Sample records for half-sample stratum pair402

  1. Water permeation through stratum corneum lipid bilayers from atomistic simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chinmay Das; Peter D. Olmsted; Massimo G. Noro

    2009-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Stratum corneum, the outermost layer of skin, consists of keratin filled rigid non-viable corneocyte cells surrounded by multilayers of lipids. The lipid layer is responsible for the barrier properties of the skin. We calculate the excess chemical potential and diffusivity of water as a function of depth in lipid bilayers with compositions representative of the stratum corneum using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The maximum in the excess free energy of water inside the lipid bilayers is found to be twice that of water in phospholipid bilayers at the same temperature. Permeability, which decreases exponentially with the free energy barrier, is reduced by several orders of magnitude as compared to with phospholipid bilayers. The average time it takes for a water molecule to cross the bilayer is calculated by solving the Smoluchowski equation in presence of the free energy barrier. For a bilayer composed of a 2:2:1 molar ratio of ceramide NS 24:0, cholesterol and free fatty acid 24:0 at 300K, we estimate the permeability P=3.7e-9 cm/s and the average crossing time \\tau_{av}=0.69 ms. The permeability is about 30 times smaller than existing experimental results on mammalian skin sections.

  2. Stratum Approaches to Temporal DBMS Implementation Kristian Torp Christian S. Jensen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snodgrass, Richard T.

    Stratum Approaches to Temporal DBMS Implementation Kristian Torp Christian S. Jensen Department temporal DBMSs have assumed that a temporal DBMS must be built from scratch, employing an integrated a temporal DBMS as a stratum on top of an existing non-temporal DBMS, rendering implementation more feasible

  3. The effect of stratum thickness ratio on crossflow in a stratified petroleum reservoir 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kereluk, Michael Joseph

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF STRATUM THICKNESS RATIO ON CROSSFLOW IN A STRATIFIED PETROLEUM RESERVOIR A Thesis By Michael J. Kereluk Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 4966 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF STRATUM THICKNESS RATIO ON CROSSFLOW IN A STRATIFIED PETROLEUM RESERVOIR A Thesis By Michael I. Kereluk Approved as to style and content by: Chazrma of Com 'ttee...

  4. Developmental plasticity of cutaneous water loss and lipid composition in stratum corneum of desert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jos. B.

    Developmental plasticity of cutaneous water loss and lipid composition in stratum corneum of desert and cerebrosides in the SC compared with mesic spar- rows. In this study, we investigated developmental plasticity modifications of the lipid composition of the SC. The expression of plasticity in CWL seems to be a response

  5. The effect of stratum thickness ratio on crossflow in a stratified petroleum reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kereluk, Michael Joseph

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the effect of stratum thickness ratio and viscosity ratio on crossflow were studied. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The possible importance of permeability stratification in a reservoir being waterflooded was first mentioned in a paper by 1 . Lester C. Uren in f... States, API (1950) p. 160-174. 4, Dyes, A. B. and Braun, P. H. : "Sweepout Patterns in De- pleted and Stratified Reservoirs, " Producers Monthl (1954) 19, No. 2, p, 24-30. 5. Gaucher, D. H. and Lindley, D. C. : "Waterflood Performance in a Stratified...

  6. Bilayer Structure and Lipid Dynamics in a Model Stratum Corneum...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    behavior over the 200 ns time scale is evident in systems at 340 K, with cholesterol diffusion being enhanced with increased oleic acid. Importantly, cholesterol and other...

  7. A study of bias in variance estimation with one unit per stratum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kieffer, Grace Kloor

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TO THE RANK OF C APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY Page 21 26 4O LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Agricultural Ares and Number of Livestock for 364 Villages 2 Cultivated Area and Ares Und. er Wheat for 34 Villages 15 3 Bias Summary i' or Data of Sukhatme 15 4... Cultivated Area and. Area Under Pats for 35 Farms 16 5 . Bias Summary for Data of Samford. 1. 6 6 Number of Dwellings and Number Rented for 270 City Blocks 7 Bias Summary for Data of Kish 17 8 Number of Villages and Area Under Wheat in 89...

