Sample records for half-sample stratum pair402

  1. Water permeation through stratum corneum lipid bilayers from atomistic simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chinmay Das; Peter D. Olmsted; Massimo G. Noro


    Stratum corneum, the outermost layer of skin, consists of keratin filled rigid non-viable corneocyte cells surrounded by multilayers of lipids. The lipid layer is responsible for the barrier properties of the skin. We calculate the excess chemical potential and diffusivity of water as a function of depth in lipid bilayers with compositions representative of the stratum corneum using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The maximum in the excess free energy of water inside the lipid bilayers is found to be twice that of water in phospholipid bilayers at the same temperature. Permeability, which decreases exponentially with the free energy barrier, is reduced by several orders of magnitude as compared to with phospholipid bilayers. The average time it takes for a water molecule to cross the bilayer is calculated by solving the Smoluchowski equation in presence of the free energy barrier. For a bilayer composed of a 2:2:1 molar ratio of ceramide NS 24:0, cholesterol and free fatty acid 24:0 at 300K, we estimate the permeability P=3.7e-9 cm/s and the average crossing time \\tau_{av}=0.69 ms. The permeability is about 30 times smaller than existing experimental results on mammalian skin sections.

  2. Stratum Approaches to Temporal DBMS Implementation Kristian Torp Christian S. Jensen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snodgrass, Richard T.

    Stratum Approaches to Temporal DBMS Implementation Kristian Torp Christian S. Jensen Department temporal DBMSs have assumed that a temporal DBMS must be built from scratch, employing an integrated a temporal DBMS as a stratum on top of an existing non-temporal DBMS, rendering implementation more feasible

  3. Developmental plasticity of cutaneous water loss and lipid composition in stratum corneum of desert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jos. B.

    Developmental plasticity of cutaneous water loss and lipid composition in stratum corneum of desert and cerebrosides in the SC compared with mesic spar- rows. In this study, we investigated developmental plasticity modifications of the lipid composition of the SC. The expression of plasticity in CWL seems to be a response

  4. The effect of stratum thickness ratio on crossflow in a stratified petroleum reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kereluk, Michael Joseph


    , the effect of stratum thickness ratio and viscosity ratio on crossflow were studied. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The possible importance of permeability stratification in a reservoir being waterflooded was first mentioned in a paper by 1 . Lester C. Uren in f... States, API (1950) p. 160-174. 4, Dyes, A. B. and Braun, P. H. : "Sweepout Patterns in De- pleted and Stratified Reservoirs, " Producers Monthl (1954) 19, No. 2, p, 24-30. 5. Gaucher, D. H. and Lindley, D. C. : "Waterflood Performance in a Stratified...

  5. Bilayer Structure and Lipid Dynamics in a Model Stratum Corneum...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    behavior over the 200 ns time scale is evident in systems at 340 K, with cholesterol diffusion being enhanced with increased oleic acid. Importantly, cholesterol and other...

  6. A study of bias in variance estimation with one unit per stratum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kieffer, Grace Kloor


    Seth (p=l) Hansen-Hurwitz-Nadow Bias 3. 940 9 6, 876. 5 19&732 0 -2, 884, 8 'Io Over/Under Estimation 12. 04$ 21. 01'$ 6o. 2+0 8. 81$ 17 ~EI IV: 2' EL6] 2 ppMt' I'270 tytl 2 giving the number of dwellings, x. , and the number occupied... for a line fit, k = 2, for number of strata, L = 5-15, and for a parabola, k = 3, for number of strata, L ~ 'B-15. i. 5 K 2 C INVERSE 0 IC91379E 02 -0 3568964E 01 -0 ~ 3568964E Cl 0 32198278 Ol -0 29310icE 00 -0. 3448277E-OL 0. 1431034f ol -0...

  7. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 307 (2006) 225231 Interactions of oleic acid and model stratum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowat, Amy C.


    deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance to monitor such multilamellar SC dispersions containing either, is not clear. Some have speculated that cis-unsaturated fatty acids such as OA `fluidize' SC lipids

  8. Bilayer Structure and Lipid Dynamics in a Model Stratum Corneum with Oleic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6 M. Babzien, I.ProgramBig Sol Big Sol SuperAcid. | EMSL

  9. Gaguk Zakaria received his Stratum One (Bachelor of Science) degree in Electrical Engineering in 1985 from Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia, and his

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    Engineering in 1985 from Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia, and his Master of Science degree

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - achieving lipid goals Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DC 20036 Article Permeability of Model Stratum Corneum Lipid... .acs.orgLangmuir Permeability of Model Stratum Corneum Lipid Membrane Measured Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance...

