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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

IE  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

/ / / / / ORAU 89/J-178 IE Prepared by Oak Ridge Associated VERIFICATION Universities OF Prepared for the Division of 1983 AND 1984 REMEDIAL ACTIONS Facility and Site Decommissioning NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE I P rojets VICINITY PROPERTIES U.S. Department of Energy LEWISTON, NEW YORK I~~~| ~S. A. WICAL, M. R. LANDIS, and A. J. BOERNER I I I I I Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program l3*~~~~~~~ ~~~Energy/Environment Systems Division FINAL REPORT DECEMBER 1989 I VERIFICATION OF 1983 AND 1984 REMEDIAL ACTIONS NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE VICINITY PROPERTIES LEWISTON, NEW YORK 3~~ ~~~~~~1 ~Prepared by S.A. Wical, M.R. Landis, and A.J. Boerner Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program Energy/Environment Systems Division Oak Ridge Associated Universities Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117

2

P&RA CoP Webinars  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Topics of interest to the CoP have been identified with the help of the steering committee, and will be discussed in quarterly Webinars.

3

ARM - Field Campaign - COPS - Initiation of Convection and the  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsCOPS - Initiation of Convection and the Microphysical govCampaignsCOPS - Initiation of Convection and the Microphysical Properties of Clouds in Orographic Terrain Campaign Links AMF Black Forest Deployment Related Campaigns COPS - AOS Intercomparison 2007.08.09, Jefferson, AMF COPS - ADMIRARI at Black Forest 2007.07.30, Battaglia, AMF COPS - University of Cologne Micromet Station 2007.07.23, Schween, AMF COPS - Cloud Microwave Validation Experiment in Support of CLOWD 2007.06.22, Vogelmann, AMF COPS - WILI Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar at Black Forest 2007.05.10, Althausen, AMF COPS - Multi Wavelength Raman Lidar (MWL) at Black Forest 2007.05.10, Althausen, AMF COPS - 35.5 GHz Cloud Radar Comparison at Black Forest 2007.05.01, Handwerker, AMF COPS - HATPRO at Black Forest 2007.04.01, Crewell, AMF COPS - Micro-Rain Radar at Black Forest

4

IES version 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

IES version 2013 Tax Deduction Qualified Software calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

5

COP5621 Project Phase 4 Code Generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COP5621 Project Phase 4 Code Generator Purpose: This project is intended to give you experience in the text and in class. Project Summary: Your task is to write a code generator, the final phase of your the same task. Predefined Functions in PASC: You should write your own predefined procedures and functions

Yuan, Xin

6

Cop$c Language Guy Halawi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are they? · Copts are an Egyp$an Chris$an group · Largest Chris$an group' is adapta$on of the Greek word "" (Egyp$an) #12;Copts - Popula$on · Total popula of the Egyp$an Arabic · Cop$c word in other languages: Hebrew) - crocodile

Dershowitz, Nachum

7

Event:COP 18 Side Event | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

COP 18 Side Event COP 18 Side Event Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png COP 18 Side Event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions Development: on 2012/11/30 At the U.S. Center in Doha, Qatar, during the UNFCCC's eighteenth Conference of the Parties (COP 18) from 26 November - 7 December, the LEDS Global Partnership will host a side event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions Development. Event Details Name COP 18 Side Event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions Development Date 2012/11/30 Location Doha, Qatar Organizer LEDS Global Partnership Tags LEDS, CLEAN, Training Website Event Website Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Event:COP_18_Side_Event&oldid=538797"

8

COPS AND INVISIBLE ROBBERS: THE COST OF DRUNKENNESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPS AND INVISIBLE ROBBERS: THE COST OF DRUNKENNESS ATHANASIOS KEHAGIAS, DIETER MITSCHE, AND PAWEL PRALAT Abstract. We examine a version of the Cops and Robber (CR) game in which the robber is invisible goal in this paper is to study the invisible Cost of Drunkenness (iCOD), which is defined as the ratio

Pralat, Pawel

9

Chu at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu addresses the U.S. Center in Cancun on the need to build a sustainable energy future as part of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP-16. In his...

10

COP 18 Side Event Agenda | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

COP 18 Side Event Agenda COP 18 Side Event Agenda Jump to: navigation, search LEDSGP Logo.png Advancing climate-resilient low emission development around the world Home About Tools Expert Assistance Events Publications Join Us COP18 Side Event Announcement Agenda Speakers Agenda LEDSGPSideEvent Agenda.pdf Powered by OpenEI ledsgp.org is built on the same platform as the popular Wikipedia site. Like Wikipedia, it is a "wiki" or website developed collaboratively by a community of users. Thanks to our unique relationship with OpenEI.org, you can add or edit most content on ledsgp.org. For more information about this unique collaboration, contact us. View or edit this page on OpenEI.org. Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=COP_18_Side_Event_Agenda&oldid=588616"

11

Event:COP17 Knowledge Broker Reception | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

COP17 Knowledge Broker Reception COP17 Knowledge Broker Reception Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png COP17 Knowledge Broker Reception: 18.00-20.00 on 2011/12/05 An informal get together for Climate Knowledge Brokers attending COP. It's on the patio at the Oasis Centre. Join us for drinks and snacks. Oasis is only 10 minutes' walk from the conference centre and is on the No 3 bus route towards North Beach. Event Details Name COP17 Knowledge Broker Reception Date 2011/12/05 Time 18.00-20.00 Location Oasis Centre, 44 K.E. Masinga Road (44 Old Fort Road) Organizer Lisa McNamara (CDKN) Lisa.McNamara@cdkn.org Tags Climate Knowledge Broker Website Event Website Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Event:COP17_Knowledge_Broker_Reception&oldid=391869

12

COP 18 Side Event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions Event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions Development Jump to: navigation, search LEDSGP Logo.png Advancing climate-resilient low emission development around the world Home About Tools Expert Assistance Events Publications Join Us COP18 Side Event Announcement Agenda Speakers COP 18 Side Event - Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions Development 30 November 2012 Doha, Qatar, U.S. Center On 30 November 2012 at the U.S. Center in Doha, Qatar, during the UNFCCC's eighteenth Conference of the Parties (COP 18) from 26 November - 7 December, the LEDS Global Partnership will host a side event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions Development. The event is an initiative of the LEDS Global Partnership (http://openei.org/wiki/LEDSGP), founded to advance low emissions

13

EER, COP, and the second law efficiency for air conditioners  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is pointed out that there is a close relationship between the energy efficiency ratio (EER) of an air conditioner unit and the coefficient of performance (COP) of its refrigeration cycle. This connection helps to bridge the gap between pure thermodynamics and practical energy?related problems. In this spirit two other efficiency parameters the total COP and total EER measured relative to the energy extracted by a primary energy source (e.g. a fossil fuel) are defined. A comparison of the actual total COP (or total EER) relative to its maximum allowed value consistent with the second law of thermodynamics leads to an estimate for air conditioners of the recently proposed s e c o n d l a w e f f i c i e n c y.

Harvey S. Leff; William D. Teeters

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

IES version 6.1  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On this page you'll find information about the IES version 6.1 qualified computer software (buildings.energy.gov/qualified_software.html), which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

15

IES version 6.3  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On this page you'll find information about the IES version 6.3 qualified computer software (buildings.energy.gov/qualified_software.html), which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

16

Sugar++: A SAT-Based MAX-CSP/COP Solver Tomoya Tanjo1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sugar++: A SAT-Based MAX-CSP/COP Solver Tomoya Tanjo1 , Naoyuki Tamura2 , and Mutsunori Banbara2 1 describes some features of Sugar++, a SAT-based MAX- CSP/COP solver entering the Third International CSP Solver Competition. In our approach, a MAX-CSP is translated into a Constraint Optimization Problem (COP

Banbara, Mutsunori

17

*** Draft: do not cite or distribute -COP7 Bioenergy Document: October 18, 2001 *** Address Correspondence to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

*** Draft: do not cite or distribute - COP7 Bioenergy Document: October 18, 2001 *** Address;*** Draft: do not cite or distribute - COP7 Bioenergy Document: October 18, 2001 *** 10/23/01 Page 2 of 111 omasera@ate.oikos.unam.mx #12;*** Draft: do not cite or distribute - COP7 Bioenergy Document: October 18

Kammen, Daniel M.

18

COP 18 Side Event General Information | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » COP 18 Side Event General Information Jump to: navigation, search LEDSGP Logo.png Advancing climate-resilient low emission development around the world Home About Tools Expert Assistance Events Publications Join Us COP18 Side Event Announcement Agenda Speakers General Information LEDSGPDoha - Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions Development.pdf Powered by OpenEI ledsgp.org is built on the same platform as the popular Wikipedia site. Like Wikipedia, it is a "wiki" or website developed collaboratively by a community of users. Thanks to our unique relationship with OpenEI.org, you

19

Mechanisms initiating deep convection over complex terrain during COPS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Precipitating convection in a mountain region of moderate topography is investigated, with particular emphasis on its initiation in response to boundary-layer and mid- and upper-tropospheric forcing mechanisms. The data used in the study are from COPS (Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study) that took place in southwestern Germany and eastern France in the summer of 2007. It is found that the initiation of precipitating convection can be roughly classified as being due to either: (i) surface heating and low-level flow convergence; (ii) surface heating and moisture supply overcoming convective inhibition during latent and/or potential instability; or (iii) mid-tropospheric dynamical processes due to mesoscale convergence lines and forced mean vertical motion. These phenomena have to be adequately represented in models in order to improve quantitative precipitation forecast. Selected COPS cases are analyzed and classified into these initiation categories. Although only a subset of COPS data (mainly radiosondes, surface weather stations, radar and satellite data) are used here, it is shown that convective systems are captured in considerable detail by sensor synergy. Convergence lines were observed by Doppler radar in the location where deep convection is triggered several hours later. The results suggest that in many situations, observations of the location and timing of convergence lines will facilitate the nowcasting of convection. Further on, forecasting of the initiation of convection is significantly complicated if advection of potentially convective air masses over changing terrain features plays a major role. The passage of a frontal structure over the Vosges - Rhine valley - Black Forest orography was accompanied by an intermediate suppression of convection over the wide Rhine valley. Further downstream, an intensification of convection was observed over the Black Forest due to differential surface heating, a convergence line, and the flow generated by a gust front.

Kottmeier, C.; Kalthoff, N.; Barthlott, C.; Corsmeier, U.; Van Baelen, J.; Coulter, R.; Environmental Science Division; Inst. for Meteorology and Climate Research; Lab. de Meteorologie Physique; Inst. of Physics and Meteorology

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

List of Topics for Interagency Performance & Risk Assessment Community of Practice (P&RA CoP) Discussion  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

List of Topics for Interagency Performance & Risk Assessment Community of Practice (P&RA CoP) Discussion

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Microsoft PowerPoint - 090402_cops_backup.pptx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Goal: Goal: Advance the quality of forecasts of orographically-induced convective precipitation by 4D observations and modeling of its life cycle precipitation by 4D observations and modeling of its life cycle Volker Wulfmeyer Institute of Physics and Meteorology (IPM) f y gy ( ) University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany and the COPS International Science Steering Committee Motivation and strategy Set up and performance Set up and performance First highlights Ongoing and future projects Wulfmeyer et al., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 89(10), 1477-1486, 2008, Ongoing and future projects 1 April 2, 2009 19 th Annual ARM Science Team Meeting, Louisville, USA DOI:10.1175/2008BAMS2367.1. The Importance of Orography for Weather d Cli t R h and Climate Research Global population density 1995 1 k h i t l E

22

COP 18 Side Event Biography | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Event Biography Event Biography Jump to: navigation, search LEDSGP Logo.png Advancing climate-resilient low emission development around the world Home About Tools Expert Assistance Events Publications Join Us COP18 Side Event Announcement Agenda Speakers Speakers Ron Benioff serves as Manager of Multilateral Programs for the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In this capacity he manages NREL's work on clean energy and environmental and climate initiatives with international agencies and countries in all regions of the world. This includes serving as director of the LEDS Global Partnership Secretariat and of the Green Growth Best Practices Initiative and providing senior management leadership of the Clean Energy Solutions Center, a Clean Energy Ministerial initiative.

23

http://www.ied.ethz.ch/pub/index 1 IED Publications List 2007-11-20  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

http://www.ied.ethz.ch/pub/index 1 IED Publications List 2007-11-20 Working Papers ............................................................................................................................................................... 13 Working Papers Schubert, R., Blasch, J., Hoffmann, K. Environmental Protection, Energy Policy and Poverty Reduction ­ Syn- ergies of an Integrated Approach. IED Working Paper No. 1, http://www.ied.ethz.ch/pub/pdf/IED

Fischlin, Andreas

24

Ormesa IE Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ormesa IE Geothermal Facility Ormesa IE Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Ormesa IE Geothermal Facility General Information Name Ormesa IE Geothermal Facility Facility Ormesa IE Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Address 3300 East Evan Hewes Highway Location Holtville, California Zip 92250 Coordinates 32.804103492985°, -115.2475476265° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.804103492985,"lon":-115.2475476265,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

25

Chu at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future Chu at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future December 7, 2010 - 11:16pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Yesterday, Secretary Chu addressed the U.S. Center in Cancun, Mexico, as part of the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP-16) that has been taking place there over the past week. His speech focused the essential role that international collaborations must play in finding new solutions to energy and climate challenges, solutions that will benefit us all. You can view the Secretary's remarks in full below: John Schueler is a New Media Specialist with the Office of Public Affairs. Addthis Related Articles Secretary Chu to Attend U.N. Climate Change Conference in Cancun

26

Chu at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Chu at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future Chu at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future Chu at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future December 7, 2010 - 11:16pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Yesterday, Secretary Chu addressed the U.S. Center in Cancun, Mexico, as part of the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP-16) that has been taking place there over the past week. His speech focused the essential role that international collaborations must play in finding new solutions to energy and climate challenges, solutions that will benefit us all. You can view the Secretary's remarks in full below: John Schueler is a New Media Specialist with the Office of Public Affairs. Addthis Related Articles Secretary Chu to Attend U.N. Climate Change Conference in Cancun

27

IEDWorking Paper 7 IED Institute for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 #12;Zabel & Roe ­ Performance payments for environmental services 2 IED Working Paper 7 Abstract of Agricultural, Environmental and Development Economics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA Abstract.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 2 Previous work

Fischlin, Andreas

28

http://www.ied.ethz.ch/pub/index 1 IED Publications List 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

http://www.ied.ethz.ch/pub/index 1 IED Publications List 2009 Working Papers.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Working Papers El Benni, N. Geographical Indications: Discussion and Negotiations about Protection. The Complexities of Decentralization in a Globalizing World, IED Working Paper (Vol. 8). Zurich: ETH, Institute

Fischlin, Andreas

29

Engineering Economy Outline IE 305-Part 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rates A fundamental activity of engineering economics is the analysis of the value of a series of cash economic equivalence. Stephen B. Vardeman (ISU) Engineering Economy Outline Fall 2013 7 / 53 #12;ConstantEngineering Economy Outline IE 305-Part 1 Stephen B. Vardeman ISU Fall 2013 Stephen B. Vardeman

Vardeman, Stephen B.

30

IE 361 Mini Paper Dr. Vardeman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

certificate that identifies your quality system as being in compliance with ISO 9001, 9002, or 9003. YourIE 361 Mini Paper Fall 2000 ISO 9000 Dr. Vardeman Conducted by: Wempie Kumala Vera Oh Ai-Sze Chiam 9-22-00 #12;Introduction ISO is sometimes referred to as International Organization

Vardeman, Stephen B.

31

Coefficient of performance (COP) analysis of geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs): Salihli GDHS case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this survey is about to analyze the heating coefficient of performance (COP) of geothermal district heating systems. Actual system data are taken from the Salihli GDHS, Turkey. The collected data are quantified and illustrated in tables, particularly for a reference temperature for comparison purposes. In this study, firstly energy and COP analysis of the \\{GDHSs\\} is introduced and then Salihli GDHS coefficient of performance results is given as a case study. Moreover, this paper offers an interesting empirical study of certain geothermal systems.

Leyla Ozgener

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

The .HonorabIe Wdliam S. Cohen  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

NY&~ ' NY&~ ' .. f % ' ,a. ' - _ The Secretary of Energy Washington. bC 20585 ' . *-. .October 10, 1997 ' , :- * The .HonorabIe Wdliam S. Cohen : Secretary ofDefense Washington, D.C. 203Oi *' , ' ~. , :. . &karMr.Secietaty: . ,. . . , The Congress recently sebt to the President for signature the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act,' 1998. Among other provisions, this bill would immediately transfer responsibility for' the Formerly ' Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) from the Department of Energy to the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Assuming that this transfer becomes law, but without prejudging the President' s decision, the Department of Energy will work with the Corps to ensure a prompt and smooth transition, consistent with the wishes of the

33

Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment, September 2002 Integrated Energy Systems (IES) combine on-site power or distributed generation technologies with thermally...

34

Biochemical evidence for ubiquitin ligase activity of the Arabidopsis COP1 interacting protein 8 (CIP8)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(CIP8) Christian S. Hardtke1,2 , Haruko Okamoto1,² , Chatanika Stoop-Myer1,³ and Xing Wang Deng1, * 1 in the absence of light. COP1 and its interactive partner CIP8 both possess RING ®nger motifs, characteristic of some E3 ubiquitin ligases. Here we show that CIP8 promotes ubiquitin attachment to HY5 in E2-dependent

Deng, Xing-Wang

35

Detection Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Emplacement Using Infrared Image  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a method to detect an improvised explosive device (IED) by using infrared thermography (IRT) technology. The detection of IED will be done automatically and accurately even the IED detection expert is not present. Combining the advantage ... Keywords: infrared imaging, improvised explosive device, image segmentation

Kamarul Hawari Ghazali, Mohd Shawal Jadin

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Microsoft PowerPoint - PA CoP Status and plans.pptx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Practice Status and Plans Performance Assessment Community of Practice Technical Exchange May 25, 2011 Martin J Letourneau DOE Office of Environmental Compliance 5/25/2011 Print Close 2 History and Background * Originally envisioned and established in 2008 under DOE HLW Corporate Board * Very DOE and EM oriented * Sponsored 2 technical exchange meetings (Salt Lake and Richland) * Went dormant when HLW Corporate Board was on hiatus * Corporate Board Shifted to Office of Environmental Compliance * Identified opportunity to make PA CoP broader and free- standing 5/25/2011 Print Close 3 Initial Steering Committee Meeting * Met Monday to develop path forward and work on charter - Alaa aly, Intera

37

Session: Hard Rock Penetration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Memory Hard Drive Peripherals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1! CSI3131 Topics CPU Memory Hard Drive Peripherals Computing Systems OS Overview StructureDeadlocks M em ory M anagem ent Basic Memory Managermtn Virtual Memory Storage and I/O File Systems Hard Drive Management Swap I/O Management 2 Module 7: Memory Management Reading: Chapter 8 § To provide a detailed

Stojmenovic, Ivan

39

Molecular Cloning of a Novel Importin Homologue from Rice, by Which Constitutive Photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) Nuclear  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-8602, Japan, the ¶Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Chiba 270-1194, Japan, the Department-8104, and the ¶¶Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ochanomizu University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan Nuclear (COP1) Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS)-Protein Is Preferentially Nuclear Imported* Received

Deng, Xing-Wang

40

The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS): The Scientific Strategy, the Field Phase, and Research Highlights  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the frame of the international field campaign COPS (Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study), a large suite of state-of-the-art meteorological instrumentation was operated, partially combined for the first time. The COPS field phase was performed from 01 June - 31 August 2007 in a low-mountain area in southwestern Germany/eastern France covering the Vosges Mountains, the Rhine valley and the Black Forest Mountains. The collected data set covers the entire evolution of convective precipitation events in complex terrain from their initiation, to their development and mature phase up to their decay. 18 Intensive Operation Periods (IOPs) with 34 operation days and 8 additional Special Observation Periods (SOPs) were performed providing a comprehensive data set covering different forcing conditions. In this paper an overview of the COPS scientific strategy, the field phase, and its first accomplishments is given. Some highlights of the campaign are illustrated with several measurement examples. It is demonstrated that COPS provided new insight in key processes leading to convection initiation and to the modification of precipitation by orography, in the improvement of QPF by the assimilation of new observations, and in the performance of ensembles of convection permitting models in complex terrain.

Wulfmeyer, Volker; Behrendt, Andreas; Kottmeir, Christoph; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Barthlott, Christian; Craig, George C.; Hagen, Martin; Althausen, Dietrich; Aoshima, Fumiko; Arpagaus, Marco; Bauer, Hans-Stefan; Bennett, Lindsay; Blyth, Alan; Brandau, Christine; Champollion, Cedric; Crewell, Susanne; Dick, Galina; di Girolamo, Paolo; Dorninger, Manfred; Dufournet, Yann; Eigenmann, Rafael; Engelmann, Ronny; Flamant, C.; Foken, Thomas; Gorgas, Theresa; Grzeschik, Matthias; Handwerker, Jan; Hauck, Christian; Holler, Hartmut; Junkermann, W.; Kalthoff, Norbert; Kiemle, Christoph; Klink, Stefan; Konig, Marianne; Krauss, Liane; Long, Charles N.; Madonna, Fabio; Mobbs, S.; Neininger, Bruno; Pal, Sandip; Peters, Gerhard; Pigeon, Gregoire; Richard, Evelyne; Rotach, Mathias W.; Russchenberg, Herman; Schwitalla, Thomas; Smith, Victoria; Steinacker, Reinhold; Trentman, Jorg; Turner, David D.; van Baelen, Joel; Vogt, Siegfried; Volkert, Hans; Weckwerth, Tammy; Wernli, Heini; Wieser, Andreas; Wirth, Martin

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Energy optimization in ice hockey halls I. The system COP as a multivariable function, brine and design choices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work is the first of a series of articles addressing the energy optimization in ice hockey halls. Here we outline an analytic method to predict in which design and operating conditions the COP of the entire cooling system (refrigerator and cooling tower) ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is maximum. ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is investigated as a function of several variables, like electric consumption and brine physical properties. With this method, the best configuration and brine choices for the system can therefore be determined in advance. We estimate the optimal design of an average-sized ice rink, including pipe diameter, depth and brine type (ethylene glycol and ammonia). We also single out an optimal brine density and show the impact of the electric consumption of the pump on ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$. Our theoretical predictions are validated with heat flow measurement data obtained at an ice hockey hall in Finland. They are also confronted with technical and cost-related constraints, and implemented by simulations with the pr...

Ferrantelli, Andrea; Rikknen, Miska; Viljanen, Martti

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: IES Virtual Environment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IES Virtual Environment IES Virtual Environment IES Virtual Environment Logo The IES Virtual Environment (IESVE) is a powerful, in-depth suite of building performance analysis tools. It allows the design and operation of comfortable buildings that consume significantly less energy. Whether working on a new build or renovation project, the VE allows designers to test different options, identify best passive solutions, compare low-carbon & renewable technologies, and draw conclusions on energy use, CO2 emissions, occupant comfort, and much more. There are various tools in the suite; each designed to provide sustainable analysis at levels suitable for different design team members and design stages. All utilise our Apache dynamic thermal simulation engine, and an integrated central data model, which has direct links to SketchUp™,

43

Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated Energy Systems (IES) combine on-site power or distributed generation technologies with thermally activated technologies to provide cooling, heating, humidity control, energy storage and/or other process functions using thermal energy normally wasted in the production of electricity/power. IES produce electricity and byproduct thermal energy onsite, with the potential of converting 80 percent or more of the fuel into useable energy. IES have the potential to offer the nation the benefits of unprecedented energy efficiency gains, consumer choice and energy security. It may also dramatically reduce industrial and commercial building sector carbon and air pollutant emissions and increase source energy efficiency. Applications of distributed energy and Combined heat and power (CHP) in ''Commercial and Institutional Buildings'' have, however, been historically limited due to insufficient use of byproduct thermal energy, particularly during summer months when heating is at a minimum. In recent years, custom engineered systems have evolved incorporating potentially high-value services from Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) like cooling and humidity control. Such TAT equipment can be integrated into a CHP system to utilize the byproduct heat output effectively to provide absorption cooling or desiccant humidity control for the building during these summer months. IES can therefore expand the potential thermal energy services and thereby extend the conventional CHP market into building sector applications that could not be economically served by CHP alone. Now more than ever, these combined cooling, heating and humidity control systems (IES) can potentially decrease carbon and air pollutant emissions, while improving source energy efficiency in the buildings sector. Even with these improvements over conventional CHP systems, IES face significant technological and economic hurdles. Of crucial importance to the success of IES is the ability to treat the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, water heating, lighting, and power systems loads as parts of an integrated system, serving the majority of these loads either directly or indirectly from the CHP output. The CHP Technology Roadmaps (Buildings and Industry) have focused research and development on a comprehensive integration approach: component integration, equipment integration, packaged and modular system development, system integration with the grid, and system integration with building and process loads. This marked change in technology research and development has led to the creation of a new acronym to better reflect the nature of development in this important area of energy efficiency: Integrated Energy Systems (IES). Throughout this report, the terms ''CHP'' and ''IES'' will sometimes be used interchangeably, with CHP generally reserved for the electricity and heat generating technology subsystem portion of an IES. The focus of this study is to examine the potential for IES in buildings when the system perspective is taken, and the IES is employed as a dynamic system, not just as conventional CHP. This effort is designed to determine market potential by analyzing IES performance on an hour-by-hour basis, examining the full range of building types, their loads and timing, and assessing how these loads can be technically and economically met by IES.

LeMar, P.

2002-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

44

Microsoft Word - ieRoadmap Workshop_FINAL.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

First-ever ieRoadmap Workshop Reviews Progress in Achieving Roadmap Goals First-ever ieRoadmap Workshop Reviews Progress in Achieving Roadmap Goals On May 28-29, 2008, the first ieRoadmap Workshop was held to assist the energy sector in assessing alignment of current industry projects with the goals outlined in the Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector. Held in Chicago, Illinois, the workshop was sponsored by the Energy Sector Control Systems Working Group (ESCSWG), made up of private sector and government leaders working to facilitate and guide the implementation of the Roadmap Approximately 50 participants, including asset owners, project leaders, vendors, researchers, and program managers, attended the two-day workshop. Project leads from 25 industry projects focusing on securing energy control systems presented their research

45

Technosocial Modeling of IED Threat Scenarios and Attacks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes an approach for integrating sociological and technical models to develop more complete threat assessment. Current approaches to analyzing and addressing threats tend to focus on the technical factors. This paper addresses development of predictive models that encompass behavioral as well as these technical factors. Using improvised explosive device (IED) attacks as motivation, this model supports identification of intervention activities 'left of boom' as well as prioritizing attack modalities. We show how Bayes nets integrate social factors associated with IED attacks into general threat model containing technical and organizational steps from planning through obtaining the IED to initiation of the attack. The social models are computationally-based representations of relevant social science literature that describes human decision making and physical factors. When combined with technical models, the resulting model provides improved knowledge integration into threat assessment for monitoring. This paper discusses the construction of IED threat scenarios, integration of diverse factors into an analytical framework for threat assessment, indicator identification for future threats, and future research directions.

Whitney, Paul D.; Brothers, Alan J.; Coles, Garill A.; Young, Jonathan; Wolf, Katherine E.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Niesen, David A.; Madsen, John M.; Henderson, Cynthia L.

2009-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

46

IE 361 Module 15 The Average Run Length Concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IE 361 Module 15 The Average Run Length Concept Reading: Section 3.5 of Statistical Quality Assurance Methods for Engineers Prof. Steve Vardeman and Prof. Max Morris Iowa State University Vardeman Electric set of alarm rules to a control charting scheme? The most e¤ective means known for making

Vardeman, Stephen B.

47

IE 361 Module 14 Patterns on Control Charts and "Special  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Vardeman and Max D. Morris Reading: Section 3.4, Statistical Quality Assurance Methods for Engineers 1 #12IE 361 Module 14 Patterns on Control Charts and "Special Checks"/Extra Alarm Rules Prof.s Stephen B introduction of new equipment or a clear change in the quality of a raw material can produce such a sudden

Vardeman, Stephen B.

48

7-46E The COP and the refrigeration rate of an ice machine are given. The power consumption is to be determined.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

25°F Analysis The cooling load of this ice machine is #12; #12; Btu/h4732Btu/lbm169lbm/h28LL qm7-15 7-46E The COP and the refrigeration rate of an ice machine are given. The power consumption is to be determined. Assumptions The ice machine operates steadily. Ice Machine Outdoors R COP = 2.4 QL water 55°F ice

Bahrami, Majid

49

7-117 The claim of a heat pump designer regarding the COP of the heat pump is to be evaluated. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7-47 7-117 The claim of a heat pump designer regarding the COP of the heat pump is to be evaluated. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily. HP Wnet,in QH QL TL TH Analysis The maximum heat pump coefficient of performance would occur if the heat pump were completely reversible, 5.7 K026K300 K300 COP maxHP, LH H TT

Bahrami, Majid

50

Melting of hard cubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The melting transition of a system of hard cubes is studied numerically both in the case of freely rotating cubes and when there is a fixed orientation of the particles: parallel cubes. It is shown that freely rotating cubes melt through a first-order transition, whereas parallel cubes have a continuous transition in which positional order is lost but bond-orientational order remains finite. This is interpreted in terms of a defect-mediated theory of melting.

E. A. Jagla

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Hard boiling eggs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hard boiling eggs Hard boiling eggs Name: Sandburg J High Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: We have been studying chemical and physical changes in 6th grade science class and we were wondering whether hard boiling an egg would be a chemical or a physical change? Thanks for a reply! Replies: You decide. Here's what's going on: the proteins in the fresh egg are in the shape of tight little balls. When you boil the egg, these proteins unravel ("denature"), like balls of yarn unraveling into loose skeins. The strands of protein then get all tangled up with one another, so much so that they are locked in place and can no longer move. They also lock into place the other liquid components of the egg, forming all together what's called a "gel" instead of the liquid you started off with. The gel acts like a soft, rubbery solid because of the network of protein strands holding it all together. It's certainly true that when the protein denatures some chemical bonds are broken, but the most important effect is the tangling up process.

52

SUPER HARD SURFACED POLYMERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.

Mansur, Louis K [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhattacharya, R [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL] [ORNL; Clemons, Art [ORNL] [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, H B [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL] [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, E H [Consultant, Milpitas, CA] [Consultant, Milpitas, CA; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL] [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL] [ORNL; Rivard, John D [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Hard metal composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

Sheinberg, H.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

54

Hard metal composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Hard physics in PHENIX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review recent results on hard observables in p+p, d+A and A+A collisions obtained by the PHENIX experiment. Emphasis is put on those measurements that provide insight into the properties of hot QCD media expected to be created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC energies. Direct photon spectra, jet properties and heavy quarks production measured in p+p and d+Au collisions are compared to the same observables extracted in heavy ion collisions to find modifications due to the presence of hot QCD matter.

D. Peressounko; for the PHENIX collaboration

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

56

How to estimate hardness of crystals on a pocket calculator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A generalization of the semiempirical microscopic model of hardness is presented and applied to currently studied borides, carbides, and nitrides of heavy transition metals. The hardness of OsB, OsC, OsN, PtN, RuC, RuB{sub 2}, ReB{sub 2}, OsB{sub 2}, IrN{sub 2}, PtN{sub 2}, and OsN{sub 2} crystals in various structural phases is predicted. It is found that none of the transition metal crystals is superhard, i.e., with hardness greater than 40 GPa. The presented method provides materials researchers with a practical tool in the search for new hard materials.

Simunek, Antonin [Institute of Physics v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53 Prague (Czech Republic)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Lightweight and Statistical Techniques for Petascale Debugging: Correctness on Petascale Systems (CoPS) Preliminry Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petascale platforms with O(10{sup 5}) and O(10{sup 6}) processing cores are driving advancements in a wide range of scientific disciplines. These large systems create unprecedented application development challenges. Scalable correctness tools are critical to shorten the time-to-solution on these systems. Currently, many DOE application developers use primitive manual debugging based on printf or traditional debuggers such as TotalView or DDT. This paradigm breaks down beyond a few thousand cores, yet bugs often arise above that scale. Programmers must reproduce problems in smaller runs to analyze them with traditional tools, or else perform repeated runs at scale using only primitive techniques. Even when traditional tools run at scale, the approach wastes substantial effort and computation cycles. Continued scientific progress demands new paradigms for debugging large-scale applications. The Correctness on Petascale Systems (CoPS) project is developing a revolutionary debugging scheme that will reduce the debugging problem to a scale that human developers can comprehend. The scheme can provide precise diagnoses of the root causes of failure, including suggestions of the location and the type of errors down to the level of code regions or even a single execution point. Our fundamentally new strategy combines and expands three relatively new complementary debugging approaches. The Stack Trace Analysis Tool (STAT), a 2011 R&D 100 Award Winner, identifies behavior equivalence classes in MPI jobs and highlights behavior when elements of the class demonstrate divergent behavior, often the first indicator of an error. The Cooperative Bug Isolation (CBI) project has developed statistical techniques for isolating programming errors in widely deployed code that we will adapt to large-scale parallel applications. Finally, we are developing a new approach to parallelizing expensive correctness analyses, such as analysis of memory usage in the Memgrind tool. In the first two years of the project, we have successfully extended STAT to determine the relative progress of different MPI processes. We have shown that the STAT, which is now included in the debugging tools distributed by Cray with their large-scale systems, substantially reduces the scale at which traditional debugging techniques are applied. We have extended CBI to large-scale systems and developed new compiler based analyses that reduce its instrumentation overhead. Our results demonstrate that CBI can identify the source of errors in large-scale applications. Finally, we have developed MPIecho, a new technique that will reduce the time required to perform key correctness analyses, such as the detection of writes to unallocated memory. Overall, our research results are the foundations for new debugging paradigms that will improve application scientist productivity by reducing the time to determine which package or module contains the root cause of a problem that arises at all scales of our high end systems. While we have made substantial progress in the first two years of CoPS research, significant work remains. While STAT provides scalable debugging assistance for incorrect application runs, we could apply its techniques to assertions in order to observe deviations from expected behavior. Further, we must continue to refine STAT's techniques to represent behavioral equivalence classes efficiently as we expect systems with millions of threads in the next year. We are exploring new CBI techniques that can assess the likelihood that execution deviations from past behavior are the source of erroneous execution. Finally, we must develop usable correctness analyses that apply the MPIecho parallelization strategy in order to locate coding errors. We expect to make substantial progress on these directions in the next year but anticipate that significant work will remain to provide usable, scalable debugging paradigms.

de Supinski, B R; Miller, B P; Liblit, B

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

58

Erosion of hard material coating systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of coating systems to protect structural metal surfaces from elevated temperature, small solid particle erosion and erosion-corrosion can extend component life and permit operation in more severe environments. The room and elevated temperature erosion behavior of several hard material coating systems, i.e. carbides, borides and nitrides, were determined over a range of test conditions. Particle velocities from 70 to 150 m s?1 and test temperatures from 25 to 540C were used. Mechanisms of erosion were established and related to erosion rates in a manner that defined the requirements of composition, morphology and defect levels of coating systems for long-term performance. It was determined that small grain size, low porosity and absence of cracks were the microstructural features that enhanced erosion resistance. Hardness levels and the composition and distribution of second phase, hard particles had less effect on coating performance. Angular SiC particles were considerably more erosive than either Al2O3 or chromite-mixed oxide round-shaped particles and the rankings of the coatings' performance were different for each erodent and set of test conditions.

Alan V. Levy; Wang Buqian

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

The Plant Cell, Vol. 13, 399411, February 2001, www.plantcell.org 2001 American Society of Plant Physiologists CIP4, a New COP1 Target, Is a Nucleus-Localized Positive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physiologists CIP4, a New COP1 Target, Is a Nucleus-Localized Positive Regulator of Arabidopsis of a COP1-interactive partner, CIP4. CIP4 is a nuclear protein and a potent transcription coactivator. Conditional suppression of CIP4 expression resulted in an elongated hypocotyl and reduced chlorophyll content

Deng, Xing-Wang

60

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Black Forest Germany for the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to other sites as determined. In 2007 the AMF operated in the Black Forest region of Germany as part of the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Scientists studied rainfall resulting from atmospheric uplift (convection) in mountainous terrain, otherwise known as orographic precipitation. This was part of a six -year duration of the German Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) Program. COPS was endorsed as a Research and Development Project by the World Weather Research Program. This program was established by the World Meteorological Organization to develop improved and cost-effective forecasting techniques, with an emphasis on high-impact weather. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Black Forest are available via a link from ARM's Black Forest site information page. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and the data files in the ARM Archive are free for viewing and downloading.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Overview - Hard Rock Penetration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

Dunn, James C.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

62

Overview: Hard Rock Penetration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

Dunn, J.C.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric-resistance water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ter than that of the system using electric resistance water heating. An analytical tinclel predicts of a high-efficiency heat pump'/electric-resistance .waterheater (IIP/IZR) system. TEST FACILITIES#12;/ ABSTRACT An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

64

Kevin Harding | Inventors | GE Global Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kevin Harding Kevin Harding Principal Engineer Manufacturing Technologies "Optics have grown enormously over the past 30 years and now touch our everyday lives, from internet...

65

Materials science Nanotubes get hard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Materials science Nanotubes get hard under pressure Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA doi:10.1073/pnas.0405877101 (2004) When Zhongwu Wang et al. squeezed carbon nanotubes in a diamond anvil cell, they made nanotubes into diamond itself: the carbon material formed under compression at room temperature seems

Downs, Robert T.

66

Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

Good, Morris S. (Richland, WA); Schuster, George J. (Kennewick, WA); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Microwave assisted hard rock cutting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

Lindroth, David P. (Apple Valley, MN); Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN); Blair, James R. (Inver Grove Heights, MN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Most Tensor Problems Are NP-Hard  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We prove that multilinear (tensor) analogues of many efficiently computable problems in numerical linear algebra are NP-hard. Our list includes: determining the feasibility of a system of bilinear equations, deciding whether a 3-tensor possesses a given ... Keywords: #P-hardness, NP-hardness, Numerical multilinear algebra, VNP-hardness, bivariate matrix polynomials, hyperdeterminants, nonnegative definite tensors, polynomial time approximation schemes, symmetric tensors, system of multilinear equations, tensor eigenvalue, tensor rank, tensor singular value, tensor spectral norm, undecidability

Christopher J. Hillar; Lek-Heng Lim

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Hardness Standardization Our objective is to standardize and improve hardness measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hardness Standardization METALS Our objective is to standardize and improve hardness measurement and metallic products. · Of over 12 000 ASTM standards, hardness test method standards are among the most downloaded. · NIST produces a variety of hardness Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for industry. Approach

70

Effects of Thermal Exposure and Test Temperature on Structure Evolution and Hardness/Viscosity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Thermal Exposure and Test Temperature on Structure Evolution and Hardness/Viscosity the physical and mechanical properties (i.e., viscosity, flow, and fracture). In some cases, the thermal coating techniques (e.g., high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF), plasma spray, cold spray, etc.) have been used

Rollins, Andrew M.

