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  1. Haiti-IAEA Energy Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Haiti1 IAEA is working with Haiti to strengthen the management and development of energy sources. References "IAEA Project database- Haiti" Retrieved from "http:...

  2. Haiti-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Haiti-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name Haiti-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and...

  3. Haiti-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) Jump to: navigation, search Name Haiti-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector...

  4. LY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    We want to begin the remedial action by the end of this mnth to expedite the clearance of this property and allow construc- tion by its Olnlner XJ proceed unimpeded. I would ...

  5. Constraining the Ly? escape fraction with far-infrared observations of Ly? emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wardlow, Julie L.; Calanog, J.; Cooray, A.; Malhotra, S.; Zheng, Z.; Rhoads, J.; Finkelstein, S.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Gawiser, E.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; Riechers, D.; and others

    2014-05-20

    We study the far-infrared properties of 498 Ly? emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, using 250, 350, and 500 ?m data from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and 870 ?m data from the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey. None of the 126, 280, or 92 LAEs at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5, respectively, are individually detected in the far-infrared data. We use stacking to probe the average emission to deeper flux limits, reaching 1? depths of ?0.1 to 0.4 mJy. The LAEs are also undetected at ?3? in the stacks, although a 2.5? signal is observed at 870 ?m for the z = 2.8 sources. We consider a wide range of far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), including an M82 and an Sd galaxy template, to determine upper limits on the far-infrared luminosities and far-infrared-derived star formation rates of the LAEs. These star formation rates are then combined with those inferred from the Ly? and UV emission to determine lower limits on the LAEs' Ly? escape fraction (f {sub esc}(Ly?)). For the Sd SED template, the inferred LAEs f {sub esc}(Ly?) are ? 30% (1?) at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5, which are all significantly higher than the global f {sub esc}(Ly?) at these redshifts. Thus, if the LAEs f {sub esc}(Ly?) follows the global evolution, then they have warmer far-infrared SEDs than the Sd galaxy template. The average and M82 SEDs produce lower limits on the LAE f {sub esc}(Ly?) of ?10%-20% (1?), all of which are slightly higher than the global evolution of f {sub esc}(Ly?), but consistent with it at the 2?-3? level.

  6. LyMAS: Predicting large-scale Ly? forest statistics from the dark matter density field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peirani, Sbastien; Colombi, Stphane; Dubois, Yohan; Pichon, Christophe; Weinberg, David H.; Blaizot, Jrmy

    2014-03-20

    We describe Ly? Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS), a method of predicting clustering statistics in the Ly? forest on large scales from moderate-resolution simulations of the dark matter (DM) distribution, with calibration from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of smaller volumes. We use the 'Horizon-MareNostrum' simulation, a 50 h {sup 1} Mpc comoving volume evolved with the adaptive mesh hydrodynamic code RAMSES, to compute the conditional probability distribution P(F{sub s} |? {sub s}) of the transmitted flux F{sub s} , smoothed (one-dimensionally, 1D) over the spectral resolution scale, on the DM density contrast ? {sub s}, smoothed (three-dimensionally, 3D) over a similar scale. In this study we adopt the spectral resolution of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) at z = 2.5, and we find optimal results for a DM smoothing length ? = 0.3 h {sup 1} Mpc (comoving). In its simplest form, LyMAS draws randomly from the hydro-calibrated P(F{sub s} |? {sub s}) to convert DM skewers into Ly? forest pseudo-spectra, which are then used to compute cross-sightline flux statistics. In extended form, LyMAS exactly reproduces both the 1D power spectrum and one-point flux distribution of the hydro simulation spectra. Applied to the MareNostrum DM field, LyMAS accurately predicts the two-point conditional flux distribution and flux correlation function of the full hydro simulation for transverse sightline separations as small as 1 h {sup 1} Mpc, including redshift-space distortion effects. It is substantially more accurate than a deterministic density-flux mapping ({sup F}luctuating Gunn-Peterson Approximation{sup )}, often used for large-volume simulations of the forest. With the MareNostrum calibration, we apply LyMAS to 1024{sup 3} N-body simulations of a 300 h {sup 1} Mpc and 1.0 h {sup 1} Gpc cube to produce large, publicly available catalogs of mock BOSS spectra that probe a large comoving volume. LyMAS will be a powerful tool for

  7. LINKING Lyα AND LOW-IONIZATION TRANSITIONS AT LOW OPTICAL DEPTH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.

    2014-08-20

    We suggest that low optical depth in the Lyman continuum (LyC) may relate the Lyα emission, C II and Si II absorption, and C II* and Si II* emission seen in high-redshift galaxies. We base this analysis on Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectra of four Green Pea (GP) galaxies, which may be analogs of z > 2 Lyα emitters (LAEs). In the two GPs with the strongest Lyα emission, the Lyα line profiles show reduced signs of resonant scattering. Instead, the Lyα profiles resemble the Hα line profiles of evolved star ejecta, suggesting that the Lyα emission originates from a low column density and similar outflow geometry. The weak C II absorption and presence of non-resonant C II* emission in these GPs support this interpretation and imply a low LyC optical depth along the line of sight. In two additional GPs, weak Lyα emission and strong C II absorption suggest a higher optical depth. These two GPs differ in their Lyα profile shapes and C II* emission strengths, however, indicating different inclinations of the outflows to our line of sight. With these four GPs as examples, we explain the observed trends linking Lyα, C II, and C II* in stacked LAE spectra, in the context of optical depth and geometric effects. Specifically, in some galaxies with strong Lyα emission, a low LyC optical depth may allow Lyα to escape with reduced scattering. Furthermore, C II absorption, C II* emission, and Lyα profile shape can reveal the optical depth, constrain the orientation of neutral outflows in LAEs, and identify candidate LyC emitters.

  8. Mr. J . Kieling, Acting Chief Ha

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mr. J . Kieling, Acting Chief Ha zardous Waste Bureau Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office P. O. Box 3090 Carlsbad , New Mexico 88221 DEC 1 6 2011 New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive East, Building 1 Santa Fe , New Mexico 87505-6303 Subject: Notification of Class 1 Permit Modification to the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, Number: NM4890139088-TSDF Dear Mr. Kieling : Enclosed is the following Class 1 Permit Modification Notification: * Continuing Training Tim eframe We

  9. Yozmot HaEmek Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Yozmot HaEmek Ltd Place: Israel Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Private family-controlled ) References: Yozmot HaEmek...

  10. z ? 1 Ly? emitters. I. The luminosity function , , ,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wold, Isak G. B.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L. E-mail: barger@astro.wisc.edu

    2014-03-10

    We construct a flux-limited sample of 135 candidate z ? 1 Ly? emitters (LAEs) from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) grism data using a new data cube search method. These LAEs have luminosities comparable to those at high redshifts and lie within a 7 Gyr gap present in existing LAE samples. We use archival and newly obtained optical spectra to verify the UV redshifts of these LAEs. We use the combination of the GALEX UV spectra, optical spectra, and X-ray imaging data to estimate the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction and its dependence on Ly? luminosity. We remove the AGNs and compute the luminosity function (LF) from 60 z ? 1 LAE galaxies. We find that the best-fit LF implies a luminosity density increase by a factor of ?1.5 from z ? 0.3 to z ? 1 and ?20 from z ? 1 to z ? 2. We find a z ? 1 volumetric Ly? escape fraction of 0.7% 0.4%.

  11. Accelerated evolution of the Ly? luminosity function at z ? 7 revealed by the Subaru ultra-deep survey for Ly? emitters at z = 7.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konno, Akira; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Naito, Yoshiaki; Momose, Rieko; Yuma, Suraphong; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Furusawa, Hisanori; Iye, Masanori

    2014-12-10

    We present the ultra-deep Subaru narrowband imaging survey for Ly? emitters (LAEs) at z = 7.3 in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) and Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) fields (?0.5 deg{sup 2}) with a total integration time of 106 hr. Exploiting our new sharp bandwidth filter, NB101, installed on the Suprime-Cam, we have reached L(Ly?) = 2.4 10{sup 42} erg s{sup 1} (5?) for z = 7.3 LAEs, about four times deeper than previous Subaru z ? 7 studies, which allows us to reliably investigate the evolution of the Ly? luminosity function (LF) for the first time down to the luminosity limit same as those of Subaru z = 3.1-6.6 LAE samples. Surprisingly, we only find three and four LAEs in the SXDS and COSMOS fields, respectively, while one expects a total of ?65 LAEs by our survey in the case of no Ly? LF evolution from z = 6.6 to 7.3. We identify a decrease of the Ly? LF from z = 6.6 to 7.3 at the >90% confidence level from our z = 7.3 Ly? LF with the best-fit Schechter parameters of L{sub Ly?}{sup ?}=2.7{sub ?1.2}{sup +8.0}10{sup 42} erg s{sup ?1} and ?{sup ?}=3.7{sub ?3.3}{sup +17.6}10{sup ?4} Mpc{sup ?3} for a fixed ? = 1.5. Moreover, the evolution of the Ly? LF is clearly accelerated at z > 6.6 beyond the measurement uncertainties including cosmic variance. Because no such accelerated evolution of the UV-continuum LF or the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) is found at z ? 7, but suggested only at z > 8, this accelerated Ly? LF evolution is explained by physical mechanisms different from a pure SFR decrease but related to the Ly? production and escape in the process of cosmic reionization. Because a simple accelerating increase of intergalactic medium neutral hydrogen absorbing Ly? cannot be reconciled with Thomson scattering of optical depth measurements from WMAP and Planck, our findings may support new physical pictures suggested by recent theoretical studies, such as the existence of HI clumpy clouds within cosmic ionized bubbles that are selectively

  12. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO{sub 2}). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  13. The dynamical masses, densities, and star formation scaling relations of Lyα galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Richardson, Mark L. A.; McLinden, Emily M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Tilvi, Vithal S.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first dynamical mass measurements for Lyα galaxies at high redshift, based on velocity dispersion measurements from rest-frame optical emission lines and size measurements from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, for nine galaxies drawn from four surveys. We use these measurements to study Lyα galaxies in the context of galaxy scaling relations. The resulting dynamical masses range from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. We also fit stellar population models to our sample and use them to place the Lyα sample on a stellar mass versus line width relation. The Lyα galaxies generally follow the same scaling relation as star-forming galaxies at lower redshift, although, lower stellar mass fits are also acceptable in ∼1/3 of the Lyα galaxies. Using the dynamical masses as an upper limit on gas mass, we show that Lyα galaxies have unusually active star formation for their gas mass surface density. This behavior is consistent with what is observed in starburst galaxies, despite the typically smaller masses and sizes of the Lyα galaxy population. Finally, we examine the mass densities of these galaxies and show that their future evolution likely requires dissipational ('wet') merging. In short, we find that Lyα galaxies are low-mass cousins of larger starbursts.

  14. A z ∼ 5.7 Lyα emission line with an ultrabroad red wing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, JunXian; Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Infante, Leopoldo E-mail: jxw@mail.ustc.edu.cn E-mail: smalhotr@asu.edu E-mail: linfante@astro.puc.cl

    2014-03-20

    Using the Lyα emission line as a tracer of high-redshift, star-forming galaxies, hundreds of Lyα emission line galaxies (LAEs) at z > 5 have been detected. These LAEs are considered to be low-mass young galaxies, critical to the re-ionization of the universe and the metal enrichment of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM). It is assumed that outflows in LAEs can help both ionizing photons and Lyα photons escape from galaxies. However, we still know little about the outflows in high-redshift LAEs due to observational difficulties, especially at redshift >5. Models of Lyα radiative transfer predict asymmetric Lyα line profiles with broad red wings in LAEs with outflows. Here, we report a z ∼ 5.7 Lyα emission line with a broad red wing extending to >1000 km s{sup –1} relative to the peak of Lyα line, which has been detected in only a couple of z > 5 LAEs until now. If the broad red wing is ascribed to gas outflow instead of active galactic nucleus activity, the outflow velocity could be larger than the escape velocity (∼500 km s{sup –1}) of a typical halo mass of z ∼ 5.7 LAEs, which is consistent with the idea that outflows in LAEs disperse metals to CGM and IGM.

  15. COMPUTING INTRINSIC LY{alpha} FLUXES OF F5 V TO M5 V STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; France, Kevin; Ayres, Tom

    2013-04-01

    The Ly{alpha} emission line dominates the far-ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars and is a major source for photodissociation of important molecules including H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} in exoplanet atmospheres. The incident flux in this line illuminating an exoplanet's atmosphere cannot be measured directly as neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium (ISM) attenuates most of the flux reaching the Earth. Reconstruction of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} line has been accomplished for a limited number of nearby stars, but is not feasible for distant or faint host stars. We identify correlations connecting the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with the flux in other emission lines formed in the stellar chromosphere, and find that these correlations depend only gradually on the flux in the other lines. These correlations, which are based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra, reconstructed Ly{alpha} line fluxes, and irradiance spectra of the quiet and active Sun, are required for photochemical models of exoplanet atmospheres when intrinsic Ly{alpha} fluxes are not available. We find a tight correlation of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with stellar X-ray flux for F5 V to K5 V stars, but much larger dispersion for M stars. We also show that knowledge of the stellar effective temperature and rotation rate can provide reasonably accurate estimates of the Ly{alpha} flux for G and K stars, and less accurate estimates for cooler stars.

  16. Haiti: Feasibility of Waste-to-Energy Options at the Trutier Waste Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, M. D.; Hunsberger, R.; Ness, J. E.; Harris, T.; Raibley, T.; Ursillo, P.

    2014-08-01

    This report provides further analysis of the feasibility of a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility in the area near Port-au-Prince, Haiti. NREL's previous analysis and reports identified anaerobic digestion (AD) as the optimal WTE technology at the facility. Building on the prior analyses, this report evaluates the conceptual financial and technical viability of implementing a combined waste management and electrical power production strategy by constructing a WTE facility at the existing Trutier waste site north of Port-au-Prince.

  17. Rapid decline of Lyα emission toward the reionization era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilvi, V.; Papovich, C.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Song, M.; Long, J.; Dickinson, M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Giavalisco, M.; Mobasher, B.

    2014-10-10

    The observed deficit of strongly Lyα emitting galaxies at z > 6.5 is attributed to increasing neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) and/or to the evolving galaxy properties. To investigate this we have performed very deep near-IR spectroscopy of z ≳ 7 galaxies using MOSFIRE on the Keck-I Telescope. We measure the Lyα fraction at z ∼ 8 using two methods. First, we derived N {sub Lyα}/N {sub tot} directly, using extensive simulations to correct for incompleteness. Second, we used a Bayesian formalism (introduced by Treu et al.) that compares the z > 7 galaxy spectra to models of the Lyα equivalent width (W {sub Lyα}) distribution at z ∼ 6. We explored two simple evolutionary scenarios: pure number evolution where Lyα is blocked in some fraction of galaxies (perhaps due to the IGM being opaque along only some fraction of sightlines) and uniform dimming evolution where Lyα is attenuated in all galaxies by a constant factor (perhaps owing to processes from galaxy evolution or a slowly increasing IGM opacity). The Bayesian formalism places stronger constraints compared with the direct method. Combining our data with that in the literature, we find that at z ∼ 8 the Lyα fraction has dropped by a factor of >3 (84% confidence interval) using both the dimming and number evolution scenarios, compared to the z ∼ 6 values. Furthermore, we find a tentative positive Bayesian evidence favoring the number evolution scenario over dimming evolution, extending trends observed at z ≲ 7 to higher redshift. A comparison of our results with theoretical models implies the IGM volume averaged neutral hydrogen fraction ≳ 0.3, suggesting that we are likely witnessing reionization in progress at z ∼ 8.

  18. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Haiti; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  19. X-RAY CONSTRAINTS ON THE Ly{alpha} ESCAPE FRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Zhenya; Wang Junxian; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gawiser, Eric; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Guaita, Lucia; Nilsson, Kim K.

    2012-02-10

    We have co-added the X-ray flux of all known Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) region, achieving the tightest upper limits yet on the X-ray to Ly{alpha} ratio. We use the X-ray data to place sensitive upper limits on the average unobscured star formation rate (SFR{sub X}) in these galaxies. A very small fraction of Ly{alpha} galaxies in the field are individually detected in the X-rays, implying a low fraction of active galactic nucleus activity. After excluding the few X-ray-detected LAEs, we stack the undetected LAEs located in the 4 Ms CDF-S data and 250 ks Extended CDF-S (ECDF-S) data, and compute a 1{sigma} upper limit on SFR{sub X} < 1.6, 14, 28, 28, 140, 440, 880 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for LAEs located at z {approx} 0.3 and z = 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 4.5, 5.7, and 6.5, respectively. The upper limit of SFR{sub X} in LAEs can be then compared to SFR{sub Ly{alpha}} derived from Ly{alpha} line and thus can constrain on the Ly{alpha} escape fraction (f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}}). The f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} from X-ray at z {approx} 0.3 is substantially larger than that from UV or H{alpha}. Three X-ray-detected LAE galaxies at z {approx} 0.3 show f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} {approx} 3%-22%, and the average Ly{alpha} escape fraction from stacking the X-ray-undetected LAEs show f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} > 28% at 3{sigma} significance level at the same redshift. We derive a lower limit on f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} > 14% (84% confidence level, 1{sigma} lower limit) for LAEs at redshift z {approx} 2.1 and z {approx} 3.1-3.2. At z > 4, the current LAE samples are not of sufficient size to constrain SFR{sub X} well. By averaging all the LAEs at z > 2, the X-ray non-detection constrains f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} > 17% (84% confidence level, 1{sigma} lower limit), and rejects f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} < 5.7% at the 99.87% confidence level from 2.1 < z < 6.5.

  20. CILogon-HA. Higher Assurance Federated Identities for DOE Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basney, James

    2015-08-01

    The CILogon-HA project extended the existing open source CILogon service (initially developed with funding from the National Science Foundation) to provide credentials at multiple levels of assurance to users of DOE facilities for collaborative science. CILogon translates mechanism and policy across higher education and grid trust federations, bridging from the InCommon identity federation (which federates university and DOE lab identities) to the Interoperable Global Trust Federation (which defines standards across the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, the Open Science Grid, and other cyberinfrastructure). The CILogon-HA project expanded the CILogon service to support over 160 identity providers (including 6 DOE facilities) and 3 internationally accredited certification authorities. To provide continuity of operations upon the end of the CILogon-HA project period, project staff transitioned the CILogon service to operation by XSEDE.

  1. The Muon Collider as a $H/A$ factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichten, Estia; Martin, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We show that a muon collider is ideally suited for the study of heavy H/A scalars, cousins of the Higgs boson found in two-Higgs doublet models and required in supersymmetric models. The key aspects of H/A are: (1) they are narrow, yet have a width-to-mass ratio far larger than the expected muon collider beam-energy resolution, and (2) the larger muon Yukawa allows efficient s-channel production. We study in detail a representative Natural Supersymmetry model which has a 1.5 Tev H/A with $m_H$- $m_A$ = 10 Gev. The large event rates at resonant peak allow the determination of the individual H and A resonance parameters (including CP) and the decays into electroweakinos provides a wealth of information unavailable to any other present or planned collider.