  11. The development of a collagen - nylon microcapsule composite biomaterial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeager, Mark Rutledge


    into the epidermis ut regular interv?1s i? tho I?rm of small vascular papill?e. FIGURE 1. STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN (Rothman, 1969) 1. Stratum Corneum 6. 2. Stratum Lucidum 7. 3, Stratum Granulosum 8. 4. Stratum Nalpighii 5. Stratum Germi natum Dermal Papillae P... not involve inter- facial polycondensation. 4. Development of a technique for agitating the collagen-microcapsule suspension to insure random and even dispersion of the microcapsules. 5. Use of non-hemolysate based microcapsules. REFERENCES 1, Ross, R...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - atlantic andpacific topical Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From there the temperature... by vertical mixing with the underlying Antarctic Bottom Water. From the southern South Atlantic the high... a stratum that lies within the layer of...

  13. Accretion, Sediment Deposition and Suspended Sediment Dynamics in Mugu Lagoon, a Southern California Coastal Estuary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosencranz, Jordan Alexander


    creek and marsh stratum on sediment deposition. Error barsBorgnis. 2009. Dynamics of sediment accumulation in Pond A21Vegetation on Suspended Sediment, Yangtze Delta. Journal of

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - apocrine protein signature Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    higher up... granules: (converts protein to keratin) Lamellar granules: release lipids that repels water 5-10 Stratum... (milk) glands 5-24Histology of skin glands...

  15. Transdermal microconduits by microscission for drug delivery and sample acquisition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Salvador

    Background Painless, rapid, controlled, minimally invasive molecular transport across human skin for drug delivery and analyte acquisition is of widespread interest. Creation of microconduits through the stratum corneum ...

  16. Distribution and Synaptic Connectivity of Neuropeptide YImmunoreactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grzywacz, Norberto

    in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and 90 cells/mm2 in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). In the INL, most primarily in stratum 1 of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). A few cells in the INL also ramified in stratum 3 of the IPL. A few immunoreactive processes, originating from somata in the INL and processes in the IPL

  17. Underground Storage of Natural Gas (Kansas)

    Broader source: [DOE]

    Any natural gas public utility may appropriate for its use for the underground storage of natural gas any subsurface stratum or formation in any land which the commission shall have found to be...

  18. Mechanistic investigation of skin barrier perturbation induced by surfactants in the presence of humectants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Saswata


    The stratum corneum (SC) of the skin functions as a barrier between the body and the environment. Surfactants such as Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) are used in skin cleansers and in skin-care formulations because of their ...

  19. Aquatic macroinvertebrate food resources for birds in a Texas coastal marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sipocz, Andrew Vincent


    . Emergent strata of the Impounded, Intermediate, and Saline wetlands had a greater diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates than their corresponding open-marsh stratum. Aquatic macroinvertebrate standing crop peaked between March and April in all wetlands...

  20. Method for in situ heating of hydrocarbonaceous formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Little, William E. (Morgantown, WV); McLendon, Thomas R. (Laramie, WY)


    A method for extracting valuable constituents from underground hydrocarbonaceous deposits such as heavy crude tar sands and oil shale is disclosed. Initially, a stratum containing a rich deposit is hydraulically fractured to form a horizontally extending fracture plane. A conducting liquid and proppant is then injected into the fracture plane to form a conducting plane. Electrical excitations are then introduced into the stratum adjacent the conducting plate to retort the rich stratum along the conducting plane. The valuable constituents from the stratum adjacent the conducting plate are then recovered. Subsequently, the remainder of the deposit is also combustion retorted to further recover valuable constituents from the deposit. Various R.F. heating systems are also disclosed for use in the present invention.