  8. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 307 (2006) 225231 Interactions of oleic acid and model stratum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowat, Amy C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance to monitor such multilamellar SC dispersions containing either, is not clear. Some have speculated that cis-unsaturated fatty acids such as OA `fluidize' SC lipids

  9. Gaguk Zakaria received his Stratum One (Bachelor of Science) degree in Electrical Engineering in 1985 from Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia, and his

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    Engineering in 1985 from Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia, and his Master of Science degree

  10. The development of a collagen - nylon microcapsule composite biomaterial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeager, Mark Rutledge

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into the epidermis ut regular interv?1s i? tho I?rm of small vascular papill?e. FIGURE 1. STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN (Rothman, 1969) 1. Stratum Corneum 6. 2. Stratum Lucidum 7. 3, Stratum Granulosum 8. 4. Stratum Nalpighii 5. Stratum Germi natum Dermal Papillae P... not involve inter- facial polycondensation. 4. Development of a technique for agitating the collagen-microcapsule suspension to insure random and even dispersion of the microcapsules. 5. Use of non-hemolysate based microcapsules. REFERENCES 1, Ross, R...

  11. Transdermal microconduits by microscission for drug delivery and sample acquisition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Salvador

    Background Painless, rapid, controlled, minimally invasive molecular transport across human skin for drug delivery and analyte acquisition is of widespread interest. Creation of microconduits through the stratum corneum ...

  12. Underground Storage of Natural Gas (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any natural gas public utility may appropriate for its use for the underground storage of natural gas any subsurface stratum or formation in any land which the commission shall have found to be...

  13. AGRARIAN CHANGE, AGROECOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION AND THE COFFEE CRISIS IN COSTA RICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Nicholas Lawrence

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to improve the fallow of Agua Buena frijol tapado systemsfrijol tapado has also been increasingly applied in Aguafrijol tapado one of the three most common arrangments within the intercropped stratum of Agua

  14. Method for in situ heating of hydrocarbonaceous formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Little, William E. (Morgantown, WV); McLendon, Thomas R. (Laramie, WY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for extracting valuable constituents from underground hydrocarbonaceous deposits such as heavy crude tar sands and oil shale is disclosed. Initially, a stratum containing a rich deposit is hydraulically fractured to form a horizontally extending fracture plane. A conducting liquid and proppant is then injected into the fracture plane to form a conducting plane. Electrical excitations are then introduced into the stratum adjacent the conducting plate to retort the rich stratum along the conducting plane. The valuable constituents from the stratum adjacent the conducting plate are then recovered. Subsequently, the remainder of the deposit is also combustion retorted to further recover valuable constituents from the deposit. Various R.F. heating systems are also disclosed for use in the present invention.

  15. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 494, Vol. 45, No. 1-2, March-June 2008, pp. 112 INFLUENCE OF LIQUEFACTION ON PILE-SOIL INTERACTION IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ­12 INFLUENCE OF LIQUEFACTION ON PILE-SOIL INTERACTION IN VERTICAL VIBRATION B.K. Maheshwari*, U.K. Nath** and G. In such soil stratum, pile foundations may undergo substantial shaking while the soil is in a fully liquefied the liquefaction phenomenon. The Winkler soil model has been used to model the pile-soil interaction. Combining

  16. Copyright 2009 by ASME1 INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    . Cryopneumatic (CPx) is a new technology under development which combines the quick freezing of stratum cornuem-Aldrich Co. (St. Luis, MO). Porcine skin samples with intact SC were obtained from a local meat processor for 60 min. (a) (b) Figure 1. Experimental setup to freeze and stretch porcine skin: (a) R134a spurt; (b

  17. complexity of cylindrical decompositions of sub-pfaffian sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-00-40T23:59:59.000Z

    tence was proved in [9] by means of a quasi-constructive process of .... All functions defining a stratum have the same Pfaffian chain as the input functions. .... The output of the algorithm is a cell decomposition (i.e. subdivision into finite.