  2. The Muon Collider as a $H/A$ factory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eichten, Estia; Martin, Adam; Univ. of Notre Dame, IN

    2013-11-22

    We show that a muon collider is ideally suited for the study of heavy H/A scalars, cousins of the Higgs boson found in two-Higgs doublet models and required in supersymmetric models. The key aspects of H/A are: (1) they are narrow, yet have a width-to-mass ratio far larger than the expected muon collider beam-energy resolution, and (2) the larger muon Yukawa allows efficient s-channel production. We study in detail a representative Natural Supersymmetry model which has a 1.5 Tev H/A with $m_H$- $m_A$ = 10 Gev. The large event rates at resonant peak allow the determination of the individual Hmore » and A resonance parameters (including CP) and the decays into electroweakinos provides a wealth of information unavailable to any other present or planned collider.« less

  3. A submillimeter galaxy illuminating its circumgalactic medium: Ly? scattering in a cold, clumpy outflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geach, J. E.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Smith, D. J. B.; Bower, R. G.; Alexander, D. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Blain, A. W.; Bremer, M. N.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Dunlop, J. S.; Koprowski, M. P.; Micha?owski, M. J.; Farrah, D.; Jenness, T.; Robson, E. I.; Scott, D.; Spaans, M.; Van der Werf, P.

    2014-09-20

    We report the detection at 850 ?m of the central source in SSA22-LAB1, the archetypal 'Lyman-? Blob' (LAB), a 100 kpc scale radio-quiet emission-line nebula at z = 3.1. The flux density of the source, S {sub 850} = 4.6 1.1 mJy, implies the presence of a galaxy or group of galaxies with a total luminosity of L {sub IR} ? 10{sup 12} L {sub ?}. The position of an active source at the center of a ?50 kpc radius ring of linearly polarized Ly? emission detected by Hayes et al. suggests that the central source is leaking Ly? photons preferentially in the plane of the sky, which undergo scattering in H I clouds at a large galactocentric radius. The Ly? morphology around the submillimeter detection is reminiscent of a biconical outflow, and the average Ly? line profiles of the two 'lobes' are dominated by a red peak, which is expected for a resonant line emerging from a medium with a bulk velocity gradient that is outflowing relative to the line center. Taken together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the central active galaxy (or galaxies) is responsible for a large fraction of the extended Ly? emission and morphology. Less clear is the history of the cold gas in the circumgalactic medium being traced by Ly?: is it mainly pristine material accreting into the halo that has not yet been processed through an interstellar medium (ISM), now being blown back as it encounters an outflow, or does it mainly comprise gas that has been swept-up within the ISM and expelled from the galaxy?.

  4. Pinpointing the molecular gas within an Lyα blob at z ∼ 2.7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yujin; Bertoldi, Frank; Bădescu, Toma; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Weiss, Axel; Dey, Arjun; Prescott, Moire K. M.

    2014-04-01

    We present IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of the CO(3-2) and CO(5-4) line transitions from an Lyα blob at z ∼ 2.7 in order to investigate the gas kinematics, determine the location of the dominant energy source, and study the physical conditions of the molecular gas. CO line and dust continuum emissions are detected at the location of a strong MIPS source that is offset by ∼1.''5 from the Lyα peak. Neither of these emission components is resolved with the 1.''7 beam, showing that the gas and dust are confined to within ∼7 kpc from this galaxy. No millimeter source is found at the location of the Lyα peak, ruling out a central compact source of star formation as the power source for the Lyα emission. Combined with a spatially resolved spectrum of Lyα and He II, we constrain the kinematics of the extended gas using the CO emission as a tracer of the systemic redshift. Near the MIPS source, the Lyα profile is symmetric, and its line center agrees with that of the CO line, implying that there are no significant bulk flows and that the photo-ionization from the MIPS source might be the dominant source of the Lyα emission. In the region near the Lyα peak, the gas is slowly receding (∼100 km s{sup –1}) with respect to the MIPS source, thus making the hyper-/superwind hypothesis unlikely. We find a sub-thermal line ratio between two CO transitions, I {sub CO(5-4)}/I {sub CO(3-2)} = 0.97 ± 0.21. This line ratio is lower than the average values found in high-z submillimeter galaxies and QSOs but is consistent with the value found in the Galactic center, suggesting that there is a large reservoir of low-density molecular gas that is spread over the MIPS source and its vicinity.

  5. Foreground contamination in Ly? intensity mapping during the epoch of reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Yan; Cooray, Asantha; Silva, Marta; Santos, Mario G.

    2014-04-10

    The intensity mapping of Ly? emission during the epoch of reionization will be contaminated by foreground emission lines from lower redshifts. We calculate the mean intensity and the power spectrum of Ly? emission at z ? 7 and estimate the uncertainties according to the relevant astrophysical processes. We find that the low-redshift emission lines from 6563 H?, 5007 [O III], and 3727 [O II] will be strong contaminants on the observed Ly? power spectrum. We make use of both the star formation rate and luminosity functions to estimate the mean intensity and power spectra of the three foreground lines at z ? 0.5 for H?, z ? 0.9 for [O III], and z ? 1.6 for [O II], as they will contaminate the Ly? emission at z ? 7. The [O II] line is found to be the strongest. We analyze the masking of the bright survey pixels with a foreground line above some line intensity threshold as a way to reduce the contamination in an intensity mapping survey. We find that the foreground contamination can be neglected if we remove pixels with fluxes above 1.4 10{sup 20} W m{sup 2}.

  6. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booker, Kayje; Han, Tae Won; Granderson, Jessica; Jones, Jennifer; Lsk, Kathleen; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-06-01

    In April 2010, a team of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and UC Berkeley, with support from the Darfur Stoves Project (DSP), undertook a fact-finding mission to Haiti in order to assess needs and opportunities for cookstove intervention. Based on data collected from informal interviews with Haitians and NGOs, the team, Scott Sadlon, Robert Cheng, and Kayje Booker, identified and recommended stove testing and comparison as a high priority need that could be filled by LBNL. In response to that recommendation, five charcoal stoves were tested at the LBNL stove testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online. Stoves were tested for time to boil, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, and the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. In addition, Haitian user feedback and field observations over a subset of the stoves were combined with the experiences of the laboratory testing technicians to evaluate the usability of the stoves and their appropriateness for Haitian cooking. The laboratory results from emissions and efficiency testing and conclusions regarding usability of the stoves are presented in this report.

  7. He II Ly{beta} GUNN-PETERSON ABSORPTION: NEW HST OBSERVATIONS AND THEORETICAL EXPECTATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syphers, David; Pieri, Matthew; Shull, J. Michael; Anderson, Scott F.; Zheng, Wei; Kriss, Gerard A.; Smith, Britton; Meiksin, Avery; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.

    2011-12-01

    Observations of He II Ly{alpha} Gunn-Peterson troughs have proved to be a valuable probe of the epoch of helium reionization at z {approx} 3. Since this optical depth can become unmeasurably large even for modest He II fractions, various alternate techniques have been proposed to push to higher redshift, and among the more promising is looking at higher-order Lyman-series troughs. We here report four new observations of the He II Ly{beta} trough, including new data on the only sightline with a prior Ly{beta} observation. However, the effective optical depth ratio {tau}{sub eff,{beta}}/{tau}{sub eff,{alpha}} is not simply predicted by f{sub {beta}}{lambda}{sub {beta}}/f{sub {alpha}}{lambda}{sub {alpha}} = 0.16, and we analyze cosmological simulations to find that the correct ratio for helium at z {approx} 3 is {approx_equal}0.35. In one case we infer {tau}{sub eff,{alpha}} > 8.8, strong evidence that helium was not fully reionized at z = 3.2-3.5, in agreement with previous measurements suggesting a later completion of reionization.

  8. The HETDEX pilot survey. V. The physical origin of Lyα emitters probed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Mimi; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Chonis, Taylor; Jogee, Shardha; Livermore, Rachael; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bridge, Joanna; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P.; Fabricius, Maximilian; Gawiser, Eric; Salmon, Brett; and others

    2014-08-10

    We present the results from a Very Large Telescope/SINFONI and Keck/NIRSPEC near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 16 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.1-2.5 in the COSMOS and GOODS-N fields discovered from the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Pilot Survey. We detect rest-frame optical nebular lines (Hα and/or [O III] λ5007) for 10 of the LAEs and measure physical properties, including the star formation rate (SFR), gas-phase metallicity, gas mass fraction, and Lyα velocity offset. We find that LAEs may lie below the mass-metallicity relation for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at the same redshift. The LAEs all show velocity shifts of Lyα relative to the systemic redshift ranging between +85 and +296 km s{sup –1} with a mean of +180 km s{sup –1}. This value is smaller than measured for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The Lyα velocity offsets show a moderate correlation with the measured SFR (2.5σ), but no significant correlations are seen with the SFR surface density, specific SFR, stellar mass, or dynamical mass (≲1.5σ). Exploring the role of dust, kinematics of the interstellar medium (ISM), and geometry on the escape of Lyα photons, we find no signature of selective quenching of resonantly scattered Lyα photons. However, we also find no evidence that a clumpy ISM is enhancing the Lyα equivalent width. Our results suggest that the low metallicity in LAEs may be responsible for yielding an environment with a low neutral hydrogen column density and less dust, easing the escape of Lyα photons over that in continuum-selected star-forming galaxies.

  9. Ly{alpha} ESCAPE FROM z {approx} 0.03 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: THE DOMINANT ROLE OF OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wofford, Aida; Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Salzer, John, E-mail: wofford@stsci.edu [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Swain West 408, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    The usefulness of H I Ly{alpha} photons for characterizing star formation in the distant universe is limited by our understanding of the astrophysical processes that regulate their escape from galaxies. These processes can only be observed in detail out to a few Multiplication-Sign 100 Mpc. Past nearby (z < 0.3) spectroscopic studies are based on small samples and/or kinematically unresolved data. Taking advantage of the high sensitivity of Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), we observed the Ly{alpha} lines of 20 H{alpha}-selected galaxies located at =0.03. The galaxies cover a broad range of luminosity, oxygen abundance, and reddening. In this paper, we characterize the observed Ly{alpha} lines and establish correlations with fundamental galaxy properties. We find seven emitters. These host young ({<=}10 Myr) stellar populations have rest-frame equivalent widths in the range 1-12 A, and have Ly{alpha} escape fractions within the COS aperture in the range 1%-12%. One emitter has a double-peaked Ly{alpha} with peaks 370 km s{sup -1} apart and a stronger blue peak. Excluding this object, the emitters have Ly{alpha} and O I {lambda}1302 offsets from H{alpha} in agreement with expanding-shell models and Lyman break galaxies observations. The absorbers have offsets that are almost consistent with a static medium. We find no one-to-one correspondence between Ly{alpha} emission and age, metallicity, or reddening. Thus, we confirm that Ly{alpha} is enhanced by outflows and is regulated by the dust and H I column density surrounding the hot stars.

  10. PREDICTING Lyα AND Mg II FLUXES FROM K AND M DWARFS USING GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER ULTRAVIOLET PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Rolph, Kristina A.; Peacock, Sarah; Barman, Travis S. E-mail: kristina.rolph@fandm.edu E-mail: barman@lpl.arizona.edu

    2014-11-20

    A star's ultraviolet (UV) emission can greatly affect the atmospheric chemistry and physical properties of closely orbiting planets with the potential for severe mass loss. In particular, the Lyα emission line at 1216 Å, which dominates the far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum, is a major source of photodissociation of important atmospheric molecules such as water and methane. The intrinsic flux of Lyα, however, cannot be directly measured due to the absorption of neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium and contamination by geocoronal emission. To date, reconstruction of the intrinsic Lyα line based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra has been accomplished for 46 FGKM nearby stars, 28 of which have also been observed by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). Our investigation provides a correlation between published intrinsic Lyα and GALEX far- and near-ultraviolet (NUV) chromospheric fluxes for K and M stars. The negative correlations between the ratio of the Lyα to the GALEX fluxes reveal how the relative strength of Lyα compared to the broadband fluxes weakens as the FUV and NUV excess flux increase. We also correlate GALEX fluxes with the strong NUV Mg II h+k spectral emission lines formed at lower chromospheric temperatures than Lyα. The reported correlations provide estimates of intrinsic Lyα and Mg II fluxes for the thousands of K and M stars in the archived GALEX all-sky surveys. These will constrain new stellar upper atmosphere models for cool stars and provide realistic inputs to models describing exoplanetary photochemistry and atmospheric evolution in the absence of UV spectroscopy.

  11. SITES ELIHlNAlED FRCil FUW' ~1WWk'l ffi LY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    SITES ELIHlNAlED FRCil FUW' ~1WWk'l ffi LY Lfcfi0n 31, I?%7 STGTE m rtE!xm ICmFIED cm&B fi re3xf.H ROJECT TIM #% HER M JWDlCTICd Cf M W.&f&t ff NIF, Ml TtE FKILIIY If0 LICWSES TO WRE ffiDliXClIVE tt%iML. IVJ R&w mm IS h-m. STTE S#W MC&TED W P4DlOKTIVIN kmvi t+mi BkcTmam

  12. BROAD Ly{alpha} EMISSION FROM THREE NEARBY BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stocke, John T.; Danforth, Charles W. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Perlman, Eric S., E-mail: danforth@casa.colorado.edu, E-mail: stocke@casa.colorado.edu, E-mail: eperlman@fit.edu [Florida Institute of Technology, Physics and Space Sciences Department, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2011-05-10

    We present far-UV HST/COS spectra of four nearby BL Lac objects. BL Lac spectra are dominated by a smooth, power-law continuum which arises in a relativistic jet. However, the spectra are not necessarily featureless; weak, broad- and/or narrow-line emission is sometimes seen in high-quality optical spectra. We present detections of Ly{alpha} emission in HST/COS spectra of Mrk 421 (z = 0.030) and PKS 2005-489 (z = 0.071) as well as an archival HST/GHRS observation of Mrk 501 (z = 0.0337). Archival HST/STIS observations of PKS 2155-304 (z = 0.116) show no Ly{alpha} emission to a very low upper limit. Using the assumption that the broad-line region (BLR) clouds are symmetrically placed around the active galactic nucleus (AGN), we use these measured Ly{alpha} emission features to constrain either the relativistic {Gamma} values for the ionizing continuum produced by the jet (in the ionization-bounded case) or the mass of warm gas (in the density-bounded case). While realistic {Gamma} values can be obtained for all four cases, the values for Mrk 421 and PKS 2155-304 are high enough to suggest that covering factors of BLR clouds of {approx}1%-2% might be required to provide consistency with earlier values of Doppler boosting and viewing angles suggested for this class of BL Lacs. This discrepancy also exists in the case of M 87, where the amount of Doppler boosting in our direction is expected to be minimal, again suggestive of a small covering factor of BLR clouds. If, as these small covering factors might suggest, the assumptions of a density-bounded model could be more correct, then the observed Ly{alpha} luminosities require that BL Lac/FR 1 nuclei possess very little warm gas (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -5} M{sub sun}) as suggested by Guilbert et al. If these clouds are in pressure balance with a hotter ({approx}10{sup 6} K) gas, the BLR contains too little mass to power the AGN by accretion alone.

  13. BRIGHT Lights, BIG City: Massive Galaxies, Giant Ly-A Nebulae, and Proto-Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Breugel, W; Reuland, M; de Vries, W; Stanford, A; Dey, A; Kurk, J; Venemans, B; Rottgering, H; Miley, G; De Breuck, C; Dopita, M; Sutherland, R; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2002-08-01

    High redshift radio galaxies are great cosmological tools for pinpointing the most massive objects in the early Universe: massive forming galaxies, active super-massive black holes and proto-clusters. They report on deep narrow-band imaging and spectroscopic observations of several z > 2 radio galaxy fields to investigate the nature of giant Ly-{alpha} nebulae centered on the galaxies and to search for over-dense regions around them. They discuss the possible implications for our understanding of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters.

  14. HUBBLE/COS OBSERVATIONS OF THE Ly{alpha} FOREST TOWARD THE BL Lac OBJECT 1ES 1553+113

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danforth, Charles W.; Keeney, Brian A.; Stocke, John T.; Shull, J. Michael; Yao Yangsen, E-mail: danforth@casa.colorado.ed [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    We present new moderate-resolution, far-ultraviolet spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST/COS) of the BL Lac object 1ES 1553+113 covering the wavelength range 1135 A < {lambda} < 1795 A. The data show a smooth continuum with a wealth of narrow (b < 100 km s{sup -1}) absorption features arising in the interstellar medium and intergalactic medium. These features include 41 Ly{alpha} absorbers at 0 < z{sub abs} < 0.43, 14 of which are detected in multiple Lyman lines and 6 of which show absorption in one or more metal lines. We analyze a metal-rich triplet ({Delta}cz {approx} 1000 km s{sup -1}) of Ly{alpha} absorbers at z{sub abs} {approx} 0.188 in which O VI, N V, and C III absorption is detected. Silicon ions (Si III, Si IV) are not detected to fairly strong upper limits and we use the measured Si III/C III upper limit to derive an abundance limit (C/Si) {>=} 4(C/Si){sub sun} for the strongest component of the absorber complex. Galaxy redshift surveys show a number of massive galaxies at approximately the same redshift as this absorption complex, suggesting that it arises in a large-scale galaxy filament. As one of the brightest extragalactic X-ray and {gamma}-ray sources, 1ES 1553+113 is of great interest to the high-energy astrophysics community. With no intrinsic emission or absorption features, 1ES 1553+113 has no direct redshift determination. We use intervening Ly{alpha} absorbers to place a direct limit on the redshift: z{sub em}>0.395 based on a confirmed Ly{alpha}+O VI absorber and z{sub em}>0.433 based on a single-line detection of Ly{alpha}. The current COS data are only sensitive to Ly{alpha} absorbers at z < 0.47, but we present statistical arguments that z{sub em} {approx}< 0.58 (at a 1{sigma} confidence limit) based on the non-detection of any Ly{beta} absorbers at z>0.4.

  15. VEE-0074- In the Matter of H.A. Mapes, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On May 30, 2000, H.A. Mapes, Inc., (Mapes) of Springvale, Maine, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its...

  16. PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 4.86 IN THE COSMOS 2 SQUARE DEGREE FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shioya, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Nagao, T.; Saito, T.; Trump, J.; Sasaki, S. S.; Ideue, Y.; Nakajima, A.; Matsuoka, K.; Murayama, T.; Scoville, N. Z.; Capak, P.; Ellis, R. S.; Sanders, D. B.; Kartaltepe, J.; Mobasher, B.; Aussel, H.; Koekemoer, A.; Carilli, C.; Garilli, B.

    2009-05-01

    We present results of a survey for Ly{alpha} emitters at z {approx} 4.86 based on optical narrowband ({lambda} {sub c} = 7126 A, {delta}{lambda} = 73 A) and broadband (B, V, r', i', and z') observations of the Cosmic Evolution Survey field using Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. We find 79 Ly{alpha} emitter (LAE) candidates at z {approx} 4.86 over a contiguous survey area of 1.83 deg{sup 2}, down to the Ly{alpha} line flux of 1.47 x 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. We obtain the Ly{alpha} luminosity function with a best-fit Schechter parameters of log L* = 42.9{sup +0.5} {sub -0.3} erg s{sup -1} and {phi}* = 1.2{sup +8.0} {sub -1.1} x 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3} for {alpha} = -1.5 (fixed). The two-point correlation function for our LAE sample is {xi}(r) = (r/4.4{sup +5.7} {sub -2.9} Mpc){sup -1.90{+-}}{sup 0.22}. In order to investigate the field-to-field variations of the properties of Ly{alpha} emitters, we divide the survey area into nine tiles of 0.{sup 0}5 x 0.{sup 0}5 each. We find that the number density varies with a factor of {approx_equal}2 from field to field with high statistical significance. However, we find no significant field-to-field variance when we divide the field into four tiles with 0.{sup 0}7 x 0.{sup 0}7 each. We conclude that at least 0.5 deg{sup 2} survey area is required to derive averaged properties of LAEs at z {approx} 5, and our survey field is wide enough to overcome the cosmic variance.