  1. file:///S|/ASBESTOS/NISTIRs/FRJan1994ClarificationMultilayers.txt[1/20/2011 11:19:53 AM] [Federal Register: January 5, 1994

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the results reported by layer (discrete stratum). Specific examples are given below. Plaster/Stucco Systems If plaster and stucco wall or ceiling systems are layered, and the layers can be distinguished, then the layers must be analyzed separately. Where a plaster or stucco wall system is constructed in layers

  2. Toward Optimal Stratification for Stratified Monte-Carlo Integration Alexandra Carpentier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RĀ“emi Munos INRIA Lille - Nord Europe, Parc Scientifique de la Haute-Borne, 40 proportional to the measure of the stratum times a quantity depending of the variations of F in the stra- tum

  3. Determination of Dusty Particle Charge Taking into Account Ion Drag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Amangaliyeva, R. Zh.; Orazbayev, S. A. [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, IETP, 96a Tole Bi St., Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan); Petrov, O. F.; Antipov, S. N. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of RAS, 13/19 Izhorskaya, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)


    This work is devoted to the experimental estimation of charge of dust particle that levitates in the stratum of dc glow discharge. Particle charge is determined on the basis of the balance between ion drag force, gravitational and electric forces. Electric force is obtained from the axial distribution of the light intensity of strata.

  4. Situational Effects in Ability Testing 1 Running head: SITUATIONAL EFFECTS IN ABILITY TESTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for entry into the French Aircraft Pilot Training, gathered on a set of three tests (visual perception stability of broad cognitive abilities within a short time interval like one year. Broad cognitive abilities Testing 4 2. broad abilities (also named "stratum II"), defined as very general abilities like fluid

  5. Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loehle, C.


    A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 32:137142 (2003) Cooling Efficiency of Cryogen Spray During Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    and other vascular skin lesions. The efficacy of CSC depends critically on the heat transfer coefficient (H layer, detach- ed from in vivo human skin. The heat transfer coefficient of the stratum corneum to be dependent on the specific design of the cryogen valve and nozzle. With nozzles used in typical clinical

  7. complexity of cylindrical decompositions of sub-pfaffian sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]


    tence was proved in [9] by means of a quasi-constructive process of .... All functions defining a stratum have the same Pfaffian chain as the input functions. .... The output of the algorithm is a cell decomposition (i.e. subdivision into finite.

  8. In vitro and in vivo analysis of differential gene expression between normal norfolk terrier dogs and those with an autosomal recessive mutation in KRT10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnhart, Kirstin Faye


    is provided by a few layers of keratinocytes that collectively comprise the epidermis. This barrier, known as the stratum corneum, is life-sustaining, prevents loss of water from the body and withstands chemical, microbial, immunological and ultraviolet... of EHK (also referred to as bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma) was first attributed to genetic mutations in K1/K10 by Cheng et al in 1992. Although ?hot spot? regions of these genes have been identified and most mutations occur in the 1A...

  9. Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 330GTR-NRS-P-105 Estimators usEd in thE nEw mExico invEntory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 330GTR-NRS-P-105 Estimators usEd in thE nEw mExico invEntory: Practical imPlications of "truly" random nonrEsPonsE within Each stratum Paul l. Patterson and sara a. Goeking1 Abstract.--The annual forest inventory of New Mexico began

  10. Dynamic soil pressures on rigid cylindrical vaults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veletsos, A.S.; Younan, A.H [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)


    A critical evaluation is made of the dynamic pressures and the associated forces induced by ground shaking on an upright, circular, rigid vault that is embedded in a uniform viscoelastic stratum of constant thickness and infinite extent in the horizontal plane. Both the vault and the stratum are presumed to be supported on a non- deformable base undergoing a space-invariant, uniform horizontal motion. The effects of both harmonic and earthquake-induced excitations are examined. Simple approximate expressions for the responses of the system are formulated, and comprehensive numerical data are presented which elucidate the underlying response mechanisms and the effects and relative importance of the various parameters involved. The parameters investigated include the height to radius ratio for the vault, the conditions at the vault-medium interface, and the material properties of the stratum. In addition to valuable insights into the response of the particular system being examined, the results presented provide a conceptual framework for the analysis and interpretation of solutions for more involved systems as well.


    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shine, G.


