different types of projects for a diverse clientele. Each of these projects, while having some general characteristics in common, seem also to have a specific set of criteria in mind-some as specific as the client is unique. While there are some chains where lighting decisions are made to be applied in hundreds of facilities, there are other types of clients that bring a different sensibility to the process. As lighting designers, it is the job of Designs Light to address the individual needs of each client, even the {open_quotes}strange{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}different,{close_quotes} as was the case with {open_quotes}Boogie`s Diner.{close_quotes} This author goes on to describe the project presented by Boogie`s Diner, the demands of the site with respect for lighting as regards the clinetele being served, and the expectations of the owners. The design considerations are discussed, and finally the proposed solutions are breifly outlined. This design effort won the EPRI/IES award, and was an energy efficient design sought by the owner.

Kruger, M.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

COP 18 Side Event Biography | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: EnergyBoston Areais3: Crystalline Rock - BasementCEPISsourceCMERICOMcheckCOP18

16

DNA Damage Causes p27^(Kip1) Accumulation Through COP1 Signaling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consequences of this phenomenon are poorly understood. Here, we report that p27 levels were elevated after DNA damage, with concurrent reduction of COP1 levels. Mechanistic studies showed that COP1 directly interacted with p27 through a VP motif on p27...

Choi, Hyun Ho

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

17

IEDWorking Paper 7 IED Institute for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 #12;Zabel & Roe ­ Performance payments for environmental services 2 IED Working Paper 7 Abstract of Agricultural, Environmental and Development Economics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA Abstract.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 2 Previous work

Fischlin, Andreas

18

Local intelligent electronic device (IED) rendering templates over limited bandwidth communication link to manage remote IED  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present disclosure provides systems and methods for remote device management. According to various embodiments, a local intelligent electronic device (IED) may be in communication with a remote IED via a limited bandwidth communication link, such as a serial link. The limited bandwidth communication link may not support traditional remote management interfaces. According to one embodiment, a local IED may present an operator with a management interface for a remote IED by rendering locally stored templates. The local IED may render the locally stored templates using sparse data obtained from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, the management interface may be a web client interface and/or an HTML interface. The bandwidth required to present a remote management interface may be significantly reduced by rendering locally stored templates rather than requesting an entire management interface from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, an IED may comprise an encryption transceiver.

Bradetich, Ryan; Dearien, Jason A; Grussling, Barry Jakob; Remaley, Gavin

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

19

http://www.ied.ethz.ch/pub/index 1 IED Publications List 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

http://www.ied.ethz.ch/pub/index 1 IED Publications List 2009 Working Papers.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Working Papers El Benni, N. Geographical Indications: Discussion and Negotiations about Protection. The Complexities of Decentralization in a Globalizing World, IED Working Paper (Vol. 8). Zurich: ETH, Institute

Fischlin, Andreas

20

Engineering Economy Outline IE 305-Part 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering Economy Outline IE 305-Part 2 Stephen B. Vardeman ISU Fall 2013 Stephen B. Vardeman (ISU) Engineering Economy Outline Fall 2013 1 / 52 #12;Kinds of Production Costs Costs incurred). Stephen B. Vardeman (ISU) Engineering Economy Outline Fall 2013 2 / 52 #12;Costs and Production Volume

Vardeman, Stephen B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Engineering Economy Outline IE 305-Part 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering Economy Outline IE 305-Part 1 Stephen B. Vardeman ISU Fall 2013 Stephen B. Vardeman (ISU) Engineering Economy Outline Fall 2013 1 / 53 #12;THE Basics The very basic notion that governs) Engineering Economy Outline Fall 2013 2 / 53 #12;Solving for P The (N

Vardeman, Stephen B.

22

f Fk66iCOP-] NBSIR 86-3422 uoL_ i 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

f Fk66iCOP-] NBSIR 86-3422 uoL_ i 1 The Performance of A Conventional Residential Sized Heat Pump RESIDENTIAL SIZED HEAT PUMP OPERATING WITH A NONAZEOTROPIC BINARY REFRIGERANT MIXTURE William Mulroy David unmodified residential heat pump designed for R22 when charged with a nonazeotropic refrigerant mixture (NARM

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

23

Ormesa IE Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth'sOklahoma/GeothermalOrange County is aOrmesa I Geothermal Facility Jump to:IE

24

http://www.ied.ethz.ch/pub/index 1 IED Publications List 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................................................................................................................. 5 Conference Proceedings / Discussion Papers for mitigating climate change through reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation. IED Working Paper No. 3, ETH Zurich. Groom, B., & Palmer, C. (2008). Direct vs indirect payments for environmental

Fischlin, Andreas

25

Biochemical evidence for ubiquitin ligase activity of the Arabidopsis COP1 interacting protein 8 (CIP8)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(CIP8) Christian S. Hardtke1,2 , Haruko Okamoto1,² , Chatanika Stoop-Myer1,³ and Xing Wang Deng1, * 1 in the absence of light. COP1 and its interactive partner CIP8 both possess RING ®nger motifs, characteristic of some E3 ubiquitin ligases. Here we show that CIP8 promotes ubiquitin attachment to HY5 in E2-dependent

Deng, Xing-Wang

26

Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment, September 2002 Integrated Energy Systems (IES) combine on-site power or distributed generation technologies with thermally...

27

Energy optimization in ice hockey halls I. The system COP as a multivariable function, brine and design choices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work is the first of a series of articles addressing the energy optimization in ice hockey halls. Here we outline an analytic method to predict in which design and operating conditions the COP of the entire cooling system (refrigerator and cooling tower) ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is maximum. ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is investigated as a function of several variables, like electric consumption and brine physical properties. With this method, the best configuration and brine choices for the system can therefore be determined in advance. We estimate the optimal design of an average-sized ice rink, including pipe diameter, depth and brine type (ethylene glycol and ammonia). We also single out an optimal brine density and show the impact of the electric consumption of the pump on ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$. Our theoretical predictions are validated with heat flow measurement data obtained at an ice hockey hall in Finland. They are also confronted with technical and cost-related constraints, and implemented by simulations with the pr...

Ferrantelli, Andrea; Rikknen, Miska; Viljanen, Martti

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Microsoft Word - NGNP-IE ltr rpt 080909.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

analysis report HICS Helium Inventory Control System HTGR high-temperature gas reactor HVAC heating, ventilation, air conditioning IE initiating event INEEL Idaho National...

29

IE 361 Module 10 Introduction to Shewhart Control Charting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University) IE 361 Module 10 1 / 18 #12;Generalities About Shewhart Control Charting SPC (SPM) is processIE 361 Module 10 Introduction to Shewhart Control Charting (Statistical Process Control, or More watching for purposes of change detection. Figure: SPC (SPM) is About "Process Watching" One famous

Vardeman, Stephen B.

30

7-117 The claim of a heat pump designer regarding the COP of the heat pump is to be evaluated. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7-47 7-117 The claim of a heat pump designer regarding the COP of the heat pump is to be evaluated. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily. HP Wnet,in QH QL TL TH Analysis The maximum heat pump coefficient of performance would occur if the heat pump were completely reversible, 5.7 K026K300 K300 COP maxHP, LH H TT

Bahrami, Majid

31

7-46E The COP and the refrigeration rate of an ice machine are given. The power consumption is to be determined.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

25°F Analysis The cooling load of this ice machine is #12; #12; Btu/h4732Btu/lbm169lbm/h28LL qm7-15 7-46E The COP and the refrigeration rate of an ice machine are given. The power consumption is to be determined. Assumptions The ice machine operates steadily. Ice Machine Outdoors R COP = 2.4 QL water 55°F ice

Bahrami, Majid

32

Structure and interactions of the C-terminal metal binding domain of Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cu(+)-ATPase CopA from Archaeoglobus fulgidus belongs to the P(1B) family of the P-type ATPases. These integral membrane proteins couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to heavy metal ion translocation across membranes. A defining feature of P(1B-1)-type ATPases is the presence of soluble metal binding domains at the N-terminus (N-MBDs). The N-MBDs exhibit a conserved ferredoxin-like fold, similar to that of soluble copper chaperones, and bind metal ions via a conserved CXXC motif. The N-MBDs enable Cu(+) regulation of turnover rates apparently through Cu-sensitive interactions with catalytic domains. A. fulgidus CopA is unusual in that it contains both an N-terminal MBD and a C-terminal MBD (C-MBD). The functional role of the unique C-MBD has not been established. Here, we report the crystal structure of the apo, oxidized C-MBD to 2.0 A resolution. In the structure, two C-MBD monomers form a domain-swapped dimer, which has not been observed previously for similar domains. In addition, the interaction of the C-MBD with the other cytoplasmic domains of CopA, the ATP binding domain (ATPBD) and actuator domain (A-domain), has been investigated. Interestingly, the C-MBD interacts specifically with both of these domains, independent of the presence of Cu(+) or nucleotides. These data reinforce the uniqueness of the C-MBD and suggest a distinct structural role for the C-MBD in CopA transport.

Agarwal, S.; Hong, D.; Desai, N.K.; H.Sazinsky, M.; Argello, J.M.; Rosenzweig, A.C. (NWU)

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

33

Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated Energy Systems (IES) combine on-site power or distributed generation technologies with thermally activated technologies to provide cooling, heating, humidity control, energy storage and/or other process functions using thermal energy normally wasted in the production of electricity/power. IES produce electricity and byproduct thermal energy onsite, with the potential of converting 80 percent or more of the fuel into useable energy. IES have the potential to offer the nation the benefits of unprecedented energy efficiency gains, consumer choice and energy security. It may also dramatically reduce industrial and commercial building sector carbon and air pollutant emissions and increase source energy efficiency. Applications of distributed energy and Combined heat and power (CHP) in ''Commercial and Institutional Buildings'' have, however, been historically limited due to insufficient use of byproduct thermal energy, particularly during summer months when heating is at a minimum. In recent years, custom engineered systems have evolved incorporating potentially high-value services from Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) like cooling and humidity control. Such TAT equipment can be integrated into a CHP system to utilize the byproduct heat output effectively to provide absorption cooling or desiccant humidity control for the building during these summer months. IES can therefore expand the potential thermal energy services and thereby extend the conventional CHP market into building sector applications that could not be economically served by CHP alone. Now more than ever, these combined cooling, heating and humidity control systems (IES) can potentially decrease carbon and air pollutant emissions, while improving source energy efficiency in the buildings sector. Even with these improvements over conventional CHP systems, IES face significant technological and economic hurdles. Of crucial importance to the success of IES is the ability to treat the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, water heating, lighting, and power systems loads as parts of an integrated system, serving the majority of these loads either directly or indirectly from the CHP output. The CHP Technology Roadmaps (Buildings and Industry) have focused research and development on a comprehensive integration approach: component integration, equipment integration, packaged and modular system development, system integration with the grid, and system integration with building and process loads. This marked change in technology research and development has led to the creation of a new acronym to better reflect the nature of development in this important area of energy efficiency: Integrated Energy Systems (IES). Throughout this report, the terms ''CHP'' and ''IES'' will sometimes be used interchangeably, with CHP generally reserved for the electricity and heat generating technology subsystem portion of an IES. The focus of this study is to examine the potential for IES in buildings when the system perspective is taken, and the IES is employed as a dynamic system, not just as conventional CHP. This effort is designed to determine market potential by analyzing IES performance on an hour-by-hour basis, examining the full range of building types, their loads and timing, and assessing how these loads can be technically and economically met by IES.

LeMar, P.

2002-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

34

Lightweight and Statistical Techniques for Petascale Debugging: Correctness on Petascale Systems (CoPS) Preliminry Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petascale platforms with O(10{sup 5}) and O(10{sup 6}) processing cores are driving advancements in a wide range of scientific disciplines. These large systems create unprecedented application development challenges. Scalable correctness tools are critical to shorten the time-to-solution on these systems. Currently, many DOE application developers use primitive manual debugging based on printf or traditional debuggers such as TotalView or DDT. This paradigm breaks down beyond a few thousand cores, yet bugs often arise above that scale. Programmers must reproduce problems in smaller runs to analyze them with traditional tools, or else perform repeated runs at scale using only primitive techniques. Even when traditional tools run at scale, the approach wastes substantial effort and computation cycles. Continued scientific progress demands new paradigms for debugging large-scale applications. The Correctness on Petascale Systems (CoPS) project is developing a revolutionary debugging scheme that will reduce the debugging problem to a scale that human developers can comprehend. The scheme can provide precise diagnoses of the root causes of failure, including suggestions of the location and the type of errors down to the level of code regions or even a single execution point. Our fundamentally new strategy combines and expands three relatively new complementary debugging approaches. The Stack Trace Analysis Tool (STAT), a 2011 R&D 100 Award Winner, identifies behavior equivalence classes in MPI jobs and highlights behavior when elements of the class demonstrate divergent behavior, often the first indicator of an error. The Cooperative Bug Isolation (CBI) project has developed statistical techniques for isolating programming errors in widely deployed code that we will adapt to large-scale parallel applications. Finally, we are developing a new approach to parallelizing expensive correctness analyses, such as analysis of memory usage in the Memgrind tool. In the first two years of the project, we have successfully extended STAT to determine the relative progress of different MPI processes. We have shown that the STAT, which is now included in the debugging tools distributed by Cray with their large-scale systems, substantially reduces the scale at which traditional debugging techniques are applied. We have extended CBI to large-scale systems and developed new compiler based analyses that reduce its instrumentation overhead. Our results demonstrate that CBI can identify the source of errors in large-scale applications. Finally, we have developed MPIecho, a new technique that will reduce the time required to perform key correctness analyses, such as the detection of writes to unallocated memory. Overall, our research results are the foundations for new debugging paradigms that will improve application scientist productivity by reducing the time to determine which package or module contains the root cause of a problem that arises at all scales of our high end systems. While we have made substantial progress in the first two years of CoPS research, significant work remains. While STAT provides scalable debugging assistance for incorrect application runs, we could apply its techniques to assertions in order to observe deviations from expected behavior. Further, we must continue to refine STAT's techniques to represent behavioral equivalence classes efficiently as we expect systems with millions of threads in the next year. We are exploring new CBI techniques that can assess the likelihood that execution deviations from past behavior are the source of erroneous execution. Finally, we must develop usable correctness analyses that apply the MPIecho parallelization strategy in order to locate coding errors. We expect to make substantial progress on these directions in the next year but anticipate that significant work will remain to provide usable, scalable debugging paradigms.

de Supinski, B R; Miller, B P; Liblit, B

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

35

IE 361 Module 12 EFC and SPM ... One Thing Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IE 361 Module 12 EFC and SPM ... One Thing Control Charting is Not Prof.s Stephen B. Vardeman, understood by EE's and ME's) and "SPC." Recall from Module 10 the basic insight that Shewhart "control charting" is about process watching for purposes of change detection as illustrated in the figure below

Vardeman, Stephen B.

36

YOUR WORLD, YOUR FUTURE www.ucd.ie/science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UCD YOUR WORLD, YOUR FUTURE www.ucd.ie/science #12;Contents About UCD Science Key Thematic Areas within UCD Science Details of the seven Schools within the UCD College of Science are as follows: UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science UCD School

37

IE 361 Module 15 The Average Run Length Concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IE 361 Module 15 The Average Run Length Concept Reading: Section 3.5 of Statistical Quality Assurance Methods for Engineers Prof. Steve Vardeman and Prof. Max Morris Iowa State University Vardeman Electric set of alarm rules to a control charting scheme? The most e¤ective means known for making

Vardeman, Stephen B.

38

IE 361 Module 14 Patterns on Control Charts and "Special  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Vardeman and Max D. Morris Reading: Section 3.4, Statistical Quality Assurance Methods for Engineers 1 #12IE 361 Module 14 Patterns on Control Charts and "Special Checks"/Extra Alarm Rules Prof.s Stephen B introduction of new equipment or a clear change in the quality of a raw material can produce such a sudden

Vardeman, Stephen B.

39

Microsoft Word - ieRoadmap Workshop_FINAL.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.eps MoreWSRC-STI-2007-00250 Rev. 05 Oak09 U . S .CITSSFirst-ever ieRoadmap

40

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Black Forest Germany for the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to other sites as determined. In 2007 the AMF operated in the Black Forest region of Germany as part of the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Scientists studied rainfall resulting from atmospheric uplift (convection) in mountainous terrain, otherwise known as orographic precipitation. This was part of a six -year duration of the German Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) Program. COPS was endorsed as a Research and Development Project by the World Weather Research Program. This program was established by the World Meteorological Organization to develop improved and cost-effective forecasting techniques, with an emphasis on high-impact weather. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Black Forest are available via a link from ARM's Black Forest site information page. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and the data files in the ARM Archive are free for viewing and downloading.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

SUPER HARD SURFACED POLYMERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.

Mansur, Louis K [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhattacharya, R [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL] [ORNL; Clemons, Art [ORNL] [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, H B [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL] [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, E H [Consultant, Milpitas, CA] [Consultant, Milpitas, CA; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL] [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL] [ORNL; Rivard, John D [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

A Counter-IED Preparedness Methodology for Large Event Planning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 2009, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in a project sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate aimed at improving preparedness against Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) at large sporting events. Led by the University of Southern Mississippi (USM) as part of the Southeast Region Research Initiative, the project partners have been developing tools and methodologies for use by security personnel and first responders at sports stadiums. ORNL s contribution has been to develop an automated process to gather and organize disparate data that is usually part of an organization s security plan. The organized data informs a table-top exercise (TTX) conducted by USM using additional tools developed by them and their subcontractors. After participating in several pilot TTXs, patterns are beginning to emerge that would enable improvements to be formulated to increase the level of counter-IED preparedness. This paper focuses on the data collection and analysis process and shares insights gained to date.

Payne, Patricia W [ORNL; Koch, Daniel B [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

The Plant Cell, Vol. 13, 399411, February 2001, www.plantcell.org 2001 American Society of Plant Physiologists CIP4, a New COP1 Target, Is a Nucleus-Localized Positive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physiologists CIP4, a New COP1 Target, Is a Nucleus-Localized Positive Regulator of Arabidopsis of a COP1-interactive partner, CIP4. CIP4 is a nuclear protein and a potent transcription coactivator. Conditional suppression of CIP4 expression resulted in an elongated hypocotyl and reduced chlorophyll content

Deng, Xing-Wang

44

How to estimate hardness of crystals on a pocket calculator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A generalization of the semiempirical microscopic model of hardness is presented and applied to currently studied borides, carbides, and nitrides of heavy transition metals. The hardness of OsB, OsC, OsN, PtN, RuC, RuB{sub 2}, ReB{sub 2}, OsB{sub 2}, IrN{sub 2}, PtN{sub 2}, and OsN{sub 2} crystals in various structural phases is predicted. It is found that none of the transition metal crystals is superhard, i.e., with hardness greater than 40 GPa. The presented method provides materials researchers with a practical tool in the search for new hard materials.

Simunek, Antonin [Institute of Physics v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53 Prague (Czech Republic)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Hard physics in PHENIX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review recent results on hard observables in p+p, d+A and A+A collisions obtained by the PHENIX experiment. Emphasis is put on those measurements that provide insight into the properties of hot QCD media expected to be created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC energies. Direct photon spectra, jet properties and heavy quarks production measured in p+p and d+Au collisions are compared to the same observables extracted in heavy ion collisions to find modifications due to the presence of hot QCD matter.

D. Peressounko; for the PHENIX collaboration

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

46

Hard metal composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

Sheinberg, H.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

47

Hard metal composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric-resistance water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ter than that of the system using electric resistance water heating. An analytical tinclel predicts of a high-efficiency heat pump'/electric-resistance .waterheater (IIP/IZR) system. TEST FACILITIES#12;/ ABSTRACT An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

49

First-ever ieRoadmap Workshop Reviews Progress in Achieving Roadmap...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

First-ever ieRoadmap Workshop Reviews Progress in Achieving Roadmap Goals First-ever ieRoadmap Workshop Reviews Progress in Achieving Roadmap Goals On May 28-29, 2008, the first...

50

Materials science Nanotubes get hard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Materials science Nanotubes get hard under pressure Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA doi:10.1073/pnas.0405877101 (2004) When Zhongwu Wang et al. squeezed carbon nanotubes in a diamond anvil cell, they made nanotubes into diamond itself: the carbon material formed under compression at room temperature seems

Downs, Robert T.

51

COPS WWRP Presentation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N Goods PO 1 ofEmployee2220-110COOP

52

Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

Good, Morris S. (Richland, WA); Schuster, George J. (Kennewick, WA); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Microwave assisted hard rock cutting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

Lindroth, David P. (Apple Valley, MN); Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN); Blair, James R. (Inver Grove Heights, MN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

For full programme details see https://myucd.ucd.ie/program.do?programID=61 To seek further information Please contact us at eng.arch@ucd.ie  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as pharmaceuticals, therapeutic proteins, medical devices, fuels and clean/air water. At the heart of Chemical information Please contact us at eng.arch@ucd.ie Why is this course for me? Chemical and bioprocess engineers invent, design, build and manage facilities that transform matter and energy into useful products

55

Effects of Thermal Exposure and Test Temperature on Structure Evolution and Hardness/Viscosity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Thermal Exposure and Test Temperature on Structure Evolution and Hardness/Viscosity the physical and mechanical properties (i.e., viscosity, flow, and fracture). In some cases, the thermal coating techniques (e.g., high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF), plasma spray, cold spray, etc.) have been used

Rollins, Andrew M.

56

IeDEA Region 2: Caribbean, Central and South America Network Version: 1 July 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IeDEA Region 2: Caribbean, Central and South America Network Version: 1 July 2008 1 The CCASAnetDEA Caribbean, Central, and South America Network for HIV Research (CCASAnet) has instituted a process are #12;IeDEA Region 2: Caribbean, Central and South America Network Version: 1 July 2008 2 given

57

Foireann Lrionad de Bhaldraithe Stirthir:An Dr Regina U Chollatin (regina.uichollatain@ucd.ie)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Murchadha (noel.omurchadha@ucd.ie) Aoife U Fhaolin MA (aoife.whelan@ucd.ie) T na crsa seo maoini ag seo tar is an dara seimseastar Modil roghnacha scoileanna eile (Seim 1 agus 2): 3 MA/ Dioplma Iarchime: Scrobh agus Cumarsid C D AN CRSA SEO? T an clr seo feilinach do mhic linn a bhfuil

58

Look both ways: IE's Sarav Arunachalam models air pollution near roadways  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Look both ways: IE's Sarav Arunachalam models air pollution near roadways IE Research Associate potent carcinogens. These toxic pollutants have strong associations with other adverse health effects and depletion of air pollution within the first 550 yards downwind of the roadway and look at exposure patterns

Engel, Jonathan

59

IE 361 Module 12 EFC and SPM: One Thing Control Charting is Not  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, by EE's and ME's) and "SPC." Recall from Module 10 the basic insight that Shewhart "control chartingIE 361 Module 12 EFC and SPM: One Thing Control Charting is Not Reading: Section 3.6 of Statistical Vardeman and Morris (Iowa State University) IE 361 Module 12 1 / 11 #12;EFC and SPC In this short module

Vardeman, Stephen B.

60

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Quantitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a preliminary quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010.

Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Reid; Goel, Supriya

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Homework 1 IE 450-2 Winter 2000 Professor Mehrotra 1. Suppose ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Homework 1. IE 450-2. Winter 2000. Professor Mehrotra. 1. Suppose that x? is a weak local minima of a differentiable function f : n ? . Show that ?f(x?)T p ? 0...

2000-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

62

Development of radiation hard scintillators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro.

Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Blackburn, R. (Michigan Univ., Nuclear Reactor Lab., Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Hard-gapped Holographic Superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we discuss the zero temperature limit of a "p-wave" holographic superconductor. The bulk description consists of a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge fields minimally coupled to gravity. We numerically construct the zero temperature solution which is the gravity dual of the superconducting ground state of the "p-wave" holographic superconductors. The solution is a smooth soliton with zero horizon size and shows an emergent conformal symmetry in the IR. We found the expected superconducting behavior. Using the near horizon analysis we show that the system has a "hard gap" for the relevant gauge field fluctuations. At zero temperature the real part of the conductivity is zero for an excitation frequency less than the gap frequency. This is in contrast with what has been observed in similar scalar- gravity-gauge systems (holographic superconductors). We also discuss the low but finite temperature behavior of our solution.

Pallab Basu; Jianyang He; Anindya Mukherjee; Hsien-Hang Shieh

2009-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

64

Relaxation dynamics in a binary hard-ellipse liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural relaxation in binary hard spherical particles has been shown recently to exhibit a wealth of remarkable features when size disparity or mixture's composition is varied. In this paper, we test whether or not similar dynamical phenomena occur in glassy systems composed of binary hard ellipses. We demonstrate via event-driven molecular dynamics simulation that a binary hard-ellipse mixture with an aspect ratio of two and moderate size disparity displays characteristic glassy dynamics upon increasing density in both the translational and the rotational degrees of freedom. The rotational glass transition density is found to be close to the translational one for the binary mixtures investigated. More importantly, we assess the influence of size disparity and mixture's composition on the relaxation dynamics. We find that an increase of size disparity leads, both translationally and rotationally, to a speed up of the long-time dynamics in the supercooled regime so that both the translational and the rotational glass transition shift to higher densities. By increasing the number concentration of the small particles, the time evolution of both translational and rotational relaxation dynamics at high densities displays two qualitatively different scenarios, i.e., both the initial and the final part of the structural relaxation slow down for small size disparity, while the short-time dynamics still slows down but the final decay speeds up in the binary mixture with large size disparity. These findings are reminiscent of those observed in binary hard spherical particles. Therefore, our results suggest a universal mechanism for the influence of size disparity and mixture's composition on the structural relaxation in both isotropic and anisotropic particle systems.

Wen-Sheng Xu; Zhao-Yan Sun; Li-Jia An

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Hardness Standardization Our objective is to standardize and improve hardness measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Standard Development Organizations (SDOs) such as ASTM International and the International Organization and Measures (BIPM) during the development of international test method standards, by those performing hardnessHardness Standardization METALS Our objective is to standardize and improve hardness measurement

66

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Qualitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a final qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition). All addenda in creating Standard 90.1-2013 were evaluated for their projected impact on energy efficiency. Each addendum was characterized as having a positive, neutral, or negative impact on overall building energy efficiency.

Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Richman, Eric E.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Winiarski, David W.

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

67

Revisit of interfacial free energy of the hard sphere system near hard wall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a simple Monte Carlo method to calculate the interfacial free energy between the substrate and the material. Using this method we investigate the interfacial free energys of the hard sphere fluid and solid phases near a smooth hard wall. According to the obtained interfacial free energys of the coexisting fluid and solid phases and the Young equation we are able to determine the contact angle with high accuracy, cos$\\theta$ = 1:010(31), which indicates that a smooth hard wall can be wetted completely by the hard sphere crystal at the interface between the wall and the hard sphere fluid.

Mingcheng Yang; Hongru Ma

2008-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

68

College Safety Office Trinity College, Dublin Extn. : 1914 Email : tom.merriman@tcd.ie Fax. : 6793799  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Safety legislation (Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act, 2005, Section 25(1)) gives employeesCollege Safety Office Trinity College, Dublin Extn. : 1914 Email : tom.merriman@tcd.ie Fax. : 6793799 Safety Representation in College Faculty of Engineering, Mathematics and Science Background Health

O'Mahony, Donal E.

69

Underwater Bomb Trajectory Prediction for Stand-off Assault (Mine/IED) Breaching Weapon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underwater Bomb Trajectory Prediction for Stand-off Assault (Mine/IED) Breaching Weapon Fuse To support the development and evaluation of the Stand-off Assault Breaching Weapon Fuse Improvement (SOABWFI for developing an effective system for use against IEDs and mines. The Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM

Chu, Peter C.

70

Postdoctoral Research Positions at Trinity College Dublin http://www.dsg.scss.tcd.ie/FutureCities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fellowship in Middleware for Smart Cities This project will investigate middleware support for autonomic management of smart-city infrastructures and services. The project will investigate how user://www.dsg.scss.tcd.ie/node/761 Research Fellowship in Autonomic Management of Smart Grids Applications are invited

Wolfe, Kenneth H.

71

Day-ying butter ies remain day-ying in a Polynesian, bat-free habitat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Day- ying butter ies remain day- ying in a Polynesian, bat-free habitat James H. Fullard Department to study the e¡ects of predators on £ight activity. One major characteristic of day-£ying butter

Fullard, James H.

72

A Comparison of Phylogenetic Reconstruction Methods on an IE Dataset Luay Nakhleh Tandy Warnow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Comparison of Phylogenetic Reconstruction Methods on an IE Dataset Luay Nakhleh Tandy Warnow Dept the dataset, we study the consequences for phylogenetic reconstruction of restricting the data to lexical datasets that use only lexical characters being probably less accurate than analyses based upon datasets

Evans, Steven N.

73

Ferropnictide superconductors, i.e., superconductors that contain Fe and As, have superconducting transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ferropnictide superconductors, i.e., superconductors that contain Fe and As, have superconducting of these materials could not carry a large superconducting current because grain boundaries reduce the critical Hellstrom (DMR-Award 1006584) and Gregory S. Boebinger (DMR-Award 0654118) Applied Superconductivity Center

Weston, Ken

74

IE 425: Inventory Management and Production Planning (aka Advanced Inventory Theory)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IE 425: Inventory Management and Production Planning (aka Advanced Inventory Theory) Spring 2010-depth study of classical models for inventory management and their extensions. We will study both deterministic and stochastic inventory models, with more emphasis on the latter. Although many of the topics we

Snyder, Larry

75

IE 361 Module 14 Patterns on Control Charts and "Special Checks"/Extra Alarm Rules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3.4 of Statistical Quality Assurance Methods for Engineers Prof. Steve Vardeman and Prof. Max MorrisIE 361 Module 14 Patterns on Control Charts and "Special Checks"/Extra Alarm Rules Reading: Section equipment or a clear change in the quality of a raw material

Vardeman, Stephen B.

76

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Qualitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. When the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issues an affirmative determination on Standard 90.1, states are statutorily required to certify within two years that they have reviewed and updated the commercial provisions of their building energy code, with respect to energy efficiency, to meet or exceed the revised standard. This report provides a preliminary qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition).

Halverson, Mark A.; Hart, Reid; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database L.S. Rothman a,, I.E. Gordon a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database L.S. Rothman a,?, I.E. Gordon a , A. Barbe b , D'Ae´ronomie Spatiale de Belgique, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 21 December database Molecular spectroscopy Molecular absorption a b s t r a c t This paper describes the status

Chance, Kelly

78

Wildlife conservation education efforts by Information and Education (I&E) divisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Wende Swank (Member) 3LI , J hn K. Thomas (Member) Da id Schmidly (Department Head) December 1987 ABSTRACT Wildlife Conservation Education Efforts by Information and Education Divisions (I&E) (December 1987) Richard Alan Stone, B. S.... John K. Thomas in the construction and interpretation of the survey. Not to be forgotten are the survey respondents whose time spent on the surv ey and patience with me on the phone proves that there are commited individuals in conserv ation...

Stone, Richard Alan

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Hardness of approximation for quantum problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The polynomial hierarchy plays a central role in classical complexity theory. Here, we define a quantum generalization of the polynomial hierarchy, and initiate its study. We show that not only are there natural complete problems for the second level of this quantum hierarchy, but that these problems are in fact hard to approximate. Using these techniques, we also obtain hardness of approximation for the class QCMA. Our approach is based on the use of dispersers, and is inspired by the classical results of Umans regarding hardness of approximation for the second level of the classical polynomial hierarchy [Umans, FOCS 1999]. The problems for which we prove hardness of approximation for include, among others, a quantum version of the Succinct Set Cover problem, and a variant of the local Hamiltonian problem with hybrid classical-quantum ground states.

Sevag Gharibian; Julia Kempe

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

80

Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value.

Sheinberg, H.

1981-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Hard x-ray imaging from explorer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coded aperture X-ray detectors were applied to obtain large increases in sensitivity as well as angular resolution. A hard X-ray coded aperture detector concept is described which enables very high sensitivity studies persistent hard X-ray sources and gamma ray bursts. Coded aperture imaging is employed so that approx. 2 min source locations can be derived within a 3 deg field of view. Gamma bursts were located initially to within approx. 2 deg and X-ray/hard X-ray spectra and timing, as well as precise locations, derived for possible burst afterglow emission. It is suggested that hard X-ray imaging should be conducted from an Explorer mission where long exposure times are possible.

Grindlay, J.E.; Murray, S.S.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

SEISMIC MONITORING APPLIED TO MINES SAFETY AND OPTIMAL DESIGN OF MINE LAYOUTS IN HARD ROCK MASS SITATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SEISMIC MONITORING APPLIED TO MINES SAFETY AND OPTIMAL DESIGN OF MINE LAYOUTS IN HARD ROCK MASSRockMechanics, School of Mines ofNancy, France. ABSTRACT : The paper intends to show how seismic data can be usefülly rock, tabular situations are usually associated with induced, seismic activity, i.e. the occurrence

Boyer, Edmond

83

Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Materials. Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid Oxide Fuel Cell...

84

MHK Projects/Ocean Energy Galway Bay IE | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAKGalway Bay IE < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search

85

Evaluation of ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1-2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1-2009, 'The Standard for High-Performance Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings'. NREL performed this evaluation by examining the results of predictions for site energy use from a comprehensive set of EnergyPlus models. NREL has conducted an 'order-of-magnitude' analysis in this study to identify the likely overall impact of adopting Standard 189.1-2009 over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007.

Long, N.; Bonnema, E.; Field, K.; Torcellini, P.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Tutor's List 2008/2009 Updates to: Senior Tutor's Office (stosec@tcd.ie) or (01-8962551)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. James's Hospital, D 8 cremink@tcd.ie 01-8963813 CK D'Arcy, Dr. Deirdre School of Pharmacy Centre, St. James's Hospital, D 8 jgormley@tcd.ie 01-8962121 AF Gormley, Dr. Michael Psychology Room 1 bbradby@tcd.ie 01-8961296 Q8 Brady, Dr. Michael Computer Science Room G41, O'Reilly Institute brady

O'Mahony, Donal E.

87

Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated. 3 figs.

Sheinberg, H.

1983-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

88

Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

89

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Quantitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a final quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in improved energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The final analysis considered each of the 110 addenda to Standard 90.1-2010 that were included in Standard 90.1-2013. PNNL reviewed all addenda included by ASHRAE in creating Standard 90.1-2013 from Standard 90.1-2010, and considered their combined impact on a suite of prototype building models across all U.S. climate zones. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOEs final determination. However, out of the 110 total addenda, 30 were identified as having a measureable and quantifiable impact.

Halverson, Mark A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Wang, Weimin; Hart, Philip R.; Zhang, Jian; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

90

Hard-thermal-loop QED thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The weak-coupling expansion for thermodynamic quantities in thermal field theories is poorly convergent unless the coupling constant is tiny. We discuss the calculation of the free energy for a hot gas of electrons and photons to three-loop order using hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt). We show that the hard-thermal-loop perturbation reorganization improves the convergence of the successive approximations to the QED free energy at large coupling, e ~ 2. The reorganization is gauge invariant by construction, and due to the cancellations among various contributions, we obtain a completely analytic result for the resummed thermodynamic potential at three loops.

Nan Su; Jens O. Andersen; Michael Strickland

2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

91

Entangled games are hard to approximate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We establish the first hardness results for the problem of computing the value of one-round games played by a verifier and a team of provers who can share quantum entanglement. In particular, we show that it is NP-hard to approximate within an inverse polynomial the value of a one-round game with (i) quantum verifier and two entangled provers or (ii) classical verifier and three entangled provers. Previously it was not even known if computing the value exactly is NP-hard. We also describe a mathematical conjecture, which, if true, would imply hardness of approximation to within a constant. We start our proof by describing two ways to modify classical multi-prover games to make them resistant to entangled provers. We then show that a strategy for the modified game that uses entanglement can be ``rounded'' to one that does not. The results then follow from classical inapproximability bounds. Our work implies that, unless P=NP, the values of entangled-prover games cannot be computed by semidefinite programs that are polynomial in the size of the verifier's system, a method that has been successful for more restricted quantum games.

Julia Kempe; Hirotada Kobayashi; Keiji Matsumoto; Ben Toner; Thomas Vidick

2007-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

92

HARD CLAM HYBRIDS FOR FLORIDAAQUACULTURE: HATCHERY CULTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Florida have reported higher than expected mortality, which may be caused by high water temperatures by thermal stimulation. Southern hard clams seemed to spawn as water cooled from peak temperature, or other stressors (e.g., rapid salinity changes caused by excessive rain), during the prolonged hot

Florida, University of

93

Party hard! The maths of connections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

problem Question How many people need to come to a party, to guarantee that at least three of them all! With this group of 6 people, we succeeded in finding a trio. What can we say, in general? Colva Roney-Dougal Party hard! #12;Introducing graphs We'll represent the people as dots, called vertices. If two people know

94

Hard Thresholding Pursuit Algorithms: Number of Iterations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

algorithms do provide alternative methods. We consider here the hard thresholding pursuit (HTP) algorithm [6 us now recall that (HTP) consists in constructing a sequence (xn) of s-sparse vectors, starting absolute entries of xn-1 + A (y - Axn-1 ),(HTP1) xn := argmin{ y - Az 2, supp(z) Sn },(HTP2) until

Hitczenko, Pawel

95

Hard thermal loops in static external fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study, in the imaginary-time formalism, the high temperature behavior of n-point thermal loops in static Yang-Mills and gravitational fields. We show that in this regime, any hard thermal loop gives the same leading contribution as the one obtained by evaluating the loop at zero external energies and momenta.