71

Dragon's Claws the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) as a weapon of strategic influence .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The purpose of this research is to identify how the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) is being used as a "weapon of strategic influence" by insurgent (more)

Martin, James Kennedy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Underwater Bomb Trajectory Prediction for Stand-off Assault (Mine/IED) Breaching Weapon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underwater Bomb Trajectory Prediction for Stand-off Assault (Mine/IED) Breaching Weapon Fuse To support the development and evaluation of the Stand-off Assault Breaching Weapon Fuse Improvement (SOABWFI/surf zones to VSW-zone, i.e., the Stand-off Assault Breaching Weapon Fuse Improvement (SOABWFI) program. #12

Chu, Peter C.

73

Revised: Jan 20, 2014 56:155 [IE:4550] Wind Power Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Revised: Jan 20, 2014 56:155 [IE:4550] Wind Power Management http://www.icaen.uiowa.edu/~ie_155/ Spring 2014 Objectives: The course introduces principles of wind power production, design of wind and systems, wind farm performance optimization, and integration of wind power with a grid. The modeling

Kusiak, Andrew

74

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Quantitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a preliminary quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010.

Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Reid; Goel, Supriya

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

COPS WWRP Presentation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Service (DWD), Klimastatusbericht 2002 Largest ever measured precipitation in Germany: Zinnwald-Georgenfeld 312 mm24h The high precipitation amount was due to orographic...

76

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Qualitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a final qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition). All addenda in creating Standard 90.1-2013 were evaluated for their projected impact on energy efficiency. Each addendum was characterized as having a positive, neutral, or negative impact on overall building energy efficiency.

Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Richman, Eric E.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Winiarski, David W.

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

77

College Safety Office Trinity College, Dublin Extn. : 1914 Email : tom.merriman@tcd.ie Fax. : 6793799  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Safety legislation (Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act, 2005, Section 25(1)) gives employeesCollege Safety Office Trinity College, Dublin Extn. : 1914 Email : tom.merriman@tcd.ie Fax. : 6793799 Safety Representation in College Faculty of Engineering, Mathematics and Science Background Health

O'Mahony, Donal E.

78

Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment, September 2002  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This market assessment confirms that the current IES research and development projects targeting the commercial building sector have the potential to dramatically reduce fossil fuel use and air pollutant emissions, improve the electric grids power quality, efficiency, reliability and return on investment, and enhance energy security.

79

A Comparison of Phylogenetic Reconstruction Methods on an IE Dataset Luay Nakhleh Tandy Warnow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Comparison of Phylogenetic Reconstruction Methods on an IE Dataset Luay Nakhleh Tandy Warnow Dept the dataset, we study the consequences for phylogenetic reconstruction of restricting the data to lexical datasets that use only lexical characters being probably less accurate than analyses based upon datasets

Evans, Steven N.

80

For full programme details see http://www.smurfitschool.ie/mastersprogrammes/marketing/mscinmarketing/#d.en.35032  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For full programme details see http://www.smurfitschool.ie/mastersprogrammes/marketing for me? The MSc in Marketing is focused on developing the marketing knowledge and skills that will enable with an undergraduate degree in business, psychology, social science or related area. The emphasis is on Marketing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

1E6 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING [5 credits] Lecturer: Prof. Frank Boland (fboland@tcd.ie)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1E6 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING [5 credits] Lecturer: Prof. Frank Boland (fboland@tcd.ie) Module understanding of the concepts and laws of electricity and magnetism to Junior Freshman Engineering students circuit elements. Elementary DC and transient circuit analysis will be carried out using these elements

O'Mahony, Donal E.

82

IE 361 Module 14 Patterns on Control Charts and "Special Checks"/Extra Alarm Rules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3.4 of Statistical Quality Assurance Methods for Engineers Prof. Steve Vardeman and Prof. Max MorrisIE 361 Module 14 Patterns on Control Charts and "Special Checks"/Extra Alarm Rules Reading: Section equipment or a clear change in the quality of a raw material

Vardeman, Stephen B.

83

BPA Bisimilarity is EXPTIME-hard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Given a basic process algebra (BPA) and two stack symbols, the BPA bisimilarity problem asks whether the two stack symbols are bisimilar. We show that this problem is EXPTIME-hard.

Kiefer, Stefan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value.

Sheinberg, H.

1981-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

85

Hard x-ray imaging from explorer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coded aperture X-ray detectors were applied to obtain large increases in sensitivity as well as angular resolution. A hard X-ray coded aperture detector concept is described which enables very high sensitivity studies persistent hard X-ray sources and gamma ray bursts. Coded aperture imaging is employed so that approx. 2 min source locations can be derived within a 3 deg field of view. Gamma bursts were located initially to within approx. 2 deg and X-ray/hard X-ray spectra and timing, as well as precise locations, derived for possible burst afterglow emission. It is suggested that hard X-ray imaging should be conducted from an Explorer mission where long exposure times are possible.

Grindlay, J.E.; Murray, S.S.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

MHK Projects/Ocean Energy Galway Bay IE | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Galway Bay IE Galway Bay IE < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"File:Aquamarine-marker.png","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":53.1879,"lon":-9.18125,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"http:\/\/prod-http-80-800498448.us-east-1.elb.amazonaws.com\/w\/images\/7\/74\/Aquamarine-marker.png","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

87

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1- 2010 Final Qualitative Determination |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IES Standard 90.1- 2010 Final Qualitative Determination IES Standard 90.1- 2010 Final Qualitative Determination A final qualitative analysis of all addenda to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 that were included in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 was conducted. All 109 addenda processed by ASHRAE in the creation of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 from ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 were evaluated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for their impact on energy efficiency. DOE determined whether each addendum would have a positive, neutral, or negative impact on overall building efficiency. Publication Date: Wednesday, October 19, 2011 BECP_FinalQualitativeAnalysisReport901-2010Determiniation_Oct2011_v00.pdf Document Details Last Name: Halverson Initials: M Affiliation: PNNL Document Number: PNNL-20883 Focus: Code Development Building Type:

88

Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment(LeMar  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment(LeMar Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment(LeMar 2002) Home > Groups > Energy Systems Integration Qinsun's picture Submitted by Qinsun(35) Member 15 November, 2012 - 13:05 Literature Review The author analyzed the market of combine heat and power in commercial buildings. The paper provided the market size of CHP. It analyzed the reduction of emission, energy and cost by 2020. It discussed barrier, market power and impact. It is a good market analysis proach. However, it only considered existing CHP techniques in Commercial buildings. Groups: Energy Systems Integration Login to post comments Latest documents Qinsun Research topics related to ESI Posted: 15 Nov 2012 - 13:55 by Qinsun Qinsun Prospects for Nuclear Power(Davis 2012) Posted: 15 Nov 2012 - 13:36 by Qinsun

89

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 | Building Energy Codes Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IES Standard 90.1-2010 IES Standard 90.1-2010 The materials for this course may be used for in-person training purposes. The presentation slides focus on the envelope; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; power and lighting; and scope and application requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010. Presenters: Course materials originally published by the DOE Building Energy Codes Program, April, 2011. Course Type: Training Materials In-person Downloads: Presentation Slides -- Scope and Application Presentation Slides -- Envelope Presentation Slides -- HVAC Presentation Slides -- Power and Lighting Building Type: Commercial Focus: Compliance Code Version: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Target Audience: Architect/Designer Builder Code Official Contractor Engineer State Official Contacts Web Site Policies

90

IES <Virtual Environment> version 6.1  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tax Deduction Qualified Software Tax Deduction Qualified Software IES version 6.1 On this page you'll find information about the IES version 6.1 qualified computer software (buildings.energy.gov/qualified_software.html), which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings. Date Documentation Received by DOE: 22 December 2009 Statements in quotes are from the software developer. Internal Revenue Code §179D (c)(1) and (d) Regulations Notice 2006-52, Section 6 requirements as amplified by Notice 2008-40, Section 4 requirements. (1) The name, address, and (if applicable) web site of the software developer; Integrated Environmental Solutions Limited Helix Building, West Of Scotland

91

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Qualitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. When the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issues an affirmative determination on Standard 90.1, states are statutorily required to certify within two years that they have reviewed and updated the commercial provisions of their building energy code, with respect to energy efficiency, to meet or exceed the revised standard. This report provides a preliminary qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition).

Halverson, Mark A.; Hart, Reid; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

U.S. DEP."-RThIE'NT OF ENERGY EERE PROJ ECT MANAGEMENT CENTER  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

RThIE'NT OF ENERGY RThIE'NT OF ENERGY EERE PROJ ECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETl!R1.ITNATION R[CIPIENT:Arizona Department of Commerce, Energy Office SEP ARRA PROJECT TITLE: SEP - Distributed Energy Leadership Program Page 1 of2 STATE: AZ. to"unding Opportunity Announcement Number DE·EEOO106 Procurement Instrument Number EEOOOO106 NEPA Control Number elD Number GF0-0000106-029 0 Based on my review of the information concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Omen (authorized undrr DOE OrdeI"451 .1A), I have made the following deltrmination: ex, ":A, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: 85.1 Actions to conserve energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency that do not increase the indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances. These actions may involve financial and technical

93

The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database L.S. Rothman a,, I.E. Gordon a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database L.S. Rothman a,?, I.E. Gordon a , A. Barbe b , D'Ae´ronomie Spatiale de Belgique, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 21 December database Molecular spectroscopy Molecular absorption a b s t r a c t This paper describes the status

Chance, Kelly

94

Wear-resistance and hardness: Are they directly related for nanostructured hard materials?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The major challenge in the field of cemented carbides and other hard materials is to obtain their better combination of hardness, wear-resistance and fracture toughness. It is well known that the dependence of abrasion wear on fracture toughness for WCCo cemented carbides is represented by a relatively narrow band and it is hardly possible to break away out from it by the use of conventional approaches based on varying the WC mean grain size and Co content. Also, it is well known that the wear-resistance of conventional cemented carbides depends mainly on their hardness. The major objective of this paper is to establish what will happen with the wear-resistance of hard materials as a result of their nanostructuring when the hardness is nearly the same as for conventional WCCo cemented carbides. The results obtained provide clear evidence that, if one enters the region of nanostructured materials with the mean grain size of less than 10nm, traditional wisdom indicating that the wear-resistance is directly related to the hardness appears not to be valid. In some cases of such nanostructured materials, it can be possible to achieve the dramatically improved wear-resistance compared to that of conventional WCCo cemented carbides at nearly the same level of hardness and fracture toughness. The abovementioned is based on considering hard nanomaterials of the following four types: (1) WCCo cemented carbides with nanograin reinforced binder, (2) near-nano WCCo cemented carbides, (3) cemented carbides of the WCCrSiFe system for hard-facing having a nanostructured Fe-based binder, and (4) CVD hard materials consisting of nanostructured W2C grains embedded in a tungsten metal binder.

I. Konyashin; B. Ries; D. Hlawatschek; Y. Zhuk; A. Mazilkin; B. Straumal; F. Dorn; D. Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Evaluation of ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1-2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1-2009, 'The Standard for High-Performance Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings'. NREL performed this evaluation by examining the results of predictions for site energy use from a comprehensive set of EnergyPlus models. NREL has conducted an 'order-of-magnitude' analysis in this study to identify the likely overall impact of adopting Standard 189.1-2009 over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007.

Long, N.; Bonnema, E.; Field, K.; Torcellini, P.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated. 3 figs.

Sheinberg, H.

1983-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

97

Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

98

Microsoft Word - ORNL Hard Drives Final 08132010  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Inspections and Special Inquires Inspections and Special Inquires Inspection Report Internal Controls over Computer Hard Drives at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory INS-O-10-03 August 2010 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 August 16, 2010 MEMORANDUM FOR THE DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF SCIENCE FROM: Sandra D. Bruce Assistant Inspector General for Inspections and Special Inquiries SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Inspection Report on "Internal Controls over Computer Hard Drives at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory" BACKGROUND The Department of Energy's (Department) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak

99

NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO A SYBSIDIAR" OF NL INOVST*IE*. INC.  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

. . ., NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO A SYBSIDIAR" OF NL INOVST*IE*. INC. CINCINNATI, OHIO 45239 October 12, 1979 SUBJECT REPORT OF TRIPS TO YOWNGSVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA, AUGUST, 1979 TO R. C. Heatherton FROM K. N. Ross and C. J. Mize REFERENCE PURPOSE OF TRIPS: The primary purpose of these trips was to provide health physics coverage for the transfer of drums of thorium residue from a General Atomics warehouse to the FMPC. We insured that the work was done in a safe, hygienic manner with as low radiation exposure as practicable. We also monitored all trailers to.see that they conformed to DOT requirements. K. N. Ross provided coverage during the weeks of August 6 and 20, 1979. C. J. Mize provided coverage during the week of August 13, 1979.

100

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Quantitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a final quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in improved energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The final analysis considered each of the 110 addenda to Standard 90.1-2010 that were included in Standard 90.1-2013. PNNL reviewed all addenda included by ASHRAE in creating Standard 90.1-2013 from Standard 90.1-2010, and considered their combined impact on a suite of prototype building models across all U.S. climate zones. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOEs final determination. However, out of the 110 total addenda, 30 were identified as having a measureable and quantifiable impact.

Halverson, Mark A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Wang, Weimin; Hart, Philip R.; Zhang, Jian; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Closeout of IE Bulletin 83-07: Apparently fraudulent products sold by Ray Miller, Inc  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Documentation is provided in this report for the closeout of IE Bulletin 83-07 regarding apparently fraudulent products sold by Ray Miller, Inc., to nuclear power and fuel facilities. The bulletin and two supplements were issued to all holders of nuclear power reactor or fuel facility operating licenses or construction permits. Four actions were required of all affected facilities to provide assurance that fraudulent items are not used in safety-related applications, unless qualified by tests. Review of utility responses and NRC/Region inspection reports shows that the bulletin is closed for all of the 118 power facilities and for the two fuel facilities to which it was issued for action. Facilities where were shut down or had construction halted indefinitely or permanently at the time of issuance of this report are not included. It is concluded that all bulletin concerns have been resolved.

Foley, W.J.; Dean, R.S.; Hennick, A. (Parameter, Inc., Elm Grove, WI (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Round Table Meeting Summaries Purchase Order: DE-IE0000002 Final Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Round Table Meeting Summaries Round Table Meeting Summaries Purchase Order: DE-IE0000002 Final Report 25-Apr-11 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs CNI Professional Services, LLC 2600 John Saxon Blvd Norman, OK 73026 Jonathan Blackwell Project Manager Phone: (202) 361-1998 Work Performed for: Submitted by: Point of Contact: jonathan.blackwell@chickasaw.com Key Word Comment Meeting 1 Alaska We deal with about 15 isolated, very remote villages. No infrastructure, roads or grid. There are good wind resources. Some villages have geothermal. Woody biomass is at about half of the villages. Alaska Energy helped with the studies. We need strategic energy planning at the community level. Need to get village buy in. No one can tell the villages what to do. I have some other things to say, but they are probably not appropriate now.

103

Hard thermal loops in static external fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study, in the imaginary-time formalism, the high temperature behavior of n-point thermal loops in static Yang-Mills and gravitational fields. We show that in this regime, any hard thermal loop gives the same leading contribution as the one obtained by evaluating the loop at zero external energies and momenta.

J. Frenkel; S. H. Pereira; N. Takahashi

2009-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

104

Hard Drive Power Consumption Uncovered Computer Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard Drive Power Consumption Uncovered Computer Laboratory Digital Technology Group Anthony Hylick, Andrew Rice, Brian Jones, Ripduman Sohan Motivation Attempts to reduce power consumption have mainly of power consumption and identify the need for a more expressive API between the OS and hardware devices

Cambridge, University of

105

Peer Review Hit Hard By Shutdown  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Peer Review Hit Hard By Shutdown ... The peer review system at many federal science funding agencies is gradually working its way out of chaos after the conclusion of a 16-day government shutdown. ... Hundreds of grant review panels were canceled at NSF and NIH alone. ...

ANDREA WIDENER

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

106

Hard thermal loops in static external fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine, in the imaginary-time formalism, the high temperature behavior of n-point thermal loops in static Yang-Mills and gravitational fields. We show that in this regime, any hard thermal loop gives the same leading contribution as the one obtained by evaluating the loop integral at zero external energies and momenta.

Frenkel, J.; Takahashi, N. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187-05508-090 Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pereira, S. H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas Rua do Matao, 1226-05508-090 Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Microsoft Word - HardingFarms-CX.docx  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4, 2012 4, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEC-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Dawneen Dostert - TERR-LMT Proposed Action: Clark County Harding Farms LURR Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B4.9 Multiple use of powerline rights-of-way Location: Clark County, Washington - Township 3 North, Range 1 East, Section 25 and Vancouver Quadrangle Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: In response to the Clark County Public Works (CCPW) Land Use Review Request (LURR), BPA proposes to grant Clark County two easements across BPA fee-owned parcel south of tower 4/5 of the Ross-Lexington 230-kV transmission line right-of-way. The proposal is necessary due to Clark County PUD's Harding Farms Storm Water and Wetland Improvements Project,

108

Gravitational infall in the hard wall model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An infalling shell in the hard wall model provides a simple holographic model for energy injection in a confining gauge theory. Depending on its parameters, a scalar shell either collapses into a large black brane, or scatters between the hard wall and the anti-de Sitter boundary. In the scattering regime, we find numerical solutions that keep oscillating for as long as we have followed their evolution, and we provide an analytic argument that shows that a black brane can never be formed. This provides examples of states in infinite-volume field theory that never thermalize. We find that the field theory expectation value of a scalar operator keeps oscillating, with an amplitude that undergoes modulation.

B. Craps; E. J. Lindgren; A. Taliotis; J. Vanhoof; H. Zhang

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Laser ablated hard coating for microtools  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10--20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode. 12 figs.

McLean, W. II; Balooch, M.; Siekhaus, W.J.

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

110

Laser ablated hard coating for microtools  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10-20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode.

McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Siekhaus, Wigbert J. (Berkeley, CA)

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

111

Fixed target electroweak and hard scattering physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibilities for future physics and experiments involving weak and electromagnetic interactions, neutrino oscillations, general hard scattering and experiments involving nuclear targets were explored. The studies were limited to the physics accessible using fixed target experimentation. While some of the avenues explored turn out to be relatively unrewarding in the light of competition elsewhere in the world, there are a number of positive conclusions reached about experimentation in the energy range available to the Main Injector and Tevatron. Some of the experiments would benefit from the increased intensity available from the Tevatron utilizing the Main Injector, while some require this increase. Finally, some of the experiments would use the Main Injector low energy, high intensity extracted beams directly. A program of electroweak and hard scattering experiments at fixed target energies retains the potential for important contributions to physics. The key to major parts of this program would appear to be the existence of the Main Injector. 115 refs, 17 figs.

Brock, R. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (USA)); Brown, C.N.; Montgomery, H.E. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Corcoran, M.D. (eds.) (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Fluid Mixtures of Parallel Hard Cubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The direct correlation function of a fluid mixture of parallel hard cubes is obtained by using Rosenfeld's fundamental measure approximation. This approximation is thermodynamically consistent (compressibility and virial equations of state are equal) and predicts a spinodal instability of the binary mixture for large-to-small side ratio larger than roughly 10, in qualitative agreement with simulations on the lattice version of the model. In two dimensions the system never demixes, also in agreement with the simulations.

Jos A. Cuesta

1996-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

113

Sharper Focusing of Hard X-rays  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sharper Focusing of Hard X-rays FROM: Physics News Update Number 773 #1, April 12, 2006, by Phil Schewe and Ben Stein Note: This text has been slightly modified from the original. Sharper focusing of hard x-rays has been achieved with a device developed at Argonne National Lab. Because of their high energy, x-rays are hard to focus: they can be reflected from a surface but only at a glancing angle (less than a tenth of a degree); they can be refracted but the index of refraction is very close to 1, so that making efficient lenses becomes a problem; and they can be diffracted, but the relatively thick, variable pitch grating required for focusing is tricky to achieve. The Argonne device is of the diffraction type, and it consists of a stack of alternating layers of metal and silicon, made by depositing progressively thicker layers. When the x-rays fall on such a structure, nearly edge-on, what they see is a grating (called a linear zone plate) consisting of a sort of bar-code pattern.

114

Quantum Searches in a Hard 2SAT Ensemble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a recently constructed ensemble of hard 2SAT realizations, that has a unique ground-state we calculate for the quantized theory the median gap correlation length values $\\xi_{GAP}$ along the direction of the quantum adiabatic control parameter $\\lambda$. We use quantum annealing (QA) with transverse field and a linear time schedule in the adiabatic control parameter $\\lambda$. The gap correlation length diverges exponentially $\\xi_{\\rm GAP} \\propto {\\rm exp} [+r_{\\rm GAP}N]$ in the median with a rate constant $r_{\\rm GAP}=0.553(6)$, while the run time diverges exponentially $\\tau_{\\rm QA} \\propto {\\rm exp} [+r_{\\rm QA}N]$ with $r_{\\rm QA}=1.184(16)$. Simulated classical annealing (SA) exhibits a run time rate constant $r_{\\rm SA}=0.340(5)$ that is small and thus finds ground-states exponentially faster than QA. There are no quantum speedups in ground state searches on constant energy surfaces that have exponentially large volume. We also determine gap correlation length distribution functions $P(\\xi_{\\rm GAP})d\\xi_{\\rm GAP} \\approx W_k$ over the ensemble that at $N=18$ are close to Weibull functions $W_k$ with $k \\approx 1.2$ i.e., the problems show thin catastrophic tails in $\\xi_{\\rm GAP}$. The inferred success probability distribution functions of the quantum annealer turn out to be bimodal.

Neuhaus Thomas

2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

115

Design of Hard Water Stable Emulsifier Systems for Petroleum-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design of Hard Water Stable Emulsifier Systems for Petroleum- and Bio-based Semi for petroleum and bio-based MWFs that improve fluid lifetime by providing emulsion stability under hard water. The newly developed petroleum and bio-based formulations with improved hard water stability are competitive

Clarens, Andres

116

An Improved Approximation Algorithm For Vertex Cover with Hard Capacities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Improved Approximation Algorithm For Vertex Cover with Hard Capacities #3; Rajiv Gandhi y Eran-hard as it generalizes the well-known vertex cover problem. Previously, approximation algorithms with an approximation version of this problem is at least as hard as set cover; in addition, they developed a 3-approximation

Srinivasan, Aravind

117

Free-energy density functional for hard spheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A free-energy density functional for a system of hard spheres is derived on a semiempirical basis. It is constructed to reproduce the thermodynamics and direct correlation function of a homogeneous fluid and then is tested in two highly inhomogeneous situations: the hard-wallhard-sphere interface and the hard-sphere solid. The results are very good in both cases, showing that this density-functional model may be used with advantage in the study of the hard-sphere model by itself, or used as a reference system in a perturbative analysis.

P. Tarazona

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector 2006- Presentation to the 2008 ieRoadmap Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by Hank Kenchington on the 2006 roadmap to secure control systems in the energy sector at the ieRoadmap Workshop in Chicago, May 28-29, 2008.

119

Viscosity of isotropic hard particle fluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A kinetic theory for the frequency?dependent shear viscosity ?(?) of isotropic fluids composed of non?spherical hard convex bodies is extended in two ways. First the theory is reformulated to allow ?(?) to be expressed directly in terms of matrix elements involving the shear stress tensor rather than in terms of the transverse momentum correlation function. Second relaxation of the antisymmetric component of the stress due to coupling with spin angular momentum is explicitly incorporated; this corrects an error in a previous version of the theory. The revised kinetic theory is compared with computer simulations for hard ellipsoids of revolution of axial ratio 2 3 5 and 10. Both the symmetric and antisymmetric contributions to ?(?) are well reproduced. Coupling with the collective molecular second?rank orientation tensor remains an important factor in determining the variation of ?(?) from high to low frequencies; the prediction of the magnitude of the associated dip in ?(?) is significantly improved. The new version of the theory is also more successful in predicting values of the zero?frequency shear viscosity ? the shear?orientation coupling parameter R and the StokesEinstein (Debye) products D s? and D r?.

Michael P. Allen; Philip J. Camp; Carl P. Mason; Glenn T. Evans; Andrew J. Masters

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

TABL Longer Hard Hat description-Sept 26.PDF  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hat Use and Inspection Hat Use and Inspection Hard hats are an important piece of personal protective equipment (PPE). Hard hats worn at Berkeley Lab must comply with the requirements of ANSI Z89.1 for impact protection and electrical performance. PPE can only be effective if it is used properly and the wearer understands its limitations, care, and maintenance. OSHA 29 CFR 1910.132 requires that PPE be maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition. Defective or damaged equipment should never be used. To inspect PPE, emp loyees should follow manufacturer's recommendations for specific inspection procedures. Hard Hat Inspection - Bullard Hard Hats Bullard 3000 hard hats are available at LBL Central Stores, located in B78. Bullard User Information provides detailed inspection procedures for all Bullard hard hats.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

A Marriage of Hardware and Hard Work  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shaken but Not Stirred Shaken but Not Stirred 2008 Rosalind Franklin Young Investigator Award The 2008 3-Way Meeting In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed A Marriage of Hardware and Hard Work MAY 5, 2008 Bookmark and Share The first assembled production girder for the LCLS sits atop the coordinate measuring machine. From "SLAC Today," http://today.slac.stanford.edu/ The first undulator support girder assembly for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) made its way from the Collider Hall, where technicians are piecing them together, to the

122

Shock compression synthesis of hard materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research was to adapt the high explosives technology that was developed in conjunction with nuclear weapons programs to subjecting materials to ultra-high pressures and to explore the utility of this technique for the synthesis of hard materials. The research was conducted in collaboration with researchers at the University of Texas, Texas Tech University and Pantex (Mason and Hanger Corp.). The group designed, modeled, built, and tested a new device that allows quantitative recovery of grams of material that have been subjected to unprecedented pressures. The modeling work was done at Texas Tech and Pantex. The metal parts and material samples were made at the University of Texas, and Pantex machined the explosives, assembled the devices and conducted the detonations. Sample characterization was carried out at the University of Texas and Texas Tech.

Willson, C.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Radiation Hard AlGaN Detectors and Imager  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation hardness of AlGaN photodiodes was tested using a 65 MeV proton beam with a total proton fluence of 3x10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2}. AlGaN Deep UV Photodiode have extremely high radiation hardness. These new devices have mission critical applications in high energy density physics (HEDP) and space explorations. These new devices satisfy radiation hardness requirements by NIF. NSTec is developing next generation AlGaN optoelectronics and imagers.

None

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Advanced dexterous manipulation for IED defeat : report on the feasibility of using the ShadowHand for remote operations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improvised Explosive Device (IED) defeat (IEDD) operations can involve intricate operations that exceed the current capabilities of the grippers on board current bombsquad robots. The Shadow Dexterous Hand from the Shadow Robot Company or 'ShadowHand' for short (www.shadowrobot.com) is the first commercially available robot hand that realistically replicates the motion, degrees-of-freedom and dimensions of a human hand (Figure 1). In this study we evaluate the potential for the ShadowHand to perform potential IED defeat tasks on a mobile platform.

Anderson, Robert J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Hard Bottom Substrate Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Hard Bottom Substrate Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Annual Status Report 2004............................................................................................................... 13 2.3. Test fishing.................................................................................................................................. 17 3.1. Fish observed

126

Peer Reviewed: Hard Times for Innovative Cleanup Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Peer Reviewed: Hard Times for Innovative Cleanup Technology ... What can be done to remove market barriers to new groundwater and soil remediation technologies? ...

Jacqueline A. MacDonald

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

127

Chiu_ARMSTM_COPS.ppt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Our retrieval method uses zenith radiance Our retrieval method uses zenith radiance measurements at 673, 870, and 1640 nm wavelengths and requires the presence of green vegetation in the surrounding area. * This method works because: 1. At 673 and 870nm, clouds have nearly identical optical properties, but vegetated surfaces reflect quite differently; 2. 1640 nm is a water-absorbing wavelength that contains information about the strength of forwarding scattering and absorption due to various cloud drop sizes. * Using a 1D radiative transfer model and surface reflectance from MODIS, we calculate zenith radiance I 673 , I 870 and , I 1640 as a function of cloud optical depth , effective cloud fraction A c , and cloud effective radius R eff to build our lookup tables (LUT) : * Using LUTs, we select possible solutions in which

128

2010 PA CoP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(Continued) Video Download PDF Download NRC Part 61 Update and PA Implications David Esh (NRC) Video Download PDF Download EPA Modeling Community of PracticeISCMEM Gene...

129

CoP meeting ideas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

provided a summary of activities and integration efforts underway in EM-30 and David Esh, US NRC, provided regulatory perspectives and experience based on reviews of modeling...

130

1E7 MECHANICS [5 credits] Lecturer(s): Professor Henry Rice (hrice@tcd.ie) Overall Coordinator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1E7 MECHANICS [5 credits] Lecturer(s): Professor Henry Rice (hrice@tcd.ie) ­ Overall Coordinator of system performance. Learning outcomes Upon completion of this module, students will be able to: design it is loaded axially; calculate the first and second moments of area of a section; calculate the stresses

O'Mahony, Donal E.

131

23. Gray{Scott equations Patterns are everywhere in nature. Examples include spots on butter ies, stripes on zebras, tri-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

23. Gray{Scott equations Patterns are everywhere in nature. Examples include spots on butter ies variety. The Gray{Scott equations were formulated originally by Gray and Scott in 1983; we shall advantage of this principle. References P. Gray and S. K. Scott, papers in Chem. Eng. Sci. 38 (1983), 29

Trefethen, Nick

132

Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Fall 2012 Enabling CNC-RP in PSU's IE FAME Lab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PENNSTATE Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Fall 2012 Enabling CNC-RP in PSU's IE FAME Lab Overview In this project, CNC-RP capability has been installed and developed in the Penn be built with this particular method. After finding the limitations of this process, this CNC-RP capability

Demirel, Melik C.

133

N-terminal determinants of human cytomegalovirus IE1 protein in nuclear targeting and disrupting PML-associated subnuclear structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 72-kDa IE1 protein of human cytomegalovirus disrupts PML-associated subnuclear structures (PODs) by inducing PML desumoylation. This process correlates with the functions of IE1 in transcriptional regulation and efficient viral replication. Here, we defined the N-terminal regions of IE1 required for nuclear targeting and POD-disrupting activity. Although the 24 N-terminal amino acids encoded by exon 2, which were previously shown to be essential for nuclear targeting, did not appear to contain typical basic nuclear localization signals, these residues were able to efficiently convey the GFP protein into the nucleus, suggesting a role in promoting nuclear translocation. In assays using a series of N-terminal truncation IE1 mutants, which were forced to enter the nucleus, exon 2 was completely dispensable for POD disruption. However, the predicted two {alpha}-helix regions in exon 3 were identified as important structural determinants for protein stability and for the correlating activities in POD disruption and PML desumoylation.

Lee, Hye-Ra [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 300 Cheoncheondong, Jangangu, Suwon, Gyeonggido 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Yong Ho [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 300 Cheoncheondong, Jangangu, Suwon, Gyeonggido 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Eui [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 300 Cheoncheondong, Jangangu, Suwon, Gyeonggido 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Karim [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunyoung [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jin-Hyun [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 300 Cheoncheondong, Jangangu, Suwon, Gyeonggido 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jahn@med.skku.ac.kr

2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

134

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 325, Serie I, p. 871-876, 1997 CGom&ie/Geometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 325, Serie I, p. 871-876, 1997 CGom&ie/Geometry Artin groups, projective SciencesElsevier. Paris 871 #12;M. Kapovich and J. J. Millson attachons un groupe d'Artin (resp. de

Kapovich, Misha

135

Hard-sphere and hard-disk freezing from the differential formulation of the generalized effective liquid approximation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We apply the differential formulation of the generalized effective liquid approximation to the study of hard-sphere and hard-disk freezing. We show that the thermodynamic properties of the solid phase are rather insensitive to the compressibility factor of the fluid phase used to map the solid onto the effective liquid. The solid-fluid coexistence data instead are quite dependent on the equation of state describing the fluid phase. Very accurate results, as compared with the simulation data, are obtained for both the freezing of hard spheres and hard disks.

C. F. Tejero and J. A. Cuesta

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

An Improved Approximation Algorithm For Vertex Cover with Hard Capacities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this problem is at least as hard as set cover; they have also developed a 3-approximation algorithm cover problem. Key Words and Phrases: Approximation algorithms, capacitated covering, set cover, vertexAn Improved Approximation Algorithm For Vertex Cover with Hard Capacities (Extended Abstract) Rajiv

Khuller, Samir

137

An Improved Approximation Algorithm For Vertex Cover with Hard Capacities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as hard as set cover; they have also developed a 3-approximation algorithm for the unweighted version. We Words and Phrases: Approximation algorithms, capacitated covering, set cover, vertex cover, linearAn Improved Approximation Algorithm For Vertex Cover with Hard Capacities (Extended Abstract) Rajiv

Srinivasan, Aravind

138

Viscosity, hard sphere diameter and interionic potential for liquid lead  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L-347 Viscosity, hard sphere diameter and interionic potential for liquid lead G. Chaussemy The Macedo-Litovitz equation for a hard sphere liquid provides a satisfactory model for the viscosity of lead and molecular dynamics. The activation energy for viscosity (0.07 eV) is similar to the height of the interionic

Boyer, Edmond

139

Managing hard-disk PCs in the introductory laboratory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method is described for managing stand-alone hard-disk PCs, in an environment in which students are allowed to explore the hard disk. The system, application, and student-created files are safeguarded by management software which helps eliminate "accidental" ...

David K. Walker; David S. Tucker

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Comparison of Three Ni-Hard I Alloys  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Comparison of Three Ni-Hard I Alloys Comparison of Three Ni-Hard I Alloys Ö. N. Do-an 1 , J.A. Hawk 1 , and J.Rice 2 1 U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon 2 Texaloy Foundry Co., Inc., Floresville, Texas Keywords: Ni-Hard white irons, Bainite, Martensite, Austenite, Abrasion resistant iron Abstract This report documents the results of an investigation which was undertaken to reveal the similarities and differences in the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of three Ni-Hard I alloys. One alloy (B1) is ASTM A532 class IA Ni-Hard containing 4.2 wt. pct. Ni. The second alloy (B2) is similar to B1 but higher in Cr, Si, and Mo. The third alloy (T1) also falls in the same ASTM specification, but it contains 3.3 wt. pct. Ni. The alloys were evaluated in both as-cast and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | HXN: Hard X-ray Nanoprobe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

HXN: Hard X-ray Nanoprobe HXN: Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe beamline and endstation instruments (HXN) will be designed and constructed to explore new frontiers of hard x-ray microscopy applications with the highest achievable spatial resolution. Currently the available spatial resolution for scientific applications, provided by scanning x-ray microscopes in the hard x-ray regime, is limited to ~50nm, which is still insufficient for probing the nanoscale interfacial structures critical in determining properties and functionalities of material and biological systems. The HXN beamline aims to enable x-ray experiments at spatial resolutions ranging from 10 to 30 nm with an ultimate goal of ~1 nm. Beamline Description

142

UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science Find out more at: www.ucd.ie/agfood/researchseminarseries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science Find out more at: www.ucd.ie/agfood/researchseminarseries SeminarSerieS reSearCH ReseaRch seminaR 1 - 2pm Fs01 UCD Agriculture and Food Science Centre Post seminaR FoRum 2-3pm G24 UCD Agriculture and Food Science Centre Wednesday 25 sept 2013 Food For health

143

2014-05-08 Issuance: Energy Efficiency Improvements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013; Preliminary Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of preliminary determination regarding energy savings for ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1-2013, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on May 8, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

144

From Here the Beginning is Hard to Find: Stories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From Here the Beginning is Hard to Find, a collection of inter-related short stories, centers around the feelings of loss, both culturally and personally, that result from assimilation in America. The collection follows ...

Lang, Jameelah Jafaar

2010-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

145

On the Hardness of Approximating the Min-Hack Problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show several hardness results for the Minimum Hacking problem, which roughly can be described as the problem of finding the best way to compromise a target node given a few initial compromised nodes in a netwo...

Ramkumar Chinchani; Duc Ha; Anusha Iyer

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Innovation incentives and competition in the hard disk drive industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Firms in the hard disk drive industry are continually engaging in R & D and improving the quality of their products. We explore various determinants of the product innovation incentives for firms concerned with both their ...

Wu, Xiaohua Sherry

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Equation of state for nematics having a cylindrical hard core  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to describe nematics having an oblong or disclike molecular structure, a system of hard cylinders is considered. After proposing an equation of state, the thermodynamic behavior is calculated and compared with a system of spherocylinders and with experiment.

S. D. P. Flapper and G. Vertogen

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

The Hard X-ray Sky: Recent Observational Progress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The last fifty years have witnessed the birth, development, and maturation to full potential of hard X-ray astrophysics. The primary force driving the history of the field has been the development of space-based instrumentation optimized for getting the maximum science out of observations of high-energy photons from astrophysical sources. Hard X-ray telescopes are leading research in areas such as galactic diffuse emission, galactic transients, and active galactic nuclei.

Gehrels, Neil [NASA/GSFC/ASD/Code 661, Greenbelt, Md 20071 (United States); Cannizzo, John K. [CRESST/UMBC/NASA/GSFC/ASD/Code 661, Greenbelt, Md 20071 (United States)

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

149

Soft Pion Emission in Hard Exclusive Pion Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate hard exclusive reactions on the nucleon with soft pion emission. A parametrization of corresponding hadronic matrix elements in terms of parton distributions for final pion-nucleon state is provided. These distributions are calculated in terms of nucleon and pion GPDs and the pion distribution amplitude via soft-pion theorems. Some observables for the process of hard charged pion production on the proton with soft pion emission are computed.

Maxim V. Polyakov; Simone Stratmann

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

150

V.V. Gadzhieva, S.Yu. Kuzmin, S.N. Lebedev, I.E. Sizova, O.V. Stryakhnina  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

SINARA code: Simulation of SINARA code: Simulation of turbulent mixing on gas interfaces V.V. Gadzhieva, S.Yu. Kuzmin, S.N. Lebedev, I.E. Sizova, O.V. Stryakhnina RFNC-VNIITF Snezhinsk 2005 2 SINARA capabilities * Multi-component single-velocity viscous flows * Elastic-plastic and strength properties of material * Turbulence * Linear heat conduction * Radiation * Neutron transport * Delayed neutrons, resonance self-shielding of cross sections and Doppler effect * Isotope burn-up 3 Material models * Ideal fluid with allowance for several components * Elasticity, plasticity, compressibility, fracture, melting, evaporation * Viscous fluid with allowance for several components * Turbulence * Geometrical model of radiation 4 Modules * Time-dependent hydrodynamics * Turbulent mixing * Time-dependent hydrodynamics with elastic-plastic and strength properties

151

Direct Imagining of Soft-hard Interfaces Enabled by Graphene  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Imagining of Soft-hard Interfaces Enabled by Graphene Direct Imagining of Soft-hard Interfaces Enabled by Graphene Title Direct Imagining of Soft-hard Interfaces Enabled by Graphene Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Lee, Zonghoon, Ki-Joon Jeon, Albert Dato, Rolf Erni, Thomas J. Richardson, Michael Frenklach, and Velimir Radmilovic Journal NanoLetters Volume 9 Start Page 3365 Issue 9 Pagination 3365-3369 Date Published 09/2009 Abstract Direct imaging of surface molecules and the interfaces between soft and hard materials on functionalized nanoparticles is a great challenge using modern microscopy techniques. We show that graphene, a single atomic layer of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, can be employed as an ultrathin support film that enables direct imaging of molecular layers and interfaces in both conventional and atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy. An atomic-resolution imaging study of the capping layers and interfaces of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles is used to demonstrate this novel capability. Our findings reveal the unique potential of graphene as an ideal support film for atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy of hard and soft nanomaterials.