  17. THE RAPID DECLINE IN METALLICITY OF DAMPED Lyα SYSTEMS AT z ∼ 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafelski, Marc; Neeleman, Marcel; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Fumagalli, Michele; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2014-02-20

    We present evidence that the cosmological mean metallicity of neutral atomic hydrogen gas shows a sudden decrease at z > 4.7 down to 〈Z〉=−2.03{sub −0.11}{sup +0.09}, which is 6σ deviant from that predicted by a linear fit to the data at lower redshifts. This measurement is made possible by the chemical abundance measurements of eight new damped Lyα (DLA) systems at z > 4.7 observed with the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager on the Keck II Telescope, doubling the number of measurements at z > 4.7 to 16. Possible explanations for this sudden decrease in metallicity include a change in the physical processes that enrich the neutral gas within disks, or an increase of the covering factor of neutral gas outside disks due to a lower ultraviolet radiation field and higher density at high redshift. The later possibility would result in a new population of presumably lower metallicity DLAs, with an increased contribution to the DLA population at higher redshifts resulting in a reduced mean metallicity. Furthermore, we provide evidence of a possible decrease at z > 4.7 in the comoving metal mass density of DLAs, ρ{sub metals}(z){sub DLA}, which is flat out to z ∼ 4.3. Such a decrease is expected, as otherwise most of the metals from star-forming galaxies would reside in DLAs by z ∼ 6. While the metallicity is decreasing at high redshift, the contribution of DLAs to the total metal budget of the universe increases with redshift, with DLAs at z ∼ 4.3 accounting for ∼20% as many metals as produced by Lyman break galaxies.

  18. The impact of gas bulk rotation on the Lyα line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garavito-Camargo, Juan N.; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Dijkstra, Mark E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co

    2014-11-10

    We present results of radiative transfer calculations to measure the impact of gas bulk rotation on the morphology of the Lyα emission line in distant galaxies. We model a galaxy as a sphere with an homogeneous mixture of dust and hydrogen at a constant temperature. These spheres undergo solid-body rotation with maximum velocities in the range 0-300 km s{sup –1} and neutral hydrogen optical depths in the range τ{sub H} = 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7}. We consider two types of source distributions in the sphere: central and homogeneous. Our main result is that rotation introduces a dependence of the line morphology with viewing angle and rotational velocity. Observations with a line of sight parallel to the rotation axis yield line morphologies similar to the static case. For lines of sight perpendicular to the rotation axis, both the intensity at the line center and the line width increase with rotational velocity. Along the same line of sight, the line becomes single peaked at rotational velocities close to half the line width in the static case. Notably, we find that rotation does not induce any spatial anisotropy in the integrated line flux, the escape fraction or the average number of scatterings. This is because Lyman scattering through a rotating solid-body proceeds identically to the static case. The only difference is the Doppler shift from the different regions in the sphere that move with respect to the observer. This allows us to derive an analytic approximation for the viewing-angle dependence of the emerging spectrum, as a function of rotational velocity.

  19. Possible detection of the stellar donor or remnant for the type Iax supernova 2008ha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foley, Ryan J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); McCully, Curtis; Jha, Saurabh W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bildsten, Lars [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fong, Wen-fai [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Narayan, Gautham [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719-4933 (United States); Rest, Armin [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Stritzinger, Maximilian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-01

    Type Iax supernovae (SNe Iax) are thermonuclear explosions that are related to SNe Ia, but are physically distinct. The most important differences are that SNe Iax have significantly lower luminosity (1%-50% that of typical SNe Ia), lower ejecta mass (?0.1-0.5 M {sub ?}), and may leave a bound remnant. The most extreme SN Iax is SN 2008ha, which peaked at M{sub V} = 14.2 mag, about 5 mag below that of typical SNe Ia. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of UGC 12682, the host galaxy of SN 2008ha, taken 4.1 yr after the peak brightness of SN 2008ha. In these deep, high-resolution images, we detect a source coincident (0.86 HST pixels; 0.''043; 1.1?) with the position of SN 2008ha with M {sub F814W} = 5.4 mag. We determine that this source is unlikely to be a chance coincidence, but that scenario cannot be completely ruled out. If this source is directly related to SN 2008ha, it is either the luminous bound remnant of the progenitor white dwarf (WD) or its companion star. The source is consistent with being an evolved >3 M {sub ?} initial mass star, and is significantly redder than the SN Iax 2012Z progenitor system, the first detected progenitor system for a thermonuclear SN. If this source is the companion star for SN 2008ha, there is a diversity in SN Iax progenitor systems, perhaps related to the diversity in SN Iax explosions. If the source is the bound remnant of the WD, it must have expanded significantly. Regardless of the nature of this source, we constrain the progenitor system of SN 2008ha to have an age of <80 Myr.

  20. LY? FOREST TOMOGRAPHY FROM BACKGROUND GALAXIES: THE FIRST MEGAPARSEC-RESOLUTION LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE MAP AT z > 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Eilers, Anna-Christina [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stark, Casey; White, Martin [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [University of California Observatories, Lick Observatory, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu [Institut de Cincies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Mart Franqus 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Suzuki, Nao [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba (Japan); Croft, Rupert A. C. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Caputi, Karina I. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Cassata, Paolo [Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Casilla 5030, Valparaiso (Chile); Ilbert, Olivier; Le Brun, Vincent; Le Fvre, Olivier [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Garilli, Bianca [INAF-IASF, Via Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Maccagni, Dario [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani,1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Nugent, Peter, E-mail: lee@mpia.de [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    We present the first observations of foreground Ly? forest absorption from high-redshift galaxies, targeting 24 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with z ? 2.3-2.8 within a 5' 14' region of the COSMOS field. The transverse sightline separation is ?2 h {sup 1} Mpc comoving, allowing us to create a tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) Ly? forest absorption field over the redshift range 2.20 ? z ? 2.45. The resulting map covers 6 h {sup 1} Mpc 14 h {sup 1} Mpc in the transverse plane and 230 h {sup 1} Mpc along the line of sight with a spatial resolution of ?3.5 h {sup 1} Mpc, and is the first high-fidelity map of a large-scale structure on ?Mpc scales at z > 2. Our map reveals significant structures with ? 10 h {sup 1} Mpc extent, including several spanning the entire transverse breadth, providing qualitative evidence for the filamentary structures predicted to exist in the high-redshift cosmic web. Simulated reconstructions with the same sightline sampling, spectral resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio recover the salient structures present in the underlying 3D absorption fields. Using data from other surveys, we identified 18 galaxies with known redshifts coeval with our map volume, enabling a direct comparison with our tomographic map. This shows that galaxies preferentially occupy high-density regions, in qualitative agreement with the same comparison applied to simulations. Our results establish the feasibility of the CLAMATO survey, which aims to obtain Ly? forest spectra for ?1000 SFGs over ?1 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, in order to map out the intergalactic medium large-scale structure at (z) ? 2.3 over a large volume (100 h {sup 1} Mpc){sup 3}.

  1. Thrombomodulin exerts cytoprotective effect on low-dose UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwata, Masahiro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Kawabata, Hisashi; Ito, Takashi; Mera, Kentaro; Biswas, Kamal Krishna; Tancharoen, Salunya; Higashi, Yuko; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2008-12-12

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell surface anticoagulant glycoprotein that performs antimetastatic, angiogenic, adhesive, and anti-inflammatory functions in various tissues. It is also expressed in epidermal keratinocytes. We found that a physiological dose (10 mJ/cm{sup 2}) of mid-wavelength ultraviolet irradiation (UVB) significantly induced TM expression via the p38mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/cyclic AMP response element (CRE) signaling pathway in the epidermal keratinocyte cell line HaCaT; this shows that TM regulates the survival of HaCaT cells. SB203580, a p38MAPK inhibitor, significantly decreased TM expression and the viability of cells exposed to UVB. Furthermore, overexpression of TM markedly increased cell viability, and it was abrogated by TM small interfering RNA (siRNA), suggesting that TM may play an important role in exerting cytoprotective effect on epidermal keratinocytes against low-dose UVB.

  2. AmeriFlux US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munger, J. William

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1). Site Description - The Harvard Forest tower is on land owned by Harvard University. The site is designated as an LTER site. Most of the surrounding area was cleared for agrigulture during European settlement in 1600-1700. The site has been regrowing since before 1900 (based on tree ring chronologies) and is now predominantly red oak and red maple, with patches of mature hemlock stand and individual white pine. Overstory trees were uprooted by hurricane in 1938. Climate measurements have been made at Harvard Forest since 1964.

  3. HA' R$,kAW CH EM I CAL CO,M i=ANY A

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    TH Ii ' HA' R$,kAW CH EM I CAL CO,M i=ANY A December 30, 1955 U. S. Atomic Energy Commission Oak Ridge OperationwOfflce Post Office Box "E" Oak Ridge, Tennessee Attention: Mr. T. Carberry Dear Mr. Carberry: ' ..> In the process of removing 'classified documents from the safes at the Main Office for des$ruction we discovered two sample cylinders of hexafluorlde. If memory serves us right these sample6 were prepared at the request of the Commission and shipped to the Unl- versity of

  4. AmeriFlux US-Ha2 Harvard Forest Hemlock Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munger, William

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha2 Harvard Forest Hemlock Site. Site Description - The forest surrounding the Hemlock site has remained pristine with two exceptions. In the early to mid-1700s, European settlers cleared the majority of the forest for agricultural purposes. Selective harvesting of hemlock and chestnut trees occurred up until the early 1900s, when the chestnut blight killed all of the chestnut trees. In the current forest, about 83% of the total basal area of trees is hemlock. The remainder is equally divided between eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and deciduous species, including red maple (Acer rubrum), red oak (Quercus rubra) and black birch (Betula lenta). A very thick organic layer (10-20 cm or more) covers the soil surface, and highly decayed coarse woody debris is abundant.

  5. HST/COS detection of deuterated molecular hydrogen in a damped Ly? system at z = 0.18

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, Cristina M.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Tumlinson, Jason; Thom, Christopher [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); O'Meara, John, E-mail: oliveira@stsci.edu [Saint Michael's College, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We report on the detection of deuterated molecular hydrogen, HD, at z = 0.18. HD and H{sub 2} are detected in HST/COS data of a low-metallicity (Z ? 0.07 Z {sub ?}) damped Ly? (DLA) system at z = 0.18562 toward QSO B012028, with log N(H I) = 20.50 0.10. Four absorption components are clearly resolved in H{sub 2}, while two components are resolved in HD; the bulk of the molecular hydrogen is associated with the components traced by HD. We find total column densities log N(HD) = 14.82 0.15 and log N(H{sub 2}) = 20.00 0.10. This system has a high molecular fraction, f(H{sub 2}) = 0.39 0.10, and a low HD-to-H{sub 2} ratio, log (HD/2H{sub 2}) = 5.5 0.2 dex. The excitation temperature, T {sub 01} = 65 2 K, in the component containing the bulk of the molecular gas is lower than in other DLAs. These properties are unlike those in other higher redshift DLA systems known to contain HD, but are consistent with what is observed in dense clouds in the Milky Way.

  6. To stack or not to stack: Spectral energy distribution properties of Lyα-emitting galaxies at z = 2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, Carlos J.; Bish, Hannah; Gawiser, Eric; Kurczynski, Peter; Acquaviva, Viviana; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Feldmeier, John; Ferguson, Henry; Koekemoer, Anton; Guaita, Lucia; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Padilla, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    We use the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) GOODS-S multi-wavelength catalog to identify counterparts for 20 Lyα emitting (LAE) galaxies at z = 2.1. We build several types of stacked spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these objects. We combine photometry to form average and median flux-stacked SEDs, and postage-stamp images to form average and median image-stacked SEDs. We also introduce scaled flux stacks that eliminate the influence of variation in overall brightness. We use the SED fitting code SpeedyMC to constrain the physical properties of individual objects and stacks. Our LAEs at z = 2.1 have stellar masses ranging from 2 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} to 8 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} (median = 3 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}), ages ranging from 4 Myr to 500 Myr (median = 100 Myr), and E(B – V) between 0.02 and 0.24 (median = 0.12). Although still low, this represents significantly more dust reddening than has been reported for LAEs at higher redshifts. We do not observe strong correlations between Lyα equivalent width (EW) and age or E(B – V). The Lyα radiative transfer (q) factors of our sample are predominantly close to one and do not correlate strongly with EW or E(B – V). The absence of strong correlations with EW or q implies that Lyα radiative transfer is highly anisotropic and/or prevents Lyα photons from scattering in dusty regions. The SED parameters of the flux stacks match the average and median values of the individual objects, with the flux-scaled median SED performing best with uncertainties reduced by a factor of two. Median image-stacked SEDs provide a poor representation of the median individual object, and none of the stacking methods capture the large dispersion of LAE properties.

  7. X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE z {approx} 4.5 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Wang, J. X.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Finkelstein, K. D.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E. E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.c

    2010-07-20

    We report the first X-ray detection of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at redshift z {approx} 4.5. One source (J033127.2-274247) is detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDF-S) X-ray data and has been spectroscopically confirmed as a z = 4.48 quasar with L{sub X} = 4.2 x 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. The single detection gives an Ly{alpha} quasar density of {approx} 2.7{sup +6.2} {sub -2.2} x 10{sup -6} Mpc{sup -3}, consistent with the X-ray luminosity function of quasars. Another 22 LAEs in the central Chandra Deep Field-South region are not detected individually, but their co-added counts yield an S/N = 2.4 (p = 99.83%) detection at soft band, with an effective exposure time of {approx}36 Ms. Further analysis of the equivalent width (EW) distribution shows that all the signals come from 12 LAE candidates with EW{sub rest}< 400 A and 2 of them contribute about half of the signal. From follow-up spectroscopic observations, we find that one of the two is a low-redshift emission-line galaxy, and the other is a Lyman break galaxy at z = 4.4 with little or no Ly{alpha} emission. Excluding these two and combined with ECDF-S data, we derive a 3{sigma} upper limit on the average X-ray flux of F {sub 0.5-2.0keV} < 1.6 x 10{sup -18} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which corresponds to an average luminosity of (L {sub 0.5-2keV}) <2.4 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} for z {approx} 4.5 LAEs. If the average X-ray emission is due to star formation, it corresponds to a star formation rate (SFR) of <180-530 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1}. We use this SFR {sub X} as an upper limit of the unobscured SFR to constrain the escape fraction of Ly{alpha} photons and find a lower limit of f{sub esc,Ly{alpha}} > 3%-10%. However, our upper limit on the SFR {sub X} is {approx}7 times larger than the upper limit on SFR {sub X} on z {approx} 3.1 LAEs in the same field and at least 30 times higher than the SFR estimated from Ly{alpha} emission. From the average X-ray-to-Ly{alpha} line ratio, we estimate that

  8. DETECTIONS OF FAINT Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 5.7: GALAXY BUILDING BLOCKS AND ENGINES OF REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick; Martin, Crystal L.; Henry, Alaina; Sawicki, Marcin E-mail: sawicki@ap.smu.ca

    2011-10-20

    We report results of an unprecedentedly deep, blind search for Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 5.7 using the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS), with the goal of identifying missing sources of reionization that could also be basic building blocks for today's L* galaxies. We describe how improvements in wide field imaging with the Baade telescope, upgrades to IMACS, and the accumulation of {approx}20 hr of integration per field in excellent seeing led to the detection of single-emission-line sources as faint as F {approx} 2 x 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, a sensitivity five times deeper than our first search. A reasonable correction for foreground interlopers implies a steep rise of approximately an order of magnitude in source density for a factor of four drop in flux, from F = 10{sup -17.0} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} to F = 10{sup -17.6} (2.5 x 10{sup -18}) erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. At this flux the putative LAEs have reached a surface density of {approx}1 arcmin{sup -2}-a comoving volume density of 4 x 10{sup -3} Mpc{sup -3}, several times the density of L* galaxies today. Such a population of faint LAEs would account for a significant fraction of the critical flux density required to complete reionization at this epoch, and would be good candidates for building blocks of stellar mass {approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M{sub sun} for the young galaxies of this epoch.

  9. A glimpse at quasar host galaxy far-UV emission using damped Lyα's as natural coronagraphs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Ran; McGreer, Ian; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Finley, Hayley; Petitjean, Patrick; Carithers, Bill; Bian, Fuyan; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Pâris, Isabelle; Schneider, Donald P.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Ge, Jian; Slosar, Anze

    2014-10-01

    In merger-driven models of massive galaxy evolution, the luminous quasar phase is expected to be accompanied by vigorous star formation in quasar host galaxies. In this paper, we use high column density damped Lyα (DLA) systems along quasar sight lines as natural coronagraphs to directly study the far-UV (FUV) radiation from the host galaxies of luminous background quasars. We have stacked the spectra of ∼2000 DLA systems (N {sub H} {sub I} > 10{sup 20.6} cm{sup –2}) with a median absorption redshift (z) = 2.6 selected from quasars observed in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We detect residual flux in the dark troughs of the composite DLA spectra. The level of this residual flux significantly exceeds systematic errors in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey fiber sky subtraction; furthermore, the residual flux is strongly correlated with the continuum luminosity of the background quasar, while uncorrelated with DLA column density or metallicity. We conclude that the flux could be associated with the average FUV radiation from the background quasar host galaxies (with medium redshift (z) = 3.1) that is not blocked by the intervening DLA. Assuming that all of the detected flux originates from quasar hosts, for the highest quasar luminosity bin ((L) = 2.5 × 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}), the host galaxy has an FUV intensity of 1.5 ± 0.2 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} Å{sup –1}; this corresponds to an unobscured UV star formation rate of 9 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}.

  10. SEARCHING FOR NEUTRAL HYDROGEN HALOS AROUND z ∼ 2.1 AND z ∼ 3.1 Lyα EMITTING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmeier, John J.; Hagen, Alex; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Lea M. Z.; Gawiser, Eric; Kurczynski, Peter; Guaita, Lucia; Bond, Nicholas A.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Orsi, Alvaro

    2013-10-20

    We search for evidence of diffuse Lyα emission from extended neutral hydrogen surrounding Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs) using deep narrow-band images of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. By stacking the profiles of 187 LAEs at z = 2.06, 241 LAEs at z = 3.10, and 179 LAEs at z = 3.12, and carefully performing low-surface brightness photometry, we obtain mean surface brightness maps that reach 9.9, 8.7, and 6.2 × 10{sup –19} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} arcsec{sup –2} in the emission line. We undertake a thorough investigation of systematic uncertainties in our surface brightness measurements and find that our limits are 5-10 times larger than would be expected from Poisson background fluctuations; these uncertainties are often underestimated in the literature. At z ∼ 3.1, we find evidence for extended halos with small-scale lengths of 5-8 kpc in some but not all of our sub-samples. We demonstrate that sub-samples of LAEs with low equivalent widths and brighter continuum magnitudes are more likely to possess such halos. At z ∼ 2.1, we find no evidence of extended Lyα emission down to our detection limits. Through Monte-Carlo simulations, we also show that we would have detected large diffuse LAE halos if they were present in our data sets. We compare these findings to other measurements in the literature and discuss possible instrumental and astrophysical reasons for the discrepancies.