J. Frenkel; S. H. Pereira; N. Takahashi

2009-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

96

CoP meeting ideas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Workshops (individually or combined) - Higher level use of probabilistic modeling for decision making and interpretation of probabilistic results, PA Educational Forums for Sr....

97

Chiu_ARMSTM_COPS.ppt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStandingtheirCheck InChemistry OxideChenChevron,|X I A

98

2010 PA CoP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Murray (EM-23) Video Download PDF Download LFRG Lessons Learned on QA Susan Krenzien (Navarro-Intera) 2:30 - 2:45 pm Break 2:45 - 4:00 pm - ASCEM and CBP Updates Video Download...

99

Gravitational infall in the hard wall model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An infalling shell in the hard wall model provides a simple holographic model for energy injection in a confining gauge theory. Depending on its parameters, a scalar shell either collapses into a large black brane, or scatters between the hard wall and the anti-de Sitter boundary. In the scattering regime, we find numerical solutions that keep oscillating for as long as we have followed their evolution, and we provide an analytic argument that shows that a black brane can never be formed. This provides examples of states in infinite-volume field theory that never thermalize. We find that the field theory expectation value of a scalar operator keeps oscillating, with an amplitude that undergoes modulation.

B. Craps; E. J. Lindgren; A. Taliotis; J. Vanhoof; H. Zhang

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

Laser ablated hard coating for microtools  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10-20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode.

McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Siekhaus, Wigbert J. (Berkeley, CA)

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Laser ablated hard coating for microtools  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10--20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode. 12 figs.

McLean, W. II; Balooch, M.; Siekhaus, W.J.

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

102

Fixed target electroweak and hard scattering physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibilities for future physics and experiments involving weak and electromagnetic interactions, neutrino oscillations, general hard scattering and experiments involving nuclear targets were explored. The studies were limited to the physics accessible using fixed target experimentation. While some of the avenues explored turn out to be relatively unrewarding in the light of competition elsewhere in the world, there are a number of positive conclusions reached about experimentation in the energy range available to the Main Injector and Tevatron. Some of the experiments would benefit from the increased intensity available from the Tevatron utilizing the Main Injector, while some require this increase. Finally, some of the experiments would use the Main Injector low energy, high intensity extracted beams directly. A program of electroweak and hard scattering experiments at fixed target energies retains the potential for important contributions to physics. The key to major parts of this program would appear to be the existence of the Main Injector. 115 refs, 17 figs.

Brock, R. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (USA)); Brown, C.N.; Montgomery, H.E. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Corcoran, M.D. (eds.) (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical...

104

Hard Bottom Substrate Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard Bottom Substrate Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Annual Status Report 2003 #12;Hard Bottom Substrate Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Annual Status Report 2003 Published: 14 May 2004

105

Quantum Searches in a Hard 2SAT Ensemble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a recently constructed ensemble of hard 2SAT realizations, that has a unique ground-state we calculate for the quantized theory the median gap correlation length values $\\xi_{GAP}$ along the direction of the quantum adiabatic control parameter $\\lambda$. We use quantum annealing (QA) with transverse field and a linear time schedule in the adiabatic control parameter $\\lambda$. The gap correlation length diverges exponentially $\\xi_{\\rm GAP} \\propto {\\rm exp} [+r_{\\rm GAP}N]$ in the median with a rate constant $r_{\\rm GAP}=0.553(6)$, while the run time diverges exponentially $\\tau_{\\rm QA} \\propto {\\rm exp} [+r_{\\rm QA}N]$ with $r_{\\rm QA}=1.184(16)$. Simulated classical annealing (SA) exhibits a run time rate constant $r_{\\rm SA}=0.340(5)$ that is small and thus finds ground-states exponentially faster than QA. There are no quantum speedups in ground state searches on constant energy surfaces that have exponentially large volume. We also determine gap correlation length distribution functions $P(\\xi_{\\rm GAP})d\\xi_{\\rm GAP} \\approx W_k$ over the ensemble that at $N=18$ are close to Weibull functions $W_k$ with $k \\approx 1.2$ i.e., the problems show thin catastrophic tails in $\\xi_{\\rm GAP}$. The inferred success probability distribution functions of the quantum annealer turn out to be bimodal.

Neuhaus Thomas

2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

106

Design of Hard Water Stable Emulsifier Systems for Petroleum-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design of Hard Water Stable Emulsifier Systems for Petroleum- and Bio-based Semi for petroleum and bio-based MWFs that improve fluid lifetime by providing emulsion stability under hard water. The newly developed petroleum and bio-based formulations with improved hard water stability are competitive

Clarens, Andres

107

The idea of digital oilfields, i.e., with unmanned exploration unities, is a strong trend in the oil & gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract The idea of digital oilfields, i.e., with unmanned exploration unities, is a strong trend oilfields is roughly an interplay of several technologies that provides resources for gathering raw data

Barbosa, Alberto

108

A U T U M N 2 0 1 4www.ucd.ie/ucdtoday 5.Alooktothe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A U T U M N 2 0 1 4www.ucd.ie/ucdtoday 5.Alooktothe biggerpicture ofresearch 7.Thenatural worldin Quinn, Bernadette Rafter, Eugene Roche, Mark Simpson, Craig Slattery, Barry Smyth, Conor Sweeney, Cathy

Pollastri, Gianluca

109

Hard X-rays and Fluorescent Iron Emission from the Embedded Infrared Cluster in NGC 2071  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present first results of XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the infrared cluster lying near the NGC 2071 reflection nebula in the Orion B region. This cluster is of interest because it is one of the closest regions known to harbor embedded high-mass stars. We report the discovery of hard X-ray emission from the dense central NGC 2071-IR subgroup which contains at least three high-mass young stellar objects (NGC 2071 IRS-1, IRS-2, and IRS-3). A prominent X-ray source is detected within 1 arcsecond of the infrared source IRS-1, which is thought to drive a powerful bipolar molecular outflow. The X-ray spectrum of this source is quite unusual compared to the optically thin plasma spectra normally observed in young stellar objects (YSOs). The spectrum is characterized by a hard broad-band continuum plus an exceptionally broad emission line at approximately 6.4 keV from neutral or near-neutral iron. The fluorescent Fe line likely originates in cold material near the embedded star (i.e. a disk or envelope) that is irradiated by the hard heavily-absorbed X-ray source.

Stephen L. Skinner; Audrey E. Simmons; Marc Audard; Manuel Guedel

2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

110

Cobra-IE Evaluation by Simulation of the NUPEC BWR Full-Size Fine-Mesh Bundle Test (BFBT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The COBRA-IE computer code is a thermal-hydraulic subchannel analysis program capable of simulating phenomena present in both PWRs and BWRs. As part of ongoing COBRA-IE assessment efforts, the code has been evaluated against experimental data from the NUPEC BWR Full-Size Fine-Mesh Bundle Tests (BFBT). The BFBT experiments utilized an 8 x 8 rod bundle to simulate BWR operating conditions and power profiles, providing an excellent database for investigation of the capabilities of the code. Benchmarks performed included steady-state and transient void distribution, single-phase and two-phase pressure drop, and steady-state and transient critical power measurements. COBRA-IE effectively captured the trends seen in the experimental data with acceptable prediction error. Future sensitivity studies are planned to investigate the effects of enabling and/or modifying optional code models dealing with void drift, turbulent mixing, rewetting, and CHF.

Burns, C. J. and Aumiler, D. L.

2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

111

Advanced dexterous manipulation for IED defeat : report on the feasibility of using the ShadowHand for remote operations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improvised Explosive Device (IED) defeat (IEDD) operations can involve intricate operations that exceed the current capabilities of the grippers on board current bombsquad robots. The Shadow Dexterous Hand from the Shadow Robot Company or 'ShadowHand' for short (www.shadowrobot.com) is the first commercially available robot hand that realistically replicates the motion, degrees-of-freedom and dimensions of a human hand (Figure 1). In this study we evaluate the potential for the ShadowHand to perform potential IED defeat tasks on a mobile platform.

Anderson, Robert J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Radiation Hard AlGaN Detectors and Imager  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation hardness of AlGaN photodiodes was tested using a 65 MeV proton beam with a total proton fluence of 3x10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2}. AlGaN Deep UV Photodiode have extremely high radiation hardness. These new devices have mission critical applications in high energy density physics (HEDP) and space explorations. These new devices satisfy radiation hardness requirements by NIF. NSTec is developing next generation AlGaN optoelectronics and imagers.

None

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Hard turning micro-machine tool  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A micro-scale apparatus for supporting a tool for hard turning comprises a base, a pivot coupled to the base, an actuator coupled to the base, and at least one member coupled to the actuator at one end and rotatably coupled to the pivot at another end. A tool mount is disposed on the at least one member. The at least one member defines a first lever arm between the pivot and the tool mount, and a second lever arm between the pivot and the actuator. The first lever arm has a length that is less than a length of the second lever arm. The actuator moves the tool mount along an arc.

DeVor, Richard E; Adair, Kurt; Kapoor, Shiv G

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

114

Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of flexible thin film systems for biomedical, homeland security and environmental sensing applications has increased dramatically in recent years [1,2,3,4]. These systems typically combine traditional semiconductor technology with new flexible substrates, allowing for both the high electron mobility of semiconductors and the flexibility of polymers. The devices have the ability to be easily integrated into components and show promise for advanced design concepts, ranging from innovative microelectronics to MEMS and NEMS devices. These devices often contain layers of thin polymer, ceramic and metallic films where differing properties can lead to large residual stresses [5]. As long as the films remain substrate-bonded, they may deform far beyond their freestanding counterpart. Once debonded, substrate constraint disappears leading to film failure where compressive stresses can lead to wrinkling, delamination, and buckling [6,7,8] while tensile stresses can lead to film fracture and decohesion [9,10,11]. In all cases, performance depends on film adhesion. Experimentally it is difficult to measure adhesion. It is often studied using tape [12], pull off [13,14,15], and peel tests [16,17]. More recent techniques for measuring adhesion include scratch testing [18,19,20,21], four point bending [22,23,24], indentation [25,26,27], spontaneous blisters [28,29] and stressed overlayers [7,26,30,31,32,33]. Nevertheless, sample design and test techniques must be tailored for each system. There is a large body of elastic thin film fracture and elastic contact mechanics solutions for elastic films on rigid substrates in the published literature [5,7,34,35,36]. More recent work has extended these solutions to films on compliant substrates and show that increasing compliance markedly changes fracture energies compared with rigid elastic solution results [37,38]. However, the introduction of inelastic substrate response significantly complicates the problem [10,39,40]. As a result, our understanding of the critical relationship between adhesion, properties, and fracture for hard films on compliant substrates is limited. To address this issue, we integrated nanomechanical testing and mechanics-based modeling in a program to define the critical relationship between deformation and fracture of nanoscale films on compliant substrates. The approach involved designing model film systems and employing nano-scale experimental characterization techniques to isolate effects of compliance, viscoelasticity, and plasticity on deformation and fracture of thin hard films on substrates that spanned more than two orders of compliance magnitude exhibit different interface structures, have different adhesion strengths, and function differently under stress. The results of this work are described in six chapters. Chapter 1 provides the motivation for this work. Chapter 2 presents experimental results covering film system design, sample preparation, indentation response, and fracture including discussion on the effects of substrate compliance on fracture energies and buckle formation from existing models. Chapter 3 describes the use of analytical and finite element simulations to define the role of substrate compliance and film geometry on the indentation response of thin hard films on compliant substrates. Chapter 4 describes the development and application of cohesive zone model based finite element simulations to determine how substrate compliance affects debond growth. Chapter 5 describes the use of molecular dynamics simulations to define the effects of substrate compliance on interfacial fracture of thin hard tungsten films on silicon substrates. Chapter 6 describes the Workshops sponsored through this program to advance understanding of material and system behavior.

Reedy, Earl David, Jr. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John Allen (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Adams, David Price (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yeager,John (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Nyugen, Thao D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Corona, Edmundo (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Cordill, Megan J. (Erich Schmid Institute, Leoben, Austria)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Shock compression synthesis of hard materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research was to adapt the high explosives technology that was developed in conjunction with nuclear weapons programs to subjecting materials to ultra-high pressures and to explore the utility of this technique for the synthesis of hard materials. The research was conducted in collaboration with researchers at the University of Texas, Texas Tech University and Pantex (Mason and Hanger Corp.). The group designed, modeled, built, and tested a new device that allows quantitative recovery of grams of material that have been subjected to unprecedented pressures. The modeling work was done at Texas Tech and Pantex. The metal parts and material samples were made at the University of Texas, and Pantex machined the explosives, assembled the devices and conducted the detonations. Sample characterization was carried out at the University of Texas and Texas Tech.

Willson, C.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

amorphous hard carbon: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in hard and elastic amorphous carbon nitride films investigated H NMR spectroscopy Materials Science Websites Summary: Received 14 February 2003; published 5 November 2003 The...

117

23. Gray{Scott equations Patterns are everywhere in nature. Examples include spots on butter ies, stripes on zebras, tri-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

23. Gray{Scott equations Patterns are everywhere in nature. Examples include spots on butter ies variety. The Gray{Scott equations were formulated originally by Gray and Scott in 1983; we shall advantage of this principle. References P. Gray and S. K. Scott, papers in Chem. Eng. Sci. 38 (1983), 29

Trefethen, Nick

118

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 325, Serie I, p. 871-876, 1997 CGom&ie/Geometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 325, Serie I, p. 871-876, 1997 CGom&ie/Geometry Artin groups, projective SciencesElsevier. Paris 871 #12;M. Kapovich and J. J. Millson attachons un groupe d'Artin (resp. de

Kapovich, Misha

119

The Simplified Partial Digest Problem: Hardness and a Probabilistic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Simplified Partial Digest Problem: Hardness and a Probabilistic Analysis Zo Abrams1 and Ho site locations of the enzyme. Two common approaches are the Double Digest Problem and the Partial Digest Problem. The Double Digest Problem is known to be NP-Complete[4], but the hardness of the Partial

Pratt, Vaughan

120

UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science Find out more at: www.ucd.ie/agfood/researchseminarseries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science Find out more at: www.ucd.ie/agfood/researchseminarseries SeminarSerieS reSearCH ReseaRch seminaR 1 - 2pm Fs01 UCD Agriculture and Food Science Centre Post seminaR FoRum 2-3pm G24 UCD Agriculture and Food Science Centre Wednesday 25 sept 2013 Food For health

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Fluid-fluid versus fluid-solid demixing in mixtures of parallel hard hypercubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is well known that the increase of the spatial dimensionality enhances the fluid-fluid demixing of a binary mixture of hard hyperspheres, i.e. the demixing occurs for lower mixture size asymmetry as compared to the three-dimensional case. However, according to simulations, in the latter dimension the fluid-fluid demixing is metastable with respect to the fluid-solid transition. According to the results obtained from approximations to the equation of state of hard hyperspheres in higher dimensions, the fluid-fluid demixing might becomes stable for high enough dimension. However, this conclusion is rather speculative since none of the above works have taken into account the stability of the crystalline phase (nor by a minimization of a given density functional, neither spinodal calculations or MC simulations). Of course, the lack of results is justified by the difficulty for performing density functional calculations or simulations in high dimensions and, in particular, for highly asymmetric binary mixtures. In the present work, we will take advantage of a well tested theoretical tool, namely the fundamental measure density functional theory for parallel hard hypercubes (in the continuum and in the hypercubic lattice). With this, we have calculated the fluid-fluid and fluid-solid spinodals for different spatial dimensions. We have obtained, no matter of the dimensionality, the mixture size asymmetry nor the polydispersity (included as a bimodal distribution function centered around the asymmetric edge-lengths), that the fluid-fluid critical point is always located above the fluid-solid spinodal. In conclusion, these results point to the existence of demixing between at least one solid phase rich in large particles and one fluid phase rich in small ones, preempting a fluid-fluid demixing, independently of the spatial dimension or the polydispersity.

Luis Lafuente; Yuri Martinez-Raton

2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

122

Pool resolution is NP-hard to recognize  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2004) 5. Buss, S.R. , Hoffmann, J. : The NP-hardness of ?276 (2008) 6. Buss, S.R. , Hoffmann, J. , Johannsen, J. :Article 13 (2008) 7. Hoffmann, J. : Finding a tree structure

Buss, Samuel R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Innovation incentives and competition in the hard disk drive industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Firms in the hard disk drive industry are continually engaging in R & D and improving the quality of their products. We explore various determinants of the product innovation incentives for firms concerned with both their ...

Wu, Xiaohua Sherry

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Improving the polishing process for Rockwell hardness test block  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inefficiencies in a Rockwell hardness test block manufacturing process were analyzed. The polishing stage was identified to be the bottleneck with a high reworking rate. An understanding based on the physics of polishing ...

Imani Nejad, Mohammad

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Why Are Bad Products So Hard to Kill?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is puzzling that firms often continue to invest in product development projects when they should know that demand will be low. We argue that bad products are hard to kill because firms face an inherent conflict when ...

Simester, Duncan

126

On the Hardness of Optimal Auctions (Extended Abstract)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the Hardness of Optimal Auctions (Extended Abstract) Amir Ronen #3; Amin Saberi y Abstract We Berkeley. Email: saberi@cc.gatech.edu. problem which is perhaps the most basic in optimal auction design

Saberi, Amin

127

Soft Pion Emission in Hard Exclusive Pion Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate hard exclusive reactions on the nucleon with soft pion emission. A parametrization of corresponding hadronic matrix elements in terms of parton distributions for final pion-nucleon state is provided. These distributions are calculated in terms of nucleon and pion GPDs and the pion distribution amplitude via soft-pion theorems. Some observables for the process of hard charged pion production on the proton with soft pion emission are computed.

Maxim V. Polyakov; Simone Stratmann

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

128

Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-15: Possible loss of Emergency Notification System (ENS) with loss of offsite power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Documentation is provided in this report for the closeout of IE Bulletin 80-15 for nuclear power reactors. This bulletin pertained to a possible loss of the Emergency Notification System (ENS) upon loss of offsite power. Closeout is based on the implementation and verification of six (6) required actions by licensees of nuclear power reactors in operation or near to receiving an operating license when the bulletin was issued on June 18, 1980. Evaluation of utility responses and NRC/Region inspection reports indicates that the bulletin is closed for all of the 69 nuclear power reactors to which it was issued for action and which were not shut down indefinitely or permanently at the time of issuance of this report. Background information is supplied in the Introduction and Appendix A. Nuclear fuel facilities as well as nuclear power facilities were identified in the enclosures to the bulletin. However, per an NRC memorandum, the closeout of the bulletin for nuclear fuel facilities is not within the scope of this report.

Foley, W.J.; Dean, R.S.; Hennick, A. (Parameter, Inc., Elm Grove, WI (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Free volume distribution of nearly jammed hard sphere packings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the free volume distributions of nearly jammed packings of monodisperse and bidisperse hard sphere configurations. These distributions differ qualitatively from those of the fluid, displaying a power law tail at large free volumes, which constitutes a distinct signature of nearly jammed configurations, persisting for moderate degrees of decompression. We reproduce and explain the observed distribution by considering the pair correlation function within the first coordination shell for jammed hard sphere configurations. We analyze features of the equation of state near jamming, and discuss the significance of observed asphericities of the free volumes to the equation of state.

Moumita Maiti; Srikanth Sastry

2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

131

Vacancy-stabilized crystalline order in hard cubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the effect of vacancies on the phase behavior and structure of systems consisting of hard cubes using event-driven molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. We find a first-order phase transition between a fluid and a simple cubic crystal phase that is stabilized by a surprisingly large number of vacancies, reaching a net vacancy concentration of ~6.4% near bulk coexistence. Remarkably, we find that vacancies increase the positional order in the system. Finally, we show that the vacancies are delocalized and therefore hard to detect.

Frank Smallenburg; Laura Filion; Matthieu Marechal; Marjolein Dijkstra

2012-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

132

Phases I-C, I-D and I-E development of Kinematic Stirling/Rankine commercial gas-fired heat pump system. Final report, January 1986-September 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Kinematic Stirling/Rankine gas-heat-pump concept is based on the application of a Stirling engine under development for over a decade. The engine was converted to natural gas and is characterized with many thousand hours of operating experience. The goal of the project is to develop a commercial-size Stirling engine-driven gas heat pump with a cooling capacity of 10-tons, a COP (heating) of 1.8 and a COP (cooling) of 1.1. The project is a multi-phase development with commercialization planned for 1990. In these phases, an HVAC systems manufacturer (York International) has been working with SPS to develop a prototype gas-heat-pump system. To date, two generations of prototype GHP systems have been built and tested and have demonstrated significant operating cost savings over the conventional electric heat pump. Data are presented for environmental laboratory testing of both prototype gas heat pumps as well as durability, reliability, performance, and emission testing of the V160 Stirling engine. A number of design and manufacturing process changes were made to the engine to reduce costs and improve endurance and shaft efficiency and are described.

Monahan, R.E.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Characterizing the acoustic noise generated by hard disk drives and a scheme for detecting noisy hard drives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering s nah7 CHARACTERIZING THE ACOUSTIC NOISE GENERATED BY HARD DISK DRIVES AND A SCHEME FOR DETECTING NOISY HARD DRIVES A Thesis by SEUK BO KIM Approved... 48 48 49 52 53 55 APPENDIX A 58 VITA LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page I Disk Drive Sample Set 16 II Subjective Human Response: Original Noise 22 IH Leq Measured by MIC1 IV Leq Measured by ACC V Leq Grouping of Tv o Sensors 24 26 26 VI...

Kim, Seuk Bo

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

GRB 060313: A New Paradigm for Short-Hard Bursts?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the simultaneous observations of the prompt emission in the gamma-ray and hard X-ray bands by the Swift-BAT and the KONUS-Wind instruments of the short-hard burst, GRB 060313. The observations reveal multiple peaks in both the gamma-ray and hard X-ray suggesting a highly variable outflow from the central explosion. We also describe the early-time observations of the X-ray and UV/Optical afterglows by the Swift XRT and UVOT instruments. The combination of the X-ray and UV/Optical observations provide the most comprehensive lightcurves to date of a short-hard burst at such an early epoch. The afterglows exhibit complex structure with different decay indices and flaring. This behavior can be explained by the combination of a structured jet, radiative loss of energy, and decreasing microphysics parameters occurring in a circum-burst medium with densities varying by a factor of approximately two on a length scale of 10^17 cm. These density variations are normally associated with the environment of a mass...

Roming, P W A; Palshin, V D; Pagani, C; Norris, J; Kumar, P; Krimm, H; Holland, S T; Gronwall, C; Blustin, A J; Zhang, B; Schady, P; Sakamoto, T; Osborne, J P; Nousek, J A; Marshall, F E; Mszros, P; Golenetskii, S V; Gehrels, N; Frederiks, D D; Campana, S; Burrows, D N; Boyd, P T; Barthelmy, S; Aptekar, R L; Roming, Peter W. A.; Berk, Daniel Vanden; Palshin, Valentin; Pagani, Claudio; Norris, Jay; Kumar, Pawan; Krimm, Hans; Holland, Stephen T.; Gronwall, Caryl; Zhang, Bing; Schady, Patricia; Sakamoto, Takanori; Osborne, Julian P.; Nousek, John A.; Marshall, Frank E.; Meszaros, Peter; Golenetskii, Sergey V.; Gehrels, Neil; Frederiks, Dmitry D.; Campana, Sergio; Burrows, David N.; Boyd, Patricia T.; Barthelmy, Scott

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Educing GPDs from amplitudes of hard exclusive processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dual parametrization of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is considered in details. We discuss which part of information about hadron structure encoded in GPDs [part of total GPD image] can be restored from the known amplitude of a hard exclusive process. The physics content of this partial image is analyzed.

M. V. Polyakov

2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

136

Gravitational collapse and thermalization in the hard wall model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study a simple example of holographic thermalization in a confining field theory: the homogeneous injection of energy in the hard wall model. Working in an amplitude expansion, we find black brane formation for sufficiently fast energy injection and a scattering wave solution for sufficiently slow injection. We comment on our expectations for more sophisticated holographic QCD models.

Ben Craps; Elias Kiritsis; Christopher Rosen; Anastasios Taliotis; Joris Vanhoof; Hongbao Zhang

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

137

Direct Imaging of Soft-Hard Interfaces Enabled by Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct Imaging of Soft-Hard Interfaces Enabled by Graphene Zonghoon Lee,*, Ki-Joon Jeon,*, Albert. We show that graphene, a single atomic layer of sp2 -bonded carbon atoms, can be employed capability. Our findings reveal the unique potential of graphene as an ideal support film for atomic

Frenklach, Michael

138

SpinybotII: Climbing Hard Walls with Compliant Microspines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these approaches is suitable for porous and typically dusty exterior surfaces such as brick, concrete, stucco, hard vertical surfaces including concrete, brick, stucco and masonry without using suction or adhesives demonstrated on brick and concrete walls [11] with considerable success. However, this approach consumes

Provancher, William

139

Optimal Fractal Coding is NP-Hard1 (Extended Abstract)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Fractal Coding is NP-Hard1 (Extended Abstract) Matthias Ruhl, Hannes Hartenstein Institut f,hartenst@informatik.uni-freiburg.de Abstract In fractal compression a signal is encoded by the parameters of a contractive trans- formation whose fixed point (attractor) is an approximation of the original data. Thus fractal coding can

Reiterer, Harald

140

Radiation-Hard ASICs for LHC Optical Data Transmission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation-Hard ASICs for LHC Optical Data Transmission K.K. Gan, H.P. Kagan, R.D. Kass, J.R. Moore damage. We have designed three ASICs for possible applications in the optical links for the new pixel, D.S. Smith Abstract­We have designed three ASICs for possible applications in the optical links

Gan, K. K.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Why is hard to patent an invention? , W. Bein 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Why is hard to patent an invention? D. Bein 1 , W. Bein 2 , M. P. Brut 3 and A. M. Cazacu 4 1 employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power

Bein, Wolfgang

142

Component mixers and a hardness result for counterfeiting quantum money  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we give the first proof that, under reasonable assumptions, a problem related to counterfeiting quantum money from knots [Farhi et al. 2010] is hard. Along the way, we introduce the concept of a component mixer, define three new classical query problems and associated complexity classes related to graph isomorphism and group membership, and conjecture an oracle separating QCMA from QMA.

Andrew Lutomirski

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Hard Excluseive $?$ and $J/?$ Photoproduction off a Proton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the photoproduction of the vector mesons $\\Phi$ and $J/\\Psi$ off a proton in the kinematical regime of large energies and scattering angles within the framework of perturbative QCD. Our investigations are based on the hard scattering approach. This means that the hadrons are replaced by their valence Fock states and scattering on the partonic level is described by tree graphs in which the large transferred momentum is redistributed between the valence partons via the exchange of hard gluons. We find that the unpolarized photoproduction cross sections are dominated by Compton-scattering-like graphs in which the photon couples to the proton, whereas vector-meson-dominance-like graphs, in which the photon fluctuates into the heavy quark-antiquark pair which then exchanges two gluons with the proton, play a minor role. We give explicit predictions for unpolarized scattering cross sections and compare them with experimental data where possible.

A. T. Goritschnig; B. Melic; K. Passek-Kumericki; W. Schweiger

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

144

Hard Sphere Dynamics for Normal and Granular Fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fluid of N smooth, hard spheres is considered as a model for normal (elastic collisions) and granular (inelastic collisions) fluids. The potential energy is discontinuous for hard spheres so the pairwise forces are singular and the usual forms of Newtonian and Hamiltonian mechanics do not apply. Nevertheless, particle trajectories in the N particle phase space are well defined and the generators for these trajectories can be identified. The first part of this presentation is a review of the generators for the dynamics of observables and probability densities. The new results presented in the second part refer to applications of these generators to the Liouville dynamics for granular fluids. A set of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the generator for this Liouville dynamics is identified in a special "stationary representation". This provides a class of exact solutions to the Liouville equation that are closely related to hydrodynamics for granular fluids.

James W. Dufty; Aparna Baskaran

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

145

Does The 3N-Force Have A Hard Core?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The meson-nucleon dynamics that generates the hard core of the RuhrPot two-nucleon interaction is shown to vanish in the irreducible 3N force. This result indicates a small 3N force dominated by conventional light meson-exchange dynamics and holds for an arbitrary meson-theoretic Lagrangian. The resulting RuhrPot 3N force is defined in the appendix. A completely different result is expected when the Tamm-Dancoff/Bloch-Horowitz procedure is used to define the NN and 3N potentials. In that approach, (e.g. full Bonn potential) both the NN {\\it and} 3N potentials contain non-vanishing contributions from the coherent sum of meson-recoil dynamics and the possibility of a large hard core requiring explicit calculation cannot be ruled out.

J. A. Eden; M. F. Gari

1996-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

146

Probing the evolution and morphology of hard carbon spheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monodispersed hard carbon spheres can be synthesized quickly and reproducibly by autogenic reactions of hydrocarbon precursors, notably polyethylene (including plastic waste), at high temperature and pressure. The carbon microparticles formed by this reaction have a unique spherical architecture, with a dominant internal nanometer layered motif, and they exhibit diamond-like hardness and electrochemical properties similar to graphite. In the present study, in-situ monitoring by X-ray diffraction along with electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, neutron pair-distribution function analysis, and computational modeling has been used to elucidate the morphology and evolution of the carbon spheres that form from the autogenic reaction of polyethylene at high temperature and pressure. A mechanism is proposed on how polyethylene evolves from a linear chain-based material to a layered carbon motif. Heating the spheres to 2400-2800 C under inert conditions increases their graphitic character, particularly at the surface, which enhances their electrochemical and tribological properties.

Pol, Vilas G.; Wen, Jianguo; Lau, Kah Chun; Callear, Samantha; Bowron, Daniel T.; Lin, Chi-Kai; Deshmukh, Sanket A.; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Curtiss, Larry A.; David, William; Miller, Dean J.; Thackeray, Michael M.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Infrared Safety in Factorized Hard Scattering Cross-Sections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rules of soft-collinear effective theory can be used naively to write hard scattering cross-sections as convolutions of separate hard, jet, and soft functions. One condition required to guarantee the validity of such a factorization is the infrared safety of these functions in perturbation theory. Using e+e- angularity distributions as an example, we propose and illustrate an intuitive method to test this infrared safety at one loop. We look for regions of integration in the sum of Feynman diagrams contributing to the jet and soft functions where the integrals become infrared divergent. Our analysis is independent of an explicit infrared regulator, clarifies how to distinguish infrared and ultraviolet singularities in pure dimensional regularization, and demonstrates the necessity of taking zero-bins into account to obtain infrared-safe jet functions.

Andrew Hornig; Christopher Lee; Grigory Ovanesyan

2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

148

Role of bit patterned media in future of hard disk drives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hard disk industry has traditionally stayed competitive by competing on the means of price alone by cutting down aggressively on cost via increase of areal density. Continuing increases in the areal density of hard ...

Aravindakshan, Vibin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Density functional theory for Baxter's sticky hard spheres in confinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has recently been shown that a free energy for Baxter's sticky hard sphere fluid is uniquely defined within the framework of fundamental measure theory (FMT) for the inhomogeneous hard sphere fluid, provided that it obeys scaled-particle theory and the Percus-Yevick (PY) result for the direct correlation function [Hansen-Goos and Wettlaufer, J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 134}, 014506 (2011)]. Here, combining weighted densities from common versions of FMT with a new vectorial weighted density, we derive a regularization of the divergences of the associated strongly confined limit. Moreover, the simple free energy that emerges is exact in the zero-dimensional limit, leaves the underlying equation of state unaffected, and yields a direct correlation function distinct from the PY expression. Comparison with simulation data for both the bulk pair correlation function and the density profiles in confinement shows that the new theory is significantly more accurate than the PY-based results. Finally, the resulting free energy is applicable to a glass of adhesive hard spheres.

Hendrik Hansen-Goos; Mark A. Miller; J. S. Wettlaufer

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Diagnostics of quark-gluon plasma in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions by hard QCD-processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the possibilities for studying properties of dense QCD-matter, created in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions, by hard QCD-production processes, so-called "hard" probes -- heavy quarkonia, hard jets, high mass dimuons. Special attention is paid to the potential of coming heavy ion experiments on Large Hadron Collider to observe the rescattering and energy losses of hard partons in quark-gluon plasma.

I. P. Lokhtin

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

GRB 060313: A NEW PARADIGM FOR SHORT-HARD BURSTS? Peter W. A. Roming,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the prompt emission in the gamma-ray and hard X-ray bands by the Swift BAT and the Konus-Wind instruments of the short-hard burst, GRB 060313. The observations reveal multiple peaks in both the gamma-ray and hard X: gamma rays: bursts Online material: color figures 1. INTRODUCTION Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are generally

Zhang, Bing

152

Ductile Binder Phase For Use With Almgb14 And Other Hard Ceramic Materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a ductile binder phase for use with AlMgB14 and other hard materials. The ductile binder phase, a cobalt-manganese alloy, is used in appropriate quantities to tailor good hardness and reasonable fracture toughness for hard materials so they can be used suitably in industrial machining and grinding applications.

Cook, Bruce A. (Ankeny, IA); Russell, Alan (Ames, IA); Harringa, Joel (Ames, IA)

2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

153

IE Courses and Options Presenters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the efficient and flexible operation of business processes. #12;Information Engineers · Form a bridge between the technical side (software engineers, data modelers) and the business side (business analysts, process Methods · MIE363: Resource and Production Modelling · MIE364: Methods of Quality Control and Improvement

154

IE Courses and Options! Presenters!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

! Core ! MIE335S Algorithms & Numerical Methods ! MIE363S Resource & Production Modeling ! MIE364S the efficient and flexible operation of business processes. #12;Information Engineers...! · ...form a bridge between the technical side (software engineers, data modelers) and the business side (business analysts

Sun, Yu

155

About the SimCCS model A cost surface, i.e. a raster grid of the cost to lay a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; · An "offshore scenario" exports CO2 towards the North sea through Normandy and toward an hypothetical storageA B C About the SimCCS model A cost surface, i.e. a raster grid of the cost to lay a pipeline across each grid cell, was estimated using geographical datasets including protected areas, existing gas

Boyer, Edmond

156

Electrochemical processes (i.e. inter-conversion between electric energy and chemical energy) are essential for rechargeable battery materials. Many  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochemical processes (i.e. inter-conversion between electric energy and chemical energy, low energy efficiency, and a short cycle life. A non-invasive NMR methodology is being developed vertically (by a computer controlled step motor), the population of the spins along the field gradient

157

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED S T ~ T E SFISH COMMISSION. 153 ?&-ANNUAC REPORT ON TEIE ELECTRIIU LIURTINGI OA TllIE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, tho automatic cut-off regulating the quantity of steam. admitted to the load on the engine OA TllIE UNITED STATES STEAMRR ALDATRORS, DECEiTIRElR. 31,1585. B y Passed Assistant Engineer df. w depend largely (almostentirely), on the engine driving the dynamo, and the success of the system lies

158

O:\\Seminar (SEM)\\2014\\IE Seminars\\sem1314_Shaolei Ren_JWH_270514.docx THE CHINESE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center Become Sustainable? by Dr. Shaolei Ren Florida International University Date : 27 May, 2014 (TueO:\\Seminar (SEM)\\2014\\IE Seminars\\sem1314_Shaolei Ren_JWH_270514.docx THE CHINESE UNIVERSITY are embarrassingly notorious for their huge energy appetites, stirring serious sustainability concerns. While

Huang, Jianwei

159

Experiment on heat treatment of glass ceramics, i.e. crystallization Objective: to demonstrate the process of crystallization from an amorphous matrix in a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Objective: to demonstrate the process of crystallization from an amorphous matrix in a ceramic system1 27-302 Fall 2001 Lab 1 Experiment on heat treatment of glass ceramics, i.e. crystallization ceramics. Glass ceramics are an interesting class of materials that have been developed fairly recently

Rollett, Anthony D.

160

February 9, 2012 Consider the non-spherical wrist of the Comau Smart5 NJ4 170 robot, i.e., the last three revolute  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

((t)) a linear Cartesian path with constant speed = 1. The robot is initially in the configuration q(0) = /3 /2Robotics I February 9, 2012 Exercise 1 Consider the non-spherical wrist of the Comau Smart5 NJ4 170 robot, i.e., the last three revolute joints of this 6R structure (see Fig. 1). The associated Denavit

De Luca, Alessandro

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

PSU ARL Additive Manufacturing Capstone Project For the first time the PSU ARL, the IE480W CIMP-3D Group at Penn State showed that  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PSU ARL Additive Manufacturing Capstone Project For the first time the PSU ARL, the IE480W CIMP-3D Processing by Direct Digital Deposition (CIMP-3D), is a program utilizing Additive Manufacturing (AM was to develop an understanding of how key operating parameters such as layer thickness, manufacturing

Demirel, Melik C.