  18. Determination of Dusty Particle Charge Taking into Account Ion Drag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Amangaliyeva, R. Zh.; Orazbayev, S. A. [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, IETP, 96a Tole Bi St., Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan); Petrov, O. F.; Antipov, S. N. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of RAS, 13/19 Izhorskaya, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is devoted to the experimental estimation of charge of dust particle that levitates in the stratum of dc glow discharge. Particle charge is determined on the basis of the balance between ion drag force, gravitational and electric forces. Electric force is obtained from the axial distribution of the light intensity of strata.

  19. Response of Wetland Soils to Flow Alterations in the Sabine River below Toledo Bend Dam for the Texas Instream Flows Program.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nally, Deseri 1975-

    2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    sites were identified below the dam using high radar LIDAR digital elevation modeling. Soils were collected from each stratum to a depth of 50 cm using a stratified random approach. Distinct patterns were observed in regards to the pH, redox, Ferrous...

  20. Biomass relations for components of five minnesota shrubs. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buech, R.R.; Rugg, D.J.

    1995-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The tall shrub stratum is an important component of upland forests in the Lake States, especially of deciduous forest communities. The prevalance of tall shrubs has produced a recurring research interest in this stratum both in ecological studies and wildlife habitat surveys within the region. For such purposes, estimates of the biomass of tall shrubs or their component parts are often needed. The authors examine goodness of fit of two predictor variables (shrub height and stem diameter class) in three relations. The authors provide equations that use stem diameter class or stem diameter class and height to estimate biomass of six components of five shrub species, as well as generalized equations derived from a composite of all five species. Finally, the authors provide the information needed to construct standard errors for biomass estimates.

  1. Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 330GTR-NRS-P-105 Estimators usEd in thE nEw mExico invEntory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 330GTR-NRS-P-105 Estimators usEd in thE nEw mExico invEntory: Practical imPlications of "truly" random nonrEsPonsE within Each stratum Paul l. Patterson and sara a. Goeking1 Abstract.--The annual forest inventory of New Mexico began

  2. An evaluation of the Texas Livestock Market News and an estimation of the requirements of the Texas livestock and meat industry for livestock market news

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ernest Edwin

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Therefore, to get an overall indication of the sampled population's preferences, a weighting procedur'e was necessary. Those sampled persons returning the mailed questionnaire were considered as the responding stratum. Those sampled persons not returning... in the report, and determining what information should be presented in the interpretation column of the report. The data was collected by the use of a mail questionnaire sent to a random sample of 5, 112 readers of tbe Texas Livestock Narket News. Telephone...

  3. In vitro and in vivo analysis of differential gene expression between normal norfolk terrier dogs and those with an autosomal recessive mutation in KRT10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnhart, Kirstin Faye

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is provided by a few layers of keratinocytes that collectively comprise the epidermis. This barrier, known as the stratum corneum, is life-sustaining, prevents loss of water from the body and withstands chemical, microbial, immunological and ultraviolet... of EHK (also referred to as bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma) was first attributed to genetic mutations in K1/K10 by Cheng et al in 1992. Although ?hot spot? regions of these genes have been identified and most mutations occur in the 1A...

  4. Dynamic soil pressures on rigid cylindrical vaults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veletsos, A.S.; Younan, A.H (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A critical evaluation is made of the dynamic pressures and the associated forces induced by ground shaking on an upright, circular, rigid vault that is embedded in a uniform viscoelastic stratum of constant thickness and infinite extent in the horizontal plane. Both the vault and the stratum are presumed to be supported on a non- deformable base undergoing a space-invariant, uniform horizontal motion. The effects of both harmonic and earthquake-induced excitations are examined. Simple approximate expressions for the responses of the system are formulated, and comprehensive numerical data are presented which elucidate the underlying response mechanisms and the effects and relative importance of the various parameters involved. The parameters investigated include the height to radius ratio for the vault, the conditions at the vault-medium interface, and the material properties of the stratum. In addition to valuable insights into the response of the particular system being examined, the results presented provide a conceptual framework for the analysis and interpretation of solutions for more involved systems as well.