  11. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED GALAXIES AT z {>=} 6. I. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REST-FRAME UV CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Linhua; Mechtley, Matthew; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Egami, Eiichi; Fan Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR observations of a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies at z {>=} 6. The sample consists of 51 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 5.7, 6.5, and 7.0, and 16 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 5.9 {<=} z {<=} 6.5. The near-IR images were mostly obtained with WFC3 in the F125W and F160W bands, and the mid-IR images were obtained with IRAC in the 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands. Our galaxies also have deep optical imaging data from Subaru Suprime-Cam. We utilize the multi-band data and secure redshifts to derive their rest-frame UV properties. These galaxies have steep UV-continuum slopes roughly between {beta} {approx_equal} -1.5 and -3.5, with an average value of {beta} {approx_equal} -2.3, slightly steeper than the slopes of LBGs in previous studies. The slope shows little dependence on UV-continuum luminosity except for a few of the brightest galaxies. We find a statistically significant excess of galaxies with slopes around {beta} {approx_equal} -3, suggesting the existence of very young stellar populations with extremely low metallicity and dust content. Our galaxies have moderately strong rest-frame Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) in a range of {approx}10 to {approx}200 A. The star formation rates are also moderate, from a few to a few tens of solar masses per year. The LAEs and LBGs in this sample share many common properties, implying that LAEs represent a subset of LBGs with strong Ly{alpha} emission. Finally, the comparison of the UV luminosity functions between LAEs and LBGs suggests that there exists a substantial population of faint galaxies with weak Ly{alpha} emission (EW < 20 A) that could be the dominant contribution to the total ionizing flux at z {>=} 6.

  12. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED GALAXIES AT z {>=} 6. II. MORPHOLOGY OF THE REST-FRAME UV CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Linhua; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Mechtley, Matthew; Egami, Eiichi; Fan Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-20

    We present a detailed structural and morphological study of a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies at z {>=} 6 using deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) near-IR broad-band images and Subaru Telescope optical narrow-band images. The galaxy sample consists of 51 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 5.7, 6.5, and 7.0, and 16 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 5.9 {<=} z {<=} 6.5. These galaxies exhibit a wide range of rest-frame UV continuum morphology in the HST images, from compact features to multiple component systems. The fraction of merging/interacting galaxies reaches 40%-50% at the brightest end of M{sub 1500} {<=} -20.5 mag. The intrinsic half-light radii r{sub hl,in}, after correcting for point-spread function (PSF) broadening, are roughly between r{sub hl,in} {approx_equal} 0.''05 (0.3 kpc) and 0.''3 (1.7 kpc) at M{sub 1500} {<=} -19.5 mag. The median r{sub hl,in} value is 0.''16 ({approx}0.9 kpc). This is consistent with the sizes of bright LAEs and LBGs at z {>=} 6 found in previous studies. In addition, more luminous galaxies tend to be larger and exhibit a weak size-luminosity relation, r{sub hl,in}{proportional_to}L {sup 0.14} at M{sub 1500} {<=} -19.5 mag. The slope of 0.14 is significantly flatter than those in fainter LBG samples. We discuss the morphology of z {>=} 6 galaxies with nonparametric methods, including the concentration, asymmetry, and smoothness system and the Gini and M{sub 20} parameters, and demonstrate their validity through simulations. We search for extended Ly{alpha} emission halos around LAEs at z {approx_equal} 5.7 and 6.5 by stacking a number of narrow-band images. We do not find evidence of extended Ly{alpha} halos predicted by cosmological simulations. Such halos, if they exist, could be weaker than predicted. Finally, we investigate positional misalignment between the UV continuum and Ly{alpha} emissions in LAEs. While the two positions are generally consistent, several merging galaxies show significant

  13. filekLyDib

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  14. Living SafeLy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as safe as the electrical wiring in our homes - or just as danger- ous. The key is learning to act safely around them. This booklet is a basic safety guide for those who live...

  15. Intergalactic medium emission observations with the cosmic web imager. II. Discovery of extended, kinematically linked emission around SSA22 Ly? BLOB 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher Martin, D.; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2014-05-10

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of baryons, delineates the large-scale structure of the universe at low to moderate overdensities, and provides gas from which galaxies form and evolve. Simulations of a cold-dark-matter- (CDM-) dominated universe predict that the IGM is distributed in a cosmic web of filaments and that galaxies should form along and at the intersections of these filaments. While observations of QSO absorption lines and the large-scale distribution of galaxies have confirmed the CDM paradigm, the cosmic web of IGM has never been confirmed by direct imaging. Here we report our observation of the Ly? blob 2 (LAB2) in SSA22 with the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI). This is an integral field spectrograph optimized for low surface brightness, extended emission. With 22 hr of total on- and off-source exposure, CWI has revealed that LAB2 has extended Ly? emission that is organized into azimuthal zones consistent with filaments. We perform numerous tests with simulations and the data to secure the robustness of this result, which relies on data with modest signal-to-noise ratios. We have developed a smoothing algorithm that permits visualization of data cube slices along image or spectral image planes. With both raw and smoothed data cubes we demonstrate that the filaments are kinematically associated with LAB2 and display double-peaked profiles characteristic of optically thick Ly? emission. The flux is 10-20 times brighter than expected for the average emission from the IGM but is consistent with boosted fluorescence from a buried QSO or gravitation cooling radiation. Using simple emission models, we infer a baryon mass in the filaments of at least 1-4 10{sup 11} M {sub ?}, and the dark halo mass is at least 2 10{sup 12} M {sub ?}. The spatial-kinematic morphology is more consistent with inflow from the cosmic web than outflow from LAB2, although an outflow feature maybe present at one azimuth. LAB2 and the surrounding gas have

  16. Radiation damage and associated phase change effect on photodesorption rates from icesLy? studies of the surface behavior of CO{sub 2}(ice)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Yates, John T. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Photodesorption from a crystalline film of CO{sub 2}(ice) at 75 K has been studied using Ly? (10.2 eV) radiation. We combine quantitative mass spectrometric studies of gases evolved and transmission IR studies of species trapped in the ice. Direct CO desorption is observed from the primary CO{sub 2} photodissociation process, which occurs promptly for CO{sub 2} molecules located on the outermost surface of the ice (Process I). As the fluence of Ly? radiation increases to ?5.5 10{sup 17} photons cm{sup 2}, extensive damage to the crystalline ice occurs and photo-produced CO molecules from deeper regions (Process II) are found to desorb at a rapidly increasing rate, which becomes two orders of magnitude greater than Process I. It is postulated that deep radiation damage to produce an extensive amorphous phase of CO{sub 2} occurs in the 50 nm ice film and that CO (and CO{sub 2}) diffusive transport is strongly enhanced in the amorphous phase. Photodesorption in Process II is a combination of electronic and thermally activated processes. Radiation damage in crystalline CO{sub 2} ice has been monitored by its effects on the vibrational line shapes of CO{sub 2}(ice). Here the crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition has been correlated with the occurrence of efficient molecular transport over long distances through the amorphous phase of CO{sub 2}(ice). Future studies of the composition of the interstellar region, generated by photodesorption from ice layers on grains, will have to consider the significant effects of radiation damage on photodesorption rates.

  17. An HST/COS observation of broad Ly? emission and associated absorption lines of the BL Lacertae object H 2356-309

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Taotao [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Danforth, Charles W.; Stocke, John T.; Shull, J. Michael [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Buote, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Canizares, Claude R. [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gastaldello, Fabio, E-mail: fangt@xmu.edu.cn [IASF-Milano, INAF, via Bassini 15, Milan I-20133 (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Weak spectral features in BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) often provide a unique opportunity to probe the inner region of this rare type of active galactic nucleus. We present a Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observation of the BL Lac H 2356-309. A weak Ly? emission line was detected. This is the fourth detection of a weak Ly? emission feature in the ultraviolet (UV) band in the so-called high-energy peaked BL Lacs, after Stocke et al. Assuming the line-emitting gas is located in the broad line region (BLR) and the ionizing source is the off-axis jet emission, we constrain the Lorentz factor (?) of the relativistic jet to be ?8.1 with a maximum viewing angle of 3.6. The derived ? is somewhat larger than previous measurements of ? ? 3-5, implying a covering factor of ?3% of the line-emitting gas. Alternatively, the BLR clouds could be optically thin, in which case we constrain the BLR warm gas to be ?10{sup 5} M {sub ?}. We also detected two H I and one O VI absorption lines that are within |?v| < 150 km s{sup 1} of the BL Lac object. The O VI and one of the H I absorbers likely coexist due to their nearly identical velocities. We discuss several ionization models and find a photoionization model where the ionizing photon source is the BL Lac object that can fit the observed ion column densities with reasonable physical parameters. This absorber can either be located in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy or in the BLR.

  18. Haiti earthquake survivor to speak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Laboratory Auditorium and is open to Laboratory badge holders and escorted media. Members of the news media who wish to attend the talk should contact the LANL...

  19. STELLAR POPULATIONS OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 4.86: A COMPARISON TO z {approx} 5 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuma, Suraphong; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Makiko; Ouchi, Masami; Iwata, Ikuru; Sawicki, Marcin

    2010-09-10

    We present a study of a stellar population of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 4.86 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N) field and its flanking field. The LAEs are selected based on optical narrowband (NB711) and broadband (V, I{sub c} , and z') observations by the Suprime-Cam attached to the Subaru Telescope. With the publicly available Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) data in GOODS-N and further IRAC observations in the flanking fields, we select five LAEs that are not contaminated by neighboring objects in IRAC images and construct their observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with I{sub c} , z', IRAC 3.6 {mu}m, and 4.5 {mu}m band photometries. The SEDs cover the rest-frame UV-to-optical wavelengths. We derive the stellar masses, ages, color excesses, and star formation rates (SFRs) of the five LAEs using an SED fitting method. Assuming a constant star formation history, we find that the stellar masses range from 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 10} M {sub sun} with the median value of 2.5 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}. The derived ages range from very young (7.4 Myr) to 437 Myr, with a median age of 25 Myr. The color excess E(B - V) is between 0.1and0.4 mag. SFRs are 55-209 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. A comparison of the stellar populations is made between 3 LAEs and 88 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected at the same redshift, in the same observed field, and down to the same limit of the rest-frame UV luminosity. These three LAEs are the brightest and reddest samples of all the LAE samples at z = 4.86. The LAEs are distributed at the relatively faint part of the UV-luminosity distribution of LBGs. Deriving the stellar properties of the LBGs by fitting their SEDs with the same model ensures that model difference does not affect the comparison. It is found that the stellar properties of the LAEs are located in the region where the properties of LBGs are distributed. On average, the LAEs show less dust extinction and lower SFRs than LBGs, while the stellar

  20. STELLAR POPULATIONS OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 6-7: CONSTRAINTS ON THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING PHOTONS FROM GALAXY BUILDING BLOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Sadanori; Masami Ouchi; Dunlop, James; Farrah, Duncan; McLure, Ross

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the stellar populations of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 5.7 and 6.6 in a 0.65 deg{sup 2} sky of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) Field, using deep images taken with the Subaru/Suprime-Cam, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope/Wide Field Infrared Camera, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). We produce stacked multiband images at each redshift from 165 (z = 5.7) and 91 (z = 6.6) IRAC-undetected objects to derive typical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of z {approx} 6-7 LAEs for the first time. The stacked LAEs have as blue UV continua as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) z-dropout galaxies of similar M{sub UV}, with a spectral slope {beta} {approx} -3, but at the same time they have red UV-to-optical colors with detection in the 3.6 {mu}m band. Using SED fitting we find that the stacked LAEs have low stellar masses of {approx}(3-10) x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun}, very young ages of {approx}1-3 Myr, negligible dust extinction, and strong nebular emission from the ionized interstellar medium, although the z = 6.6 object is fitted similarly well with high-mass models without nebular emission; inclusion of nebular emission reproduces the red UV-to-optical colors while keeping the UV colors sufficiently blue. We infer that typical LAEs at z {approx} 6-7 are building blocks of galaxies seen at lower redshifts. We find a tentative decrease in the Ly{alpha} escape fraction from z = 5.7 to 6.6, which may imply an increase in the intergalactic medium neutral fraction. From the minimum contribution of nebular emission required to fit the observed SEDs, we place an upper limit on the escape fraction of ionizing photons of f {sup ion}{sub esc} {approx} 0.6 at z = 5.7 and {approx}0.9 at z = 6.6. We also compare the stellar populations of our LAEs with those of stacked HST/WFC3 z-dropout galaxies.

  1. An efficient Volumetric Arc Therapy treatment planning approach for hippocampal-avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jin; Bender, Edward; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Basavatia, Amar; Hong, Linda; Bodner, William; Garg, Madhur K.; Kalnicki, Shalom; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2015-10-01

    An efficient and simple class solution is proposed for hippocampal-avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) planning using the Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT) delivery technique following the NRG Oncology protocol NRG-CC001 treatment planning guidelines. The whole-brain planning target volume (PTV) was subdivided into subplanning volumes that lie in plane and out of plane with the hippocampal-avoidance volume. To further improve VMAT treatment plans, a partial-field dual-arc technique was developed. Both the arcs were allowed to overlap on the in-plane subtarget volume, and in addition, one arc covered the superior out-of-plane sub-PTV, while the other covered the inferior out-of-plane subtarget volume. For all plans (n = 20), the NRG-CC001 protocol dose-volume criteria were met. Mean values of volumes for the hippocampus and the hippocampal-avoidance volume were 4.1 cm{sup 3} ± 1.0 cm{sup 3} and 28.52 cm{sup 3} ± 3.22 cm{sup 3}, respectively. For the PTV, the average values of D{sub 2%} and D{sub 98%} were 36.1 Gy ± 0.8 Gy and 26.2 Gy ± 0.6 Gy, respectively. The hippocampus D{sub 100%} mean value was 8.5 Gy ± 0.2 Gy and the maximum dose was 15.7 Gy ± 0.3 Gy. The corresponding plan quality indices were 0.30 ± 0.01 (homogeneity index), 0.94 ± 0.01 (target conformality), and 0.75 ± 0.02 (confirmation number). The median total monitor unit (MU) per fraction was 806 MU (interquartile range [IQR]: 792 to 818 MU) and the average beam total delivery time was 121.2 seconds (IQR: 120.6 to 121.35 seconds). All plans passed the gamma evaluation using the 5-mm, 4% criteria, with γ > 1 of not more than 9.1% data points for all fields. An efficient and simple planning class solution for HA-WBRT using VMAT has been developed that allows all protocol constraints of NRG-CC001 to be met.

  2. THE FIRST OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-REDSHIFT DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS WITH THE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES AND AFFILIATED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battisti, A. J.; Meiring, J. D.; Tripp, T. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Prochaska, J. X.; Werk, J. K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Observatories-Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Jenkins, E. B. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lehner, N. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tumlinson, J.; Thom, C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) measurements of metal abundances in eight 0.083 < z{sub abs} < 0.321 damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) and sub-DLA absorption systems serendipitously discovered in the COS-Halos survey. We find that these systems show a large range in metallicities, with -1.10 < [Z/H] < 0.31, similar to the spread found at higher redshifts. These low-redshift systems on average have subsolar metallicities, but do show a rise in metallicity over cosmic time when compared to higher-redshift systems. We find that the average sub-DLA metallicity is higher than the average DLA metallicity at all redshifts. Nitrogen is underabundant with respect to {alpha}-group elements in all but perhaps one of the absorbers. In some cases, [N/{alpha}] is significantly below the lowest nitrogen measurements in nearby galaxies. Systems for which depletion patterns can be studied show little, if any, depletion, which is characteristic of Milky Way halo-type gas. We also identify affiliated galaxies for three of the sub-DLAs using spectra obtained from a Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS). None of these sub-DLAs arise in the stellar disks of luminous galaxies; instead, these absorbers may exist in galaxy halos at impact parameters ranging from 38 to 92 kpc. Multiple galaxies are present near two of the sub-DLAs, and galaxy interactions may play a role in the dispersal of the gas. Many of these low-redshift absorbers exhibit simple kinematics, but one sub-DLA has a complicated mix of at least 13 components spread over 150 km s{sup -1}. We find three galaxies near this sub-DLA, which also suggests that galaxy interactions roil the gas. This study reinforces the view that DLAs have a variety of origins, and low-redshift studies are crucial for understanding absorber-galaxy connections.

  3. METALLICITIES, DUST, AND MOLECULAR CONTENT OF A QSO-DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEM REACHING log N(H I) = 22: AN ANALOG TO GRB-DLAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guimaraes, R.; Noterdaeme, P.; Petitjean, P.; Ledoux, C.; Srianand, R.; Rahmani, H.; Lopez, S.

    2012-06-15

    We present the elemental abundance and H{sub 2} content measurements of a damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) system with an extremely large H I column density, log N(H I) (cm{sup -2}) = 22.0 {+-} 0.10, at z{sub abs} = 3.287 toward the QSO SDSS J081634+144612. We measure column densities of H{sub 2}, C I, C I*, Zn II, Fe II, Cr II, Ni II, and Si II from a high signal-to-noise and high spectral resolution VLT-UVES spectrum. The overall metallicity of the system is [Zn/H] = -1.10 {+-} 0.10 relative to solar. Two molecular hydrogen absorption components are seen at z = 3.28667 and 3.28742 (a velocity separation of Almost-Equal-To 52 km s{sup -1}) in rotational levels up to J = 3. We derive a total H{sub 2} column density of log N(H{sub 2}) (cm{sup -2}) = 18.66 and a mean molecular fraction of f = 2N(H{sub 2})/[2N(H{sub 2}) + N(H I)] = 10{sup -3.04{+-}0.37}, typical of known H{sub 2}-bearing DLA systems. From the observed abundance ratios we conclude that dust is present in the interstellar medium of this galaxy, with an enhanced abundance in the H{sub 2}-bearing clouds. However, the total amount of dust along the line of sight is not large and does not produce any significant reddening of the background QSO. The physical conditions in the H{sub 2}-bearing clouds are constrained directly from the column densities of H{sub 2} in different rotational levels, C I and C I*. The kinetic temperature is found to be T Almost-Equal-To 75 K and the particle density lies in the range n{sub H} = 50-80 cm{sup -3}. The neutral hydrogen column density of this DLA is similar to the mean H I column density of DLAs observed at the redshift of {gamma}-ray bursts (GRBs). We explore the relationship between GRB-DLAs and the high column density end of QSO-DLAs finding that the properties (metallicity and depletion) of DLAs with log N(H I) > 21.5 in the two populations do not appear to be significantly different.

  4. PCB153 reduces telomerase activity and telomere length in immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) but not in human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senthilkumar, P.K.; Robertson, L.W.; Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA ; Ludewig, G.