162

Knowledge Exchange records from 01/04/2013 20/01/2014 CATEGORY 7 -Conference Proceedings, i.e. not peer-reviewed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Knowledge Exchange records from 01/04/2013 ­ 20/01/2014 CATEGORY 7 - Conference Proceedings, i.e. not peer-reviewed publications (11 records) Record ID 4010297 Title: IUFRO Conference WP 7.02.02. foliage: Abstract from conference given to an international audience. Bib type: M GMD: Conference Abstract Entered

163

Grinding tool for making hemispherical bores in hard materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A grinding tool for forming hemispherical bores in hard materials such as boron carbide. The tool comprises a hemicircular grinding bit, formed of a metal bond diamond matrix, which is mounted transversely on one end of a tubular tool shaft. The bit includes a spherically curved outer edge surface which is the active grinding surface of the tool. Two coolant fluid ports on opposite sides of the bit enable introduction of coolant fluid through the bore of the tool shaft so as to be emitted adjacent the opposite sides of the grinding bit, thereby providing optimum cooling of both the workpiece and the bit.

Duran, E.L.

1985-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

164

Radiation hardness of WLS fibres for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this document we present the data obtained in the irradiation in a Co-60 source of WLS fibers for the TileCal calorimeter. The optical, mechanical and radiation hardness properties of these fibers were developed in close contact with three producers: Bicron, Kuraray and Pol.Hi.Tech. The results on the degradation of the light output and attenuation length from five irradiations are presented. The fibers were irradiated with a total dose at least 3 times higher than the dose predicted for 10 years of operation of LHC at nominal luminosity.

David, M; Maio, A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Quantum model of an autonomous oscillator in hard excitation regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose the simple quantum model of nonlinear autonomous oscillator in hard excitation regime. We originate from classical equations of motion for similar oscillator and quantize them using the Lindblad master equation for the density matrix of this system. The solution for the populations of the stationary states of such oscillator may be explicitly found in the case when nonlinearity parameters of the problem are small. It was shown that in this situation there are three distinct regimes of behavior of the model. We compare properties of this model with corresponding ones of close open system, namely quantum oscillator in soft excitation regime. We discuss a possible applications of the results obtained.

E. D. Vol; M. A. Ialovega

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

One dimensional Brownian motion in hard rods: adiabatic piston problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have investigated the motion characteristics of a movable piston immersed in a one dimensional gas of hard rods by event-oriented molecular dynamics in the absence of thermal noise. Periodic and reflecting boundary conditions are explored. It is shown that the piston undergoes systematic oscillations with decaying amplitudes in short times before it comes to global thermodynamic equilibrium. Moreover, the diffusion of the piston is explored and analytical expressions for its equilibrium mean-squared displacement is obtained. It is shown that MSD of the piston does not differ much from the normal rods despite its mass and length are significantly larger.

M. Ebrahim Foulaadvand; M. Mehdi Shafiee

2014-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

167

Anisotropic flow generated by hard partons in medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard partons which are produced copiously in nuclear collisions at the LHC, deposit most of their energy and momentum into the surrounding quark-gluon plasma. We show that this generates streams in the plasma and contributes importantly to flow anisotropies. With the help of event-by-event three-dimensional perfect hydrodynamic simulations we calculate the observable azimuthal anisotropies of hadronic distributions and show that the proposed mechanism is capable of generating non-negligible part of the observed signal. Hence, it must be taken into account in quantitative studies in which one tries to extract the values of viscosities from the comparison of simulated results with measured data.

Tomasik, Boris

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Harding County, South Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:Greer County is8584°, -79.954985°isEnergyHardeeAda,Harding County is

169

Harding-Birch Lakes, Alaska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:Greer County is8584°, -79.954985°isEnergyHardeeAda,Harding County

170

Flash Memory Garbage Collection in Hard Real-Time Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

collection and compare it to that of more proactive schemes. I develop formulas to assess the schedulability of hard real- time periodic task sets under simpli ed memory consumption models. Results show that I prove the proactive schemes achieve the larger... work in the area of ash memory management. Moreover, we review the previous research about garbage collection in real-time system. In Chapter III we will describe a simpli ed ash memory model that will be used throughout the rest of the thesis...

Lai, Chien-An

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

171

Sandia National Laboratories: Rad-Hard Electronics and Trusted Services  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik SpoerkeSolar Regional Test CenterCMCNational LaboratoriesRFRORad-Hard

172

Multi-Scale Indentation Hardness Testing; A Correlation and Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This test is performed by applying a steady load to an indenter (most commonly a diamond pyramid, diamond spheroconical, or a tungsten carbide ball) and then calculating the hardness from the area or depth of the 5 indentation. A dynamic indentation test... 6 variants are the indenter tip and the load applied. A tungsten carbide sphere or a diamond cone or pyramid is used to prevent the indenter tip from being damaged by the test piece. This consideration is made because test pieces have unique values...

Bennett, Damon W.

2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

Local order variations in confined hard-sphere fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pair distributions of fluids confined between two surfaces at close distance are of fundamental importance for a variety of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, such as interactions between macromolecules in solution, surface forces, and diffusion in narrow pores. However, in contrast to bulk fluids, properties of inhomogeneous fluids are seldom studied at the pair-distribution level. Motivated by recent experimental advances in determining anisotropic structure factors of confined fluids, we analyze theoretically the underlying anisotropic pair distributions of the archetypical hard-sphere fluid confined between two parallel hard surfaces using first-principles statistical mechanics of inhomogeneous fluids. For this purpose, we introduce an experimentally accessible ensemble-averaged local density correlation function and study its behavior as a function of confining slit width. Upon increasing the distance between the confining surfaces, we observe an alternating sequence of strongly anisotropic versus more isotropic local order. The latter is due to packing frustration of the spherical particles. This observation highlights the importance of studying inhomogeneous fluids at the pair-distribution level.

Kim Nygrd; Sten Sarman; Roland Kjellander

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Hard and low friction nitride coatings and methods for forming the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved coating material possessing super-hard and low friction properties and a method for forming the same. The improved coating material includes the use of a noble metal or soft metal homogeneously distributed within a hard nitride material. The addition of small amounts of such metals into nitrides such as molybdenum nitride, titanium nitride, and chromium nitride results in as much as increasing of the hardness of the material as well as decreasing the friction coefficient and increasing the oxidation resistance.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Urgen, Mustafa (Istanbul, TR); Cakir, Ali Fuat (Istanbul, TR); Eryilmaz, Osman Levent (Bolingbrook, IL); Kazmanli, Kursat (Istanbul, TR); Keles, Ozgul (Istanbul, TR)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Theory of angular dispersive imaging hard x-ray spectrographs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A spectrograph is an optical instrument that disperses photons of different energies into distinct directions and space locations, and images photon spectra on a position-sensitive detector. Spectrographs consist of collimating, angular dispersive, and focusing optical elements. Bragg reflecting crystals arranged in an asymmetric scattering geometry are used as the dispersing elements. A ray-transfer matrix technique is applied to propagate x-rays through the optical elements. Several optical designs of hard x-ray spectrographs are proposed and their performance is analyzed. Spectrographs with an energy resolution of 0.1 meV and a spectral window of imaging up to a few tens of meVs are shown to be feasible for inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) spectroscopy applications. In another example, a spectrograph with a 1-meV spectral resolution and 85-meV spectral window of imaging is considered for Cu K-edge resonant IXS (RIXS).

Shvyd'ko, Yuri

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Towards hard X-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard X-rays ({approx}> 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one X-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards X-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are (a) Avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) Microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwiatkowski, Kris K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapustinsky, Jon S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

177

Towards hard x-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard x-rays ( Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research and applications using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and x-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one x-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards x-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are: (a) avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang Zhehui; Morris, C. L.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Luo, S.-N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Phase diagram of two-dimensional hard ellipses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the phase diagram of two-dimensional hard ellipses as obtained from replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The replica exchange is implemented by expanding the isobaric ensemble in pressure. The phase diagram shows four regions: isotropic, nematic, plastic, and solid (letting aside the hexatic phase at the isotropic-plastic two-step transition [PRL 107, 155704 (2011)]). At low anisotropies, the isotropic fluid turns into a plastic phase which in turn yields a solid for increasing pressure (area fraction). Intermediate anisotropies lead to a single first order transition (isotropic-solid). Finally, large anisotropies yield an isotropic-nematic transition at low pressures and a high-pressure nematic-solid transition. We obtain continuous isotropic-nematic transitions. For the transitions involving quasi-long-range positional ordering, i. e. isotropic-plastic, isotropic-solid, and nematic-solid, we observe bimodal probability density functions. This supports first order transition scenarios.

Gustavo Bautista-Carbajal; Gerardo Odriozola

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

179

Goldstone modes in Lyapunov spectra of hard sphere systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we demonstrate how the Lyapunov exponents close to zero of a system of many hard spheres can be described as Goldstone modes, by using a Boltzmann type of approach. At low densities, the correct form is found for the wave number dependence of the exponents as well as for the corresponding eigenvectors in tangent-space. The predicted values for the Lyapunov exponents belonging to the transverse mode are within a few percent of the values found in recent simulations, the propagation velocity for the longitudinal mode is within 1%, but the value for the Lyapunov exponent belonging to the longitudinal mode deviates from the simulations by 30%. For higher densities, the predicted values deviate more from the values calculated in the simulations. These deviations may be due to contributions from ring collisions and similar terms, which, even at low densities, can contribute to the leading order.

Astrid S. de Wijn; Henk van Beijeren

2004-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

180

Bent-housing turbodrills improve hard-formation directional drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improvements in the design of turbine-powered downhole motors allowed steerable drilling in a hard formation at a high rate of penetration (ROP). Drilling in this dolomite formation with the rotary or with positive-displacement motors (PDMs) was slow during steering operations. Shell's solution to the steering penetration rate problems was to change the well plans if suitable directional drilling tools weren't available. Where possible, the wells were designed with the Zechstein interval drilled as a tangent section with non-steerable turbodrills. However, a better solution was the use of a steerable turbodrill-a tool unavailable on the market at that time. The paper describes motor development, a field test, and the design and operation of the motor.

Koot, L.; Koole, K. (Shell U.K. Exploration and Production, Lowestoft (United Kingdom)); Gaynor, T. (Neyrfor-Weir Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

1993-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Rolling friction for hard cylinder and sphere on viscoelastic solid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the friction force acting on a hard cylinder or spherical ball rolling on a flat surface of a viscoelastic solid. The rolling friction coefficient depends non-linearly on the normal load and the rolling velocity. For a cylinder rolling on a viscoelastic solid characterized by a single relaxation time Hunter has obtained an exact result for the rolling friction, and our result is in very good agreement with his result for this limiting case. The theoretical results are also in good agreement with experiments of Greenwood and Tabor. We suggest that measurements of rolling friction over a wide range of rolling velocities and temperatures may constitute an useful way to determine the viscoelastic modulus of rubber-like materials.

B. N. J. Persson

2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

182

Effective interaction approach to the Fermi hard-sphere system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The formalism based on correlated basis functions and the cluster expansion technique has been recently employed to derive an effective interaction from a realistic nuclear hamiltonian. To gauge the reliability of this scheme, we perform a systematic comparison between the results of its application to the Fermi hard-sphere system and the predictions obtained from low-density expansions, as well as from other many-body techniques. The analysis of a variety of properties, including the ground state energy, the effective mass and the momentum distribution, shows that the effective interaction approach is remarkably accurate, thus suggesting that it may be employed to achieve a consistent description of the structure and dynamics of nuclear matter in the density region relevant to astrophysical applications.

Angela Mecca; Alessandro Lovato; Omar Benhar; Artur Polls

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: a tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

McHargue, C.J.

1981-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

184

Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: A tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

McHargue, Carl J. (Farragut, TN)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Study of the Radiation-Hardness of VCSEL and PIN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The silicon trackers of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) use optical links for data transmission. An upgrade of the trackers is planned for the Super LHC (SLHC), an upgraded LHC with ten times higher luminosity. We study the radiation-hardness of VCSELs (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) and GaAs and silicon PINs using 24 GeV/c protons at CERN for possible application in the data transmission upgrade. The optical power of VCSEL arrays decreases significantly after the irradiation but can be partially annealed with high drive currents. The responsivities of the PIN diodes also decrease significantly after irradiation, but can be recovered by operating at higher bias voltage. This provides a simple mechanism to recover from the radiation damage.

Gan, K K; Fernando, W; Kagan, H P; Kass, R D; Lebbai, M R M; Merritt, H; Moore, J R; Nagarkar, A; Rizatdinova, F; Skubic, P L; Smith, D S; Strang, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Radiation-hard electrical coil and method for its fabrication  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation-hard insulated electrical coil and method for making the same are disclosed. In accordance with the method, a conductor, preferably copper, is wrapped with an aluminum strip and then tightly wound into a coil. The aluminum-wrapped coil is then annealed to relax the conductor in the coiled configuration. The annealed coil is then immersed in an alkaline solution to dissolve the aluminum strip, leaving the bare conductor in a coiled configuration with all of the windings closely packed yet uniformly spaced from one another. The coil is then insulated with a refractory insulating material. In the preferred embodiment, the coil is insulated by coating it with a vitreous enamel and subsequently potting the enamelled coil in a castable ceramic concrete. The resulting coil is substantially insensitive to radiation and may be operated continuously in high radiation environments for long periods of time.

Grieggs, R.J.; Blake, R.D.; Gac, F.D.

1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

187

Dynamic Scheduling of Hard RealTime Applications in Open System Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic Scheduling of Hard Real­Time Applications in Open System Environment Z. Deng J. W.­S. Liu J

188

E-Print Network 3.0 - aespoe hard rock Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics 75 JUST OUTSIDE OUR DOOR by Dave Shinkle Summary: in boots and gloves Worked hard along the way Doing all the other things. Their sweat stained...

189

Hard quark-quark scattering with exclusive reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have begun a program designed to study hard quark-quark scattering with exclusive reactions, focusing on quasi-elastic two-body reactions with all possible quark flavor exchanges. Examples are ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/p, rho/sup -/p, ..pi../sup +/..delta../sup -/, K/sup +/..sigma../sup -/, or K..lambda... Of the two-body exclusives, only elastic scattering had been measured at such large t previous to our experiment. By comparing the relative importance of different final states, the energy dependence of the production ratios of these states, the prominence of resonances such as rho/sup -/ over background in this region, and measuring polarizations where accessible, we have collected a large body of data on hard scattering in a completely new domain. Previously, essential all short distance QCD tests have been for inclusive processes. We have taken data with both negative and positive incident beam at 10 GeV/c on a hydrogen target and will present the first results, for ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/p and rho/sup -/p at THETA/sub cm/ = 90/sup 0/, -t = 9 GeV/sup 2//c/sup 2/. The apparatus consists of a magnetic spectrometer, with Cerenkov particle identification, which selects stable charged particles (protons in this case) at high momentum near 90/sup 0/ in the center-of-mass. A large aperture array of PWCs observes the recoil particle or charged decay products. Cross sections are extremely low, approximately a 1 nb/(GeV/c)/sup 2/ for elastic scattering. We will report on a sample of more than 1000 ..pi../sup -/p elastic events, and on rho/sup -/p, where the rho/sup -/ decay distribution was observed. We find a surprisingly large rho/sup -/p cross section in this large momentum transfer region, with rho/sup -/p about half the elastic cross section, and a striking spin alignment of the rho/sup -/.

Barton, D.S.; Bunce, G.M.; Carroll, A.S.; Makdisi, Y.I.; Baller, B.; Blazey, G.C.; Courant, H.; Heller, K.J.; Heppelmann, S.; Marshak, M.L.

1984-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

190

Liquid metal feeding through dendritic region in Ni-Hard white iron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid permeability in the dendritic regions is one of the factors that determine porosity formation and macro segregation in castings. Permeability in the dendritic structure of Ni-Hard white iron was measured as a function of temperature. Effect of microstructural coarsening on the permeability was also investigated. Permeability increased with coarsening dendritic structure in Ni-Hard white iron.

Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Dogan, Omer N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Regularized reconstruction of the differential emission measure from solar flare hard X-ray spectra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regularized reconstruction of the differential emission measure from solar flare hard X-ray spectra for solar flare hard X-rays, it is currently unclear whether the electron distribution responsible between (T) and J( ). However, in the last years, two issues have made this inversion problem more

Piana, Michele

192

Computational Investigation of Hardness Evolution During Friction-Stir Welding of AA5083 and AA2139  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational Investigation of Hardness Evolution During Friction-Stir Welding of AA5083 and AA2139 coupled thermo-mechanical finite-element analysis of the friction-stir welding (FSW) process developed, finite-element analysis, friction- stir welding, hardness prediction 1. Introduction Having a more mobile

Grujicic, Mica

193

K.K. Gan RD07 1 Radiation-Hard Optical Link for SLHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spliced SIMM-GRIN fiber Radiation hardness of PIN/VCSEL arrays Results on MT-style optical packages irradiation? What is optical power after irradiation? What current is needed for annealing? #12;K.K. Gan RDK.K. Gan RD07 1 Radiation-Hard Optical Link for SLHC June 28, 2007 W. Fernando, K.K. Gan, A. Law, H

Gan, K. K.

194

K.K. Gan HEP2007 1 Radiation-Hard Optical Link for SLHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fusion spliced SIMM-GRIN fiber Radiation hardness of PIN/VCSEL arrays Results on MT-style optical What is rise/fall time after irradiation? What is optical power after irradiation? What currentK.K. Gan HEP2007 1 Radiation-Hard Optical Link for SLHC July 20, 2007 W. Fernando, K.K. Gan, A. Law

Gan, K. K.

195

Estimating the Economic Impact for the Commercial Hard Clam Culture Industry on the Economy of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Estimating the Economic Impact for the Commercial Hard Clam Culture Industry on the Economy that the economic impact of the cultured hard clam industry on the economy of Florida was approximately $34 million communities and the statewide economy Florida. A follow-up study to the 2000 study was recently funded

Florida, University of

196

A Framework for Dynamic Hard/Soft Fusion David L. Hall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/asymmetric warfare cases where the observational capabilities and opportunities for traditional electronic ("Hard on the ongoing development ofa research framework for dynamic integration of information from hard (electronic" henceforth) sensors is limited. This is especially related to the urban warfare case

Mullen, Tracy

197

Refractive Optics for Hard X-ray Transmission Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For hard x-ray transmission microscopy at photon energies higher than 15 keV we design refractive condenser and imaging elements to be used with synchrotron light sources as well as with x-ray tube sources. The condenser lenses are optimized for low x-ray attenuation--resulting in apertures greater than 1 mm--and homogeneous intensity distribution on the detector plane, whereas the imaging enables high-resolution (<100 nm) full-field imaging. To obtain high image quality at reasonable exposure times, custom-tailored matched pairs of condenser and imaging lenses are being developed. The imaging lenses (compound refractive lenses, CRLs) are made of SU-8 negative resist by deep x-ray lithography. SU-8 shows high radiation stability. The fabrication technique enables high-quality lens structures regarding surface roughness and arrangement precision with arbitrary 2D geometry. To provide point foci, crossed pairs of lenses are used. Condenser lenses have been made utilizing deep x-ray lithographic patterning of thick SU-8 layers, too, whereas in this case, the aperture is limited due to process restrictions. Thus, in terms of large apertures, condenser lenses made of structured and rolled polyimide film are more attractive. Both condenser types, x-ray mosaic lenses and rolled x-ray prism lenses (RXPLs), are considered to be implemented into a microscope setup. The x-ray optical elements mentioned above are characterized with synchrotron radiation and x-ray laboratory sources, respectively.

Simon, M.; Last, A.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Reznikova, E. [Institute for Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ahrens, G.; Voigt, A. [Microresist Technology, Koepenikerstrasse 325, 12555 Berlin (Germany)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

198

Lyapunov instability of rough hard-disk fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dynamical instability of rough hard-disk fluids in two dimensions is characterized through the Lyapunov spectrum and the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, $h_{KS}$, for a wide range of densities and moments of inertia $I$. For small $I$ the spectrum separates into translation-dominated and rotation-dominated parts. With increasing $I$ the rotation-dominated part is gradually filled in at the expense of translation, until such a separation becomes meaningless. At any density, the rate of phase-space mixing, given by $h_{KS}$, becomes less and less effective the more the rotation affects the dynamics. However, the degree of dynamical chaos, measured by the maximum Lyapunov exponent, is only enhanced by the rotational degrees of freedom for high-density gases, but is diminished for lower densities. Surprisingly, no traces of Lyapunov modes were found in the spectrum for larger moments of inertia. The spatial localization of the perturbation vector associated with the maximum exponent however persists for any $I$.

Jacobus A. van Meel; Harald A. Posch

2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

199

Isotropic-nematic phase behavior of length polydisperse hard rods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The isotropic-nematic phase behavior of length polydisperse hard rods with arbitrary length distributions is calculated. Within a numerical treatment of the polydisperse Onsager model using the Gaussian trial function Ansatz we determine the onset of isotropic-nematic phase separation, coming from a dilute isotropic phase and a dense nematic phase. We focus on parent systems whose lengths can be described by either a Schulz or a `fat-tailed' log-normal distribution with appropriate lower and upper cutoff lengths. In both cases, very strong fractionation effects are observed for parent polydispersities larger than roughly 50 %. In these regimes, the isotropic and nematic phases are completely dominated by respectively the shortest and the longest rods in the system. Moreover, for the log-normal case, we predict triphasic isotropic-nematic-nematic equilibria to occur above a certain threshold polydispersity. By investigating the properties of the coexisting phases across the coexistence region for a particular set of cutoff lengths we explicitly show that the region of stable triphasic equilibria does not extend up to very large parent polydispersities but closes off at a consolute point located not far above the threshold polydispersity. The experimental relevance of the phenomenon is discussed.

H. H. Wensink; G. J. Vroege

2003-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

200

West Short Pine Hills field, Harding County, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The West Short Pine Hills field is a shallow gas field that produces from the Shannon Sandstone Member, on the Camp Crook anticline in southwestern Harding County, South Dakota. The Alma McCutchin 1-17 Heikkila discovery was drilled in the NW1/4, Sec. 17, T16N, R2E, to a depth of 1600 ft and completed in October 1977 for 600 MCFGD from perforations at 1405-1411 ft. To date, 40 gas wells have been completed with total estimated reserves of more than 20 bcf. The field encompasses 12,000 ac, with a current drill-site spacing unit of 160 ac. The field boundaries are fairly well defined, except on the south edge of the field. The wells range in depth from 1250 to 2200 ft, and cost $60,000-$85,000 to drill and complete. Core and log analyses indicate that the field has 70 ft of net pay, with average porosity of 30% and average permeability of 114 md. Most wells have been completed with nitrogen-sand frac. Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company of Bismarck, North Dakota, operates a compressor station and 2.5 mi of 4-in. line that connects the field to their 160 in. north-south transmission line to the Rapid City area. Currently, producers are netting $1.10-$1.25/million Btu. The late Mathew T. Biggs of Casper, Wyoming, was the geologist responsible for mapping and finding this gas deposit.

Strothman, B.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures.

Siddons, David Peter (Shoreham, NY); Johnson, Erik D. (Ridge, NY); Guckel, Henry (Madison, WI); Klein, Jonathan L. (Madison, WI)

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

202

Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures. 21 figs.

Siddons, D.P.; Johnson, E.D.; Guckel, H.; Klein, J.L.

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

203

Wave packet autocorrelation functions for quantum hard-disk and hard-sphere billiards in the high-energy, diffraction regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the time evolution of a wave packet representing a quantum particle moving in a geometrically open billiard that consists of a number of fixed hard-disk or hard-sphere scatterers. Using the technique of multiple collision expansions we provide a first-principle analytical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function for the wave packet in the high-energy diffraction regime, in which the particle's de Broglie wave length, while being small compared to the size of the scatterers, is large enough to prevent the formation of geometric shadow over distances of the order of the particle's free flight path. The hard-disk or hard-sphere scattering system must be sufficiently dilute in order for this high-energy diffraction regime to be achievable. Apart from the overall exponential decay, the autocorrelation function exhibits a generally complicated sequence of relatively strong peaks corresponding to partial revivals of the wave packet. Both the exponential decay (or escape) rate and the revival peak structure are predominantly determined by the underlying classical dynamics. A relation between the escape rate, and the Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of the counterpart classical system, previously known for hard-disk billiards, is strengthened by generalization to three spatial dimensions. The results of the quantum mechanical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function agree with predictions of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory.

Arseni Goussev; J. R. Dorfman

2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

204

Nanopatterned ferroelectrics for ultrahigh density rad-hard nonvolatile memories.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation hard nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) is a crucial component for DOE and DOD surveillance and defense applications. NVRAMs based upon ferroelectric materials (also known as FERAMs) are proven to work in radiation-rich environments and inherently require less power than many other NVRAM technologies. However, fabrication and integration challenges have led to state-of-the-art FERAMs still being fabricated using a 130nm process while competing phase-change memory (PRAM) has been demonstrated with a 20nm process. Use of block copolymer lithography is a promising approach to patterning at the sub-32nm scale, but is currently limited to self-assembly directly on Si or SiO{sub 2} layers. Successful integration of ferroelectrics with discrete and addressable features of {approx}15-20nm would represent a 100-fold improvement in areal memory density and would enable more highly integrated electronic devices required for systems advances. Towards this end, we have developed a technique that allows us to carry out block copolymer self-assembly directly on a huge variety of different materials and have investigated the fabrication, integration, and characterization of electroceramic materials - primarily focused on solution-derived ferroelectrics - with discrete features of {approx}20nm and below. Significant challenges remain before such techniques will be capable of fabricating fully integrated NVRAM devices, but the tools developed for this effort are already finding broader use. This report introduces the nanopatterned NVRAM device concept as a mechanism for motivating the subsequent studies, but the bulk of the document will focus on the platform and technology development.

Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Stevens, Jeffrey; Scrymgeour, David; Gin, Aaron V.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Critical issues in measuring the mechanical properties of hard films on soft substrates by nanoindentation techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study explores the difficulties encountered when using conventional nanoindentation techniques to measure the Young`s modulus and hardness of hard films on soft substrates. In general, the indentation measurement of film/substrate systems is affected by four material properties: the Young`s modulus and hardness of the film, and the Young`s modulus and hardness of the substrate. For the particular case of a hard film on a soft substrate, there is a tendency for the material around the hardness impression to sink-in which results from the large difference in yielding of the two materials. In this study, a model system consisting of NiP on annealed Cu was used to explore the behavior. This system is interesting because the film and substrate have similar Young`s moduli, minimizing the elastic behavior as a variable. In contrast, the hardness of NiP is approximately 7--8 GPa, and that of the annealed copper is less than 1 GPa, providing a factor of 10 difference in the plastic flow characteristics. Experimental results indicate that standard analytical methods for determining the contact depth, hardness and Young`s modulus do not work well for the case of a hard film on a soft substrate. At shallow contact depths, the measured indentation modulus is close to that of the film, but at larger depths sink-in phenomena result in an overestimation of the contact area, and an indentation modulus which is less than the Young`s modulus of both the film and substrate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provide critical details of the physical processes involved, and illustrate how the standard data analyses overestimate the true contact area.

Hay, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pharr, G.M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Materials Science

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

206

Surface tension of isotropic-nematic interfaces: Fundamental Measure Theory for hard spherocylinders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fluid constituted of hard spherocylinders is studied using a density functional theory for non-spherical hard particles, which can be written as a function of weighted densities. This is based on an extended deconvolution of the Mayer $f$-function for arbitrarily shaped convex hard bodies in tensorial weight functions, which depend each only on the shape and orientation of a single particle. In the course of an examination of the isotropic- nematic interface at coexistence the functional is applied to anisotropic and inhomogeneous problems for the first time. We find good qualitative agreement with other theoretical predictions and also with Monte-Carlo simulations.

Ren Wittmann; Klaus Mecke

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

207

Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

208

Experimental comparison of grating- and propagation-based hard X-ray phase tomography of soft tissue  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When imaging soft tissues with hard X-rays, phase contrast is often preferred over conventional attenuation contrast due its superior sensitivity. However, it is unclear which of the numerous phase tomography methods yields the optimized results at given experimental conditions. Therefore, we quantitatively compared the three phase tomography methods implemented at the beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: X-ray grating interferometry (XGI), and propagation-based phase tomography, i.e., single-distance phase retrieval (SDPR) and holotomography (HT), using cancerous tissue from a mouse model and an entire heart of a rat. We show that for both specimens, the spatial resolution derived from the characteristic morphological features is about a factor of two better for HT and SDPR compared to XGI, whereas the XGI data generally exhibit much better contrast-to-noise ratios for the anatomical features. Moreover, XGI excels in fidelity of the density measurements, and is also more robust against low-frequency artifacts than HT, but it might suffer from phase-wrapping artifacts. Thus, we can regard the three phase tomography methods discussed as complementary. The application will decide which spatial and density resolutions are desired, for the imaging task and dose requirements, and, in addition, the applicant must choose between the complexity of the experimental setup and the one of data processing.

Lang, S.; Schulz, G.; Mller, B. [Biomaterials Science Center, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Zanette, I., E-mail: irene.zanette@tum.de [Physik-Department und Institut fr Medizintechnik, Technische Universitt Mnchen, Garching (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Dominietto, M. [Biomaterials Science Center, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zrich, Zrich (Switzerland); Langer, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Universit de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-LYON, Universit de Lyon 1, Villeurbane (France); Rack, A.; Le Duc, G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); David, C. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Mohr, J. [Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pfeiffer, F. [Physik-Department und Institut fr Medizintechnik, Technische Universitt Mnchen, Garching (Germany); Weitkamp, T. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Synchrotron Soleil, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

209

Tribological properties of hard carbon films on zirconia ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigated the tribological properties of hard diamondlike carbon (DLC) films on magnesia-partially-stabilized zirconia (MgO-PSZ) substrates over a wide range of loads, speeds, temperatures, and counterface materials. The films were 2 {micro}m-thick and produced on by ion-beam deposition at room temperature. Tribological tests were conducted on a ball-on-disk machine in open air of 30 to 50% relative humidity under contact loads of 1 to 50 N, at sliding velocities of 0.1 to 6 m/s, and at temperatures to 400{degrees}C. A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls were also used and rubbed against the DLC-coated MgO-PSZ disks, primarily to assess and compare their friction and wear performance to that of MgO-PSZ balls. A series of long-duration lifetime tests was run at speeds of 1, 2, and 6 m/s under a 5-N load to assess the durability of these DLC films. Test results showed that the friction coefficients of MgO-PSZ balls sliding against MgO-PSZ disks were in the range of 0.5-0.8, and the average specific wear rates of MgO-PSZ balls ranged from 10{sup {minus}5} to 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mm{sup 3}/N.m, depending on sliding velocity, contact load and ambient temperature. The friction coefficients of MgO-PSZ balls sliding against the DLC-coated-MgO-PSZ disks varied between 0.03 to 0.1. The average specific wear rates of MgO-PSZ balls were reduced by factors of three to four orders of magnitude when rubbed against the DLC coated disks. These DLC films could last 1.5 million to 4 million cycles, depending on sliding velocity. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-laser Raman Spectroscopy were used to elucidate the microstructural and chemical nature of DLC films and worn surfaces.

Erdemir, A.; Bindal, C.; Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wilbur, P. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

210

Bibliography Armstrong, T., R. Harding, G. Knorr, and D. Montgomery (1970). Solution of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bibliography Armstrong, T., R. Harding, G. Knorr, and D. Montgomery (1970). Solution of Vlasov's equation by transform methods. In Methods in Computational Physics. New York: Academic Press. Armstrong, T

Hammett, Greg

211

all-sky hard x-ray: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sky coverage each orbit, and full sky coverage each 50 days, hard x-ray studies of gamma-ray bursts, AGN, galactic transients, x-ray binaries and accretion-powered pulsars can be...

212

Support vector machines with the ramp loss and the hard margin loss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nov 4, 2008 ... Support vector machines with the ramp loss and the hard margin loss. J.P. Brooks (jpbrooks ***at*** vcu.edu). Abstract: In the interest of...

J.P. Brooks

2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

213

Hard and tough electrodeposited aluminum-manganese alloys with tailored nanostructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tailoring the nanostructure of electrodeposited Al-Mn films to achieve high hardness and toughness is the overarching goal of this thesis. Binary Al-Mn alloys are electrodeposited using a conventional current waveform in ...

Ruan, Shiyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Next-to-Leading Order Hard Scattering Using Fully Unintegrated Parton Distribution Functions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the next-to-leading order fully unintegrated hard scattering coefficient for unpolarized gluon-induced deep inelastic scattering using the logical framework of parton correlation functions developed in previous work. In our approach, exact four-momentum conservation is maintained throughout the calculation. Hence, all non-perturbative functions, like parton distribution functions, depend on all components of parton four-momentum. In contrast to the usual collinear factorization approach where the hard scattering coefficient involves generalized functions (such as Dirac $\\delta$-functions), the fully unintegrated hard scattering coefficient is an ordinary function. Gluon-induced deep inelastic scattering provides a simple illustration of the application of the fully unintegrated factorization formalism with a non-trivial hard scattering coefficient, applied to a phenomenologically interesting case. Furthermore, the gluon-induced process allows for a parameterization of the fully unintegrated gluon distribution function.

Ted C. Rogers

2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

215

Next-to-leading order hard scattering using fully unintegrated parton distribution functions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We calculate the next-to-leading order fully unintegrated hard scattering coefficient for unpolarized gluon-induced deep inelastic scattering using the logical framework of parton correlation functions developed in previous work. In our approach, exact four-momentum conservation is maintained throughout the calculation. Hence, all nonperturbative functions, like parton distribution functions, depend on all components of parton four-momentum. In contrast to the usual collinear factorization approach where the hard scattering coefficient involves generalized functions (such as Dirac {delta} functions), the fully unintegrated hard scattering coefficient is an ordinary function. Gluon-induced deep inelastic scattering provides a simple illustration of the application of the fully unintegrated factorization formalism with a nontrivial hard scattering coefficient, applied to a phenomenologically interesting case. Furthermore, the gluon-induced process allows for a parametrization of the fully unintegrated gluon distribution function.

Rogers, Ted C. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Calculation of the entropy of binary hard sphere mixtures from pair correlation functions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We evaluate the entropy of several binary hard sphere fluid mixtures using two approximate expressions that require as input only the pair correlation functions,g ??(r). An approximation based on the incompressible limit ...

Laird, Brian Bostian; Haymet, A. D. J.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Adaptive Hardness and Composable Security in the Plain Model from Standard Assumptions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive Hardness and Composable Security in the Plain Model from Standard Assumptions Ran Canetti-up or public keys. Tel Aviv University, Email: Canetti@tau.ac.il Cornell University, E-Mail: huijia

Keinan, Alon

218

E-Print Network 3.0 - astronomical hard x-ray Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

search results for: astronomical hard x-ray Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Reverse Drift Bursts in the 0.8-4.5 GHz Band and their Relation to X-Rays Summary: and causing radio...

219

Thermal hard-photons probing multifragmentation in nuclear collisions around the Fermi energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard-photon (E$_{\\gamma} >$ 30 MeV) emission issuing from proton-neutron bremsstrahlung collisions is investigated in four different heavy-ion reactions at intermediate bombarding energies ($^{36}$Ar+$^{197}$Au, $^{107}$Ag, $^{58}$Ni, $^{12}$C at 60{\\it A} MeV) coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle multidetectors covering more than 80% of the solid angle. The hard-photon spectra of the three heavier targets result from the combination of two distinct exponential distributions with different slope parameters, a result which deviates from the behaviour expected for hard-photon production just in first-chance proton-neutron collisions. The thermal origin of the steeper bremsstrahlung component is confirmed by the characteristics of its slope and angular distribution. Such thermal hard-photons convey undisturbed information of the thermodynamical state of hot and excited nuclear systems undergoing multifragmentation.

D. G. d'Enterria; G. Martnez

2000-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

220

Radiation hardness qualification of PbWO4 scintillation crystals for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ensuring the radiation hardness of PbWO4 crystals was one of the main priorities during the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at CERN. The production on an industrial scale of radiation hard crystals and their certification over a period of several years represented a difficult challenge both for CMS and for the crystal suppliers. The present article reviews the related scientific and technological problems encountered.