    The SRR sampling campaign to obtain residual solids material from the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm Tank 12 primary vessel resulted in obtaining appreciable material in all 6 planned source samples from the mound strata but only in 5 of the 6 planned source samples from the floor stratum. Consequently, the design of the compositing scheme presented in the Tank 12 Sampling and Analysis Plan, Pavletich (2014a), must be revised. Analytical Development of SRNL statistically evaluated the sampling uncertainty associated with using various compositing arrays and splitting one or more samples for compositing. The variance of the simple mean of composite sample concentrations is a reasonable standard to investigate the impact of the following sampling options. Composite Sample Design Option (a). Assign only 1 source sample from the floor stratum and 1 source sample from each of the mound strata to each of the composite samples. Each source sample contributes material to only 1 composite sample. Two source samples from the floor stratum would not be used. Composite Sample Design Option (b). Assign 2 source samples from the floor stratum and 1 source sample from each of the mound strata to each composite sample. This infers that one source sample from the floor must be used twice, with 2 composite samples sharing material from this particular source sample. All five source samples from the floor would be used. Composite Sample Design Option (c). Assign 3 source samples from the floor stratum and 1 source sample from each of the mound strata to each composite sample. This infers that several of the source samples from the floor stratum must be assigned to more than one composite sample. All 5 source samples from the floor would be used. Using fewer than 12 source samples will increase the sampling variability over that of the Basic Composite Sample Design, Pavletich (2013). Considering the impact to the variance of the simple mean of the composite sample concentrations, the recommendation is to construct each sample composite using four or five source samples. Although the variance using 5 source samples per composite sample (Composite Sample Design Option (c)) was slightly less than the variance using 4 source samples per composite sample (Composite Sample Design Option (b)), there is no practical difference between those variances. This does not consider that the measurement error variance, which is the same for all composite sample design options considered in this report, will further dilute any differences. Composite Sample Design Option (a) had the largest variance for the mean concentration in the three composite samples and should be avoided. These results are consistent with Pavletich (2014b) which utilizes a low elevation and a high elevation mound source sample and two floor source samples for each composite sample. Utilizing the four source samples per composite design, Pavletich (2014b) utilizes aliquots of Floor Sample 4 for two composite samples.

  12. The petrology and petrography of sediments from the Sigsbee blanket, Yucatan Shelf, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Joseph Delano


    of the unit is the sediment water interface. Terraces mark the outer shelf ba tween -450 feet to 300 feet and between 170 feet and 310 feet. In the depth zone between the IYO foot and 300 loot isobaths the sub- stratum is calciCe cemented Iimestones...Farlan (1961) propose the following sequence: a low stand at 450 feet at a Wisconsin stags older than -35, 000 years B. P. ; a stUlstand at -350 feet or fluctuation of 'several thousand years duration between ths 350 to -300 foot level (less than 35, 000...

  13. Correlation of the Texas Highway Department Cone Penetrometer Test with the drained shear strength of cohesionless soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cozart, George Davis


    the penetrometer to be seated 4 in. (102 mm), driven 1 ft. (. 305 m), and the disturbed material removed to a depth of 1 ft. (. 305 m) below the penetrated soil. Soil Pro erties Other than Shear Stren th. -- The soil properties other than shear strength... GRAY FIRM SILTY CLAY 10. 3 124. 6 10 FIG. 3. - LOG OF BORING I SITE A ? STATE HIGHWAY 30. ( I ft = . 305 m I I pcf = 16. 01 k g/m~ ) 13 DESCRIPTION OF STRATUM O o& ~ v) ll. Ch z ~Ko z a- O O I- 0 o N z u v) ~&) Q&n&+ LLj cc o QQ zN IU...

  14. On the feedback from super stellar clusters. I. The structure of giant HII regions and HII galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Tenorio-Tagle; C. Munoz-Tunon; E. Perez; S. Silich; E. Telles