    2012-02-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are characterized by long term-persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the food chain. Exposure to PCBs may cause various diseases, affecting many cellular processes. Deregulation of the telomerase and the telomere complex leads to several biological disorders. We investigated the hypothesis that PCB153 modulates telomerase activity, telomeres and reactive oxygen species resulting in the deregulation of cell growth. Exponentially growing immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and normal human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) were incubated with PCB153 for 48 and 24 days, respectively, and telomerase activity, telomere length, superoxide level, cell growth, and cell cycle distribution were determined. In HaCaT cells exposure to PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth and increased intracellular superoxide levels from day 6 to day 48, suggesting that superoxide may be one of the factors regulating telomerase activity, telomere length and cell growth compared to untreated control cells. Results with NFK cells showed no shortening of telomere length but reduced cell growth and increased superoxide levels in PCB153-treated cells compared to untreated controls. As expected, basal levels of telomerase activity were almost undetectable, which made a quantitative comparison of treated and control groups impossible. The significant down regulation of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB153 in HaCaT cells suggest that any cell type with significant telomerase activity, like stem cells, may be at risk of premature telomere shortening with potential adverse health effects for the affected organism. -- Highlights: ► Human immortal (HaCaT) and primary (NFK) keratinocytes were exposed to PCB153. ► PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity and telomere length in HaCaT. ► No effect on telomere length and

  5. Haiti-NREL Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Publics, Transports et Communications (Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and Communication). References "NREL International Program" Retrieved from "http:...

  6. Haiti: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lack of investment in the energy infrastructure, caused in part by the fact that prices are artificially held below the true cost of production and delivery. Power supply is...

  7. Mr. J . Kieling, Acting Chief Ha

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    month of the anniversary date when the training was previously completed. A-5 C3-14 Special Training Requirements and Certifications Before performing activities that affect WAP...

  8. Haiti-Designing and Communicating Low Carbon Energy Roadmaps...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Partner International Climate Initiative Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Grid Assessment...

  9. Haiti-Facility for Environmentally Friendly Transport Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    entitled Navigating Transport NAMAs, which is tailored to each target group, outlines the instruments and technologies available as well as the context for climate negotiations...

  10. Haiti - Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 meters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liberte Hinche 06-JAN-2014 3.5.1 50 0 Port-au-Prince Jacmel Les Cayes Jeremie 50 100 Kilometers DOMINI REPUBL CAN IC The wind resource estimates on this map are from model...

  11. Tru-ly Clean - What Does It Mean?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, A.

    2008-07-01

    The evolution and genesis of the definition of transuranic waste (known as TRU) and its application to the cleanup criteria applied to soils contaminated with transuranics, specifically plutonium, has been a matter of discussion at contaminated sites in the United States and elsewhere. Cleanup decisions and the processes that led up to those decisions have varied at several plutonium contaminated sites within the United States and without the pacific region. The sites with radionuclide soil action levels include Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Republic of the Marshall Islands; Johnston Atoll, Hawaii; the Hanford Site in Washington State; the Nevada Test Site; the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Colorado; the Chariot Site in north Alaska; and the Maralinga Site in Australia. The soil-action level developed for Rocky Flats by the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment for plutonium is one of the higher soil-action levels approved by regulatory agencies that is considered protective for future use of land at a cleanup site. The Republic of the Marshall Islands has adopted a relatively conservative cleanup standard to accommodate the subsistence lifestyle of the islanders, while the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has been transferred to the U.S. Department of the Interior to be used as a fish and wildlife refuge, a land use that resulted in a less conservative plutonium soil cleanup level. (authors)

  12. ionic liquids biological-ly derived from lignin and hemicellulose

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Predictive Simulation of Engines Transportation Energy Consortiums Engine Combustion ... Results Pave the Way for Closed-Loop Biofuel Refineries Biofuels, Biomass, ...

  13. Haiti-Low-Carbon Energy Roadmaps for the Greater Antilles | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute Partner Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, National Energy Commission Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Economic Development,...

  14. Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 7 IN THE SUBARU/XMM-NEWTON DEEP SURVEY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    < 1, supporting the possible higher neutral fraction at the earlier epochs at ... Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan) Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, ...

  15. SEARCHING FOR z {approx} 7.7 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS IN THE COSMOS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States) Gemini Observatory, co AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile) NOAO, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States) Publication ...

  16. IGM CONSTRAINTS FROM THE SDSS-III/BOSS DR9 Lyα FOREST TRANSMISSION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BOSS) quasars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 9, and compare with mock spectra that include careful modeling of the noise, continuum, and astrophysical uncertainties. ...

  17. Gateway:Amrica Latina | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Haiti Haiti Honduras Honduras Mexico Mexico Nicaragua Nicaragua Panama Panama Paraguay Paraguay Peru Peru Republica Dominicana Dominican Republic Uruguay Uruguay Venezuela...

  18. CX-008556: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Haiti Renewable Resource Study CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 07/23/2012 Location(s): Haiti Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  19. OAiC RiDGE NATIONAL LABORAl-ORY LKCKKBSP HAITI MANA%ED AND OPERATED...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... of the former ACL building and the residential property to the northeast . . . . . . . ... Restoration, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract DE-ACO5960R22464 with ...

  20. Don-Hyung Ha > Postdoc - MIT (Shao-Horn Group) > Center Alumni...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Group, he received his PhD in September 2014. He continues his research as a member of the Electrochemical Energy Lab at MIT under the leadership for Professor Yang Shao-Horn...

  1. EARLY- AND LATE-TIME OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2008ha: ADDITIONAL CONSTRAINTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We also present late-time imaging and spectroscopy that are consistent with this scenario. Authors: Foley, Ryan J. ; Challis, Peter J. ; Kirshner, Robert P. 1 ; Brown, Peter J. ...

  2. Phototoxicity of nano titanium dioxides in HaCaT keratinocytesGeneration of reactive oxygen species and cell damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jun; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Roberts, Joan E.; Fu, Peter P.; Mason, Ronald P.; Zhao, Baozhong

    2012-08-15

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is among the top five widely used nanomaterials for various applications. In this study, we determine the phototoxicity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) with different molecular sizes and crystal forms (anatase and rutile) in human skin keratinocytes under UVA irradiation. Our results show that all nano-TiO{sub 2} particles caused phototoxicity, as determined by the MTS assay and by cell membrane damage measured by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, both of which were UVA dose- and nano-TiO{sub 2} dose-dependent. The smaller the particle size of the nano-TiO{sub 2} the higher the cell damage. The rutile form of nano-TiO{sub 2} showed less phototoxicity than anatase nano-TiO{sub 2}. The level of photocytotoxicity and cell membrane damage is mainly dependent on the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Using polyunsaturated lipids in plasma membranes and human serum albumin as model targets, and employing electron spin resonance (ESR) oximetry and immuno-spin trapping as unique probing methods, we demonstrated that UVA irradiation of nano-TiO{sub 2} can induce significant cell damage, mediated by lipid and protein peroxidation. These overall results suggest that nano-TiO{sub 2} is phototoxic to human skin keratinocytes, and that this phototoxicity is mediated by ROS generated during UVA irradiation. Highlights: ? We evaluate the phototoxicity of nano-TiO{sub 2} with different sizes and crystal forms. ? The smaller the particle size of the nano-TiO{sub 2} the higher the cell damage. ? The rutile form of nano-TiO{sub 2} showed less phototoxicity than anatase nano-TiO{sub 2}. ? ESR oximetry and immuno-spin trapping techniques confirm UVA-induced cell damage. ? Phototoxicity is mediated by ROS generated during UVA irradiation of nano-TiO{sub 2}.

  3. OLADE-Latin American and Caribbean Energy Efficiency Seminar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  4. Energy-Economic Information System (SIEE) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  5. OLADE Sustainable Energy Planning Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  6. Legal Energy Information System (SIEL) Database | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  7. Caribbean-NREL Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    internatio Country Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Saint...

  8. Caribbean-GTZ Renewable Energy Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    enpraxis95 Country Antigua & Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Puerto...

  9. THE END OF HELIUM REIONIZATION AT z {approx_equal} 2.7 INFERRED FROM COSMIC VARIANCE IN HST/COS He II Ly{alpha} ABSORPTION SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worseck, Gabor; Xavier Prochaska, J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); McQuinn, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dall'Aglio, Aldo; Wisotzki, Lutz [Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany); Fechner, Cora; Richter, Philipp [Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Reimers, Dieter, E-mail: gworseck@ucolick.org [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-06-01

    We report on the detection of strongly varying intergalactic He II absorption in HST/COS spectra of two z{sub em} {approx_equal} 3 quasars. From our homogeneous analysis of the He II absorption in these and three archival sightlines, we find a marked increase in the mean He II effective optical depth from <{tau}{sub eff},He{sub ii}>{approx_equal}1 at z {approx_equal} 2.3 to <{tau}{sub eff},He{sub ii}>{approx}>5 at z {approx_equal} 3.2, but with a large scatter of 2{approx}<{tau}{sub eff},He{sub ii}{approx}<5 at 2.7 < z < 3 on scales of {approx}10 proper Mpc. This scatter is primarily due to fluctuations in the He II fraction and the He II-ionizing background, rather than density variations that are probed by the coeval H I forest. Semianalytic models of He II absorption require a strong decrease in the He II-ionizing background to explain the strong increase of the absorption at z {approx}> 2.7, probably indicating He II reionization was incomplete at z{sub reion} {approx}> 2.7. Likewise, recent three-dimensional numerical simulations of He II reionization qualitatively agree with the observed trend only if He II reionization completes at z{sub reion} {approx_equal} 2.7 or even below, as suggested by a large {tau}{sub eff},He{sub ii}{approx}>3 in two of our five sightlines at z < 2.8. By doubling the sample size at 2.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 3, our newly discovered He II sightlines for the first time probe the diversity of the second epoch of reionization when helium became fully ionized.

  10. NREL: Wind Research - International Wind Resource Maps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cuba Dominican Republic El Salvador Fiji Islands Ghana Guatemala Haiti Honduras Indonesia (specific areas) Laos Mexico (specific areas) Mongolia Nicaragua Pakistan Papua New Guinea ...

  11. Humane Society International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    clinic for animals on the streets in Haiti, campaigns against factory farming in Mexico, improving farming practices in Brazil, and biodiversity conservation efforts in...

  12. NREL International Programs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... NREL has assisted in bringing these basic services to clinics in Mexico, Ecuador, and Haiti, among others. For example, one Haitian hospital's surgery, dental clinic, lavatory, and ...

  13. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Dominican Republic, a Caribbean nation that shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti to the west.

  14. S A N D I A T E C H N O L O G Y A Q UA RT E R LY R E S E A R

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... It must deliver energy to fuse pellets of hydrogen a number of times per min- ute and keep ... There, pellets are compressed by X-rays generated by the electromagnetic forces. Made in ...

  15. S A N D I A T E C H N O L O G Y A Q UA RT E R LY R E S E A R

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... earth, as opposed to current being driven into conductors entering the mine such as metal ... do some unique studies on rare cell types." ... from agricultural demand, increased ...

  16. S A N D I A T E C H N O L O G Y A Q UA RT E R LY R E S E A R

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... & Electric) for up to 1,750 mega- watts (MW) of power, two of the ... cialization of a system called the 'SunCatcher.' ... form of JP-8 and green diesel, along with other ...

  17. East Coast Utilities prepare for Hurricane Sandy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Please report your outage to 1-800-833-7476, http:bit.lywbqiUb or through our mobile app at http:bit.lyL3Bvs4 . Please check our outage map for updates: http:bit.ly...

  18. Spring 2015 Henderson Hall Education and Career Fair

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Location: Smith Gym, Henderson Hall, Arlington, VAPOC: DOECorporateRecruitment@hq.doe.govWebsite: http://bit.ly/1FRIJOF

  19. Category:Latin America Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guatemala Guyana H Haiti Honduras J Jamaica M Martinique Mexico N Nicaragua P Panama Paraguay Peru S Saint Barthlemy Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the...

  20. BPA-2014-00122-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a campaign or expedition for which a campaign medal has been authorized, such as El Salvador, Lebanon, Granada, Panama, Southwest Asia, Somalia, and Haiti. You must submit a copy...

  1. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Matthew; stlin, Gran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thger; Adamo, Angela; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitov, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Ot-Floranes, Hctor; Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Herenz, E. Christian

    2014-02-10

    We report new results regarding the Ly? output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Ly?, H?, and UV, and maps of H?/H?, Ly? equivalent width (EW), and Ly?/H?. We present Ly? and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Srsic profiles, but Ly? profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ? 1-2 instead of ? 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Ly? that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Ly? than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ?10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Ly? luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Ly? throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Ly? emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Ly? and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 , and one shows f{sub esc}{sup Ly?} of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  2. Narrowband Lyman-continuum imaging of galaxies at z ? 2.85

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mostardi, R. E.; Shapley, A. E.; Nestor, D. B.; Steidel, C. C.; Trainor, R. F.; Reddy, N. A.

    2013-12-10

    We present results from a survey for z ? 2.85 Lyman-continuum (LyC) emission in the HS1549+1933 field and place constraints on the amount of ionizing radiation escaping from star-forming galaxies. Using a custom narrowband filter (NB3420) tuned to wavelengths just below the Lyman limit at z ? 2.82, we probe the LyC spectral region of 49 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and 91 Ly? emitters (LAEs) spectroscopically confirmed at z ? 2.82. Four LBGs and seven LAEs are detected in NB3420. Using V-band data probing the rest-frame nonionizing UV, we observe that many NB3420-detected galaxies exhibit spatial offsets between their LyC and nonionizing UV emission and are characterized by extremely blue NB3420V colors, corresponding to low ratios of nonionizing to ionizing radiation (F {sub UV}/F {sub LyC}) that are in tension with current stellar population synthesis models. We measure average values of (F {sub UV}/F {sub LyC}) for our LBG and LAE samples, correcting for foreground galaxy contamination and H I absorption in the intergalactic medium. We find (F{sub UV}/F{sub LyC}){sub corr}{sup LBG}=8245 and (F{sub UV}/F{sub LyC}){sub corr}{sup LAE}=7.43.6. These flux density ratios correspond, respectively, to relative LyC escape fractions of f{sub esc,} {sub rel}{sup LBG}=5%--8% and f{sub esc,} {sub rel}{sup LAE}=18%--49%, absolute LyC escape fractions of f{sub esc}{sup LBG}=1%--2% and f{sub esc}{sup LAE}=5%--15%, and a comoving LyC emissivity from star-forming galaxies of 8.8-15.0 10{sup 24} erg s{sup 1} Hz{sup 1} Mpc{sup 3}. In order to study the differential properties of galaxies with and without LyC detections, we analyze narrowband Ly? imaging and rest-frame near-infrared imaging, finding that while LAEs with LyC detections have lower Ly? equivalent widths on average, there is no substantial difference in the rest-frame near-infrared colors of LBGs or LAEs with and without LyC detections. These preliminary results are consistent with an orientation-dependent model

  3. VTKADIOSSCHEMAREADER

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003354WKSTN00 ADIOS Schema reader for VTK https://www.dropbox.com/s/ly94k82xdd41hyi/AdiosSchemaReader-master.zip

  4. InMon,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    gas (common- tenance infrastructure. (Denver, also a Clean City, has also ly known as propane); coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels other than alcohol that are derived from...

  5. Careers & the disABLED Career Expo

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Location: Ronald Reagan Bldg, Washington, DCAttendees:  Terri Sosa (Science)POC:  Donna FriendWebsite: http://bit.ly/1tlHhNr

  6. Pittsburgh Forum on Veteran Employment/Career Fair

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Location: Heinz Field, 100 Art Rooney Avenue, Pittsburgh, PAPOC:  Donna FriendWebsite: http://bit.ly/1q90WNk

  7. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haiti earthquake survivor to speak June 14, 2010 Los Alamos summer student describes mission to help rescuers LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, June 14, 2010-When an earthquake struck Haiti last January, Christa Brelsford, a LANL student employee, was almost instantly trapped and partly crushed in the falling concrete of a building. She was saved by her brother and a friend, who hauled away debris for more than an hour before she was free. Now, with a prosthetic lower leg and a new view of life, the

  8. Anisotropic Lyman-alpha emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zheng; Wallace, Joshua

    2014-10-20

    As a result of resonant scatterings off hydrogen atoms, Lyα emission from star-forming galaxies provides a probe of the (hardly isotropic) neutral gas environment around them. We study the effect of the environmental anisotropy on the observed Lyα emission by performing radiative transfer calculations for models of neutral hydrogen clouds with prescriptions of spatial and kinematic anisotropies. The environmental anisotropy leads to corresponding anisotropy in the Lyα flux and spectral properties and induces correlations among them. The Lyα flux (or observed luminosity) depends on the viewing angle and shows an approximate correlation with the initial Lyα optical depth in the viewing direction relative to those in all other directions. The distribution of Lyα flux from a set of randomly oriented clouds is skewed to high values, providing a natural contribution to the Lyα equivalent width (EW) distribution seen in observation. A narrower EW distribution is found at a larger peak offset of the Lyα line, similar to the trend suggested in observation. The peak offset appears to correlate with the line shape (full width at half-maximum and asymmetry), pointing to a possibility of using Lyα line features alone to determine the systemic redshifts of galaxies. The study suggests that anisotropies in the spatial and kinematic distributions of neutral hydrogen can be an important ingredient in shaping the observed properties of Lyα emission from star-forming galaxies. We discuss the implications of using Lyα emission to probe the circumgalactic and intergalactic environments of galaxies.

  9. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction, Argentina, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Bourkina (Upper Volta), Brazil, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields, Appendix II, Phytomass Files, and References.

  10. ON THE DETECTION OF IONIZING RADIATION ARISING FROM STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT z {approx} 3-4: LOOKING FOR ANALOGS OF 'STELLAR RE-IONIZERS'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanzella, Eros; Cristiani, Stefano; Nonino, Mario; Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Giallongo, Emanuele; Pentericci, Laura; Galametz, Audrey; Dickinson, Mark; Faber, S. M.; Newman, Jeffrey; Siana, Brian D.

    2012-05-20

    We use the spatially resolved, multi-band photometry in the GOODS South field acquired by the CANDELS project to constrain the nature of candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters at redshift z {approx} 3.7 identified using ultradeep imaging below the Lyman limit (1{sigma} limit of Almost-Equal-To 30 AB in a 2'' diameter aperture). In 19 candidates out of a sample of 20 with flux detected at >3{sigma} level, the light centroid of the candidate LyC emission is offset from that of the Lyman break galaxy (LBG) by up to 1.''5. We fit the spectral energy distribution of the LyC candidates to spectral population synthesis models to measure photometric redshifts and the stellar population parameters. We also discuss the differences in the UV colors between the LBG and the LyC candidates, and how to estimate the escape fraction of ionizing radiation (f{sub esc}) in cases, like in most of our galaxies, where the LyC emission is spatially offset from the host galaxy. In all but one case we conclude that the candidate LyC emission is most likely due to lower redshift interlopers. Based on these findings, we argue that the majority of similar measurements reported in the literature need further investigation before it can be firmly concluded that LyC emission is detected. Our only surviving LyC candidate is an LBG at z = 3.795, which shows the bluest (B - V) color among LBGs at similar redshift, a stellar mass of M {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, weak interstellar absorption lines, and a flat UV spectral slope with no Ly{alpha} in emission. We estimate its f{sub esc} to be in the range 25%-100%, depending on the dust and intergalactic attenuation.

  11. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The inhibition of PI3K-Akt activation by LY294002 significantly reduced the viral yield, including a reduction in budded viruses and occlusion bodies. The virus production was ...

  12. IES TM-30-15: Learn the Basics, See the Results

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    IES Method for Evaluating Light Source Color Rendition http:bit.ly1IWZxVu Optics Express journal article that provides overview of the IES method: Development of the...

  13. The Honorable Gary Loster 1315 S. Washington Avenue

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    W. Alerander Williams (301-427-1719) of my staff. Sincer ly, 4 z&a Oames W. Wagoner II" Director Off-SiteSavannah River Division Office of Eastern Area Programs Office of ...