The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Group; P. Adzic; N. Almeida; D. Andelin; I. Anicin; Z. Antunovic; R. Arcidiacono; M. W. Arenton; E. Auffray; S. Argiro; A. Askew; S. Baccaro; S. Baffioni; M. Balazs; D. Bandurin; D. Barney; L. M. Barone; A. Bartoloni; C. Baty; S. Beauceron; K. W. Bell; C. Bernet; M. Besancon; B. Betev; R. Beuselinck; C. Biino; J. Blaha; P. Bloch; A. Borisevitch; A. Bornheim; J. Bourotte; R. M. Brown; M. Buehler; P. Busson; B. Camanzi; T. Camporesi; N. Cartiglia; F. Cavallari; A. Cecilia; P. Chang; Y. H. Chang; C. Charlot; E. A. Chen; W. T. Chen; Z. Chen; R. Chipaux; B. C. Choudhary; R. K. Choudhury; D. J. A. Cockerill; S. Conetti; S. Cooper; F. Cossutti; B. Cox; D. G. Cussans; I. Dafinei; D. R. Da Silva Di Calafiori; G. Daskalakis; A. David; K. Deiters; M. Dejardin; A. De Benedetti; G. Della Ricca; D. Del Re; D. Denegri; P. Depasse; J. Descamps; M. Diemoz; E. Di Marco; G. Dissertori; M. Dittmar; L. Djambazov; M. Djordjevic; L. Dobrzynski; A. Dolgopolov; S. Drndarevic; G. Drobychev; D. Dutta; M. Dzelalija; A. Elliott-Peisert; H. El Mamouni; I. Evangelou; B. Fabbro; J. L. Faure; J. Fay; A. Fedorov; F. Ferri; D. Franci; G. Franzoni; K. Freudenreich; W. Funk; S. Ganjour; S. Gascon; M. Gataullin; F. X. Gentit; A. Ghezzi; A. Givernaud; S. Gninenko; A. Go; B. Gobbo; N. Godinovic; N. Golubev; P. Govoni; N. Grant; P. Gras; M. Haguenauer; G. Hamel de Monchenault; M. Hansen; J. Haupt; H. F. Heath; B. Heltsley; W. Hintz; R. Hirosky; P. R. Hobson; A. Honma; G. W. S. Hou; Y. Hsiung; M. Huhtinen; B. Ille; Q. Ingram; A. Inyakin; P. Jarry; C. Jessop; D. Jovanovic; K. Kaadze; V. Kachanov; S. Kailas; S. K. Kataria; B. W. Kennedy; P. Kokkas; T. Kolberg; M. Korjik; N. Krasnikov; D. Krpic; Y. Kubota; C. M. Kuo; P. Kyberd; A. Kyriakis; M. Lebeau; P. Lecomte; P. Lecoq; A. Ledovskoy; M. Lethuillier; S. W. Lin; W. Lin; V. Litvine; E. Locci; E. Longo; D. Loukas; P. D. Luckey; W. Lustermann; Y. Ma; M. Malberti; J. Malcls; D. Maletic; N. Manthos; Y. Maravin; C. Marchica; N. Marinelli; A. Markou; C. Markou; M. Marone; V. Matveev; C. Mavrommatis; P. Meridiani; P. Milenovic; P. Min; O. Missevitch; A. K. Mohanty; F. Moortgat; P. Musella; Y. Musienko; A. Nardulli; J. Nash; P. Nedelec; P. Negri; H. B. Newman; A. Nikitenko; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; M. M. Obertino; G. Organtini; T. Orimoto; M. Paganoni; P. Paganini; A. Palma; L. Pant; A. Papadakis; I. Papadakis; I. Papadopoulos; R. Paramatti; P. Parracho; N. Pastrone; J. R. Patterson; F. Pauss; J-P. Peigneux; E. Petrakou; D. G. Phillips II; P. Pirou; F. Ptochos; I. Puljak; A. Pullia; T. Punz; J. Puzovic; S. Ragazzi; S. Rahatlou; J. Rander; P. A. Razis; N. Redaelli; D. Renker; S. Reucroft; P. Ribeiro; C. Rogan; M. Ronquest; A. Rosowsky; C. Rovelli; P. Rumerio; R. Rusack; S. V. Rusakov; M. J. Ryan; L. Sala; R. Salerno; M. Schneegans; C. Seez; P. Sharp; C. H. Shepherd-Themistocleous; J. G. Shiu; R. K. Shivpuri; P. Shukla; C. Siamitros; D. Sillou; J. Silva; P. Silva; A. Singovsky; Y. Sirois; A. Sirunyan; V. J. Smith; F. Stckli; J. Swain; T. Tabarelli de Fatis; M. Takahashi; V. Tancini; O. Teller; K. Theofilatos; C. Thiebaux; V. Timciuc; C. Timlin; M. Titov; A. Topkar; F. A. Triantis; S. Troshin; N. Tyurin; K. Ueno; A. Uzunian; J. Varela; P. Verrecchia; J. Veverka; T. Virdee; M. Wang; D. Wardrope; M. Weber; J. Weng; J. H. Williams; Y. Yang; I. Yaselli; R. Yohay; A. Zabi; S. Zelepoukine; J. Zhang; L. Y. Zhang; K. Zhu; R. Y. Zhu

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A quantitative model for interpreting nanometer scale hardness measurements of thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model was developed to determine hardness of thin films from hardness versus depth curves, given film thickness and substrate hardness. The model is developed by dividing the measured hardness into film and substrate contributions based on the projected areas of both the film and substrate under the indenter. The model incorporates constraints on the deformation of the film by the surrounding material in the film, the substrate, and friction at the indenter/film and film/substrate interfaces. These constraints increase the pressure that the film can withstand and account for the increase in measured hardness as the indenter approaches the substrate. The model is evaluated by fitting the predicted hardness versus depth curves obtained from titanium and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films of varying thicknesses on sapphire substrates. The model is also able to describe experimental data for Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films on sapphire with a carbon layer between the film and the substrate by a reduction in the interfacial strength from that obtained for a film without an interfacial carbon layer.

Poisl, W.H.; Fabes, B.D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Oliver, W.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF A JET AND ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN THE CORONA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the first hard X-ray observation of a solar jet on the limb with flare footpoints occulted, so that faint emission from accelerated electrons in the corona can be studied in detail. In this event on 2003 August 21, RHESSI observed a double coronal hard X-ray source in the pre-impulsive phase at both thermal and nonthermal energies. In the impulsive phase, the first of two hard X-ray bursts consists of a single thermal/nonthermal source coinciding with the lower of the two earlier sources, and the second burst shows an additional nonthermal, elongated source, spatially and temporally coincident with the coronal jet. Analysis of the jet hard X-ray source shows that collisional losses by accelerated electrons can deposit enough energy to generate the jet. The hard X-ray time profile above 20 keV matches that of the accompanying Type III and broadband gyrosynchrotron radio emission, indicating both accelerated electrons escaping outward along the jet path and electrons trapped in the flare loop. The double coronal hard X-ray source, the open field lines indicated by Type III bursts, and the presence of a small post-flare loop are consistent with significant electron acceleration in an interchange reconnection geometry.

Glesener, Lindsay; Lin, R. P.; Krucker, Saem, E-mail: glesener@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Science Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

223

Density functional theory for colloidal mixtures of hard platelets, rods, and spheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A geometry-based density functional theory is presented for mixtures of hard spheres, hard needles and hard platelets; both the needles and the platelets are taken to be of vanishing thickness. Geometrical weight functions that are characteristic for each species are given and it is shown how convolutions of pairs of weight functions recover each Mayer bond of the ternary mixture and hence ensure the correct second virial expansion of the excess free energy functional. The case of sphere-platelet overlap relies on the same approximation as does Rosenfeld's functional for strictly two-dimensional hard disks. We explicitly control contributions to the excess free energy that are of third order in density. Analytic expressions relevant for the application of the theory to states with planar translational and cylindrical rotational symmetry, e.g. to describe behavior at planar smooth walls, are given. For binary sphere-platelet mixtures, in the appropriate limit of small platelet densities, the theory differs from that used in a recent treatment [L. Harnau and S. Dietrich, Phys. Rev. E 71, 011504 (2004)]. As a test case of our approach we consider the isotropic-nematic bulk transition of pure hard platelets, which we find to be weakly first order, with values for the coexistence densities and the nematic order parameter that compare well with simulation results.

Ansgar Esztermann; Hendrik Reich; Matthias Schmidt

2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

224

Hardness of FeB{sub 4}: Density functional theory investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recent experimental study reported the successful synthesis of an orthorhombic FeB{sub 4} with a high hardness of 62(5) GPa [H. Gou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 157002 (2013)], which has reignited extensive interests on whether transition-metal borides compounds will become superhard materials. However, it is contradicted with some theoretical studies suggesting transition-metal boron compounds are unlikely to become superhard materials. Here, we examined structural and electronic properties of FeB{sub 4} using density functional theory. The electronic calculations show the good metallicity and covalent FeB bonding. Meanwhile, we extensively investigated stress-strain relations of FeB{sub 4} under various tensile and shear loading directions. The calculated weakest tensile and shear stresses are 40 GPa and 25 GPa, respectively. Further simulations (e.g., electron localization function and bond length along the weakest loading direction) on FeB{sub 4} show the weak FeB bonding is responsible for this low hardness. Moreover, these results are consistent with the value of Vickers hardness (11.732.3 GPa) by employing different empirical hardness models and below the superhardness threshold of 40 GPa. Our current results suggest FeB{sub 4} is a hard material and unlikely to become superhard (>40 GPa)

Zhang, Miao; Du, Yonghui; Gao, Lili [Department of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China)] [Department of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Lu, Mingchun [Department of Aeronautical Engineering Professional Technology, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132102 (China)] [Department of Aeronautical Engineering Professional Technology, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132102 (China); Lu, Cheng [Department of Physics, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061 (China)] [Department of Physics, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061 (China); Liu, Hanyu, E-mail: hal420@mail.usask.ca [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

225

Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-? x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

Fein, J. R., E-mail: jrfein@umich.edu; Holloway, J. P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Peebles, J. L. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Effects of sequential tungsten and helium ion implantation on nano-indentation hardness of tungsten  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To simulate neutron and helium damage in a fusion reactor first wall sequential self-ion implantation up to 13 dpa followed by helium-ion implantation up to 3000 appm was performed to produce damaged layers of {approx}2 {mu}m depth in pure tungsten. The hardness of these layers was measured using nanoindentation and was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Substantial hardness increases were seen in helium implanted regions, with smaller hardness increases in regions which had already been self-ion implanted, thus, containing pre-existing dislocation loops. This suggests that, for the same helium content, helium trapped in distributed vacancies gives stronger hardening than helium trapped in vacancies condensed into dislocation loops.

Armstrong, D. E. J.; Edmondson, P. D.; Roberts, S. G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)] [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

227

Tsallis Fits to p_T Spectra and Multiple Hard Scattering in pp Collisions at LHC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phenomenological Tsallis fits to the CMS, ATLAS, and ALICE transverse momentum spectra of hadrons for pp collisions at LHC were recently found to extend over a large range of the fitting transverse momentum. We investigate whether the few degrees of freedom in the Tsallis parametrization may arising from the relativistic parton-parton hard-scattering and related hard processes. The effects of multiple hard-scattering and parton showering on the power law are discussed. We find that although the transverse spectra of both hadrons and jets exhibit power-law behaviour of 1/pT^n at high pT, the power indices n for hadrons are categorically greater than those for jets, for which n~4.

Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL; Wilk, Grzegorz [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw, Poland

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Use of a hard mask for formation of gate and dielectric via nanofilament field emission devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for fabricating a nanofilament field emission device in which a via in a dielectric layer is self-aligned to gate metal via structure located on top of the dielectric layer. By the use of a hard mask layer located on top of the gate metal layer, inert to the etch chemistry for the gate metal layer, and in which a via is formed by the pattern from etched nuclear tracks in a trackable material, a via is formed by the hard mask will eliminate any erosion of the gate metal layer during the dielectric via etch. Also, the hard mask layer will protect the gate metal layer while the gate structure is etched back from the edge of the dielectric via, if such is desired. This method provides more tolerance for the electroplating of a nanofilament in the dielectric via and sharpening of the nanofilament.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Hard and soft probe - medium interactions in a 3D hydro+micro approach at RHIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We utilize a 3D hybrid hydro+micro model for a comprehensive and consistent description of soft and hard particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. In the soft sector we focus on the dynamics of (multi-)strange baryons, where a clear strangeness dependence of their collision rates and freeze-out is observed. In the hard sector we study the radiative energy loss of hard partons in a soft medium in the multiple soft scattering approximation. While the nuclear suppression factor $R_{AA}$ does not reflect the high quality of the medium description (except in a reduced systematic uncertainty in extracting the quenching power of the medium), the hydrodynamical model also allows to study different centralities and in particular the angular variation of $R_{AA}$ with respect to the reaction plane, allowing for a controlled variation of the in-medium path-length.

Bass, S A; Ruppert, J; Nonaka, C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

components of the droplet stream in the first regime before,during, and after the impact. The energy audit shows thatthe change in trandiameter dropllo theleiee smpo ohat modes (i.e. n [ 2) decay quickly, leaving the dominant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The energy audit shows thatthe change in trandiameter dropllo theleiee smpo ohat #12;#12;modes (i.e. n [ 2) at the University of Rochester also contributed financially. A. Tucker-Schwartz of UCLA suggested use of the HDFT

Jones, Thomas B.

231

For a complete list of current vacancies and information on the application process please refer to www.ucd.ie/vacancies or alternatively contact UCD HR on 01 716 4900.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VACANCIES For a complete list of current vacancies and information on the application process please refer to www.ucd.ie/vacancies or alternatively contact UCD HR on 01 716 4900. Events 22March2010

232

For a complete list of current vacancies and information on the application process please refer to www.ucd.ie/vacancies or alternatively contact UCD HR on 01 716 4900.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VACANCIES For a complete list of current vacancies and information on the application process please refer to www.ucd.ie/vacancies or alternatively contact UCD HR on 01 716 4900. CYCLE TO WORK SCHEME

233

Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC).

Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

2007-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

234

Hard X-ray observations of Cygnus X-1 with the Miso telescope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 was observed in the hard X-ray - soft gamma-ray energy range by the Miso telescope on two different occasions: in September 1979 and May 1980. Two hard X-ray states of the source have beem measured: in 1979 the observed spectrum confirms the superlow state measured in the same period by the HEAO-3 satellite, while in 1980 the Miso X-ray data are consistent with the so-called low state of Cygnus X-1. In both occasions, no gamma-ray excess has been observed above 200 keV. 9 references.

Perotti, F.; Della Ventura, A.; Villa, G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Reef fish assemblages on hard banks in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

f~C~ h h d banks of the northwestern Gulf based on submersible observations 106 46. Comparison of coloration characters in Holacanthus spp. and their intermediates. Totals for scores on Feddern's patterns 1, 5, and 7 (comparative data from...' Figure 1. Hard banks of the northwestern Gulf of Nexico. eO p+ O 4 cp v+ A +~+~ 0~0 ~4 ~O + ohio+ 50 50 5 Z 100 III 0 100 150 150 Figure 2. Biotic zones known to occur on the hard banks of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Broken bar...

Dennis, George David

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Science Highlight December 2010 Electrochemical Surface Science: Hard X-rays Probe Fuel Cell Model Catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Science Highlight December 2010 Electrochemical Surface Science: Hard X-rays Probe Fuel Cell. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are promising power sources since they can generate distribution network. Large-scale deployment of fuel cells, however, has been hampered by cost and performance

Wechsler, Risa H.

237

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307­312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted thin-film indium phosphide solar cell and its computer simulation Guohua Lia, *, Qingfen Yanga+ -i-p+ InP solar cell is developed. The total thickness of its epitaxial layer is only 0.22 mm

Woodall, Jerry M.

238

New insights from sedimentation equilibrium in an experimental hard-sphere-plus-dipolar Brownian colloidal system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard-sphere colloids are simple conceptually, yet density-matched micron-scale colloidal hard-sphere systems for real-space microscopy are difficult to obtain in the laboratory. Colloids with a dipolar interaction are complex, with angle-dependent attractions or repulsions, and there remain unanswered questions: whether the gas-liquid transition exists, and why there is a low-density networking-forming "void" phase. In this work, we vary the electric field and measure density profiles of Brownian dipolar colloids in sedimentation equilibrium. At zero field, the equation of state matches the hard-sphere equation of state. When there is an electric field parallel to gravity, the clusters of chains form from the bottom substrate, and expand the colloidal sediment; the second virial coefficient obtained from the apparent equation of state is larger than the hard-sphere value. Additional information about the spatial distribution of hydrodynamic sizes, obtained from "sedimentation-diffusion" profiles, also shows the effects of clustering. For micron-scale dipolar colloids in gravity, clustering begins at the surface: the resulting registry between dipoles can enhance repulsions, and lead to less compact structures.

Hugh D. Newman; Anand Yethiraj

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

239

The hard TeV spectrum of 1ES 0229+200: new clues from Swift  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The BL Lac object 1ES 0229+200 (z=0.14) has been detected by HESS during observations taking place in 2005-2006. The TeV spectrum, when corrected for the absorption of gamma-ray photons through the interaction with the extragalactic background light, is extremely hard, even if the most conservative level for the background is considered. The case of 1ES 0229+200 is very similar to that of 1ES 1101-232, for which a possible explanation, in the framework of the standard one-zone synchrotron-self Compton model, is that the high-energy emission is synchrotron-self Compton radiation of electrons distributed as a power law with a large value of the minimum energy. In this scenario the hard TeV spectrum is accompanied by a very hard synchrotron continuum below the soft X-ray band. We will show that recent Swift observations of 1ES 0229+200 in the critical UV-X-ray band strongly support this model, showing the presence of the expected spectral break and hard continuum between the UV and the X-ray bands.

Tavecchio, F; Ghirlanda, G; Franceschini, A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Hypersonic acoustic excitations in binary colloidal crystals: Big versus small hard sphere control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hypersonic acoustic excitations in binary colloidal crystals: Big versus small hard sphere control January 2007 The phononic band structure of two binary colloidal crystals, at hypersonic frequencies of light photonic crystals 2 and sound at hypersonic frequencies.3 The propa- gation of phonons

Schofield, Andrew B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Energy Aware Non-preemptive Scheduling for Hard Real-Time Ravindra Jejurikar Rajesh K. Gupta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . 11 4 Energy comparison of the static slowdown algorithms as a function of the task gain factor GfEnergy Aware Non-preemptive Scheduling for Hard Real-Time Systems Ravindra Jejurikar Rajesh K the ability to perform an energy-delay tradeoff in the computation and communications subsystems. Slowdown

Gupta, Rajesh

242

Electric field in hard superconductors with arbitrary cross section and general critical current law  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric field in hard superconductors with arbitrary cross section and general critical current-28871 Alcala de Henares, Spain Received 18 February 2004; accepted 11 March 2004 The induced electric field E x during magnetic flux entry in superconductors with arbitrary cross section and general

Majs, Antonio Bada

243

Fast solution of NP-hard coloring problems on large random graphs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combining tree decomposition and transfer matrix techniques provides a highly efficient and very general algorithm for computing exact partition functions of statistical models defined on large graphs. We illustrate this by considering the hard problem of computing the exact number of vertex colorings for randomly generated planar graphs with up to N = 100 vertices.

Bedini, Andrea

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Hard-and software implementation and verification of an Islanded House  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Islanded House. Simulations showed that the discomfort can be decreased when also a battery is addedHard- and software implementation and verification of an Islanded House prototype Albert Molderink conclude that it is possible to create an Islanded House and to decrease the discomfort significantly

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

245

Evaluation of Transverse, Bodily Tooth Movement and Its Effects on the Surrounding Hard Tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the negative effects seen during orthodontic expansion is a result of tipping rather than expansion. The aim of the present study was to produce buccal translation, with little or no coronal tipping, and evaluate hard tissue changes of the dental...

Capps, Chad Jason

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Process for casting hard-faced, lightweight camshafts and other cylindrical products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for casting a hard-faced cylindrical product such as an automobile camshaft includes the steps of: (a) preparing a composition formed from a molten base metal and an additive in particle form and having a hardness value greater than the hardness value of the base metal; (b) introducing the composition into a flask containing a meltable pattern of a cylindrical product such as an automobile camshaft to be manufactured and encased in sand to allow the composition to melt the pattern and assume the shape of the pattern within the sand; and (c) rotating the flask containing the pattern about the longitudinal axes of both the flask and the pattern as the molten base metal containing the additive in particle form is introduced into the flask to cause particles of the additive entrained in the molten base metal to migrate by centrifugal action to the radial extremities of the pattern and thereby provide a cylindrical product having a hardness value greater at it's radial extremities than at its center when the molten base metal solidifies.

Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); Argetsinger, Edward R. (Albany, OR); Wilson, Rick D. (Corvallis, OR)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

PUBLISHED VERSION Study of runaway electrons with Hard X-ray spectrometry of tokamak plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and DEMO, HXR spectrometry will be useful providing information on runaway electron energy, runaway beam as high as tens of MeV and the runaway current is more than 1 MA. The final runaway energy can becomePUBLISHED VERSION Study of runaway electrons with Hard X-ray spectrometry of tokamak plasmas

248

Innovative Telemetry System Will Help Tap Hard-to-Reach Natural Gas Resources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The commercialization of an innovative telemetry communications system developed through a U.S. Department of Energy research program will help U.S. producers tap previously hard-to-reach natural gas resources deep underground, resulting in access to additional supplies that will help enhance national energy security.

249

An Analysis of Hard Drive Energy Consumption Anthony Hylick, Ripduman Sohan, Andrew Rice, and Brian Jones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Analysis of Hard Drive Energy Consumption Anthony Hylick, Ripduman Sohan, Andrew Rice, and Brian consumed by the electronics of a drive is just as important as the mechanical energy consumption; (ii consumption was a concern pri- marily for mobile computing domains. The rising cost of energy and increased

Cambridge, University of

250

Cryptographic Hardness based on the Decoding of ReedSolomon Codes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryptographic Hardness based on the Decoding of Reed­Solomon Codes Aggelos Kiayias # Moti Yung + Abstract We investigate the decoding problem of Reed­Solomon (RS) Codes, also known as the Polynomial). This is the fundamen­ tal methodology initiated by Goldwasser and Micali in [GM84] where they started the quest

251

Cryptographic Hardness based on the Decoding of Reed-Solomon Codes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryptographic Hardness based on the Decoding of Reed-Solomon Codes Aggelos Kiayias Moti Yung Abstract We investigate the decoding problem of Reed-Solomon (RS) Codes, also known as the Polynomial). This is the fundamen- tal methodology initiated by Goldwasser and Micali in [GM84] where they started the quest

252

Soft and hard shells in metallic nanocrystals D. Y. Sun,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soft and hard shells in metallic nanocrystals D. Y. Sun,1,2 X. G. Gong,1,2 and Xiao-Qian Wang2 1 such as the enhanced specific heat and low Debye temperature for nanocrystals, studies on the vi- brational properties. In order to pursue the spatial distribution of the elastic and vibrational properties, we divide

Gong, Xingao

253

Incompressibility and Hardness of Solid Solution Transition Metal Diborides: Os1-xRuxB2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cannot be used to cut steel or other ferrous metals because of the formation of iron carbide at elevatedIncompressibility and Hardness of Solid Solution Transition Metal Diborides: Os1-xRuxB2 Michelle B materials has prompted studies of transition metal diboride solid solutions. We have synthesized pure RuB2

Tolbert, Sarah

254

Density Functional Theory for Baxter's Sticky Hard Spheres in Confinement Hendrik Hansen-Goos,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density Functional Theory for Baxter's Sticky Hard Spheres in Confinement Hendrik Hansen-Goos,1 that it obeys scaled-particle theory and the Percus-Yevick (PY) result for the direct correlation function [H with simulation data for both the bulk pair-correlation function and the density profiles in confinement shows

Wettlaufer, John S.

255

The potential energy landscape and inherent dynamics of a hard-sphere fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard-sphere models exhibit many of the same kinds of supercooled-liquid behavior as more realistic models of liquids, but the highly non-analytic character of their potentials makes it a challenge to think of that behavior in potential-energy-landscape terms. We show here that it is possible to calculate an important topological property of hard-sphere landscapes, the geodesic pathways through those landscapes, and to do so without artificially coarse-graining or softening the potential. We show, moreover, that the rapid growth of the lengths of those pathways with increasing packing fraction quantitatively predicts the precipitous decline in diffusion constants in a glass-forming hard-sphere mixture model. The geodesic paths themselves can be considered as defining the intrinsic dynamics of hard spheres, so it is also revealing to find that they (and therefore the features of the underlying potential-energy landscape) correctly predict the occurrence of dynamic heterogeneity and non-zero values of the non-Gaussian parameter. The success of these landscape predictions for the dynamics of such a singular model emphasizes that there is more to potential energy landscapes than is revealed by looking at the minima and saddle points.

Qingqing Ma; Richard M. Stratt

2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

256

PLASTIC RESINS INDUSTRY HIT HARD BY GLOBAL ECONOMIC RECESSION IN 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, but buying only 4.5 billion pounds per month. Although the demand for plastics is ultimately tied to overallPLASTIC RESINS INDUSTRY HIT HARD BY GLOBAL ECONOMIC RECESSION IN 2008 The US plastic resins in the second half of the year. According to the American Chemistry Council (ACC) Plastics Industry Producers

Laughlin, Robert B.

257

Hard X-ray Sources from Miniature Plasma Focus Devices Vernica Raspa1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard X-ray Sources from Miniature Plasma Focus Devices Verónica Raspa1 , Patricio Silva, José been obtained. Introduction The plasma focus (PF) device is a known source of dense transient high temperature plasmas, and it has been studied since late 50`s [1] . A plasma focus is a particular pinch

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

Title: Temperature acclimation (tempering) of hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria does not alter levels of Vibrio vulnificus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of aquacultured hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) in order to reduce mortalities associated with cold temperature.A.C.) allowed initial storage for 6 hours at ambient temperature, followed by 10 hours at 68ºF (20º growing industry in Florida and has placed the state in the forefront of clam production nationwide

Florida, University of

259

Magnetization reversal and exchange bias effects in hard/soft ferromagnetic bilayers with orthogonal anisotropies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The magnetization reversal processes are discussed for exchange-coupled ferromagnetic hard/soft bilayers made from Co[subscript 0.66]Cr[subscript 0.22]Pt[subscript 0.12] (10 and 20 nm)/Ni (from 0 to 40 nm) films with ...

Ross, Caroline A.

260

Design of a Host Traffic Management system for Hard Real Time networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Hard Real Time (HRT) system is one whose correct functioning is based on the concepts of timely and correct delivery. By timely delivery, we imply that if a message is dispatched by a sender application it should be delivered at a receiver...

Krishna Moorthy, Jayasankar

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Short-term effects of salinity declines on juvenile hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be compounded or mitigated by other factors, such as other environmental conditions or handling effects. #12Short-term effects of salinity declines on juvenile hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria. Final report to Florida Sea Grant, for a Program Development Award Project title: Short-term effects of rapid salinity

Florida, University of

262

Datacenter Scale Evaluation of the Impact of Temperature on Hard Disk Drive Failures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Datacenter Scale Evaluation of the Impact of Temperature on Hard Disk Drive Failures SRIRAM SANKAR rely heavily on their datacenters to serve end users. A large datacenter facility incurs increased, there is very little understanding on the major determinants of disk failures in datacenters. In this work, we

Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

263

Model energy landscapes of low-temperature fluids: Dipolar hard spheres Dmitry V. Matyushov*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model energy landscapes of low-temperature fluids: Dipolar hard spheres Dmitry V. Matyushov* Center January 2007; revised manuscript received 5 March 2007; published 24 July 2007 An analytical model of non-Gaussian energy landscape of low-temperature fluids is developed based on the thermodynamics of the fluid

Matyushov, Dmitry

264

Structure and anomalous solubility for hard spheres in an associating lattice gas model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure and anomalous solubility for hard spheres in an associating lattice gas model Marcia M spheres in an associating lattice gas model Marcia M. Szortyka,1,a) Mauricio Girardi,2,b) Vera B-sphere gas in a solvent modeled as an associating lattice gas. The solution phase diagram for solute at 5

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

265

Radiation-hard/high-speed data transmission using optical links , W. Fernandoa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation-hard/high-speed data transmission using optical links K.K. Gana , B. Abic , W. Fernandoa The main radiation effect in a VCSEL is expected to be bulk damage and in a PIN diode the displacement experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) use optical links for data transmission

Gan, K. K.

266

Hard superconducting nitrides Xiao-Jia Chen*, Viktor V. Struzhkin*, Zhigang Wu*, Maddury Somayazulu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(4). The refractory characteristics of these transition- metal nitrides and carbides have been, and hardness of selected superconducting transition-metal nitrides reveals inter- esting correlations among transition temperature (Tc) near 4 K when doped with boron (3). However, the transition-metal compounds

Wu, Zhigang

267

HARD X-RAY INTENSITY DISTRIBUTION ALONG H , Jeongwoo Lee1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

07102 2. Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 ABSTRACT Unusual ribbon-like hard X-ray sources were found with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager calculation of the magnetic energy release rate that is expressed as ucB2 c A, where A is the area

268

The fertilizing value of livestock waste is hardly determined considering its initial variability, the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The fertilizing value of livestock waste is hardly determined considering its initial variability measurements of liquid waste outflows and Near Infrared spectrometry technique have been implemented it is exchanged, manure is mainly in this form. The quantity of solid waste can be estimated with the classical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

Nanoindentation and adhesion of sol-gel-derived hard coatings on polyester  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Fong, and M. Sarikaya Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington component and adding transition metal oxides. These modifications resulted in tailored thermal, optical on the plastic surface. Nanoindentation analysis revealed that the coatings have a surface hardness up to 2.5 ± 0

Cao, Guozhong

270

How hard can it be to pitch a wind turbine blade? Moment of inertia approximately  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How hard can it be to pitch a wind turbine blade? Moment of inertia approximately as a small car (1 a wind turbine blade? Hydraulic pitch actuator for the virtual NREL 5 MW turbine Motivation Actuator a wind turbine blade? Motivation How to model a hydraulic pitch actuator? Second order system

271

A correlation between hard gamma-ray sources and cosmic voids along the line of sight  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

We estimate the galaxy density along lines of sight to hard extragalactic gamma-ray sources by correlating source positions on the sky with a void catalog based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Extragalactic gamma-ray sources that are detected at very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) or have been highlighted as VHE-emitting candidates in the Fermi Large Area Telescope hard source catalog (together referred to as VHE-like sources) are distributed along underdense lines of sight at the 2.4#27; level. There is also a less suggestive correlation for the Fermi hard source population (1.7#27;). A correlation between 10-500 GeV flux and underdense fraction along the line of sight for VHE-like and Fermi hard sources is found at 2.4#27; and 2.6#27;, calculated from the Pearson correlation coefficients of r = 0.57 and 0.47, respectively. The preference for underdense sight lines is not displayed by gamma-ray emitting galaxies within the second Fermi catalog, containing sources detected above 100 MeV, or the SDSS DR7 quasar catalog. We investigate whether this marginal correlation might be a result of lower extragalactic background light (EBL) photon density within the underdense regions and find that, even in the most extreme case of a entirely underdense sight line, the EBL photon density is only 2% less than the nominal EBL density. Translating this into gamma-ray attenuation along the line of sight for a highly attenuated source with opacity #28;(E, z) #24; 5, we estimate that the attentuation of gamma-rays decreases no more than 10%. This decrease, although non-neglible, is unable to account for the apparent hard source correlation with underdense lines of sight.

Furniss, A.; Sutter, P. M.; Primack, J. R.; Dominguez, A.

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

272

Indenter tip radius effect on the NixGao relation in micro-and nanoindentation hardness experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University, Beijing 100084, China (Received 24 June 2004; accepted 20 August 2004) Nix and Gao established an important relation between microindentation hardness and indentation depth. Such a relation has been the microindentation hardness data for single- crystal and polycrystalline copper8 as well as for single- crystal

Jiang, Hanqing

273

ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE VISIBILITIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE a new method for imaging spectroscopy analysis of hard X-ray emission during solar flares. The method.e., the two-dimensional spatial Fourier transforms of the spectral image) to obtain smoothed (regularized

Piana, Michele

274

Specific Methods for the Evaluation of Hydraulic Properties in Fractured Hard-rock J.C. Marchala,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Specific Methods for the Evaluation of Hydraulic Properties in Fractured Hard-rock Aquifers J, marechal@ngri.res.in Abstract: Blocs underlined by fractures networks mainly compose hard-rock aquifers. The complexity of flows through fractures makes inadequate the use of classical techniques for the interpretation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Interface structures in FePtFe3Pt hard-soft exchange-coupled magnetic nanocomposites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interface structures in FePt?Fe3Pt hard-soft exchange-coupled magnetic nanocomposites Jing Li with sizes 10 nm. This ensures the effective exchange coupling of magnetically hard and soft phases. High magnetic materials, the performance of conventional bulk permanent magnetic ma- terials is limited by its

Liu, J. Ping

276

IE 361 Mini Paper Dr. Vardeman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

9-22-00 #12;Introduction ISO is sometimes referred to as International Organization for Standardization. The organization's objective is to promote development of standardization to facilitate.connect.ab.ca/~praxiom/). It is a written set of rules ("Standards") published by an international standards writing body. The rules define

Vardeman, Stephen B.

277

The .HonorabIe Wdliam S. Cohen  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment ofof EnergyYou$0.C.Green River, Utah,TubaWatecIllTAKE-NY&~ ' ..

278

International Environmental Solutions IES | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429 Throttled (bot load)International Association ofInternational Environmental

279

IES version 2012 | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S. Department of EnergyKickoff MeetingIDAHOEnergy

280

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, suppliment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979, page C5-38 Magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect of magnesium singIe crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-38 Magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect of magnesium singIe crystals with heavy rare earth impurities J. Bijvoet splitting, the magnetization of rare earth ions in magnesium single crystals is anisotropic at low and cannot be explained by crystal field splitting of the 4f levels. Single crystals of magnesium with small

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

COP 18 Side Event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions Development Jump to: navigation, search Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership Advancing climate-resilient,...

282

Benchmarking Optimization Software with COPS 3.0  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use a formulation in terms of the control x1 = u, and the partial potential energy function ...... 1. Figure 17.1: Minimal surface problem with a plate obstacle. 40...

283

2013 6 SOIL AND COP Vol. 2 No. 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Nematodes for Biological Control of Insects M . Boca aton9 CC Press 1979. 6 Walter D E. Life history trophic and arthropods in semiarid grasslands J . Canadian Journal of Zoology 1987 659 1689 1695. 7 Bernard E C. Soil

284

COP 18 Side Event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarreis a city in ChittendenPartners LLC JumpCO2e

285

ARM - Field Campaign - COPS - Initiation of Convection and the  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01)3,Cloud OD Sensor TWST CloudMicrophysical Properties of

286

Microsoft PowerPoint - 090402_cops_backup.pptx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergyInnovationMichaelGE1 MicropulseConvectionGoal: Advance

287

Microsoft PowerPoint - 090402_cops_breakout.pptx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergyInnovationMichaelGE1 MicropulseConvectionGoal: Advance1

288

COP 18 Side Event Agenda | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: EnergyBoston Areais3: Crystalline Rock - BasementCEPISsourceCMERICOMcheck

289

COP 18 Side Event General Information | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: EnergyBoston Areais3: Crystalline Rock -

290

Probing bismuth ferrite nanoparticles by hard x-ray photoemission: Anomalous occurrence of metallic bismuth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (?75?nm and ?155?nm) synthesized by a chemical method, using soft X-ray (1253.6?eV) and hard X-ray (3500, 5500, and 7500?eV) photoelectron spectroscopy. This provided an evidence for the variation of chemical state of bismuth in crystalline, phase pure nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis using Mg K? (1253.6?eV) source showed that iron and bismuth were present in both Fe{sup 3+} and Bi{sup 3+} valence states as expected for bismuth ferrite. However, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the bismuth ferrite nanoparticles using variable photon energies unexpectedly showed the presence of Bi{sup 0} valence state below the surface region, indicating that bismuth ferrite nanoparticles are chemically inhomogeneous in the radial direction. Consistently, small-angle X-ray scattering reveals a core-shell structure for these radial inhomogeneous nanoparticles.

Chaturvedi, Smita; Rajendra, Ranguwar; Ballav, Nirmalya; Kulkarni, Sulabha, E-mail: s.kulkarni@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008 (India); Sarkar, Indranil [DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Shirolkar, Mandar M. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jeng, U-Ser; Yeh, Yi-Qi [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101, Hsin-Ann Road, Science Park, Hsinchu 3007-6, Taiwan (China)

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

291

Radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the ATLAS pixel detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed two radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the ATLAS pixel detector at the LHC at CERN: a driver chip for a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) diode for 80 Mbit/s data transmission from the detector, and a Bi-Phase Mark decoder chip to recover the control data and 40 MHz clock received optically by a PIN diode. We have successfully implemented both ASICs in 0.25 um CMOS technology using enclosed layout transistors and guard rings for increased radiation hardness. We present results from prototype circuits and from irradiation studies with 24 GeV protons up to 57 Mrad (1.9 x 10e15 p/cm2).

K. K. Gan

2003-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

292

Shearer's point process and the hard-sphere model in one dimension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We revisit the smallest non-physical singularity of the hard-sphere model in one dimension, also known as Tonks gas. We give an explicit expression of the free energy and reduced correlations at negative real fugacity and elaborate the nature of the singularity: the free energy is right-continuous, but its derivative diverges. We derive these results in several novel ways: First, by scaling up the discrete solution. Second, by an inductive argument on the partition function \\`a la Dobrushin. Third, by a perfect cluster expansion counting the Penrose trees in the Mayer expansion perfectly. Fourth, by an explicit construction of Shearer's point process, the unique R-dependent point process with an R-hard-core. The last connection yields explicit and optimal lower bounds on the avoidance function of R-dependent point processes on the real line.