152

Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-15: Possible loss of Emergency Notification System (ENS) with loss of offsite power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Documentation is provided in this report for the closeout of IE Bulletin 80-15 for nuclear power reactors. This bulletin pertained to a possible loss of the Emergency Notification System (ENS) upon loss of offsite power. Closeout is based on the implementation and verification of six (6) required actions by licensees of nuclear power reactors in operation or near to receiving an operating license when the bulletin was issued on June 18, 1980. Evaluation of utility responses and NRC/Region inspection reports indicates that the bulletin is closed for all of the 69 nuclear power reactors to which it was issued for action and which were not shut down indefinitely or permanently at the time of issuance of this report. Background information is supplied in the Introduction and Appendix A. Nuclear fuel facilities as well as nuclear power facilities were identified in the enclosures to the bulletin. However, per an NRC memorandum, the closeout of the bulletin for nuclear fuel facilities is not within the scope of this report.

Foley, W.J.; Dean, R.S.; Hennick, A. (Parameter, Inc., Elm Grove, WI (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Vacancy-stabilized crystalline order in hard cubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the effect of vacancies on the phase behavior and structure of systems consisting of hard cubes using event-driven molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. We find a first-order phase transition between a fluid and a simple cubic crystal phase that is stabilized by a surprisingly large number of vacancies, reaching a net vacancy concentration of ~6.4% near bulk coexistence. Remarkably, we find that vacancies increase the positional order in the system. Finally, we show that the vacancies are delocalized and therefore hard to detect.

Frank Smallenburg; Laura Filion; Matthieu Marechal; Marjolein Dijkstra

2012-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

154

Characterizing the acoustic noise generated by hard disk drives and a scheme for detecting noisy hard drives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering s nah7 CHARACTERIZING THE ACOUSTIC NOISE GENERATED BY HARD DISK DRIVES AND A SCHEME FOR DETECTING NOISY HARD DRIVES A Thesis by SEUK BO KIM Approved... 48 48 49 52 53 55 APPENDIX A 58 VITA LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page I Disk Drive Sample Set 16 II Subjective Human Response: Original Noise 22 IH Leq Measured by MIC1 IV Leq Measured by ACC V Leq Grouping of Tv o Sensors 24 26 26 VI...

Kim, Seuk Bo

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Flash Memory Garbage Collection in Hard Real-Time Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-date behavior and time consuming garbage collection mechanism, NAND-based flash memory is difficult to integrate into hard-real-time embedded systems. In this thesis, I propose a performance model for flash memory garbage collection that can be used...

Lai, Chien-An

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

156

The SIMBOL-X hard X-ray mission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SIMBOL-X is a hard X-ray mission ... jointly carried out by CNES and ASI. SIMBOL-X makes uses of a long (in ... non focusing techniques used so far. The SIMBOL-X revolutionary instrumental capabilities will allow...

Giovanni Pareschi; Philippe Ferrando

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

The SIMBOL-X hard X-ray mission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SIMBOL-X is a hard X-ray mission ... jointly carried out by CNES and ASI. SIMBOL-X makes uses of a long (in ... non focusing techniques used so far. The SIMBOL-X revolutionary instrumental capabilities will allow...

Giovanni Pareschi; Philippe Ferrando

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Component mixers and a hardness result for counterfeiting quantum money  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we give the first proof that, under reasonable assumptions, a problem related to counterfeiting quantum money from knots [Farhi et al. 2010] is hard. Along the way, we introduce the concept of a component mixer, define three new classical query problems and associated complexity classes related to graph isomorphism and group membership, and conjecture an oracle separating QCMA from QMA.

Andrew Lutomirski

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Gravitational collapse and thermalization in the hard wall model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study a simple example of holographic thermalization in a confining field theory: the homogeneous injection of energy in the hard wall model. Working in an amplitude expansion, we find black brane formation for sufficiently fast energy injection and a scattering wave solution for sufficiently slow injection. We comment on our expectations for more sophisticated holographic QCD models.

Ben Craps; Elias Kiritsis; Christopher Rosen; Anastasios Taliotis; Joris Vanhoof; Hongbao Zhang

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

160

A NEW MODEL FOR PERFORMANCE PREDICTION OF HARD ROCK TBMS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methods to accu- rately predict the penetration rate of a TBM in a given geology. These models are mainly, and the penetration rate. A good example of this is the Norwegian (NTH) hard rock diagnostic system and predictor penetration rate. This group of models 1.ResearchAssociakandGraduacStudentinMiningErrg.Dept. 2.Directorof

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Dynamics simulation of MEMS device embedded hard disk drive systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Currently, hard disk drives (HDD) use rotating disks to store digital data and magnetic recording heads are flying on the disk to read/write data. The recording heads are mounted on a slidersuspension assembly, which makes heads move from one ...

J. P. Yang; J. Chai; Y. Lu

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Direct Imaging of Soft-Hard Interfaces Enabled by Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct Imaging of Soft-Hard Interfaces Enabled by Graphene Zonghoon Lee,*, Ki-Joon Jeon,*, Albert. We show that graphene, a single atomic layer of sp2 -bonded carbon atoms, can be employed capability. Our findings reveal the unique potential of graphene as an ideal support film for atomic

Frenklach, Michael

163

Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS Steven van Dijk Dirk Thierens Mark de in Geographical Information Systems (GIS's). The framework is especially suited for geographical problems since as well. 1 Introduction Geographic Information Systems (GIS's for short) combine a geographical database

Utrecht, Universiteit

164

SUSPENSION VIBRATION COMPENSATION USING A MEMS MICROACTUATOR IN HARD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUSPENSION VIBRATION COMPENSATION USING A MEMS MICROACTUATOR IN HARD DISK DRIVES Tsung-Lin Chen of a prototype MEMS microactuator and vibration sensors, and controller design for suspension vibration. An LQG method is proposed for vibration sensor location and orientation optimization. Strain sensors

Horowitz, Roberto

165

Designing Proxies for Stock Market Indices is Computationally Hard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

market index) with four commonly-used indices give NP-complete problems, so are computationally hard be multiplied by arbitrary constants to arrive at desired starting index values at time 0. · The price-weighted index of B at time t is 1(B, t) = b i=1 Si,t b . (1) The Dow Jones Industrial Average is calculated

Tate, Steve

166

Does The 3N-Force Have A Hard Core?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The meson-nucleon dynamics that generates the hard core of the RuhrPot two-nucleon interaction is shown to vanish in the irreducible 3N force. This result indicates a small 3N force dominated by conventional light meson-exchange dynamics and holds for an arbitrary meson-theoretic Lagrangian. The resulting RuhrPot 3N force is defined in the appendix. A completely different result is expected when the Tamm-Dancoff/Bloch-Horowitz procedure is used to define the NN and 3N potentials. In that approach, (e.g. full Bonn potential) both the NN {\\it and} 3N potentials contain non-vanishing contributions from the coherent sum of meson-recoil dynamics and the possibility of a large hard core requiring explicit calculation cannot be ruled out.

J. A. Eden; M. F. Gari

1996-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

167

Hard Excluseive $?$ and $J/?$ Photoproduction off a Proton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the photoproduction of the vector mesons $\\Phi$ and $J/\\Psi$ off a proton in the kinematical regime of large energies and scattering angles within the framework of perturbative QCD. Our investigations are based on the hard scattering approach. This means that the hadrons are replaced by their valence Fock states and scattering on the partonic level is described by tree graphs in which the large transferred momentum is redistributed between the valence partons via the exchange of hard gluons. We find that the unpolarized photoproduction cross sections are dominated by Compton-scattering-like graphs in which the photon couples to the proton, whereas vector-meson-dominance-like graphs, in which the photon fluctuates into the heavy quark-antiquark pair which then exchanges two gluons with the proton, play a minor role. We give explicit predictions for unpolarized scattering cross sections and compare them with experimental data where possible.

A. T. Goritschnig; B. Melic; K. Passek-Kumericki; W. Schweiger

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

168

Probing the evolution and morphology of hard carbon spheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monodispersed hard carbon spheres can be synthesized quickly and reproducibly by autogenic reactions of hydrocarbon precursors, notably polyethylene (including plastic waste), at high temperature and pressure. The carbon microparticles formed by this reaction have a unique spherical architecture, with a dominant internal nanometer layered motif, and they exhibit diamond-like hardness and electrochemical properties similar to graphite. In the present study, in-situ monitoring by X-ray diffraction along with electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, neutron pair-distribution function analysis, and computational modeling has been used to elucidate the morphology and evolution of the carbon spheres that form from the autogenic reaction of polyethylene at high temperature and pressure. A mechanism is proposed on how polyethylene evolves from a linear chain-based material to a layered carbon motif. Heating the spheres to 2400-2800 C under inert conditions increases their graphitic character, particularly at the surface, which enhances their electrochemical and tribological properties.

Pol, Vilas G.; Wen, Jianguo; Lau, Kah Chun; Callear, Samantha; Bowron, Daniel T.; Lin, Chi-Kai; Deshmukh, Sanket A.; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Curtiss, Larry A.; David, William; Miller, Dean J.; Thackeray, Michael M.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Multiple reentrant glass transitions in confined hard-sphere glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glass forming liquids exhibit a rich phenomenology upon confinement. This is often related to the effects arising from wall-fluid interactions. Here we focus on the interesting limit where the separation of the confining walls becomes of the order of a few particle diameters. For a moderately polydisperse, densely packed hard-sphere fluid confined between two smooth hard walls, we show via event-driven molecular dynamics simulations the emergence of a multiple reentrant glass transition scenario upon a variation of the wall separation. Using thermodynamic relations, this reentrant phenomenon is shown to persist also under constant chemical potential. This allows straightforward experimental investigation and opens the way to a variety of applications in micro- and nanotechnology, where channel dimensions are comparable to the size of the contained particles. The results are in-line with theoretical predictions obtained by a combination of density functional theory and the mode-coupling theory of the glass transition.

S. Mandal; S. Lang; M. Gross; M. Oettel; D. Raabe; T. Franosch; F. Varnik

2014-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

170

4 : Hardware In this lecture consider Hard A Life  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4 : Hardware In this lecture consider Hard A Life Includes some `real robots' and simulated ones We ... Learning Classifier Systems p1 RJM 30/01/13 SE4SI12 Artificial Life ­ Part B © Dr Richard Mitchell 2013 #12;Robotics in Cybernetics p2 RJM 30/01/13 SE4SI12 Artificial Life ­ Part B © Dr Richard Mitchell 2013

Mitchell, Richard

171

February 24, 2009 Radiation-Hardness of VCSEL/PIN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Upgrade Week 6 Radiation-Hardness of GaAs PIN Preliminary Optowell AOC ULM significant decrease @ SLHC Gb/s Responsivity (A/W) GaAs Pre Post ULM 4.25 0.50 0.04 AOC 5.0 0.60 0.04 Optowell 3.125 0.60 0 8 850 nm VCSEL Power vs Dosage Very slow annealing of optical power AOC 5G has good power

Gan, K. K.

172

Diffuse scattering of hard x rays from rough surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The diffuse scattering of hard x rays from rough solid surfaces has been measured and described quantitatively in terms of an improved distorted-wave Born approximation. The rough surface is characterized by the rms roughness ?, the height-height correlation length ?, and the roughness exponent h. The value for ? is in excellent agreement with that deduced from reflectivity. The significance of the parameters ?, ?, and h is tested by comparison with the results obtained from scanning force mircoscopy.

Wolfgang Weber and Bruno Lengeler

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Chapter 9 - Recognition is Easy; Recall is Hard  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter describes important differences between recognition and recall, mainly that recognition is easy for the human brain and recall is hard. It describes how recognition and recall work in the brain. Patterns of neural activity, which is what memories are, can be activated in two different ways: by more perceptions coming in from the senses and by other brain activity. The former is recognition; the latter is recall. It then discusses the resulting guidelines for user-interface design, with examples.

Jeff Johnson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Nano-scale positioning, control and motion planning in hard disk drives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic flying height adjustment in hard disk drives throughprocessing for flying height control in hard disk drives . .for sub-3- nm flying height head-disk systems. Journal of

Boettcher, Uwe

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Science Bowl 2012: A Long, Hard-Fought Battle for First | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Science Bowl 2012: A Long, Hard-Fought Battle for First Science Bowl 2012: A Long, Hard-Fought Battle for First May 1, 2012 - 5:53pm Addthis Zaroug Jafeel, Mathew Arbesfeld, Julia...

176

Production of hard metal-like wear protection coatings by CO2 laser cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Protective coatings with hard metal-like wear properties could be obtained by laser beam surfacing of powder mixtures consisting of coarse-grained tungsten carbide and a nickel or cobalt hard alloy. The micros...

A. Techel; A. Luft; A. Mller; S. Nowotny

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Density functional theory for Baxter's sticky hard spheres in confinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has recently been shown that a free energy for Baxter's sticky hard sphere fluid is uniquely defined within the framework of fundamental measure theory (FMT) for the inhomogeneous hard sphere fluid, provided that it obeys scaled-particle theory and the Percus-Yevick (PY) result for the direct correlation function [Hansen-Goos and Wettlaufer, J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 134}, 014506 (2011)]. Here, combining weighted densities from common versions of FMT with a new vectorial weighted density, we derive a regularization of the divergences of the associated strongly confined limit. Moreover, the simple free energy that emerges is exact in the zero-dimensional limit, leaves the underlying equation of state unaffected, and yields a direct correlation function distinct from the PY expression. Comparison with simulation data for both the bulk pair correlation function and the density profiles in confinement shows that the new theory is significantly more accurate than the PY-based results. Finally, the resulting free energy is applicable to a glass of adhesive hard spheres.

Hendrik Hansen-Goos; Mark A. Miller; J. S. Wettlaufer

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

The Hardness of Cottonseed Cake as Related to its Suitability for Feeding.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STA1'1ON A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BICAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 523 MARCH, 1936 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Hardness of Cottonseed Cake as Related to its Suitabilit: for Feeding... Relation of hardness to consumption of cottonseed cake by sheep_- 23 classification of cottonseed cake with respect to hardness _----------_-_-__-- 25 Acknowledgment 2 7 Summary 27 BULLETIN NO. 523 MARCH, 1936 THE HARDNESS OF COTTONSEED CAKE AS RELATED...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Marrs, C. D. (Cecil Douglas)

1936-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

The effect of food hardness on feeding behaviour in frugivorous bats (Phyllostomidae): an experimental study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and Kruskal±Wallis tests demonstrate that feeding behaviours vary signi®cantly with fruit hardness both within

Dumont, Elizabeth R.

180

Ductile Binder Phase For Use With Almgb14 And Other Hard Ceramic Materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a ductile binder phase for use with AlMgB14 and other hard materials. The ductile binder phase, a cobalt-manganese alloy, is used in appropriate quantities to tailor good hardness and reasonable fracture toughness for hard materials so they can be used suitably in industrial machining and grinding applications.

Cook, Bruce A. (Ankeny, IA); Russell, Alan (Ames, IA); Harringa, Joel (Ames, IA)

2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Reactive multilayer synthesis of hard ceramic foils and films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for synthesizing hard ceramic materials such as carbides, borides nd aluminides, particularly in the form of coatings provided on another material so as to improve the wear and abrasion performance of machine tools, for example. The method involves the sputter deposition of alternating layers of reactive metals with layers of carbon, boron, or aluminum and the subsequent reaction of the multilayered structure to produce a dense crystalline ceramic. The material can be coated on a substrate or formed as a foil which can be coild as a tape for later use.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Measurements of the hard-x-ray reflectivity of iridium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In connection with the design of a hard-x-ray telescope for the Constellation X-Ray Observatory we measured the reflectivity of an iridium-coated zerodur substrate as a function of angle at 55, 60, 70, and 80 keV at the National Synchrotron Light Source of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The optical constants were derived from the reflectivity data. The real component of the index of refraction is in excellent agreement with theoretical values at all four energies. However, the imaginary component, which is related to the mass attenuation coefficient, is 50% to 70% larger at 55, 60, and 70 keV than theoretical values.

Romaine, S.; Bruni, R.; Gorenstein, P.; Zhong, Z

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

183

Grinding tool for making hemispherical bores in hard materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A grinding tool for forming hemispherical bores in hard materials such as boron carbide. The tool comprises a hemicircular grinding bit, formed of a metal bond diamond matrix, which is mounted transversely on one end of a tubular tool shaft. The bit includes a spherically curved outer edge surface which is the active grinding surface of the tool. Two coolant fluid ports on opposite sides of the bit enable introduction of coolant fluid through the bore of the tool shaft so as to be emitted adjacent the opposite sides of the grinding bit, thereby providing optimum cooling of both the workpiece and the bit.

Duran, E.L.

1985-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

184

Head wear reduction in future hard-disk drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Head wear and head vibration due to head-disk contact are two main issues that must be resolved for the future high-density Hard Disk Drives (HDDs). To reduce head wear, disk lubricant, carbon overcoat films on head and disk surfaces, head flying characteristics and so on have been studied. In this paper, we first show the effects of several parameters on head wear, including lubricant types, their MW, and disk burnishing. Our recent results on the effects of humidity and temperature on head wear are also explained. We then explain our extended wear equation and estimate the head wear life with present technologies.

Youichi Kawakubo; Shinnichi Nakazawa; Shinnichi Kobatake

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Quantum model of an autonomous oscillator in hard excitation regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose the simple quantum model of nonlinear autonomous oscillator in hard excitation regime. We originate from classical equations of motion for similar oscillator and quantize them using the Lindblad master equation for the density matrix of this system. The solution for the populations of the stationary states of such oscillator may be explicitly found in the case when nonlinearity parameters of the problem are small. It was shown that in this situation there are three distinct regimes of behavior of the model. We compare properties of this model with corresponding ones of close open system, namely quantum oscillator in soft excitation regime. We discuss a possible applications of the results obtained.

E. D. Vol; M. A. Ialovega

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

One dimensional Brownian motion in hard rods: adiabatic piston problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have investigated the motion characteristics of a movable piston immersed in a one dimensional gas of hard rods by event-oriented molecular dynamics in the absence of thermal noise. Periodic and reflecting boundary conditions are explored. It is shown that the piston undergoes systematic oscillations with decaying amplitudes in short times before it comes to global thermodynamic equilibrium. Moreover, the diffusion of the piston is explored and analytical expressions for its equilibrium mean-squared displacement is obtained. It is shown that MSD of the piston does not differ much from the normal rods despite its mass and length are significantly larger.

M. Ebrahim Foulaadvand; M. Mehdi Shafiee

2014-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

187

Linear Response Theory for Hard and Soft Glassy Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite qualitative differences in their underlying physics, both hard and soft glassy materials exhibit almost identical linear rheological behaviors. We show that these nearly universal properties emerge naturally in a shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory of amorphous plasticity, extended to include a broad distribution of internal thermal-activation barriers. The principal features of this barrier distribution are predicted by nonequilibrium, effective-temperature thermodynamics. Our theoretical loss modulus G{double_prime}({omega}) has a peak at the {alpha} relaxation rate, and a power law decay of the form {omega}{sup -{zeta}} for higher frequencies, in quantitative agreement with experimental data.

Langer, J. [University of California, Santa Barbara; Bouchbinder, Eran [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Anisotropic flow generated by hard partons in medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard partons which are produced copiously in nuclear collisions at the LHC, deposit most of their energy and momentum into the surrounding quark-gluon plasma. We show that this generates streams in the plasma and contributes importantly to flow anisotropies. With the help of event-by-event three-dimensional perfect hydrodynamic simulations we calculate the observable azimuthal anisotropies of hadronic distributions and show that the proposed mechanism is capable of generating non-negligible part of the observed signal. Hence, it must be taken into account in quantitative studies in which one tries to extract the values of viscosities from the comparison of simulated results with measured data.

Tomasik, Boris

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Multi-Scale Indentation Hardness Testing; A Correlation and Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This test is performed by applying a steady load to an indenter (most commonly a diamond pyramid, diamond spheroconical, or a tungsten carbide ball) and then calculating the hardness from the area or depth of the 5 indentation. A dynamic indentation test... 6 variants are the indenter tip and the load applied. A tungsten carbide sphere or a diamond cone or pyramid is used to prevent the indenter tip from being damaged by the test piece. This consideration is made because test pieces have unique values...

Bennett, Damon W.

2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

190

The Capacity-Cost Function of a Hard-Constrained In this paper we consider hard-constrained costly channels. By using the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 The Capacity-Cost Function of a Hard-Constrained Channel Abstract: In this paper we consider hard-constrained costly channels. By using the thermodynamic formalism, we prove thats its capacity-cost function strictly convex and some other related properties. We also obtain estimates for the variations of the cost

Lopes, Artur Oscar

191

IE Courses and Options Presenters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ergonomics and the Workplace (core) MIE345 Case Studies in Ergonomics (tech elective) MIE344 Ergonomic Design of Information Systems (tech elective) Year 4 MIE344 Ergonomic Design of Information Systems (tech elective) MIE345 Case Studies in Ergonomics (tech ele

192

PSU ARL Additive Manufacturing Capstone Project For the first time the PSU ARL, the IE480W CIMP-3D Group at Penn State showed that  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PSU ARL Additive Manufacturing Capstone Project For the first time the PSU ARL, the IE480W CIMP-3D Processing by Direct Digital Deposition (CIMP-3D), is a program utilizing Additive Manufacturing (AM was to develop an understanding of how key operating parameters such as layer thickness, manufacturing

Demirel, Melik C.

193

About the SimCCS model A cost surface, i.e. a raster grid of the cost to lay a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; · An "offshore scenario" exports CO2 towards the North sea through Normandy and toward an hypothetical storageA B C About the SimCCS model A cost surface, i.e. a raster grid of the cost to lay a pipeline across each grid cell, was estimated using geographical datasets including protected areas, existing gas

Boyer, Edmond

194

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED S T ~ T E SFISH COMMISSION. 153 ?&-ANNUAC REPORT ON TEIE ELECTRIIU LIURTINGI OA TllIE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, tho automatic cut-off regulating the quantity of steam. admitted to the load on the engine OA TllIE UNITED STATES STEAMRR ALDATRORS, DECEiTIRElR. 31,1585. B y Passed Assistant Engineer df. w depend largely (almostentirely), on the engine driving the dynamo, and the success of the system lies

195

O:\\Seminar (SEM)\\2014\\IE Seminars\\sem1314_Shaolei Ren_JWH_270514.docx THE CHINESE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center Become Sustainable? by Dr. Shaolei Ren Florida International University Date : 27 May, 2014 (TueO:\\Seminar (SEM)\\2014\\IE Seminars\\sem1314_Shaolei Ren_JWH_270514.docx THE CHINESE UNIVERSITY are embarrassingly notorious for their huge energy appetites, stirring serious sustainability concerns. While

Huang, Jianwei

196

Knowledge Exchange records from 01/04/2013 20/01/2014 CATEGORY 7 -Conference Proceedings, i.e. not peer-reviewed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Knowledge Exchange records from 01/04/2013 ­ 20/01/2014 CATEGORY 7 - Conference Proceedings, i.e. not peer-reviewed publications (11 records) Record ID 4010297 Title: IUFRO Conference WP 7.02.02. foliage: Abstract from conference given to an international audience. Bib type: M GMD: Conference Abstract Entered

197

Production of hard x rays in a plasma focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model of the plasma focus is considered in which large axial electric fields are induced by the imploding current sheet during the final few nanoseconds of the collapse phase. This field provides a mechanism for creation of a beam of electrons of highly suprathermal energies. For such a beam having a power?law energy spectrum the bremsstrahlung radiation above 100 keV to be expected from it both from electron?deuteron collisions in the focused plasma itself and when the beam reaches the walls of the device is calculated. The expected radiation from the walls is found to be several orders of magnitude higher than that from the plasma. Thus since experimental evidence indicates that little or no radiation above 100 keV originates in the walls the conclusion is drawn that the electrons in the beam must be decelerated after leaving the plasma and before reaching the walls. Upon comparison with experimental results qualitative agreement of the expected angular distribution of hard x rays with experiment is found. The total energy in accelerated electrons required to produce the observed total energy in hard x rays by this mechanism is also reasonable when compared with the total energy of the device.

C. E. Newman; Vah Petrosian

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Rolling friction for hard cylinder and sphere on viscoelastic solid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the friction force acting on a hard cylinder or spherical ball rolling on a flat surface of a viscoelastic solid. The rolling friction coefficient depends non-linearly on the normal load and the rolling velocity. For a cylinder rolling on a viscoelastic solid characterized by a single relaxation time Hunter has obtained an exact result for the rolling friction, and our result is in very good agreement with his result for this limiting case. The theoretical results are also in good agreement with experiments of Greenwood and Tabor. We suggest that measurements of rolling friction over a wide range of rolling velocities and temperatures may constitute an useful way to determine the viscoelastic modulus of rubber-like materials.

B. N. J. Persson

2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

199

Theory of angular dispersive imaging hard x-ray spectrographs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A spectrograph is an optical instrument that disperses photons of different energies into distinct directions and space locations, and images photon spectra on a position-sensitive detector. Spectrographs consist of collimating, angular dispersive, and focusing optical elements. Bragg reflecting crystals arranged in an asymmetric scattering geometry are used as the dispersing elements. A ray-transfer matrix technique is applied to propagate x-rays through the optical elements. Several optical designs of hard x-ray spectrographs are proposed and their performance is analyzed. Spectrographs with an energy resolution of 0.1 meV and a spectral window of imaging up to a few tens of meVs are shown to be feasible for inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) spectroscopy applications. In another example, a spectrograph with a 1-meV spectral resolution and 85-meV spectral window of imaging is considered for Cu K-edge resonant IXS (RIXS).

Shvyd'ko, Yuri

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Towards hard x-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard x-rays ( Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research and applications using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and x-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one x-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards x-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are: (a) avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang Zhehui; Morris, C. L.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Luo, S.-N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Towards hard X-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard X-rays ({approx}> 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one X-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards X-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are (a) Avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) Microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwiatkowski, Kris K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapustinsky, Jon S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

202

Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: a tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

McHargue, C.J.

1981-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

203

Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: A tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

McHargue, Carl J. (Farragut, TN)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Hard-core lattice model of multiphase systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cooperative-problem lattice model for gases, liquids, and solids on a face-centered-cubic lattice is approximately solved. A hard-core interaction is assumed between particles on nearest-, next-nearest-, and on next-but-one nearest-neighbor lattice sites. Particles on lattice sites which are at a greater distance from one another are connected by an arbitrary soft pair interaction whose zero Fourier component may be positive or negative. By considering not only homogeneous particle distributions but also some simple periodical particle distributions on the lattice we can, in the case of a mean attractive soft particle interaction, prove the possibility of the existence of four thermodynamical stable phases: a gas phase, a liquid phase, a solid modification with a face-centered-cubic periodical structure, and a solid modification with a simple cubic periodical structure. Transitions between these phases can take place.

H. P. Neumann

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Long duration hard X-ray transatlantic payload  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HXR80M large-area hard X-ray experiment, to be flown aboard a transatlantic balloon, is described. The detectors are two multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters (MWSPC) with a 2700-sq-cm sensitive area each. The two detectors are filled with an extremely pure xenon-isobutane mixture at high pressure (3-6 atm) in order to obtain good spectral resolution and high efficiency. The onboard data handling is performed by microprocessor-controlled electronics. The scientific aim of the experiment is the survey of the sky belt around the 38th parallel and in particular the observation of faint galactic objects and galactic binary systems in the 15-200 keV range.

La Padula, C.D.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.; Ubertini, P.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Effective interaction approach to the Fermi hard-sphere system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The formalism based on correlated basis functions and the cluster expansion technique has been recently employed to derive an effective interaction from a realistic nuclear hamiltonian. To gauge the reliability of this scheme, we perform a systematic comparison between the results of its application to the Fermi hard-sphere system and the predictions obtained from low-density expansions, as well as from other many-body techniques. The analysis of a variety of properties, including the ground state energy, the effective mass and the momentum distribution, shows that the effective interaction approach is remarkably accurate, thus suggesting that it may be employed to achieve a consistent description of the structure and dynamics of nuclear matter in the density region relevant to astrophysical applications.

Angela Mecca; Alessandro Lovato; Omar Benhar; Artur Polls

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

Effective interaction approach to the Fermi hard-sphere system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The formalism based on correlated basis functions and the cluster expansion technique has been recently employed to derive an effective interaction from a realistic nuclear hamiltonian. To gauge the reliability of this scheme, we perform a systematic comparison between the results of its application to the Fermi hard-sphere system and the predictions obtained from low-density expansions, as well as from other many-body techniques. The analysis of a variety of properties, including the ground state energy, the effective mass and the momentum distribution, shows that the effective interaction approach is remarkably accurate, thus suggesting that it may be employed to achieve a consistent description of the structure and dynamics of nuclear matter in the density region relevant to astrophysical applications.

Mecca, Angela; Benhar, Omar; Polls, Artur

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

E-Print Network 3.0 - aspo hard rock Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

60 Merguerian, Charles; and Ozdemir, Levent, 2003, Rock Mass Properties and Hard Rock TBM Penetration Rate Investigations, Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel 3, Stage 2: p....

209

Xcel Energy- Residential and Hard-to-Reach Standard Offer Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Residential and Hard-to-Reach Standard Offer Programs provide incentives to "Project Sponsors" to install energy efficiency measures in Xcel's service area. Residential customers should...

210

Dynamic Scheduling of Hard RealTime Applications in Open System Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic Scheduling of Hard Real­Time Applications in Open System Environment Z. Deng J. W.­S. Liu J

211

E-Print Network 3.0 - aespoe hard rock Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics 75 JUST OUTSIDE OUR DOOR by Dave Shinkle Summary: in boots and gloves Worked hard along the way Doing all the other things. Their sweat stained...

212

Dependence of Hard X-ray Emissions with the Charging Pressure in a Small Plasma Focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dependence with the filling pressure of the hard X-ray emission of a 250J Plasma-Focus device is presented. The study was performed...

M. Barbaglia; L. Soto; A. Clausse

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Regularized reconstruction of the differential emission measure from solar flare hard X-ray spectra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regularized reconstruction of the differential emission measure from solar flare hard X-ray spectra for solar flare hard X-rays, it is currently unclear whether the electron distribution responsible between (T) and J( ). However, in the last years, two issues have made this inversion problem more

Piana, Michele

214

Comparing radiation tolerant materials and devices for ultra rad-hard tracking Mara Bruzzi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resistance. This report compares directly the data on the performance of rad-hard materials and devicesComparing radiation tolerant materials and devices for ultra rad-hard tracking detectors Mara experiments of the future generation can be satisfied either with materials which are inherently more

California at Santa Cruz, University of

215

STRAIN SENSING WITH PIEZOELECTRIC ZINC OXIDE THIN FILMS FOR VIBRATION SUPPRESSION IN HARD DISK DRIVES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was successfully obtained while the suspension was flying on a disk as in normal drive operation. PreliminarySTRAIN SENSING WITH PIEZOELECTRIC ZINC OXIDE THIN FILMS FOR VIBRATION SUPPRESSION IN HARD DISK This paper describes the integration of thin film ZnO strain sensors onto hard disk drive suspensions

Horowitz, Roberto

216

Free Energy of an Assembly of Nonspherical Molecules with a Hard Core  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The free energy of an assembly of slightly nonspherical molecules with a hard core is expressed as the sum of the free energy of a system of equivalent hard spheres plus correction terms related to eccentricity. An estimate of these terms is made for ellipsoidal molecules.

A. Bellemans

1968-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

217

Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x-ray  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x-ray Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies Tuesday, July 23, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Dimosthenis Sokaras, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical tool for routine electronic structure investigations. Their advantageous characteristics like the chemical sensitivity or the hard x-rays penetration depth, that permits the implementation of difficult sample environments, expand the applicability of the relevant studies to multidisciplinary scientific fields. Simultaneously, the experimental

218

RESULTS OF IONSIV IE-95 STUDIES FOR THE REMOVAL OF RADIOACTIVE CESIUM FROM K-EAST BASIN SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL POOL DURING DECOMMISSIONING ACTIVITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report delineates the results obtained from laboratory testing of IONISIV{reg_sign} IE-95 to determine the efficacy of the zeolite for the removal of radioactive cesium from the KE Basin water prior to transport to the Effluent Treatment Facility, as described in RPP-PLAN-36158, IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-95 Studies for the removal of Radioactive Cesium from KE Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Pool during Decommissioning Activities. The spent nuclear fuel was removed from KE Basin and the remaining sludge was layered with a grout mixture consisting of 26% Lehigh Type I/II portland cement and 74% Boral Mohave type F fly ash with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.43. The first grout pour was added to the basin floor to a depth of approximately 14 in. covering an area of 12,000 square feet. A grout layer was also added to the sludge containers located in the attached Weasel and Technical View pits.

DUNCAN JB; BURKE SP

2008-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

219

Isotropic-nematic phase behavior of length polydisperse hard rods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The isotropic-nematic phase behavior of length polydisperse hard rods with arbitrary length distributions is calculated. Within a numerical treatment of the polydisperse Onsager model using the Gaussian trial function Ansatz we determine the onset of isotropic-nematic phase separation, coming from a dilute isotropic phase and a dense nematic phase. We focus on parent systems whose lengths can be described by either a Schulz or a `fat-tailed' log-normal distribution with appropriate lower and upper cutoff lengths. In both cases, very strong fractionation effects are observed for parent polydispersities larger than roughly 50 %. In these regimes, the isotropic and nematic phases are completely dominated by respectively the shortest and the longest rods in the system. Moreover, for the log-normal case, we predict triphasic isotropic-nematic-nematic equilibria to occur above a certain threshold polydispersity. By investigating the properties of the coexisting phases across the coexistence region for a particular set of cutoff lengths we explicitly show that the region of stable triphasic equilibria does not extend up to very large parent polydispersities but closes off at a consolute point located not far above the threshold polydispersity. The experimental relevance of the phenomenon is discussed.

H. H. Wensink; G. J. Vroege

2003-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

220

THE SWIFT/BAT HARD X-RAY TRANSIENT MONITOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as fine as 64 s. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the flux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public Web site. Between 2005 February 12 and 2013 April 30, 245 sources have been detected in the monitor, 146 of them persistent and 99 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 17 were previously unknown and were discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and filtering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure. We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries. For the new sources that are previously unpublished, we present basic data analysis and interpretations.

Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Romano, P. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Kennea, J. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bloom, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Ukwatta, T. N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Palmer, D. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, B244, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sakamoto, T. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Stamatikos, M. [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Free energy landscape of a dense hard-sphere system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The topography of the free energy landscape in phase space of a dense hard-sphere system characterized by a discretized free energy functional of the Ramakrishnan-Yussouff form is investigated numerically using a specially devised Monte Carlo procedure. We locate a considerable number of glassy local minima of the free energy and analyze the distributions of the free energy at a minimum and an appropriately defined phase-space distance between different minima. We find evidence for the existence of pairs of closely related glassy minima (two-level systems). We also investigate the way the system makes transitions as it moves from the basin of attraction of a minimum to that of another one after a start under nonequilibrium conditions. This allows us to determine the effective height of free energy barriers that separate a glassy minimum from the others. The dependence of the height of free energy barriers on the density is investigated in detail. The general appearance of the free energy landscape resembles that of a putting green: relatively deep minima separated by a fairly flat structure. We discuss the connection of our results with the Vogel-Fulcher law and relate our observations to other work on the glass transition.

Chandan Dasgupta and Oriol T. Valls

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures. 21 figs.

Siddons, D.P.; Johnson, E.D.; Guckel, H.; Klein, J.L.

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

223

Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures.

Siddons, David Peter (Shoreham, NY); Johnson, Erik D. (Ridge, NY); Guckel, Henry (Madison, WI); Klein, Jonathan L. (Madison, WI)

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

224

Wave packet autocorrelation functions for quantum hard-disk and hard-sphere billiards in the high-energy, diffraction regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the time evolution of a wave packet representing a quantum particle moving in a geometrically open billiard that consists of a number of fixed hard-disk or hard-sphere scatterers. Using the technique of multiple collision expansions we provide a first-principle analytical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function for the wave packet in the high-energy diffraction regime, in which the particle's de Broglie wave length, while being small compared to the size of the scatterers, is large enough to prevent the formation of geometric shadow over distances of the order of the particle's free flight path. The hard-disk or hard-sphere scattering system must be sufficiently dilute in order for this high-energy diffraction regime to be achievable. Apart from the overall exponential decay, the autocorrelation function exhibits a generally complicated sequence of relatively strong peaks corresponding to partial revivals of the wave packet. Both the exponential decay (or escape) rate and the revival peak structure are predominantly determined by the underlying classical dynamics. A relation between the escape rate, and the Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of the counterpart classical system, previously known for hard-disk billiards, is strengthened by generalization to three spatial dimensions. The results of the quantum mechanical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function agree with predictions of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory.

Arseni Goussev; J. R. Dorfman

2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

225

Nanopatterned ferroelectrics for ultrahigh density rad-hard nonvolatile memories.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation hard nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) is a crucial component for DOE and DOD surveillance and defense applications. NVRAMs based upon ferroelectric materials (also known as FERAMs) are proven to work in radiation-rich environments and inherently require less power than many other NVRAM technologies. However, fabrication and integration challenges have led to state-of-the-art FERAMs still being fabricated using a 130nm process while competing phase-change memory (PRAM) has been demonstrated with a 20nm process. Use of block copolymer lithography is a promising approach to patterning at the sub-32nm scale, but is currently limited to self-assembly directly on Si or SiO{sub 2} layers. Successful integration of ferroelectrics with discrete and addressable features of {approx}15-20nm would represent a 100-fold improvement in areal memory density and would enable more highly integrated electronic devices required for systems advances. Towards this end, we have developed a technique that allows us to carry out block copolymer self-assembly directly on a huge variety of different materials and have investigated the fabrication, integration, and characterization of electroceramic materials - primarily focused on solution-derived ferroelectrics - with discrete features of {approx}20nm and below. Significant challenges remain before such techniques will be capable of fabricating fully integrated NVRAM devices, but the tools developed for this effort are already finding broader use. This report introduces the nanopatterned NVRAM device concept as a mechanism for motivating the subsequent studies, but the bulk of the document will focus on the platform and technology development.

Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Stevens, Jeffrey; Scrymgeour, David; Gin, Aaron V.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

EFFECT OF ENDOSPERM HARDNESS ON AN ETHANOL PROCESS USING A GRANULAR STARCH HYDROLYZING ENZYME  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) can hydrolyze starch at low temperature (32C). The dry grind process using GSHE (GSH process) has fewer unit operations and no changes in process conditions (pH 4.0 and 32C) compared to the conventional process because it dispenses with the cooking and liquefaction step. In this study, the effects of endosperm hardness, protease, urea, and GSHE levels on GSH process were evaluated. Ground corn, soft endosperm, and hard endosperm were processed using two GSHE levels (0.1 and 0.4 mL per 100 g ground material) and four treatments of protease and urea addition. Soft and hard endosperm materials were obtained by grinding and sifting flaking grits from a dry milling pilot plant; classifications were confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. During 72 h of simultaneous granular starch hydrolysis and fermentation (GSHF), ethanol and glucose profiles were determined using HPLC. Soft endosperm resulted in higher final ethanol concentrations compared to ground corn or hard endosperm. Addition of urea increased final ethanol concentrations for soft and hard endosperm. Protease addition increased ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates for soft endosperm, hard endosperm, and ground corn. The effect of protease addition on ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates was most predominant for soft endosperm, less for hard endosperm, and least for ground corn. Samples (soft endosperm, hard endosperm, or corn) with protease resulted in higher (1.0% to 10.5% v/v) ethanol concentration compared to samples with urea. The GSH process with protease requires little or no urea addition. For fermentation of soft endosperm, GSHE dose can be reduced. Due to nutrients (lipids, minerals, and soluble proteins) present in corn that enhance yeast growth, ground corn fermented faster at the beginning than hard and soft endosperm.

P. Wang; W. Liu, D. B; Johnston, K. D; Rausch, S. J; Schmidt, M. E; Tumbleson, V. Singh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Surface tension of isotropic-nematic interfaces: Fundamental Measure Theory for hard spherocylinders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fluid constituted of hard spherocylinders is studied using a density functional theory for non-spherical hard particles, which can be written as a function of weighted densities. This is based on an extended deconvolution of the Mayer $f$-function for arbitrarily shaped convex hard bodies in tensorial weight functions, which depend each only on the shape and orientation of a single particle. In the course of an examination of the isotropic- nematic interface at coexistence the functional is applied to anisotropic and inhomogeneous problems for the first time. We find good qualitative agreement with other theoretical predictions and also with Monte-Carlo simulations.

Ren Wittmann; Klaus Mecke

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

228

Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

229

Dimensional Crossover of the Fundamental-Measure Functional for Parallel Hard Cubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a regularization of the recently proposed fundamental-measure functional for a mixture of parallel hard cubes. The regularized functional is shown to have correct dimensional crossovers to any smaller dimension, thus allowing its use to study highly inhomogeneous phases (such as the solid phase). Furthermore, it is shown how the functional of the slightly more-general model of parallel hard parallelepipeds can be obtained using the zero-dimensional functional as a generating functional. Extensions to the multicomponent system, a restricted-orientation model, and mixtures or prallel hard cylinders are also given.

Jos A. Cuesta and Yuri Martnez-Ratn

1997-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

Innovative Telemetry System Will Help Tap Hard-to-Reach Natural Gas  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Innovative Telemetry System Will Help Tap Hard-to-Reach Natural Gas Innovative Telemetry System Will Help Tap Hard-to-Reach Natural Gas Resources Innovative Telemetry System Will Help Tap Hard-to-Reach Natural Gas Resources November 2, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The commercialization of an innovative telemetry communications system developed through a U.S. Department of Energy research program will help U.S. producers tap previously hard-to-reach natural gas resources deep underground, resulting in access to additional supplies that will help enhance national energy security. The patented, proprietary Sharewell L.P. EM-MWD electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system was initially developed by the Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and E-Spectrum Technologies of San Antonio, Texas, under a four-year, cost-shared

231

The characterization of c-rate dependent hard carbon anode fracture induced by lithium intercalation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study sought to evaluate hard carbon's fracture characteristics under different cycling rates due to its lithium solid solubility and isotropic nature. In addition to the evaluation, an electrochemical shock map was ...

Villaln, Thomas A., Jr. (Thomas Aanthony)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Influence of rock mass fracturing on the net penetration rates of hard rock \\{TBMs\\}  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Penetration rates during excavation using hard rock tunnel boring machines (TBMs) are significantly influenced by the degree of fracturing of the rock mass. In the NTNU prediction model for hard rock TBM performance and costs, the rock mass fracturing factor (ks) is used to include the influence of rock mass fractures. The rock mass fracturing factor depends on the degree of fracturing, fracture type, fracture spacing, and the angle between fracture systems and the tunnel axis. In order to validate the relationship between the degree of fracturing and the net penetration rate of hard rock TBMs, field work has been carried out, consisting of geological back-mapping and analysis of performance data from a TBM tunnel. The rock mass influence on hard rock TBM performance prediction is taken into account in the NTNU model. Different correlations between net penetration rate and the fracturing factor (ks) have been identified for a variety of ks values.

F.J. Macias; P.D. Jakobsen; Y. Seo; A. Bruland

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

E-Print Network 3.0 - arbitrary hard ellipses Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

hard to show that empty-ellipse graphs can have quadratic complexity... be an arbitrary set of n points on the positive branch of the unit cubic ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique,...

234

The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe Beamline at Argonne National Laboratory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hard X-ray nanoprobe at the Advanced Photon Source provides characterizing of composition and structure of nanoscale materials and devices with high spatial-resolution using x-ray...

Maser, Jrg; Holt, Martin V; Winarski, Robert P; Rose, Volker; Stephenson, Gregory Brian; Fuesz, Peter

235

E-Print Network 3.0 - astronomical hard x-ray Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

search results for: astronomical hard x-ray Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Reverse Drift Bursts in the 0.8-4.5 GHz Band and their Relation to X-Rays Summary: and causing radio...

236

Effect of hardness of the piston ring coating on the wear characteristics of rubbing surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In marine engines, the wear between the piston-ring face and the ... performance. This study investigates the characteristics of wear arising between both hard and soft piston- ... on-Disk (POD) testing machine c...

Jeong Hwan Jang; Byeong Don Joo; Jae Ho Lee

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Bibliography Armstrong, T., R. Harding, G. Knorr, and D. Montgomery (1970). Solution of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bibliography Armstrong, T., R. Harding, G. Knorr, and D. Montgomery (1970). Solution of Vlasov's equation by transform methods. In Methods in Computational Physics. New York: Academic Press. Armstrong, T

Hammett, Greg

238

The flying height analysis of patterned sliders in magnetic hard disk drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ultra-low spacing of patterned sliders flying above a rotating disk with smooth surface in a hard disk drive is analyzed for high areal density ... slider are solved numerically to obtain the steady flying at...

W.-L. Li; S.-C. Lee; C.-W. Chen; F.-R. Tsai; M.-D. Chen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Thickness Change in Molecularly Thin Lubricant Under Flying Head in Hard Disk Drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In hard disk drives (HDDs), lubricants on disks are very important material to reduce head and disk wear. Thus, it is necessary to ... thickness to keep lubricant thickness constant on rotating disks. For this pu...

K. Yanagisawa; T. Watanabe; Y. Kawakubo; M. Yoshino

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Application of Rarefied Gas Dynamics to the Head-Disk Interface in Hard Disk Drives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a magnetic disk and a thermal flying height control (TFC)gration on the flying head slider at the head-disk interfaceThermal flying-height control sliders in hard disk drives

Liu, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Contact and temperature rise of thermal flying height control sliders in hard disk drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Contact and interfacial temperature rise upon slider-disk contact in hard disk drives is investigated using thermal flying height control (TFC) sliders. To achieve ... increasing bias. The temperature rise during...

Liane Matthes; Uwe Boettcher; Bernhard Knigge

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Air Bearing Slider Simulation and Modeling for Hard Disk Drives with Ultra-Low Flying Heights  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As non-traditional application of hard disk drives (HDDs) emerges, their mechanical robustness...13...]. Normal drives can not malfunction during the operating state, damage during initial assembly, testing, ins...

B. J. Shi; D. W. Shu; B. Gu; M. R. Parlapalli; C. N. Delia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Servo signal processing for flying height control in hard disk drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years, thermal actuated flying height control has been implemented in hard disk drives (HDD) to reduce the effect of flying height variations due to manufacturing tolerances or...2005). A stable low flying

Uwe Boettcher; Christopher A. Lacey; Hui Li; Kensuke Amemiya

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Hardness as a Function of Composition for N-Type Last Thermoelectric...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hardness as a Function of Composition for N-Type Last Thermoelectric Material Home Author: F. Ren, E. D. Case, E. J. Timm, H. J. Schock Year: 2007 Abstract: Compositional changes...

245

Next-to-leading order hard scattering using fully unintegrated parton distribution functions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We calculate the next-to-leading order fully unintegrated hard scattering coefficient for unpolarized gluon-induced deep inelastic scattering using the logical framework of parton correlation functions developed in previous work. In our approach, exact four-momentum conservation is maintained throughout the calculation. Hence, all nonperturbative functions, like parton distribution functions, depend on all components of parton four-momentum. In contrast to the usual collinear factorization approach where the hard scattering coefficient involves generalized functions (such as Dirac ? functions), the fully unintegrated hard scattering coefficient is an ordinary function. Gluon-induced deep inelastic scattering provides a simple illustration of the application of the fully unintegrated factorization formalism with a nontrivial hard scattering coefficient, applied to a phenomenologically interesting case. Furthermore, the gluon-induced process allows for a parametrization of the fully unintegrated gluon distribution function.

Ted C. Rogers

2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

246

Noncollinear orientation of external magnetic field and flux lines penetrating an isotropic hard superconductor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Penetration by Abrikosov flux lines of an isotropic hard superconductor in the ... induced by changes in the orientation of external magnetic field has been theoretically investigated. The analysis has ... forces...

S. E. Savelev; L. M. Fisher

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Magnetic structure and hysteresis in hard magnetic nanocrystalline film: Computer simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetic structure and hysteresis in hard magnetic nanocrystalline film: Computer simulation Taylor Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 Andrei Kazaryan and Yunzhi Wang Department of Materials Science of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 Armen G

Laughlin, David E.

248

PUBLISHED VERSION Study of runaway electrons with Hard X-ray spectrometry of tokamak plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 053509 (2014 Kingdom c Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Associação EURATOM-IST, Instituto Superior Tecnico

249

Next-to-Leading Order Hard Scattering Using Fully Unintegrated Parton Distribution Functions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the next-to-leading order fully unintegrated hard scattering coefficient for unpolarized gluon-induced deep inelastic scattering using the logical framework of parton correlation functions developed in previous work. In our approach, exact four-momentum conservation is maintained throughout the calculation. Hence, all non-perturbative functions, like parton distribution functions, depend on all components of parton four-momentum. In contrast to the usual collinear factorization approach where the hard scattering coefficient involves generalized functions (such as Dirac $\\delta$-functions), the fully unintegrated hard scattering coefficient is an ordinary function. Gluon-induced deep inelastic scattering provides a simple illustration of the application of the fully unintegrated factorization formalism with a non-trivial hard scattering coefficient, applied to a phenomenologically interesting case. Furthermore, the gluon-induced process allows for a parameterization of the fully unintegrated gluon distribution function.

Ted C. Rogers

2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

250

Next-to-leading order hard scattering using fully unintegrated parton distribution functions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We calculate the next-to-leading order fully unintegrated hard scattering coefficient for unpolarized gluon-induced deep inelastic scattering using the logical framework of parton correlation functions developed in previous work. In our approach, exact four-momentum conservation is maintained throughout the calculation. Hence, all nonperturbative functions, like parton distribution functions, depend on all components of parton four-momentum. In contrast to the usual collinear factorization approach where the hard scattering coefficient involves generalized functions (such as Dirac {delta} functions), the fully unintegrated hard scattering coefficient is an ordinary function. Gluon-induced deep inelastic scattering provides a simple illustration of the application of the fully unintegrated factorization formalism with a nontrivial hard scattering coefficient, applied to a phenomenologically interesting case. Furthermore, the gluon-induced process allows for a parametrization of the fully unintegrated gluon distribution function.

Rogers, Ted C. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Kinetic coefficient for hard-sphere crystal growth from the melt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we determine the magnitude and anisotropy of the kinetic coefficient (mu) for the crystal growth from the melt for the hard-sphere system through an analysis of equilibrium capillary ...

Laird, Brian Bostian; Amini, M.

2006-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

252

Closeout of IE Bulletin 84-02: Failures of General Electric Type HFA relays in use in Class 1E safety systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Documentation is provided in this report to close IE Bulletin 84--02 regarding the failure of General Electric Type HFA relays in Class 1E safety systems. The relay failures were due to aging of coil wire insulation and nylon or Lexan spools under certain environmental conditions. The bulletin was issued to nuclear power reactor licensees and holders of construction permits to provide assurance that the manufacturer's recommendations for corrective actions would be implemented. The bulletin required four specific actions, plus a review of the general concerns of the bulletin even though some facilities had different relays from those of bulletin concern. Evaluation of utility responses, NRC/Region inspection reports, and regional telephone calls has resulted in bulletin closeout of 116 (98%) of the 118 facilities to which the bulletin was issued for action. Facilities which were shut down or had construction halted indefinitely or permanently when the report was issued are not included in this review. A follow-up item is proposed in Appendix C for the two facilities with open status. Background information is supplied in the Introduction and Appendix A.

Foley, W.J.; Dean, R.S.; Hennick, A. (Parameter, Inc., Elm Grove, WI (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Tribology International 40 (2007) 345349 A comparative study on the structure and hardness enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by a combination of soft BON film and hard TiN film using low- (100 kHz) and high (13.56 MHz)-frequency RF plasma) substrate by low and high RF frequency plasma-assisted metal­organic chemical vapor deposition rights reserved. Keywords: Hard coatings; A-BON/nc-TiN bilayers; PAMOCVD; Low- and high-frequency RF

Boo, Jin-Hyo

255

Probing buried layers by photoelectron spectromicroscopy with hard x-ray excitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report about a proof-of-principle experiment which explores the perspectives of performing hard x-ray photoemission spectromicroscopy with high lateral resolution. Our results obtained with an energy-filtered photoemission microscope at the PETRA III storage ring facility using hard x-ray excitation up to 6.5 keV photon energy demonstrate that it is possible to obtain selected-area x-ray photoemission spectra from regions less than 500 nm in diameter.

Wiemann, C.; Patt, M.; Cramm, S. [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Escher, M.; Merkel, M. [FOCUS GmbH, D-65510 Huenstetten (Germany); Gloskovskii, A. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Thiess, S.; Drube, W. [DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, C. M. [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Fakultaet f. Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

2012-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

256

A quantitative model for interpreting nanometer scale hardness measurements of thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model was developed to determine hardness of thin films from hardness versus depth curves, given film thickness and substrate hardness. The model is developed by dividing the measured hardness into film and substrate contributions based on the projected areas of both the film and substrate under the indenter. The model incorporates constraints on the deformation of the film by the surrounding material in the film, the substrate, and friction at the indenter/film and film/substrate interfaces. These constraints increase the pressure that the film can withstand and account for the increase in measured hardness as the indenter approaches the substrate. The model is evaluated by fitting the predicted hardness versus depth curves obtained from titanium and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films of varying thicknesses on sapphire substrates. The model is also able to describe experimental data for Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films on sapphire with a carbon layer between the film and the substrate by a reduction in the interfacial strength from that obtained for a film without an interfacial carbon layer.

Poisl, W.H.; Fabes, B.D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Oliver, W.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF A JET AND ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN THE CORONA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the first hard X-ray observation of a solar jet on the limb with flare footpoints occulted, so that faint emission from accelerated electrons in the corona can be studied in detail. In this event on 2003 August 21, RHESSI observed a double coronal hard X-ray source in the pre-impulsive phase at both thermal and nonthermal energies. In the impulsive phase, the first of two hard X-ray bursts consists of a single thermal/nonthermal source coinciding with the lower of the two earlier sources, and the second burst shows an additional nonthermal, elongated source, spatially and temporally coincident with the coronal jet. Analysis of the jet hard X-ray source shows that collisional losses by accelerated electrons can deposit enough energy to generate the jet. The hard X-ray time profile above 20 keV matches that of the accompanying Type III and broadband gyrosynchrotron radio emission, indicating both accelerated electrons escaping outward along the jet path and electrons trapped in the flare loop. The double coronal hard X-ray source, the open field lines indicated by Type III bursts, and the presence of a small post-flare loop are consistent with significant electron acceleration in an interchange reconnection geometry.

Glesener, Lindsay; Lin, R. P.; Krucker, Saem, E-mail: glesener@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Science Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

258

Runaway electron energy measurement using hard x-ray spectroscopy in 'Damavand' tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Set of experiments has been developed to study existing runaway electrons in ''Damavand'' tokamak plasma upon characteristics of hard x-ray emissions produced by collision of the runaway electrons with the plasma particles and limiters. As a first step, spatial distribution of hard x-ray emissions on the equatorial plane of the torus was considered. Obtained spectra of hard x-ray emissions for different alignments of shielded detector indicate isotropic emissivity in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with wide angle cone of bremsstrahlung radiations, deduced from the mean value of energy of the runaway electrons. The mean energy was calculated from the slope of the energy spectrum of hard x-ray photons. In the second stage in order to investigate time evolution of energy of the runaway electrons, similar technique were applied to obtain hard x-ray energy in every 3 ms intervals, from the beginning to the end of plasma. The mean energy of the runaway electrons increases during the ramp up phase and reaches its maximum between 3 and 9 ms after plasma formation. Also considering the time dependence of the counted photons in each energy range shows that energetic photons are emitted during the ramp up phase of the plasma current in Damavand tokamak.

Rasouli, C.; Farahbod, A. H.; Rasouli, H.; Lamehi, M. [School of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iraji, D. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 (Switzerland); Akhtari, K. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Modarresi, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Hard X-ray Emission and Efficient Particle Acceleration by Supernova Remnants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I discuss the non-thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants. Over the last decade it has become clear from both X-ray and {gamma}-ray observations that young supernovae accelerate particles up to 100 TeV. In soft X-rays the accelerated >10 TeV electrons produce synchrotron radiation, coming from narrow filaments located at the shock fronts. The width of these filaments shows that the magnetic fields are relatively high, thus providing evidence for magnetic field amplification.The synchrotron radiation of several remnants is known to extend into the hard X-ray regime. In particular Cas A, has a spectrum that appears as a power law up to almost 100 TeV. This is very surprising, as a steepening is expected going from the soft to the hard X-ray band. The spectrum is likely a result of many superimposed individual spectra, each steepening at different energies. This implies considerable spatial variation in hard X-rays, an obvious target for Simbol-X. The variations will be important to infer local shock acceleration properties, but also magnetic field fluctuations may cause spatial and temporal variations.Finally, I draw the attention to super bubbles and supernovae as sources of cosmic rays. As such they may be sources of hard X-ray emission. In particular, supernovae exploding inside the dense red supergiants winds of their progenitors ares promising candidates for hard X-ray emission.

Vink, Jacco [Astronomical Institute Utrecht, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80000, 3508TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

260

Density functional theory for colloidal mixtures of hard platelets, rods, and spheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A geometry-based density functional theory is presented for mixtures of hard spheres, hard needles and hard platelets; both the needles and the platelets are taken to be of vanishing thickness. Geometrical weight functions that are characteristic for each species are given and it is shown how convolutions of pairs of weight functions recover each Mayer bond of the ternary mixture and hence ensure the correct second virial expansion of the excess free energy functional. The case of sphere-platelet overlap relies on the same approximation as does Rosenfeld's functional for strictly two-dimensional hard disks. We explicitly control contributions to the excess free energy that are of third order in density. Analytic expressions relevant for the application of the theory to states with planar translational and cylindrical rotational symmetry, e.g. to describe behavior at planar smooth walls, are given. For binary sphere-platelet mixtures, in the appropriate limit of small platelet densities, the theory differs from that used in a recent treatment [L. Harnau and S. Dietrich, Phys. Rev. E 71, 011504 (2004)]. As a test case of our approach we consider the isotropic-nematic bulk transition of pure hard platelets, which we find to be weakly first order, with values for the coexistence densities and the nematic order parameter that compare well with simulation results.

Ansgar Esztermann; Hendrik Reich; Matthias Schmidt

2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

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261

Hardness of FeB{sub 4}: Density functional theory investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recent experimental study reported the successful synthesis of an orthorhombic FeB{sub 4} with a high hardness of 62(5) GPa [H. Gou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 157002 (2013)], which has reignited extensive interests on whether transition-metal borides compounds will become superhard materials. However, it is contradicted with some theoretical studies suggesting transition-metal boron compounds are unlikely to become superhard materials. Here, we examined structural and electronic properties of FeB{sub 4} using density functional theory. The electronic calculations show the good metallicity and covalent FeB bonding. Meanwhile, we extensively investigated stress-strain relations of FeB{sub 4} under various tensile and shear loading directions. The calculated weakest tensile and shear stresses are 40 GPa and 25 GPa, respectively. Further simulations (e.g., electron localization function and bond length along the weakest loading direction) on FeB{sub 4} show the weak FeB bonding is responsible for this low hardness. Moreover, these results are consistent with the value of Vickers hardness (11.732.3 GPa) by employing different empirical hardness models and below the superhardness threshold of 40 GPa. Our current results suggest FeB{sub 4} is a hard material and unlikely to become superhard (>40 GPa)

Zhang, Miao; Du, Yonghui; Gao, Lili [Department of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China)] [Department of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Lu, Mingchun [Department of Aeronautical Engineering Professional Technology, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132102 (China)] [Department of Aeronautical Engineering Professional Technology, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132102 (China); Lu, Cheng [Department of Physics, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061 (China)] [Department of Physics, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061 (China); Liu, Hanyu, E-mail: hal420@mail.usask.ca [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

262

Application of cathodic arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films to the head/disk tribology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amorphous hard carbon films deposited by filtered cathodic arc deposition exhibit very high hardness and elastic modulus, high mass density, low coefficient of friction, and the films are very smooth. All these properties are beneficial to applications of these films for the head/disk interface tribology. The properties of cathodic arc deposited amorphous carbon films are summarized, and they are compared to sputter deposited, hydrogenated (CH{sub x}), and nitrogenated (CN{sub x}) carbon films which are the present choice for hard disk and slider coatings. New developments in cathodic arc coaters are discussed which are of interest to the disk drive industry. Experiments on the nanotribology, mass density and hardness, corrosion behavior, and tribochemical behavior of cathodic arc films are reported. A number of applications of cathodic arc deposited films to hard disk and slider coatings are described. It is shown that their tribological performance is considerably better compared to CH{sub x} and CN{sub x} films.

Anders, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.; Bhatia, C.S. [SSD/IBM, San Jose, CA (United States); Fong, W.; Lo, R.Y.; Bogy, D.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Computer Mechanics Lab.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Hard Carbon Wrapped in Graphene Networks as Lithium Ion Battery Anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hard carbon enveloped with graphene networks was fabricated by a facile and scalable method. In the constructed architecture, hard carbon offers large lithium storage and flexible graphene layers can provide a highly conductive matrix for enabling good contact between particles and facilitate the diffusion and transport of electrons and ions. As a consequence, the hybrid anode exhibits enhanced reversible capacity (500mAhg?1 at current density of 20mAg?1), rate capability (400mAhg?1 at 0.2C, 290mAhg?1 at 1C, 250mAhg?1 at 2C, and 200mAhg?1 at 5C, 1C=400mAg?1) and cycle performance. We believe that the outstanding synergetic effect between the graphene networks and the hard carbon structures induces the superior lithium storage performance of the overall electrode by maximally utilizing the electrochemically active graphene and hard carbon particles. As far as we know, the hard carbon/graphene hybrids were firstly fabricated as anode in lithium-ion batteries.

Xiang Zhang; Changling Fan; Lingfang Li; Weihua Zhang; Wei Zeng; Xing He; Shaochang Han

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Hardness-based plasticity and fracture model for quench-hardenable boron steel (22MnB5)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive strain hardening and fracture characterization of different grades of boron steel blanks has been performed, providing the foundation for the implementation into the modular material model (MMM) framework developed by Volkswagen Group Research for an explicit crash code. Due to the introduction of hardness-based interpolation rules for the characterized main grades, the hardening and fracture behavior is solely described by the underlying Vickers hardness. In other words, knowledge of the hardness distribution within a hot-formed component is enough to set up the newly developed computational model. The hardness distribution can be easily introduced via an experimentally measured hardness curve or via hardness mapping from a corresponding hot-forming simulation. For industrial application using rather coarse and computationally inexpensive shell element meshes, the user material model has been extended by a necking/post-necking model with reduced mesh-dependency as an additional failure mode. The present paper mainly addresses the necking/post-necking model.

Greve, L., E-mail: lars.greve@volkswagen.de; Medricky, M., E-mail: miloslav.medricky@volkswagen.de; Andres, M., E-mail: miloslav.medricky@volkswagen.de [Volkswagen AG, Letter Box 1777, Wolfsburg, 38436 (Germany); Eller, T. K., E-mail: tom.karl.eller@volkswagen.de [Volkswagen AG, Letter Box 1777, Wolfsburg, 38436, Germany, and University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

265

Breaking Up - And Making Up - Are Hard To Do | U.S. DOE Office of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Breaking Up Breaking Up - And Making Up - Are Hard To Do News Featured Articles 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Science Headlines Presentations & Testimony News Archives Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 12.27.11 Breaking Up - And Making Up - Are Hard To Do But as Office of Science research shows, the results can be electric. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page It's said that breaking up is hard to do. That's undoubtedly true. And so is making up, as more than a few forlorn hearts have found. But when the lightning does strike, the electricity is lasting. What's true for the affairs of the heart also holds for the affairs of hydrogen, as researchers at the Office of Science's Argonne National

266

Why Basin And Range Systems Are Hard To Find Ii- Structural Model Of The  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Why Basin And Range Systems Are Hard To Find Ii- Structural Model Of The Why Basin And Range Systems Are Hard To Find Ii- Structural Model Of The Producing Geothermal System In Dixie Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Why Basin And Range Systems Are Hard To Find Ii- Structural Model Of The Producing Geothermal System In Dixie Valley, Nevada Details Activities (4) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Dixie Valley is the hottest (> 285°C at 3 km) and one of the largest geothermal systems (63 MW power plant operated for over 20 years) in the Basin and Range province. The heat source is deep circulation in a high heat flow, highly fractured upper crust without a significant magmatic thermal input. Many hot springs in the Basin and Range Province share the characteristics of the Dixie Valley system. Major geothermal resource

267

Argonne CNM HighlightL Hard X-ray characterization of fly ash geopolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hard X-ray characterization of fly ash geopolymers Hard X-ray characterization of fly ash geopolymers Calcium Map Calcium map of an activated fly ash geopolymer displays regions of high calcium concentration (circled). Their distribution suggests localization as a discrete calcium-rich phase within the lower-calcium aluminosilicate geopolymer gel. Use of the Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) has provided the first access to the nature of heterogeneity in real fly ash-derived geopolymers at the nanoscale. Direct evidence of the formation of discrete high-calcium nanometer-sized particles within a hydroxide-activated geopolymer synthesized from a low-calcium fly ash has been obtained using HXN fluorescence characterization. Additionally, the team of CNM users from the University of Melbourne, the Universidad del Valle of Colombia, and the

268

Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do December 29, 2011 - 1:12pm Addthis Researchers at Argonne National Lab have recently developed a process to improve the efficiency of producing hydrogen to run cars such as this prototype, which was developed at the Oakridge National Lab. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Researchers at Argonne National Lab have recently developed a process to improve the efficiency of producing hydrogen to run cars such as this prototype, which was developed at the Oakridge National Lab. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What does this project do? Researchers have new insight into producing pure hydrogen -- a

269

Effects of sequential tungsten and helium ion implantation on nano-indentation hardness of tungsten  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To simulate neutron and helium damage in a fusion reactor first wall sequential self-ion implantation up to 13 dpa followed by helium-ion implantation up to 3000 appm was performed to produce damaged layers of {approx}2 {mu}m depth in pure tungsten. The hardness of these layers was measured using nanoindentation and was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Substantial hardness increases were seen in helium implanted regions, with smaller hardness increases in regions which had already been self-ion implanted, thus, containing pre-existing dislocation loops. This suggests that, for the same helium content, helium trapped in distributed vacancies gives stronger hardening than helium trapped in vacancies condensed into dislocation loops.

Armstrong, D. E. J.; Edmondson, P. D.; Roberts, S. G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)] [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

270

Hard and soft probe - medium interactions in a 3D hydro+micro approach at RHIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We utilize a 3D hybrid hydro+micro model for a comprehensive and consistent description of soft and hard particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. In the soft sector we focus on the dynamics of (multi-)strange baryons, where a clear strangeness dependence of their collision rates and freeze-out is observed. In the hard sector we study the radiative energy loss of hard partons in a soft medium in the multiple soft scattering approximation. While the nuclear suppression factor $R_{AA}$ does not reflect the high quality of the medium description (except in a reduced systematic uncertainty in extracting the quenching power of the medium), the hydrodynamical model also allows to study different centralities and in particular the angular variation of $R_{AA}$ with respect to the reaction plane, allowing for a controlled variation of the in-medium path-length.

Bass, S A; Ruppert, J; Nonaka, C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Use of a hard mask for formation of gate and dielectric via nanofilament field emission devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for fabricating a nanofilament field emission device in which a via in a dielectric layer is self-aligned to gate metal via structure located on top of the dielectric layer. By the use of a hard mask layer located on top of the gate metal layer, inert to the etch chemistry for the gate metal layer, and in which a via is formed by the pattern from etched nuclear tracks in a trackable material, a via is formed by the hard mask will eliminate any erosion of the gate metal layer during the dielectric via etch. Also, the hard mask layer will protect the gate metal layer while the gate structure is etched back from the edge of the dielectric via, if such is desired. This method provides more tolerance for the electroplating of a nanofilament in the dielectric via and sharpening of the nanofilament.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Magnetization reversal in CoPt(111) hard/soft bilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The magnetization reversal in magnetron sputtered CoPt(111) hard/soft bilayers has been studied by polarized neutron reflectometry and magnetization measurements. The stability of the hard layer is tuned by the heat-treatment conditions which are used to crystallize the chemically ordered, high anisotropy, L{sub 1}0 phase. All the samples show the same features in their first order reversal curves but the lateral domain size during the magnetization reversal of the soft layer differs. In samples with strong intergrain coupling it exceeds the coherence length of the neutron beam, resulting in spin-flip scattering. In contrast, the hard layer reversal occurs through the reorientation in small domains.

Alexandrakis, V.; Niarchos, D. [IMS, NCSR 'Demokritos', Ag. Paraskevi Attiki, Attiki 153 10 (Greece); Wolff, M. [Institute for Solid State Physics/EP IV, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Panagiotopoulos, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do December 29, 2011 - 1:12pm Addthis Researchers at Argonne National Lab have recently developed a process to improve the efficiency of producing hydrogen to run cars such as this prototype, which was developed at the Oakridge National Lab. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Researchers at Argonne National Lab have recently developed a process to improve the efficiency of producing hydrogen to run cars such as this prototype, which was developed at the Oakridge National Lab. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What does this project do? Researchers have new insight into producing pure hydrogen -- a

274

Super Hard and Slick Coatings Win R&D 100 Award  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Super Hard and Slick Coatings Win R&D 100 Award Super Hard and Slick Coatings Win R&D 100 Award Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory received a R&D 100 award, as judged by R&D Magazine, in July 2009 for developing super hard and slick coating (SSC) for increased engine efficiency and component reliability. SSC is an important step towards increasing fuel efficiency in vehicles, which helps meet the administration's goals of reducing the Nation's dependence on foreign oil and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) began researching super slick coatings in 2005. The awards recognize the top scientific and technological innovations of the past year. ANL scientists have won 105 R&D 100 awards since they were first introduced in 1964.

275

Pulse energy measurement at the hard x-ray laser in Japan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulse energies of a free electron laser have accurately been measured in the hard x-ray spectral range. In the photon energy regime from 4.4 keV to 16.8 keV, pulse energies up to 100 {mu}J were obtained at the hard x-ray laser facility SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser). Two independent methods, using a cryogenic radiometer and a gas monitor detector, were applied and agreement within 3.3% was achieved. Based on our validated pulse energy measurement, a SACLA online monitor detector could be calibrated for all future experiments.

Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Saito, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), NMIJ, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kurosawa, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), NMIJ, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Richter, M. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Sorokin, A. A. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tiedtke, K. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Kudo, T.; Yabashi, M. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Tono, K. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ishikawa, T. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

276

What hard probes tell us about the quark-gluon plasma: Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the study of the quark-gluon plasma in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, hard and electromagnetic (EM) processes play an essential role as probes of the properties of the dense medium. They can be used to study a wide range of properties of the dense medium in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, from space-time profiles of the dense matter, bulk transport coefficients to EM responses and the jet transport parameter. I review in this talk these medium properties, how they can be studied through hard and EM probes and the status of recent theoretical and phenomenological investigations.

Xin-Nian Wang

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

277

What hard probes tell us about the quark-gluon plasma: Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the study of the quark-gluon plasma in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, hard and electromagnetic (EM) processes play an essential role as probes of the properties of the dense medium. They can be used to study a wide range of properties of the dense medium in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, from space-time profiles of the dense matter, bulk transport coefficients to EM responses and the jet transport parameter. I review in this talk these medium properties, how they can be studied through hard and EM probes and the status of recent theoretical and phenomenological investigations.

Wang, Xin-Nian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Reef fish assemblages on hard banks in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

f~C~ h h d banks of the northwestern Gulf based on submersible observations 106 46. Comparison of coloration characters in Holacanthus spp. and their intermediates. Totals for scores on Feddern's patterns 1, 5, and 7 (comparative data from...' Figure 1. Hard banks of the northwestern Gulf of Nexico. eO p+ O 4 cp v+ A +~+~ 0~0 ~4 ~O + ohio+ 50 50 5 Z 100 III 0 100 150 150 Figure 2. Biotic zones known to occur on the hard banks of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Broken bar...

Dennis, George David

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

For a complete list of current vacancies and information on the application process please refer to www.ucd.ie/vacancies or alternatively contact UCD HR on 01 716 4900.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VACANCIES For a complete list of current vacancies and information on the application process please refer to www.ucd.ie/vacancies or alternatively contact UCD HR on 01 716 4900. Events 22March2010

280

For a complete list of current vacancies and information on the application process please refer to www.ucd.ie/vacancies or alternatively contact UCD HR on 01 716 4900.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VACANCIES For a complete list of current vacancies and information on the application process please refer to www.ucd.ie/vacancies or alternatively contact UCD HR on 01 716 4900. CYCLE TO WORK SCHEME

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Experimental Study of Hard X-ray Emission with Different Anode Tips in APF Plasma Focus Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To investigate the effect of different anode tips on the hard X-ray (HXR) emission from APF plasma focus device (16kV, 36?f, and...

M. Habibi; R. Amrollahi; G. R. Etaati

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Relationships Between Abrasive Wear, Hardness, and Surface Grinding Characteristics of Titanium-Based Metal Matrix Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to support the development of grinding models for titanium metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by investigating possible relationships between their indentation hardness, low-stress belt abrasion, high-stress belt abrasion, and the surface grinding characteristics. Three Ti-based particulate composites were tested and compared with the popular titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The three composites were a Ti-6Al-4V-based MMC with 5% TiB{sub 2} particles, a Ti-6Al-4V MMC with 10% TiC particles, and a Ti-6Al-4V/Ti-7.5%W binary alloy matrix that contained 7.5% TiC particles. Two types of belt abrasion tests were used: (a) a modified ASTM G164 low-stress loop abrasion test, and (b) a higher-stress test developed to quantify the grindability of ceramics. Results were correlated with G-ratios (ratio of stock removed to abrasives consumed) obtained from an instrumented surface grinder. Brinell hardness correlated better with abrasion characteristics than microindentation or scratch hardness. Wear volumes from low-stress and high-stress abrasive belt tests were related by a second-degree polynomial. Grindability numbers correlated with hard particle content but were also matrix-dependent.

Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Nanoindentation and adhesion of sol-gel-derived hard coatings on polyester  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Fong, and M. Sarikaya Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington component and adding transition metal oxides. These modifications resulted in tailored thermal, optical on the plastic surface. Nanoindentation analysis revealed that the coatings have a surface hardness up to 2.5 ± 0

Cao, Guozhong

284

On Hard Decision Upper Bounds for Coded M-Ary Hierarchical Modulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

outlay, such a dual decoder allows for savings on energy consumption any time hard decision is deemed-uniform spacing of the symbols in a hierarchical constellation. For example, for a hierarchical QAM constellation of hierarchical constellations under memoryless channel models. Our analysis is based on the observation

Cosman, Pamela C.

285

Is the plateau state in GRS 1915+105 equivalent to canonical hard states?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Corbel S., Buxton M. M., Baylin C. D., 2009, in Rodriguez J., Ferrando P., eds, AIP Conf. Ser. Vol. 1126, Simbol-X: Focusing on the Hard X-Ray Universe. Am. Inst. Phys., New York, p. 207. Deegan P. , Combet C., Wynn G. A......

Pieter van Oers; Sera Markoff; Farid Rahoui; Dipankar Maitra; Michael Nowak; Jrn Wilms; Alberto J. Castro-Tirado; Jerome Rodriguez; Vivek Dhawan; Emilios Harlaftis

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Cryptographic Hardness based on the Decoding of ReedSolomon Codes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryptographic Hardness based on the Decoding of Reed­Solomon Codes Aggelos Kiayias # Moti Yung + Abstract We investigate the decoding problem of Reed­Solomon (RS) Codes, also known as the Polynomial). This is the fundamen­ tal methodology initiated by Goldwasser and Micali in [GM84] where they started the quest

287

Cryptographic Hardness based on the Decoding of Reed-Solomon Codes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryptographic Hardness based on the Decoding of Reed-Solomon Codes Aggelos Kiayias Moti Yung Abstract We investigate the decoding problem of Reed-Solomon (RS) Codes, also known as the Polynomial). This is the fundamen- tal methodology initiated by Goldwasser and Micali in [GM84] where they started the quest

288

Incompressibility and Hardness of Solid Solution Transition Metal Diborides: Os1-xRuxB2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cannot be used to cut steel or other ferrous metals because of the formation of iron carbide at elevatedIncompressibility and Hardness of Solid Solution Transition Metal Diborides: Os1-xRuxB2 Michelle B materials has prompted studies of transition metal diboride solid solutions. We have synthesized pure RuB2

Tolbert, Sarah

289

Density Functional Theory for Baxter's Sticky Hard Spheres in Confinement Hendrik Hansen-Goos,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density Functional Theory for Baxter's Sticky Hard Spheres in Confinement Hendrik Hansen-Goos,1 that it obeys scaled-particle theory and the Percus-Yevick (PY) result for the direct correlation function [H with simulation data for both the bulk pair-correlation function and the density profiles in confinement shows

Wettlaufer, John S.

290

Magnetization reversal and exchange bias effects in hard/soft ferromagnetic bilayers with orthogonal anisotropies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The magnetization reversal processes are discussed for exchange-coupled ferromagnetic hard/soft bilayers made from Co[subscript 0.66]Cr[subscript 0.22]Pt[subscript 0.12] (10 and 20 nm)/Ni (from 0 to 40 nm) films with ...

Ross, Caroline A.

291

Evaluation of Transverse, Bodily Tooth Movement and Its Effects on the Surrounding Hard Tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the negative effects seen during orthodontic expansion is a result of tipping rather than expansion. The aim of the present study was to produce buccal translation, with little or no coronal tipping, and evaluate hard tissue changes of the dental...