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... from the public during Part 1 of his "Ask Argonne" video set (http:bit.ly1aK6WDv). ... "Ask Argonne" - Robert Jacob, Climate Scientist, Part 1 Jacob, Robert Argonne's climate ...

  15. Veterans Employment Forum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Location: 614 SW 11th Avenue, Portland, OR 97205, 2nd Floor Library RoomPOC: Heather BainWebsite: http://bit.ly/1t6XjaO

  16. Central Washington University: 2014 Engineering Technologies, Safety & Construction Fair

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Location: 400 E. University Way Ellensburg, WA 98926, SURC BallroomPOC: Heather BainWebsite: http://bit.ly/1pgOpN7

  17. HBCU College Festival sponsored by Alfred Street Baptist Church

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Location: T.C. Williams High School, 3330 King St, Alexandria, VA 22302Attendees: Rauland Sharp (HC) and Dameone Ferguson (NNSA)POC: Chester Scott Website: http://bit.ly/1BARRqp

  18. Black Engineering of the Year Awards and STEM Conference Career Fair

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Location:  Washington Marriott Wardman Park, 2660 Woodley Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008Website Link:  http://bit.ly/1CbVvraPOC:  Dameone Ferguson (NNSA)

  19. Gallaudet University Spring 2015 Career Fair

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Gallaudet University, Field House Gymnasium, 800 Florida Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20002 Contact: DOECorporateRecruitment@hq.doe.govhttp://bit.ly/1vjfWjFThis event was rescheduled due to inclement...

  20. 2013 Progress Report -- DOE Joint Genome Institute None 59 BASIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bit.lyJGI-Vision for the Institute. A central focus of this Strategic Vision is to bridge the gap between sequenced genomes and an understanding of biological functions at the...

  1. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bit ly JGI Vision for the Institute A central focus of this Strategic Vision is to bridge the gap between sequenced genomes and an understanding of biological functions at the...

  2. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bit.lyJGI-Vision for the Institute. A central focus of this Strategic Vision is to bridge the gap between sequenced genomes and an understanding of biological functions at the...

  3. Naval Support Activity (NSA) in Bethesda Employment Education Fair

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Location: NSA Bethesda Fitness Center (Gymnasium, Bldg 17), 8901 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, MD 20889Attendees: Donna Friend (HC) and Rauland Sharp (HC)POC: Donna FriendWebsite: http://bit.ly/1yTjTNu

  4. WAR DEPARTaMMeNT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    It is estixstad or:ly nsa apasifioatim billets will be extmdad ., during Pm-oh sad April. Yisld of haala from new billets is eatizatsd at S and ou old billets at-83. C'n this ...

  5. INTERIOR

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    September lyGg by R. M. Hamilton, B. E. Smith and J. H. Healy Own-File R e w r t 1970 ... R. M. Hamilton, B. E : Smith, and J. 11. Healy . . . . . ' 16 February 1970 . . . . . . S ...

  6. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  7. CyberShake3.0: Physics-Based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility CyberShake3.0: Physics-Based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis PI Name: Thomas Jordan PI Email: tjordan@usc.edu Institution: University of Southern California Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 2,000,000 Year: 2012 Research Domain: Earth Science Recent destructive earthquakes including Haiti (2010), Chile (2010), New Zealand( 2011), and Japan (2011) highlight the national and international need for improved seismic hazard

  8. Large-scale clustering of Lymanα emission intensity from SDSS/BOSS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Croft, Rupert A. C.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Zheng, Zheng; Bolton, Adam; Dawson, Kyle S.; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; York, Donald G.; Eisenstein, Daniel; Brinkmann, Jon; Brownstein, Joel; et al

    2016-01-27

    Here we present a tentative detection of the large-scale structure of Ly α emission in the Universe at redshifts z = 2–3.5 by measuring the cross-correlation of Ly α surface brightness with quasars in Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We use a million spectra targeting luminous red galaxies at z < 0.8, after subtracting a best-fitting model galaxy spectrum from each one, as an estimate of the high-redshift Ly α surface brightness. The quasar–Ly α emission cross-correlation is detected on scales 1 ~ 15h₋1 Mpc, with shape consistent with a ΛCDM model with Ωm =0.30±0.100.07. The predicted amplitudemore » of this cross- correlation is proportional to the product of the mean Lyα surface brightness, {μα}, the amplitude of mass density fluctuations, and the quasar and Lyα emission bias factors. Using published cosmological observations to constrain the amplitude of mass fluctuations and the quasar bias factor, we infer the value of the product {μα} (bα /3) = (3.9±0.9)×10₋21 erg s₋1 cm₋2 °A₋1 arcsec₋2, where bα is the Lyα emission linear bias factor. If the dominant sources of Lyα emission we measure are star forming galaxies, we infer a total mean star formation rate density of ρSFR = (0.28 ± 0.07)(3/bα ) yr₋1 Mpc₋3 at z = 2 ₋ 3.5. For bα = 3, this value is a factor of 21 ₋ 35 above previous estimates relying on individually detected Lyα emitters, although it is consistent with the total star-formation density derived from dust-corrected, continuum UV surveys. Our observations therefore imply that 97% of the Lyα emission in the Universe at these redshifts is undetected in previous surveys of Lyα emitters. Our detected Lyα emission is also much greater, by at least an order of magnitude, than that measured from stacking analyses of faint halos surrounding previously detected Lyα emitters, but we speculate that it arises from similar low surface brightness Lyα halos surrounding all

  9. NARROWBAND IMAGING OF ESCAPING LYMAN-CONTINUUM EMISSION IN THE SSA22 FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nestor, Daniel B.; Shapley, Alice E.; Steidel, Charles C.; Siana, Brian

    2011-07-20

    We present the results of an ultradeep, narrowband imaging survey for Lyman-continuum (LyC) emission at z {approx} 3 in the SSA22a field. We employ a custom narrowband filter centered at {lambda} = 3640 A (NB3640), which probes the LyC region for galaxies at z {>=} 3.06. We also analyze new and archival NB4980 imaging tuned to the wavelength of the Ly{alpha} emission line at z = 3.09, and archival broadband B, V, and R images of the non-ionizing UV continuum. Our NB3640 images contain 26 z {>=} 3.06 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) as well as a set of 130 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs), identified by their excess NB4980 flux relative to the BV continuum. Six LBGs and 28 LAEs are detected in the NB3640 image. LBGs appear to span a range of NB3640-R colors, while LAEs appear bimodal in their NB3640-R properties. We estimate average UV-to-LyC flux density ratios, corrected for foreground contamination and intergalactic medium absorption, finding (F{sub UV}/F{sub LyC}){sup LBG}{sub corr} = 11.3{sup +10.3}{sub -5.4}, which implies an LBG LyC escape fraction f{sup LyC}{sub esc} {approx} 0.1, and (F{sub UV}/F{sub LyC}){sup LAE}{sub corr} = 2.2{sup +0.9}{sub -0.6}. The strikingly blue LAE flux density ratios defy interpretation in terms of standard stellar population models. Assuming (F{sub UV}/F{sub LyC}){sup LBG}{sub corr} applies down to L = 0.1L*, we estimate a galaxy contribution to the intergalactic hydrogen ionization rate that is consistent with independent estimates based on the Ly{alpha} forest opacity at z {approx_equal} 3. If we assume that (F{sub UV}/F{sub LyC}){sup LAE}{sub corr} holds at the faintest luminosities, the galaxy contribution significantly exceeds that inferred from the Ly{alpha} forest. We interpret our results in terms of a model where LyC photons escape over only {approx}10%-20% of solid angle. When advantageously oriented, a galaxy will exhibit a low UV-to-LyC ratio, an effect enhanced for more compact galaxies. This model, however, does not adequately

  10. A REFINED ESTIMATE OF THE IONIZING EMISSIVITY FROM GALAXIES AT z {approx_equal} 3: SPECTROSCOPIC FOLLOW-UP IN THE SSA22a FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nestor, Daniel B.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kornei, Katherine A.; Steidel, Charles C.; Siana, Brian

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the contribution of star-forming galaxies to the ionizing background at z {approx} 3, building on previous work based on narrowband (NB3640) imaging in the SSA22a field. We use new Keck/LRIS spectra of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and narrowband-selected Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) to measure redshifts for 16 LBGs and 87 LAEs at z > 3.055, such that our NB3640 imaging probes the Lyman-continuum (LyC) region. When we include the existing set of spectroscopically confirmed LBGs, our total sample with z > 3.055 consists of 41 LBGs and 91 LAEs, of which 9 LBGs and 20 LAEs are detected in our NB3640 image. With our combined imaging and spectroscopic data sets, we critically investigate the origin of NB3640 emission for detected LBGs and LAEs. We remove from our samples three LBGs and three LAEs with spectroscopic evidence of contamination of their NB3640 flux by foreground galaxies and statistically model the effects of additional, unidentified foreground contaminants. The resulting contamination and LyC-detection rates, respectively, are 62% {+-} 13% and 8% {+-} 3% for our LBG sample, and 47% {+-} 10% and 12% {+-} 2% for our LAE sample. The corresponding ratios of non-ionizing UV to LyC flux density, corrected for intergalactic medium (IGM) attenuation, are 18.0{sup +34.8} {sub -7.4} for LBGs and 3.7{sup +2.5} {sub -1.1} for LAEs. We use these ratios to estimate the total contribution of star-forming galaxies to the ionizing background and the hydrogen photoionization rate in the IGM, finding values larger than, but consistent with, those measured in the Ly{alpha} forest. Finally, the measured UV to LyC flux-density ratios imply model-dependent LyC escape fractions of f {sup LyC} {sub esc} {approx} 5%-7% for our LBG sample and f {sup LyC} {sub esc} {approx} 10%-30% for our fainter LAE sample.

  11. Influence of Lymphatic Invasion on Locoregional Recurrence Following Mastectomy: Indication for Postmastectomy Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer Patients With One to Three Positive Nodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunuma, Ryoichi; Oguchi, Masahiko; Fujikane, Tomoko; Matsuura, Masaaki; Sakai, Takehiko; Kimura, Kiyomi; Morizono, Hidetomo; Iijima, Kotaro; Izumori, Ayumi; Miyagi, Yumi; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Makita, Masujiro; Gomi, Naoya; Horii, Rie; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The indication for postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes has been in discussion. The purpose of this study was to identify patient groups for whom PMRT may be indicated, focusing on varied locoregional recurrence rates depending on lymphatic invasion (ly) status. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 1,994 node-positive patients who had undergone mastectomy without postoperative radiotherapy between January 1990 and December 2000 at our hospital was performed. Patient groups for whom PMRT should be indicated were assessed using statistical tests based on the relationship between locoregional recurrence rate and ly status. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that the ly status affected the locoregional recurrence rate to as great a degree as the number of positive lymph nodes (p < 0.001). Especially for patients with one to three positive nodes, extensive ly was a more significant factor than stage T3 in the TNM staging system for locoregional recurrence (p < 0.001 vs. p = 0.295). Conclusion: Among postmastectomy patients with one to three positive lymph nodes, patients with extensive ly seem to require local therapy regimens similar to those used for patients with four or more positive nodes and also seem to require consideration of the use of PMRT.

  12. The mystery of spectral breaks: Lyman continuum absorption by photon-photon pair production in the Fermi GeV spectra of bright blazars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, Boris E. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Poutanen, Juri, E-mail: stern.boris@gmail.com, E-mail: juri.poutanen@utu.fi [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Vislntie 20, FI-21500 Piikki (Finland)

    2014-10-10

    We re-analyze Fermi/LAT ?-ray spectra of bright blazars using the new Pass 7 version of the detector response files and detect breaks at ?5 GeV in the rest-frame spectra of 3C 454.3 and possibly also 4C +21.35, associated with the photon-photon pair production absorption by the He II Lyman continuum (LyC). We also detect significant breaks at ?20 GeV associated with hydrogen LyC in both the individual spectra and the stacked redshift-corrected spectrum of several bright blazars. The detected breaks in the stacked spectra univocally prove that they are associated with atomic ultraviolet emission features of the quasar broad-line region (BLR). The dominance of the absorption by the hydrogen Ly complex over He II, a small detected optical depth, and break energy consistent with head-on collisions with LyC photons imply that the ?-ray emission site is located within the BLR, but most of the BLR emission comes from a flat disk-like structure producing little opacity. Alternatively, the LyC emission region size might be larger than the BLR size measured from reverberation mapping, and/or the ?-ray emitting region is extended. These solutions would resolve the long-standing issue of how the multi-hundred GeV photons can escape from the emission zone without being absorbed by softer photons.

  13. Slide 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    integration * Issues missed in the implementation of the STD - Level of hazard analysis (HA) as a function of design stage - Nuclear criticality safety not included in HA and...

  14. Sandia R E S E A R H J

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a n a u r y 2 0 1 5 * Vo l 2 , Is s u e 3 When you A B S O LU T E LY P O S I T I V E LY have to get it right 2 w w w. s a n d i a . g o v Sandia Research is a quarterly magazine published by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multiprogram engi- neering and science laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy. With main facilities in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California, Sandia has research and development

  15. "Ask Argonne" - Charlie Catlett, Computer Scientist, Part 2

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Catlett, Charlie

    2014-07-15

    A few weeks back, computer scientist Charlie Catlett talked a bit about the work he does and invited questions from the public during Part 1 of his "Ask Argonne" video set (http://bit.ly/1joBtzk). In Part 2, he answers some of the questions that were submitted. Enjoy!

  16. "Ask Argonne" - Robert Jacob, Climate Scientist, Part 2

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jacob, Robert

    2014-11-24

    Previously, climate scientist Robert Jacob talked a bit about the work he does and invited questions from the public during Part 1 of his "Ask Argonne" video set (http://bit.ly/1aK6WDv). In Part 2, he answers some of the questions that were submitted.

  17. DOE HQ Special Needs in an Emergency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    T he in fo rm at io n m ay be ag gr eg at ed in to li st s, ch ar ts , an d or gr ap hs . In fo rm at io n pr ov id ed ne ed on ly de sc ri be th e ki nd of as si st an ce re qu ...

  18. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The peak spectral energies of the aluminum He-alpha and Ly-alpha resonance lines weremore 1.8 and 1.0 mJeV sr (0.4 and 0.25 J sr), respectively, for 220 J, 10 ps laser ...

  19. A Dual-Channel, Curved-Crystal Spectrograph for Petawatt Laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The peak spectral energies of the aluminum He-alpha and Ly-alpha resonance lines were 1.8 and 1.0 mJeV sr (0.4 and 0.25 J sr), respectively, for 220 J, 10 ps laser ...

  20. "Ask Argonne" - Robert Jacob, Climate Scientist, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob, Robert

    2014-01-08

    Previously, climate scientist Robert Jacob talked a bit about the work he does and invited questions from the public during Part 1 of his "Ask Argonne" video set (http://bit.ly/1aK6WDv). In Part 2, he answers some of the questions that were submitted.

  1. THE PHOTON UNDERPRODUCTION CRISIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Weinberg, David H.; McEwen, Joseph; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Danforth, Charles; Haardt, Francesco; Katz, Neal; Fardal, Mark; Davé, Romeel; Madau, Piero; Ford, Amanda B.; Peeples, Molly S.

    2014-07-10

    We examine the statistics of the low-redshift Lyα forest from smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations in light of recent improvements in the estimated evolution of the cosmic ultraviolet background (UVB) and recent observations from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). We find that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate (Γ{sub HI}) required by our simulations to match the observed properties of the low-redshift Lyα forest is a factor of five larger than the value predicted by state-of-the art models for the evolution of this quantity. This mismatch in Γ{sub HI} results in the mean flux decrement of the Lyα forest being overpredicted by at least a factor of two (a 10σ discrepancy with observations) and a column density distribution of Lyα forest absorbers systematically and significantly elevated compared to observations over nearly two decades in column density. We examine potential resolutions to this mismatch and find that either conventional sources of ionizing photons (galaxies and quasars) must contribute considerably more than current observational estimates or our theoretical understanding of the low-redshift universe is in need of substantial revision.

  2. "Ask Argonne" - Charlie Catlett, Computer Scientist, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catlett, Charlie

    2014-06-17

    A few weeks back, computer scientist Charlie Catlett talked a bit about the work he does and invited questions from the public during Part 1 of his "Ask Argonne" video set (http://bit.ly/1joBtzk). In Part 2, he answers some of the questions that were submitted. Enjoy!

  3. A SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR LEAKING LYMAN CONTINUUM AT z {approx} 0.7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bridge, Carrie R.; Siana, Brian; Salvato, Mara; Rudie, Gwen C.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Scarlata, Claudia; Colbert, James; Armus, Lee; Conselice, Christopher J.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Brown, Thomas M.; Giavalisco, Mauro; De Mello, Duilia F.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-09-01

    We present the results of rest-frame, UV slitless spectroscopic observations of a sample of 32 z {approx} 0.7 Lyman break galaxy (LBG) analogs in the COSMOS field. The spectroscopic search was performed with the Solar Blind Channel on the Hubble Space Telescope. We report the detection of leaking Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation from an active galactic nucleus-starburst composite. While we find no direct detections of LyC emission in the remainder of our sample, we achieve individual lower limits (3{sigma}) of the observed non-ionizing UV-to-LyC flux density ratios, f{sub {nu}} (1500 A)/f{sub {nu}}(830 A) of 20 to 204 (median of 73.5) and 378.7 for the stack. Assuming an intrinsic Lyman break of 3.4 and an intergalactic medium transmission of LyC photons along the line of sight to the galaxy of 85%, we report an upper limit for the relative escape fraction in individual galaxies of 0.02-0.19 and a stacked 3{sigma} upper limit of 0.01. We find no indication of a relative escape fraction near unity as seen in some LBGs at z {approx} 3. Our UV spectra achieve the deepest limits to date at any redshift for the escape fraction in individual sources. The contrast between these z {approx} 0.7 low escape fraction LBG analogs with z {approx} 3 LBGs suggests that either the processes conducive to high f{sub esc} are not being selected for in the z {approx}< 1 samples or the average escape fraction is decreasing from z {approx} 3 to z {approx} 1. We discuss possible mechanisms that could affect the escape of LyC photons.

  4. 6-Thioguanine-loaded polymeric micelles deplete myeloid-derived suppressor cells and enhance the efficacy of T cell immunotherapy in tumor-bearing mice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeanbart, Laura; Kourtis, Iraklis C.; van der Vlies, André J.; Swartz, Melody A.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-16

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that suppress effector T cell responses and can reduce the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies. We previously showed that ultra-small polymer nanoparticles efficiently drain to the lymphatics after intradermal injection and target antigen-presenting cells, including Ly6chi Ly6g₋monocytic MDSCs (Mo-MDSCs), in skin-draining lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen. Here, we developed ultra-small polymer micelles loaded with 6-thioguanine (MC-TG), a cytotoxic drug used in the treatment of myelogenous leukemia, with the aim of killing Mo-MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice and thus enhancing T cell-mediated anti-tumor responses. We found that 2 days post-injection inmore » tumor-bearing mice (B16-F10 melanoma or E.G7-OVA thymoma), MC-TG depleted Mo-MDSCs in the spleen, Ly6clo Ly6g+ granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs) in the draining LNs, and Gr1int Mo-MDSCs in the tumor. In both tumor models, MC-TG decreased the numbers of circulating Mo- and G-MDSCs, as well as of Ly6chi macrophages, for up to 7 days following a single administration. MDSC depletion was dose dependent and more effective with MC-TG than with equal doses of free TG. Finally, we tested whether this MDSC-depleting strategy might enhance cancer immunotherapies in the B16-F10 melanoma model. We found that MC-TG significantly improved the efficacy of adoptively transferred, OVA-specific CD8+ T cells in melanoma cells expressing OVA. Ultimately, these findings highlight the capacity of MC-TG in depleting MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment and show promise in promoting anti-tumor immunity when used in combination with T cell immunotherapies.« less

  5. 9C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements 1965HA09: 9C; measured + delayed-proton decay, T12. 1971ESZR, 1972ES05: 9C; measured -delayed p-spectrum, T12. 1971HA05: 9C; measured T12. 1971MO01: 9C; ...