Christoph Hofer-Temmel

2015-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

293

Pairing of Lyapunov Exponents for a Hard-Sphere Gas under Shear in the Thermodynamic Limit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a dilute gas of hard spheres under shear. We use one of the predominant models to study this system, namely the SLLOD equations of motion, with an iso-kinetic Gaussian thermostat in between collisions, to get a stationary total peculiar kinetic energy. Based on the previously obtained result that in the non-equilibrium steady state and in case the number of particles $N$ becomes large, the coefficient of dynamical friction representing the iso-kinetic Gaussian thermostat for the SLLOD dynamics fluctuates with $1/\\sqrt{N}$ fluctuations around a fixed value, we show on analytical grounds that for a hard sphere gas at small shear rate and with a large number of spheres, the conjugate pairing of the Lyapunov exponents is expected to be violated at the fourth power of the constant shear rate in the bulk.

Debabrata Panja; Ramses van Zon

2002-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

294

Effects of plasma-deposited silicon nitride passivation on the radiation hardness of CMOS integrated circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of plasma-deposited silicon nitride as a final passivation over metal-gate CMOS integrated circuits degrades the radiation hardness of these devices. The hardness degradation is manifested by increased radiation-induced threshold voltage shifts caused principally by the charging of new interface states and, to a lesser extent, by the trapping of holes created upon exposure to ionizing radiation. The threshold voltage shifts are a strong function of the deposition temperature, and show very little dependence on thickness for films deposited at 300/sup 0/C. There is some correlation between the threshold voltage shifts and the hydrogen content of the PECVD silicon nitride films used as the final passivation layer as a function of deposition temperature. The mechanism by which the hydrogen contained in these films may react with the Si/SiO/sub 2/ interface is not clear at this point.

Clement, J. J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Method for determining the hardness of strain hardening articles of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a rapid nondestructive method for determining the extent of strain hardening in an article of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy. The method comprises saturating the article with a magnetic field from a permanent magnet, measuring the magnetic flux emanating from the article, comparing the measurements of the magnetic flux emanating from the article with measured magnetic fluxes from similarly shaped standards of the alloy with known amounts of strain hardening to determine the hardness.

Wallace, Steven A. (Knoxville, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Persistence-Length Renormalization of Polymers in a Crowded Environment of Hard Disks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The most conspicuous property of a semiflexible polymer is its persistence length, defined as the decay length of tangent correlations along its contour. Using an efficient stochastic growth algorithm to sample polymers embedded in a quenched two-dimensional hard-disk fluid, we find apparent wormlike chain statistics with a renormalized persistence length. We identify a universal form of the disorder renormalization that suggests itself as a quantitative measure of molecular crowding.

Sebastian Schbl; Sebastian Sturm; Wolfhard Janke; Klaus Kroy

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

297

Maximally Random Jamming of Two-Dimensional One-Component and Binary Hard Disc Fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report calculations of the density of maximally random jamming (aka random close packing) of one-component and binary hard disc fluids. The theoretical structure used provides a common framework for description of the hard disc liquid to hexatic, the liquid to hexagonal crystal and the liquid-to-maximally random jammed state transitions. Our analysis is based on locating a particular bifurcation of the solutions of the integral equation for the inhomogeneous single particle density at the transition between different spatial structures. The bifurcation of solutions we study is initiated from the dense metastable fluid, and we associate it with the limit of stability of the fluid, which we identify with the transition from the metastable fluid to a maximally random jammed state. For the one-component hard disc fluid the predicted packing fraction at which the metastable fluid to maximally random jammed state transition occurs is 0.84, in excellent agreement with the experimental value 0.84 \\pm 0.02. The corresponding analysis of the limit of stability of a binary hard disc fluid with specified disc diameter ratio and disc composition requires extra approximations in the representations of the direct correlation function, the equation of state, and the number of order parameters accounted for. Keeping only the order parameter identified with the largest peak in the structure factor of the highest density regular lattice with the same disc diameter ratio and disc composition as the binary fluid, the predicted density of maximally random jamming is found to be 0.84 to 0.87, depending on the equation of state used, and very weakly dependent on the ratio of disc diameters and the fluid composition, in agreement with both experimental data and computer simulation data.

Xinliang Xu; Stuart A. Rice

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

298

Non-preemptive scheduling of periodic and aperiodic tasks in the hard real-time systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S. 38 40 11 Enumeration tree search . 42 12 Optimizing two requests in the LOQS globally. 13 Identifying dynamic dominant requests. 14 Dispatching requests in ZOgS. 50 51 15 Extraction algorithm. 53 16 Extraction algorithm by heuristic... in hard real ? time environment, the measure- ment criteria for a good algorithm can be a success ratio and a decision time required for dispatching. The success ratio, when a certain algorithm is used, is the ratio of number of tash sets which...

Oh, Hoon

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Soft and hard confinement of a two-electron quantum system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model physical problem is studied in which a system of two electrons is subject either to soft confinement by means of attractive oscillator potentials or by entrapment within an impenetrable spherical box of finite radius $R.$ When hard confinement is present the oscillators can be switched off. Exact analytical solutions are found for special parameter sets, and highly accurate numerical solutions (18 decimal places) are obtained for general cases. Some interesting degeneracy questions are discussed at length.

Richard L. Hall; Nasser Saad; K. D. Sen

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

300

Suzaku Spectroscopy Study of Hard X-Ray Emission in the Arches Cluster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the results of a Suzaku study of the Arches cluster. A high S/N spectrum in the 3-12 keV band was obtained with the XIS. We found that the spectrum consists of a thermal plasma, a hard power-law tail, and two Gaussian lines. The plasma component (kT~2.2 keV) is established from the presence of CaXIX and FeXXV K alpha lines as well as the absence of FeXXVI K alpha line. The two Gaussian lines represent the K alpha and beta lines from iron at lower ionization stages. Both the line centers and the intensity ratio of these two lines are consistent with the neutral iron. The hard power-law tail (index~0.7) was found to have no pronounced iron K edge feature. In comparison with the published Chandra spectra, we conclude that the thermal component is from the ensemble of point-like sources plus thermal diffuse emission concentrated at the cluster center, while the Gaussian and the hard tail components are from the non-thermal diffuse emission extended in a larger scale. In the band-limited XIS images, the distribution of the 7.5-10.0 keV emission resembles that of the 6.4 keV emission. This strongly suggests that the power-law emission is related to the 6.4 and 7.1 keV lines in the underlying physics. We discuss two ideas to explain both the hard continuum and the lines: (1) X-ray photoionization that produces fluorescence lines and the Thomson scattering continuum and (2) non-thermal electron impact ionization of iron atoms and bremsstrahlung continuum. But whichever scenario is adopted, the photon or particle flux from the Arches cluster is too low to account for the observed line and continuum intensity.

M. Tsujimoto; Y. Hyodo; K. Koyama

2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Hard X-rays from Ultra-Compact HII Regions in W49A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the Chandra detection of hard X-ray emission from the Welch ring in W49A, an organized structure of ultra-compact (UC) HII regions containing a dozen nascent early-type stars. Two UC HII regions are associated with hard X-ray emission in a deep Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer image exposed for 96.7 ks. One of the two X-ray sources has no near-infrared counterpart and is extended by ~5 arcsec, or ~0.3 pc, at a distance of ~11.4 kpc, which is spatially aligned with the cometary radio continuum emission associated with the UC HII region. The X-ray spectrum of the emission, when fit with a thermal model, indicates a heavily absorbed plasma with extinction of \\~5x10^{23}/cm^{2}, temperature of ~7 keV, and X-ray luminosity in the 3.0-8.0 keV band of ~3x10^{33} ergs/s. Both the luminosity and the size of the emission resemble the extended hard emission found in UC HII regions in Sagittarius B2, yet they are smaller by an order of magnitude than the emission found in massive star clusters such as NGC 3603. Three possibilities are discussed for the cause of the hard extended emission in the Welch ring: an ensemble of unresolved point sources, shocked interacting winds of the young O stars, and a wind-blown bubble interacting with ambient cold matter.

M. Tsujimoto; T. Hosokawa; E. D. Feigelson; K. V. Getman; P. S. Broos

2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

302

A study of the structure of the hydrocarbons of primary hard-coal tar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrocarbons isolated from primary hard-coal (G/sub 6/ gas coal) tar have been investigated by a combination of physicochemical and chemical methods. It has been established that the hydrocarbons boiling up to 573 K are mainly aliphatic, hydroaromatic, and naphthenic and are aromatic only to a smaller degree. Molecular and presumable structural formulas of the oxygen compounds isolated from the 473-573 K hydrocarbon fraction have been derived.

Platonov, V.V.; Gerasimova, N.I.; Ivleva, L.N.; Klyavina, O.A.; Vishnyakov, S.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Investigation of microstructure, surface morphology, and hardness properties of PtIr films by magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pt{sub 1-x}Ir{sub x} films with x varying from 22.76 to 63.25 at. % are deposited on (100) Si wafer substrates at 400 deg. C by magnetron sputtering deposition. The effects of the Ir concentration on the microstructure, morphology, and hardness of PtIr films are investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and nanoindentation system. The columnar structures are observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that PtIr films have preferred orientation along Pt(111) when the Ir concentration is below 50.84 at. %. When the Ir content is more than 50.84 at. %, the PtIr film shifts to another preferred orientation, Ir(111). The surface morphology is analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The roughness of the PtIr films decreases with increasing Ir content. The hardness of all the PtIr films is below 20 GPa. The maximum hardness of the PtIr films is about 14.9 GPa when the Ir concentration is 57.9 at. %.

Lee, Chao-Te; Liu, Bo-Heng; Chang, Chun-Ming; Lin, Yu-Wei [Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

STRAIN CORRELATIONS IN ALLOY 690 MATERIALS USING ELECTRON BACKSCATTER DIFFRACTION AND VICKERS HARDNESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High chromium, nickel-base Alloy 690 exhibits an increased resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water environments over lower chromium alloy 600. As a result, Alloy 690 has been used to replace Alloy 600 for steam generator tubing, reactor pressure vessel nozzles and other pressure boundary components. However, recent laboratory crack-growth testing has revealed that heavily cold-worked Alloy 690 materials can become susceptible to SCC. To evaluate reasons for this increased SCC susceptibility, detailed characterizations have been performed on as-received and cold-worked Alloy 690 materials using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and Vickers hardness measurements. Examinations were performed on cross sections of compact tension specimens that were used for SCC crack growth rate testing in simulated PWR primary water. Hardness and the EBSD integrated misorientation density could both be related to the degree of cold work for materials of similar grain size. However, a microstructural dependence was observed for strain correlations using EBSD and hardness which should be considered if this technique is to be used for gaining insight on SCC growth rates

Overman, Nicole R.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

2014-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

305

SENSITIVITY OF STACKED IMAGING DETECTORS TO HARD X-RAY POLARIZATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of multi-layer optics which allow to focus photons up to 100 keV and more promises an enormous jump in sensitivity in the hard X-ray energy band. This technology is already planned to be exploited by future missions dedicated to spectroscopy and imaging at energies >10 keV, e.g., Astro-H and NuSTAR. Nevertheless, our understanding of the hard X-ray sky would greatly benefit from carrying out contemporaneous polarimetric measurements, because the study of hard spectral tails and of polarized emission are often two complementary diagnostics of the same non-thermal and acceleration processes. At energies above a few tens of keV, the preferred technique to detect polarization involves the determination of photon directions after a Compton scattering. Many authors have asserted that stacked detectors with imaging capabilities can be exploited for this purpose. If it is possible to discriminate those events which initially interact in the first detector by Compton scattering and are subsequently absorbed by the second layer, then the direction of scattering is singled out from the hit pixels in the two detectors. In this paper, we give the first detailed discussion of the sensitivity of such a generic design to the X-ray polarization. The efficiency and the modulation factor are calculated analytically from the geometry of the instruments and then compared with the performance as derived by means of Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations.

Muleri, Fabio; Campana, Riccardo, E-mail: fabio.muleri@iaps.inaf.it [INAF-IAPS, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points three TLDs per point to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Quark Structure of the Nucleon and Angular Asymmetry of Proton-Neutron Hard Elastic Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate an asymmetry in the angular distribution of hard elastic proton-neutron scattering with respect to 90deg center of mass scattering angle. We demonstrate that the magnitude of the angular asymmetry is related to the helicity-isospin symmetry of the quark wave function of the nucleon. Our estimate of the asymmetry within the quark-interchange model of hard scattering demonstrates that the quark wave function of a nucleon based on the exact SU(6) symmetry predicts an angular asymmetry opposite to that of experimental observations. On the other hand the quark wave function based on the diquark picture of the nucleon produces an asymmetry consistent with the data. Comparison with the data allowed us to extract the relative sign and the magnitude of the vector and scalar diquark components of the quark wave function of the nucleon. These two quantities are essential in constraining QCD models of a nucleon. Overall, our conclusion is that the angular asymmetry of a hard elastic scattering of baryons provides a new venue in probing quark-gluon structure of baryons and should be considered as an important observable in constraining the theoretical models.

Carlos G. Granados; Misak M. Sargsian

2009-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

308

An Internship Program for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Polymer-Based Nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on our summer internship program in Polymer-Based Nanocomposites, for deaf and hard of hearing undergraduates who engage in classroom and laboratory research work in polymer physics. The unique attributes of this program are its emphasis on: 1. Teamwork; 2. Performance of a start-to-finish research project; 3. Physics of materials approach; and 4. Diversity. Students of all disability levels have participated in this program, including students who neither hear nor voice. The classroom and laboratory components address the materials chemistry and physics of polymer-based nanocomposites, crystallization and melting of polymers, the interaction of X-rays and light with polymers, mechanical properties of polymers, and the connection between thermal processing, structure, and ultimate properties of polymers. A set of Best Practices is developed for accommodating deaf and hard of hearing students into the laboratory setting. The goal is to bring deaf and hard of hearing students into the larger scientific community as professionals, by providing positive scientific experiences at a formative time in their educational lives.

Cebe,P.; Cherdack, D.; Guertin, R.; Haas, T.; S. Ince, B.; Valluzzi, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Hard X-rays from Ultra-Compact HII Regions in W49A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the Chandra detection of hard X-ray emission from the Welch ring in W49A, an organized structure of ultra-compact (UC) HII regions containing a dozen nascent early-type stars. Two UC HII regions are associated with hard X-ray emission in a deep Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer image exposed for 96.7 ks. One of the two X-ray sources has no near-infrared counterpart and is extended by ~5 arcsec, or ~0.3 pc, at a distance of ~11.4 kpc, which is spatially aligned with the cometary radio continuum emission associated with the UC HII region. The X-ray spectrum of the emission, when fit with a thermal model, indicates a heavily absorbed plasma with extinction of \\~5x10^{23}/cm^{2}, temperature of ~7 keV, and X-ray luminosity in the 3.0-8.0 keV band of ~3x10^{33} ergs/s. Both the luminosity and the size of the emission resemble the extended hard emission found in UC HII regions in Sagittarius B2, yet they are smaller by an order of magnitude than the emission found in massive star clusters such as NGC 3603...

Tsujimoto, M; Feigelson, E D; Getman, K V; Broos, P S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Suzaku Spectroscopy Study of Hard X-Ray Emission in the Arches Cluster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the results of a Suzaku study of the Arches cluster. A high S/N spectrum in the 3-12 keV band was obtained with the XIS. We found that the spectrum consists of a thermal plasma, a hard power-law tail, and two Gaussian lines. The plasma component (kT~2.2 keV) is established from the presence of CaXIX and FeXXV K alpha lines as well as the absence of FeXXVI K alpha line. The two Gaussian lines represent the K alpha and beta lines from iron at lower ionization stages. Both the line centers and the intensity ratio of these two lines are consistent with the neutral iron. The hard power-law tail (index~0.7) was found to have no pronounced iron K edge feature. In comparison with the published Chandra spectra, we conclude that the thermal component is from the ensemble of point-like sources plus thermal diffuse emission concentrated at the cluster center, while the Gaussian and the hard tail components are from the non-thermal diffuse emission extended in a larger scale. In the band-limited XIS images, the...

Tsujimoto, M; Koyama, K

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

THE 70 MONTH SWIFT-BAT ALL-SKY HARD X-RAY SURVEY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the catalog of sources detected in 70 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray detector on the Swift gamma-ray burst observatory. The Swift-BAT 70 month survey has detected 1171 hard X-ray sources (more than twice as many sources as the previous 22 month survey) in the 14-195 keV band down to a significance level of 4.8{sigma}, associated with 1210 counterparts. The 70 month Swift-BAT survey is the most sensitive and uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey and reaches a flux level of 1.03 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} over 50% of the sky and 1.34 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} over 90% of the sky. The majority of new sources in the 70 month survey continue to be active galactic nuclei, with over 700 in the catalog. As part of this new edition of the Swift-BAT catalog, we also make available eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object detected in the survey in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 70 month Web site.

Baumgartner, W. H.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mushotzky, R. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Evans, P. A., E-mail: whbaumga@alum.mit.edu [X-Ray and Observational Astronomy Group/Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Introduction to Hard Cider Production Tuesday, January 13, 2015, 8:00 AM -3:30 PM (Snow Date January 14)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Virginia Tech. He has collaborated on economic feasibility studies for small-scale cideries and hard cider fermentation, sanitation and stabilization. The program fee includes tasting of hard ciders of various flavors Snyder, Penn State Extension Educator 1:00 PM Hard Cider Production--Fermentation, Sanitation

Mohaghegh, Shahab

313

Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systemsAn overview: Part I: Hard control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology hard and soft computing/control has nothing to do with the hardware and software that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

The Role of Dissolved Oxygen in Hard Clam Aquaculture1 Kerry Weber, Elise Hoover, Leslie Sturmer, and Shirley Baker2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FA152 The Role of Dissolved Oxygen in Hard Clam Aquaculture1 Kerry Weber, Elise Hoover, Leslie. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Kerry Weber, former graduate student; Elise

Florida, University of

315

Fundamental measure density functional theory studies on the freezing of binary hard-sphere and Lennard-Jones mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamental measure density functional theory studies on the freezing of binary hard are calculated using the fundamental measure density functional theory. Using the thermodynamic perturbation. INTRODUCTION Density functional theory DFT became a practical the- oretical tool for the calculation

Song, Xueyu

316

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Can hard coatings and lubricant anti-wear additives work together?  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about hard coatings...

317

that minimizes vehicle emissions during design of routes in congested environments with time-dependent travel speeds, hard time windows,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that minimizes vehicle emissions during design of routes in congested environments with time-dependent travel speeds, hard time windows, andcapacityconstraints.ThiscreatesanewtypeofVRP,theemissions vehicle routing problem (EVRP). BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW There is extensive literature related to vehicle

Bertini, Robert L.

318

Development of elastography as a non-invasive method for hard spots detection of packaged beef rations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generated under the selected conditions. The elastograms were segmented using an automatic thresholding algorithm and the results were used to analyze the detection of hard spots. The optimal conditions determined for elastography were an applied strain of 1...

Wang, Wei-wei

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A study of the Texas hard clam: distribution and growth of Mercenaria mercenaria texana in Texas bays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A STUDY OF THE TEXAS HARD CLAM: DISTRIBUTION AND GROWTH OF MERCENARIA MERCENARIA TEXANA IN TEXAS BAYS A Thesis by MARGARET ALISON CRAIG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Oceanography A STUDY OF THE TEXAS HARD CLAN: DISTRIBUTION AND GROWTH OF NERCENARIA NERCENARIA TEXANA IN TEXAS BAYS? A Thesis by MARGARET ALISON CRAIG Approved as to style and content by...

Craig, M. Alison

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Hardness of Max-2Lin and Max-3Lin over integers, reals, and large cyclic Ryan O'Donnell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems of linear equations. Given a ring R, the Max-kLin(R) problem is defined as follows: An input, this easily implies the same hardness for Max--3Lin(Q) and Max--3Lin(R). In- deed, it shows a kind of "bicriHardness of Max-2Lin and Max-3Lin over integers, reals, and large cyclic groups Ryan O

O'Donnell, Ryan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Improving Hardness and Toughness of Boride Composites Based on AIMgB14  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The search for new super-hard materials has usually focused on strongly bonded, highly symmetric crystal structures similar to diamond. The two hardest single-phase materials, diamond and cubic boron nitride (cBN), are metastable, and both must be produced at high temperatures and pressures, which makes their production costly. In 2000, a superhard composite based on a low-symmetry, boron-rich compound was reported. Since then, many advances have been made in the study of this AlMgB{sub 14}-TiB{sub 2} composite. The composite has been shown to exhibit hardness greater than either of its constituent phases, relying on its sub-micron microstructure to provide hardening and strengthening mechanisms. With possible hardness around 40 GPa, an AlMgB{sub 14} - 60 vol% TiB{sub 2} approaches the hardness of cBN, yet is amenable to processing under ambient pressure conditions. There are interesting aspects of both the AlMgB{sub 14} and TiB{sub 2} phases. AlMgB{sub 14} is comprised of a framework of boron, mostly in icosahedral arrangements. It is part of a family of 12 known compounds with the same boron lattice, with the metal atoms replaced by Li, Na, Y or a number of Lanthanides. Another peculiar trait of this family of compounds is that every one contains a certain amount of intrinsic vacancies on one or both of the metal sites. These vacancies are significant, ranging from 3 to 43% of sites depending on the composition. TiB{sub 2} is a popular specialty ceramic material due to its high hardness, moderate toughness, good corrosion resistance, and high thermal and electrical conductivity. The major drawback is the difficulty of densification of pure TiB2 ceramics. A combination of sintering aids, pressure, and temperatures of 1800 C are often required to achieve near full density articles. The AlMgB{sub 14} - TiB{sub 2} composites can achieve 99% density from hot-pressing at 1400 C. This is mostly due to the preparation of powders by a high-energy milling technique known as mechanical alloying. The resulting fine powders have high activity, and Fe from wear debris acts as a sintering aid. Mechanical alloying improves the sinterability of the composite material, it has the same effect on pure TiB{sub 2}. TiB{sub 2} processed by high-energy milling has been found to achieve 99% theoretical density at 1400 C with the addition of {approx}1 wt% Fe. Both the AlMgB{sub 14} - TiB{sub 2} composites and pure TiB{sub 2} produced from these methods have enhanced mechanical properties due to their fine microstructures. These materials show exceptional promise in the field of wear resistance. This includes cutting tools, erosion resistant coatings, and low-friction sliding contacts to name a few. Under certain wear conditions, the composite material can show performance on par with that of current high-end cBN and WC materials tailored for wear resistance. The composite material also exhibits low reactivity with Ti alloys, a pre-requisite for effective machining of these alloys, a trait that few hard materials possess.

Justin Steven Peters

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Phase-matched generation of coherent soft and hard X-rays using IR lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation of soft and hard X-rays is accomplished using infrared driving lasers in a high-pressure non-linear medium. The pressure of the non-linear medium is increased to multi-atmospheres and a mid-IR (or higher) laser device provides the driving pulse. Based on this scaling, also a general method for global optimization of the flux of phase-matched high-order harmonic generation at a desired wavelength is designed.

Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Bahabad, Alon; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

323

Optical identification of hard X-ray source IGRJ18257-0707  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the results of the optical identification of hard X-ray source IGRJ18257-0707 trough the spectroscopic observations of its optical counterpart with RTT150 telescope. Accurate position of the X-ray source, determined using Chandra observations, allowed us to associate this source with the faint optical object (m_R=~20.4), which shows broad H_\\alpha emission line in its optical spectrum. Therefore we conclude that the source IGRJ18257-0707 is a type 1 Seyfert galaxy at redshift z=0.037.

R. A. Burenin; I. F. Bikmaev; M. G. Revnivtsev; J. A. Tomsick; S. Yu. Sazonov; M. N. Pavlinskiy; R. A. Sunyaev

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

324

Using Fundamental Measure Theory to Treat the Correlation Function of the Inhomogeneous Hard-Sphere Fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the value of the correlation function of an inhomogeneous hard-sphere fluid at contact. This quantity plays a critical role in Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT), which is the basis of a number of recently developed classical density functionals. We define two averaged values for the correlation function at contact, and derive formulas for each of them from the White Bear version of the Fundamental Measure Theory functional, using an assumption of thermodynamic consistency. We test these formulas, as well as two existing formulas against Monte Carlo simulations, and find excellent agreement between the Monte Carlo data and one of our averaged correlation functions.

Jeff Schulte; Patrick Kreitzberg; Chris Haglund; David Roundy

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

325

Lyapunov Exponent Pairing for a Thermostatted Hard-Sphere Gas under Shear in the Thermodynamic Limit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate why for a sheared gas of hard spheres, described by the SLLOD equations with an iso-kinetic Gaussian thermostat in between collisions, deviations of the conjugate pairing rule for the Lyapunov spectrum are to be expected, employing a previous result that for a large number of particles $N$, the iso-kinetic Gaussian thermostat is equivalent to a constant friction thermostat, up to $1/\\sqrt{N}$ fluctuations. We also show that these deviations are at most of the order of the fourth power in the shear rate.

Debabrata Panja; Ramses van Zon

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

14 ESS (trademark) switch inherent radiation-hardness assessment. Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Phase I of the 4 ESS Switch RHA Program documented in this report is the preliminary assessment of the inherent fallout-radiation susceptibility of the 4 ESS Switch. The approach described herein consists of the identification of the active microelectronic piece-parts used in the 4 ESS Switch; characterization of their radiation tolerance, based on available data; preliminary identification of hardness-critical packs; and preliminary analysis of 4 ESS Switch performance during expose to ambient (unshielded) fallout radiation, also based on available data. (Author)

Not Available

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Studies of semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes at Jlab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of experiments proposed for the {\\tt CLAS12} detector in conjunction with the 12-GeV CEBAF accelerator is the study of the nucleon through hard exclusive, semi-inclusive, and inclusive processes. This will provide new insights into nucleon dynamics at the elementary quark and gluon level. In this contribution we provide an overview of ongoing studies of the structure of nucleon in terms of quark and gluon degrees of freedom and future physics program planned with CLAS and {\\tt CLAS12}.

Harutyun Avagyan

2008-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

328

Scalable Architecture for Adiabatic Quantum Computing of NP-Hard Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a comprehensive review of past research into adiabatic quantum computation and then propose a scalable architecture for an adiabatic quantum computer that can treat NP-hard problems without requiring local coherent operations. Instead, computation can be performed entirely by adiabatically varying a magnetic field applied to all the qubits simultaneously. Local (incoherent) operations are needed only for: (1) switching on or off certain pairwise, nearest-neighbor inductive couplings in order to set the problem to be solved and (2) measuring some subset of the qubits in order to obtain the answer to the problem.

William M. Kaminsky; Seth Lloyd

2002-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

329

Hard x-ray observations of Cygnus X-1 with the MISO telescope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of hard x-ray, soft gamma-ray observations of the galactic black hole candidate, Cyg X-1, taken with the MISO telescope in October 1979 and May 1980 are presented, confirming the superlow state measured during September-October 1979 by the HEAO 3 satellite. The 1980 observation coincides with a low- to high-state transition and is consistent with HEAO 3 observations taken at the same epoch. No gamma-ray counting-rate excess above 200 keV was recorded in either observation. Apart from these two measurements, the observation of the Crab Nebula as an a posteriori calibration source is also described. 15 references.

Perotti, F.; Della Ventura, A.; Villa, G.; Bassani, L.; Butler, R.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Quantized hard-x-ray phase vortices nucleated by aberrated nanolenses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantized x-ray phase vortices, namely, screw-type topological defects in the wave fronts of a coherent monochromatic scalar x-ray wave field, may be spontaneously nucleated by x-ray lenses. Phase retrieval is used to reconstruct the phase and amplitude of the complex disturbance created by aberrated gold nanolenses illuminated with hard x rays. A nanoscale quantized x-ray vortex-antivortex dipole is observed, manifest both as a pair of opposite-helicity branch points in the Riemann sheets of the multivalued x-ray phase map of the complex x-ray field and in the vorticity of the associated Poynting vector field.

Pavlov, Konstantin M. [School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351 (Australia); School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Paganin, David M. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Vine, David J. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Schmalz, Jelena A. [School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351 (Australia); Suzuki, Yoshio; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Yagi, Naoto [SPring-8/JASRI (Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute), Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kharchenko, Alexander; Blaj, Gabriel [PANalytical B.V., P.O. Box 13, 7600 AA Almelo (Netherlands); Jakubek, Jan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, 166 36 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Altissimo, Matteo [Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, 151 Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Materials Science and Engineering, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Clayton South, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Clark, Jesse N. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Spin wave theory for 2D disordered hard-core bosons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A spin-wave (SW) approach for hard-core bosons is presented to treat the problem of two dimensional boson localization in a random potential. After a short review of the method to compute 1/S-corrected observables, the case of random on-site energy is discussed. Whereas the mean-field solution does not display a Bose glass (BG) phase, 1/S corrections do capture BG physics. In particular, the localization of SW excitations is discussed through the inverse participation ratio.

Ziga, Juan Pablo lvarez; Lemari, Gabriel; Laflorencie, Nicolas [Laboratoire de Physique Thorique, Universit de Toulouse, UPS, (IRSAMC), Toulouse (France)

2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

332

Doug Hollett, Director Geothermal Technologies Office Hot Rocks and Hard Places  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent(CRADA and DOW AreaJuneDonna FriendHot Rocks and Hard

333

Sandia National Laboratories: Alaskan North Slope Climate: Hard Data from a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0Energy Advanced Nuclear Energy TheASCProducts SandiaHard

334

Hard Thermal Loops, Weak Gravitational Fields and The Quark Gluon Energy Momentum Tensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use an auxiliary field construction to discuss the hard thermal loop effective action associated with massless thermal SU(N) QCD interacting with a weak gravitational field. It is demonstrated that the previous attempt to derive this effective action has only been partially successful and that it is presently only known to first order in the graviton coupling constant. This is still sufficient to enable a calculation of a symmetric traceless quark gluon plasma energy momentum tensor. Finally, we comment on the conserved currents and charges of the derived energy momentum tensor.

E. A. Gaffney

1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

335

EXIST A High Sensitivity Hard X-ray Imaging Sky Survey Mission for ISS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A deep all-sky imaging hard x-ray survey and wide-field monitor is needed to extend soft (ROSAT) and medium (ABRIXAS2) x-ray surveys into the 10-100 keV band (and beyond) at comparable sensitivity (~0.05 mCrab). This would enable discovery and study of >3000 obscured AGN, which probably dominate the hard x-ray background; detailed study of spectra and variability of accreting black holes and a census of BHs in the Galaxy; Gamma-ray bursts and associated massive star formation (PopIII) at very high redshift and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters throughout the Local Group; and a full galactic survey for obscured supernova remnants. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed array of 8 x 1m^2 coded aperture telescopes fixed on the International Space Station (ISS) with 160deg x 40deg field of view which images the full sky each 90 min orbit. EXIST has been included in the most recent NASA Strategic Plan as a candidate mission for the next decade. An overview of the science goals and mission concep...

Grindlay, J; Chakraborty, D; Elvis, M; Fabian, A C; Fiore, F; Gehrels, N; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F; Hartmann, D; Prince, T A; Ramsey, B; Rothschild, R; Skinner, G K; Woosley, S

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Integral detection of hard X-ray emission from the Galactic nuclear region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This letter presents the first results of an observational campaign to study the Galactic Centre with INTEGRAL. The mosaicked images obtained with the IBIS/ISGRI coded aperture instrument in the energy ranges 20-40 and 40-100 keV, give a yet unseen view of the high-energy sources of this region in hard X- and gamma-rays with an angular resolution of 12 arcmin (FWHM). We report on the discovery of a source, IGR J17456-2901, coincident with the Galactic Nucleus SgrA* to within 0.9 arcmin. Located at R.A.(J2000.0) = 17h45m38.5s, Dec.(J2000.0) = -29:01:15, the source is visible up to about 100 keV with a 20-100 keV luminosity at 8 kpc of (2.89 +/- 0.41) x 10^35 ergs/s. Although the new INTEGRAL source cannot unequivocally be associated to the Galactic Nucleus, this is the first report of significant hard X-ray emission from within the inner 10 arcming of the Galaxy and a contribution from the galactic supermassive black hole itself cannot be excluded.

Blanger, G; Goldoni, P; Paul, J; Terrier, R; Falanga, M; Ubertini, P; Bazano, A; Santo, M D; Winkler, C; Parmar, A N; Kuulkers, E; Ebisawa, K; Roques, J P; Lund, N; Melia, F

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

http://www.ied.ethz.ch/pub/index 1 IED Publications List 2007-11-20  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Conventional Internal Combustion Engine Automobiles: Characteristics, Preferences, and Previously Owned

Fischlin, Andreas

338

http://www.ied.ethz.ch/pub/index 1 IED Publications List 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Sector. Working Paper Sustainability and Innovation No. S2/2010. Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe.H. (2010): The innovation impact of EU emission trading ­ Find- ings of company case studies in the German

Fischlin, Andreas

339

Equipment and methods for rapid analysis of PWO full-sized scintillation crystal radiation hardness during mass production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mass production of lead tungstate crystals (PWO) for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Project at CERN began at the Bogoroditsk Techno- Chemical Plant (BTCP, Tula Region, Russia) in 2000. Mass production technology, developed in recent years, is based on a set of methods and instrumentation for crystal growth and machining, as well as quality control and certification of crystals. One of the most crucial categories of tolerances is the radiation hardness of crystals. Control of the PWO radiation hardness during the mass production phase requires a reliable, easy-to-use measuring tool with high productivity. A semiautomatic spectrometric setup for PWO radiation hardness monitoring was developed and tested at CERN. After final crosschecks, the setup was put into operation at BTCP. (13 refs).

Drobychev, G Yu; Fedorov, A; Korzhik, M V; Lecoq, P; Lopatik, A; Missevitch, O V; Peigneux, J P; Singovsky, A V; Zouevski, R F

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Hardness and microstructural response to thermal annealing of irradiated ASTM A533B class 1 plate steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hardness measurements were used to determine the post-irradiation annealing response of A533B class 1 plate steel irradiated to a fluence of 1 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) at 150 C. Rockwell hardness measurements indicated that the material had hardened by 6.6 points on the B scale after irradiation. The irradiation induced hardness increase was associated with a decrease in upper shelf energy from 63.4 J to 5-1.8 J and a temperature shift in the Charpy curve at the 41 J level from 115 C to 215 C. Specimens were annealed after irradiation at temperatures of 343 C (650 F), 399 C (750 F), and 454 C (850 F) for durations of up to one week (168 h). Hardness measurements were made to chart recovery of hardness as a function of time and temperature. Specimens annealed at the highest temperature 454 C recovered the fastest, fully recovering within 144 h. Specimens annealed at 399 C recovered completely within 168 h. Specimens annealed at the lowest temperature, 343 C recovered only {approximately}70% after 168 h of annealing. After neutron irradiation, a new feature of black spot damage was found to be superimposed on the unirradiated microstructure. The density of black spots was found to vary from 2.3 {times} 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 3} with an average diameter of 2.85 nm. Following annealing at 454 C for 24 h the black spot damage was completely annealed out. It was concluded that the black spot damage was responsible for 70% of the irradiation-induced hardness.

Reinhart, D.E. [SMS Concast, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kumar, A.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States); Gelles, D.S.; Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rosinski, S.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States)

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

A Study of Selected Properties and Applications of AlMgB14 and Related Composites: Ultra-Hard Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research presents a study of the hardness, electrical, and thermal properties AlMgB{sub 14} containing Al{sub 2}MgO{sub 4} spinel. This research also investigated how much Al{sub 2}MgO{sub 4} spinel consistently forms with AlMgB{sub 14}, if AlMgB{sub 14} materials can be produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), what effects TiC and TiB{sub 2} have on this composite material, and the importance of mechanical alloying. Included also is a study of the variation in hardness measurements and how they relate to SI units. Heretofore, all ultra-hard materials (hardness > 40 GPA) have been found to be cubic in structure, electrical insulators, and expensive; the behavior of AlMgB{sub 14}, which in certain specimens and compositions can have hardness values greater than 40 GPa, is therefore quite unusual since it is non-cubic, conductive, and moderate in cost. This offers an opportunity to investigate the relationship between hardness, thermal, and electrical properties from a new perspective. The main purpose of this project was to characterize the different properties of the AlMgB{sub 14} materials and to demonstrate that this material can be made in bulk. The technologies used for this study include microhardness measurement techniques, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy at different temperatures, optical microscopy, thermomechanical analysis, differential thermal analysis, 4-point probe resistivity, density techniques, Seebeck Effect, and Hall Effect. This research may lead to use of this material for applications where high abrasion resistance along with electrical conduction is needed. Also this research gave more information about a material that could have a great impact on industrial applications.

Theron L. Lewis

2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

342

Constraints on the time-scale of nuclear breakup from thermal hard-photon emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measured hard photon multiplicities from second-chance nucleon-nucleon collisions are used in combination with a kinetic thermal model, to estimate the break-up times of excited nuclear systems produced in nucleus-nucleus reactions at intermediate energies. The obtained nuclear break-up time for the $^{129}${Xe} + $^{nat}${Sn} reaction at 50{\\it A} MeV is $\\Delta$$\\tau$ $\\approx$ 100 -- 300 fm/$c$ for all reaction centralities. The lifetime of the radiating sources produced in seven other different heavy-ion reactions studied by the TAPS experiment are consistent with $\\Delta$$\\tau$ $\\approx$ 100 fm/$c$, such relatively long thermal photon emission times do not support the interpretation of nuclear breakup as due to a fast spinodal process for the heavy nuclear systems studied.