Capps, Chad Jason

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Process for casting hard-faced, lightweight camshafts and other cylindrical products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for casting a hard-faced cylindrical product such as an automobile camshaft includes the steps of: (a) preparing a composition formed from a molten base metal and an additive in particle form and having a hardness value greater than the hardness value of the base metal; (b) introducing the composition into a flask containing a meltable pattern of a cylindrical product such as an automobile camshaft to be manufactured and encased in sand to allow the composition to melt the pattern and assume the shape of the pattern within the sand; and (c) rotating the flask containing the pattern about the longitudinal axes of both the flask and the pattern as the molten base metal containing the additive in particle form is introduced into the flask to cause particles of the additive entrained in the molten base metal to migrate by centrifugal action to the radial extremities of the pattern and thereby provide a cylindrical product having a hardness value greater at it's radial extremities than at its center when the molten base metal solidifies.

Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); Argetsinger, Edward R. (Albany, OR); Wilson, Rick D. (Corvallis, OR)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

A robot-based detector manipulator system for a hard x-ray nanoprobe instrument.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the design of a robot-based detector manipulator for microdiffraction applications with a hard X-ray nanoprobe instrument system being constructed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) being constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Applications for detectors weighing from 1.5 to 100 kg were discussed in three configurations.

Shu, D., Maser, J., Holt, M. , Winarski, R., Preissner, C.,Lai, B., Vogt, S., Stephenson, G.B.

2007-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

294

Soft and hard shells in metallic nanocrystals D. Y. Sun,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soft and hard shells in metallic nanocrystals D. Y. Sun,1,2 X. G. Gong,1,2 and Xiao-Qian Wang2 1 such as the enhanced specific heat and low Debye temperature for nanocrystals, studies on the vi- brational properties. In order to pursue the spatial distribution of the elastic and vibrational properties, we divide

Gong, Xingao

295

Raman Spectroscopy Characterization of amorphous carbon coatings for computer hard disks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amorphous carbon films are used as protective coatings on magnetic media to protect the magnetic layer from wear and abrasion caused by the read/write head during hard disk drive start-up and operation. A key requirement in increasing the storage capacity and reliability of hard-disk drives is improving the performance of these coatings. This cooperative agreement used optical characterization techniques developed at LBNL to study thin-film hard disk media produced by Seagate Technology, major US hard drive manufacturer. The chief scientific goal was relating quantitatively the results of the optical characterization to the underlying chemical structure of the overcoat. In a collaboration with Seagate, LBNL, and Cambridge University, optical and electron-based characterization were used to evaluate the chemical structure of overcoats. The sp3 fraction of the sputtered amorphous carbon films was measured quantitatively for the first time and related to the optical spectroscopy results. This work and other selected aspects of the research performed under the agreement were presented at technical meetings and published in the open literature. The chief technical goal was designing manufacturing processes for the protective carbon overcoat for use in new generations of Seagate disk drives. To this end, joint research carried out under this agreement enabled Seagate to speed development of new coatings which are currently being used in the production of disk media in Seagate's disk-media manufacturing plants in Fremont, CA.

Ager III, Joel W.

1998-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

296

Anisotropic flow from hard partons in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anisotropies of hadronic distribution in nuclear collisions are used for determination of properties of the nuclear matter. At the LHC it is important to account for the contribution to the flow due to momentum transferred from hard partons to the quark-gluon plasma.

Tomasik, Boris

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

New insights from sedimentation equilibrium in an experimental hard-sphere-plus-dipolar Brownian colloidal system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard-sphere colloids are simple conceptually, yet density-matched micron-scale colloidal hard-sphere systems for real-space microscopy are difficult to obtain in the laboratory. Colloids with a dipolar interaction are complex, with angle-dependent attractions or repulsions, and there remain unanswered questions: whether the gas-liquid transition exists, and why there is a low-density networking-forming "void" phase. In this work, we vary the electric field and measure density profiles of Brownian dipolar colloids in sedimentation equilibrium. At zero field, the equation of state matches the hard-sphere equation of state. When there is an electric field parallel to gravity, the clusters of chains form from the bottom substrate, and expand the colloidal sediment; the second virial coefficient obtained from the apparent equation of state is larger than the hard-sphere value. Additional information about the spatial distribution of hydrodynamic sizes, obtained from "sedimentation-diffusion" profiles, also shows the effects of clustering. For micron-scale dipolar colloids in gravity, clustering begins at the surface: the resulting registry between dipoles can enhance repulsions, and lead to less compact structures.

Hugh D. Newman; Anand Yethiraj

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

298

The hard TeV spectrum of 1ES 0229+200: new clues from Swift  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The BL Lac object 1ES 0229+200 (z=0.14) has been detected by HESS during observations taking place in 2005-2006. The TeV spectrum, when corrected for the absorption of gamma-ray photons through the interaction with the extragalactic background light, is extremely hard, even if the most conservative level for the background is considered. The case of 1ES 0229+200 is very similar to that of 1ES 1101-232, for which a possible explanation, in the framework of the standard one-zone synchrotron-self Compton model, is that the high-energy emission is synchrotron-self Compton radiation of electrons distributed as a power law with a large value of the minimum energy. In this scenario the hard TeV spectrum is accompanied by a very hard synchrotron continuum below the soft X-ray band. We will show that recent Swift observations of 1ES 0229+200 in the critical UV-X-ray band strongly support this model, showing the presence of the expected spectral break and hard continuum between the UV and the X-ray bands.

Tavecchio, F; Ghirlanda, G; Franceschini, A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Hypersonic acoustic excitations in binary colloidal crystals: Big versus small hard sphere control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hypersonic acoustic excitations in binary colloidal crystals: Big versus small hard sphere control January 2007 The phononic band structure of two binary colloidal crystals, at hypersonic frequencies of light photonic crystals 2 and sound at hypersonic frequencies.3 The propa- gation of phonons

Schofield, Andrew B.

300

Energy Aware Non-preemptive Scheduling for Hard Real-Time Ravindra Jejurikar Rajesh K. Gupta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . 11 4 Energy comparison of the static slowdown algorithms as a function of the task gain factor GfEnergy Aware Non-preemptive Scheduling for Hard Real-Time Systems Ravindra Jejurikar Rajesh K the ability to perform an energy-delay tradeoff in the computation and communications subsystems. Slowdown

Gupta, Rajesh

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

An Analysis of Hard Drive Energy Consumption Anthony Hylick, Ripduman Sohan, Andrew Rice, and Brian Jones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Analysis of Hard Drive Energy Consumption Anthony Hylick, Ripduman Sohan, Andrew Rice, and Brian consumed by the electronics of a drive is just as important as the mechanical energy consumption; (ii consumption was a concern pri- marily for mobile computing domains. The rising cost of energy and increased

Cambridge, University of

302

Formation of Sets and Subsets of Informative Features of Information Carriers with Magnetic Hard Disks*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the substrate. The Protective Layer (PL) improves the flying of the magnetic heads above the magnetic disks Hard Disks* Ognjan Tzarnoretchki, Daniela Borissova Institute of Information Technologies, 1113 Sofia magnetic disk, new informative features are presented, which form a substantial subset of the informative

Borissova, Daniela

303

Hierarchical classifier for soft and hard exudates detection of retinal fundus images  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nowadays, diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy has caught the eager eyes of enthusiastic experimenters, as it has emerged as the common cause of blindness in the working age group. Several works are available in the literature for the detection of normalities ... Keywords: Abnormal, Classification, Feature, Hard Exudates, Normal, Retinal, Segmentation, Soft Exudates

M. Kavitha, S. Palani

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Method to Improve Total Dose Radiation Hardness in a CMOS dc-dc Boost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a wide range of radiation environment, with increasing total dose radiation, The efticieney also greatlyMethod to Improve Total Dose Radiation Hardness in a CMOS dc-dc Boost Converter Huadian Pan to natural radiation in space. Among the effects of ionizing radiation are shiftsin threshold voltageand

Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

305

The potential energy landscape and inherent dynamics of a hard-sphere fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard-sphere models exhibit many of the same kinds of supercooled-liquid behavior as more realistic models of liquids, but the highly non-analytic character of their potentials makes it a challenge to think of that behavior in potential-energy-landscape terms. We show here that it is possible to calculate an important topological property of hard-sphere landscapes, the geodesic pathways through those landscapes, and to do so without artificially coarse-graining or softening the potential. We show, moreover, that the rapid growth of the lengths of those pathways with increasing packing fraction quantitatively predicts the precipitous decline in diffusion constants in a glass-forming hard-sphere mixture model. The geodesic paths themselves can be considered as defining the intrinsic dynamics of hard spheres, so it is also revealing to find that they (and therefore the features of the underlying potential-energy landscape) correctly predict the occurrence of dynamic heterogeneity and non-zero values of the non-Gaussian parameter. The success of these landscape predictions for the dynamics of such a singular model emphasizes that there is more to potential energy landscapes than is revealed by looking at the minima and saddle points.

Qingqing Ma; Richard M. Stratt

2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

306

Modeling of hard part machining: effect of insert edge preparation in CBN cutting tools  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

discharge machining (EDM) processes in many applications. This approach also reduces the leadModeling of hard part machining: effect of insert edge preparation in CBN cutting tools Tugrul O February 2003 Abstract High speed machining of hardened steels for manufacturing dies and molds offers

Ozel, Tugrul

307

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307­312 Extreme radiation hardness and light annealing and minority-carrier injection-enhanced annealing are responsible for the recovery of photovoltaic of InP solar cells with much higher radiation resistance, conversion efficiency and power/weight ratio

Woodall, Jerry M.

308

2007 Florida Hard Clam Aquaculture Outlook So what's in store for the new year? Expec-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007 Florida Hard Clam Aquaculture Outlook So what's in store for the new year? Expec- tations://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu. The current economic outlook for U.S. aquacultural producers for 2007 is clouded by wide swings in energy prices. Energy prices are falling, but remain above year-earlier levels. The domestic economic forecast

Florida, University of

309

Hard X-ray Sources from Miniature Plasma Focus Devices Vernica Raspa1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard X-ray Sources from Miniature Plasma Focus Devices Verónica Raspa1 , Patricio Silva, José been obtained. Introduction The plasma focus (PF) device is a known source of dense transient high temperature plasmas, and it has been studied since late 50`s [1] . A plasma focus is a particular pinch

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

310

Radiation-Pattern Improvement of Patch Antennas Using a Compact Soft/Hard Surface (SHS) Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation-Pattern Improvement of Patch Antennas Using a Compact Soft/Hard Surface (SHS) Structure is employed to surround the patch antenna for blocking the surface- wave propagation, thus alleviating-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology. It is shown that the gain of a patch antenna can be increased to near 9 d

Tentzeris, Manos

311

Design of a Host Traffic Management system for Hard Real Time networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Hard Real Time (HRT) system is one whose correct functioning is based on the concepts of timely and correct delivery. By timely delivery, we imply that if a message is dispatched by a sender application it should be delivered at a receiver...

Krishna Moorthy, Jayasankar

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Short-term effects of salinity declines on juvenile hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be compounded or mitigated by other factors, such as other environmental conditions or handling effects. #12Short-term effects of salinity declines on juvenile hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria. Final report to Florida Sea Grant, for a Program Development Award Project title: Short-term effects of rapid salinity

Florida, University of

313

Structure and anomalous solubility for hard spheres in an associating lattice gas model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure and anomalous solubility for hard spheres in an associating lattice gas model Marcia M spheres in an associating lattice gas model Marcia M. Szortyka,1,a) Mauricio Girardi,2,b) Vera B-sphere gas in a solvent modeled as an associating lattice gas. The solution phase diagram for solute at 5

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

314

Hard superconducting nitrides Xiao-Jia Chen*, Viktor V. Struzhkin*, Zhigang Wu*, Maddury Somayazulu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(4). The refractory characteristics of these transition- metal nitrides and carbides have been, and hardness of selected superconducting transition-metal nitrides reveals inter- esting correlations among transition temperature (Tc) near 4 K when doped with boron (3). However, the transition-metal compounds

Wu, Zhigang

315

Determining acceptance possibility for a quantum computation is hard for the polynomial hierarchy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hard for the polynomial hierarchy Stephen Fenner 1 Frederic Green 2 Steven Homer 3 Randall...3953 c 1999 The Royal Society 3954 S. Fenner, F. Green, S. Homer and R. Pruim...R. Soc. Lond. A (1999) 3956 S. Fenner, F. Green, S. Homer and R. Pruim...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface: Part II: Material deformations, influence of coating thickness and Young's modulus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Material deformations and the influence of coating thickness and elastic modulus were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress, strain, and displacement computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating was linearly elastic, and the steel substrate was elasticplastic, taking into account strain hardening effects. It was shown that a thin TiN ceramic coating on a steel substrate has only a very slight effect on friction and on the plastic deformations (i.e., the groove formation) in the surface, but changes considerably the stress pattern at the surface. The stress simulations showed how a thicker hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity that a thinner one. Higher tensile stresses at the coating/substrate interface increase the risk for interface cracks and delamination of the thicker coating. A stiffer hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity than a more elastic one. The stiffer coating will accommodate higher tensile stresses with the same indentation depth compared to a more elastic one. The results show that much more attention should be given to optimizing the elastic properties of the coating than previously has been done. In many cases, it can be much more effective to improve the wear resistance of the coated surface by focusing on the elastic modulus of the coating than changing the coating thickness.

Kenneth Holmberg; Anssi Laukkanen; Helena Ronkainen; Kim Wallin; Simo Varjus; Jari Koskinen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Interface structures in FePtFe3Pt hard-soft exchange-coupled magnetic nanocomposites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interface structures in FePt?Fe3Pt hard-soft exchange-coupled magnetic nanocomposites Jing Li with sizes 10 nm. This ensures the effective exchange coupling of magnetically hard and soft phases. High magnetic materials, the performance of conventional bulk permanent magnetic ma- terials is limited by its

Liu, J. Ping

318

ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE VISIBILITIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE a new method for imaging spectroscopy analysis of hard X-ray emission during solar flares. The method.e., the two-dimensional spatial Fourier transforms of the spectral image) to obtain smoothed (regularized

Piana, Michele

319

Specific Methods for the Evaluation of Hydraulic Properties in Fractured Hard-rock J.C. Marchala,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Specific Methods for the Evaluation of Hydraulic Properties in Fractured Hard-rock Aquifers J, marechal@ngri.res.in Abstract: Blocs underlined by fractures networks mainly compose hard-rock aquifers. The complexity of flows through fractures makes inadequate the use of classical techniques for the interpretation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Hardness measurements of Ar[sup +]-beam treated polyimide by depth-sensing ultra low load indentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyimide Kapton and spin-cast polyamic acid (PAA) on sapphire have been implanted with 1 MeV Ar ions to a dose of 4.7[times]10[sup 15] cm[sup [minus]2] at ambient temperature. The properties of both pristine and implanted surfaces were characterized by a depth-sensing low-load indentation technique. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of substrate, indentation rate, relaxation, and indentation technique. The results showed that (1) hardness was depth-dependent and decreased with increasing indentation depth, (2) measurements of the ion beam hardened surface with the untreated material as a substrate underestimated the hardness while measurements over the sapphire substrate overestimated it, (3) the effects of loading/unloading rates were apparent in the load displacement results, and (4) hardness values measured using the force modulation technique showed very little depth dependence. The hardness value at 100 nm depth is used for comparison purposes since the hardness value at this depth was almost independent of substrate, indentation rate, and indentation method. The hardness of Kapton, which was measured using the techniques described herein, was increased by over 30 times after Ar implantation, from 0.43 to 13 GPa at 100 nm indentation depth. A similar increase in hardness was also observed for polyamic acid. This result suggests that spin-cast PAA film may have potential technological applications for protective coatings where hardness and wear resistance are required.

Lee, E.H.; Lee, Y.; Oliver, W.C.; Mansur, L.K. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Equivalence of Glass Transition and Colloidal Glass Transition in the Hard-Sphere Limit Thomas K. Haxton,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Equivalence of Glass Transition and Colloidal Glass Transition in the Hard-Sphere Limit Ning Xu,1 that the slowing of the dynamics in simulations of several model glass-forming liquids is equivalent to the hard-sphere glass transition in the low-pressure limit. In this limit, we find universal behavior of the relaxation

Weeks, Eric R.

322

SSRL School 2007 on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in MES  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

May 15-17, 2007 SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences Group photo taken at the SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences. A large, printable version of this group image is available via clicking on the image. Overview: Modern synchrotron-based X-ray scattering (SR-XRS) techniques offer the ability to probe nano- and atomic-scale structures and order/disorder relationships that critically govern the properties of advanced technological and environmental materials. The high collimation, intensity, and tunability of SR allow the investigation of a wide range of materials, including thin films and interfaces, nanoparticles, amorphous materials, solutions, hydrated and disordered bacteriogenic minerals,

323

A New Multilayer-Based Grating for Hard X-ray Grating Interferometry |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Most Detailed Picture Yet of a Key AIDS Protein The Most Detailed Picture Yet of a Key AIDS Protein Superconductivity with Stripes How HIV Infects Cells Simulating Deep Earthquakes in the Laboratory A "Sponge" Path to Better Catalysts and Energy Materials Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A New Multilayer-Based Grating for Hard X-ray Grating Interferometry November 20, 2013 Bookmark and Share An image of the phase shift in the mouse kidney from a Bonse-Hart interferometer built utilizing the new micro-multilayer grating provides a projection view of the blood vessels. A new kind of x-ray multilayer grating that could open a pathway for high-sensitivity, hard x-ray phase contrast full-field imaging of large

324

A fast new method for measuring hard-to-diagnose 3D plasmas in fusion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A fast new method for measuring hard-to-diagnose 3D plasmas in fusion A fast new method for measuring hard-to-diagnose 3D plasmas in fusion facilities By John Greenwald March 12, 2013 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One A simulated plasma in the Large Helical Device showing the thin blue saddle coils that researchers used to make diagnostic measurements with the new computer code. (Photo by Graphic by Sam Lazerson) A simulated plasma in the Large Helical Device showing the thin blue saddle coils that researchers used to make diagnostic measurements with the new computer code. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan have developed a rapid method for meeting a key challenge for fusion science. The challenge has been to simulate the diagnostic measurement of

325

Tailoring a plasma focus as hard x-ray source for imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An investigation on temporal and spatial properties of hard x-rays (1588 keV) emitted in a 5.3 kJ plasma focus using Si pin diodes and a pinhole camera is reported. The maximum yield of hard x-rays of 1588 keV range is estimated about 4.7 J and corresponding efficiency for x-ray generation is 0.09%. The x-rays with energy > 15 ? keV have 1520 ns pulse duration and ? 1 ? mm source size. This radiation is used for contact x-ray imaging of biological and compound objects and spatial resolution of ? 50 ? ? m is demonstrated.

S. Hussain; M. Shafiq; M. Zakaullah

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Effects of plasma-deposited silicon nitride passivation on the radiation hardness of CMOS integrated circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of plasma-deposited silicon nitride as a final passivation over metal-gate CMOS integrated circuits degrades the radiation hardness of these devices. The hardness degradation is manifested by increased radiation-induced threshold voltage shifts caused principally by the charging of new interface states and, to a lesser extent, by the trapping of holes created upon exposure to ionizing radiation. The threshold voltage shifts are a strong function of the deposition temperature, and show very little dependence on thickness for films deposited at 300/sup 0/C. There is some correlation between the threshold voltage shifts and the hydrogen content of the PECVD silicon nitride films used as the final passivation layer as a function of deposition temperature. The mechanism by which the hydrogen contained in these films may react with the Si/SiO/sub 2/ interface is not clear at this point.

Clement, J. J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Soft and hard confinement of a two-electron quantum system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model physical problem is studied in which a system of two electrons is subject either to soft confinement by means of attractive oscillator potentials or by entrapment within an impenetrable spherical box of finite radius $R.$ When hard confinement is present the oscillators can be switched off. Exact analytical solutions are found for special parameter sets, and highly accurate numerical solutions (18 decimal places) are obtained for general cases. Some interesting degeneracy questions are discussed at length.

Richard L. Hall; Nasser Saad; K. D. Sen

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

328

A Suzaku Search for Nonthermal Emission at Hard X-Ray Energies in the Coma Cluster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The brightest cluster radio halo known resides in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The relativistic electrons producing this diffuse synchrotron emission should also produce inverse Compton emission that becomes competitive with thermal emission from the intracluster medium (ICM) at hard X-ray energies. Thus far, claimed detections of this emission in Coma are controversial. We present a Suzaku HXD-PIN observation of the Coma cluster in order to nail down its nonthermal hard X-ray content. The contribution of thermal emission to the HXD-PIN spectrum is constrained by simultaneously fitting thermal and nonthermal models to it and a spatially equivalent spectrum derived from an XMM-Newton mosaic of the Coma field. We fail to find statistically significant evidence for nonthermal emission in the spectra which are better described by only a single- or multitemperature model for the ICM. Including systematic uncertainties, we derive a 90% upper limit on the flux of nonthermal emission of 6.0 ? 1012 erg s1 cm2 (20-80 keV, for ? = 2.0), which implies a lower limit on the cluster-averaged magnetic field of B>0.15 ?G. Our flux upper limit is 2.5 times lower than the detected nonthermal flux from RXTE and BeppoSAX. However, if the nonthermal hard X-ray emission in Coma is more spatially extended than the observed radio halo, the Suzaku HXD-PIN may miss some fraction of the emission. A detailed investigation indicates that ~50%-67% of the emission might go undetected, which could make our limit consistent with that of Rephaeli & Gruber and Fusco-Femiano et al. The thermal interpretation of the hard Coma spectrum is consistent with recent analyses of INTEGRAL and Swift data.

Daniel R. Wik; Craig L. Sarazin; Alexis Finoguenov; Kyoko Matsushita; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Tracy E. Clarke

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

THE HARD X-RAY SPECTRUM OF NGC 1365: SCATTERED LIGHT, NOT BLACK HOLE SPIN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) show excess X-ray emission above 10 keV compared with extrapolation of spectra from lower energies. Risaliti et al. have recently attempted to model the hard X-ray excess in the type 1.8 AGN NGC 1365, concluding that the hard excess most likely arises from Compton-scattered reflection of X-rays from an inner accretion disk close to the black hole. Their analysis disfavored a model in which the hard excess arises from a high column density of circumnuclear gas partially covering a primary X-ray source, despite such components being required in the NGC 1365 data below 10 keV. Using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer approach, we demonstrate that this conclusion is invalidated by (1) use of slab absorption models, which have unrealistic transmission spectra for partial covering gas, (2) neglect of the effect of Compton scattering on transmitted spectra, and (3) inadequate modeling of the spectrum of scattered X-rays. The scattered spectrum is geometry-dependent and, for high global covering factors, may dominate above 10 keV. We further show that, in models of circumnuclear gas, the suppression of the observed hard X-ray flux by reprocessing may be no larger than required by the ''light bending'' model invoked for inner disk reflection, and the expected emission line strengths lie within the observed range. We conclude that the time-invariant ''red wing'' in AGN X-ray spectra is probably caused by continuum transmitted through and scattered from circumnuclear gas, not by highly redshifted line emission, and that measurement of black hole spin is not possible.

Miller, L. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Turner, T. J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

330

A study of the structure of the hydrocarbons of primary hard-coal tar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrocarbons isolated from primary hard-coal (G/sub 6/ gas coal) tar have been investigated by a combination of physicochemical and chemical methods. It has been established that the hydrocarbons boiling up to 573 K are mainly aliphatic, hydroaromatic, and naphthenic and are aromatic only to a smaller degree. Molecular and presumable structural formulas of the oxygen compounds isolated from the 473-573 K hydrocarbon fraction have been derived.

Platonov, V.V.; Gerasimova, N.I.; Ivleva, L.N.; Klyavina, O.A.; Vishnyakov, S.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

The microstructure and hardness of silicon carbide synthesized by plasma pressure compaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using fine powders of silicon and carbon, silicon carbide was synthesized and compacted using the technique of plasma pressure compaction (P2C). The test samples were obtained by consolidating the powder particles at temperatures of 1400 and 1800C. Microhardness measurements revealed an increase with an increase in temperature of compaction and increased hold time. The conjoint influence of temperature and time of hold at temperature on microstructural development and hardness is presented and discussed.

B.G. Ravi; O.A. Omotoye; T.S. Srivatsan; M. Petrorali; T.S. Sudarshan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Non-preemptive scheduling of periodic and aperiodic tasks in the hard real-time systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S. 38 40 11 Enumeration tree search . 42 12 Optimizing two requests in the LOQS globally. 13 Identifying dynamic dominant requests. 14 Dispatching requests in ZOgS. 50 51 15 Extraction algorithm. 53 16 Extraction algorithm by heuristic... in hard real ? time environment, the measure- ment criteria for a good algorithm can be a success ratio and a decision time required for dispatching. The success ratio, when a certain algorithm is used, is the ratio of number of tash sets which...

Oh, Hoon

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Hard X-ray latitude effect measured during a transatlantic balloon flight  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hard X-ray latitude effect is reported in the range of McIlwain shell parameter L from 1.4 to 2.6 (earth radius units). The data were obtained with two X-ray scintillator detectors flown on board a transatlantic balloon launched from Trapani, Sicily. The data analysis method for measuring the flux from weak X-ray sources is also described.

Frontera, F. (CNR, Istituto Plasma Spazio, Frascati, Italy); Fuligni, F. (CNR, Istituto di Tecnologie e Studio delle Radiazioni Extraterrestri, Bologna, Italy)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Persistence-Length Renormalization of Polymers in a Crowded Environment of Hard Disks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The most conspicuous property of a semiflexible polymer is its persistence length, defined as the decay length of tangent correlations along its contour. Using an efficient stochastic growth algorithm to sample polymers embedded in a quenched two-dimensional hard-disk fluid, we find apparent wormlike chain statistics with a renormalized persistence length. We identify a universal form of the disorder renormalization that suggests itself as a quantitative measure of molecular crowding.

Sebastian Schbl; Sebastian Sturm; Wolfhard Janke; Klaus Kroy

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

335

PCR markers for Triticum speltoides leaf rust resistance gene Lr51 and their use to develop isogenic hard red spring wheat lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hard red spring wheat lines. Crop Sci. 43:18391847.and Lr35 in wheat breeding lines. Electron. J. Biotechnol.Hard Red Spring Wheat Lines M. Helguera, L. Vanzetti, M.

Helguera, M; Vanzetti, L; Soria, M; Khan, I A; Kolmer, J; Dubcovsky, Jorge

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

IE 361 mini paper Karla Abrahamson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineer? There is no doubt that quality is important in successful companies today. Because quality is so important, many firms invest a great deal of money in Quality Control and Quality Assurance engineers" quality engineer a higher level of respect, where in another company there might not be much difference

Vardeman, Stephen B.

337

IE 361 Module 19 "Statistical" (Probabilistic) Tolerancing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this situation. In this problem, elementary physics produce an equation for assembly resistance, R, R = R1 + R2R3

Vardeman, Stephen B.

338

NIU Recreation Services (RS) adopted a t-shirt and sleeve policy on Monday, August 30th Student Recreation Center and the Chick Evans Field House. Full-back shirts with sleeves (i.e.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NIU Recreation Services (RS) adopted a t-shirt and sleeve policy on Monday, August 30th for the Student Recreation Center and the Chick Evans Field House. Full-back shirts with sleeves (i.e. no cut-Fitted Shirts that cover the arm pit area are acceptable. A zero tolerance policy will be enforced. Recreation

Kostic, Milivoje M.

339

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, suppliment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979, page C5-38 Magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect of magnesium singIe crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-38 Magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect of magnesium singIe crystals with heavy rare earth impurities J. Bijvoet splitting, the magnetization of rare earth ions in magnesium single crystals is anisotropic at low and cannot be explained by crystal field splitting of the 4f levels. Single crystals of magnesium with small

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

340

Transactivation of Cellular Genes Involved in Nucleotide Metabolism by the Regulatory IE1 Protein of Murine Cytomegalovirus Is Not Critical for Viral Replicative Fitness in Quiescent Cells and Host Tissues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...high coding capacity, murine CMV (mCMV) does not encode functional enzymes for nucleotide...genes. As mCMV, as far as we know, does not encode functional enzymes for nucleotide...transactivator function. The mutation Y165C does not affect the capacity of IE1 to disrupt...

Vanessa Wilhelmi; Christian O. Simon; Jrgen Podlech; Verena Bhm; Torsten Dubner; Simone Emde; Dennis Strand; Anglique Renzaho; Niels A. W. Lemmermann; Christof K. Seckert; Matthias J. Reddehase; Natascha K. A. Grzimek

2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Exact algorithms and APX-hardness results for geometric packing and covering problems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study several geometric set cover and set packing problems involving configurations of points and geometric objects in Euclidean space. We show that it is APX-hard to compute a minimum cover of a set of points in the plane by a family of axis-aligned fat rectangles, even when each rectangle is an ?-perturbed copy of a single unit square. We extend this result to several other classes of objects including almost-circular ellipses, axis-aligned slabs, downward shadows of line segments, downward shadows of graphs of cubic functions, fat semi-infinite wedges, 3-dimensional unit balls, and axis-aligned cubes, as well as some related hitting set problems. We also prove the APX-hardness of a related family of discrete set packing problems. Our hardness results are all proven by encoding a highly structured minimum vertex cover problem which we believe may be of independent interest. In contrast, we give a polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithm for geometric set cover where the objects are pseudodisks containing the origin or are downward shadows of pairwise 2-intersecting x-monotone curves. Our algorithm extends to the weighted case where a minimum-cost cover is required. We give similar algorithms for several related hitting set and discrete packing problems.

Timothy M. Chan; Elyot Grant

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Sensitivity of Stacked Imaging Detectors to Hard X-Ray Polarization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of multi-layer optics which allow to focus photons up to 100keV and more promises an enormous jump in sensitivity in the hard X-ray energy band. This technology is already planned to be exploited by future missions dedicated to spectroscopy and imaging at energies >10keV, e.g., Astro-H and NuSTAR. Nevertheless, our understanding of the hard X-ray sky would greatly benefit from carrying out contemporaneous polarimetric measurements, because the study of hard spectral tails and of polarized emission are often two complementary diagnostics of the same non-thermal and acceleration processes. At energies above a few tens ofkeV, the preferred technique to detect polarization involves the determination of photon directions after a Compton scattering. Many authors have asserted that stacked detectors with imaging capabilities can be exploited for this purpose. If it is possible to discriminate those events which initially interact in the first detector by Compton scattering and are subsequently absorbed by the second layer, then the direction of scattering is singled out from the hit pixels in the two detectors. In this paper, we give the first detailed discussion of the sensitivity of such a generic design to the X-ray polarization. The efficiency and the modulation factor are calculated analytically from the geometry of the instruments and then compared with the performance as derived by means of Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations.

Fabio Muleri; Riccardo Campana

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

STRAIN CORRELATIONS IN ALLOY 690 MATERIALS USING ELECTRON BACKSCATTER DIFFRACTION AND VICKERS HARDNESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High chromium, nickel-base Alloy 690 exhibits an increased resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water environments over lower chromium alloy 600. As a result, Alloy 690 has been used to replace Alloy 600 for steam generator tubing, reactor pressure vessel nozzles and other pressure boundary components. However, recent laboratory crack-growth testing has revealed that heavily cold-worked Alloy 690 materials can become susceptible to SCC. To evaluate reasons for this increased SCC susceptibility, detailed characterizations have been performed on as-received and cold-worked Alloy 690 materials using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and Vickers hardness measurements. Examinations were performed on cross sections of compact tension specimens that were used for SCC crack growth rate testing in simulated PWR primary water. Hardness and the EBSD integrated misorientation density could both be related to the degree of cold work for materials of similar grain size. However, a microstructural dependence was observed for strain correlations using EBSD and hardness which should be considered if this technique is to be used for gaining insight on SCC growth rates

Overman, Nicole R.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

2014-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

344

THE 70 MONTH SWIFT-BAT ALL-SKY HARD X-RAY SURVEY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the catalog of sources detected in 70 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray detector on the Swift gamma-ray burst observatory. The Swift-BAT 70 month survey has detected 1171 hard X-ray sources (more than twice as many sources as the previous 22 month survey) in the 14-195 keV band down to a significance level of 4.8{sigma}, associated with 1210 counterparts. The 70 month Swift-BAT survey is the most sensitive and uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey and reaches a flux level of 1.03 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} over 50% of the sky and 1.34 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} over 90% of the sky. The majority of new sources in the 70 month survey continue to be active galactic nuclei, with over 700 in the catalog. As part of this new edition of the Swift-BAT catalog, we also make available eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object detected in the survey in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 70 month Web site.

Baumgartner, W. H.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mushotzky, R. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Evans, P. A., E-mail: whbaumga@alum.mit.edu [X-Ray and Observational Astronomy Group/Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

2003-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

346

MODELING THE THERMAL DIFFUSE SOFT AND HARD X-RAY EMISSION IN M17  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present numerical models of very young wind driven superbubbles. The parameters chosen for the simulations correspond to the particular case of the M17 nebula, but are appropriate for any young superbubble in which the wind sources have not completely dispersed their parental cloud. From the simulations, we computed the diffuse emission in the soft ([0.5-1.5] keV) and hard ([1.5-5] keV) X-ray bands. The total luminosity in our simulations agrees with the observations of Hyodo et al., about two orders of magnitude below the prediction of the standard model of Weaver et al.. The difference with respect to the standard (adiabatic) model is the inclusion of radiative cooling, which is still important in such young bubbles. We show that for this type of object the diffuse hard X-ray luminosity is significant compared to that of soft X-rays, contributing as much as 10% of the total luminosity, in contrast with more evolved bubbles where the hard X-ray emission is indeed negligible, being at least four orders of magnitude lower than the soft X-ray emission.

Velazquez, P. F.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Esquivel, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)] [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Rosado, M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-248, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)] [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-248, 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Reyes-Iturbide, J., E-mail: pablo@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: ary@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: esquivel@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: margarit@astro.unam.mx [LATO-DCET/Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Rodovia Jorge Amado, km 16, 45662-000 Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

347

Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points three TLDs per point to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Quark Structure of the Nucleon and Angular Asymmetry of Proton-Neutron Hard Elastic Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate an asymmetry in the angular distribution of hard elastic proton-neutron scattering with respect to 90deg center of mass scattering angle. We demonstrate that the magnitude of the angular asymmetry is related to the helicity-isospin symmetry of the quark wave function of the nucleon. Our estimate of the asymmetry within the quark-interchange model of hard scattering demonstrates that the quark wave function of a nucleon based on the exact SU(6) symmetry predicts an angular asymmetry opposite to that of experimental observations. On the other hand the quark wave function based on the diquark picture of the nucleon produces an asymmetry consistent with the data. Comparison with the data allowed us to extract the relative sign and the magnitude of the vector and scalar diquark components of the quark wave function of the nucleon. These two quantities are essential in constraining QCD models of a nucleon. Overall, our conclusion is that the angular asymmetry of a hard elastic scattering of baryons provides a new venue in probing quark-gluon structure of baryons and should be considered as an important observable in constraining the theoretical models.

Carlos G. Granados; Misak M. Sargsian

2009-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

349

High speed turning for hard material with PCBN inserts: tool wear analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of tool wear, High Speed Machining (HSM) is rarely used for hard turning process and the cutting speeds are generally selected around 100 or 200 m/min. In this work, HSM is performed for hard turning of a 50 HRC hardened steel (AISI 4140/42CrMo4) with a PCBN tool by using high cutting speeds (300 and 400 m/min). The results show that HSM for hard turning can be acceptable for industrial application by providing very good surface roughness and keeping significant tool life. A qualitative correlation is also presented between the crater wear and the temperature distribution at the tool-chip interface, predicted by a thermomechanical model. Flank wear, crater wear and surface roughness are examined in order to choose an appropriate wear criterion. Investigations by SEM/EDS and white light interferometry highlight the importance of crater wear and help us to better understand the role of chemical/diffusion phenomena in wear mechanisms.

Farouk Mahfoudi; Gautier List; Alain Molinari; Abdelhadi Moufki; Lakhdar Boulanouar

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

I A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY MEANS OF TENSILE-IMPACT, HARDNESS, AND DROP-HAMMER  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY MEANS OF TENSILE-IMPACT, HARDNESS, AND DROP-HAMMER I EVALUATIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES PROPOSAL TO NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY MEANS OF TENSILE-IMPACT, HARDNESS, AND DROP-HAMMER EVALUATIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES PROPOSAL TO NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO Southern Research Institute Birmingham, Alabama January 30, 1963 Proposal No. 2152 Copy of original document Iccated in FEMP Archives. .L TABLEOFCONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..I SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..z EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A. Hot-Hardness Evaluations .................. 3

351

Plasma focus based flash hard X-ray source in the 100 keV region with reproducible spectrum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A pulsed hard X-ray source with shot to shot reproducible spectrum, based on a 4.7 kJ small-chamber Mather-type plasma focus device, is presented. The hard X-ray output spectrum was measured in a single shot basis by differential absorption on metallic plates. The measured spectra have a single dominant peak around 75 keV and a spectral bandwidth covering the 40150 keV range. A hard X-ray dose of ( 53 3 ) ?Gy per shot was measured on axis at 53 cm from the source, and found to be uniform within a half aperture angle of 6.

V. Raspa; P. Knoblauch; F. Di Lorenzo; C. Moreno

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Introduction to Hard Cider Production Tuesday, January 13, 2015, 8:00 AM -3:30 PM (Snow Date January 14)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Virginia Tech. He has collaborated on economic feasibility studies for small-scale cideries and hard cider fermentation, sanitation and stabilization. The program fee includes tasting of hard ciders of various flavors Snyder, Penn State Extension Educator 1:00 PM Hard Cider Production--Fermentation, Sanitation

Mohaghegh, Shahab

353

Fundamental measure density functional theory studies on the freezing of binary hard-sphere and Lennard-Jones mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamental measure density functional theory studies on the freezing of binary hard are calculated using the fundamental measure density functional theory. Using the thermodynamic perturbation. INTRODUCTION Density functional theory DFT became a practical the- oretical tool for the calculation

Song, Xueyu

354

Effects of alloying elements on microstructure, hardness, and fracture toughness of centrifugally cast high-speed steel rolls  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study was made of the effects of alloying elements on the microstructure, hardness, and fracture toughness of centrifugally cast high-speed steel (HSS) rolls. Particular emphasis was placed on the role of ha...

Chang Kyu Kim; Yong Chan Kim; Jong Il Park

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Air Entrapment in Nanometer-Thick Lubricant Films and its Effect on Slider Flying Height in a Hard Disk Drive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental data are presented, showing that the flying height of a slider in a hard disk drive can be altered by the chemical ... of the molecularly-thin lubricant film on the disk surface. It is suggested that...

B. Marchon; X. C. Guo; S. Canchi; R. H. Wang; N. Supper; J. Burns

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Thin film gas lubrication characteristics of flying head slider bearings over patterned media in hard disk drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...? This paper describes the effects of moving patterned disk surfaces on thin film gas lubrication characteristics for flying head slider bearings in magnetic hard disk drives. In order to perform the most real...