  5. A BASIS FOR MODIFYING THE TANK 12 COMPOSITE SAMPLING DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shine, G.

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The SRR sampling campaign to obtain residual solids material from the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm Tank 12 primary vessel resulted in obtaining appreciable material in all 6 planned source samples from the mound strata but only in 5 of the 6 planned source samples from the floor stratum. Consequently, the design of the compositing scheme presented in the Tank 12 Sampling and Analysis Plan, Pavletich (2014a), must be revised. Analytical Development of SRNL statistically evaluated the sampling uncertainty associated with using various compositing arrays and splitting one or more samples for compositing. The variance of the simple mean of composite sample concentrations is a reasonable standard to investigate the impact of the following sampling options. Composite Sample Design Option (a). Assign only 1 source sample from the floor stratum and 1 source sample from each of the mound strata to each of the composite samples. Each source sample contributes material to only 1 composite sample. Two source samples from the floor stratum would not be used. Composite Sample Design Option (b). Assign 2 source samples from the floor stratum and 1 source sample from each of the mound strata to each composite sample. This infers that one source sample from the floor must be used twice, with 2 composite samples sharing material from this particular source sample. All five source samples from the floor would be used. Composite Sample Design Option (c). Assign 3 source samples from the floor stratum and 1 source sample from each of the mound strata to each composite sample. This infers that several of the source samples from the floor stratum must be assigned to more than one composite sample. All 5 source samples from the floor would be used. Using fewer than 12 source samples will increase the sampling variability over that of the Basic Composite Sample Design, Pavletich (2013). Considering the impact to the variance of the simple mean of the composite sample concentrations, the recommendation is to construct each sample composite using four or five source samples. Although the variance using 5 source samples per composite sample (Composite Sample Design Option (c)) was slightly less than the variance using 4 source samples per composite sample (Composite Sample Design Option (b)), there is no practical difference between those variances. This does not consider that the measurement error variance, which is the same for all composite sample design options considered in this report, will further dilute any differences. Composite Sample Design Option (a) had the largest variance for the mean concentration in the three composite samples and should be avoided. These results are consistent with Pavletich (2014b) which utilizes a low elevation and a high elevation mound source sample and two floor source samples for each composite sample. Utilizing the four source samples per composite design, Pavletich (2014b) utilizes aliquots of Floor Sample 4 for two composite samples.

  6. An Archaeological Survey for the Chatfield Water Supply Corporation Water System Improvements Project in Navarro County Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, William

    2015-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    testing of site 41NV670 was performed to determine the research potential of this unique site which consisted of a bison bone bed approximately 15 feet below the surface of a relict flood plain and within a heavy clay mantle. This investigation... was performed using shovel testing, excavation of two 1 x 1 meter test units, one backhoe trench, surface inspection of creek exposures, and an evaluation by a geomorphologist. Site 41NV670 consists of a stratum of bison bone identified as modern bison (Bison...

  7. On the geometry of reduced cotangent bundles at zero momentum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Perlmutter; Miguel Rodriguez-Olmos; M. Esmeralda Sousa-Dias

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the problem of cotangent bundle reduction for non free group actions at zero momentum. We show that in this context the symplectic stratification obtained by Sjamaar and Lerman refines in two ways: (i) each symplectic stratum admits a stratification which we call the secondary stratification with two distinct types of pieces, one of which is open and dense and symplectomorphic to a cotangent bundle; (ii) the reduced space at zero momentum admits a finer stratification than the symplectic one into pieces that are coisotropic in their respective symplectic strata.