R. Ortega; D. d'Enterria; G. Martinez; D. Baiborodin; H. Delagrange; J. Diaz; F. Fernandez; H. Loehner; T. Matulewicz; R. W. Ostendorf; S. Schadmand; Y. Schutz; P. Tlusty; R. Turrisi; V. Wagner; H. W. Wilschut; N. Yahlali

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

343

Solar Hard X-ray Source Sizes in a Beam-Heated and Ionised Chromosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar flare hard X-rays (HXRs) are produced as bremsstrahlung when an accelerated population of electrons interacts with the dense chromospheric plasma. HXR observations presented by using the Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) have shown that HXR source sizes are 3-6 times more extended in height than those predicted by the standard collisional thick target model (CTTM). Several possible explanations have been put forward including the multi-threaded nature of flare loops, pitch-angle scattering, and magnetic mirroring. However, the nonuniform ionisation (NUI) structure along the path of the electron beam has not been fully explored as a solution to this problem. Ionised plasma is known to be less effective at producing nonthermal bremsstrahlung HXRs when compared to neutral plasma. If the peak HXR emission was produced in a locally ionised region within the chromosphere, the intensity of emission will be preferentially reduced around this peak, resulting in a more extended source. Due to...

O'Flannagain, A; Gallagher, P T

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Free-energy functional for freezing transitions: Hard sphere systems freezing into crystalline and amorphous structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A free-energy functional that contains both the symmetry conserved and symmetry broken parts of the direct pair correlation function has been used to investigate the freezing of a system of hard spheres into crystalline and amorphous structures. The freezing parameters for fluid-crystal transition have been found to be in very good agreement with the results found from simulations. We considered amorphous structures found from the molecular dynamics simulations at packing fractions $\\eta$ lower than the glass close packing fraction $\\eta_{J}$ and investigated their stability compared to that of a homogeneous fluid. The existence of free-energy minimum corresponding to a density distribution of overlapping Gaussians centered around an amorphous lattice depicts the deeply supercooled state with a heterogeneous density profile.

Swarn Lata Singh; Atul S. Bharadwaj; Yashwant Singh

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

345

A Free Energy Landscape for Cage Breaking of Three Hard Disks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate cage breaking in dense hard disk systems using a model of three Brownian disks confined within a circular corral. This system has a six-dimensional configuration space, but can be equivalently thought to explore a symmetric one-dimensional free energy landscape containing two energy minima separated by an energy barrier. The exact free energy landscape can be calculated as a function of system size. Results of simulations show the average time between cage breaking events follows an Arrhenius scaling when the energy barrier is large. We also discuss some of the consequences of using a one-dimensional representation to understand dynamics in a multi-dimensional space, such as diffusion acquiring spatial dependence and discontinuities in spatial derivatives of free energy.

Gary L. Hunter; Eric R. Weeks

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

346

MCNP Simulation to Hard X-Ray Emission of KSU Dense Plasma Focus Machine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MCNP program used to simulate the hard x-ray emission from KSU dense plasma focus device, an electron beam spectrum of maximum energy 100 keV was used to hit anode target. The bremsstrahlung radiation was measured using the F2 tally functions on the chamber walls and on a virtual sphere surrounding the machine, the radiation spectrum was recorded for various anode materials like tungsten, stainless steel and molybdenum. It was found that tungsten gives the best and the most intense radiation for the same electron beam. An aluminum filter of thickness 2mm and 4mm was used to cutoff the lower energy band from the x-ray spectrum. It was found that the filters achieved the mission and there is no distinct difference in between.

Mohamed, Amgad E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Radius of curvature approach to the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of dilute hard particles in equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for dilute gases of $N$ hard disks or spheres. This can be expanded in density as $h_{\\mathrm{KS}} \\propto n N [\\ln n a^d+ B + O(n a^d)+O(1/N)]$, with $a$ the diameter of the sphere or disk, $n$ the density, and $d$ the dimensionality of the system. We estimate the constant $B$ by solving a linear differential equation for the approximate distribution of eigenvalues of the inverse radius of curvature tensor. We compare the resulting values of $B$ both to previous estimates and to existing simulation results, finding very good agreement with the latter. Also, we compare the distribution of eigenvalues of the inverse radius of curvature tensor resulting from our calculations to new simulation results. For most of the spectrum the agreement between our calculations and the simulations again is very good.

Astrid S. de Wijn; Henk van Beijeren

2011-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

348

Radiation Hardness Tests of SiPMs for the JLab Hall D Barrel Calorimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the measurement of the neutron radiation hardness of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation in Japan and SensL in Ireland. Samples from both companies were irradiated by neutrons created by a 1 GeV electron beam hitting a thin lead target at Jefferson Lab Hall A. More tests regarding the temperature dependence of the neutron radiation damage and self-annealing were performed on Hamamatsu SiPMs using a calibrated AmBe neutron source from the Jefferson Lab Radiation Control group. As the result of irradiation both dark current and dark rate increase linearly as a function of the 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence and a temperature dependent self-annealing effect is observed

Yi Qiang, Carl Zorn, Fernando Barbosa, Elton Smith

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Improved Bounds on the Phase Transition for the Hard-Core Model in 2-Dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the hard-core lattice gas model defined on independent sets weighted by an activity $\\lambda$, we study the critical activity $\\lambda_c(\\mathbb{Z}^2)$ for the uniqueness/non-uniqueness threshold on the 2-dimensional integer lattice $\\mathbb{Z}^2$. The conjectured value of the critical activity is approximately $3.796$. Until recently, the best lower bound followed from algorithmic results of Weitz (2006). Weitz presented an FPTAS for approximating the partition function for graphs of constant maximum degree $\\Delta$ when $\\lambda2.388$. In this paper, we establish an upper bound for this approach, by showing that, for all $\\sigma$, SSM does not hold on $T_{\\mathrm{saw}}^\\sigma(\\mathbb{Z}^2)$ when $\\lambda>3.4$. We also present a refinement of the approach of Restrepo et al. which improves the lower bound to $\\lambda_c(\\mathbb{Z}^2)>2.48$.

Juan C. Vera; Eric Vigoda; Linji Yang

2014-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

350

Mapping residual stress fields from Vickers hardness indents using Raman microprobe spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to map the residual stress fields in the vicinity of Vickers hardness indents. Both 514.5 and 488.0 nm, light is used to excite the effect and the resulting shifted and broadened Raman peaks are analyzed using computer deconvolution. Half-wave plates are used to vary the orientation of the incident later light`s polarization state with respect to crystal orientation. The Raman scattered light is then analyzed for polarization dependences which are indicative of the various components of the Raman scattering tensor. Such studies can yield valuable information about the orientation of stress components in a well known stress field. The results can then be applied to the determination of stress components in machined semiconductor materials.

Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Optimal focusing for a linac-based hard x-ray source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In spite of having a small average beam current limit, a linac can have features that make it attractive as an x-ray source: high energy, ultralow emittance and energy spread, and flexible beamline optics. Unlike a storage ring, in which an (undulator) radiation source is necessarily short and positioned at an electron beam waist, in a linac the undulator can be long and the electron beam can be adjusted to have a (virtual) waist far downstream toward the x-ray target. Using a planned CEBAF beamline as an example, this paper shows that a factor of 2000 in beam current can be overcome to produce a monochromatic hard x-ray source comparable with, or even exceeding, the performance of an x-ray line at a third generation storage ring. Optimal electron beam focusing conditions for x-ray flux density and brilliance are derived, and are verified by simulations using the SRW code.

Liu, C.; Krafft, G.; Talman, R.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

352

Density functional theory for hard-sphere mixtures: the White-Bear version Mark II  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the spirit of the White-Bear version of fundamental measure theory we derive a new density functional for hard-sphere mixtures which is based on a recent mixture extension of the Carnahan-Starling equation of state. In addition to the capability to predict inhomogeneous density distributions very accurately, like the original White-Bear version, the new functional improves upon consistency with an exact scaled-particle theory relation in the case of the pure fluid. We examine consistency in detail within the context of morphological thermodynamics. Interestingly, for the pure fluid the degree of consistency of the new version is not only higher than for the original White-Bear version but also higher than for Rosenfeld's original fundamental measure theory.

Hendrik Hansen-Goos; Roland Roth

2006-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

353

Magnetized Hypermassive Neutron Star Collapse: a candidate central engine for short-hard GRBs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hypermassive neutron stars (HMNSs) are equilibrium configurations supported against collapse by rapid differential rotation and likely form as transient remnants of binary neutron star mergers. Though HMNSs are dynamically stable, secular effects such as viscosity or magnetic fields tend to bring HMNSs into uniform rotation and thus lead to collapse. We simulate the evolution of magnetized HMNSs in axisymmetry using codes which solve the Einstein-Maxwell-MHD system of equations. We find that magnetic braking and the magnetorotational instability (MRI) both contribute to the eventual collapse of HMNSs to rotating black holes surrounded by massive, hot accretion tori and collimated magnetic fields. Such hot tori radiate strongly in neutrinos, and the resulting neutrino-antineutrino annihilation could power short-hard GRBs.

Branson C. Stephens; Matthew D. Duez; Yuk Tung Liu; Stuart L. Shapiro; Masaru Shibta

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

354

Electroweak corrections to lepton pair production in association with two hard jets at the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compute the next-to-leading order corrections of $O(\\alpha_s^2\\alpha^3)$ to the hadronic production of two oppositely charged leptons and two hard jets, $p p \\to j j l^- l^+$, using Recola and Collier. We include electroweak and QCD corrections at the given order and all off-shell effects. We provide detailed predictions for the LHC operating at 13 TeV and obtain per-cent-level corrections for the total cross section. For differential distributions we find significant non-uniform distortions in high-energy tails at the level of several ten per cent due to electroweak Sudakov logarithms and deformations at the level of a few per cent for angular variables.

Ansgar Denner; Lars Hofer; Andreas Scharf; Sandro Uccirati

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

355

2FHL: The second Catalog of hard {\\it Fermi}-LAT sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The {\\it Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT) has been routinely gathering science data since August 2008, surveying the full sky every three hours. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of sources detected above 10 GeV (1FHL) relied on three years of data to characterize the $>$10 GeV sky. The improved acceptance and point-spread function of the new Pass 8 event reconstruction and classification together with six years of observations now available allow the detection and characterization of sources directly above 50 GeV. This closes the gap between ground-based Cherenkov telescopes, which have excellent sensitivity but small fields of view and short duty cycles, and all-sky observations at GeV energies from orbit. In this contribution we present the second catalog of hard Fermi-LAT sources detected at $>$50\\,GeV.

Ajello, M; Gasparrini, D; Cutini, S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Tribocharging phenomena in hard disk amorphous carbon coatings with and without perfluoropolyether lubricants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scanning polarization force microscopy was used to study changes in surface potential (tribocharging) caused by the contact between a tungsten carbide tip and the amorphous carbon coating of a hard disk, both when bare and when covered with Zdol-TX lubricant. The surface potential change produced by tip contact decays with time at a rate that is strongly dependent on lubricant coverage and on the presence of oxygen and water vapor in the environment. Two different charging mechanisms are proposed. One involves chemical modification of the surface by removal of oxygen bound to the surface. This gives rise to a potential change that decays with time. Another mechanism involves trapping of charge in states within the energy gap of the insulating carbon film. The potential change due to this trapped charge does not decay over periods much greater than 1 h.

van den Oetelaar, R. J. A.; Xu, L.; Ogletree, D. F.; Salmeron, M.; Tang, H.; Gui, J.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Tribocharging phenomena in hard disk amorphous carbon coatings with and without perfluoropolyether lubricants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scanning polarization force microscopy was used to study changes in surface potential (tribocharging) caused by the contact between a tungsten carbide tip and the amorphous carbon coating of a hard disk,both when bare and when covered with Zdol-TX lubricant. The surface potential change produced by tip contact decays with time at a rate that is strongly dependent on lubricant coverage, and on the presence of oxygen and water vapor in the environment. Two different charging mechanisms are proposed. One involves chemical modification of the surface by removal of oxygen bound to the surface. This gives rise to a potential change that decays with time. Another mechanism involves trapping of charge in states within the energy gap of the insulating carbon film. The potential change due to this trapped charge does not decay over periods much greater than 1 hour.

van den Oetelaar, Ronald J.A.; Xu, Lei; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Tang, Hung; Gui, Jing

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Inhomogeneous quasi-stationary state of dense fluid of inelastic hard spheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study closed dense collections of hard spheres that collide inelastically with constant coefficient of normal restitution. We find inhomogeneous states (IS) where the density profile is spatially non-uniform but constant in time. The states are exact solutions of non-linear partial differential equations that describe the coupled distributions of density and temperature when inelastic losses of energy per collision are small. The derivation is performed without modelling the equations' coefficients that are unknown in the dense limit (such as the equation of state), using only their scaling form specific for hard spheres. The IS is exact non-linear state of this many-body system. It captures a fundamental property of inelastic collections of particles: the possibility of preserving non-uniform temperature via the interplay of inelastic cooling and heat conduction, generalizing previous results in the dilute case. We perform numerical simulations to demonstrate that arbitrary initial state evolves to the IS in the limit of long times where the container has the geometry of the channel. The evolution is like gas-liquid transition. The liquid condenses in a vanishing part of the total volume but takes most of the mass of the system. However, the gaseous phase, which mass grows only logarithmically with the system size, is relevant because its fast particles carry most of the energy of the system. Remarkably, the system self-organizes to dissipate no energy: the inelastic decay of energy is a power-law $[1+t/t_c]^{-2}$ where $t_c$ diverges in the thermodynamic limit. This behavior is caused by unusual spatial distribution of particles: on approach to one of the container's walls the density grows inversely with the distance. We discuss the relation of our results to the recently proposed finite-time singularity in other container's geometries.

Itzhak Fouxon

2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

359

Evaluation of hard-rock-cavern construction methods for compressed-air energy storage: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of construction cost and schedule estimates for caverns mined in hard rock for 100-MW and 220-MW compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants with 10 hours storage capacity and using either water-compensated cavern operation with constant turbine-inlet pressure operation on uncompensated cavern operation with sliding turbine-inlet pressure operation. The estimates are made for caverns mined by large-parallel-tunnel methods and by room-and-pillar methods. The results indicate that, for the cavern sizes involved, the room-and-pillar method is cost-competitive with the large-parallel-tunnel methods, but the method requires marginally more construction time. The largest cavern size in the estimates may, however, be approaching the size where the room-and-pillar method may no longer be competitive. The technical feasibility of water curtains for preventing or minimizing leakage of air from CAES hard-rock caverns is evaluated, and construction cost and schedule estimates are made for uncompensated caverns. It is concluded that the performance of water curtains is dependent upon the accuracy of the values of site specific variables and assumptions utilized in the design. A method is presented for assessing if a water curtain may be economical for a compensated CAES cavern. Such an assessment for a water curtain for an uncompensated CAES cavern is more complex and beyond the scope of this study. Also, a program for testing the operation of a water curtain in conjunction with an air-storage cavern operation is proposed. For the specific cavern sizes considered in this report, the estimated water-curtain construction costs and times for the uncompensated room-and-pillar caverns are found to be greater than for the uncompensated large-parallel-tunnel caverns. 11 refs., 18 figs., 19 tabs.

Thrasher, J.E.; Lange, R.B.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Closed-form solutions and free energy of hard-spin mean-field theory of a fully frustrated system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Closed-form solutions of the hard-spin mean-field theory equations for the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a triangular lattice, with or without an external field [ital H], are obtained, showing the lack of order for [ital H]=0 and very good agreement with Monte Carlo data for the onset of order for nonzero [ital H]. A free energy calculation is developed, within the context of hard-spin mean-field theory, distinguishing between metastable solutions and true thermodynamic equilibrium.

Kabakcioglu, A.; Nihat Berker, A.; Cemal Yalabik, M. (Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06533 (Turkey) Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory -- A preparation for the licensing of the deep geological repository for spent fuel in Sweden  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is being constructed in preparation for the deep geological repository for demonstration deposition of spent fuel in Sweden. This paper describes the main and stage goals of the project. The site characterization prior to construction of the laboratory is described, as well as the on-going studies during construction of the laboratory. Excavation of the laboratory is planned to reach the final depth of 460 m below the surface in 1994. The program for the Operating Phase is in progress. It will be developed in cooperation with the seven organizations from six countries that are now participating in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory.

Backblom, G. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

362

NuSTAR DETECTION OF HARD X-RAY PHASE LAGS FROM THE ACCRETING PULSAR GS 0834430  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array hard X-ray telescope observed the transient Be/X-ray binary GS 0834430 during its 2012 outburstthe first active state of this system observed in the past 19 yr. We performed ...

Miyasaka, Hiromasa

363

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, The Effects of Hard Spectra Solar Proton Events on1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to deposit their energy28 in the mesosphere and stratosphere. Therefore Solar Proton Events provide a directJOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, The Effects of Hard Spectra Solar Helsinki, Finland. (annika.seppala@fmi.fi) M. A. Clilverd, Physical Sciences Division (NERC), British

Otago, University of

364

Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

Sun, K.

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

365

Lubrication and Tool-wear in the Turning of Hard Powdered Metals By: Edward Chow and Anastasia Linuwih  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lubrication and Tool-wear in the Turning of Hard Powdered Metals By: Edward Chow and Anastasia Linuwih Background A current target and need in the auto industry is to achieve improved tool life in machining powered metal valve seats for an engine block. The tools required are specialized and expensive

Demirel, Melik C.

366

Gravity-Induced Aging in Glasses of Colloidal Hard Spheres Nikoleta B. Simeonova and Willem K. Kegel*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravity-Induced Aging in Glasses of Colloidal Hard Spheres Nikoleta B. Simeonova and Willem K) The influence of gravity on the long-time behavior of the mean squared displacement in glasses of polydisperse present, for the first time, a significant influence of gravity on the mean squared displacements

Weeks, Eric R.

367

Well conditioned boundary integral equations for two-dimensional sound-hard scattering problems in domains with corners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Well conditioned boundary integral equations for two-dimensional sound-hard scattering problems-posed, well conditioned integral equation formulations for the solution of two-dimensional acoustic scattering-order, rapidly convergent numerical methods based on well-conditioned boundary integral equations for the case

Turc, Catalin

368

Fundamental-measure density functional theory study of the crystal-melt interface of the hard sphere system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamental-measure density functional theory study of the crystal-melt interface of the hard density functional theory. The equilibrium interfacial density profiles and interfacial free energies were value is 0.6 5,10 . For the past two decades a number of density functional theories were developed

Song, Xueyu

369

Solitons in a hard-core bosonic system: Gross-Pitaevskii type and beyond Radha Balakrishnan1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solitons in a hard-core bosonic system: Gross-Pitaevskii type and beyond Radha Balakrishnan1, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA A unified formulation of the hallmarks of quantum coherence inherent in ultracold atomic systems As predicted theoretically in the Gross

Satija, Indu

370

Research on Pinches driven by SPEED 2 Generator: Hard X-ray and Neutron Emission in Plasma Focus Configuration.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research on Pinches driven by SPEED 2 Generator: Hard X-ray and Neutron Emission in Plasma Focus works developed in SPEED2 at Düsseldorf were done in a plasma focus configuration for soft X considers experiments in different pinch configurations (plasma focus, gas puffed plasma focus, gas embedded

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

371

Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET in glass at pH 3.5). None of the leachates approaches the maximum concentrations for drinking water- QMS) in 294 samples of the same bottled water (predominantly mineral water) sold in the European Union

Filzmoser, Peter

372

A new approach to the equation of state of silicate melts: An application of the theory of hard sphere mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new approach to the equation of state of silicate melts: An application of the theory of hard 8 September 2011 Abstract A comparison of compressional properties of silicate solids, glasses solids and glasses and the bulk moduli of various silicate melts have a narrow range of values; (2

373

Analysis of the optical design of the NSLS-II Coherent Hard X-ray beamline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra-low emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources such as the NSLS-II offer excellent opportunities for the development of experimental techniques exploiting x-ray coherence. Coherent light scattered by a heterogeneous sample produces a speckle pattern characteristic for the specific arrangement of the scatterers. This may vary over time, and the resultant intensity fluctuations can be measured and analyzed to provide information about the sample dynamics. X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) extends the capability of dynamic light scattering to opaque and turbid samples and extends the measurements of time evolution to nanometer length scales. As a consequence XPCS became crucial in the study of dynamics in systems including, but not being limited to, colloids, polymers, complex fluids, surfaces and interfaces, phase ordering alloys, etc. In this paper we present the conceptual optical design and the theoretical performance of the Coherent Hard X-ray (CHX) beamline at NSLS-II, dedicated to XPCS and other coherent scattering techniques. For the optical design of this beamline, there is a tradeoff between the coherence needed to distinguish individual speckles and the phase acceptance (high intensity) required to measure fast dynamics with an adequate signal-to-noise level. As XPCS is a 'photon hungry' technique, the beamline optimization requires maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the measured intensity-intensity autocorrelation function. The degree of coherence, as measured by a two-slit (Young) experiment, is used to characterize the speckle pattern visibilities. The beamline optimization strategy consists of maximization of the on-sample intensity while keeping the degree of coherence within the 0.1-0.5 range. The resulted design deviates substantially from an ad-hoc modification of a hard x-ray beamline for XPCS measurements. The CHX beamline will permit studies of complex systems and measurements of bulk dynamics down to the microsecond time scales. In general, the 10-fold increase in brightness of the NSLS-II, compared to other sources, will allow for measurements of dynamics on time-scales that are two orders of magnitude faster than what is currently possible. We also conclude that the common approximations used in evaluating the transverse coherence length would not be sufficiently accurate for the calculation of the coherent properties of an undulator-based beamline, and a thorough beamline optimization at a low-emittance source such as the NSLS-II requires a realistic wave-front propagation analysis.

Fluerasu A.; Chubar, O.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Baltser, J.; Wiegart, Lutz; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Carlucci-Dayton, M.; Berman, L.

2011-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

374

AlGaN UV LED and Photodiodes Radiation Hardness and Space Qualifications and Their Applications in Space Science and High Energy Density Physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of robust, radiation hard AlGaN optoelectronic devices and their applications in space exploration & high energy density physics. Particularly, deep UV LED and deep UV photodiodes are discussed with regard to their applications, radiation hardness and space qualification. AC charge management of UV LED satellite payload instruments, which were to be launched in late 2012, is covered.

Sun, K. X.

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

J. H. Scofield and D. M. Fleetwood, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science NS-38, 1567-77 (December 1991). PHYSICAL BASIS FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTS OF MOS RADIATION HARDNESS*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. H. Scofield and D. M. Fleetwood, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science NS-38, 1567-77 (December 1991). PHYSICAL BASIS FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTS OF MOS RADIATION HARDNESS* John H. Scofield Department noise and channel mobility measurements may be useful in defining nondestructive hardness assurance test

Scofield, John H.

376

STUDY OF THE RADIATION HARDNESS OF VCSEL AND PIN K.K. GAN, W. FERNANDO, H.P. KAGAN, R.D. KASS, A. LAW,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the main radiation effect is bulk damage in the VCSEL and PIN with the displacement of atoms. After five and VCSEL arrays coupled to radiation-hard ASICs produced for the current pixel optical link [5], the DORIC1 STUDY OF THE RADIATION HARDNESS OF VCSEL AND PIN ARRAYS K.K. GAN, W. FERNANDO, H.P. KAGAN, R

Gan, K. K.

377

Lithium-7 nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of lithium insertion in hard carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium battery anodes based on disordered, hard carbon were prepared by low-temperature (1,000 C) pyrolysis of cotton cloth. Samples were lithiated in an electrochemical cell. The Li insertion (potential vs. capacity) curve exhibits two different regions: a sloping one, from 1.1 to 0.1 V (vs Li/Li{sup +}) denoted as the high-voltage region (HVR), and a plateau between 0.1 and zero V, denoted as the low-voltage plateau (LVP). Lithium-7 high-resolution (magic angle spinning) nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in fully lithiated samples reveal three main features: a broad line at ca. 50 ppm, a relatively sharp line at 17 ppm, with a shoulder at about zero ppm (all shifts relative to aqueous LiCl). The 50 ppm component is attributed to Li intercalated between turbostratically disordered graphene planes and is associated with the LVP part of the potential curve. The 17 ppm signal arises from a Li site which resides in amorphous hydrogen-containing regions of the carbon and is correlated with the HVR part of the curve. The zero ppm component is attributed to the irreversible portion of the Li (up to {approximately} 20% of the total) which constitutes the solid electrolyte interphase on the surface of the carbon grains formed by electrochemical reduction of the electrolyte. These spectral assignments were verified by running other samples which were electrochemically delithiated to varying degrees.

Dai, Y.; Wang, Y.; Greenbaum, S.G. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Eshkenazi, V.; Peled, E. [Tel Aviv Univ., IL (United States). School of Chemistry

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Front propagation techniques to calculate the largest Lyapunov exponent of dilute hard disk gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A kinetic approach is adopted to describe the exponential growth of a small deviation of the initial phase space point, measured by the largest Lyapunov exponent, for a dilute system of hard disks, both in equilibrium and in a uniform shear flow. We derive a generalized Boltzmann equation for an extended one-particle distribution that includes deviations from the reference phase space point. The equation is valid for very low densities n, and requires an unusual expansion in powers of 1/|ln n|. It reproduces and extends results from the earlier, more heuristic clock model and may be interpreted as describing a front propagating into an unstable state. The asymptotic speed of propagation of the front is proportional to the largest Lyapunov exponent of the system. Its value may be found by applying the standard front speed selection mechanism for pulled fronts to the case at hand. For the equilibrium case, an explicit expression for the largest Lyapunov exponent is given and for sheared systems we give explicit expressions that may be evaluated numerically to obtain the shear rate dependence of the largest Lyapunov exponent.

R. van Zon; H. van Beijeren

2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

379

Transverse pulse shaping and optimization of a tapered hard X-ray free electron laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multidimensional optimization schemes for TW hard X-Ray free electron lasers are applied to the cases of transversely uniform and parabolic electron beam distributions and compared to examples of transversely Gaussian beams. The optimizations are performed for a $200$m undulator and a resonant wavelength of $\\lambda_r=1.5\\AA $ using the fully 3-dimensional FEL particle code GENESIS. Time dependent simulations showed that the maximum radiation power is larger for flatter transverse distributions due to enhanced optical guiding in the tapered section of the undulator. For a transversely Gaussian beam the maximum output power was found to be $\\text{P}_{max}$=$1.56$ TW compared to $2.26$ TW for the parabolic case and $2.63$ TW for the uniform case. Spectral data also showed a 30-70$\\%$ reduction in energy deposited in the sidebands for the uniform and parabolic beams compared with a Gaussian. An analysis of the maximum power as a function of detuning from resonance shows that redshifting the central wavelength by...

Emma, Claudio; Wu, Juhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Energy production rates in fluid mixtures of inelastic rough hard spheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The aim of this work is to explore the combined effect of polydispersity and roughness on the partial energy production rates and on the total cooling rate of a granular fluid mixture. We consider a mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres of different number densities, masses, diameters, moments of inertia, and mutual coefficients of normal and tangential restitution. Starting from the first equation of the BBGKY hierarchy, the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational temperatures ($T_i^\\text{tr}$ and $T_i^\\text{rot}$) are expressed in terms of two-body average values. Next, those average values are estimated by assuming a velocity distribution function based on maximum-entropy arguments, allowing us to express the energy production rates and the total cooling rate in terms of the partial temperatures and the parameters of the mixture. Finally, the results are applied to the homogeneous cooling state of a binary mixture and the influence of inelasticity and roughness on the temperature ratios $T_1^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{rot}$, $T_2^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{tr}$, and $T_2^\\text{rot}/T_1^\\text{rot}$ is analyzed.

Andrs Santos; Gilberto M. Kremer; Vicente Garz

2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Radiation Pressure Supported AGN Tori with Hard X-Ray and Stellar Heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dynamics and structure of toroidal obscuration around AGN remain uncertain and controversial. In this paper we extend earlier work on the dynamical role of infrared radiation pressure by adding the effects of two kinds of distributed heating: Compton-heating due to hard X-rays from the nucleus and local starlight heating. We find numerical solutions to the axisymmetric hydrostatic equilibrium, energy balance, and photon diffusion equations including these effects. Within the regime of typical parameters, the two different sources of additional heating have very similar effects: the density profile within the torus becomes shallower both radially and vertically, but for plausible heating rates, there is only minor change (relative to the source-free case) in the distribution of column density with solid angle. The most interesting consequence of distributed heating is that it selects out a relatively narrow range of parameters permitting an equilibrium, particularly $(L/L_E)/\\tau_T$. We discuss the implications of both the narrowness of the permitted range and its approximate coincidence with the range inferred from observations.

Jiming Shi; Julian H. Krolik

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

382

Constraints on jet X-ray emission in low/hard state X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the combination of the similarities between the X-ray properties of low luminosity accreting black holes and accreting neutron stars, combined with the differences in their radio properties argues that the X-rays from these systems are unlikely to be formed in the relativistic jets. Specifically, the spectra of extreme island state neutron stars and low/hard state black holes are known to be indistinguishable, while the power spectra from these systems are known to show only minor differences beyond what would be expected from scaling the characteristic variability frequencies by the mass of the compact object. The spectral and temporal similarities thus imply a common emission mechanism that has only minor deviations from having all key parameters scaling linearly with the mass of the compact object, while we show that this is inconsistent with the observations that the radio powers of neutron stars are typically about 30 times lower than those of black holes at the same X-ray luminosity. We also show that an abrupt luminosity change would be expected when a system makes a spectral state transition from a radiatively inefficient jet dominated accretion flow to a thin disk dominated flow, but that such a change is not seen.

Thomas J. Maccarone

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

383

Wide Field Hard X-ray Survey Telescope: ProtoEXIST1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report our progress on the development of pixellated imaging CZT detector arrays for our first-generation balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray (20 - 600 keV) telescope, ProtoEXIST1. Our ProtoEXIST program is a pathfinder for the High Energy Telescope (HET) on the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey telescope (EXIST), a proposed implementation of the Black Hole Finder Probe. ProtoEXIST1 consists of four independent coded-aperture telescopes with close-tiled (~0.4 mm gaps) CZT detectors that preserve their 2.5mm pixel pitch. Multiple shielding/field-of-view configurations are planned to identify optimal geometry for the HET in EXIST. The primary technical challenge in ProtoEXIST is the development of large area, close-tiled modules of imaging CZT detectors (1000 cm2 for ProtoEXIST1), with all readout and control systems for the ASIC readout vertically stacked. We describe the overall telescope configuration of ProtoEXIST1 and review the current development status of the CZT detectors, from individual detector crys...

Hong, J; Chammas, N; Allen, B; Copete, A; Said, B; Burke, M; Howell, J; Gauron, T; Baker, R G; Barthelmy, S D; Sheikh, S; Gehrels, N; Cook, W R; Burnham, J A; Harrison, F A; Collins, J; Labov, S; Garson, A; Krawczynski, H

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Double-peaked thermonuclear bursts at the soft-hard state transition in the Rapid Burster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Long suspected to be due to unstable accretion events, the type II bursts exhibited by the Rapid Burster (RB, or MXB 1730-335) still lack an exhaustive explanation. Apart from type II bursts, the transient RB also shows the better-understood thermonuclear shell flashes known as type I bursts. In search of links between these two phenomena, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of all $\\textit{Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer}$ observations of the RB and found six atypical type I bursts, featuring a double-peaked profile that is not due to photospheric radius expansion. The bursts appear in a phase of the outburst decay close to the onset of the type II bursts, when the source also switches from the high/soft to the low/hard state. We also report the discovery of a simultaneous low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation present in the persistent emission as well as in the burst decaying emission. We discuss several scenarios to understand the nature of the peculiar bursts and of the accompanying oscillation, as wel...

Bagnoli, T; Patruno, A; Watts, A L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Compressibilities and phonon spectra of high-hardness transition metal-nitride materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report compressibilities measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and phonon spectra from Raman scattering at high pressure in the diamond anvil cell (DAC) for cubic transition metal nitrides TiN{sub 1-x}, {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and VN{sub x}. The high-hardness metal nitride compounds have large values of the bulk modulus. B1-structured nitrides normally have no allowed first-order Raman spectra. However, they exhibit broad bands that reflect the vibrational density of states g({omega}) associated with breakdown of q=0 selection rules because of the presence of N{sup 3-} vacancies on anion sites. Peaks in g({omega}) at low frequency are identified with the longitudinal and transverse acoustic (TA) branches. The maximum in the TA band is correlated with the superconducting transition temperature in these materials (T{sub c}). In situ Raman scattering measurements in the DAC thus permit predictions of the T{sub c} variation with pressure for cubic nitrides and isostructural carbide materials.

Shebanova, O.; Soignard, E.; Mcmillan, P.F. (ASU); (UCL)

2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

386

KAPPA DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR HARD X-RAY CORONAL SOURCES OF SOLAR FLARES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar flares produce hard X-ray emission, the photon spectrum of which is often represented by a combination of thermal and power-law distributions. However, the estimates of the number and total energy of non-thermal electrons are sensitive to the determination of the power-law cutoff energy. Here, we revisit an 'above-the-loop' coronal source observed by RHESSI on 2007 December 31 and show that a kappa distribution model can also be used to fit its spectrum. Because the kappa distribution has a Maxwellian-like core in addition to a high-energy power-law tail, the emission measure and temperature of the instantaneous electrons can be derived without assuming the cutoff energy. Moreover, the non-thermal fractions of electron number/energy densities can be uniquely estimated because they are functions of only the power-law index. With the kappa distribution model, we estimated that the total electron density of the coronal source region was {approx}2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. We also estimated without assuming the source volume that a moderate fraction ({approx}20%) of electrons in the source region was non-thermal and carried {approx}52% of the total electron energy. The temperature was 28 MK, and the power-law index {delta} of the electron density distribution was -4.3. These results are compared to the conventional power-law models with and without a thermal core component.

Oka, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Krucker, S.; Lin, R. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)

2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

387

VERITAS OBSERVATIONS OF SIX BRIGHT, HARD-SPECTRUM FERMI-LAT BLAZARS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on VERITAS very high energy (VHE; E {>=} 100 GeV) observations of six blazars selected from the Fermi Large Area Telescope First Source Catalog (1FGL). The gamma-ray emission from 1FGL sources was extrapolated up to the VHE band, taking gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light into account. This allowed the selection of six bright, hard-spectrum blazars that were good candidate TeV emitters. Spectroscopic redshift measurements were attempted with the Keck Telescope for the targets without Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic data. No VHE emission is detected during the observations of the six sources described here. Corresponding TeV upper limits are presented, along with contemporaneous Fermi observations and non-concurrent Swift UVOT and X-Ray Telescope data. The blazar broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are assembled and modeled with a single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. The SED built for each of the six blazars shows a synchrotron peak bordering between the intermediate- and high-spectrum-peak classifications, with four of the six resulting in particle-dominated emission regions.

Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aune, T.; Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Boettcher, M. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: afurniss@ucsc.edu, E-mail: pafortin@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: deirdre@llr.in2p3.fr [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; and others

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

388

Practical Application of Synchrotron Based Hard Xray Micorprobes in Soil Sciences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of the most pressing questions in soil sciences require characterization of elemental abundances and speciation in minute samples that are heterogeneous at the submicrometer scale. This science addresses a wide gamut of environmental and health issues of high societal impact. Synchrotron radiation sources are ideal for developing high-intensity, highly focused X-ray probes and those that have been developed to deliver high-energy photons, so-called hard X-ray microprobes (HXRM), have had a major impact in advancing our understanding of the speciation, transport, and reactions of chemical species in soils. X-ray microprobe techniques offer distinct advantages over other analytical techniques by allowing analyses to be done in situ, an important example being the ability to determine chemical speciation of a wide variety of toxic elements in moist soils and biological specimens with little or no chemical pretreatment and low detection limits. In particular, coupled microfocused X-ray fluorescence, spectroscopy, and diffraction analysis allows one to quantify the abundance and speciation of elements in these materials at trace element concentrations and evaluate the mineralogy to which they are adsorbed or bound. Increasingly, these analyses are being done as imaging experiments not only in two dimensions but three dimensionally (3D) using tomographic techniques as well. Such information is crucial in understanding the toxicity, mobility, and containment of contaminating metals in the environment, mechanisms of trace element partitioning, and paths of strategic metal enrichment in nature.

Lanzirotti, A.; Tappero, R.; Schulze, D.

2009-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

389

Tsallis fits to pT spectra and multiple hard scattering in pp collisions at the LHC  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Phenomenological Tsallis fits to the CMS, ATLAS, and ALICE transverse momentum spectra of hadrons for pp collisions at LHC were recently found to extend over a large range of the transverse momentum. We investigate whether the few degrees of freedom in the Tsallis parametrization may arise from the relativistic parton-parton hard-scattering and related processes. The effects of the multiple hard-scattering and parton showering processes on the power law are discussed. We find empirically that whereas the transverse spectra of both hadrons and jets exhibit power-law behavior of 1/pnT at high pT, the power indices n for hadrons are systematically greater than those for jets, for which n?45.

Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Characterizations of MCP performance in the hard x-ray range (625 keV)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MCP detector performance at hard x-ray energies from 6 to 25 keV was recently investigated using NSLS beamline X15A at BNL. Measurements were made with an NSTec Gen-II (H-CA-65) framing camera, based on a Photonis MCP with ?10 ?m in diameter pores, ?12 ?m center-center spacing, an L/D ratio of 46, and a bias angle of 8. The MCP characterizations were focused on (1) energy and angle dependent sensitivity, (2) energy and angle dependent spatial resolution, (3) energy dependent gain performance, and (4) energy dependent dynamic range. These measurement corroborated simulation results using a Monte Carlo model that included hard x-ray interactions and the subsequent electron cascade in the MCP.

Wu, Ming, E-mail: minwu@sandia.gov; Rochau, Greg [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Moy, Ken [Special Technology Laboratories, NSTec, Santa Barbara, California 93111-2335 (United States); Kruschwitz, Craig [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Tunable exchange bias-like effect in patterned hard-soft two-dimensional lateral composites with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Patterned hard-soft 2D magnetic lateral composites have been fabricated by e-beam lithography plus dry etching techniques on sputter-deposited NdCo{sub 5} thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Their magnetic behavior is strongly thickness dependent due to the interplay between out-of-plane anisotropy and magnetostatic energy. Thus, the spatial modulation of thicknesses leads to an exchange coupled system with hard/soft magnetic regions in which rotatable anisotropy of the thicker elements provides an extra tool to design the global magnetic behavior of the patterned lateral composite. Kerr microscopy studies (domain imaging and magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry) reveal that the resulting hysteresis loops exhibit a tunable exchange bias-like shift that can be switched on/off by the applied magnetic field.

Hierro-Rodriguez, A., E-mail: ahierro@fc.up.pt; Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Martn, J. I.; Alameda, J. M. [Departamento de Fsica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Calvo Sotelo S/N, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Centro de Investigacin en Nanomateriales y NanotecnologaCINN (CSICUniversidad de OviedoPrincipado de Asturias), Parque Tecnolgico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Teixeira, J. M. [IN-IFIMUP, Departamento de Fsica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Cincias, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Vlez, M. [Departamento de Fsica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Calvo Sotelo S/N, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

392

Transition from soft- to hard-Pomeron in the structure functions of hadrons at small-$x$ from holography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the nucleon and pion structure functions at small Bjorken-$x$ region in the framework of holographic QCD with a special emphasis on the roles of AdS space wave functions. Using the BPST kernel for the Pomeron exchange and calculating its coupling to target hadrons in the AdS space, we obtain $F_2$ structure functions at the small-$x$. Results for the proton $F^p_2$ as well as the pion $F^\\pi_2$ are consistent with experimental data of the deep inelastic scattering and the forward electroproduction of a neutron. Observed $Q^2$ dependence of the Pomeron intercept is well reproduced from soft non-perturbatibve $(Q^2 \\sim 0)$ to hard perturbative $(Q^2 \\gg 1 GeV^2)$ region. We find the interplay between soft and hard Pomerons is closely related with behavior of AdS wave functions of hadrons and the virtual photon.

Akira Watanabe; Katsuhiko Suzuki

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

393

Tsallis fits to pT spectra and multiple hard scattering in pp collisions at the LHC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phenomenological Tsallis fits to the CMS, ATLAS, and ALICE transverse momentum spectra of hadrons for pp collisions at LHC were recently found to extend over a large range of the transverse momentum. We investigate whether the few degrees of freedom in the Tsallis parametrization may arise from the relativistic parton-parton hard-scattering and related processes. The effects of the multiple hard-scattering and parton showering processes on the power law are discussed. We find empirically that whereas the transverse spectra of both hadrons and jets exhibit power-law behavior of 1/pnT at high pT, the power indices n for hadrons are systematically greater than those for jets, for which n?45.

Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Beyond hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Simultaneous combination with x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful and novel emerging technique for the nondestructive determination of electronic properties and chemical composition of bulk, buried interfaces and surfaces. It benefits from the exceptionally large escape depth of high kinetic energy photoelectrons, increasing the information depth up to several tens of nanometers. Complementing HAXPES with an atomic structure sensitive technique (such as x-ray diffraction) opens a new research field with major applications for materials science. At SpLine, the Spanish CRG beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, we have developed a novel experimental set-up that combines HAXPES and x-ray diffraction (x-ray reflectivity, surface x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and reciprocal space maps). Both techniques can be operated simultaneously on the same sample and using the same excitation source. The set-up includes a robust 2S + 3D diffractometer hosting a ultrahigh vacuum chamber equipped with a unique photoelectron spectrometer (few eV < electron kinetic energy < 15 keV), x-ray tube (Mg/Ti), 15 keV electron gun, and auxiliary standard surface facilities (molecular beam epitaxy evaporator, ion gun, low energy electron diffraction, sample heating/cooling system, leak valves, load-lock sample transfer, etc.). This end-station offers the unique possibility of performing simultaneous HAXPES + x-ray diffraction studies. In the present work, we describe the experimental set-up together with two experimental examples that emphasize its outstanding capabilities: (i) nondestructive characterization of the Si/Ge and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interfaces on Ge-based CMOS devices, and (ii) strain study on La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} ultrathin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrate.

Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R. [SpLine, Spanish CRG beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France) and ICMM-CSIC Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

CORONAL THICK TARGET HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS AND RADIO EMISSIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A distinctive class of hard X-ray (HXR) sources located in the corona was recently found, which implies that the collisionally thick target model (CTTM) applies even to the corona. We investigated whether this idea can be independently verified by microwave radiations which have been known as the best companion to HXRs. This study is conducted on the GOES M2.3 class flare which occurred on 2002 September 9 and was observed by the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and the Owens Valley Solar Array. Interpreting the observed energy-dependent variation of HXR source size under the CTTM, the coronal density should be as high as 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} over a distance of up to 12''. To explain the cutoff feature of the microwave spectrum at 3 GHz, however, we require a density no higher than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Additional constraints must be placed on the temperature and magnetic field of the coronal source in order to reproduce the microwave spectrum as a whole. First, a spectral feature called the Razin suppression requires a magnetic field in a range of 250-350 G along with high viewing angles around 75 Degree-Sign . Second, to avoid excess fluxes at high frequencies due to the free-free emission that was not observed, we need a high temperature {>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K. These two microwave spectral features, Razin suppression and free-free emissions, become more significant at regions of high thermal plasma density and are essential for validating and determining additional parameters of the coronal HXR sources.

Lee, Jeongwoo [Physics Department, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Lim, Daye; Choe, G. S.; Kim, Kap-Sung [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Minhwan [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

396

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque CI, supplement au n 4, Tome 38, Avril 1977, page Cl-69 MICROSTRUCTURE OF HARD FERRITES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF HARD FERRITES AND THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES F. J. ESPER Robert Bosch GmbH., Materials Research Department, Stuttgart, West Germany Résumé. -- Les aimants en ferrites durs sont utilisés d'une façon- duction de ferrites durs et par là même les propriétés magnétiques. Enfin on fait quelques remarques sur

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

Swift J2218.4+1925: a new hard X-ray selected Polar observed with XMM-Newton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Swift J2218.4+1925, a hard X-ray source detected by Swift BAT, has been proposed as a candidate magnetic cataclysmic variable of the polar type from optical spectroscopy. Using XMM-Newton we perform detailed timing and spectral analysis with simultaneous X-ray ($0.3-10$ keV) and optical B band data. We complement the spectral study with archival hard X-ray (14-70 keV) spectra collected by Swift BAT as well as with optical, near and mid-infrared photometry from $SDSS$, $2MASS$ and $WISE$ archive, respectively. A strong periodic X-ray signal at 2.16 h, consistent with the recently determined spectroscopic orbital period, adds Swift J2218.4+1925 to the small group of hard X-ray polars and locates it at the low edge of the orbital period gap. The X-ray pulse profile shows the typical bright and faint phases seen in polars ($\\sim 70%$ and $\\sim 30%$ of the orbit, respectively). A pronounced dip centred on the bright phase is also detected. It is stronger at lower energies and is mainly produced by photoelectric ab...

Bernardini, Federico; Mukai, Koji; Falanga, Maurizio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

REVISITING THE LONG/SOFT-SHORT/HARD CLASSIFICATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS IN THE FERMI ERA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We perform a statistical analysis of the temporal and spectral properties of the latest Fermi gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to revisit the classification of GRBs. We find that the bimodalities of duration and the energy ratio (E{sub peak}/Fluence) and the anti-correlation between spectral hardness (hardness ratio (HR), peak energy, and spectral index) and duration (T{sub 90}) support the long/soft-short/hard classification scheme for Fermi GRBs. The HR-T{sub 90} anti-correlation strongly depends on the spectral shape of GRBs and energy bands, and the bursts with the curved spectra in the typical BATSE energy bands show a tighter anti-correlation than those with the power-law spectra in the typical BAT energy bands. This might explain why the HR-T{sub 90} correlation is not evident for those GRB samples detected by instruments like Swift with a narrower/softer energy bandpass. We also analyze the intrinsic energy correlation for the GRBs with measured redshifts and well-defined peak energies. The current sample suggests E{sub p,rest} = 2455 Multiplication-Sign (E{sub iso}/10{sup 52}){sup 0.59} for short GRBs, significantly different from that for long GRBs. However, both the long and short GRBs comply with the same E{sub p,rest}-L{sub iso} correlation.

Zhang Fuwen; Yan Jingzhi; Wei Daming [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Shao Lang, E-mail: fwzhang@pmo.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China)

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

400

Th e Im p a c t o f P r e d ic tiv e In a c c u r a c ie s o n E x e c u tio n S c h e d u lin g S te p h e n A . Ja rv is, L ig a n g H e , D a n ie l P . S p o o n e r a n d G ra h a m R . N u d d  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Th e Im p a c t o f P r e d ic tiv e In a c c u r a c ie s o n E x e c u tio n S c h e d u lin g S te p h e n A . Ja rv is, L ig a n g H e , D a n ie l P . S p o o n e r a n d G ra h a m R . N u d d Hig h P e rfo rm a n c e S y ste m s G ro u p , D e p a rtm e n t o f C o m p u te r S c ie n c e , U

Jarvis, Stephen

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401

Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the writing (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the writing speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 ?m in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be fabricated at a high speed of ?5 mm/s, with the line width and the line depth at ?95 nm and 2 nm, respectively. A fine pattern of the word NANO is also fabricated at the speed of ?5 mm/s.

Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Qingze, E-mail: qzzou@rci.rutgers.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Tan, Jun; Jiang, Wei [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Hard photo-disintegration of proton pairs in {sup 3}He nuclei  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive studies of high-energy deuteron photodisintegration over the past two decades have probed the limits of meson-baryon descriptions of nuclei and nuclear reactions. At high energies, photodisintegration cross sections have been shown to scale as a power law in s (the total cm energy squared), which suggests that quarks are the relevant degrees of freedom. In an attempt to more clearly identify the underlying dynamics at play, JLab/Hall A experiment 03-101 measured the hard photodisintegration of {sup 3}He into p-p and p-d pairs at ?{sub c.m.} = 90? and E{sub {gamma}} = 0.8 - 4.7 GeV. The basic idea is that the measurement should be able to test theoretical predictions for the relative size of pp versus pn disintegrations. This document presents data for the energy dependence of the high energy 90? c.m. photodisintegration of {sup3]He: d?/dt(? + {sup3}He ? p + p + n{sub spectator}), and d?/dt(? + {sup 3}He ? p + d). The cross sections were observed to scale as a function of s{sup ?n} where n was found to be 11.10.1 and 17.40.5 for the two reactions respectively. The degree of scaling found for d#27;{sigma}/dt (? + {sup 3}He ? p + d) is the highest degree of scaling ever observed in a nuclear process. The onset of the observed scaling are at photon energy of 2.2 GeV for the pp breakup and 0.7 GeV for the pd breakup. The magnitude of the invariant cross section for pp pair breakup was found to be dramatically lower than for the breakup of pn pairs and theoretical predictions. At energies below the scaling region, the scaled cross section was found to present a strong energy-dependent structure not observed in the pn breakup. The data indicate a transition from three-nucleon hadronic photodisintegration processes at low energies to two-nucleon quark-dominated photodisintegration processes at high energies.

Ishay Pomerantz

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

AN r-PROCESS KILONOVA ASSOCIATED WITH THE SHORT-HARD GRB 130603B  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present ground-based optical and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical and near-IR observations of the short-hard GRB 130603B at z = 0.356, which demonstrate the presence of excess near-IR emission matching the expected brightness and color of an r-process powered transient (a {sup k}ilonova{sup )}. The early afterglow fades rapidly with {alpha} {approx}< -2.6 at t Almost-Equal-To 8-32 hr post-burst and has a spectral index of {beta} Almost-Equal-To -1.5 (F{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}t {sup {alpha}}{nu}{sup {beta}}), leading to an expected near-IR brightness at the time of the first HST observation of m{sub F160W}(t = 9.4 days) {approx}> 29.3 AB mag. Instead, the detected source has m{sub F160W} = 25.8 {+-} 0.2 AB mag, corresponding to a rest-frame absolute magnitude of M{sub J} Almost-Equal-To -15.2 mag. The upper limit in the HST optical observations is m{sub F606W} {approx}> 27.7 AB mag (3{sigma}), indicating an unusually red color of V - H {approx}> 1.9 mag. Comparing the observed near-IR luminosity to theoretical models of kilonovae produced by ejecta from the merger of an NS-NS or NS-BH binary, we infer an ejecta mass of M{sub ej} Almost-Equal-To 0.03-0.08 M{sub Sun} for v{sub ej} Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.3c. The inferred mass matches the expectations from numerical merger simulations. The presence of a kilonova provides the strongest evidence to date that short GRBs are produced by compact object mergers, and provides initial insight on the ejected mass and the primary role that compact object merger may play in the r-process. Equally important, it demonstrates that gravitational wave sources detected by Advanced LIGO/Virgo will be accompanied by optical/near-IR counterparts with unusually red colors, detectable by existing and upcoming large wide-field facilities (e.g., Pan-STARRS, DECam, Subaru, LSST)

Berger, E.; Fong, W.; Chornock, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

404

Weighted?density?functional theory calculation of elastic constants for face?centered?cubic and body?centered?cubic hard?sphere crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The isothermal elastic constants for the face?centered?cubic (fcc) and body?centered?cubic (bcc) hard?sphere crystal are calculated for a range of densities using the modified weighted?density functional of Denton and ...

Laird, Brian Bostian

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Driving equitable demand : early lessons from the BetterBuildings Program to access 'hard-to-reach' communities for energy efficiency building improvements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasing the energy efficiency of low- to moderate-income and minority-occupied households could significantly reduce energy consumption in the United States. Strategies to access these 'hard to reach' households, however, ...

Crauderueff, Robert (Robert Joseph)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

The internal disruption as hard Magnetohydrodynamic limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity in large helical device  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large helical device (LHD) inward-shifted configurations are unstable to resistive MHD pressure-gradient-driven modes. Sawtooth like activity was observed during LHD operation. The main drivers are the unstable modes 1/2 and 1/3 in the middle and inner plasma region which limit the plasma confinement efficiency of LHD advanced operation scenarios. The aim of the present research is to study the hard MHD limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity, not observed yet in LHD operation, and to predict its effects on the device performance. Previous investigations pointed out this system relaxation can be an internal disruption [J. Varela et al., 'Internal disruptions and sawtooth like activity in LHD,' 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics (2011), P5.077]. In the present work, we simulate an internal disruption; we study the equilibria properties before and after the disruptive process, its effects on the plasma confinement efficiency during each disruptive phase, the relation between the n/m = 1/2 hard MHD events and the soft MHD events, and how to avoid or reduce their adverse effects. The simulation conclusions point out that the large stochastic region in the middle plasma strongly deforms and tears the flux surfaces when the pressure gradient increases above the hard MHD limit. If the instability reaches the inner plasma, the iota profiles will be perturbed near the plasma core and three magnetic islands can appear near the magnetic axis. If the instability is strong enough to link the stochastic regions in the middle plasma (around the half minor radius {rho}) and the plasma core ({rho}<0.25), an internal disruption is driven.

Varela, J. [Department of Physics, Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Watanabe, K. Y.; Ohdachi, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

The hard X-ray spectrum of Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxies and the synthesis of the XRB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A synthesis model for the cosmic X-ray Background (XRB) is presented, which includes a proper treatment of Compton scattering in the absorbing matter for type 2 AGN. Evidence for a decrease of the relative importance of type 2 AGN at high redshift is found, which may be due either to a decrease of the relative number of obscured sources, or (more plausibly) to an increase of the fraction of Compton-thick absorbed sources. The XRB spectrum, soft X-rays and hard X-rays source counts can be simultaneously fitted only if the XRB normalization as derived from BeppoSAX/MECS measurements is adopted.

Giorgio Matt; Fulvio Pompilio; Fabio La Franca

1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

408

14 ESS (trademark) switch inherent radiation-hardness assessment. Volume 2. Appendices to final report. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Phase I of the 4 ESS Switch RHA Program document in this report is the preliminary assessment of the Inherent fallout-radiation susceptibility of the 4 ESS Switch. The approach described herein consists of the identification of the active microelectronic piece-parts used in the 4 ESS Switch; characterization of their radiation tolerance, based on available data; preliminary identification of hardness-critical packs; and preliminary analysis of 4 ESS Switch performance during export to ambient (unshielded) fallout radiation, also based on available data.

Not Available

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Routine metabolism and critical oxygen concentration for juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellatus as functions of water hardness and salinity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the chamber was re-aerated. The second criterion was an oxygen concentration below a minimum level set by the programme . If this cr iterion was satisfied, the chamber was re ? aer ated, but COCR estimation had failed. Once the chamber s had been r e-aer...: Dr. William H. Neill Routine metabolic rate (RMR) and cr itical oxygen concentr ation (COCR) were determined for juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocel latus acclimated to var ious combinations of water hardness (expressed as concentr ation of calcium...

Schlechte, John Warren

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Backward Clusters, Hierarchy and Wild Sums for a Hard Sphere System in a Low-Density Regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the statistics of backward clusters in a gas of hard spheres at low density. A backward cluster is defined as the group of particles involved directly or indirectly in the backwards-in-time dynamics of a given tagged sphere. We derive upper and lower bounds on the average size of clusters by using the theory of the homogeneous Boltzmann equation combined with suitable hierarchical expansions. These representations are known in the easier context of Maxwellian molecules (Wild sums). We test our results with a numerical experiment based on molecular dynamics simulations.

K. Aoki; M. Pulvirenti; S. Simonella; T. Tsuji

2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

411

HARD X-RAY LAGS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: TESTING THE DISTANT REVERBERATION HYPOTHESIS WITH NGC 6814  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an X-ray spectral and temporal analysis of the variable active galaxy NGC 6814, observed with Suzaku during 2011 November. Remarkably, the X-ray spectrum shows no evidence for the soft excess commonly observed amongst other active galaxies, despite its relatively low level of obscuration, and is dominated across the whole Suzaku bandpass by the intrinsic powerlaw-like continuum. Despite this, we clearly detect the presence of a low-frequency hard lag of ?1600 s between the 0.5-2.0 and 2.0-5.0 keV energy bands at greater than 6? significance, similar to those reported in the literature for a variety of other active galactic nuclei (AGNs). At these energies, any additional emission from, e.g., a very weak, undetected soft excess, or from distant reflection must contribute less than 3% of the observed countrates (at 90% confidence). Given the lack of any significant continuum emission component other than the powerlaw, we can rule out models that invoke distant reprocessing for the observed lag behavior, which must instead be associated with this continuum emission. These results are fully consistent with a propagating fluctuation origin for the low-frequency hard lags, and with the interpretation of the high-frequency soft lagsa common feature seen in the highest quality AGN data with strong soft excessesas reverberation from the inner accretion disk.

Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [Cahill Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zoghbi, A.; Reynolds, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cackett, E. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Uttley, P. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

412

Variable Hard X-ray Emission from the Candidate Accreting Black Hole in Dwarf Galaxy Henize 2-10  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an analysis of the X-ray spectrum and long-term variability of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10. Recent observations suggest that this galaxy hosts an actively accreting black hole with mass ~10^6 M_sun. The presence of an AGN in a low-mass starburst galaxy marks a new environment for active galactic nuclei (AGNs), with implications for the processes by which "seed" black holes may form in the early Universe. In this paper, we analyze four epochs of X-ray observations of Henize 2-10, to characterize the long-term behavior of its hard nuclear emission. We analyze observations with Chandra from 2001 and XMM-Newton from 2004 and 2011, as well as an earlier, less sensitive observation with ASCA from 1997. Based on detailed analysis of the source and background, we find that the hard (2-10 keV) flux of the putative AGN has decreased by approximately an order of magnitude between the 2001 Chandra observation and exposures with XMM-Newton in 2004 and 2011. The observed variability confirms th...

Whalen, Thomas J; Reines, Amy E; Greene, Jenny E; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Johnson, Kelsey E; Alexander, David M; Goulding, Andy D

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Elastically Cooperative Activated Barrier Hopping Theory of Relaxation in Viscous Fluids. I. General Formulation and Application to Hard Sphere Fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We generalize the force-level Nonlinear Langevin Equation theory of single particle hopping to include collective effects associated with long range elastic distortion of the liquid. The activated alpha relaxation event is of a mixed spatial character, involving two distinct, but inter-related, local and collective barriers. There are no divergences at volume fractions below jamming or temperatures above zero Kelvin. The ideas are first developed and implemented analytically and numerically in the context of hard sphere fluids. In an intermediate volume fraction crossover regime, the local cage process is dominant in a manner consistent with an apparent Arrhenius behavior. The super-Arrhenius collective barrier is more strongly dependent on volume fraction, dominates the highly viscous regime, and is well described by a nonsingular law below jamming. The increase of the collective barrier is determined by the amplitude of thermal density fluctuations, shear modulus or transient localization length, and a growing microscopic jump length. Alpha relaxation time calculations are in good agreement with recent experiments and simulations on dense fluids and suspensions of hard spheres. Comparisons of the theory with elastic models and entropy crisis ideas are explored. The present work provides a foundation for constructing a quasi-universal, fit-parameter-free theory for relaxation in thermal molecular liquids over 14 orders of magnitude in time.

Stephen Mirigian; Kenneth S. Schweizer

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

414

NuSTAR DETECTION OF HARD X-RAY PHASE LAGS FROM THE ACCRETING PULSAR GS 0834430  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array hard X-ray telescope observed the transient Be/X-ray binary GS 0834430 during its 2012 outburstthe first active state of this system observed in the past 19 yr. We performed timing and spectral analysis and measured the X-ray spectrum between 3-79 keV with high statistical significance. We find the phase-averaged spectrum to be consistent with that observed in many other magnetized, accreting pulsars. We fail to detect cyclotron resonance scattering features that would allow us to constrain the pulsar's magnetic field in either phase-averaged or phase-resolved spectra. Timing analysis shows a clearly detected pulse period of ?12.29 s in all energy bands. The pulse profiles show a strong, energy-dependent hard phase lag of up to 0.3 cycles in phase, or about 4 s. Such dramatic energy-dependent lags in the pulse profile have never before been reported in high-mass X-ray binary pulsars. Previously reported lags have been significantly smaller in phase and restricted to low energies (E < 10 keV). We investigate the possible mechanisms that might produce this energy-dependent pulse phase shift. We find the most likely explanation for this effect is a complex beam geometry.

Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Harrison, Fiona A.; Frst, Felix; Bellm, Eric C.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Walton, Dominic J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Universit de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chakrabarty, Deepto [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chenevez, Jerome; Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Natalucci, Lorenzo [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, Roma I-00133 (Italy); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST, UMBC, and NASA GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wilms, Jrn, E-mail: miyasaka@srl.caltech.edu [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); and others

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

415

DISCOVERY OF AN EXTRA HARD SPECTRAL COMPONENT IN THE HIGH-ENERGY AFTERGLOW EMISSION OF GRB 130427A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extended high-energy gamma-ray (>100 MeV) emission which occurs after prompt gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is usually characterized by a single power-law spectrum, which has been explained as the afterglow synchrotron radiation. The afterglow inverse Compton emission has long been predicted to be able to produce a high-energy component as well, but previous observations have not clearly revealed such a signature, probably due to the small number of >10 GeV photons even for the brightest GRBs known so far. In this Letter, we report on the Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the >100 MeV emission from the very bright and nearby GRB 130427A. We characterize the time-resolved spectra of the GeV emission from the GRB onset to the afterglow phase. By performing time-resolved spectral fits of GRB 130427A, we found strong evidence of an extra hard spectral component that exists in the extended high-energy emission of this GRB. We argue that this hard component may arise from the afterglow inverse Compton emission.

Tam, Pak-Hin Thomas [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Tang Qingwen; Liu Ruoyu; Wang Xiangyu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hou Shujin, E-mail: phtam@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING'' for the period starting June 23, 2003 through September 30, 2004. (1) TerraTek has reviewed applicable literature and documentation and has convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek has designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties in obtaining ultra-high speed motors for this feasibility work were encountered though they were sourced mid 2004. (3) TerraTek is progressing through Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests''. Some improvements over early NASA experiments have been identified.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING'' for the period starting June 23, 2003 through September 30, 2004. TerraTek has reviewed applicable literature and documentation and has convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. TerraTek has designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties in obtaining ultra-high speed motors for this feasibility work were encountered though they were sourced mid 2004. TerraTek is progressing through Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests''. Some improvements over early NASA experiments have been identified.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56), the Most Distant Cluster of Galaxies Observed by the RXTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evidence for non-thermal activity in clusters of galaxies is well established from radio observations of synchrotron emission by relativistic electrons. New windows in the Extreme Ultraviolet and Hard X-ray ranges have provided for more powerful tools for the investigation of this phenomenon. Detection of hard X-rays in the 20 to 100 keV range have been reported from several clusters of galaxies, notably from Coma and others. Based on these earlier observations we identified the relatively high redshift cluster 1E0657-56 (also known as RX J0658-5557) as a good candidate for hard X-ray observations. This cluster, also known as the bullet cluster, has many other interesting and unusual features, most notably that it is undergoing a merger, clearly visible in the X-ray images. Here we present results from a successful RXTE observations of this cluster. We summarize past observations and their theoretical interpretation which guided us in the selection process. We describe the new observations and present the constraints we can set on the flux and spectrum of the hard X-rays. Finally we discuss the constraints one can set on the characteristics of accelerated electrons which produce the hard X-rays and the radio radiation.

Petrosian, Vahe; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Madejski, Greg; /SLAC; Luli, Kevin; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

419

Effect of Nd:YAG laser welding on microstructure and hardness of an Al-Li based alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Butt joints of 3.0 mm thick sheets of an Al-Li based alloy have been produced using Nd:YAG laser welding without filler metals. The hardness distribution and microstructure of the alloy and welded joints were investigated. The changes in the grain shapes, grain orientations, microtexture, and precipitates of the fusion zone were analyzed using optical microscope, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that Nd:YAG laser welding leads to a change of the microhardness, grain shape, grain orientations, and a disappearance of the microtexture and precipitates. A narrow band of EQZ along the fusion boundary and a predominantly equiaxed dendritic structure are developed in the fusion zone. The formation of the predominately equiaxed dendritic grains is due to a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism aided by equilibrium A1{sub 3}Zr phases as well as the growth of pre-existing nuclei created by dendrite fragmentation, or by grain detachment resulted from Nd:YAG laser welding processes. In addition, Nd:YAG laser welding produces lower Vickers hardness than that of the base metal due to the decrease in the in quantity of {delta} Prime precipitates in the fusion zone. - Graphical Abstract: The grain shapes, grain orientations, microtexture, and precipitates of the solidified fusion zone were investigated and compared with the base metal using optical microscope, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). EBSD orientation map of laser welded joint in 5A90 alloys is presented in Fig. 3. It clearly shows that a narrow band EQZ along the fusion boundary and the predominantly equiaxed grains have been developed in the fusion zone of 5A90 alloys. Also, it is clear that the microstructure of the base metal is characterized by laminated grains with preferred orientations, whereas the fusion zone is predominately equiaxed grains in different colors having random orientations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The predominantly equiaxed dendritic structure is developed in the fusion zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion zone with equiaxed grains shows random orientations and microtexture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The loss in hardness in the fusion zone is due to the decrease in {delta} Prime precipitates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The non-epitaxial growth occurs at fusion boundary. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The equilibrium A1{sub 3}Zr phases maybe the nuclei of new grains in the fusion zone.

Cui, Li, E-mail: cuili@bjut.edu.cn [Beijing University of Technology (China)] [Beijing University of Technology (China); Li, Xiaoyan, E-mail: xyli@bjut.edu.cn [Beijing University of Technology (China)] [Beijing University of Technology (China); He, Dingyong, E-mail: dyhe@bjut.edu.cn [Beijing University of Technology (China)] [Beijing University of Technology (China); Chen, Li, E-mail: ouchenxi@163.com [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute (China)] [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute (China); Gong, Shuili, E-mail: gongshuili@sina.com [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute (China)] [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute (China)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ultra-high rotary speed drilling system is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 October 2004 through 30 September 2005. Additionally, research activity from 1 October 2005 through 28 February 2006 is included in this report: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties continue in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements have been made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs have been provided to vendors for production. A more consistent product is required to minimize the differences in bit performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program has been completed. (3) TerraTek is progressing through Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests''. (4) Significant testing has been performed on nine different rocks. (5) Bit balling has been observed on some rock and seems to be more pronounces at higher rotational speeds. (6) Preliminary analysis of data has been completed and indicates that decreased specific energy is required as the rotational speed increases (Task 4). This data analysis has been used to direct the efforts of the final testing for Phase I (Task 5). (7) Technology transfer (Task 6) has begun with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis).

Arnis Judzis; Alan Black; Homer Robertson

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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421

Kinetic Theory Estimates for the Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy and the Largest Lyapunov Exponents for Dilute, Hard-Ball Gases and for Dilute, Random Lorentz Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The kinetic theory of gases provides methods for calculating Lyapunov exponents and other quantities, such as Kolmogorov-Sinai entropies, that characterize the chaotic behavior of hard-ball gases. Here we illustrate the use of these methods for calculating the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, and the largest positive Lyapunov exponent, for dilute hard-ball gases in equilibrium. The calculation of the largest Lyapunov exponent makes interesting connections with the theory of propagation of hydrodynamic fronts. Calculations are also presented for the Lyapunov spectrum of dilute, random Lorentz gases in two and three dimensions, which are considerably simpler than the corresponding calculations for hard-ball gases. The article concludes with a brief discussion of some interesting open problems.

H. van Beijeren; R. van Zon; J. R. Dorfman

2000-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

422

The soft and hard X-rays thermal emission from star cluster winds with a supernova explosion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Massive young star clusters contain dozens or hundreds of massive stars that inject mechanical energy in the form of winds and supernova explosions, producing an outflow which expands into their surrounding medium, shocking it and forming structures called superbubbles. The regions of shocked material can have temperatures in excess of 10$^6$ K, and emit mainly in thermal X-rays (soft and hard). This X-ray emission is strongly affected by the action of thermal conduction, as well as by the metallicity of the material injected by the massive stars. We present three-dimensional numerical simulations exploring these two effects, metallicity of the stellar winds and supernova explosions, as well as thermal conduction.

Castellanos-Ramirez, A; Esquivel, A; Toledo-Roy, J C; Olivares, J; Velazquez, P F

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Ultra-bright, ultra-broadband hard x-ray driven by laser-produced energetic electron beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a new method of obtaining a compact ultra-bright, ultra-broadband hard X-ray source. This X-ray source has a high peak brightness in the order of 10{sup 22} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1\\%BW), an ultrashort duration (10 fs), and a broadband spectrum (flat distribution from 0.1 MeV to 4 MeV), and thus has wide-ranging potential applications, such as in ultrafast Laue diffraction experiments. In our scheme, laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) provide driven electron beams. A foil target is placed oblique to the beam direction so that the target normal sheath field (TNSF) is used to provide a bending force. Using this TNSF-kick scheme, we can fully utilize the advantages of current LPAs, including their high charge, high energy, and low emittance.

Shi, Yin; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Wenpeng; Ji, Liangliang; Zhang, Lingang; Xu, Jiancai; Yu, Yahong; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yi, Longqing; Xu, Tongjun; Xu, Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Reactive magnetron sputtering of hard Si-B-C-N films with a high-temperature oxidation resistance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on the results obtained for C-N and Si-C-N films, a systematic investigation of reactive magnetron sputtering of hard quaternary Si-B-C-N materials has been carried out. The Si-B-C-N films were deposited on p-type Si(100) substrates by dc magnetron co-sputtering using a single C-Si-B target (at a fixed 20% boron fraction in the target erosion area) in nitrogen-argon gas mixtures. Elemental compositions of the films, their surface bonding structure and mechanical properties, together with their oxidation resistance in air, were controlled by the Si fraction (5-75%) in the magnetron target erosion area, the Ar fraction (0-75%) in the gas mixture, the rf induced negative substrate bias voltage (from a floating potential to -500 V) and the substrate temperature (180-350 deg. C). The total pressure and the discharge current on the magnetron target were held constant at 0.5 Pa and 1 A, respectively. The energy and flux of ions bombarding the growing films were determined on the basis of the discharge characteristics measured for the rf discharge dominating in the deposition zone. Mass spectroscopy was used to show composition of the total ion fluxes onto the substrate and to explain differences between sputtering of carbon, silicon and boron from a composed target in nitrogen-argon discharges. The films, typically 1.0-2.4 {mu}m thick, possessing a density around 2.4 g cm{sup -3}, were found to be amorphous in nanostructure with a very smooth surface (R{sub a}{<=}0.8 nm) and good adhesion to substrates at a low compressive stress (1.0-1.6 GPa). They exhibited high hardness (up to 47 GPa) and elastic recovery (up to 88%), and extremely high oxidation resistance in air at elevated temperatures (up to a 1350 deg.C substrate limit)

Vlcek, Jaroslav; Potocky, Stepan; Cizek, Jiri; Houska, Jiri; Kormunda, Martin; Zeman, Petr; Perina, Vratislav; Zemek, Josef; Setsuhara, Yuichi; Konuma, Seiji [Department of Physics, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 306 14 Plzen (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kanagawa High-Technology Foundation, Kanagawa Science Park, 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

HARD PARTON PHYSICS IN HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR COLLISIONS. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 17  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The RIKEN-BNL center workshop on ''Hard parton physics in high energy nuclear collisions'' was held at BNL from March 1st-5th! 1999. The focus of the workshop was on hard probes of nucleus-nucleus collisions that will be measured at RHIC with the PHENIX and STAR detectors. There were about 45 speakers and over 70 registered participants at the workshop, with roughly a quarter of the speakers from overseas. About 60% of the talks were theory talks. A nice overview of theory for RHIC was provided by George Sterman. The theoretical talks were on a wide range of topics in QCD which can be classified under the following: (a) energy loss and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect; (b) minijet production and equilibration; (c) small x physics and initial conditions; (d) nuclear parton distributions and shadowing; (e) spin physics; (f) photon, di-lepton, and charm production; and (g) hadronization, and simulations of high pt physics in event generators. Several of the experimental talks discussed the capabilities of the PHENIX and STAR detectors at RHIC in measuring high pt particles in heavy ion collisions. In general, these talks were included in the relevant theory sessions. A session was set aside to discuss the spin program at RHIC with polarized proton beams. In addition, there were speakers from 08, HERA, the fixed target experiments at Fermilab, and the CERN fixed target Pb+Pb program, who provided additional perspective on a range of issues of relevance to RHIC; from jets at the Tevatron, to saturation of parton distributions at HERA, and recent puzzling data on direct photon production in fixed target experiments, among others.

CARROLL,J.

1999-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

426

Defeat of Waterborne IED/Mine Dr. Peter C. Chu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

necessary to ensure maximum weapon effectiveness To determine the point at which additional altimeter input no longer increases weapon effectiveness Thesis Students ENS Michael Perry, Value-added of satellite (Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division) Objectives: Accurate predictions of underwater trajectory

Chu, Peter C.

427

Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

15 November, 2012 - 13:05 Literature Review The author analyzed the market of combine heat and power in commercial buildings. The paper provided the market size of CHP. It...

428

IE 361 Exam 1 October 18, 2000 Prof. Vardeman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?!!!" "! part diameters via "SPC" a colleague says that the computer is already doing SPC on the lathe. What do you have to say to this person? 6. What is the purpose of Shewhart control charting? 7. You've just

Vardeman, Stephen B.

429

IE 361 Module 10 Introduction to Shewhart Control Charting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1, Statistical Quality Assurance Methods for Engineers 1 #12;Generalities About Shewhart Control Charting SPCIE 361 Module 10 Introduction to Shewhart Control Charting (Statistical Process Control, or More (SPM) is process watching for purposes of change detection. Figure 1: SPC (SPM) is About "Process

Vardeman, Stephen B.

430

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

borrower must be rural small business or agricultural producer * Technology: biomass, solar, wind, hydro, hydrogen, geothermal * Applications: equipment, construction,...