  6. Antibody Recognition of the Influenza Hemagglutinin by Receptor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to have neutralizing activity against divergent HA subtypes such as H3, H1, H2, and H5.2 The antibody binding site was mapped near the HA receptor binding site on the basis of...

  7. Search for: All records | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... USDA Grazinglands Research Laboratory near El Reno, OK. One of two adjacent 35 ha plots, ... USDA Grazinglands Research Laboratory near El Reno, OK. One of two adjacent 35 ha plots ...

  8. Regulation of ozone-induced lung inflammation and injury by the β-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Francis, Mary; Vayas, Kinal N.; Cervelli, Jessica A.; Choi, Hyejeong; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2015-04-15

    Macrophages play a dual role in ozone toxicity, contributing to both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a lectin known to regulate macrophage activity. Herein, we analyzed the role of Gal-3 in the response of lung macrophages to ozone. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 24–72 h after exposure (3 h) of WT and Gal-3{sup -/-} mice to air or 0.8 ppm ozone. In WT mice, ozone inhalation resulted in increased numbers of proinflammatory (Gal-3{sup +}, iNOS{sup +}) and anti-inflammatory (MR-1{sup +}) macrophages in the lungs. While accumulation of iNOS{sup +} macrophages was attenuated in Gal-3{sup -/-} mice, increased numbers of enlarged MR-1{sup +} macrophages were noted. This correlated with increased numbers of macrophages in BAL. Flow cytometric analysis showed that these cells were CD11b{sup +} and consisted mainly (> 97%) of mature (F4/80{sup +}CD11c{sup +}) proinflammatory (Ly6GLy6C{sup hi}) and anti-inflammatory (Ly6GLy6C{sup lo}) macrophages. Increases in both macrophage subpopulations were observed following ozone inhalation. Loss of Gal-3 resulted in a decrease in Ly6C{sup hi} macrophages, with no effect on Ly6C{sup lo} macrophages. CD11b{sup +}Ly6G{sup +}Ly6C{sup +} granulocytic (G) and monocytic (M) myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were also identified in the lung after ozone. In Gal-3{sup -/-} mice, the response of G-MDSC to ozone was attenuated, while the response of M-MDSC was heightened. Changes in inflammatory cell populations in the lung of ozone treated Gal-3{sup -/-} mice were correlated with reduced tissue injury as measured by cytochrome b5 expression. These data demonstrate that Gal-3 plays a role in promoting proinflammatory macrophage accumulation and toxicity in the lung following ozone exposure. - Highlights: • Multiple monocytic-macrophage subpopulations accumulate in the lung after ozone inhalation. • Galectin-3 plays a proinflammatory role in ozone-induced lung injury. • In the

  9. A=11C (1975AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1972LE1L, 1973HA49, 1973SA30, 1974ME19). Cluster and collective model: (1972LE1L). Special levels: (1969HA1G, 1969HA1F, 1972MS01,...

  10. Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crank, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-{alpha} to He-{alpha} emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

  11. Theoretical model for plasma expansion generated by hypervelocity impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingming Zhang, Dongjiang; Long, Renrong; Chen, Li; Huang, Fenglei; Gong, Zizheng

    2014-09-15

    The hypervelocity impact experiments of spherical LY12 aluminum projectile diameter of 6.4?mm on LY12 aluminum target thickness of 23?mm have been conducted using a two-stage light gas gun. The impact velocity of the projectile is 5.2, 5.7, and 6.3?km/s, respectively. The experimental results show that the plasma phase transition appears under the current experiment conditions, and the plasma expansion consists of accumulation, equilibrium, and attenuation. The plasma characteristic parameters decrease as the plasma expands outward and are proportional with the third power of the impact velocity, i.e., (T{sub e}, n{sub e})???v{sub p}{sup 3}. Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model on the plasma expansion is developed and the theoretical results are consistent with the experimental data.

  12. Microsoft Word - 1918flu.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Figure 1. Ribbon representation of the hemagglutinin HA0 trimer from the 1918 influenza virus. Each monomer possesses two important sites: 1) the 'Receptor binding site' (blue shade) for virus attachment to the host lung epithelial cells via sialic acid containing host cell receptors. 2) the 'Cleavage site' where for full infectivity, the single chain (HA0) is cut into two chains (HA1 colored red and HA2 colored green). At the N-terminal end of the HA2 chain is the fusion peptide which is

  13. 2013 Progress Report -- DOE Joint Genome Institute (Program Document) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Program Document: 2013 Progress Report -- DOE Joint Genome Institute Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2013 Progress Report -- DOE Joint Genome Institute In October 2012, we introduced a 10-Year Strategic Vision [http://bit.ly/JGI-Vision] for the Institute. A central focus of this Strategic Vision is to bridge the gap between sequenced genomes and an understanding of biological functions at the organism and ecosystem level. This involves the continued massive-scale

  14. D

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... f i c u l t o zp?ly. f h 2 '"jccause 02 t1 . 2 i n n a t e vari.ebilltjr wit5 an z p ... To allor.: f o r i.nd4vidusl v s i - i b f l T t y i t 1.611 t h e n be n e c e s s a r ...

  15. Layout 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    32 0163-6804/11/$25.00 © 2011 IEEE INTRODUCTION A grid network is a collection of geographical- ly distributed resources, such as storage clus- ters, supercomputers, and scientific equipment, that are accessible to users over a network. Examples of e-Science grids include the Large Hadron Collider Computing Grid Project, the Biomedical Informatics Research Network, and the George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering and Simulation. These networks typically deal with the trans- fer of

  16. Field Validation of an On-Line FTIR Analyzer for Measuring Total...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    F Fi ie el ld d V Va al li id da at ti io on n o of f a an n O On n- -L Li in ne e F FT TI IR R A An na al ly yz ze er r f fo or r M Me ea as su ur ri in ng g T To ot ta al l S Si ...

  17. THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AND FEEDBACK IN THE PROGENITORS OF THE COMPACT PASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Bomee; Tundo, Elena; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman; Trump, Jonathan R.; Cassata, Paolo; Dekel, Avishai; Guo, Yicheng; Pentericci, Laura; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea; Bell, Eric F.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; and others

    2015-02-10

    Quenched galaxies at z > 2 are nearly all very compact relative to z ∼ 0, suggesting a physical connection between high stellar density and efficient, rapid cessation of star-formation. We present rest-frame UV spectra of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ∼ 3 selected to be candidate progenitors of the quenched galaxies at z ∼ 2 based on their compact rest-frame-optical sizes and high Σ{sub SFR}. We compare their UV properties to those of more extended LBGs of similar mass and star-formation rate (non-candidates). We find that candidate progenitors have faster bulk interstellar medium (ISM) gas velocities and higher equivalent widths of interstellar absorption lines, implying larger velocity spread among absorbing clouds. Candidates deviate from the relationship between equivalent widths of Lyα and interstellar absorption lines in that their Lyα emission remains strong despite high interstellar absorption, possibly indicating that the neutral H I fraction is patchy, such that Lyα photons can escape. We detect stronger C IV P-Cygni features (emission and absorption) and He II emission in candidates, indicative of larger populations of metal-rich Wolf-Rayet stars compared to non-candidates. The faster bulk motions, broader spread of gas velocity, and Lyα properties of candidates are consistent with their ISM being subject to more energetic feedback than non-candidates. Together with their larger metallicity (implying more evolved star-formation activity) this leads us to propose, if speculatively, that they are likely to quench sooner than non-candidates, supporting the validity of selection criteria used to identify them as progenitors of z ∼ 2 passive galaxies. We propose that massive, compact galaxies undergo more rapid growth of their stellar mass content, perhaps because the gas accretion mechanisms are different, and quench sooner than normally sized LBGs at these (early) epochs.

  18. Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-{alpha}-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi; Bakule, Pavel; Yokoyama, Koji; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko

    2011-09-15

    We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-{alpha} (Ly-{alpha}) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-{alpha} generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-{alpha} radiation generation can achieve a value of {approx}5x10{sup -4} which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

  19. Vacuum ultraviolet emission spectrum measurement of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp in several configurations: Application to photodesorption of CO ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Wu, C.-Y. R.; Chuang, K.-J.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Nuevo, M.; Ip, W.-H.

    2014-01-20

    We report measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission spectra of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp (MDHL), a common tool in astrochemistry laboratories working on ice VUV photoprocessing. The MDHL provides hydrogen Ly-α (121.6 nm) and H{sub 2} molecular emission in the 110-180 nm range. We show that the spectral characteristics of the VUV light emitted in this range, in particular the relative proportion of Ly-α to molecular emission bands, strongly depend on the pressure of H{sub 2} inside the lamp, the lamp geometry (F type versus T type), the gas used (pure H{sub 2} versus H{sub 2} seeded in He), and the optical properties of the window used (MgF{sub 2} versus CaF{sub 2}). These different configurations are used to study the VUV irradiation of CO ice at 14 K. In contrast to the majority of studies dedicated to the VUV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs, which have not taken into consideration the emission spectrum of the MDHL, our results show that the processes induced by photons in CO ice from a broad energy range are different and more complex than the sum of individual processes induced by monochromatic sources spanning the same energy range, as a result of the existence of multistate electronic transitions and discrepancy in absorption cross sections between parent molecules and products in the Ly-α and H{sub 2} molecular emission ranges.

  20. A LYMAN BREAK GALAXY IN THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cohen, Seth; Zheng Zhenya; Stern, Daniel; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Peth, Michael A.; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Hathi, Nimish; Budavari, Tamas; Ferreras, Ignacio; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Haiman, Zoltan; Kuemmel, Martin; Meurer, Gerhardt; and others

    2013-08-10

    We present observations of a luminous galaxy at z = 6.573-the end of the reionization epoch-which has been spectroscopically confirmed twice. The first spectroscopic confirmation comes from slitless Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically), which show a dramatic continuum break in the spectrum at rest frame 1216 A. The second confirmation is done with Keck + DEIMOS. The continuum is not clearly detected with ground-based spectra, but high wavelength resolution enables the Ly{alpha} emission line profile to be determined. We compare the line profile to composite line profiles at z = 4.5. The Ly{alpha} line profile shows no signature of a damping wing attenuation, confirming that the intergalactic gas is ionized at z = 6.57. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms, even at redshifts where Ly{alpha} is too attenuated by the neutral intergalactic medium to be detectable using traditional spectroscopy from the ground.

  1. A DEEP HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SEARCH FOR ESCAPING LYMAN CONTINUUM FLUX AT z {approx} 1.3: EVIDENCE FOR AN EVOLVING IONIZING EMISSIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siana, Brian; Bridge, Carrie R.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Colbert, James W.; Scarlata, Claudia; Ferguson, Henry C.; Brown, Thomas M.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Dickinson, Mark; De Mello, Duilia F.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-11-01

    We have obtained deep Hubble Space Telescope far-UV images of 15 starburst galaxies at z {approx} 1.3 in the GOODS fields to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) photons. These are the deepest far-UV images (m{sub AB} = 28.7, 3{sigma}, 1'' diameter) over this large an area (4.83 arcmin{sup 2}) and provide some of the best escape fraction constraints for any galaxies at any redshift. We do not detect any individual galaxies, with 3{sigma} limits to the LyC ({approx}700 A) flux 50-149 times fainter (in f{sub {nu}}) than the rest-frame UV (1500 A) continuum fluxes. Correcting for the mean intergalactic medium (IGM) attenuation (factor {approx}2), as well as an intrinsic stellar Lyman break (factor {approx}3), these limits translate to relative escape fraction limits of f{sub esc,rel} < [0.03, 0.21]. The stacked limit is f{sub esc,rel}(3{sigma}) < 0.02. We use a Monte Carlo simulation to properly account for the expected distribution of line-of-sight IGM opacities. When including constraints from previous surveys at z {approx} 1.3 we find that, at the 95% confidence level, no more than 8% of star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 1.3 can have relative escape fractions greater than 0.50. Alternatively, if the majority of galaxies have low, but non-zero, escaping LyC, the escape fraction cannot be more than 0.04. In light of some evidence for strong LyC emission from UV-faint regions of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z {approx} 3, we also stack sub-regions of our galaxies with different surface brightnesses and detect no significant LyC flux at the f{sub esc,rel} < 0.03 level. Both the stacked limits and the limits from the Monte Carlo simulation suggest that the average ionizing emissivity (relative to non-ionizing UV emissivity) at z {approx} 1.3 is significantly lower than has been observed in LBGs at z {approx} 3. If the ionizing emissivity of star-forming galaxies is in fact increasing with redshift, it would help to explain the high photoionization rates seen in

  2. Department of Energy Earned Value Management Survey Results ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Earned Value Management Survey Results Department of Energy Earned Value Management Survey Results Humphreys & Associates, Inc. (H&A) conducted a survey of ...

  3. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    waste (LAW) Melter Off-gas system; observed a portion of the HA activities; and met with responsible Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI) personnel to discuss observations. ...

  4. Carbon Limiting Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limiting Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Limiting Technologies Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: N1 8HA Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based...

  5. Investigating the presence of 500 μm submillimeter excess emission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States) Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United ...

  6. A first site of galaxy cluster formation: complete spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chiba 277-8582 (Japan) Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom) Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, ...

  7. Unveiling the Nature of the Unidentified Gamma-ray Sources IV...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Paggi, A. ; Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ. ; Massaro, F. ; SLAC KIPAC, Menlo Park ; D'Abrusco, R. ; Smith, H.A. ; Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ. ; Masetti, N. ; IASF, ...

  8. South Dakota State University SGI/DOE Regional Biomass Feedstock...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... corn stover, sorghum, and switchgrass * GIS analyses revealed that railroads and ... TX, July. * Ha, M., C. Munster, S. Capareda, D. Vietor, T. Provin, and M. Palma. 2011. GIS ...

  9. Most Viewed Documents - Geosciences | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geosciences Temperature Profiles and Hydrologic Implications from the Nevada Test Site David Gillespie (2005) 3-D full waveform inversion of seismic data; Part I. Theory Lee, Ki Ha ...

  10. Hydroxylapatite Otologic Implants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Beale, B.; Johnson, R.

    2000-01-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMER) and Smith and Nephew Richards Inc. of Bartlett, TN, was initiated in March 1997. The original completion date for the Agreement was March 25, 1998. The purpose of this work is to develop and commercialize net shape forming methods for directly creating dense hydroxylapatite (HA) ceramic otologic implants. The project includes three tasks: (1) modification of existing gelcasting formulations to accommodate HA slurries; (2) demonstration of gelcasting to fabricate green HA ceramic components of a size and shape appropriate to otologic implants: and (3) sintering and evaluation of the HA components.

  11. Hr. Andrew Wallo The Aerospace Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    No additional cments are included; therefore, a careful editoria review of these documents should be made when the documents are finalized. t 1. Watertown Arsenal, Watertown, HA ...

  12. Letter Report Final SA _01-17-01_.PDF

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    01 Constitution Avenue, NW, HA274, Washington, DC 20418 Telephone (202) 334 3376 Fax (202) 334 3370 Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment January 17, 2001...

  13. Wind Energy Hearthstanes Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hearthstanes Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wind Energy (Hearthstanes) Ltd Place: LONDON, England, United Kingdom Zip: EC4R 9HA Sector: Wind energy Product: Special purpose...

  14. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage Citation Details ... Title: Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage Authors: Ha, ...

  15. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using a High Resolution Numerical Weather Model Braun, J., Ha, S.Y., Rocken, C., and Kuo, Y.H., UCARCOSMIC Fourteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team...

  16. Chemical Process Hazards Analysis (DOE-HDBK-1100-2004)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Department of Transportation ERPG Emergency Response Planning Guideline EVC Equilibrium Vapor ... In addition, the PrHA team may determine that human factors problems are of ...

  17. A=20Ne (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (1988CS01), distribution of -particle strength (1988LE05), cluster formation in the cluster-orbital shell model (1990HA38), the microscopic complex effective interaction for...

  18. Plovdiv Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The project developer Plovdiv Solar Ltd. and Sinosol Group will jointly realize photovoltaic power plants on a 330 ha project site near Lyubimets. References: Plovdiv Solar1...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (1) energy facilities (1) energy planning, policy and ... for grid storage Ha, Seungbum ; Gallagher, Kevin G. November 2015 , Elsevier Estimating the system price of redox ...

  20. Microsoft Word - ViArray_Fact_ Sheet_SAND2011-3935P_updated_format...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    decoupling ude: & Control tion itoring Parts & FPG vironment op ility System boratories ha pplications. services" wi me custom ra aging, test, fa om microele Hard S tructured Ap...

  1. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (LW) radiative cooling and evaporative cooling at the cloud top (Wood 2012; Shin and Ha 2009). The vertical and horizontal structures of stratocumulus are strongly tied to the...

  2. PI3K/Akt is involved in brown adipogenesis mediated by growth differentiation factor-5 in association with activation of the Smad pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takumi; Odaka, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Akt is preferentially phosphorylated in BAT and sWAT of aP2-GDF5 mice. • PI3K/Akt signaling is involved in GDF5-induced brown adipogenesis. • PI3K/Akt signaling regulates GDF5-induced Smad5 phosphorylation. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated promotion by growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) of brown adipogenesis for systemic energy expenditure through a mechanism relevant to activating the bone morphological protein (BMP) receptor/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Here, we show the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in brown adipogenesis mediated by GDF5. Overexpression of GDF5 in cells expressing adipocyte protein-2 markedly accelerated the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt in white and brown adipose tissues. In brown adipose tissue from heterozygous GDF5{sup Rgsc451} mutant mice expressing a dominant-negative (DN) GDF5 under obesogenic conditions, the basal phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt was significantly attenuated. Exposure to GDF5 not only promoted the phosphorylation of both Smad1/5/8 and Akt in cultured brown pre-adipocytes, but also up-regulated Pgc1a and uncoupling protein-1 expression in a manner sensitive to the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Ly294002 as well as retroviral infection with DN-Akt. GDF5 drastically promoted BMP-responsive luciferase reporter activity in a Ly294002-sensitive fashion. Both Ly294002 and DN-Akt markedly inhibited phosphorylation of Smad5 in the nuclei of brown pre-adipocytes. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt signals play a role in the GDF5-mediated brown adipogenesis through a mechanism related to activation of the Smad pathway.