  8. Effects of interferon-[] on activation of the Jak/Stat signal transduction pathway and regulation of ovine endometrial gene expression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Milton David

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GE) on Days 14 and 15 of the estrous cycle (Silvia and Raw, 1993; Charpigny et al. , 1997; Gray et al. , 2000). The sGE is the GE within the stratum compactum of the endometrium that is phenotypically identical to the LE. Pulsatile secretion of PGF.../or IRFs to suppress ERa and OTR expression in the LE and sGE. Although IFN~ suppresses ERa and OTR expression in the LE and sGE, it does not induce ISG expression in these cell types (Choi et al. , 2001). Instead, IFN~ induces ISG expression solely...

  9. On the feedback from super stellar clusters. I. The structure of giant HII regions and HII galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Tenorio-Tagle; C. Munoz-Tunon; E. Perez; S. Silich; E. Telles

    2006-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the structural properties of giant extragalactic HII regions and HII galaxies based on 2D hydrodynamic calculations, and propose an evolutionary sequence that accounts for their observed detailed structure. The model assumes a massive and young stellar cluster surrounded by a large collection of clouds. These are thus exposed to the most important star-formation feedback mechanisms: photoionization and the cluster wind. The models show how the two feedback mechanisms compete in the disruption of clouds and lead to two different hydrodynamic solutions: The storage of clouds into a long lasting ragged shell that inhibits the expansion of the thermalized wind, and the steady filtering of the shocked wind gas through channels carved within the cloud stratum. Both solutions are claimed to be concurrently at work in giant HII regions and HII galaxies, causing their detailed inner structure. This includes multiple large-scale shells, filled with an X-ray emitting gas, that evolve to finally merge with each other, giving the appearance of shells within shells. The models also show how the inner filamentary structure of the giant superbubbles is largely enhanced with matter ablated from clouds and how cloud ablation proceeds within the original cloud stratum. The calculations point at the initial contrast density between the cloud and the intercloud media as the factor that defines which of the two feedback mechanisms becomes dominant throughout the evolution. Animated version of the models can be found at http://www.iaa.csic.es/\\~{}eperez/ssc/ssc.html.

  10. A Randomized Trial (Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01) Comparing Short Versus Protracted Neoadjuvant Hormonal Therapy Before Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, John G.; Gillham, Charles M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Dunne, Mary T., E-mail: mary.dunne@slh.ie [Clinical Trials Resource Unit, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Fitzpatrick, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Finn, Marie A.; Cannon, Mairin E. [Clinical Trials Resource Unit, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Taylor, Judy C. [Department of Nursing, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); O'Shea, Carmel M. [Clinical Trials Resource Unit, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Buckney, Steven J. [Department of Physics, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Thirion, Pierre G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To examine the long-term outcomes of a randomized trial comparing short (4 months; Arm 1) and long (8 months; Arm 2) neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1997 and 2001, 276 patients were enrolled and the data from 261 were analyzed. The stratification risk factors were prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng/mL, Gleason score {>=}7, and Stage T3 or more. The intermediate-risk stratum had one factor and the high-risk stratum had two or more. Staging was done from the bone scan and computed tomography findings. The primary endpoint was biochemical failure-free survival. Results: The median follow-up was 102 months. The overall survival, biochemical failure-free survival. and prostate cancer-specific survival did not differ significantly between the two treatment arms, overall or at 5 years. The cumulative probability of overall survival at 5 years was 90% (range, 87-92%) in Arm 1 and 83% (range, 80-86%) in Arm 2. The biochemical failure-free survival rate at 5 years was 66% (range, 62-71%) in Arm 1 and 63% (range, 58-67%) in Arm 2. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was found in biochemical failure-free survival between 4 months and 8 months of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer.