    We review the structural properties of giant extragalactic HII regions and HII galaxies based on 2D hydrodynamic calculations, and propose an evolutionary sequence that accounts for their observed detailed structure. The model assumes a massive and young stellar cluster surrounded by a large collection of clouds. These are thus exposed to the most important star-formation feedback mechanisms: photoionization and the cluster wind. The models show how the two feedback mechanisms compete in the disruption of clouds and lead to two different hydrodynamic solutions: The storage of clouds into a long lasting ragged shell that inhibits the expansion of the thermalized wind, and the steady filtering of the shocked wind gas through channels carved within the cloud stratum. Both solutions are claimed to be concurrently at work in giant HII regions and HII galaxies, causing their detailed inner structure. This includes multiple large-scale shells, filled with an X-ray emitting gas, that evolve to finally merge with each other, giving the appearance of shells within shells. The models also show how the inner filamentary structure of the giant superbubbles is largely enhanced with matter ablated from clouds and how cloud ablation proceeds within the original cloud stratum. The calculations point at the initial contrast density between the cloud and the intercloud media as the factor that defines which of the two feedback mechanisms becomes dominant throughout the evolution. Animated version of the models can be found at\\~{}eperez/ssc/ssc.html.

  15. Development of three-dimension microelectrode array for bioelectric measurement using the liquidmetal-micromolding technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ran, E-mail:; Yang, Xueyao; Chen, Weixing [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jin, Cuiyun; Fu, Jingjing [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)] [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Liu, Jing [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    A method of manufacturing three-dimension microneedle electrode arrays is presented in this paper using the micromolding technology with liquid metal at room temperature, based on the physical property of the Bi-In-Sn liquid metal alloy, being its melting point especially low. Observed under scanning electron microscopy, the needle body of the electrode chip manufactured using this method has a good consistency. Skin penetration test in-vitro indicates that the microneedle electrode can pierce the stratum corneum and cross the high-impedance layer to acquire electrical signals. Electrical impedance and polarization voltage experimental results show that the electrode chips have great electric characteristics and meet the practical application demands.

  16. Fuel injector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Bertrand D. (Erie, PA); Leonard, Gary L. (Schenctady, NY)


    A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

  17. Instabilities of uniform filtration flows with phase transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Il'ichev, A. T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Steklov Institute of Mathematics (Russian Federation)], E-mail:; Tsypkin, G. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Problems in Mechanics (Russian Federation)


    New mechanisms of instability are described for vertical flows with phase transition through horizontally extended two-dimensional regions of a porous medium. A plane surface of phase transition becomes unstable at an infinitely large wavenumber and at zero wavenumber. In the latter case, the unstable flow undergoes reversible subcritical bifurcations leading to the development of secondary flows (which may not be horizontally uniform). The evolution of subcritical modes near the instability threshold is governed by the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation. Two examples of flow through a porous medium are considered. One is the unstable flow across a water-bearing layer above a layer that carries a vapor-air mixture under isothermal conditions in the presence of capillary forces at the phase transition interface. The other is the vertical flow with phase transition in a high-temperature geothermal reservoir consisting of two high-permeability regions separated by a low-permeability stratum.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shine, E. P.


    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide1, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements above their MDCs. The identification of distributions and the selection of UCL95 procedures generally followed the protocol in Singh, Armbya, and Singh [2010]. When all of an analyte's measurements lie below their MDCs, only a summary of the MDCs can be provided. The measurement results reported by SRNL are listed, and the results of this analysis are reported. The data were generally found to follow a normal distribution, and to be homogenous across composite samples.

  19. Horizontal well will be employed in hydraulic fracturing research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available


    This paper reports on 10-well research site, planned to enable more controlled experiments for better definition of hydraulic fracturing. One of the 10 wells will be a near-horizontal well that will monitor microseismic events along its length. The Gas Research Institute (GR) has begun evaluating a low-permeability, gas-bearing sandstone as the target stratum for experiments to be conducted at its hydraulic fracture test site (HFTS). During a 4-year period, GRI will use the HFTS as a field laboratory to conduct multi-disciplinary research projects to assess the mechanics of hydraulic fracturing. As a result of a screening process the Davis sandstone in the Ft. Worth basin has emerged as the tight gas sand which best fits the selected criteria established by GRI and its contractors, GRI says. The Ft. Worth basin is located approximately 50 miles northwest of Ft. Worth. GRI is planning a research well to fully characterize the Davis prior to making a final decision on the location of the HFTS. If data from the research well indicate the Davis sand does not adequately meet selection criteria, other candidates identified in the screening process will be investigated.