N. Tagawa; A. Mori

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Eddy-current testing of the hardness, wear resistance, and thickness of coatings prepared by gas-powder laser cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility of applying the eddy-current method to estimate the composition, hardness, abrasive wear-resistance, and wear resistance under sliding friction conditions of chromium-nickel and chromium-nickel-co...

A. V. Makarov; E. S. Gorkunov; I. Yu. Malygina

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Can hard coatings and lubricant anti-wear additives work together?  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about hard coatings...

359

Anisotropic Investigation of Hard X-ray Emission with Flat Anode Tips in APF Plasma Focus Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper behavior of hard X-ray (HXR) anisotropy and its intensity along the anode bar from APF plasma focus facility (16kV, 36?f, and...

M. Habibi; R. Amrollahi

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Effects of environment and genotype on hardness and alkaline cooking properties of maize / by Troy Marc Goldstein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT AND GENOTYPE ON HARDNESS AND ALKALINE COOKING PROPERTIES OF MAIZE A Thesis by TROY MARC GOLDSTEIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Food Science and Tecnnology EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT AND GENOTYPE ON HARDNESS AND ALKALINE COOKING PROPERTIES OF MAIZE A Thesis TROY MARC GOLDSTEIN Approved as to style and content by: / Lloyd W. Roonev...

Goldstein, Troy Marc

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Hardness of Max-2Lin and Max-3Lin over integers, reals, and large cyclic Ryan O'Donnell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems of linear equations. Given a ring R, the Max-kLin(R) problem is defined as follows: An input, this easily implies the same hardness for Max--3Lin(Q) and Max--3Lin(R). In- deed, it shows a kind of "bicriHardness of Max-2Lin and Max-3Lin over integers, reals, and large cyclic groups Ryan O

O'Donnell, Ryan

362

Improving Hardness and Toughness of Boride Composites Based on AIMgB14  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The search for new super-hard materials has usually focused on strongly bonded, highly symmetric crystal structures similar to diamond. The two hardest single-phase materials, diamond and cubic boron nitride (cBN), are metastable, and both must be produced at high temperatures and pressures, which makes their production costly. In 2000, a superhard composite based on a low-symmetry, boron-rich compound was reported. Since then, many advances have been made in the study of this AlMgB{sub 14}-TiB{sub 2} composite. The composite has been shown to exhibit hardness greater than either of its constituent phases, relying on its sub-micron microstructure to provide hardening and strengthening mechanisms. With possible hardness around 40 GPa, an AlMgB{sub 14} - 60 vol% TiB{sub 2} approaches the hardness of cBN, yet is amenable to processing under ambient pressure conditions. There are interesting aspects of both the AlMgB{sub 14} and TiB{sub 2} phases. AlMgB{sub 14} is comprised of a framework of boron, mostly in icosahedral arrangements. It is part of a family of 12 known compounds with the same boron lattice, with the metal atoms replaced by Li, Na, Y or a number of Lanthanides. Another peculiar trait of this family of compounds is that every one contains a certain amount of intrinsic vacancies on one or both of the metal sites. These vacancies are significant, ranging from 3 to 43% of sites depending on the composition. TiB{sub 2} is a popular specialty ceramic material due to its high hardness, moderate toughness, good corrosion resistance, and high thermal and electrical conductivity. The major drawback is the difficulty of densification of pure TiB2 ceramics. A combination of sintering aids, pressure, and temperatures of 1800 C are often required to achieve near full density articles. The AlMgB{sub 14} - TiB{sub 2} composites can achieve 99% density from hot-pressing at 1400 C. This is mostly due to the preparation of powders by a high-energy milling technique known as mechanical alloying. The resulting fine powders have high activity, and Fe from wear debris acts as a sintering aid. Mechanical alloying improves the sinterability of the composite material, it has the same effect on pure TiB{sub 2}. TiB{sub 2} processed by high-energy milling has been found to achieve 99% theoretical density at 1400 C with the addition of {approx}1 wt% Fe. Both the AlMgB{sub 14} - TiB{sub 2} composites and pure TiB{sub 2} produced from these methods have enhanced mechanical properties due to their fine microstructures. These materials show exceptional promise in the field of wear resistance. This includes cutting tools, erosion resistant coatings, and low-friction sliding contacts to name a few. Under certain wear conditions, the composite material can show performance on par with that of current high-end cBN and WC materials tailored for wear resistance. The composite material also exhibits low reactivity with Ti alloys, a pre-requisite for effective machining of these alloys, a trait that few hard materials possess.

Justin Steven Peters

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Diffractive imaging at large Fresnel number: Challenge of dynamic mesoscale imaging with hard x rays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Real materials have structure at both the atomic or crystalline scale as well as at interfaces and defects at the larger scale of grains. There is a need for the study of materials at the mesoscale, the scale at which subgranular physical processes and intergranular organization couple to determine microstructure, crucially impacting constitutive response at the engineering macroscale. Diffractive imaging using photons that can penetrate multiple grains of material would be a transformative technique for the study of the performance of materials in dynamic extremes. Thicker samples imply higher energy photons of shorter wavelength, and imaging of multiple grains implies bigger spot sizes. Such imaging requires the use of future planned and proposed hard x-ray free electron lasers (such as the European XFEL) to provide both the spatial coherence transverse to the large spots and the peak brilliance to provide the short illumination times. The result is that the Fresnel number of the system becomes large and is no longer in the Fraunhofer far-field limit. The interrelated issues of diffractive imaging at large Fresnel number are analyzed, including proof that diffractive imaging is possible in this limit and estimates of the signal-to-noise possible. In addition, derivation of the heating rates for brilliant pulses of x rays are presented. The potential and limitations on multiple dynamic images are derived. This paper will present a study of x-ray interactions with materials in this new regime of spatially coherent but relatively large mesoscale spots at very hard energies. It should provide the theory and design background for the experiments and facilities required to control materials in extreme environments, in particular for the next generation of very-hard-x-ray free electron lasers.

John L. Barber; Cris W. Barnes; Richard L. Sandberg; Richard L. Sheffield

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

364

14 ESS (trademark) switch inherent radiation-hardness assessment. Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Phase I of the 4 ESS Switch RHA Program documented in this report is the preliminary assessment of the inherent fallout-radiation susceptibility of the 4 ESS Switch. The approach described herein consists of the identification of the active microelectronic piece-parts used in the 4 ESS Switch; characterization of their radiation tolerance, based on available data; preliminary identification of hardness-critical packs; and preliminary analysis of 4 ESS Switch performance during expose to ambient (unshielded) fallout radiation, also based on available data. (Author)

Not Available

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

A Hard X-ray View of Accreting X-ray Binary Pulsars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The study of the hard (E>10 keV) energy spectra of X-ray binary pulsars can give a wealth of information on the physical processes that occur close to the neutron star surface. Extreme matter regimes are probed, and precious information on how matter and radiation behave and interact in critical conditions can be obtained. We will give an overview on the most recent results obtained by RXTE and BeppoSAX on this class of objects, in order to pass the baton onto just launched experiments, like INTEGRAL, or soon to be launched, like AGILE and ASTRO-E2.

Mauro Orlandini

2004-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

366

Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Substantial improvements in the nanofabrication and characteristics of gold Fresnel zone plates yielded unprecedented resolution levels in hard-x-ray microscopy. Tests performed on a variety of specimens with 8-10 keV photons demonstrated a first-order lateral resolution below 40 nm based on the Rayleigh criterion. Combined with the use of a phase contrast technique, this makes it possible to view features in the 30 nm range; good-quality images can be obtained at video rate, down to 50 ms/frame. The important repercussions on materials science, nanotechnology, and the life sciences are discussed.

Chu, Y. S.; Yi, J. M.; De Carlo, F.; Shen, Q.; Lee, Wah-Keat [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wu, H. J.; Wang, C. L.; Wang, J. Y.; Liu, C. J.; Wang, C. H. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Wu, S. R.; Chien, C. C. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering Science and System, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hwu, Y. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering Science and System, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Tkachuk, A.; Yun, W.; Feser, M. [Xradia Inc., 5052 Commercial Circle, Concord, California 94520 (United States); Liang, K. S. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Yang, C. S. [Center for Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Je, J. H. [X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Margaritondo, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

367

Optical identification of hard X-ray source IGRJ18257-0707  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the results of the optical identification of hard X-ray source IGRJ18257-0707 trough the spectroscopic observations of its optical counterpart with RTT150 telescope. Accurate position of the X-ray source, determined using Chandra observations, allowed us to associate this source with the faint optical object (m_R=~20.4), which shows broad H_\\alpha emission line in its optical spectrum. Therefore we conclude that the source IGRJ18257-0707 is a type 1 Seyfert galaxy at redshift z=0.037.

R. A. Burenin; I. F. Bikmaev; M. G. Revnivtsev; J. A. Tomsick; S. Yu. Sazonov; M. N. Pavlinskiy; R. A. Sunyaev

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

368

Silicon Photo-Multiplier radiation hardness tests with a beam controlled neutron source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report radiation hardness tests performed at the Frascati Neutron Generator on silicon Photo-Multipliers, semiconductor photon detectors built from a square matrix of avalanche photo-diodes on a silicon substrate. Several samples from different manufacturers have been irradiated integrating up to 7x10^10 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm^2. Detector performances have been recorded during the neutron irradiation and a gradual deterioration of their properties was found to happen already after an integrated fluence of the order of 10^8 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm^2.

M. Angelone; M. Pillon; R. Faccini; D. Pinci; W. Baldini; R. Calabrese; G. Cibinetto; A. Cotta Ramusino; R. Malaguti; M. Pozzati

2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

369

Crystal-liquid interfacial free energy of hard spheres via a novel thermodynamic integration scheme  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hard sphere crystal-liquid interfacial free energy, ($\\gamma_{\\rm cl}$), is determined from molecular dynamics simulations using a novel thermodynamic integration (TI) scheme. The advantage of this TI scheme compared to previous methods is to successfully circumvent hysteresis effects due to the movement of the crystal-liquid interface. This is accomplished by the use of extremely short-ranged and impenetrable Gaussian flat walls which prevent the drift of the interface while imposing a negligible free-energy penalty. We find that it is crucial to analyze finite-size effects in order to obtain reliable estimates of $\\gamma_{\\rm cl}$ in the thermodynamic limit.

Benjamin, Ronald

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Concepts and performance for a next-generation storage ring hard x-ray source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Among the possibilities for a next-generation hard x-ray source is a so-called 'ultimate storage ring'. This refers to a large, high-energy storage ring with very low emittance and high current. Such a ring has the potential to deliver significantly higher spectral brightness and transverse coherence than present third-generation rings. At the same time, it promises the stability and reliability that users have come to expect in a light source. In this paper, we present a design for a 7-GeV, 40-sector storage ring with a circumference of 3.1 km and an emittance of 15 pm in both planes.

Borland, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 60439 (United States)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

371

Spectral Characteristics of the Hard X Ray Emission from a Plasma Focus Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An indirect method to infer the spectra based on the measurement of the beam intensity transmission through different metallic samples is described in this communication. A Plasma Focus device (5.67 kJ 30 kV) was studied as a pulsed hard x ray source operated with deuterium at a filling pressure in the range of 3 to 5 mbar. Relevant spectral components belonging to the 50 150 keV range with a single maximum located in the 75 85 keV region were obtained for the radiation coming out of the Plasma Focus chamber which is made of stainless steel.

V. Raspa; L. Sigaut; R. Vieytes; A. Clausse; C. Moreno

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

The microstructure and hardness of molybdenum powders consolidated by plasma pressure compaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bulk molybdenum samples were prepared by consolidating molybdenum powders using the technique of plasma pressure compaction (P2C). The specimens were obtained by consolidating the powder particles under conditions of pulse and no-pulse and at two different temperatures. Results reveal that pulsing of the powders prior to consolidation had little influence on microhardness when compared to the samples that were obtained by consolidating the powder particles under no-pulse. Both nanohardness and microhardness measurements revealed a marginal decrease with an increase in temperature of compaction. The influence of processing variables on microstructural development and hardness is presented and discussed.

T.S Srivatsan; B.G Ravi; A.S Naruka; L Riester; M Petraroli; T.S Sudarshan

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Achieving Vibration Stability of the NSLS-II Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hard x-ray nanoprobe (HXN) beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) requires high levels of stability in order to achieve the desired instrument resolution. To ensure that the design of the endstation helps meet the stringent criteria and that natural and cultural vibration is mitigated both passively and actively, a comprehensive study complimentary to the design process has been undertaken. Vibration sources that have the potential to disrupt sensitive experiments such as wind, traffic, and NSLS II operating systems have been studied using state-of-the-art simulations and an array of field data. Further, final stage vibration isolation principles have been explored.

Simos, N.; Chu, Y. S.; Broadbent, A.; Nazaretski, E.; Margulies, L.; Dyling, O.; Shen, Q.; Fallier, M. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

374

From HERA to the Tevatron: A scaling law in hard diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results on hard diffraction from CDF are reviewed and compared with predictions based on the diffractive structure function of the proton measured in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The predictions are generally larger than the measured rates by a factor of {approximately} 6, suggesting a breakdown of conventional factorization. Correct predictions are obtained by scaling the rapidity gap probability distribution of the diffractive structure function to the total integrated gap probability. The scaling of the gap probability is traced back to the pomeron flux renormalization hypothesis, which was introduced to unitarize the soft diffraction amplitude.

Goulianos, K.; CDF

1997-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

375

Prediction of Cutting Forces Using ANNs Approach in Hard Turning of AISI 52100 steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) was used to predict cutting forces in the case of machining the hard turning of AISI 52100 bearing steel using cBN cutting tool. Cutting forces evolution is considered as the key factors which affect machining. Predicting cutting forces evolution allows optimizing machining by an adaptation of cutting conditions. In this context, it seems interesting to study the contribution that could have artificial neural networks (ANNs) on the machining forces prediction in both numerical and experiment studies. Feed-forward multi-layer neural networks trained by the error back-propagation (BP) algorithm are used. Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) optimization algorithm was used for finding out weights. The training of the network is carried out with experimental machining data.The input dataset used are cutting speed, feed rate, cutting depth and hardness of the material. The output dataset used are cutting forces (Ft-cutting force, Fa- feed force and Fr- radial force).Results of the neural networks approach, in comparison with experimental data are discussed in last part of this paper.

Makhfi, Souad [Laboratoire des Technologies Industrielles. Universite Ibn Khaldoun de Tiaret, B.P. 78, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria); Laboratoire des Technologies Innovantes E.A. 3899. I.U.T. GMP-Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, avenue des Facultes, Le Bailly, 80025 Amiens Cedex1 (France); Habak, Malek; Velasco, Raphael [Laboratoire des Technologies Innovantes E.A. 3899. I.U.T. GMP-Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, avenue des Facultes, Le Bailly, 80025 Amiens Cedex1 (France); Haddouche, Kamel; Vantomme, Pascal [Laboratoire des Technologies Industrielles. Universite Ibn Khaldoun de Tiaret, B.P. 78, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria)

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

376

Application of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma to chlorination of hardly soluble materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The chlorination reaction in which hardly soluble materials are chemically converted into soluble chlorides by atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma (APNTP) and the effect of the plasma-irradiation conditions on the chlorination reaction were investigated. The CeO2 specimens, which have the same crystallographic structure (CaF2 type, cubic) and valence fluctuation behavior as ThO2, were used to simulate hardly soluble nuclear materials. \\{CCl4\\} and He mixed gas were used as the plasma discharge. The emission and electrical properties of APNTP and dissolution behaviors of chloride generated by plasma irradiation were evaluated. The results of the emission spectroscopic analysis and electrical property measurements showed that chlorine and carbon were generated from the decomposition of \\{CCl4\\} caused by the excited atmospheric components and He. Moreover, the production of CeCl3 from CeO2 and a logarithmic progression of the chlorination reaction were indicated with increasing plasma-irradiation time.

Toru Kitagaki; Tatsuya Suzuki; Toshitaka Kaneshiki; Masao Nomura

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Hard Quasi-real Photo-production of Charged Hadrons at COMPASS energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Common Muon Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) at CERN with its use of beams of naturally polarized muons scattered of a polarized deuteron target, provides an environment of hard scattering between quasi-real photons and partons. Hard hadron quasi-real photo-production with polarized initial states is sensitive to the polarized gluon distribution $\\Delta$G through $\\gamma$-gluon($g$) direct channels as well as $q$-$g$ resolved processes. Comparisons of unpolarized differential cross section measurements to next-to-leading order (NLO) pQCD calculations are essential to develop our understanding of proton-proton and lepton-nucleon scattering at varying center of mass energies. These measurements are important to asses the applicability of NLO pQCD in interpreting polarized processes. In this talk we will discuss unidentified charged separated hadron production at low $Q^{2}$ (Q$^{2}1.0\\,GeV/c$). $$ spectra of charged hadrons at $Q^{2}>1 GeV^{2}/c^{2}$ will also be discussed.

Astrid Morrale on behalf of the COMPASS collaboration

2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

378

EXIST A High Sensitivity Hard X-ray Imaging Sky Survey Mission for ISS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A deep all-sky imaging hard x-ray survey and wide-field monitor is needed to extend soft (ROSAT) and medium (ABRIXAS2) x-ray surveys into the 10-100 keV band (and beyond) at comparable sensitivity (~0.05 mCrab). This would enable discovery and study of >3000 obscured AGN, which probably dominate the hard x-ray background; detailed study of spectra and variability of accreting black holes and a census of BHs in the Galaxy; Gamma-ray bursts and associated massive star formation (PopIII) at very high redshift and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters throughout the Local Group; and a full galactic survey for obscured supernova remnants. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed array of 8 x 1m^2 coded aperture telescopes fixed on the International Space Station (ISS) with 160deg x 40deg field of view which images the full sky each 90 min orbit. EXIST has been included in the most recent NASA Strategic Plan as a candidate mission for the next decade. An overview of the science goals and mission concep...

Grindlay, J; Chakraborty, D; Elvis, M; Fabian, A C; Fiore, F; Gehrels, N; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F; Hartmann, D; Prince, T A; Ramsey, B; Rothschild, R; Skinner, G K; Woosley, S

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Integral detection of hard X-ray emission from the Galactic nuclear region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This letter presents the first results of an observational campaign to study the Galactic Centre with INTEGRAL. The mosaicked images obtained with the IBIS/ISGRI coded aperture instrument in the energy ranges 20-40 and 40-100 keV, give a yet unseen view of the high-energy sources of this region in hard X- and gamma-rays with an angular resolution of 12 arcmin (FWHM). We report on the discovery of a source, IGR J17456-2901, coincident with the Galactic Nucleus SgrA* to within 0.9 arcmin. Located at R.A.(J2000.0) = 17h45m38.5s, Dec.(J2000.0) = -29:01:15, the source is visible up to about 100 keV with a 20-100 keV luminosity at 8 kpc of (2.89 +/- 0.41) x 10^35 ergs/s. Although the new INTEGRAL source cannot unequivocally be associated to the Galactic Nucleus, this is the first report of significant hard X-ray emission from within the inner 10 arcming of the Galaxy and a contribution from the galactic supermassive black hole itself cannot be excluded.

Blanger, G; Goldoni, P; Paul, J; Terrier, R; Falanga, M; Ubertini, P; Bazano, A; Santo, M D; Winkler, C; Parmar, A N; Kuulkers, E; Ebisawa, K; Roques, J P; Lund, N; Melia, F

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Generation of first hard X-ray pulse at Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source (TTX) is the first-of-its-kind dedicated hard X-ray source in China based on the Thomson scattering between a terawatt ultrashort laser and relativistic electron beams. In this paper, we report the experimental generation and characterization of the first hard X-ray pulses (51.7 keV) via head-on collision of an 800 nm laser and 46.7 MeV electron beams. The measured yield is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} per pulse with an electron bunch charge of 200 pC and laser pulse energy of 300 mJ. The angular intensity distribution and energy spectra of the X-ray pulse are measured with an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device using a CsI scintillator and silicon attenuators. These measurements agree well with theoretical and simulation predictions. An imaging test using the X-ray pulse at the TTX is also presented.

Du Yingchao; Yan Lixin; Hua Jianfei; Du Qiang; Zhang Zhen; Li Renkai; Qian Houjun; Huang Wenhui; Chen Huaibi; Tang Chuanxiang [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Radiation Imaging Fundamental Science for National Defense, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

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381

Plasma dynamics and generation of hard radiations in experiments with cylindrical Z-pinches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey of experimental studies on the generation of hard ionizing radiations from dynamic cylindrical Z-pinches is presented. Comprehensive experimental data do not confirm the hypothesis that charged particles responsible for the generation of hard radiations (neutrons and X-rays) are accelerated in short-scale Z-pinch necks (m = 0). Analysis of the experimental data indicates that, in discharges in pure hydrogen and deuterium, these particles are most probably accelerated in the axial direction along H{sub {phi} {approx}} 0 lines by the induction electric field generated during the initiation of the secondary near-wall breakdown, which disconnects the pinch from the power supply. In discharges excited in heavy gases and at high initial current growth rates (I{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup 12} A/s) in experiments with hydrogen and deuterium contaminated with admixtures arriving from the chamber wall, there is an additional acceleration mechanism related to the growth of the resistance of a radiatively cooled Z-pinch.

Matveev, Yu. V. [Academy of Sciences of Abkhazia, Sukhum Physicotechnical Institute, Abkhazia (Georgia)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

Benchmarking Optimization Software with COPS 3.0  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy, under Contract W-31-109-Eng-38, by the National Science .... that some independent measurement, while its specifics might be argued, would enhance ... maximal area to converge to the area of a unit-diameter circle, ?/4 ? 0.7854.

383

Microsoft PowerPoint - loehnert_breakout_cops.ppt [Kompatibilittsmod...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

S. Crewell, K. Ebell, T. Reinhardt, C. Selbach, S. Kneifel University of Cologne, Germany (UC) D D Turner D. D. Turner University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI www.arm.gov...

384

Overview of the COPS Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics (ACM) Subgroup...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

properties of orographically induced clouds and how do these depend on dynamics, thermodynamics, and aerosol microphysics? * What is the role of aerosols and changing cloud...

385

Br-rich Tips of Calcified Crab Claws are Less Hard but More Fracture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Br-rich Tips of Calcified Crab Claws are Br-rich Tips of Calcified Crab Claws are Less Hard but More Fracture Resistant: A Comparison of Mineralized and Heavy-element Biological Materials figure 1 Figure 1. The heavy element biomaterial is the darker material at the tip of the shore crab claws. Figure "b" shows the same claw as "a" but after bead blasting. The claw tips are less eroded by the bead blasting than surrounding calcified material, suggesting a greater resistance to chipping from impact. Scale bar: 2mm Invertebrates modify their jaws, claws, carapaces and other mechanical structures with a variety of inorganic materials. One of the best-known examples is the calcified cuticle of crabs. We have found that many crabs also employ an uncalcified bromine-rich biological material at the tips of

386

Hard X-ray emission from accretion shocks around galaxy clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed from several galaxy clusters is consistent with a simple model, in which the nonthermal emission is produced by inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electrons accelerated in cluster accretion shocks: The dependence of HXR surface brightness on cluster temperature is consistent with that predicted by the model, and the observed HXR luminosity is consistent with the fraction of shock thermal energy deposited in relativistic electrons being 0.1. Alternative models, where the HXR emission is predicted to be correlated with the cluster thermal emission, are disfavored by the data. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) ?-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed.

Doron Kushnir; Eli Waxman

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Hard X-ray emission from accretion shocks around galaxy clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed from several galaxy clusters is consistent with a simple model, in which the nonthermal emission is produced by inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electrons accelerated in cluster accretion shocks: The dependence of HXR surface brightness on cluster temperature is consistent with that predicted by the model, and the observed HXR luminosity is consistent with the fraction of shock thermal energy deposited in relativistic electrons being ?<0.1. Alternative models, where the HXR emission is predicted to be correlated with the cluster thermal emission, are disfavored by the data. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) ?-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed.

Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli, E-mail: doron.kushnir@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il [Physics Faculty, Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot (Israel)

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Nonthermal hard X-ray excess in the cluster Abell 2256 from two epoch observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

After confirmation of the presence of a nonthermal hard X-ray excess with respect to the thermal emission in the Coma cluster from two independent observations, obtained using the Phoswich Detection System onboard BeppoSAX, we present in this Letter also for Abell 2256 the results of two observations performed with a time interval of about 2.5 yr. In both spectra a nonthermal excess is present at a confidence level of ~3.3sigma and ~3.7sigma, respectively. The combined spectrum obtained by adding up the two spectra allows to measure an excess at the level of ~4.8sigma in the 20-80 keV energy range. The nonthermal X-ray flux is in agreement with the published value of the first observation (Fusco-Femiano et al. 2000) and with that measured by a Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observation (Rephaeli & Gruber 2003).

Roberto Fusco-Femiano; Raffaella Landi; Mauro Orlandini

2005-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

389

Density functional theory for hard-sphere mixtures: the White-Bear version Mark II  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the spirit of the White-Bear version of fundamental measure theory we derive a new density functional for hard-sphere mixtures which is based on a recent mixture extension of the Carnahan-Starling equation of state. In addition to the capability to predict inhomogeneous density distributions very accurately, like the original White-Bear version, the new functional improves upon consistency with an exact scaled-particle theory relation in the case of the pure fluid. We examine consistency in detail within the context of morphological thermodynamics. Interestingly, for the pure fluid the degree of consistency of the new version is not only higher than for the original White-Bear version but also higher than for Rosenfeld's original fundamental measure theory.

Hendrik Hansen-Goos; Roland Roth

2006-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

390

Tribocharging phenomena in hard disk amorphous carbon coatings with and without perfluoropolyether lubricants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scanning polarization force microscopy was used to study changes in surface potential (tribocharging) caused by the contact between a tungsten carbide tip and the amorphous carbon coating of a hard disk, both when bare and when covered with Zdol-TX lubricant. The surface potential change produced by tip contact decays with time at a rate that is strongly dependent on lubricant coverage and on the presence of oxygen and water vapor in the environment. Two different charging mechanisms are proposed. One involves chemical modification of the surface by removal of oxygen bound to the surface. This gives rise to a potential change that decays with time. Another mechanism involves trapping of charge in states within the energy gap of the insulating carbon film. The potential change due to this trapped charge does not decay over periods much greater than 1 h.

van den Oetelaar, R. J. A.; Xu, L.; Ogletree, D. F.; Salmeron, M.; Tang, H.; Gui, J.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Tribocharging phenomena in hard disk amorphous carbon coatings with and without perfluoropolyether lubricants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scanning polarization force microscopy was used to study changes in surface potential (tribocharging) caused by the contact between a tungsten carbide tip and the amorphous carbon coating of a hard disk,both when bare and when covered with Zdol-TX lubricant. The surface potential change produced by tip contact decays with time at a rate that is strongly dependent on lubricant coverage, and on the presence of oxygen and water vapor in the environment. Two different charging mechanisms are proposed. One involves chemical modification of the surface by removal of oxygen bound to the surface. This gives rise to a potential change that decays with time. Another mechanism involves trapping of charge in states within the energy gap of the insulating carbon film. The potential change due to this trapped charge does not decay over periods much greater than 1 hour.

van den Oetelaar, Ronald J.A.; Xu, Lei; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Tang, Hung; Gui, Jing

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Radiation Hardness Tests of SiPMs for the JLab Hall D Barrel Calorimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the measurement of the neutron radiation hardness of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation in Japan and SensL in Ireland. Samples from both companies were irradiated by neutrons created by a 1 GeV electron beam hitting a thin lead target at Jefferson Lab Hall A. More tests regarding the temperature dependence of the neutron radiation damage and self-annealing were performed on Hamamatsu SiPMs using a calibrated Am-Be neutron source from the Jefferson Lab Radiation Control group. As the result of irradiation both dark current and dark rate increase linearly as a function of the 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence and a temperature dependent self-annealing effect is observed.

Yi Qiang; Carl Zorn; Fernando Barbosa; Elton Smith

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

393

Radiation Hardness Tests of SiPMs for the JLab Hall D Barrel Calorimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the measurement of the neutron radiation hardness of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation in Japan and SensL in Ireland. Samples from both companies were irradiated by neutrons created by a 1 GeV electron beam hitting a thin lead target at Jefferson Lab Hall A. More tests regarding the temperature dependence of the neutron radiation damage and self-annealing were performed on Hamamatsu SiPMs using a calibrated Am-Be neutron source from the Jefferson Lab Radiation Control group. As the results of all irradiation, both dark current and dark noise increase linearly as a function of the 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence and a temperature dependent self-annealing effect is observed together with the radiation damage.

Qiang, Yi; Barbosa, Fernando; Smith, Elton

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Improved Bounds on the Phase Transition for the Hard-Core Model in 2-Dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the hard-core lattice gas model defined on independent sets weighted by an activity $\\lambda$, we study the critical activity $\\lambda_c(\\mathbb{Z}^2)$ for the uniqueness/non-uniqueness threshold on the 2-dimensional integer lattice $\\mathbb{Z}^2$. The conjectured value of the critical activity is approximately $3.796$. Until recently, the best lower bound followed from algorithmic results of Weitz (2006). Weitz presented an FPTAS for approximating the partition function for graphs of constant maximum degree $\\Delta$ when $\\lambda2.388$. In this paper, we establish an upper bound for this approach, by showing that, for all $\\sigma$, SSM does not hold on $T_{\\mathrm{saw}}^\\sigma(\\mathbb{Z}^2)$ when $\\lambda>3.4$. We also present a refinement of the approach of Restrepo et al. which improves the lower bound to $\\lambda_c(\\mathbb{Z}^2)>2.48$.

Juan C. Vera; Eric Vigoda; Linji Yang

2014-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

395

Constraints on the time-scale of nuclear breakup from thermal hard-photon emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measured hard photon multiplicities from second-chance nucleon-nucleon collisions are used in combination with a kinetic thermal model, to estimate the break-up times of excited nuclear systems produced in nucleus-nucleus reactions at intermediate energies. The obtained nuclear break-up time for the $^{129}${Xe} + $^{nat}${Sn} reaction at 50{\\it A} MeV is $\\Delta$$\\tau$ $\\approx$ 100 -- 300 fm/$c$ for all reaction centralities. The lifetime of the radiating sources produced in seven other different heavy-ion reactions studied by the TAPS experiment are consistent with $\\Delta$$\\tau$ $\\approx$ 100 fm/$c$, such relatively long thermal photon emission times do not support the interpretation of nuclear breakup as due to a fast spinodal process for the heavy nuclear systems studied.

R. Ortega; D. d'Enterria; G. Martinez; D. Baiborodin; H. Delagrange; J. Diaz; F. Fernandez; H. Loehner; T. Matulewicz; R. W. Ostendorf; S. Schadmand; Y. Schutz; P. Tlusty; R. Turrisi; V. Wagner; H. W. Wilschut; N. Yahlali

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

396

Oil-repellent treatment of a flying slider in a hard disk drive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effectiveness of various oil-repellent treatments was evaluated by measuring the contact angles of mineral oil on the surface of a slider of a hard disk drive. The contact angle on an untreated slider was 20; it was 51 on a slider dipped in FAS solution (2-(heptadecafluorooctyl)-ethyltrimethoxysilane) and heated to 393 K; 68 on a slider dipped in FASI solution (a octadecafluorooctane solution of FAS treated by hydrolysis and polymerization) and heated to 393 K; 80 on a slider vapor-deposited with FAS solution at 433 K; 80 on a slider dipped in FASI solution after ultraviolet radiation (UV) and heated to 393 K; and 81 on a slider irradiated by UV after being dipped in FASI solution. These results indicate that a compact coating of FAS can be formed, even on the slider surface of a carbon film with few hydroxyl groups, by treating the surface with FAS solution or FASI solution.

Yasuhiro Yoshimura; Takanori Aono; Yukiko Ikeda; Yoshishige Endou; Hiromitsu Tokisue; Akiomi Kouno

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Mapping residual stress fields from Vickers hardness indents using Raman microprobe spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to map the residual stress fields in the vicinity of Vickers hardness indents. Both 514.5 and 488.0 nm, light is used to excite the effect and the resulting shifted and broadened Raman peaks are analyzed using computer deconvolution. Half-wave plates are used to vary the orientation of the incident later light`s polarization state with respect to crystal orientation. The Raman scattered light is then analyzed for polarization dependences which are indicative of the various components of the Raman scattering tensor. Such studies can yield valuable information about the orientation of stress components in a well known stress field. The results can then be applied to the determination of stress components in machined semiconductor materials.

Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Direct Measurement of the Free Energy of Aging Hard-Sphere Colloidal Glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The nature of the glass transition is one of the most important unsolved problems in condensed matter physics. The difference between glasses and liquids is believed to be caused by very large free energy barriers for particle rearrangements; however so far it has not been possible to confirm this experimentally. We provide the first quantitative determination of the free energy for an aging hard-sphere colloidal glass. The determination of the free energy allows for a number of new insights in the glass transition, notably the quantification of the strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the free energy. A study of the local minima of the free energy reveals that the observed variations are directly related to the rearrangements of the particles. Our main finding is that the probability of particle rearrangements shows a power law dependence on the free energy changes associated with the rearrangements, similarly to the Gutenberg-Richter law in seismology.

Rojman Zargar; Bernard Nienhuis; Peter Schall; Daniel Bonn

2013-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

399

Electroweak corrections to lepton pair production in association with two hard jets at the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compute the next-to-leading order corrections of $O(\\alpha_s^2\\alpha^3)$ to the hadronic production of two oppositely charged leptons and two hard jets, $p p \\to j j l^- l^+$, using Recola and Collier. We include electroweak and QCD corrections at the given order and all off-shell effects. We provide detailed predictions for the LHC operating at 13 TeV and obtain per-cent-level corrections for the total cross section. For differential distributions we find significant non-uniform distortions in high-energy tails at the level of several ten per cent due to electroweak Sudakov logarithms and deformations at the level of a few per cent for angular variables.

Ansgar Denner; Lars Hofer; Andreas Scharf; Sandro Uccirati

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

400

Solar Hard X-ray Source Sizes in a Beam-Heated and Ionised Chromosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar flare hard X-rays (HXRs) are produced as bremsstrahlung when an accelerated population of electrons interacts with the dense chromospheric plasma. HXR observations presented by using the Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) have shown that HXR source sizes are 3-6 times more extended in height than those predicted by the standard collisional thick target model (CTTM). Several possible explanations have been put forward including the multi-threaded nature of flare loops, pitch-angle scattering, and magnetic mirroring. However, the nonuniform ionisation (NUI) structure along the path of the electron beam has not been fully explored as a solution to this problem. Ionised plasma is known to be less effective at producing nonthermal bremsstrahlung HXRs when compared to neutral plasma. If the peak HXR emission was produced in a locally ionised region within the chromosphere, the intensity of emission will be preferentially reduced around this peak, resulting in a more extended source. Due to...

O'Flannagain, A; Gallagher, P T

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Achieving Vibration Stability of the NSLS-II Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (HXN) Beamline of National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-lI) requires high levels of stability in order to achieve the desired instrument resolution. To ensure that the design of the endstation helps meet the stringent criteria and that natural and cultural vibration is mitigated both passively and actively, a comprehensive study complimentary to the design process has been undertaken. Vibration sources that have the potential to disrupt sensitive experiments such as wind, traffic and NSLS II operating systems have been studied using state of the art simulations and an array of field data. Further, final stage vibration isolation principles have been explored in order to be utilized in supporting endstation instruments. This paper presents results of the various study aspects and their influence on the HXN design optimization.

Simos, N.; Chu, Y. N.; Broadbent, A.; Nazaretski, E.; Margulies, L.; Dyling, O.; Shen, Q.; Fallier, M.

2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

402

Hard Rescattering Mechanism in High Energy Photodisintegration of the Light Nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the high energy photodisintegrataion of light nuclei in which the energy of the absorbed photon is equally shared between two nucleons in the target. For these reactions we investigate the model in which photon absorption by a quark in one nucleon followed by its high momentum transfer interaction with a quark of the other nucleon leads to the production of two nucleons with high relative momentum. We sum the relevant quark rescattering diagrams, and demonstrate that the scattering amplitude can be expressed as a convolution of the large angle NN scattering amplitude, the hard photon-quark interaction vertex and the low-momentum nuclear wave function. Within this model we calculate the cross sections and polarization observables of high energy gamma + d --> pn and gamma + ^3He --> pp + n reactions.

Misak M. Sargsian

2002-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

A Study of Selected Properties and Applications of AlMgB14 and Related Composites: Ultra-Hard Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research presents a study of the hardness, electrical, and thermal properties AlMgB{sub 14} containing Al{sub 2}MgO{sub 4} spinel. This research also investigated how much Al{sub 2}MgO{sub 4} spinel consistently forms with AlMgB{sub 14}, if AlMgB{sub 14} materials can be produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), what effects TiC and TiB{sub 2} have on this composite material, and the importance of mechanical alloying. Included also is a study of the variation in hardness measurements and how they relate to SI units. Heretofore, all ultra-hard materials (hardness > 40 GPA) have been found to be cubic in structure, electrical insulators, and expensive; the behavior of AlMgB{sub 14}, which in certain specimens and compositions can have hardness values greater than 40 GPa, is therefore quite unusual since it is non-cubic, conductive, and moderate in cost. This offers an opportunity to investigate the relationship between hardness, thermal, and electrical properties from a new perspective. The main purpose of this project was to characterize the different properties of the AlMgB{sub 14} materials and to demonstrate that this material can be made in bulk. The technologies used for this study include microhardness measurement techniques, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy at different temperatures, optical microscopy, thermomechanical analysis, differential thermal analysis, 4-point probe resistivity, density techniques, Seebeck Effect, and Hall Effect. This research may lead to use of this material for applications where high abrasion resistance along with electrical conduction is needed. Also this research gave more information about a material that could have a great impact on industrial applications.

Theron L. Lewis

2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

404

Evaluation of hard-rock-cavern construction methods for compressed-air energy storage: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of construction cost and schedule estimates for caverns mined in hard rock for 100-MW and 220-MW compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants with 10 hours storage capacity and using either water-compensated cavern operation with constant turbine-inlet pressure operation on uncompensated cavern operation with sliding turbine-inlet pressure operation. The estimates are made for caverns mined by large-parallel-tunnel methods and by room-and-pillar methods. The results indicate that, for the cavern sizes involved, the room-and-pillar method is cost-competitive with the large-parallel-tunnel methods, but the method requires marginally more construction time. The largest cavern size in the estimates may, however, be approaching the size where the room-and-pillar method may no longer be competitive. The technical feasibility of water curtains for preventing or minimizing leakage of air from CAES hard-rock caverns is evaluated, and construction cost and schedule estimates are made for uncompensated caverns. It is concluded that the performance of water curtains is dependent upon the accuracy of the values of site specific variables and assumptions utilized in the design. A method is presented for assessing if a water curtain may be economical for a compensated CAES cavern. Such an assessment for a water curtain for an uncompensated CAES cavern is more complex and beyond the scope of this study. Also, a program for testing the operation of a water curtain in conjunction with an air-storage cavern operation is proposed. For the specific cavern sizes considered in this report, the estimated water-curtain construction costs and times for the uncompensated room-and-pillar caverns are found to be greater than for the uncompensated large-parallel-tunnel caverns. 11 refs., 18 figs., 19 tabs.