  11. Correlation of the Texas Highway Department Cone Penetrometer Test with the drained shear strength of cohesionless soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cozart, George Davis

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oz z Cn+ O ooe ? z g XO Q V) z&+ J o O o~~ i&Q LIGHT GRAY LOOSE SILTY SAND SM 13. 4 12. 6 1043 13. 4 13. 8 106$ SM 16. 3 26. 0 111. 6 I BX) Il 5. 0 IO TAN FIRM SILTY CLAY FIG. 4. -LOG OF BORING 2 SITE A - STATE HIGHWAY 30. (Ift ?. 305m...', I pcf ?16. 0lkg/m ) o w w X z 0 1- 8 DESCRIPTION OF STRATUM c( O w~ wm Z 0 z i Dol- 8 I-~c, Ou) ~) a&n +w 40. zv) w1 pww e1-o I c( E9 &wit I-3 L' CX zm 2 6. 7 E BROWN LOOSE SILTY SAND SM 15. 0 5. 1 98. 7 10. 9 6. 0 103. 9 6...

  12. Fuel injector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Bertrand D. (Erie, PA); Leonard, Gary L. (Schenctady, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

  13. Detailed Studies of Hydrocarbon Radicals: C2H Dissociation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittig, Curt

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel experimental technique was examined whose goal was the ejection of radical species into the gas phase from a platform (film) of cold non-reactive material. The underlying principle was one of photo-initiated heat release in a stratum that lies below a layer of CO2 or a layer of amorphous solid water (ASW) and CO2. A molecular precursor to the radical species of interest is deposited near or on the film's surface, where it can be photo-dissociated. It proved unfeasible to avoid the rampant formation of fissures, as opposed to large "flakes." This led to many interesting results, but resulted in our aborting the scheme as a means of launching cold C2H radical into the gas phase. A journal article resulted that is germane to astrophysics but not combustion chemistry.

  14. Statistical Analysis Of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shine, E. P.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements above their MDCs. The identification of distributions and the selection of UCL95 procedures generally followed the protocol in Singh, Armbya, and Singh [2010]. When all of an analyte's measurements lie below their MDCs, only a summary of the MDCs can be provided. The measurement results reported by SRNL are listed in Appendix A, and the results of this analysis are reported in Appendix B. The data were generally found to follow a normal distribution, and to be homogenous across composite samples.

  15. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 5 FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shine, E.

    2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, radionuclide, inorganic, and anion concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements above their MDCs. The identification of distributions and the selection of UCL95 procedures generally followed the protocol in Singh, Armbya, and Singh [2010]. When all of an analyte's measurements lie below their MDCs, only a summary of the MDCs can be provided. The measurement results reported by SRNL are listed in Appendix A, and the results of this analysis are reported in Appendix B. The data were generally found to follow a normal distribution, and to be homogeneous across composite samples.

  16. Statistical Analysis of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide1, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements above their MDCs. The identification of distributions and the selection of UCL95 procedures generally followed the protocol in Singh, Armbya, and Singh [2010]. When all of an analyte's measurements lie below their MDCs, only a summary of the MDCs can be provided. The measurement results reported by SRNL are listed, and the results of this analysis are reported. The data were generally found to follow a normal distribution, and to be homogenous across composite samples.

  17. The landscape of G-structures in eight-manifold compactifications of M-theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babalic, Elena Mirela

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider spaces of "virtual" constrained generalized Killing spinors, i.e. spaces of Majorana spinors which correspond to "off-shell" $s$-extended supersymmetry in compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity based on eight-manifolds $M$. Such spaces naturally induce two stratifications of $M$, called the chirality and stabilizer stratification. For the case $s=2$, we describe the former using the canonical Whitney stratification of a three-dimensional semi-algebraic set ${\\cal R}$. We also show that the stabilizer stratification coincides with the rank stratification of a cosmooth generalized distribution ${\\cal D}_0$ and describe it explicitly using the Whitney stratification of a four-dimensional semi-algebraic set $\\mathfrak{P}$. The stabilizer groups along the strata are isomorphic with $\\mathrm{SU}(2)$, $\\mathrm{SU}(3)$, $\\mathrm{G}_2$ or $\\mathrm{SU}(4)$, where $\\mathrm{SU(2)}$ corresponds to the open stratum, which is generically non-empty. We also determine the rank stratification of a lar...