  20. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)


    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  1. Sampling Plan for Assaying Plates Containing Depleted or Normal Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan R. Thomas


    This paper describes the rationale behind the proposed method for selecting a 'representative' sample of uranium metal plates, portions of which will be destructively assayed at the Y-12 Security Complex. The total inventory of plates is segregated into two populations, one for Material Type 10 (depleted uranium (DU)) and one for Material Type 81 (normal [or natural] uranium (NU)). The plates within each population are further stratified by common dimensions. A spreadsheet gives the collective mass of uranium element (and isotope for DU) and the piece count of all plates within each stratum. These data are summarized in Table 1. All plates are 100% uranium metal, and all but approximately 60% of the NU plates have Kel-F{reg_sign} coating. The book inventory gives an overall U-235 isotopic percentage of 0.22% for the DU plates, ranging from 0.19% to 0.22%. The U-235 ratio of the NU plates is assumed to be 0.71%. As shown in Table 1, the vast majority of the plates are comprised of depleted uranium, so most of the plates will be sampled from the DU population.

  2. Determination of characteristic alterations of the mass transfer process of thermodynamically nonequilibrium hydrocarbon systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazanova, E.E.; Nurmamedova, Z.A. [Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, Baku (Azerbaijan). Geotechnological Research Inst. of Oil, Gas, and Chemistry


    The results of research on hydrocarbon mixture sorption in porous medium showed that adsorbent activity with regard to separate components of a gas mixture changes in partial dependence on pressure. The alteration of vented gas content will take place not only in gas condensate fields, when this effect is conditioned by the losses of condensate in the stratum, but also in gas fields, by methods connected with desorption processes. At the same time, gas composition is the basis for different process calculations, such as separation, gas transport, gas filtration in porous medium, and others. Thus the determination of characteristic alterations of gas mixture composition in thermodynamically nonequilibrium hydrocarbon systems mass transfer process becomes important. The binary (methane + pentane) and tricomponent (methane + butane + pentane) systems composed of individual gases of high purity have been researched. Then with help of mathematical methods of experimental data processing the moment of the more characteristic changes of the mass transfer process was discovered. Processing of experimental data for tricomponent system by statistical differentiation allowed the discovery of a pressure below of which lightening of the vented gas was observed.

  3. Relationship of adiposity to the population distribution of plasma triglyceride concentrations in vigorously active men and women

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.


    Context and Objective: Vigorous exercise, alcohol and weight loss are all known to increase HDL-cholesterol, however, it is not known whether these interventions raise low HDL as effectively as has been demonstrated for normal HDL. Design: Physician-supplied medical data from 7,288 male and 2,359 female runners were divided into five strata according to their self-reported usual running distance, reported alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Within each stratum, the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles for HDL-cholesterol were then determined. Bootstrap resampling of least-squares regression was applied to determine the cross-sectional relationships between these factors and each percentile of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Results: In both sexes, the rise in HDL-cholesterol per unit of vigorous exercise or alcohol intake was at least twice as great at the 95th percentile as at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. There was also a significant graded increase in the slopes relating exercise (km run) and alcohol intake to HDL between the 5th and the 95th percentile. Men's HDL-cholesterol decreased in association with fatness (BMI and waist circumference) more sharply at the 95th than at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. Conclusions: Although exercise, alcohol and adiposity were all related to HDL-cholesterol, the elevation in HDL per km run or ounce of alcohol consumed, and reduction in HDL per kg of body weight (men only), was least when HDL was low and greatest when HDL was high. These cross-sectional relationships support the hypothesis that men and women who have low HDL-cholesterol will be less responsive to exercise and alcohol (and weight loss in men) as compared to those who have high HDL-cholesterol.

  4. Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.


    Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper-try sealers. Two specific additives without sodium silicate as alkaline additive were developed in this project: One additive was the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as self-degradation promoting additive; the other was the hard-burned magnesium oxide (MgO) made from calcinating at 1,000-1,500 C as an expansive additive. The AASC and AASF cementitious sealers made by incorporating an appropriate amount of these additives met the following six criteria: 1) One dry mix component product; 2) plastic viscosity, 20 to 70 cp at 300 rpm; 3) maintenance of pumpability for at least 1 hour at 85 C; 4) compressive strength >2000 psi; 5) self-degradable by injection with water at a certain pressure; and 6) expandable and swelling properties; {ge}0.5% of total volume of the sealer.