Thrasher, J.E.; Lange, R.B.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Inhomogeneous quasi-stationary state of dense fluid of inelastic hard spheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study closed dense collections of hard spheres that collide inelastically with constant coefficient of normal restitution. We find inhomogeneous states (IS) where the density profile is spatially non-uniform but constant in time. The states are exact solutions of non-linear partial differential equations that describe the coupled distributions of density and temperature when inelastic losses of energy per collision are small. The derivation is performed without modelling the equations' coefficients that are unknown in the dense limit (such as the equation of state), using only their scaling form specific for hard spheres. The IS is exact non-linear state of this many-body system. It captures a fundamental property of inelastic collections of particles: the possibility of preserving non-uniform temperature via the interplay of inelastic cooling and heat conduction, generalizing previous results in the dilute case. We perform numerical simulations to demonstrate that arbitrary initial state evolves to the IS in the limit of long times where the container has the geometry of the channel. The evolution is like gas-liquid transition. The liquid condenses in a vanishing part of the total volume but takes most of the mass of the system. However, the gaseous phase, which mass grows only logarithmically with the system size, is relevant because its fast particles carry most of the energy of the system. Remarkably, the system self-organizes to dissipate no energy: the inelastic decay of energy is a power-law $[1+t/t_c]^{-2}$ where $t_c$ diverges in the thermodynamic limit. This behavior is caused by unusual spatial distribution of particles: on approach to one of the container's walls the density grows inversely with the distance. We discuss the relation of our results to the recently proposed finite-time singularity in other container's geometries.

Itzhak Fouxon

2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

406

Integrity Education (IE) IE provides education to the OHSU community through Big Brain (OHSU's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clari cation, and security assessments. oips@ohsu.edu 503-494-8849 Clinical Research Billing Compliance to minimize the risk of unlawful activity. 503-494-2133integrity@ohsu.edu Environmental Health and Radiation, environmental, and regulatory risks to the OHSU community. The RS program addresses questions and concerns speci

Chapman, Michael S.

407

http://www.ied.ethz.ch/pub/index 1 IED Publications List 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Sector. Working Paper Sustainability and Innovation No. S2/2010. Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe.H. (2010): The innovation impact of EU emission trading ­ Find- ings of company case studies in the German

Fischlin, Andreas

408

Fundamental-measure density functional theory study of the crystal-melt interface of the hard sphere system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamental-measure density functional theory study of the crystal-melt interface of the hard density functional theory. The equilibrium interfacial density profiles and interfacial free energies were value is 0.6 5,10 . For the past two decades a number of density functional theories were developed

Song, Xueyu

409

Z .Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 16 2001 107 114 Experimental investigation on the breakage of hard rock by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy, impact spacing and waterjets on the rate of penetration in hard rocks are described spacing and waterjets on the rate of penetration in granite have been investigated and analyzed. 2 and the results are analyzed by measuring the depth of the craters or cuts penetrated by PDC cutters. Results from

410

Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

Sun, K.

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

411

The Change in the hardness of LCAC. TZM, and ODS molybdenum in the post-irradiated and annealed conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hardness measurements were performed on wrought Low Carbon Arc Cast (LCAC), TZM, and Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) molybdenum in the post-irradiated and post-irradiated + annealed condition to determine the recovery kinetics. Irradiations performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at nominally 300 C and 600 C to neutron fluence levels that range from 10.5 to 246 x 10{sup 24} n/m{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV) resulted in relatively large increases in hardness (77-109%), while small increases in hardness (<18%) were observed for irradiations at 870-1100 C. The hardness recovery for ODS and LCAC irradiated at 300 C and 600 C were shown to be complete at 980 C and {approx} 1100-1250 C, respectively. Isothermal annealing at 700 C was used to determine the activation energy for recovery of LCAC and ODS (3.70-4.88 eV {+-} 0.28-0.77 eV), which is comparable to values reported in the literature for molybdenum vacancy self-diffusion. This suggests that recovery of LCAC and ODS is controlled by the solid-state diffusion of vacancies in the bulk, and that the finer grain size and particle size ODS does not affect this mechanism. TZM exhibited slower recovery kinetics, which can be explained by the solute atoms (titanium and zirconium) inhibiting vacancy diffusion.

Cockeram, Brian V [Bechtel-Bettis, Inc.; Smith, Richard W [Bechtel-Bettis, Inc.; Byun, Thak Sang [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Solitons in a hard-core bosonic system: Gross-Pitaevskii type and beyond Radha Balakrishnan1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solitons in a hard-core bosonic system: Gross-Pitaevskii type and beyond Radha Balakrishnan1, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA A unified formulation of the hallmarks of quantum coherence inherent in ultracold atomic systems As predicted theoretically in the Gross

Satija, Indu

413

Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields R. C. Issac,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

drives a fast ignition wave.15 Prop- erties of the cluster media as well as the incident laser paUltra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields R. C. Issac,a) G. Vieux, B of ultrashort laser pulses with krypton clusters at intensity up to 1.3 1018 Wcm 2 has been investigated

Strathclyde, University of

414

Contribution of synchrotron radiation to small-angle X-ray scattering studies in hard condensed matter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synchrotron radiation, by virtue of its special beam characteristics, has revived interest in small-angle X-ray scattering for hard condensed matter and materials science. New techniques have been developed and new scientific themes tackled, ranging from metallurgy to nanotechnology.

Simon, J.-P.

2007-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

415

Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bottled drinking water: water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET in glass at pH 3.5). None of the leachates approaches the maximum concentrations for drinking water- QMS) in 294 samples of the same bottled water (predominantly mineral water) sold in the European Union

Filzmoser, Peter

416

GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK TEMPLATE Effective Date of Handbook: Fall of each academic year A hard copy is due in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department Graduate Handbook does not deviate from established Graduate School Policies httpGRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK TEMPLATE NOTE: Effective Date of Handbook: Fall of each academic year is to be provided with a hard copy of each department's Graduate Student Handbook by the first day of classes each

Tennessee, University of

417

Analysis of the optical design of the NSLS-II Coherent Hard X-ray beamline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra-low emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources such as the NSLS-II offer excellent opportunities for the development of experimental techniques exploiting x-ray coherence. Coherent light scattered by a heterogeneous sample produces a speckle pattern characteristic for the specific arrangement of the scatterers. This may vary over time, and the resultant intensity fluctuations can be measured and analyzed to provide information about the sample dynamics. X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) extends the capability of dynamic light scattering to opaque and turbid samples and extends the measurements of time evolution to nanometer length scales. As a consequence XPCS became crucial in the study of dynamics in systems including, but not being limited to, colloids, polymers, complex fluids, surfaces and interfaces, phase ordering alloys, etc. In this paper we present the conceptual optical design and the theoretical performance of the Coherent Hard X-ray (CHX) beamline at NSLS-II, dedicated to XPCS and other coherent scattering techniques. For the optical design of this beamline, there is a tradeoff between the coherence needed to distinguish individual speckles and the phase acceptance (high intensity) required to measure fast dynamics with an adequate signal-to-noise level. As XPCS is a 'photon hungry' technique, the beamline optimization requires maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the measured intensity-intensity autocorrelation function. The degree of coherence, as measured by a two-slit (Young) experiment, is used to characterize the speckle pattern visibilities. The beamline optimization strategy consists of maximization of the on-sample intensity while keeping the degree of coherence within the 0.1-0.5 range. The resulted design deviates substantially from an ad-hoc modification of a hard x-ray beamline for XPCS measurements. The CHX beamline will permit studies of complex systems and measurements of bulk dynamics down to the microsecond time scales. In general, the 10-fold increase in brightness of the NSLS-II, compared to other sources, will allow for measurements of dynamics on time-scales that are two orders of magnitude faster than what is currently possible. We also conclude that the common approximations used in evaluating the transverse coherence length would not be sufficiently accurate for the calculation of the coherent properties of an undulator-based beamline, and a thorough beamline optimization at a low-emittance source such as the NSLS-II requires a realistic wave-front propagation analysis.

Fluerasu A.; Chubar, O.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Baltser, J.; Wiegart, Lutz; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Carlucci-Dayton, M.; Berman, L.

2011-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

418

AlGaN UV LED and Photodiodes Radiation Hardness and Space Qualifications and Their Applications in Space Science and High Energy Density Physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of robust, radiation hard AlGaN optoelectronic devices and their applications in space exploration & high energy density physics. Particularly, deep UV LED and deep UV photodiodes are discussed with regard to their applications, radiation hardness and space qualification. AC charge management of UV LED satellite payload instruments, which were to be launched in late 2012, is covered.

Sun, K. X.

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

J. H. Scofield and D. M. Fleetwood, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science NS-38, 1567-77 (December 1991). PHYSICAL BASIS FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTS OF MOS RADIATION HARDNESS*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. H. Scofield and D. M. Fleetwood, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science NS-38, 1567-77 (December 1991). PHYSICAL BASIS FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTS OF MOS RADIATION HARDNESS* John H. Scofield Department noise and channel mobility measurements may be useful in defining nondestructive hardness assurance test

Scofield, John H.

420

Measurements of hard x-ray emission from runaway electrons in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spatial distribution of runaway electron (RE) strikes to the wall during argon pellet-initiated rapid shutdown of diverted and limited plasma shapes in DIII-D is studied using a new array of hard x-ray (HXR) scintillators. Two plasma configurations were investigated: an elongated diverted H-mode and a low-elongation limited L-mode. HXR emission from MeV level REs generated during the argon pellet injection is observed during the thermal quench (TQ) in diverted discharges from REs lost into the divertor. In limiter discharges, this prompt TQ loss is reduced, suggesting improved TQ confinement of REs in this configuration. During the plateau phase when the plasma current is carried by REs, toroidally symmetric HXR emission from remaining confined REs is seen. Transient HXR bursts during this RE current plateau suggest the presence of a small level of wall losses due to the presence of an unidentified instability. Eventually, an abrupt final loss of the remaining RE current occurs. This final loss HXR emission shows a strong toroidal peaking and a consistent spatiotemporal evolution that suggests the development of a kink instability.

James, A. N. [University of California, San Diego; Austin, M. E. [University of Texas, Austin; Eidietis, N. W. [General Atomics, San Diego; Evans, T.E. [General Atomics, San Diego; Jernigan, T. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

KAPPA DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR HARD X-RAY CORONAL SOURCES OF SOLAR FLARES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar flares produce hard X-ray emission, the photon spectrum of which is often represented by a combination of thermal and power-law distributions. However, the estimates of the number and total energy of non-thermal electrons are sensitive to the determination of the power-law cutoff energy. Here, we revisit an 'above-the-loop' coronal source observed by RHESSI on 2007 December 31 and show that a kappa distribution model can also be used to fit its spectrum. Because the kappa distribution has a Maxwellian-like core in addition to a high-energy power-law tail, the emission measure and temperature of the instantaneous electrons can be derived without assuming the cutoff energy. Moreover, the non-thermal fractions of electron number/energy densities can be uniquely estimated because they are functions of only the power-law index. With the kappa distribution model, we estimated that the total electron density of the coronal source region was {approx}2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. We also estimated without assuming the source volume that a moderate fraction ({approx}20%) of electrons in the source region was non-thermal and carried {approx}52% of the total electron energy. The temperature was 28 MK, and the power-law index {delta} of the electron density distribution was -4.3. These results are compared to the conventional power-law models with and without a thermal core component.

Oka, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Krucker, S.; Lin, R. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)

2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

422

Radiation Pressure Supported AGN Tori with Hard X-Ray and Stellar Heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dynamics and structure of toroidal obscuration around AGN remain uncertain and controversial. In this paper we extend earlier work on the dynamical role of infrared radiation pressure by adding the effects of two kinds of distributed heating: Compton-heating due to hard X-rays from the nucleus and local starlight heating. We find numerical solutions to the axisymmetric hydrostatic equilibrium, energy balance, and photon diffusion equations including these effects. Within the regime of typical parameters, the two different sources of additional heating have very similar effects: the density profile within the torus becomes shallower both radially and vertically, but for plausible heating rates, there is only minor change (relative to the source-free case) in the distribution of column density with solid angle. The most interesting consequence of distributed heating is that it selects out a relatively narrow range of parameters permitting an equilibrium, particularly $(L/L_E)/\\tau_T$. We discuss the implications of both the narrowness of the permitted range and its approximate coincidence with the range inferred from observations.

Jiming Shi; Julian H. Krolik

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

423

Two separate spectral substates within Low-Hard States of NS-LMXBs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The whole BeppoSAX archive was screened for observations of Neutron Star (NS) Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, in order to characterise the X-ray properties of this class of sources when observed in a Low Hard State (LHS). A total of 12 sources in the sample exhibited LHS spectra; half of the objects showed a "canonical" LHS spectrum, in which two separate populations of soft blackbody-distributed photons emerge. One, or possibly both the populations, is Comptonized by a hot (kT_e > 20 keV) electron plasma cloud. For the remaining 6 sources just a single population is sufficient to account for both the directly observed blackbody and the Comptonized radiation. The luminosities of the NS with canonical two-population spectra are found to be systematically higher than the ones of the sources showing the atypical, single photon population spectra. This suggests the possibility of two separate subclasses of LHS spectra. The transition from a subclass to the other is likely related to the accretion rate, which drives the ...

Cocchi, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Tests of Radiation-Hard Silicon Microstrip Sensors for CMS in S-LHC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tests are to study the performance of various silicon microstrip sensors that are sufficiently radiation-hard to be considered as candidates for the CMS outer (R > 25cm) tracker in the second phase of the currently envisioned S-LHC upgrade. The main goal of the beam test is to test Float Zone (FZ) and Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon sensors that have been procured from Hamamatsu by the CMS collaboration as possible replacements for the CMS outer tracker for phase 2 operations. The detectors under test (DUT) will be isntalled in a cold box that contains 10 slots for modules based on CMS Tracker hybrids. Slots 1-4 and 7-10 are occupied by reference planes and slots 5 and 6 are reserved for DUTs. The box is cooled by Peltier elements in thermal contact with the top and bottom aluminum baseplates and is typically operated at around -25 C. A PCI based version of the CMS DAQ is used to read out the 10 slots based on triggers provided by beam scintillation counters. Given the low rate of beam particles the hybrid APVs will be operated in Peak mode, which maximizes the signal-to-noise performance of the readout chips. The internal clock operates at the LHC frequency of 40 MHz.

Luukka, Panja; Maenpaa, Teppo; Tuovinen, Esa; /Helsinki Institute of Physics; Spiegel, Lenny; /Fermilab; Flight, Robert; /Rochester U.

2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

425

Balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimetry with PoGOLite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PoGOLite is a hard X-ray polarimeter operating in the 25-100 keV energy band. The instrument design is optimised for the observation of compact astrophysical sources. Observations are conducted from a stabilised stratospheric balloon platform at an altitude of approximately 40 km. The primary targets for first balloon flights of a reduced effective area instrument are the Crab and Cygnus-X1. The polarisation of incoming photons is determined using coincident Compton scattering and photo-absorption events reconstructed in an array of plastic scintillator detector cells surrounded by a bismuth germanate oxide (BGO) side anticoincidence shield and a polyethylene neutron shield. A custom attitude control system keeps the polarimeter field-of-view aligned to targets of interest, compensating for sidereal motion and perturbations such as torsional forces in the balloon rigging. An overview of the PoGOLite project is presented and the outcome of the ill-fated maiden balloon flight is discussed.

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Transverse pulse shaping and optimization of a tapered hard X-ray free electron laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multidimensional optimization schemes for TW hard X-Ray free electron lasers are applied to the cases of transversely uniform and parabolic electron beam distributions and compared to examples of transversely Gaussian beams. The optimizations are performed for a $200$m undulator and a resonant wavelength of $\\lambda_r=1.5\\AA $ using the fully 3-dimensional FEL particle code GENESIS. Time dependent simulations showed that the maximum radiation power is larger for flatter transverse distributions due to enhanced optical guiding in the tapered section of the undulator. For a transversely Gaussian beam the maximum output power was found to be $\\text{P}_{max}$=$1.56$ TW compared to $2.26$ TW for the parabolic case and $2.63$ TW for the uniform case. Spectral data also showed a 30-70$\\%$ reduction in energy deposited in the sidebands for the uniform and parabolic beams compared with a Gaussian. An analysis of the maximum power as a function of detuning from resonance shows that redshifting the central wavelength by...

Emma, Claudio; Wu, Juhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Energy production rates in fluid mixtures of inelastic rough hard spheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The aim of this work is to explore the combined effect of polydispersity and roughness on the partial energy production rates and on the total cooling rate of a granular fluid mixture. We consider a mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres of different number densities, masses, diameters, moments of inertia, and mutual coefficients of normal and tangential restitution. Starting from the first equation of the BBGKY hierarchy, the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational temperatures ($T_i^\\text{tr}$ and $T_i^\\text{rot}$) are expressed in terms of two-body average values. Next, those average values are estimated by assuming a velocity distribution function based on maximum-entropy arguments, allowing us to express the energy production rates and the total cooling rate in terms of the partial temperatures and the parameters of the mixture. Finally, the results are applied to the homogeneous cooling state of a binary mixture and the influence of inelasticity and roughness on the temperature ratios $T_1^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{rot}$, $T_2^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{tr}$, and $T_2^\\text{rot}/T_1^\\text{rot}$ is analyzed.

Andrs Santos; Gilberto M. Kremer; Vicente Garz

2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

428

Method for Developing Descriptions of Hard-to-Price Products: Results of the Telecommunications Product Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a study to test a new method for developing descriptions of hard-to-price products. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (CPI). BLS accomplishes this task by sending field staff to places of business to price actual products. The field staff are given product checklists to help them determine whether products found today are comparable to products priced the previous month. Prices for non-comparable products are not included in the current month's price index calculations. A serious problem facing BLS is developing product checklists for dynamic product areas, new industries, and the service sector. It is difficult to keep checklists up-to-date and quite often simply to develop checklists for service industry products. Some people estimates that upwards of 50 % of US economic activity is not accounted for in the CPI

Conrad, F.; Tonn, B.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

An in-vacuum wiggler for SOLEIL Hard X-rays spectral range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of Hard X-rays has become a tricky problem on medium energy storage rings. It requires Insertion Devices (IDs) with high magnetic field and a large number of periods. To cover the 20-50 keV photon energy range at SOLEIL (2.75 GeV), an in-vacuum wiggler (WSV50) has been preferred to a superconducting ID. The wiggler is composed of 38 periods of 50 mm producing a 2.1 T field at a minimum magnetic gap of 5.5 mm. To minimize the magnetic forces acting between magnet arrays (8.5 tons), a compensation system composed of non magnetic springs has been mounted apart from the magnet system to reduce the mechanical deformations. The wiggler has been assembled step by step by means of a genetic algorithm which minimizes the magnetic errors measured with a flipping coil. This paper presents the mechanical and magnetic design of the wiggler as well as the construction and the magnetic measurements.

Marcouille, O.; Chapuis, L.; Brunelle, P.; Berteaud, P.; Couprie, M.-E.; Filhol, J.-M.; Herbeaux, C.; Marlats, J.-L.; Massal, M.; Mary, A.; Tavakoli, K.; Valleau, M.; Veteran, J. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Bat. A, Saint-Aubin, Gif-sur-Yvette- 9119 (France)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

430

Constraints on jet X-ray emission in low/hard state X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the combination of the similarities between the X-ray properties of low luminosity accreting black holes and accreting neutron stars, combined with the differences in their radio properties argues that the X-rays from these systems are unlikely to be formed in the relativistic jets. Specifically, the spectra of extreme island state neutron stars and low/hard state black holes are known to be indistinguishable, while the power spectra from these systems are known to show only minor differences beyond what would be expected from scaling the characteristic variability frequencies by the mass of the compact object. The spectral and temporal similarities thus imply a common emission mechanism that has only minor deviations from having all key parameters scaling linearly with the mass of the compact object, while we show that this is inconsistent with the observations that the radio powers of neutron stars are typically about 30 times lower than those of black holes at the same X-ray luminosity. We also show that an abrupt luminosity change would be expected when a system makes a spectral state transition from a radiatively inefficient jet dominated accretion flow to a thin disk dominated flow, but that such a change is not seen.

Thomas J. Maccarone

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

Wide Field Hard X-ray Survey Telescope: ProtoEXIST1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report our progress on the development of pixellated imaging CZT detector arrays for our first-generation balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray (20 - 600 keV) telescope, ProtoEXIST1. Our ProtoEXIST program is a pathfinder for the High Energy Telescope (HET) on the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey telescope (EXIST), a proposed implementation of the Black Hole Finder Probe. ProtoEXIST1 consists of four independent coded-aperture telescopes with close-tiled (~0.4 mm gaps) CZT detectors that preserve their 2.5mm pixel pitch. Multiple shielding/field-of-view configurations are planned to identify optimal geometry for the HET in EXIST. The primary technical challenge in ProtoEXIST is the development of large area, close-tiled modules of imaging CZT detectors (1000 cm2 for ProtoEXIST1), with all readout and control systems for the ASIC readout vertically stacked. We describe the overall telescope configuration of ProtoEXIST1 and review the current development status of the CZT detectors, from individual detector crys...

Hong, J; Chammas, N; Allen, B; Copete, A; Said, B; Burke, M; Howell, J; Gauron, T; Baker, R G; Barthelmy, S D; Sheikh, S; Gehrels, N; Cook, W R; Burnham, J A; Harrison, F A; Collins, J; Labov, S; Garson, A; Krawczynski, H

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

The variable hard X-ray emission of NGC4945 as observed by NuSTAR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a broadband (~0.5-79 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of multiple NuSTAR observations combined with archival Suzaku and Chandra data of NGC4945, the brightest extragalactic source at 100 keV. We observe hard X-ray (> 10 keV) flux and spectral variability, with flux variations of a factor 2 on timescales of 20 ksec. A variable primary continuum dominates the high energy spectrum (>10 keV) in all the states, while the reflected/scattered flux which dominates at Etransmission spectrum we derive a Compton depth along the line of sight of tau_Thomson ~ 2.9, and a global covering factor for the circumnuclear gas of ~ 0.15. This agrees with the constraints derived from the high energy variability, which implies that most of the high energy flux is transmitted, rather that Compton-scattered. This demonstrates the effectiveness of spectral analysis in constraining the geometric properties of the circumnuclear gas, and validat...

Puccetti, Simonetta; Fiore, Fabrizio; Arvalo, Patricia; Risaliti, Guido; Bauer, Franz E; Brandt, William N; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona A; Alexander, David M; Boggs, Steve E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles J; Koss, Michael R; Lansbury, George B; Luo, Bin; Madejski, Greg M; Matt, Giorgio; Walton, Dominic J; Zhang, Will

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Compressibilities and phonon spectra of high-hardness transition metal-nitride materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report compressibilities measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and phonon spectra from Raman scattering at high pressure in the diamond anvil cell (DAC) for cubic transition metal nitrides TiN{sub 1-x}, {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and VN{sub x}. The high-hardness metal nitride compounds have large values of the bulk modulus. B1-structured nitrides normally have no allowed first-order Raman spectra. However, they exhibit broad bands that reflect the vibrational density of states g({omega}) associated with breakdown of q=0 selection rules because of the presence of N{sup 3-} vacancies on anion sites. Peaks in g({omega}) at low frequency are identified with the longitudinal and transverse acoustic (TA) branches. The maximum in the TA band is correlated with the superconducting transition temperature in these materials (T{sub c}). In situ Raman scattering measurements in the DAC thus permit predictions of the T{sub c} variation with pressure for cubic nitrides and isostructural carbide materials.

Shebanova, O.; Soignard, E.; Mcmillan, P.F. (ASU); (UCL)

2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

434

Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (?E/E ? 5 10{sup ?3}), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ?3 10{sup ?3}, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)] [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Obara, Yuki; Misawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Bhattacharya, Atanu; Kurahashi, Naoya [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ogi, Yoshihiro [Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan)] [Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Suzuki, Toshinori [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan) [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

435

Simbol-X Hard X-ray Focusing Mirrors: Results Obtained During the Phase A Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simbol-X will push grazing incidence imaging up to 80 keV, providing a strong improvement both in sensitivity and angular resolution compared to all instruments that have operated so far above 10 keV. The superb hard X-ray imaging capability will be guaranteed by a mirror module of 100 electroformed Nickel shells with a multilayer reflecting coating. Here we will describe the technogical development and solutions adopted for the fabrication of the mirror module, that must guarantee an Half Energy Width (HEW) better than 20 arcsec from 0.5 up to 30 keV and a goal of 40 arcsec at 60 keV. During the phase A, terminated at the end of 2008, we have developed three engineering models with two, two and three shells, respectively. The most critical aspects in the development of the Simbol-X mirrors are i) the production of the 100 mandrels with very good surface quality within the timeline of the mission, ii) the replication of shells that must be very thin (a factor of 2 thinner than those of XMM-Newton) and still have very good image quality up to 80 keV, iii) the development of an integration process that allows us to integrate these very thin mirrors maintaining their intrinsic good image quality. The Phase A study has shown that we can fabricate the mandrels with the needed quality and that we have developed a valid integration process. The shells that we have produced so far have a quite good image quality, e.g. HEW < or approx. 30 arcsec at 30 keV, and effective area. However, we still need to make some improvements to reach the requirements. We will briefly present these results and discuss the possible improvements that we will investigate during phase B.

Tagliaferri, G.; Basso, S.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate (Italy); Borghi, G.; Garoli, D.; Mattarello, V.; Orlandi, A.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D. [Media Lario Technologies S.r.l., Localita Pascolo, 23842 Bosisio Parini (Italy); Burkert, W.; Freyberg, M.; Hartner, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Citterio, O. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate (Italy); Media Lario Technologies S.r.l., Localita Pascolo, 23842 Bosisio Parini (Italy); Gorenstein, P.; Romaine, S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

436

Beyond hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Simultaneous combination with x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful and novel emerging technique for the nondestructive determination of electronic properties and chemical composition of bulk, buried interfaces and surfaces. It benefits from the exceptionally large escape depth of high kinetic energy photoelectrons, increasing the information depth up to several tens of nanometers. Complementing HAXPES with an atomic structure sensitive technique (such as x-ray diffraction) opens a new research field with major applications for materials science. At SpLine, the Spanish CRG beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, we have developed a novel experimental set-up that combines HAXPES and x-ray diffraction (x-ray reflectivity, surface x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and reciprocal space maps). Both techniques can be operated simultaneously on the same sample and using the same excitation source. The set-up includes a robust 2S + 3D diffractometer hosting a ultrahigh vacuum chamber equipped with a unique photoelectron spectrometer (few eV < electron kinetic energy < 15 keV), x-ray tube (Mg/Ti), 15 keV electron gun, and auxiliary standard surface facilities (molecular beam epitaxy evaporator, ion gun, low energy electron diffraction, sample heating/cooling system, leak valves, load-lock sample transfer, etc.). This end-station offers the unique possibility of performing simultaneous HAXPES + x-ray diffraction studies. In the present work, we describe the experimental set-up together with two experimental examples that emphasize its outstanding capabilities: (i) nondestructive characterization of the Si/Ge and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interfaces on Ge-based CMOS devices, and (ii) strain study on La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} ultrathin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrate.

Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R. [SpLine, Spanish CRG beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France) and ICMM-CSIC Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Tsallis fits to pT spectra and multiple hard scattering in pp collisions at the LHC  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Phenomenological Tsallis fits to the CMS, ATLAS, and ALICE transverse momentum spectra of hadrons for pp collisions at LHC were recently found to extend over a large range of the transverse momentum. We investigate whether the few degrees of freedom in the Tsallis parametrization may arise from the relativistic parton-parton hard-scattering and related processes. The effects of the multiple hard-scattering and parton showering processes on the power law are discussed. We find empirically that whereas the transverse spectra of both hadrons and jets exhibit power-law behavior of 1/pnT at high pT, the power indices n for hadrons are systematically greater than those for jets, for which n?45.

Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Accretion Properties of a Sample of Hard X-Ray (<60 keV) Selected Seyfert 1 Galaxies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine the accretion properties in a sample of 42 hard (3-60 keV) X-ray selected nearby broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The energy range in the sample is harder than that usually used in similar previous studies. These AGNs are mainly complied from the RXTE All Sky Survey, and complemented by the released INTEGRAL AGN catalog. The black hole masses, bolometric luminosities of AGN, and Eddington ratios are derived from their optical spectra in terms of the broad H? emission line. The tight correlation between the hard X-ray (3-20 keV) and bolometric/line luminosity is well identified in our sample. Also identified is a strong inverse Baldwin relationship of the H? emission line. In addition, all of these hard X-ray AGNs are biased toward luminous objects with a high Eddington ratio (mostly between 0.01 and 0.1) and a low column density (22 cm2), which is most likely due to the selection effect of the surveys. The hard X-ray luminosity is consequently found to be strongly correlated with the black hole mass. We believe the sample completeness will be improved in the next few years by the ongoing Swift and the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory missions, and by the next advanced missions, such as NuSTAR, Simbol-X, and NeXT. Finally, the correlation between RFe (= optical Fe II/H?) and disk temperature as assessed by T ? (L/L Edd)M 1 BH leads us to suggest that the strength of the Fe II emission is mainly determined by the shape of the ionizing spectrum.

J. Wang; Y. F. Mao; J. Y. Wei

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Galaxy Clusters in the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope Era: Hard X-rays in the Intracluster Medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the detection of 10 clusters of galaxies in the ongoing Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) all-sky survey. This sample, which mostly comprises merging clusters, was serendipitously detected in the 15-55 keV band. We use the BAT sample to investigate the presence of excess hard X-rays above the thermal emission. The BAT clusters do not show significant (e.g., ?2?) nonthermal hard X-ray emission. The only exception is represented by Perseus whose high-energy emission is likely due to NGC 1275. Using XMM-Newton, Swift/XRT, Chandra and BAT data, we are able to produce upper limits of the inverse Compton (IC) emission mechanism which are in disagreement with most of the previously-claimed hard X-ray excesses. The coupling of the X-ray upper limits of the IC mechanism to radio data shows that, in some clusters, the magnetic field might be larger than 0.5 ?G. We also derive the first log N-log S and luminosity function distributions of galaxy clusters above 15 keV.

M. Ajello; P. Rebusco; N. Cappelluti; O. Reimer; H. Bhringer; J. Greiner; N. Gehrels; J. Tueller; A. Moretti

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

REVISITING THE LONG/SOFT-SHORT/HARD CLASSIFICATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS IN THE FERMI ERA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We perform a statistical analysis of the temporal and spectral properties of the latest Fermi gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to revisit the classification of GRBs. We find that the bimodalities of duration and the energy ratio (E{sub peak}/Fluence) and the anti-correlation between spectral hardness (hardness ratio (HR), peak energy, and spectral index) and duration (T{sub 90}) support the long/soft-short/hard classification scheme for Fermi GRBs. The HR-T{sub 90} anti-correlation strongly depends on the spectral shape of GRBs and energy bands, and the bursts with the curved spectra in the typical BATSE energy bands show a tighter anti-correlation than those with the power-law spectra in the typical BAT energy bands. This might explain why the HR-T{sub 90} correlation is not evident for those GRB samples detected by instruments like Swift with a narrower/softer energy bandpass. We also analyze the intrinsic energy correlation for the GRBs with measured redshifts and well-defined peak energies. The current sample suggests E{sub p,rest} = 2455 Multiplication-Sign (E{sub iso}/10{sup 52}){sup 0.59} for short GRBs, significantly different from that for long GRBs. However, both the long and short GRBs comply with the same E{sub p,rest}-L{sub iso} correlation.

Zhang Fuwen; Yan Jingzhi; Wei Daming [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Shao Lang, E-mail: fwzhang@pmo.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China)

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the writing (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the writing speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 ?m in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be fabricated at a high speed of ?5 mm/s, with the line width and the line depth at ?95 nm and 2 nm, respectively. A fine pattern of the word NANO is also fabricated at the speed of ?5 mm/s.

Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Qingze, E-mail: qzzou@rci.rutgers.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Tan, Jun; Jiang, Wei [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Study of various models for estimation of penetration rate of hard rock \\{TBMs\\}  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various approaches for predicting penetration rate of hard rock tunnel boring machines (TBMs) have been studied by researchers since the early stages of TBM application in the 1950s. These studies resulted in the development of several penetration prediction models. For evaluation and validation of a model, it is important to test its predictive capability on new projects. A model should include parameters for machine specifications and ground conditions. The model validation process can reveal problems that an existing model may have in providing an accurate estimate for a given combination of specifications and conditions. This paper offers a brief review and discusses the capabilities of some of the more commonly used TBM performance prediction models. To evaluate the accuracy of these models, the predicted rates are compared with recorded TBM penetration rates in a database of recently completed tunnels. Comparison between predicted and recorded rates indicates that most of the existing models tend to overestimate TBM performance. This comparison highlights the on-going difficulties the industry continues to experience in estimating penetration rate. Even the use of normalized penetration rate indices has not been able to provide higher accuracy expected in related predictions. This paper discusses the development of new models to support an improved level of predictive accuracy in penetration rate estimating. These models are based on the analysis of a comprehensive database of more than 300 TBM projects records. Analyses of performance information within this database provided for the development of simpler models that are focused on quantifying the influence of primary factors, such as tunnel diameter, UCS, RPM, and rock type. These new models are introduced to provide alternative ways of penetration prediction. These models are especially useful at the planning stage of a tunneling project where \\{TBMs\\} can be used. These models also serve to provide secondary checks for other more in-depth analyses of TBM performance for an initial assessment of required boring time (inverse of penetration rate), and an estimate of utilization rate in an activity-based TBM model.

Ebrahim Farrokh; Jamal Rostami; Chris Laughton

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

AN r-PROCESS KILONOVA ASSOCIATED WITH THE SHORT-HARD GRB 130603B  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present ground-based optical and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical and near-IR observations of the short-hard GRB 130603B at z = 0.356, which demonstrate the presence of excess near-IR emission matching the expected brightness and color of an r-process powered transient (a {sup k}ilonova{sup )}. The early afterglow fades rapidly with {alpha} {approx}< -2.6 at t Almost-Equal-To 8-32 hr post-burst and has a spectral index of {beta} Almost-Equal-To -1.5 (F{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}t {sup {alpha}}{nu}{sup {beta}}), leading to an expected near-IR brightness at the time of the first HST observation of m{sub F160W}(t = 9.4 days) {approx}> 29.3 AB mag. Instead, the detected source has m{sub F160W} = 25.8 {+-} 0.2 AB mag, corresponding to a rest-frame absolute magnitude of M{sub J} Almost-Equal-To -15.2 mag. The upper limit in the HST optical observations is m{sub F606W} {approx}> 27.7 AB mag (3{sigma}), indicating an unusually red color of V - H {approx}> 1.9 mag. Comparing the observed near-IR luminosity to theoretical models of kilonovae produced by ejecta from the merger of an NS-NS or NS-BH binary, we infer an ejecta mass of M{sub ej} Almost-Equal-To 0.03-0.08 M{sub Sun} for v{sub ej} Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.3c. The inferred mass matches the expectations from numerical merger simulations. The presence of a kilonova provides the strongest evidence to date that short GRBs are produced by compact object mergers, and provides initial insight on the ejected mass and the primary role that compact object merger may play in the r-process. Equally important, it demonstrates that gravitational wave sources detected by Advanced LIGO/Virgo will be accompanied by optical/near-IR counterparts with unusually red colors, detectable by existing and upcoming large wide-field facilities (e.g., Pan-STARRS, DECam, Subaru, LSST)

Berger, E.; Fong, W.; Chornock, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

444

Interactions between nano-spacing flying head sliders and ultra-thin liquid lubricant films with non-uniform distribution in hard disk drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes the effect of ultra-thin liquid lubricant films on air bearing dynamics and flyability of less than 10nm spacing flying head sliders in hard disk drives. In particular, the effect of non-uni...

Norio Tagawa; Noritaka Yoshioka; Atsunobu Mori

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

An Improved Method to Derive the Lower Energy Cutoff of non-Thermal Electrons From Hard x-Rays of Solar Flares  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By changing a dimensionless calculation to a dimensional one, introducing a more accurate bremsstrahlung cross section, and using a more reasonable fitting energy range, we have recalculated the hard X-ray bre...

W.Q. Gan; Y.P. Li; J. Chang; James M. Tiernan

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Effect of milling time and CNT concentration on hardness of CNT/Al{sub 2024} composites produced by mechanical alloying  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon nanotube/2024 aluminum alloy (CNT/Al{sub 2024}) composites were fabricated with a combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and powder metallurgy routes. Composites were microstructurally and mechanically evaluated at sintering condition. A homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in the Al matrix was observed by a field emission scanning electron microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed not only the presence of well dispersed CNTs but also needle-like shape aluminum carbide (Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}) crystals in the Al matrix. The formation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was suggested as the interaction between the outer shells of CNTs and the Al matrix during MA process in which crystallization took place after the sintering process. The mechanical behavior of composites was evaluated by Vickers microhardness measurements indicating a significant improvement in hardness as function of the CNT content. This improvement was associated to a homogeneous dispersion of CNTs and the presence of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} in the aluminum alloy matrix. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 2024 aluminum alloy was reinforced by CNTs by mechanical alloying process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composites were microstructural and mechanically evaluated after sintering condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The greater the CNT concentration, the greater the hardness of the composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher hardness in composites is achieved at 20 h of milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} does not present a direct relationship with the milling time.

Perez-Bustamante, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)] [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Perez-Bustamante, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua (UACH), Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito No. 1 Nuevo Campus Universitario, C.P. 31125, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)] [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua (UACH), Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito No. 1 Nuevo Campus Universitario, C.P. 31125, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Estrada-Guel, I. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)] [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Licea-Jimenez, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Unidad Mty, Autopista Monterrey-Aeropuerto Km 10, A. P. 43, C.P. 66600, Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico)] [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Unidad Mty, Autopista Monterrey-Aeropuerto Km 10, A. P. 43, C.P. 66600, Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)] [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Martinez-Sanchez, R., E-mail: roberto.martiez@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

The internal disruption as hard Magnetohydrodynamic limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity in large helical device  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large helical device (LHD) inward-shifted configurations are unstable to resistive MHD pressure-gradient-driven modes. Sawtooth like activity was observed during LHD operation. The main drivers are the unstable modes 1/2 and 1/3 in the middle and inner plasma region which limit the plasma confinement efficiency of LHD advanced operation scenarios. The aim of the present research is to study the hard MHD limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity, not observed yet in LHD operation, and to predict its effects on the device performance. Previous investigations pointed out this system relaxation can be an internal disruption [J. Varela et al., 'Internal disruptions and sawtooth like activity in LHD,' 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics (2011), P5.077]. In the present work, we simulate an internal disruption; we study the equilibria properties before and after the disruptive process, its effects on the plasma confinement efficiency during each disruptive phase, the relation between the n/m = 1/2 hard MHD events and the soft MHD events, and how to avoid or reduce their adverse effects. The simulation conclusions point out that the large stochastic region in the middle plasma strongly deforms and tears the flux surfaces when the pressure gradient increases above the hard MHD limit. If the instability reaches the inner plasma, the iota profiles will be perturbed near the plasma core and three magnetic islands can appear near the magnetic axis. If the instability is strong enough to link the stochastic regions in the middle plasma (around the half minor radius {rho}) and the plasma core ({rho}<0.25), an internal disruption is driven.