  18. The landscape of G-structures in eight-manifold compactifications of M-theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elena Mirela Babalic; Calin Iuliu Lazaroiu

    2015-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider spaces of "virtual" constrained generalized Killing spinors, i.e. spaces of Majorana spinors which correspond to "off-shell" $s$-extended supersymmetry in compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity based on eight-manifolds $M$. Such spaces naturally induce two stratifications of $M$, called the chirality and stabilizer stratification. For the case $s=2$, we describe the former using the canonical Whitney stratification of a three-dimensional semi-algebraic set ${\\cal R}$. We also show that the stabilizer stratification coincides with the rank stratification of a cosmooth generalized distribution ${\\cal D}_0$ and describe it explicitly using the Whitney stratification of a four-dimensional semi-algebraic set $\\mathfrak{P}$. The stabilizer groups along the strata are isomorphic with $\\mathrm{SU}(2)$, $\\mathrm{SU}(3)$, $\\mathrm{G}_2$ or $\\mathrm{SU}(4)$, where $\\mathrm{SU(2)}$ corresponds to the open stratum, which is generically non-empty. We also determine the rank stratification of a larger generalized distribution ${\\cal D}$ which turns out to be integrable in the case of compactifications down to $\\mathrm{AdS}_3$.

  19. Niger delta deepwater region petroleum potential assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    On behalf of the Nigerian Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources some 23,000 km of high quality 192 channel, 96 fold seismic, and associated gravity and magnetic data were acquired by TGSI-Mabon Geophysical Co. and made available to the industry in 1991. These data were collected over all deepwater blocks in conjunction with the planned 1993 license round. Later, during 1993 and 1994 TGSI with Mabon Ltd. and Stratum Petroleum Services extended the program onto the shelf (7,000 km) and into the ultra deepwater areas (6,400 km), making possible modern studies of the entire offshore delta complex. In assessing the petroleum potential of an undrilled region, it is useful to refer to analogous basins or provinces already with histories of hydrocarbon exploration and discovery. With this in mind, and using limited data from the already drilled areas of Nigeria offshore, the adjacent West Africa salt basin and Brazil in particular, an attempt is made to discuss the hydrocarbon habitat of the undrilled Niger delta deepwater offshore sedimentary sequences.

  20. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  1. Response of South American ecosystems to precipitation variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL; Bras, Rafael L [ORNL

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ecosystem Demography Model 2 is a dynamic ecosystem model and land surface energy balance model. ED2 discretizes landscapes of particular terrain and meteorology into fractional areas of unique disturbance history. Each fraction, defined by a shared vertical soil column and canopy air space, contains a stratum of plant groups unique in functional type, size and number density. The result is a vertically distributed representation of energy transfer and plant dynamics (mortality, productivity, recruitment, disturbance, resource competition, etc) that successfully approximates the behaviour of individual-based vegetation models. In previous exercises simulating Amazonian land surface dynamics with ED2, it was observed that when using grid averaged precipitation as an external forcing the resulting water balance typically over-estimated leaf interception and leaf evaporation while under estimating through-fall and transpiration. To investigate this result, two scenario were conducted in which land surface biophysics and ecosystem demography over the Northern portion of South America are simulated over {approx}200 years: (1) ED2 is forced with grid averaged values taken from the ERA40 reanalysis meteorological dataset; (2) ED2 is forced with ERA40 reanalysis, but with its precipitation re-sampled to reflect statistical qualities of point precipitation found at rain gauge stations in the region. The findings in this study suggest that the equilibrium moisture states and vegetation demography are co-dependent and show sensitivity to temporal variability in precipitation. These sensitivities will need to be accounted for in future projections of coupled climate-ecosystem changes in South America.