431

IE Leadership Camp 2010 Dr Winnie Tang, JP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/ScienceMath/Science X = Y - Z NaCl 2 Music/ArtMusic/Art Humans Use AbstractionsHumans Use Abstractions #12;Increasing Population Consumption Land Use Pollution Declining Resources Diversity Natural Areas . . . GIS Resource Accounting #12;Poverty Indicators #12;My belief: "GIS is for a better world and use of resources

Huang, Jianwei

432

IE 361 Exam 1 October 5, 2004 Prof. Vardeman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Kerdus and Tierney worked with a manufacturer of plastic containers. Their primary concern was with "burst strength" of these containers (containers were pressurized until bursting and the percentage = of these containers (that we will suppose were taken hourly). Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 x 16.16 16.60 16.87 16

Vardeman, Stephen B.

433

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Pathways to Sustained Energy Development in Oklahoma Oklahoma Tribal Leader Forum - August 2012 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 1 Office of Indian Energy Goals and Objectives * Promote...

434

IE316 Advanced Operations Research Techniques Due December 5, 2001  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

market (in $/ton) are: VEG1 VEG2 OIL1 OIL2 OIL3 January 110 120 130 110 115 February 130 130 110 90 115 that these stocks also exist at the end of June. Your model should determine how much of the various oils to buy must OIL3. Solve your model u

Ralphs, Ted

435

DOE-IE START REPDA flier r5.indd  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA - U.S. Departmentto DevelopMarkAugust 06,JulyOctober 30, 1995Energy

436

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartment ofTheDepartment of2012Pathways to Sustained Energy

437

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartment ofTheDepartment of2012Pathways to Sustained

438

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartment ofTheDepartment of2012Pathways to SustainedFinancing

439

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartment ofTheDepartment of2012Pathways to

440

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartment ofTheDepartment of2012Pathways toDay 2 Project

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartment ofTheDepartment of2012Pathways toDay 2 Project3:

442

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartment ofTheDepartment of2012Pathways toDay 2

443

Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment,  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S.IndianaofPilot Project | Department of EnergySeptember

444

IE 361 Module 15 The Average Run Length Concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reading: Section 3.5, Statistical Quality Assurance Methods for Engineers 1 #12;The general question of adding the Western Electric set of alarm rules to a control charting 2 #12;scheme? The most effective only the single alarm rule "signal the first time that a point Q plots outside control limits

Vardeman, Stephen B.

445

`Green Christmas' Advice There are lots of ways to stay 'green' over the festive period so let's not make our buildings work hard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

`Green Christmas' Advice There are lots of ways to stay 'green' over the festive period so let's not make our buildings work hard when we're off on holiday! Read these simple tips to find out how. Make that are needed are turned on, and that these are turned off again as you leave the building. Don't leave any non

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

446

`Green Christmas' Advice There are lots of ways to stay 'green' over the festive period so let's not make our buildings work hard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

`Green Christmas' Advice There are lots of ways to stay 'green' over the festive period so let's not make our buildings work hard when we're off on holiday! Read these simple tips to find out how. Make leave the building. Don't leave any non-essential items on standby - appliances such as televisions left

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

447

Toxic sulfide concentrations in the sediments and water column of the Suwannee River estuary and its influence on hard clam survival  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toxic sulfide concentrations in the sediments and water column of the Suwannee River estuary that is grown to market size in estuarine sediments. Hydrogen sulfide, a natural metabolic poison known of hard clams used in field aquaculture areas in the Suwannee River estuary. Sulfide was found in sediment

Florida, University of

448

Long-term monitoring of fleshy fruit and hard mast production and seasonal bird distribution at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A final report of Fruit and hard mast production in five habitat types at SRS with a comparison of fruit consumption by fledgling versus adult birds at SRS and Relative importance of fruit, seeds, and insects in the diets of overwintering birds at SRS.

Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Levey, Douglas J.

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

[1] P. Schwarzkopf, R. Kieffer, Refractory Hard Metals: Borides, Car-bides, Nitrides and Silicides, MacMillan, New York 1953.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

± [1] P. Schwarzkopf, R. Kieffer, Refractory Hard Metals: Borides, Car- bides, Nitrides and Silicides, MacMillan, New York 1953. [2] E. Fryt, Solid State Ionics 1997, 101±103, 437. [3] N. Durlu, J. Metal catalysts, such as gold[1,4,8] and tin[5,9,10] have been employed in the synthesis to align

Wang, Zhong L.

450

Hard Magnets I: 2-17, Nitrides, Carbides Frederick Pinkerton, Chairman Structure and magnetic properties of rare-earth iron nitrides, carbides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard Magnets I: 2-17, Nitrides, Carbides Frederick Pinkerton, Chairman Structure and magnetic properties of rare-earth iron nitrides, carbides and carbonitrides (invited) Z. Altounian, X. Chen, L. X develops for R=Sm upon nitriding/carbiding with an anisotropy field that is almost double the value for Nd

Ryan, Dominic

451

Modeling percolation in high-aspect-ratio fiber systems. I. Soft-core versus hard-core models L. Berhan1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Indeed, experimental findings in nanotube- reinforced polymeric 1­11 and ceramic 12 matrix mate- rials in nanotubes-reinforced composites. The hard-core model can also potentially be used as a tool in calculating the tunneling distance in composite materials, given the fiber morphology and experimentally derived electrical

Sastry, Ann Marie

452

Bandwidths of Micro Twisted-Pair Cables and Fusion Spliced SIMM-GRIN Fiber and Radiation Hardness of PIN/VCSEL Arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spliced fiber ribbon can transmit signals up to ~ 2 Gb/s. We have irradiated PIN and VCSEL arrays with 24-detector optical electronics are then transmitted via 8 m of rad-hard/low bandwidth SIMM fiber ribbon fusion spliced to 70 m of rad-tolerant/medium bandwidth GRIN fiber ribbon. The optical signals are generated

Gan, K. K.

453

Bandwidths of micro twisted-pair cables and fusion spliced SIMM-GRIN fiber and radiation hardness of PIN/VCSEL arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spliced fiber ribbon can transmit signals up to ~ 2 Gb/s. We have irradiated PIN and VCSEL arrays with 24-detector optical electronics are then transmitted via 8 m of rad-hard/low bandwidth SIMM fiber ribbon fusion spliced to 70 m of rad- tolerant/medium bandwidth GRIN fiber ribbon. The optical signals are generated

Gan, K. K.

454

(1) Frank May REU Summary 2012 -http://engineering.umass.edu/reu/2012/reu-students (2) "Hard Magnetic Materials: A Perspecitve" J.M.D. Coey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(1) Frank May REU Summary 2012 - http://engineering.umass.edu/reu/2012/reu-students (2) "Hard Magnetic Materials: A Perspecitve" J.M.D. Coey (3) "Perspecitve on Permanent Magnetic Materials for Energy of L10 magnetic materials" David E. Laughlin, Kumar Srinivasan, Mihaela Tanase, Lisha Wang (5) "A study

Mountziaris, T. J.

455

A Woodland area farming company is looking for a hard-working and dedicated person to manage its growing beekeeping operation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Woodland area farming company is looking for a hard-working and dedicated person to manage its and diagnose problems · Manage employees · Manage pollination for multiple crops · Make splits and grow experience is encouraged, but NOT required CA driver's license Ability to lift 50+ pounds Willingness to work

Ishida, Yuko

456

Elimination of self-absorption in fluorescence hard-x-ray absorption spectra P. Pfalzer, J.-P. Urbach, M. Klemm, and S. Horn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elimination of self-absorption in fluorescence hard-x-ray absorption spectra P. Pfalzer, J-ray absorption spectra in situations where samples cannot be made in the required configuration. However, self-absorption-ray absorption coefficients. This procedure is used to obtain the vanadium K-edge spectrum of single crystal V2O3

Frenkel, Anatoly

457

ModelCentric Smart Grid Workshop: From Hard Dollar Justification to RealTime Control and the Analytics That Make It Possible  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agenda ModelCentric Smart Grid Workshop: From Hard Dollar Justification to RealTime Control managers and technical personnel involved with smart grid activities. The second day takes a deeper dive:30 p.m. Smart Grid "harddollar" value streams ­ an incremental value approach Efficiency

Ohta, Shigemi

458

Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm-usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress at the end of Phase 1 on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 March 2006 and concluding 30 June 2006. (Note: Results from 1 September 2005 through 28 February 2006 were included in the previous report (see Judzis, Black, and Robertson)). Summarizing the accomplished during Phase 1: {lg_bullet} TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kickoff meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis). {lg_bullet} TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Some difficulties continued in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed. {lg_bullet} TerraTek concluded Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests.'' {sm_bullet} Significant testing was performed on nine different rocks. {sm_bullet} Five rocks were used for the final testing. The final tests were based on statistical design of experiments. {sm_bullet} Two full-faced bits, a small diameter and a large diameter, were run in Berea sandstone. {lg_bullet} Analysis of data was completed and indicates that there is decreased specific energy as the rotational speed increases (Task 4). Data analysis from early trials was used to direct the efforts of the final testing for Phase I (Task 5). {lg_bullet} Technology transfer (Task 6) was accomplished with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis, Boucher, McCammon, and Black).

Arnis Judzis; Homer Robertson; Alan Black

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

459

Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill 'faster and deeper' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the 'ultra-high rotary speed drilling system' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm - usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document provides the progress through two phases of the program entitled 'Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling' for the period starting 30 June 2003 and concluding 31 March 2009. The accomplishments of Phases 1 and 2 are summarized as follows: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis); (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed; (3) TerraTek concluded small-scale cutting performance tests; (4) Analysis of Phase 1 data indicated that there is decreased specific energy as the rotational speed increases; (5) Technology transfer, as part of Phase 1, was accomplished with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis, Boucher, McCammon, and Black); (6) TerraTek prepared a design concept for the high speed drilling test stand, which was planned around the proposed high speed mud motor concept. Alternative drives for the test stand were explored; a high speed hydraulic motor concept was finally used; (7) The high speed system was modified to accommodate larger drill bits than originally planned; (8) Prototype mud turbine motors and the high speed test stand were used to drive the drill bits at high speed; (9) Three different rock types were used during the testing: Sierra White granite, Crab Orchard sandstone, and Colton sandstone. The drill bits used included diamond impregnated bits, a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit, a thermally stable PDC (TSP) bit, and a hybrid TSP and natural diamond bit; and (10) The drill bits were run at rotary speeds up to 5500 rpm and weight on bit (WOB) to 8000 lbf. During Phase 2, the ROP as measured in depth of cut per bit revolution generally increased with increased WOB. The performance was mixed with increased rotary speed, with the depth cut with the impregnated drill bit generally increasing and the TSP and hybrid TSP drill bits generally decreasing. The ROP in ft/hr generally increased with all bits with increased WOB and rotary speed. The mechanical specific energy generally improved (decreased) with increased WOB and was mixed with increased rotary speed.

TerraTek, A Schlumberger Company

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

460

!"#$%&%$#'#()"*)+*,")-./0(1'#$*2$$34'56*'7*8%)395$3*4:*;)3$07 ?9#@)%A7BC*DE*FE*/$77G*=E*HE*8)##$%G*>E.IE*J@'"KG*LE.8E*M0'"5@$#G*,E*/@'0(#'G*DE*/)01'"G*FE*?E  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

*DE*FE*/$77G*=E*HE*8)##$%G*>E.IE*J@'"KG*LE.8E*M0'"5@$#G*,E*/@'0(#'G*DE*/)01'"G*FE*?E F'N0(5@G*?E*FE*F$0*=$"()G*OE*F:1"(6)PG*OE*='0("G*FE*L$%%$##G*QE*R$9&G*?E*?E*H'5(7G*IE*H$*S%$9#G TE.JE*H('"KG*LE.2E*>'@+)9+G*ME*LE*>5?P'"$:G*OE*8E*>$0$7@6)G*LE*2E*ME*>(#5@$00G*LE.LE >)%5%$##$G*8E*>E*U)%%(7G*FE*?E*D'"3'00G*HE*D(697G

Randall, David A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

High energy resolution hard X-ray and gamma-ray imagers using CdTe diode devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We developed CdTe double-sided strip detectors (DSDs or cross strip detectors) and evaluated their spectral and imaging performance for hard X-rays and gamma-rays. Though the double-sided strip configuration is suitable for imagers with a fine position resolution and a large detection area, CdTe diode DSDs with indium (In) anodes have yet to be realized due to the difficulty posed by the segmented In anodes. CdTe diode devices with aluminum (Al) anodes were recently established, followed by a CdTe device in which the Al anodes could be segmented into strips. We developed CdTe double-sided strip devices having Pt cathode strips and Al anode strips, and assembled prototype CdTe DSDs. These prototypes have a strip pitch of 400 micrometer. Signals from the strips are processed with analog ASICs (application specific integrated circuits). We have successfully performed gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy with a position resolution of 400 micrometer. Energy resolution of 1.8 keV (FWHM: full width at half maximum) was ob...

Watanabe, Shin; Aono, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Odaka, Hirokazu; Kokubun, Motohide; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Onishi, Mitsunobu; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Polarisation measurements with a CdTe pixel array detector for Laue hard X-ray focusing telescopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polarimetry is an area of high energy astrophysics which is still relatively unexplored, even though it is recognized that this type of measurement could drastically increase our knowledge of the physics and geometry of high energy sources. For this reason, in the context of the design of a Gamma-Ray Imager based on new hard-X and soft gamma ray focusing optics for the next ESA Cosmic Vision call for proposals (Cosmic Vision 2015-2025), it is important that this capability should be implemented in the principal on-board instrumentation. For the particular case of wide band-pass Laue optics we propose a focal plane based on a thick pixelated CdTe detector operating with high efficiency between 60-600 keV. The high segmentation of this type of detector (1-2 mm pixel size) and the good energy resolution (a few keV FWHM at 500 keV) will allow high sensitivity polarisation measurements (a few % for a 10 mCrab source in 106s) to be performed. We have evaluated the modulation Q factors and minimum detectable polaris...

Caroli, E; Pisa, A; Stephen, J B; Frontera, F; Castanheira, M T D; Sordo, S; Caroli, Ezio; Silva, Rui M. Curado da; Pisa, Alessandro; Stephen, John B.; Frontera, Filippo; Castanheira, Matilde T. D.; Sordo, Stefano del

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Polarisation measurements with a CdTe pixel array detector for Laue hard X-ray focusing telescopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polarimetry is an area of high energy astrophysics which is still relatively unexplored, even though it is recognized that this type of measurement could drastically increase our knowledge of the physics and geometry of high energy sources. For this reason, in the context of the design of a Gamma-Ray Imager based on new hard-X and soft gamma ray focusing optics for the next ESA Cosmic Vision call for proposals (Cosmic Vision 2015-2025), it is important that this capability should be implemented in the principal on-board instrumentation. For the particular case of wide band-pass Laue optics we propose a focal plane based on a thick pixelated CdTe detector operating with high efficiency between 60-600 keV. The high segmentation of this type of detector (1-2 mm pixel size) and the good energy resolution (a few keV FWHM at 500 keV) will allow high sensitivity polarisation measurements (a few % for a 10 mCrab source in 106s) to be performed. We have evaluated the modulation Q factors and minimum detectable polarisation through the use of Monte Carlo simulations (based on the GEANT 4 toolkit) for on and off-axis sources with power law emission spectra using the point spread function of a Laue lens in a feasible configuration.

Ezio Caroli; Rui M. Curado da Silva; Alessandro Pisa; John B. Stephen; Filippo Frontera; Matilde T. D. Castanheira; Stefano del Sordo

2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

464

Free energies, vacancy concentrations and density distribution anisotropies in hard--sphere crystals: A combined density functional and simulation study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform a comparative study of the free energies and the density distributions in hard sphere crystals using Monte Carlo simulations and density functional theory (employing Fundamental Measure functionals). Using a recently introduced technique (Schilling and Schmid, J. Chem. Phys 131, 231102 (2009)) we obtain crystal free energies to a high precision. The free energies from Fundamental Measure theory are in good agreement with the simulation results and demonstrate the applicability of these functionals to the treatment of other problems involving crystallization. The agreement between FMT and simulations on the level of the free energies is also reflected in the density distributions around single lattice sites. Overall, the peak widths and anisotropy signs for different lattice directions agree, however, it is found that Fundamental Measure theory gives slightly narrower peaks with more anisotropy than seen in the simulations. Among the three types of Fundamental Measure functionals studied, only the White Bear II functional (Hansen-Goos and Roth, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 8413 (2006)) exhibits sensible results for the equilibrium vacancy concentration and a physical behavior of the chemical potential in crystals constrained by a fixed vacancy concentration.

M. Oettel; S. Goerig; A. Haertel; H. Loewen; M. Radu; T. Schilling

2010-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

465

Structural relaxation of polydisperse hard spheres: comparison of the mode-coupling theory to a Langevin dynamics simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the slow, glassy structural relaxation as measured through collective and tagged-particle density correlation functions obtained from Brownian dynamics simulations for a polydisperse system of quasi-hard spheres in the framework of the mode-coupling theory of the glass transition (MCT). Asymptotic analyses show good agreement for the collective dynamics when polydispersity effects are taken into account in a multi-component calculation, but qualitative disagreement at small $q$ when the system is treated as effectively monodisperse. The origin of the different small-$q$ behaviour is attributed to the interplay between interdiffusion processes and structural relaxation. Numerical solutions of the MCT equations are obtained taking properly binned partial static structure factors from the simulations as input. Accounting for a shift in the critical density, the collective density correlation functions are well described by the theory at all densities investigated in the simulations, with quantitative agreement best around the maxima of the static structure factor, and worst around its minima. A parameter-free comparison of the tagged-particle dynamics however reveals large quantiative errors for small wave numbers that are connected to the well-known decoupling of self-diffusion from structural relaxation and to dynamical heterogeneities. While deviations from MCT behaviour are clearly seen in the tagged-particle quantities for densities close to and on the liquid side of the MCT glass transition, no such deviations are seen in the collective dynamics.

F. Weysser; A. M. Puertas; M. Fuchs; Th. Voigtmann

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

BAYESIAN CONFIDENCE LIMITS OF ELECTRON SPECTRA OBTAINED THROUGH REGULARIZED INVERSION OF SOLAR HARD X-RAY SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many astrophysical observations are characterized by a single, non-repeatable measurement of a source brightness or intensity, from which we are to construct estimates for the true intensity and its uncertainty. For example, the hard X-ray count spectrum from transient events such as solar flares can be observed only once, and from this single spectrum one must determine the best estimate of the underlying source spectrum I({epsilon}), and hence the form of the responsible electron spectrum F(E). Including statistical uncertainties on the measured count spectrum yields a 'confidence strip' that delineates the boundaries of electron spectra that are consistent with the observed photon spectrum. In this short article, we point out that the expectation values of the source brightness and its variance in a given photon energy bin are in general not (as has been assumed in prior works) equal to n, the number of counts observed in that energy bin. Rather, they depend both on n and on prior knowledge of the overall photon spectrum. Using Bayesian statistics, we provide an explicit procedure and formulas for determining the 'confidence strip' (Bayesian credible region) for F(E), thus providing rigorous bounds on the intensity and shape of the accelerated electron spectrum.

Emslie, A. Gordon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Massone, Anna Maria, E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu, E-mail: annamaria.massone@cnr.it [CNR-SPIN, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

467

Soft matter in hard confinement: phase transition thermodynamics, structure, texture, diffusion and flow in nanoporous media - topical review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial confinement in nanoporous media affects the structure, thermodynamics and mobility of molecular soft matter often markedly. This article reviews thermodynamic equilibrium phenomena, such as physisorption, capillary condensation, crystallisation, self-diffusion, and structural phase transitions as well as selected aspects of the emerging field of spatially confined, non-equilibrium physics, i.e. the rheology of liquids, capillarity-driven flow phenomena, and imbibition front broadening in nanoporous materials. The observations in the nanoscale systems are related to the corresponding bulk phenomenologies. The complexity of the confined molecular species is varied from simple building blocks, like noble gas atoms, normal alkanes and alcohols to liquid crystals, polymers, ionic liquids, proteins and water. Mostly, experiments with mesoporous solids of alumina, carbon, gold, silica, and silicon having pore diameters ranging from a few up to 50 nanometers are presented. The observed peculiarities of nanopo...

Huber, Patrick

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

P&RA CoP TE Mtg Attendees List _2014-12-23.xlsx  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

45 Roger Seitz SRNL 46 David Sevougian SNL Name AgencyCompany Affliation 47 Greg Shott NSTec 48 Linda Suttora DOE EM 49 John Tauxe Neptune 50 Candice Trummell DOE EM 51 David Ward...

469

Microsoft Word - P&RA CoP Techncial Exchange Final Agenda 2014...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Waste Landfill Performance Assessment Updates for New Waste Streams, Mr. Greg Shott (NSTec) 3:15 - 3:30 pm Break 3:30 - 4:30 pm Use of Probabilistic Performance Assessment in...

470

Drunken robber, tipsy cop: First passage times, mobile traps, and Hopf bifurcations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a random walk on a confined one-dimensional domain, we consider mean first passage times (MFPT) in the presence of a mobile trap. The question we address is whether a mobile trap can improve capture times over a stationary trap. We consider two scenarios: a randomly moving trap and an oscillating trap. In both cases, we find that a stationary trap actually performs better (in terms of reducing expected capture time) than a very slowly moving trap; however, a trap moving sufficiently fast performs better than a stationary trap. We explicitly compute the thresholds that separate the two regimes. In addition, we find a surprising relation between the oscillating trap problem and a moving-sink problem that describes reduced dynamics of a single spike in a certain regime of the Gray-Scott model. Namely, the above-mentioned threshold corresponds precisely to a Hopf bifurcation that induces oscillatory motion in the location of the spike. We use this correspondence to prove the uniqueness of the Hopf bifurcation.

Justin C. Tzou; Shuangquan Xie; Theodore Kolokolnikov

2014-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

471

* rFiLE COpY NBSIR 84-2816 L  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Director #12;ABSTRACT An absorption water chiller and an absorption heat pump were extensively tested under was more closely investigated employing the absorption heat pump. Key Words: Absorption heat pump Appendix .... . .... ...... .......... 15 PART II - TESTING OF THE ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP Introduction

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

472

Adsornftl 8~f^Ll* ORNL/CON-155 O173IS1o COp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Stirling Engine Thermodynamics N. C. J. Chen F. P. Griffin C. D. West OPERATED BY TAHP *MARTIN MARIETTA Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/CON-155 LINEAR HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF STIRLING ENGINE THERMODYNAMICS ................... 8 2.3 Integrated Energy Equations ......................... 11 2.4 Engine Performance Parameters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

473

Microsoft Word - PA CoP Charter 12-11-2013  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecemberInitiatives InitiativesShippingHow

474

P&RA CoP Webinars | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartment ofOil's Impact on OurSemprius ConfidentialandEnergySite &

475

Performance & Risk Assessment Community of Practice (P&RA CoP) | Department  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 TheSteven AshbyDepartment ofGE's Manual Chaptertheand Impactof

476

COPs OF R718 IN COMPARISION WITH OTHER MODERN REFRIGERANTS A.Kilicarslan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condenser and evaporator, and polytropic efficiency are also investigated. It is shown that for evaporator of polytropic efficiency INTRODUCTION Water as a refrigerant is one of the oldest refrigerants being used and chemical properties. Beside these advantages, there are technical challenges that result from its high

Müller, Norbert

477

Cops, councils and crime and disorder : a critical review of three community safety partnerships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Indeed, a narrower focus on crime and disorder could result in the "emergence of double standards, whereby people are protected from attack by others, whilst choking on polluted air" (Wiles and Pease, 2000: 21). This conceptualisation of community... , 'community governance' and the polycentric state? ........ ............. 75 3.3 The wider partnership context: Late modernity and the future of crime control...

Skinns, Layla

2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

478

Performance & Risk Assessment Community of Practice (P&RA CoP...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

an enduring data and modeling resource to minimize duplication of effort across DOE and train future generation of PA professionals In late 2013, the group was broadened as P&RA...

479

P&RA CoP TE Mtg Attendees List _2014-12-23.xlsx  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAXBalanced ScorecardReactorBatteries for Advanced P - . . - - 4 v - r REQUEST

480

Biosketches of Speakers - P&RA CoP December 2014 Technical Exchange Meeting  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power Systems EngineeringDepartment of4 Federal6 AuditWarrenBestEnergy2008:Resources|

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481

Performance & Risk Assessment Community of Practice (P&RA CoP) Technical  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartment ofOil's ImpactAppendix Al StatementChallenges |

482

Chu at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energyon ArmedWaste andAccessCO2 Injection Begins8:Energy Chu Issues Call to ActionChu at

483

Overview of the COPS Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics (ACM) Subgroup Activities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 The 2002Optics GroupPlanning Workshop Overview ofOverview of

484

Microsoft PowerPoint - loehnert_breakout_cops.ppt [Kompatibilitätsmodus]  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping RichlandScattering PropertiesTechnique for StudyingResults-UC

485

Upcoming P&RA CoP Activities | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' Research Petroleum ReserveDepartment ofEnergy, OfficeDepartmentofThe4Department

486

Microsoft Word - Biosketches_P&RA CoP 2014-12-11  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAX POLICIES7.pdfFuel2007NavalMelvinMonday, December 1, U.S. Department of58

487

Microsoft PowerPoint - PA CoP Presentation October 2014  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG | DepartmentEnergyMagna:MasterOffice of Groundwater and SoilSiteSite

488

Microsoft Word - 2013-12-12 P&RA CoP Webinar_121113  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG | DepartmentEnergyMagna:MasterOffice of Groundwater T I AREPORT

489

Microsoft Word - 2013-12-12 P&RA CoP Webinar_121113  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG | DepartmentEnergyMagna:MasterOffice of Groundwater T I AREPORTINTERAGENCY

490

Microsoft Word - 2014-06-03 P&RA CoP Webinar  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG | DepartmentEnergyMagna:MasterOffice of Groundwater T I AREPORTINTERAGENCY

491

Hardness of water.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This project is helpful to those people who live in the coastal based and they are suffering every year with problem of safe drinking water and not available throughout the year. It has given ideas, technology and economical way of solution for water crisis and its also solving problem of scare by use of different methods to development evelopment new water source in water scare area of Saurashtra and Kutch in Gujarat. Saurashtra land is containing of different types of minerals specially bauxite, calcite, fluoride so many mineral based industries are developed here and those who continuous nuous need this as raw materials and they used many mines and processes units. These minerals are creating problem to polluted ground water some are melting and increasing TDS more than 6000 mg/l and

Rahul Oza

492

High energy resolution hard X-ray and gamma-ray imagers using CdTe diode devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We developed CdTe double-sided strip detectors (DSDs or cross strip detectors) and evaluated their spectral and imaging performance for hard X-rays and gamma-rays. Though the double-sided strip configuration is suitable for imagers with a fine position resolution and a large detection area, CdTe diode DSDs with indium (In) anodes have yet to be realized due to the difficulty posed by the segmented In anodes. CdTe diode devices with aluminum (Al) anodes were recently established, followed by a CdTe device in which the Al anodes could be segmented into strips. We developed CdTe double-sided strip devices having Pt cathode strips and Al anode strips, and assembled prototype CdTe DSDs. These prototypes have a strip pitch of 400 micrometer. Signals from the strips are processed with analog ASICs (application specific integrated circuits). We have successfully performed gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy with a position resolution of 400 micrometer. Energy resolution of 1.8 keV (FWHM: full width at half maximum) was obtained at 59.54 keV. Moreover, the possibility of improved spectral performance by utilizing the energy information of both side strips was demonstrated. We designed and fabricated a new analog ASIC, VA32TA6, for the readout of semiconductor detectors, which is also suitable for DSDs. A new feature of the ASIC is its internal ADC function. We confirmed this function and good noise performance that reaches an equivalent noise charge of 110 e- under the condition of 3-4 pF input capacitance.

Shin Watanabe; Shin-nosuke Ishikawa; Hiroyuki Aono; Shin'ichiro Takeda; Hirokazu Odaka; Motohide Kokubun; Tadayuki Takahashi; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Hiroyasu Tajima; Mitsunobu Onishi; Yoshikatsu Kuroda

2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

493

Toward finding gravitational-wave signals from progenitors of short hard gamma-ray bursts and orphaned afterglows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With multiple observatories and missions being planned for detecting orphaned afterglows associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) we emphasize the importance of developing data analysis strategies for searching their possible counterpart signals in the data of gravitational wave (GW) detectors in the advanced detector era. This is especially attractive since short hard gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) may have compact binary coalescences involving neutron stars (CBCNSs) as their progenitors, which emit gravitational waves. Joint electromagnetic (EM) and GW observations of these objects will enrich our understanding of their beaming, energetics, galactic environment, and shed light on a host of other outstanding questions related to them. Here we recognize some of the astrophysical factors that determine what fraction of CBCNS sources can generate orphaned afterglows. Pipelines already exist that target the sky-position and time of occurrence of SGRBs, known from EM observations, to search for their counterparts in GW detector data. Modifying them to analyze extended periods of time in the GW data in the past of the afterglow detection, while targeting a single sky-position, can search for GWs from the common progenitor. We assess the improvement in GW detectability to be had from utilizing the sky-position information. We also propose a method for improving the detection efficiency of targeted searches of GW signals from the putative CBCNS sources of afterglows and short gamma ray bursts in the presence of errors in detector calibration or CBCNS waveform models used in the search. The improvement arises from searching in a wider patch of the sky even when the sky-position is known accurately from EM observations and utilizes the covariance of the errors in waveform parameters with those in the sky position.

Shaon Ghosh; Sukanta Bose

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

494

Structure-property relationship of nanocrystalline Pr{sub 2}Co{sub 14}B-based hard magnetic film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocrystalline Pr{sub 2}Co{sub 14}B-based films are deposited on two types of substrates at 600 deg. C by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. All samples are composed of a hard magnetic phase Pr{sub 2}Co{sub 14}B and a small amount of a soft magnetic phase Co{sub 3}B. The film sputtered on the thermally oxidized silicon wafer has a more dispersed distribution of Co{sub 3}B and a smaller average grain size of Pr{sub 2}Co{sub 14}B than that deposited on alumina substrates; therefore, the former film shows a stronger intergrain exchange coupling action (IECA) than the latter film. In addition, the coercivity (8.6 kOe) and ratio (0.68) of remanence to saturation magnetization of the film sputtered on thermally oxidized silicon wafers are considerably higher than those (0.4 kOe and 0.56) of the film deposited on alumina substrates. In the case of the film sputtered on alumina substrates, the size of most magnetic domains is comparable to the average grain size of magnetic phases, implying the occurrence of a weak IECA. However, in the case of the film sputtered on thermally oxidized silicon wafers, the size of most magnetic domains is considerably larger than the mean grain size of magnetic phases, indicating the occurrence of a strong IECA. The effect of the IECA on the coercivity of specimens is determined by analyzing the temperature dependence of coercivity in the framework of a nucleation model.

Zhang, W. Y.; Shima, H.; Takano, F.; Akinaga, H. [Nanodevice Innovation Researcher Center (NRIC), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Nimori, S. [Tsukuba Magnet Laboratory (TML), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Effect of tungsten addition on the toughness and hardness of Fe{sub 2}B in wear-resistant Fe-B-C cast alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of tungsten additions of 0%, 1.12%, 2.04%, and 3.17% (in wt.%) on the morphology, fracture toughness and micro-hardness of Fe{sub 2}B in Fe-B-C cast alloy were investigated. The results indicate that, with the increase of tungsten addition, the morphology and distribution of Fe{sub 2}B have no change and a new W-containing phase, except the (Fe, W){sub 2}B with a certain tungsten solution, does not form, and that the fracture toughness of Fe{sub 2}B increases first and then decreases, while the hardness increases first and then has a little change. Compared with the fracture toughness (3.8 MPa{center_dot}m{sup 1/2}) of Fe{sub 2}B without tungsten addition, the toughness at 2.04 wt.% tungsten can be improved by about above 80% and achieves about 6.9 MPa{center_dot}m{sup 1/2}, and variation characteristics of hardness and toughness of Fe{sub 2}B were also testified by viewing the indentation marks and cracks on the Fe{sub 2}B, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Poor toughness of Fe2B decreases obviously the wear resistance of the alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As W content increases, Fe2B's toughness increases first and then decreases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As W content increases, Fe2B's hardness first increases and then has little change. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toughness at 2.04 % W can be improved by above 80% more than that at 0% W.

Huang, Zhifu, E-mail: hzf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Xing, Jiandong; Lv, Liangliang

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

496

A comparison of the motile macrofaunal associates of two marine colonial species on a nearshore hard bank in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) defined cryptofauna as "the fauna that lives in coral substrates and certain of the fauna living on the surface of the substrates. " Other terms which may be applied to those species which bore into the rock include: "endolithic species, " "marine...A COMPARISON OF THE MOTILE MACROFAUNAL ASSOCIATES OF TWO MARINE COLONIAL SPECIES ON A NEARSHORE HARD SANK IN THE NORTHWESTERN GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by RANDY JAMES RUNNELS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial...

Runnels, Randy James

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Hubble diagrams of soft and hard radiation sources in the graviton background: to an apparent contradiction between supernova 1a and gamma-ray burst observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the sea of super-strong interacting gravitons, non-forehead collisions with gravitons deflect photons, and this deflection may differ for soft and hard radiations. As a result, the Hubble diagram would not be a universal function and it will have a different view for such sources as supernovae in visible light and gamma-ray bursts. Observations of these two kinds are compared here with the limit cases of the Hubble diagram.

Michael A. Ivanov

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

498

IS THE LATE NEAR-INFRARED BUMP IN SHORT-HARD GRB 130603B DUE TO THE LI-PACZYNSKI KILONOVA?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Short-hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely believed to be produced by the merger of two binary compact objects, specifically by two neutron stars or by a neutron star orbiting a black hole. According to the Li-Paczynski kilonova model, the merger would launch sub-relativistic ejecta and a near-infrared/optical transient would then occur, lasting up to days, which is powered by the radioactive decay of heavy elements synthesized in the ejecta. The detection of a late bump using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the near-infrared afterglow light curve of the short-hard GRB 130603B is indeed consistent with such a model. However, as shown in this Letter, the limited HST near-infrared light curve behavior can also be interpreted as the synchrotron radiation of the external shock driven by a wide mildly relativistic outflow. In such a scenario, the radio emission is expected to peak with a flux of ?100 ?Jy, which is detectable for current radio arrays. Hence, the radio afterglow data can provide complementary evidence on the nature of the bump in GRB 130603B. It is worth noting that good spectroscopy during the bump phase in short-hard bursts can test the validity of either model above, analogous to spectroscopy of broad-lined Type Ic supernova in long-soft GRBs.

Jin, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, Dong [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Wu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn [Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)] [Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

499

The Molecular Architecture for the Intermediate Filaments of Hard [alpha]-Keratin Based on the Superlattice Data Obtained from a Study ofMammals Using Synchrotron Fibre Diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High- and low-angle X-ray diffraction studies of hard {alpha}-keratin have been studied, and various models have been proposed over the last 70 years. Most of these studies have been confined to one or two forms of alpha keratin. This high- and low-angle synchrotron fibre diffraction study extends the study to cover all available data for all known forms of hard {alpha}-keratin including hairs, fingernails, hooves, horn, and quills from mammals, marsupials, and a monotreme, and it confirms that the model proposed is universally acceptable for all mammals. A complete Bragg analysis of the meridional diffraction patterns, including multiple-time exposures to verify any weak reflections, verified the existence of a superlattice consisting of two infinite lattices and three finite lattices. An analysis of the equatorial patterns establishes the radii of the oligomeric levels of dimers, tetramers, and intermediate filaments (IFs) together with the centre to centre distance for the IFs, thus confirming the proposed helices within helices molecular architecture for hard {alpha}-keratin. The results verify that the structure proposed by Feughelman and James meets the criteria for a valid {alpha}-keratin structure.

James, Veronica (ANU)

2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

500

On the reliability of nanoindentation hardness of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown on Si-wafer by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interest in applying thin films on Si-wafer substrate for microelectromechanical systems devices by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) has raised the demand on reliable mechanical property data of the films. This study aims to find a quick method for obtaining nanoindentation hardness of thin films on silicon with improved reliability. This is achieved by ensuring that the film hardness is determined under the condition that no plastic deformation occurs in the substrate. In the study, ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films having thickness varying from 10 to 600?nm were deposited on a single-side polished silicon wafer at 300?C. A sharp cube-corner indenter was used for the nanoindentation measurements. A thorough study on the Si-wafer reference revealed that at a specific contact depth of about 8?nm the wafer deformation in loading transferred from elastic to elasticplastic state. Furthermore, the occurrence of this transition was associated with a sharp increase of the power-law exponent, m, when the unloading data were fitted to a power-law relation. Since m is only slightly material dependent and should fall between 1.2 and 1.6 for different indenter geometry having elastic contact to common materials, it is proposed that the high m values are the results from the inelastic events during unloading. This inelasticity is linked to phase transformations during pressure releasing, a unique phenomenon widely observed in single crystal silicon. Therefore, it is concluded that m could be used to monitor the mechanical state of the Si substrate when the whole coating system is loaded. A suggested indentation depth range can then be assigned to each film thickness to provide guidelines for obtaining reliable property data. The results show good consistence for films thicker than 20?nm and the nanoindentation hardness is about 11?GPa independent of film thickness.

Liu, Xuwen, E-mail: xuwen.liu@aalto.fi; Haimi, Eero; Hannula, Simo-Pekka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Vuorimiehentie 2A, FI-00076 Espoo (Finland); Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tietotie 3, FI-02044 Espoo (Finland)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z