Varela, J. [Department of Physics, Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Watanabe, K. Y.; Ohdachi, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Hard TiCx/SiC/a-C:H nanocomposite thin films using pulsed high energy density plasma focus device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thin films of TiCx/SiC/a-C:H were synthesized on Si substrates using a complex mix of high energy density plasmas and instability accelerated energetic ions of filling gas species, emanated from hot and dense pinched plasma column, in dense plasma focus device. The conventional hollow copper anode of Mather type plasma focus device was replaced by solid titanium anode for synthesis of TiCx/SiC/a-C:H nanocomposite thin films using CH4:Ar admixture of (1:9, 3:7 and 5:5) for fixed 20 focus shots as well as with different number of focus shots with fixed CH4:Ar admixture ratio 3:7. XRD results showed the formation of crystalline TiCx/SiC phases for thin film synthesized using different number of focus shots with CH4:Ar admixture ratio fixed at 3:7. SEM results showed that the synthesized thin films consist of nanoparticle agglomerates and the size of agglomerates depended on the CH4:Ar admixture ratio as well as on the number of focus shots. Raman analysis showed the formation of polycrystalline/amorphous Si, SiC and a-C for different CH4:Ar ratio as well as for different number of focus shots. The XPS analysis confirmed the formation of TiCx/SiC/a-C:H composite thin film. Nanoindentation results showed that the hardness and elastic modulus values of composite thin films increased with increasing number of focus shots. Maximum values of hardness and elastic modulus at the surface of the composite thin film were found to be about 22 and 305GPa, respectively for 30 focus shots confirming the successful synthesis of hard composite TiCx/SiC/a-C:H coatings.

Z.A. Umar; R.S. Rawat; K.S. Tan; A.K. Kumar; R. Ahmad; T. Hussain; C. Kloc; Z. Chen; L. Shen; Z. Zhang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

14 ESS (trademark) switch inherent radiation-hardness assessment. Volume 2. Appendices to final report. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Phase I of the 4 ESS Switch RHA Program document in this report is the preliminary assessment of the Inherent fallout-radiation susceptibility of the 4 ESS Switch. The approach described herein consists of the identification of the active microelectronic piece-parts used in the 4 ESS Switch; characterization of their radiation tolerance, based on available data; preliminary identification of hardness-critical packs; and preliminary analysis of 4 ESS Switch performance during export to ambient (unshielded) fallout radiation, also based on available data.

Not Available

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

The hard X-ray spectrum of Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxies and the synthesis of the XRB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A synthesis model for the cosmic X-ray Background (XRB) is presented, which includes a proper treatment of Compton scattering in the absorbing matter for type 2 AGN. Evidence for a decrease of the relative importance of type 2 AGN at high redshift is found, which may be due either to a decrease of the relative number of obscured sources, or (more plausibly) to an increase of the fraction of Compton-thick absorbed sources. The XRB spectrum, soft X-rays and hard X-rays source counts can be simultaneously fitted only if the XRB normalization as derived from BeppoSAX/MECS measurements is adopted.

Giorgio Matt; Fulvio Pompilio; Fabio La Franca

1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

451

Elastically Cooperative Activated Barrier Hopping Theory of Relaxation in Viscous Fluids. I. General Formulation and Application to Hard Sphere Fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We generalize the force-level Nonlinear Langevin Equation theory of single particle hopping to include collective effects associated with long range elastic distortion of the liquid. The activated alpha relaxation event is of a mixed spatial character, involving two distinct, but inter-related, local and collective barriers. There are no divergences at volume fractions below jamming or temperatures above zero Kelvin. The ideas are first developed and implemented analytically and numerically in the context of hard sphere fluids. In an intermediate volume fraction crossover regime, the local cage process is dominant in a manner consistent with an apparent Arrhenius behavior. The super-Arrhenius collective barrier is more strongly dependent on volume fraction, dominates the highly viscous regime, and is well described by a nonsingular law below jamming. The increase of the collective barrier is determined by the amplitude of thermal density fluctuations, shear modulus or transient localization length, and a growing microscopic jump length. Alpha relaxation time calculations are in good agreement with recent experiments and simulations on dense fluids and suspensions of hard spheres. Comparisons of the theory with elastic models and entropy crisis ideas are explored. The present work provides a foundation for constructing a quasi-universal, fit-parameter-free theory for relaxation in thermal molecular liquids over 14 orders of magnitude in time.

Stephen Mirigian; Kenneth S. Schweizer

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

452

HARD X-RAY LAGS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: TESTING THE DISTANT REVERBERATION HYPOTHESIS WITH NGC 6814  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an X-ray spectral and temporal analysis of the variable active galaxy NGC 6814, observed with Suzaku during 2011 November. Remarkably, the X-ray spectrum shows no evidence for the soft excess commonly observed amongst other active galaxies, despite its relatively low level of obscuration, and is dominated across the whole Suzaku bandpass by the intrinsic powerlaw-like continuum. Despite this, we clearly detect the presence of a low-frequency hard lag of ?1600 s between the 0.5-2.0 and 2.0-5.0 keV energy bands at greater than 6? significance, similar to those reported in the literature for a variety of other active galactic nuclei (AGNs). At these energies, any additional emission from, e.g., a very weak, undetected soft excess, or from distant reflection must contribute less than 3% of the observed countrates (at 90% confidence). Given the lack of any significant continuum emission component other than the powerlaw, we can rule out models that invoke distant reprocessing for the observed lag behavior, which must instead be associated with this continuum emission. These results are fully consistent with a propagating fluctuation origin for the low-frequency hard lags, and with the interpretation of the high-frequency soft lagsa common feature seen in the highest quality AGN data with strong soft excessesas reverberation from the inner accretion disk.

Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [Cahill Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zoghbi, A.; Reynolds, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cackett, E. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Uttley, P. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

453

DISCOVERY OF AN EXTRA HARD SPECTRAL COMPONENT IN THE HIGH-ENERGY AFTERGLOW EMISSION OF GRB 130427A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extended high-energy gamma-ray (>100 MeV) emission which occurs after prompt gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is usually characterized by a single power-law spectrum, which has been explained as the afterglow synchrotron radiation. The afterglow inverse Compton emission has long been predicted to be able to produce a high-energy component as well, but previous observations have not clearly revealed such a signature, probably due to the small number of >10 GeV photons even for the brightest GRBs known so far. In this Letter, we report on the Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the >100 MeV emission from the very bright and nearby GRB 130427A. We characterize the time-resolved spectra of the GeV emission from the GRB onset to the afterglow phase. By performing time-resolved spectral fits of GRB 130427A, we found strong evidence of an extra hard spectral component that exists in the extended high-energy emission of this GRB. We argue that this hard component may arise from the afterglow inverse Compton emission.

Tam, Pak-Hin Thomas [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Tang Qingwen; Liu Ruoyu; Wang Xiangyu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hou Shujin, E-mail: phtam@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Nonlinear dynamics of sub-10nm flying height air bearing slider in modern hard disk recording system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an experimental and analytical study of nonlinear dynamics of air bearing slider in modern hard disk recording system. Proximity recording sliders used for commercial hard disk drive were deployed for the experimental investigation. Flying height oscillation signal of the sliders in various proximity regimes (nano-meter level) were measured by using ultra-precision laser doppler vibrometer (LDV), and processed by using Matlab for timefrequency analysis and phase plot analysis. From the experimental results, it was found that two kinds of nonlinear oscillations exist in the system: the sliderdisk contact-induced nonlinearity and the air bearing inherent nonlinearity. Primary resonance, superharmonic resonance and sub-harmonic resonance due to the nonlinearity were observed. A numericalanalytical model incorporating the nonlinear features of both slider air bearing oscillation and slider contact vibration was developed to quantitatively estimate spectral signatures. Direct numerical simulations were also carried out to simplified model to obtain phase plots. The analytical and numerical results agree with the experimental results well. It was shown that both the contact vibration and air bearing oscillation render the system to exhibit complex nonlinear features. Particularly, phase plots can be used to identify the sliderdisk contact vibration and air bearing nonlinear oscillation, the former is characterized by sharp corner when the non-contact phase transferring to contact phase, and latter is characterized by smooth corner due to stiffnesssoftening feature of air bearing.

Gang Sheng; Rao Dukkipati; Jian Pang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSES OF SPECTRAL INDICES OF NONTHERMAL EMISSIONS DERIVED FROM HARD X-RAYS AND MICROWAVES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We studied electron spectral indices of nonthermal emissions seen in hard X-rays (HXRs) and microwaves. We analyzed 12 flares observed by the Hard X-Ray Telescope aboard Yohkoh, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, and the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), and compared the spectral indices derived from total fluxes of HXRs and microwaves. Except for four events, which have very soft HXR spectra suffering from the thermal component, these flares show a gap {Delta}{delta} between the electron spectral indices derived from HXRs {delta} {sub X} and those from microwaves {delta}{sub {mu}} ({Delta}{delta} = {delta} {sub X} - {delta}{sub {mu}}) of about 1.6. Furthermore, from the start to the peak times of the HXR bursts, the time profiles of the HXR spectral index {delta} {sub X} evolve synchronously with those of the microwave spectral index {delta}{sub {mu}}, keeping the constant gap. We also examined the spatially resolved distribution of the microwave spectral index by using NoRH data. The microwave spectral index {delta}{sub {mu}} tends to be larger, which means a softer spectrum, at HXR footpoint sources with stronger magnetic field than that at the loop tops. These results suggest that the electron spectra are bent at around several hundreds of keV, and become harder at the higher energy range that contributes the microwave gyrosynchrotron emission.

Asai, Ayumi [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan)] [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan); Kiyohara, Junko; Takasaki, Hiroyuki [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan)] [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan); Narukage, Noriyuki [Institute of Space and Astronomical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan)] [Institute of Space and Astronomical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan); Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)] [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Masuda, Satoshi [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601 (Japan)] [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601 (Japan); Shimojo, Masumi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Nakajima, Hiroshi, E-mail: asai@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano, 384-1305 (Japan)] [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano, 384-1305 (Japan)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING'' for the period starting June 23, 2003 through September 30, 2004. (1) TerraTek has reviewed applicable literature and documentation and has convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek has designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties in obtaining ultra-high speed motors for this feasibility work were encountered though they were sourced mid 2004. (3) TerraTek is progressing through Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests''. Some improvements over early NASA experiments have been identified.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING'' for the period starting June 23, 2003 through September 30, 2004. TerraTek has reviewed applicable literature and documentation and has convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. TerraTek has designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties in obtaining ultra-high speed motors for this feasibility work were encountered though they were sourced mid 2004. TerraTek is progressing through Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests''. Some improvements over early NASA experiments have been identified.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ultra-high rotary speed drilling system is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 October 2004 through 30 September 2005. Additionally, research activity from 1 October 2005 through 28 February 2006 is included in this report: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties continue in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements have been made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs have been provided to vendors for production. A more consistent product is required to minimize the differences in bit performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program has been completed. (3) TerraTek is progressing through Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests''. (4) Significant testing has been performed on nine different rocks. (5) Bit balling has been observed on some rock and seems to be more pronounces at higher rotational speeds. (6) Preliminary analysis of data has been completed and indicates that decreased specific energy is required as the rotational speed increases (Task 4). This data analysis has been used to direct the efforts of the final testing for Phase I (Task 5). (7) Technology transfer (Task 6) has begun with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis).

Arnis Judzis; Alan Black; Homer Robertson

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

{sup 44}Ti Nucleosynthesis Lines and Hard X-ray Continuum in Young SNRs: from INTEGRAL to Simbol-X  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supemovae and their remnants are the main Galactic nucleosynthesis sites and the privileged sources of Galactic cosmic rays. The youngest of such remnants can be studied through two distinct observational features: {sup 44}Ti{gamma}-ray lines and the hard X-ray nonthermal continuum emission. The former gives unique information on the nucleosynthesis conditions occuring during the first stages of the explosion, while the latter provides clues on acceleration processes at supernova remnant shocks. In this contribution, we present new INTEGRAL results on Tycho, the remnant of a historical supernova, and on G1.9+0.3, which has been recently unveiled as the youngest Galactic supernova remnant. Expectations with Simbol-X are also addressed.

Renaud, M.; Terrier, R.; Lebrun, F. [Laboratoire APC, CNRS-UMR 7164, Universite Paris 7, 10, rue A. Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75025 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Trap, G. [CEA/DSM/IRFU/SAp, L'Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire APC, CNRS-UMR 7164, Universite Paris 7, 10, rue A. Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75025 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Decourchelle, A. [CEA/DSM/IRFU/SAp, L'Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vink, J. [University Utrecht, P.O. Box 80000, NL-3508 TA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

460

Observation and simulation of hard x ray photoelectron diffraction to determine polarity of polycrystalline zinc oxide films with rotation domains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) patterns of polar zinc oxide (ZnO) surfaces were investigated experimentally using hard x rays and monochromatized Cr K{alpha} radiation and theoretically using a cluster model approach and a dynamical Bloch wave approach. We focused on photoelectrons emitted from the Zn 2p{sub 3/2} and O 1s orbitals in the analysis. The obtained XPD patterns for the (0001) and (0001) surfaces of a ZnO single crystal were distinct for a given emitter and polarity. Polarity determination of c-axis-textured polycrystalline ZnO thin films was also achieved with the concept of XPD, even though the in-plane orientation of the columnar ZnO grains was random.

Williams, Jesse R.; Adachi, Yutaka; Ohashi, Naoki [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); NIMS Saint-Gobain Research Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Pis, Igor [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, NIMS, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 8 18000 (Czech Republic); Kobata, Masaaki [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, NIMS, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Winkelmann, Aimo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Matsushita, Tomohiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kobayashi, Keisuke [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, NIMS, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Electronic structure of Al- and Ga-doped ZnO films studied by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Al- and Ga-doped sputtered ZnO films (AZO, GZO) are semiconducting and metallic, respectively, despite the same electronic valence structure of the dopants. Using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we observe that both dopants induce a band in the electronic structure near the Fermi level, accompanied by a narrowing of the Zn 3d/O 2p gap in the valence band and, in the case of GZO, a substantial shift in the Zn 3d. Ga occupies substitutional sites, whereas Al dopants are in both substitutional and interstitial sites. The latter could induce O and Zn defects, which act as acceptors explaining the semiconducting character of AZO and the lack of variation in the optical gap. By contrast, mainly substitutional doping is consistent with the metallic-like behavior of GZO.

Gabs, M.; Ramos Barrado, Jos R. [Lab. de Materiales and Superficies, Dpto. de Fsica Aplicada I, Universidad de Mlaga, 29071 Mlaga (Spain); Torelli, P. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Barrett, N. T. [CEA, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sacchi, M. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France and Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, UPMC Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7588, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Effective-liquid approach to the generalized Onsager theories of the isotropic-nematic transition of hard convex bodies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent attempts to generalize the classical Onsager theory of nematic ordering to finite-density systems of finite-length hard convex bodies are related and compared. It is pointed out that, although good results can be obtained in three dimensions (3D), in two dimensions (2D) the underlying factorization approximation of the radial and angular variables always implies a second-order isotropic-nematic transition instead of the crossover from a weakly first-order transition to a continuous (Kosterlitz-Thouless) transition as seen in the simulations. The quantitative agreement with the simulations is also much poorer in 2D than in 3D. On the contrary, for large spatial dimensions these theories become exact.

Jos A. Cuesta; Carlos F. Tejero; Hong Xu; Marc Baus

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Development and Characterization of Hard and Wear Resistant MMC Coating on Ti-6Al-4V Substrate by Laser Cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ti-6Al-4V, due to its high specific strength and resistance to corrosion, is one of the highly useful materials in aerospace, automobile and chemical industries. Poor hardness and wear resistance properties restrict its further applications. So surface modification of Ti-6Al-4V is necessary surface to enhance its tribological properties. Multi-phase and multi component coating development is one of the present research trends in surface engineering arena. In the present study it was attempted to develop a multi-component coating by laser cladding process using a pre-placed powder mixture containing Ni5Al (50 vol%) + hBN (10 vol%) + B4C (20 vol%) + SiC (20 vol%) on substrate of Ti-6Al-4V to improve its tribological performance. A nano-structured coating was formed with micro hardness (780 HV0.05). X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified the presence of compounds like TiC, BN, TiB2, SiC, and intermetallics of Ni-Ti in the coating. The wear behaviour of the composite coating was assessed by ball on disc type wear and friction monitor at 10N load at 300 RPM taking a track diameter of 5mm. Specific wear rate and coefficient of friction (?) were found to vary from 0.6E-12 to 2.2E-12 m3/N-m and from 0.15 to 0.45, respectively, due to rubbing of coated surface against tungsten carbide ball. The microstructure was explored by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

Mandeep Dhanda; Barun Haldar; P. Saha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Reactive magnetron sputtering of hard Si-B-C-N films with a high-temperature oxidation resistance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on the results obtained for C-N and Si-C-N films, a systematic investigation of reactive magnetron sputtering of hard quaternary Si-B-C-N materials has been carried out. The Si-B-C-N films were deposited on p-type Si(100) substrates by dc magnetron co-sputtering using a single C-Si-B target (at a fixed 20% boron fraction in the target erosion area) in nitrogen-argon gas mixtures. Elemental compositions of the films, their surface bonding structure and mechanical properties, together with their oxidation resistance in air, were controlled by the Si fraction (5-75%) in the magnetron target erosion area, the Ar fraction (0-75%) in the gas mixture, the rf induced negative substrate bias voltage (from a floating potential to -500 V) and the substrate temperature (180-350 deg. C). The total pressure and the discharge current on the magnetron target were held constant at 0.5 Pa and 1 A, respectively. The energy and flux of ions bombarding the growing films were determined on the basis of the discharge characteristics measured for the rf discharge dominating in the deposition zone. Mass spectroscopy was used to show composition of the total ion fluxes onto the substrate and to explain differences between sputtering of carbon, silicon and boron from a composed target in nitrogen-argon discharges. The films, typically 1.0-2.4 {mu}m thick, possessing a density around 2.4 g cm{sup -3}, were found to be amorphous in nanostructure with a very smooth surface (R{sub a}{<=}0.8 nm) and good adhesion to substrates at a low compressive stress (1.0-1.6 GPa). They exhibited high hardness (up to 47 GPa) and elastic recovery (up to 88%), and extremely high oxidation resistance in air at elevated temperatures (up to a 1350 deg.C substrate limit)

Vlcek, Jaroslav; Potocky, Stepan; Cizek, Jiri; Houska, Jiri; Kormunda, Martin; Zeman, Petr; Perina, Vratislav; Zemek, Josef; Setsuhara, Yuichi; Konuma, Seiji [Department of Physics, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 306 14 Plzen (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kanagawa High-Technology Foundation, Kanagawa Science Park, 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

High aspect ratio hard x-ray (> 100 keV) imager to measure hot electron preheat for indirectly driven capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have fielded a multi-pinhole, hard x-ray (> 100 keV) imager to measure the spatially-resolved bremsstrahlung emission from energetic electrons slowing in a plastic ablator shell during indirectly driven implosions at the National Ignition Facility. These electrons are generated in laser plasma interactions, and are a source of preheat to the deuterium-tritium fuel that could limit the compressibility required for ignition and burn. Our hard x-ray imaging measurements allow to set an upper limit to the DT fuel preheat, which we find is acceptable in current capsule implosions on the NIF.

Doppner, T; Dewald, E; Divol, L; Burns, S; Izumi, N; Kline, J; LaCaille, G; McNaney, J; Prasad, R; Thomas, C A; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O; Author, A; Author, S G; Author, T

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Orientational effects in the direct Cl? + \\{CH3Cl\\} SN2 reaction at elevated collision energies: hard-ovoid line-of-centers collision model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hard-sphere line-of-centers collision model can be extended analytically to include the orientational dependence of both the energy barrier and the critical distance of approach. This hard-ovoid line-of-centers model is applied to the translational activation of the bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction, Cl? + \\{CH3Cl\\} ? ClCH3 + Cl?, for which a direct reaction mechanism was found in recent classical trajectory calculations. The model is compared with recent experiments and the classical trajectory calculations.

Kent M Ervin

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Pathways to Sustained Energy Pathways to Sustained Energy Development in Oklahoma Oklahoma Tribal Leader Forum - August 2012 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 1 Office of Indian Energy Goals and Objectives * Promote Indian tribal energy development, efficiency and use * Reduce or stabilize energy costs * Enhance and strengthen Indian tribal energy and economic infrastructure relating to natural resource development and electrification * Bring electrical power and service to Indian land and the homes of tribal members Energy Policy Act of 2005, Title V, Sec. 502 2 Office of Indian Energy Programs 3 * START (Strategic Technical Assistance Response Teams) - Providing Expert Development Technical Assistance Directly to Tribal Staff/Leaders/Projects - Targeted energy development assistance - post feasibility & pre

468

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Potential for Renewable Energy Potential for Renewable Energy Development on Tribal Lands October 2012 1 Introduction * The DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (OI) requested ICF International (ICF) to identify areas within Tribal Lands that have a strong potential for renewable energy generation (solar and wind) as a source of Tribal revenue within the geographic area covered by the Western Electric Coordination Council (WECC) transmission grid * ICF used a combination of geospatial modeling and power flow modeling to identify sites where: - Conditions are optimal for solar or wind generation - Access to high-voltage transmission lines is favorable - Transmission upgrade costs would be minimal 2 Geospatial Analysis Phase I: Identify Potential Sites * Obtained GIS layers (e.g., wind/solar resources, transmission

469

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Energy Savers [EERE]

costs qualify) Select Qualifying Technologies * Wind * Geothermal * Biomass * Hydro * Solar * Fuel cells * Small wind * Geothermal Depreciation can be taken with either PTC or...

470

IE Leadership Camp 2010 Dr Winnie Tang, JP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the world to feature a fully digitised fixed telephone network; · Well-networked, broadband penetration rate and Mobile Usage · Mobile subscriber penetration rate: 167% · Mobile subscribers: almost 12 million · Mobile Network Operators: 5 · 2.5G and 3G mobile subscribers: over 4 million · Household broadband penetration

Huang, Jianwei

471

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Energy Savers [EERE]

a "Project"? Capital Tax- Equity Investor Lender Capital Provider Revenue andor Tax Benefits Year Development Costs Capital Investment Cash Flows What is a "Project"? Project...

472

Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

15 November, 2012 - 13:05 Literature Review The author analyzed the market of combine heat and power in commercial buildings. The paper provided the market size of CHP. It...

473

Microsoft Word - NGNP-IE ltr rpt 080909.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the ultimate heat sink (large body of water or the atmosphere). In the event of the loss of pumps or heat exchangers, draught cooling towers on the roof of the module,...

474

Indian Country Solar Energy Potential Estimates & DOE IE Updates  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Pathways to Sustained Energy Development in Oklahoma Oklahoma Tribal Leader Forum - August 2012 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 1 Office of Indian Energy Goals and Objectives * Promote...

475

IE 361 Module 15 The Average Run Length Concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reading: Section 3.5, Statistical Quality Assurance Methods for Engineers 1 #12;The general question of adding the Western Electric set of alarm rules to a control charting 2 #12;scheme? The most effective only the single alarm rule "signal the first time that a point Q plots outside control limits

Vardeman, Stephen B.

476

Weighted?density?functional theory calculation of elastic constants for face?centered?cubic and body?centered?cubic hard?sphere crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The isothermal elastic constants for the face?centered?cubic (fcc) and body?centered?cubic (bcc) hard?sphere crystal are calculated for a range of densities using the modified weighted?density functional of Denton and Ashcroft [Phys. Rev. A 3 9...

Laird, Brian Bostian

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Dipolar origin of the gas-liquid coexistence of the hard-core 1:1 electrolyte model J. M. Romero-Enrique,1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a transition between two dimerized fluid phases. The role of the unpaired ions can be considered-liquid phase transition of hard-core 1:1 electrolyte models. We study a class of dipolar dimer models small values of Rc . This fact allows us to describe the gas-liquid transition in the free ion model

478

Merguerian, Charles; and Ozdemir, Levent, 2003, Rock Mass Properties and Hard Rock TBM Penetration Rate Investigations, Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel #3, Stage 2: p.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Properties and Hard Rock TBM Penetration Rate Investigations, Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel #3 and established geological causes for decreased TBM penetration rates. 1 #12;INTRODUCTION Our combined geological penetration rates in granulite facies terranes. The Queens Tunnel TBM experienced poor penetration rates

Merguerian, Charles

479

Br-rich tips of calcified crab claws are less hard but more fracture resistant: A comparison of mineralized and heavy-element biological materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-element biological material for the first time (abrasion resistance, coefficient of kinetic friction, energy the viscoelasticity of the material. We suggest that fracture resistance is of greater importance in smaller organismsBr-rich tips of calcified crab claws are less hard but more fracture resistant: A comparison

Scott, Robert A.

480

Toxic sulfide concentrations in the sediments and water column of the Suwannee River estuary and its influence on hard clam survival  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toxic sulfide concentrations in the sediments and water column of the Suwannee River estuary that is grown to market size in estuarine sediments. Hydrogen sulfide, a natural metabolic poison known of hard clams used in field aquaculture areas in the Suwannee River estuary. Sulfide was found in sediment

Florida, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hard cop ies" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

The irradiation hardness of CdTe solar cells was inves-tigated for extremely high fluence of protons (up to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT The irradiation hardness of CdTe solar cells was inves- tigated for extremely high fluence high fluences. One general degradation characteristic for CdTe cells was calculated using a damage dose formulation, allowing a comprehen- sive comparison with other cell technologies. CdTe cells show an excellent

Romeo, Alessandro

482

[1] P. Schwarzkopf, R. Kieffer, Refractory Hard Metals: Borides, Car-bides, Nitrides and Silicides, MacMillan, New York 1953.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

± [1] P. Schwarzkopf, R. Kieffer, Refractory Hard Metals: Borides, Car- bides, Nitrides and Silicides, MacMillan, New York 1953. [2] E. Fryt, Solid State Ionics 1997, 101±103, 437. [3] N. Durlu, J. Metal catalysts, such as gold[1,4,8] and tin[5,9,10] have been employed in the synthesis to align

Wang, Zhong L.

483

Synergistic Coupling of SSD and Hard Disk for QoS-aware Virtual Memory Ke Liu Xuechen Zhang Kei Davis Song Jiang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alamos, NM 87545, USA Abstract--With significant advantages in capacity, power con- sumption, and price Institute of Technology Los Alamos National Laboratory Detroit, MI 48202, USA Atlanta, GA 30332, USA Los memory to the hard disk if they are expected to be read together. Using a history of page access patterns

Jiang, Song

484

Modeling percolation in high-aspect-ratio fiber systems. I. Soft-core versus hard-core models L. Berhan1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Indeed, experimental findings in nanotube- reinforced polymeric 1­11 and ceramic 12 matrix mate- rials in nanotubes-reinforced composites. The hard-core model can also potentially be used as a tool in calculating the tunneling distance in composite materials, given the fiber morphology and experimentally derived electrical

Sastry, Ann Marie

485

Long-term monitoring of fleshy fruit and hard mast production and seasonal bird distribution at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A final report of Fruit and hard mast production in five habitat types at SRS with a comparison of fruit consumption by fledgling versus adult birds at SRS and Relative importance of fruit, seeds, and insects in the diets of overwintering birds at SRS.

Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Levey, Douglas J.

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

486

Elimination of self-absorption in fluorescence hard-x-ray absorption spectra P. Pfalzer, J.-P. Urbach, M. Klemm, and S. Horn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elimination of self-absorption in fluorescence hard-x-ray absorption spectra P. Pfalzer, J-ray absorption spectra in situations where samples cannot be made in the required configuration. However, self-absorption-ray absorption coefficients. This procedure is used to obtain the vanadium K-edge spectrum of single crystal V2O3

Frenkel, Anatoly

487

RHESSI HARD X-RAY IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTENDED SOURCES AND THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTRON ACCELERATION REGIONS IN SOLAR FLARES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RHESSI HARD X-RAY IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTENDED SOURCES AND THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTRON of the acceleration region but also allows an empirical study of the physics of electron tran- sport within the source acceleration and propagation of bremsstrahlung- producing electrons in solar flares. The method involves

California at Berkeley, University of

488

Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm-usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress at the end of Phase 1 on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 March 2006 and concluding 30 June 2006. (Note: Results from 1 September 2005 through 28 February 2006 were included in the previous report (see Judzis, Black, and Robertson)). Summarizing the accomplished during Phase 1: {lg_bullet} TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kickoff meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis). {lg_bullet} TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Some difficulties continued in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed. {lg_bullet} TerraTek concluded Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests.'' {sm_bullet} Significant testing was performed on nine different rocks. {sm_bullet} Five rocks were used for the final testing. The final tests were based on statistical design of experiments. {sm_bullet} Two full-faced bits, a small diameter and a large diameter, were run in Berea sandstone. {lg_bullet} Analysis of data was completed and indicates that there is decreased specific energy as the rotational speed increases (Task 4). Data analysis from early trials was used to direct the efforts of the final testing for Phase I (Task 5). {lg_bullet} Technology transfer (Task 6) was accomplished with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis, Boucher, McCammon, and Black).

Arnis Judzis; Homer Robertson; Alan Black

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

489

Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill 'faster and deeper' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the 'ultra-high rotary speed drilling system' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm - usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document provides the progress through two phases of the program entitled 'Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling' for the period starting 30 June 2003 and concluding 31 March 2009. The accomplishments of Phases 1 and 2 are summarized as follows: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis); (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed; (3) TerraTek concluded small-scale cutting performance tests; (4) Analysis of Phase 1 data indicated that there is decreased specific energy as the rotational speed increases; (5) Technology transfer, as part of Phase 1, was accomplished with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis, Boucher, McCammon, and Black); (6) TerraTek prepared a design concept for the high speed drilling test stand, which was planned around the proposed high speed mud motor concept. Alternative drives for the test stand were explored; a high speed hydraulic motor concept was finally used; (7) The high speed system was modified to accommodate larger drill bits than originally planned; (8) Prototype mud turbine motors and the high speed test stand were used to drive the drill bits at high speed; (9) Three different rock types were used during the testing: Sierra White granite, Crab Orchard sandstone, and Colton sandstone. The drill bits used included diamond impregnated bits, a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit, a thermally stable PDC (TSP) bit, and a hybrid TSP and natural diamond bit; and (10) The drill bits were run at rotary speeds up to 5500 rpm and weight on bit (WOB) to 8000 lbf. During Phase 2, the ROP as measured in depth of cut per bit revolution generally increased with increased WOB. The performance was mixed with increased rotary speed, with the depth cut with the impregnated drill bit generally increasing and the TSP and hybrid TSP drill bits generally decreasing. The ROP in ft/hr generally increased with all bits with increased WOB and rotary speed. The mechanical specific energy generally improved (decreased) with increased WOB and was mixed with increased rotary speed.

TerraTek, A Schlumberger Company

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

490

Caliste 64, a new CdTe micro-camera for hard X-ray spectro-imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the frame of the Simbol-X mission of hard X-ray astrophysics, a prototype of micro-camera with 64 pixels called Caliste 64 has been designed and several samples have been tested. The device integrates ultra-low-noise IDeF-X V1.1 \\{ASICs\\} from CEA and a 1cm2 Al Schottky CdTe detector from Acrorad because of its high uniformity and spectroscopic performance. The process of hybridization, mastered by the 3D Plus company, respects space applications standards. The camera is a spectro-imager with time-tagging capability. Each photon interacting in the semiconductor is tagged with a time, a position and an energy. Time resolution is better than 100ns rms for energy deposits greater than 20keV, taking into account electronic noise and technological dispersal of the front-end electronics. The spectrum summed across the 64 pixels results in an energy resolution of 664eV fwhm at 13.94keV and 842eV fwhm at 59.54keV, when the detector is cooled down to ?10C and biased at ?500V.

A. Meuris; O. Limousin; F. Lugiez; O. Gevin; C. Blondel; F. Pinsard; M.C. Vassal; F. Soufflet; I. Le Mer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Long-Working-Distance Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirrors for Hard X-ray Beamlines at SPring-8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We designed and installed two types of long-working-distance Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors and mirror manipulators, which were customized into each experiment for hard x-ray undulator beamlines at SPring-8. For the BL32XU RIKEN Targeted Proteins beamline, 400-mm-long KB focusing mirrors for a beam size of 1 {mu}m with a 730-mm-long working distance were designed for carrying out the structural analysis of protein microcrystals. We realized a focusing beam size of 0.9x0.9 {mu}m{sup 2}(FWHM) and a focusing intensity of 6x10{sup 10} (photons/s) at an x-ray energy of 12.4 keV. For the BL19LXU RIKEN SR Physics beamline, we developed KB mirrors for 100-nm focusing with a 100-mm-working distance for the purpose of nano-focus x-ray diffraction. A focusing beam size of 100x100 nm{sup 2}(FWHM) and a high focusing intensity of 3.7x10{sup 10} (photons/s) at an x-ray energy of 12.4 keV were realized.

Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI)/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hirata, K.; Kawano, Y.; Ueno, G.; Nisawa, A.; Hikima, T.; Takeshita, S.; Ito, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Arima, T.; Yamamoto, M. [RIKEN/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Ohsumi, H.; Ohashi, H.; Goto, S. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI)/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); RIKEN/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

492

Program plan for the development of advanced synthetic-diamond drill bits for hard-rock drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eight companys have teamed with Sandia Labs to work on five projects as part of a cooperative effort to advance the state of the ar in synthetic-diamond drill bit design and manufacture. DBS (a Baroid Company), Dennis Tool Company, Hughes Christensen Company, Maurer Engineering, Megadiamond, Security Diamond Products, Slimdril International, and Smith International. Objective of each project is to develop advanced bit technology that results in new commercial products with longer bit life and higher penetration rates in hard formations. Each project explores a different approach to synthetic-diamond cutter and bit design and, consequently, uses different approaches to developing the technology. Each of these approaches builds or the respective companies` capabilities and current product interests. Sandia`s role is to assure integration of the individual projects into a coherent program and tc provide unique testing and analytical capabilities where needed. One additional company, Amoco Production Research, will provide synthetic-diamond drill bit research expertise and field testing services for each project in the program.

Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

High energy resolution hard X-ray and gamma-ray imagers using CdTe diode devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We developed CdTe double-sided strip detectors (DSDs or cross strip detectors) and evaluated their spectral and imaging performance for hard X-rays and gamma-rays. Though the double-sided strip configuration is suitable for imagers with a fine position resolution and a large detection area, CdTe diode DSDs with indium (In) anodes have yet to be realized due to the difficulty posed by the segmented In anodes. CdTe diode devices with aluminum (Al) anodes were recently established, followed by a CdTe device in which the Al anodes could be segmented into strips. We developed CdTe double-sided strip devices having Pt cathode strips and Al anode strips, and assembled prototype CdTe DSDs. These prototypes have a strip pitch of 400 micrometer. Signals from the strips are processed with analog ASICs (application specific integrated circuits). We have successfully performed gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy with a position resolution of 400 micrometer. Energy resolution of 1.8 keV (FWHM: full width at half maximum) was ob...

Watanabe, Shin; Aono, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Odaka, Hirokazu; Kokubun, Motohide; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Onishi, Mitsunobu; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Polarisation measurements with a CdTe pixel array detector for Laue hard X-ray focusing telescopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polarimetry is an area of high energy astrophysics which is still relatively unexplored, even though it is recognized that this type of measurement could drastically increase our knowledge of the physics and geometry of high energy sources. For this reason, in the context of the design of a Gamma-Ray Imager based on new hard-X and soft gamma ray focusing optics for the next ESA Cosmic Vision call for proposals (Cosmic Vision 2015-2025), it is important that this capability should be implemented in the principal on-board instrumentation. For the particular case of wide band-pass Laue optics we propose a focal plane based on a thick pixelated CdTe detector operating with high efficiency between 60-600 keV. The high segmentation of this type of detector (1-2 mm pixel size) and the good energy resolution (a few keV FWHM at 500 keV) will allow high sensitivity polarisation measurements (a few % for a 10 mCrab source in 106s) to be performed. We have evaluated the modulation Q factors and minimum detectable polaris...

Caroli, E; Pisa, A; Stephen, J B; Frontera, F; Castanheira, M T D; Sordo, S; Caroli, Ezio; Silva, Rui M. Curado da; Pisa, Alessandro; Stephen, John B.; Frontera, Filippo; Castanheira, Matilde T. D.; Sordo, Stefano del

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Polarisation measurements with a CdTe pixel array detector for Laue hard X-ray focusing telescopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polarimetry is an area of high energy astrophysics which is still relatively unexplored, even though it is recognized that this type of measurement could drastically increase our knowledge of the physics and geometry of high energy sources. For this reason, in the context of the design of a Gamma-Ray Imager based on new hard-X and soft gamma ray focusing optics for the next ESA Cosmic Vision call for proposals (Cosmic Vision 2015-2025), it is important that this capability should be implemented in the principal on-board instrumentation. For the particular case of wide band-pass Laue optics we propose a focal plane based on a thick pixelated CdTe detector operating with high efficiency between 60-600 keV. The high segmentation of this type of detector (1-2 mm pixel size) and the good energy resolution (a few keV FWHM at 500 keV) will allow high sensitivity polarisation measurements (a few % for a 10 mCrab source in 106s) to be performed. We have evaluated the modulation Q factors and minimum detectable polarisation through the use of Monte Carlo simulations (based on the GEANT 4 toolkit) for on and off-axis sources with power law emission spectra using the point spread function of a Laue lens in a feasible configuration.

Ezio Caroli; Rui M. Curado da Silva; Alessandro Pisa; John B. Stephen; Filippo Frontera; Matilde T. D. Castanheira; Stefano del Sordo

2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

496

Effect of hard-disk drive spindle motor vibration on dynamic microwaviness and flying-height modulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to achieve higher recording densities up to 1 Terabit per square inch using conventional magnetic recording technologies, the recording slider will need to be physically spaced very close to the rotating disk, possibly via the use of an air-bearing surface. However, as the recording slider is flying at such ultra-low spacing of few nanometers over a high-speed rotating disk, it is experiencing disturbances from various different sources and of a wide frequency range. These disturbances may cause the recording slider to vibrate significantly, a condition known as flying-height modulation (FHM), which may result in data loss and possibly headdisk interface failure. A significant source of slider excitation is due to low frequency surface topographical features of the rotating disk, termed dynamic microwaviness. Dynamic microwaviness is a dynamic property of the disk and differs from regular topographical microwaviness, which is a static property. Most research works on dynamic microwaviness and FHM have been focused at the component level, using somewhat idealized conditions, such as high performance air-spindle motors that exhibit very low vibration amplitudes. In this paper, actual hard-disk drive spindle motors are used to investigate the effect of spindle motor vibration on dynamic microwaviness and FHM. It is found that there is a clear connection between spindle motor vibration and dynamic microwaviness that affects FHM.

Sung-Chang Lee; Andreas A. Polycarpou

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497