  2. Relationship of adiposity to the population distribution of plasma triglyceride concentrations in vigorously active men and women

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2002-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Context and Objective: Vigorous exercise, alcohol and weight loss are all known to increase HDL-cholesterol, however, it is not known whether these interventions raise low HDL as effectively as has been demonstrated for normal HDL. Design: Physician-supplied medical data from 7,288 male and 2,359 female runners were divided into five strata according to their self-reported usual running distance, reported alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Within each stratum, the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles for HDL-cholesterol were then determined. Bootstrap resampling of least-squares regression was applied to determine the cross-sectional relationships between these factors and each percentile of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Results: In both sexes, the rise in HDL-cholesterol per unit of vigorous exercise or alcohol intake was at least twice as great at the 95th percentile as at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. There was also a significant graded increase in the slopes relating exercise (km run) and alcohol intake to HDL between the 5th and the 95th percentile. Men's HDL-cholesterol decreased in association with fatness (BMI and waist circumference) more sharply at the 95th than at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. Conclusions: Although exercise, alcohol and adiposity were all related to HDL-cholesterol, the elevation in HDL per km run or ounce of alcohol consumed, and reduction in HDL per kg of body weight (men only), was least when HDL was low and greatest when HDL was high. These cross-sectional relationships support the hypothesis that men and women who have low HDL-cholesterol will be less responsive to exercise and alcohol (and weight loss in men) as compared to those who have high HDL-cholesterol.

  3. Statistical techniques for characterizing residual waste in single-shell and double-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A primary objective of the Hanford Tank Initiative (HTI) project is to develop methods to estimate the inventory of residual waste in single-shell and double-shell tanks. A second objective is to develop methods to determine the boundaries of waste that may be in the waste plume in the vadose zone. This document presents statistical sampling plans that can be used to estimate the inventory of analytes within the residual waste within a tank. Sampling plans for estimating the inventory of analytes within the waste plume in the vadose zone are also presented. Inventory estimates can be used to classify the residual waste with respect to chemical and radiological hazards. Based on these estimates, it will be possible to make decisions regarding the final disposition of the residual waste. Four sampling plans for the residual waste in a tank are presented. The first plan is based on the assumption that, based on some physical characteristic, the residual waste can be divided into disjoint strata, and waste samples obtained from randomly selected locations within each stratum. The second plan is that waste samples are obtained from randomly selected locations within the waste. The third and fourth plans are similar to the first two, except that composite samples are formed from multiple samples. Common to the four plans is that, in the laboratory, replicate analytical measurements are obtained from homogenized waste samples. The statistical sampling plans for the residual waste are similar to the statistical sampling plans developed for the tank waste characterization program. In that program, the statistical sampling plans required multiple core samples of waste, and replicate analytical measurements from homogenized core segments. A statistical analysis of the analytical data, obtained from use of the statistical sampling plans developed for the characterization program or from the HTI project, provide estimates of mean analyte concentrations and confidence intervals on the mean. In addition, the statistical analysis provides estimates of spatial and measurement variabilities. The magnitude of these sources of variability are used to determine how well the inventory of the analytes in the waste have been estimated. This document provides statistical sampling plans that can be used to estimate the inventory of the analytes in the residual waste in single-shell and double-shell tanks and in the waste plume in the vadose zone.

  4. Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper-try sealers. Two specific additives without sodium silicate as alkaline additive were developed in this project: One additive was the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as self-degradation promoting additive; the other was the hard-burned magnesium oxide (MgO) made from calcinating at 1,000-1,500 C as an expansive additive. The AASC and AASF cementitious sealers made by incorporating an appropriate amount of these additives met the following six criteria: 1) One dry mix component product; 2) plastic viscosity, 20 to 70 cp at 300 rpm; 3) maintenance of pumpability for at least 1 hour at 85 C; 4) compressive strength >2000 psi; 5) self-degradable by injection with water at a certain pressure; and 6) expandable and swelling properties; {ge}0.5% of total volume of the sealer.