  3. Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies at 2 < z < 3: Towards a Calibrated Probe of Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caryl Gronwall

    2012-12-03

    The goal of this project was to establish the physical properties of Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies from redshifts of 2 to 3 in order to better calibrate the use of LAEs as probes of the large scale structure of the universe for upcoming dark energy experiments, such as the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). We have obtained narrow-band imaging of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) in two different narrow-band filters centered at Ly{alpha} at z=2.1 and 3.1. The resulting of samples of LAEs were used to determine the LAE luminosity function, equivalent width distribution and clustering properties (bias) of LAEs at these redshifts. While the results from the ECDF-S appear robust, they are based on a single field. To explore the effects of cosmic variance and galaxy environment on the physical properties of LAEs, we have also obtained narrow-band data at both redshifts (z = 2:1 and 3:1) in three additional fields (SDSS 1030+-05, the Extended Hubble Deep Field South, and CW 1255+01). The narrow-band imaging data has been reduced and LAE catalogs are being generated. We have calculated preliminary luminosity functions, equivalent width distributions, and clustering properties. We have also obtained follow-up spectroscopy in the optical (using VLT/FORS) and in the near-infrared (using Magellan/MMIRS). Since individual LAEs have too little S/N to enable meaningful fits for stellar population parameters, our previous work has analyzed stacked Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). SED fitting was performed on several subsets of LAEs selected by their rest-UV luminosity, UV spectral slope, Ly alpha luminosity, Equivalent Width, or rest-optical (IRAC) luminosity.

  4. PROBING THE SOLAR WIND ACCELERATION REGION WITH THE SUN-GRAZING COMET C/2002 S2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giordano, S.; Raymond, J. C.; Lamy, P.; Uzzo, M.; Dobrzycka, D.

    2015-01-01

    Comet C/2002 S2, a member of the Kreutz family of sungrazing comets, was discovered in white-light images of the Large Angle and Spectromeric Coronagraph Experiment coronagraph on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) on 2002 September 18 and observed in H I Ly? emission by the SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) instrument at four different heights as it approached the Sun. The H I Ly? line profiles detected by UVCS are analyzed to determine the spectral parameters: line intensity, width, and Doppler shift with respect to the coronal background. Two-dimensional comet images of these parameters are reconstructed at the different heights. A novel aspect of the observations of this sungrazing comet data is that, whereas the emission from most of the tail is blueshifted, that along one edge of the tail is redshifted. We attribute these shifts to a combination of solar wind speed and interaction with the magnetic field. In order to use the comet to probe the density, temperature, and speed of the corona and solar wind through which it passes, as well as to determine the outgassing rate of the comet, we develop a Monte Carlo simulation of the H I Ly? emission of a comet moving through a coronal plasma. From the outgassing rate, we estimate a nucleus diameter of about 9 m. This rate steadily increases as the comet approaches the Sun, while the optical brightness decreases by more than a factor of 10 and suddenly recovers. This indicates that the optical brightness is determined by the lifetimes of the grains, sodium atoms, and molecules produced by the comet.

  5. Intergalactic medium emission observations with the cosmic web imager. I. The circum-QSO medium of QSO 1549+19, and evidence for a filamentary gas inflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.

    2014-05-10

    The Palomar Cosmic Web Imager (PCWI), an integral field spectrograph designed to detect and map low surface brightness emission, has obtained imaging spectroscopic maps of Ly? from the circum-QSO medium (CQM) of QSO HS1549+19 at redshift z = 2.843. Extensive extended emission is detected from the CQM, consistent with fluorescent and pumped Ly? produced by the ionizing and Ly? continuum of the QSO. Many features present in PCWI spectral images match those detected in narrow-band images. Filamentary structures with narrow line profiles are detected in several cases as long as 250-400 kpc. One of these is centered at a velocity redshifted with respect to the systemic velocity, and displays a spatially collimated and kinematically cold line profile increasing in velocity width approaching the QSO. This suggests that the filament gas is infalling onto the QSO, perhaps in a cold accretion flow. Because of the strong ionizing flux, the neutral column density is low, typically N(H I)?10{sup 12}--10{sup 15} cm{sup ?2}, and the line center optical depth is also low (typically ?{sub 0} < 10), insufficient to display well separated double peak emission characteristic of higher line optical depths. With a simple ionization and cloud model we can very roughly estimate the total gas mass (log M {sub gas} = 12.5 0.5) and the total (log M {sub tot} = 13.3 0.5). We can also calculate a kinematic mass from the total line profile (2 10{sup 13} M {sub ?}), which agrees with the mass estimated from the gas emission. The intensity-binned spectrum of the CQM shows a progression in kinematic properties consistent with heirarchical structure formation.

  6. NREL Analysis Insights: Renewable Energy On The Grid, Redefining What's Possible (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3367 A P R I L 2 0 1 5 A N A LY S I S I N S I G H T S RENEWABLE ENERGY ON THE GRID Redefining What's Possible 2 RENEWABLE ENERGY ON THE GRID Environmental regulations, state-level portfolio standards, new methods for accessing natural gas reserves and aging power plants are opening opportunities for new electricity generation from renewable resources and natural gas. Advances in efficiency and smart grid technologies also have the potential to change historical demand curves. New renewable

  7. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .55 LyEnfant Plaro. S.W., Washingzon, D.C. 20024.2174, Telephone: (202) 488-6000 7117-03.87.cdy.27 27 May 1987 Mr. 'Andrew Wallo, III, NE:23 Division of Facility & Site Decommissioning Projects U.S. Department of Energy Germantown, Maryland: 20545 Dear Mr. Wallo: I STATUS OF ACTIONS - FUSRAP SITE LIST Aerospace recently completed .a comprehensive review of sites listed in the FUSRAP Site Investigation and Remedial Action Summary Report, dated Uecember 31, 1986. The primary objectives of this

  8. One West Third Street Tulsa Oklahoma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LaKesha Robertson Administrative Technician WNT Contractor Jonesboro Special thanks to: Pat Boone Ruben Garcia Larry Harp Darlene Low Jerry Martin Beth Nielsen Jim Sherwood Rutha Williams Jon Worthington U P D AT E S O U T H W E S T E R N P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N J U LY - S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 4 Southwestern Honored for Outstanding E-Government In a ceremony held August 4, 2004 at Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters in Washington, D.C., Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham

  9. Analysis Insights: Energy Storage - Possibilities for Expanding Electric Grid Flexibility (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    764 F E B R U A R Y 2 0 1 6 A N A LY S I S I N S I G H T S ENERGY STORAGE Possibilities for Expanding Electric Grid Flexibility POTENTIAL GRID APPLICATIONS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Seconds Minutes Hours Days Generation Transmission & Distribution End Use E ciency 85-100% 70-85% 45-70% 30-45% Energy Management Operating & Ramping Reserves Frequency Response & Regulation Provide uninterruptable power supply-provide back-up power Optimize time of use retail

  10. Microsoft Word - Document1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    pp u ly Demand Price of Electricity Supply Quantity of Electricity P P DR Q DR Q Demand DR BENEFITS OF DEMAND RESPONSE IN ELECTRICITY MARKETS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACHIEVING THEM A REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1252 OF THE ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005 U.S. Department of Energy February 2006 U.S. Department of Energy Benefits of Demand Response and Recommendations ii U.S. Department of Energy Benefits of Demand Response and Recommendations iii The Secretary [of Energy]

  11. 2013 Progress Report -- DOE Joint Genome Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    In October 2012, we introduced a 10-Year Strategic Vision [http://bit.ly/JGI-Vision] for the Institute. A central focus of this Strategic Vision is to bridge the gap between sequenced genomes and an understanding of biological functions at the organism and ecosystem level. This involves the continued massive-scale generation of sequence data, complemented by orthogonal new capabilities to functionally annotate these large sequence data sets. Our Strategic Vision lays out a path to guide our decisions and ensure that the evolving set of experimental and computational capabilities available to DOE JGI users will continue to enable groundbreaking science.

  12. Microsoft Word - SFAF2016 Meeting Guide V8a.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Santa Fe, New Mexico June 1-3, 2016 Se q u e n c i n g , F i n i s h i n g , A n a ly s i s i n t h e F u t u r e M e e t i ng 1 1 t h A n n u a l Link to agenda 11th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, and Analysis in the Future Meeting 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Agenda Overview ........................................................................................................... 3 June 1 st Agenda

  13. 14C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Neutron Capture Evaluated Data Measurements 1975SM02: 13C(n, γ); measured atomic mass. 1981MUZU: 13C(n, γ), E = thermal; measured σ(capture), ratio. 14C level deduced spectroscopic factor. 1982MU14: 13C(n, γ), E = thermal; measured σ(Eγ), Iγ; deduced capture mechanism. 1987LY01, 1987LYZY: 13C(n, γ), E = thermal; calculated capture σ. 1990RA03: 13C(n, γ), E = resonance; measured Eγ, Iγ. 14C levels deduced partial, total Γγ. Valence capture mechanism. 1992JUZZ: 13C(n, γ);

  14. Inverse Design of Mn-based ternary p-type wide-gap oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ZnO is an important prototypical wide-gap oxide semiconductor. The discrepancy between band- structure theory and ARPES is removed by a correction for the Zn-d band energy in GW calculations. Significance and Impact The present approach improves the capability for property prediction and design of energy materials. Benchmarking Band-Structure Calculations Against Angular-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) for ZnO L.Y. Lim, S. Lany, Y.J. Chang, E. Rotenberg, A. Zunger, M.F. Toney,

  15. Assessing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dental disease in minutes Understanding climate change Keeping watch on the world SPRING 2007 S A N D I A T E C H N O L O G Y A Q UA RT E R LY R E S E A R C H & D E V E LO P M E N T MAG A Z I N E - VO LUM E 9 , N O. 1 Sandia Technology (ISSN: 1547-5190) is a quarterly maga- zine published by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin company, for the Department of Energy. With main facilities in

  16. Microsoft Word - DR_benefits_Congress_v9_2 03 06 12pm.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pp u ly Demand Price of Electricity Supply Quantity of Electricity P P DR Q DR Q Demand DR BENEFITS OF DEMAND RESPONSE IN ELECTRICITY MARKETS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACHIEVING THEM A REPORT TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1252 OF THE ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005 U.S. Department of Energy February 2006 U.S. Department of Energy Benefits of Demand Response and Recommendations ii U.S. Department of Energy Benefits of Demand Response and Recommendations iii The Secretary [of Energy]

  17. Lamp Divisions

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    --- /A;; i :' r%i;in~house ilEc;' i:Z3:~cra:ion Lamp Divisions , _.. (I +i. 0 :,,,rg. . I . . -= i?e p/q! qe)-' &se pw E.rcale?l iev, Je!sey 07m March 20, 1 gs? ::r . J. A. Jones I ti. 5. Muclear Regulatory Commission .> = ..- haterials Licensing Branch -s - ,.I, - - Division of Fuel Cycle and hateri al Safety LY. , $2 - _ . ' -' . 3 _- - Yeshington, C. C. 2@555 - :_ :--, =-- -- .-?J -.: y...., : :- 7 Dear Mr. Jones : y-- --, ? . *I 2=15 2 r; X -P The following is our final report of the

  18. BNL-24136

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BNL-24136 GAUSSIAN 76 - An ab initio molecular orbital program. J. S. Binkley, R. Whiteside, P. c. Hariharan, R. Seeger, W. J. Hehre, w. A. Lathan, M. D. Newton, R. Ditchfield and J. A. Pople Abstract GAUSSIAN 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital _calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type gaussian functions. Certain standard sets * (ST0-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G etc.) are stored internal ly for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or

  19. Polypeptide Grafted Hyaluronan: Synthesis and Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Messman, Jamie M; Mays, Jimmy; Baskaran, Durairaj

    2010-01-01

    Poly(L-leucine) grafted hyaluronan (HA-g-PLeu) has been synthesized via a Michael addition reaction between primary amine terminated poly(L-leucine) and acrylate-functionalized HA (TBAHA-acrylate). The precursor hyaluronan was first functionalized with acrylate groups by reaction with acryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine in N,N-dimethylformamide. 1H NMR analysis of the resulting product indicated that an increase in the concentration of acryloylchoride with respect to hydroxyl groups on HA has only a moderate effect on functionalization efficiency, f. A precise control of stoichiometry was not achieved, which could be attributed to partial solubility of intermolecular aggregates and the hygroscopic nature of HA. Michael addition at high [PLeu- NH2]/[acrylate]TBAHA ratios gave a molar grafting ratio of only 0.20 with respect to the repeat unit of HA, indicating grafting limitation due to insolubility of the grafted HA-g-PLeu. Soluble HA-g-PLeu graft copolymers were obtained for low grafting ratios (<0.039) with <8.6% by mass of PLeu and were characterized thoroughly using light scattering, 1H NMR, FT-IR, and AFM techniques. Light scattering experiments showed a strong hydrophobic interaction between PLeu chains, resulting in aggregates with segregated nongrafted HA segments. This yields local networks of aggregates, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed a -sheet conformation for aggregates of poly(L-leucine).

  20. A=19O (72AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EL68, GU68A, HA68H, HA68T, MO68A, FE69C, HO69U, KU69G, MA69N, TA70H, AR71L, WI71B). Cluster, collective and deformed models: (CH63A, FE65B, FE69C). Astrophysical questions:...

  1. Hazard analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facilty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    This hazard analysis (HA) has been prepared for the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility (Facility), in compliance with the requirements of Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) controlled manual WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual, and to the direction of WHC-IP-0690, Safety Analysis and Regulation Desk Instructions, (WHC 1992). An HA identifies potentially hazardous conditions in a facility and the associated potential accident scenarios. Unlike the Facility hazard classification documented in WHC-SD-NR-HC-004, Hazard Classification for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, (Huang 1993), which is based on unmitigated consequences, credit is taken in an HA for administrative controls or engineered safety features planned or in place. The HA is the foundation for the accident analysis. The significant event scenarios identified by this HA will be further evaluated in a subsequent accident analysis.

  2. A=7Be (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 7Be) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 7.5 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1961KO1A, 1965VO1A, 1966BA26, 1966HA18, 1967FA1A, 1968GO01, 1969TA1H, 1971CO28, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49). Cluster model: (1965NE1B, 1968HA1G, 1971NO02, 1972HI16, 1972KU12, 1972LE1L). Rotational and deformed models: (1965VO1A, 1966EL08). Special levels: (1966BA26, 1966EL08, 1967FA1A, 1969HA1G, 1969HA1F, 1971CO28, 1971NO02, 1972BB26, 1973AS02, 1973FE1J).

  3. VUV emission spectroscopy diagnostics of a 14 GHz ECR negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamura, R. Ichikawa, T.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.; Nishiura, M.; Shimozuma, T.

    2015-04-08

    Vacuum Ultra Violet(VUV) emission from a 4 cm diameter 2 cm long compact ion source excited by 14 GHz microwave has been investigated. Intensity ratio of band spectrum emission near Ly-α to Ly-α line spectrum is determined from the measured spectrum. which shows preferential excitation of molecules near the entrance of microwave input power. The ratio does not depend strongly upon pressure nor the input microwave power when the intensity is integrated over the volume of the plasma. The spatial distribution of the spectrum intensity ratio exhibits concentrations near microwave inlet and the opposite side where the microwave matching structure is located. The ratio at these peripheral regions is about two times as high as that of the central region. The ratio increased in proportion to the ion source pressure up to about 3.0 Pa, indicating efficient production of high energy electrons by ECR up to this pressure.

  4. Discovery of eight z ? 6 quasars from Pan-STARRS1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baados, E.; Venemans, B. P.; Morganson, E.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Rix, H.-W.; Farina, E. P.; Chambers, K. C.; Morgan, J. S.; Burgett, W. S.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Fan, X.; McGreer, I.; Jiang, L.; De Rosa, G.; Simcoe, R.; Wei, A.; Price, P. A.; Greiner, J.; and others

    2014-07-01

    High-redshift quasars are currently the only probes of the growth of supermassive black holes and potential tracers of structure evolution at early cosmic time. Here we present our candidate selection criteria from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 and follow-up strategy to discover quasars in the redshift range 5.7 ? z ? 6.2. With this strategy we discovered eight new 5.7 ? z ? 6.0 quasars, increasing the number of known quasars at z > 5.7 by more than 10%. We additionally recovered 18 previously known quasars. The eight quasars presented here span a large range of luminosities (27.3 ? M {sub 1450} ? 25.4; 19.6 ? z {sub P1} ? 21.2) and are remarkably heterogeneous in their spectral features: half of them show bright emission lines whereas the other half show a weak or no Ly? emission line (25% with rest-frame equivalent width of the Ly? +N V line lower than 15 ). We find a larger fraction of weak-line emission quasars than in lower redshift studies. This may imply that the weak-line quasar population at the highest redshifts could be more abundant than previously thought. However, larger samples of quasars are needed to increase the statistical significance of this finding.

  5. GADRAS isotope ID users manual for analysis of gamma-ray measurements and API for Linux and Android .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Dean J; Harding, Lee T.

    2014-05-01

    Isotope identification algorithms that are contained in the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) can be used for real-time stationary measurement and search applications on platforms operating under Linux or Android operating sys-tems. Since the background radiation can vary considerably due to variations in natu-rally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM), spectral algorithms can be substantial-ly more sensitive to threat materials than search algorithms based strictly on count rate. Specific isotopes or interest can be designated for the search algorithm, which permits suppression of alarms for non-threatening sources, such as such as medical radionuclides. The same isotope identification algorithms that are used for search ap-plications can also be used to process static measurements. The isotope identification algorithms follow the same protocols as those used by the Windows version of GADRAS, so files that are created under the Windows interface can be copied direct-ly to processors on fielded sensors. The analysis algorithms contain provisions for gain adjustment and energy lineariza-tion, which enables direct processing of spectra as they are recorded by multichannel analyzers. Gain compensation is performed by utilizing photopeaks in background spectra. Incorporation of this energy calibration tasks into the analysis algorithm also eliminates one of the more difficult challenges associated with development of radia-tion detection equipment.

  6. Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: A restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, W.; Asaro, F. ); Smit, J. ); Lowrie, W. ); Asaro, F. ); Margolis, S.V.; Claeys, P. ); Kastner, M. ); Hildebrand, A.R. )

    1992-08-01

    Restudy of Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 536 and 540 in the southeast Gulf of Mexico gives evidence for a giant wave at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary time. Five units are recognized: (1) Cenomanian limestone underlies a hiatus in which the five highest Cretaceous stages are missing, possibly because of catastrophic K-T erosion. (2) Pebbly mudstone, 45 m thick, represents a submarine landslide possibly of K-T age. (3) Current-bedded sandstone, more than 2.5 m thick, contains anomalous iridium, tektite glass, and shocked quartz; it is interpreted as ejecta from a nearby impact crater, reworked on the deep-sea floor by the resulting tsunami. (4) A 50-cm interval of calcareous mudstone containing small Cretaceous planktic foraminifera and the Ir peak is interpreted as the silt-size fraction of the Cretaceous material suspended by the impact-generated wave. (5) Calcareous mudstone with basal Tertiary forams and the uppermost tail of the Ir anomaly overlies the disturbed interval, dating the impact and wave event as K-T boundary age. Like Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico, Sites 536 and 540 are consistent with a large K-T age impact at the nearby Chicxulub crater.

  7. Prospects for coal briquettes as a substitute fuel for wood and charcoal in US Agency for International Development Assisted countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perlack, R.D.; Stevenson, G.G.; Shelton, R.B.

    1986-02-01

    Fuelwood shortages and potential shortages are widespread throughout the developing world, and are becoming increasingly more prevalent because of the clearing of land for subsistence and plantation agriculture, excessive and inefficient commercial timber harvesting for domestic and export construction, and charcoal production to meet rising urban demands. Further, the environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the resulting deforestation are both pervasive and complex. This report focuses on the substitution of coal briquettes for fuelwood. Although substantial adverse health effects could be expected from burning non-anthracite coal or coal briquettes, a well-developed technique, carbonization, exists to convert coal to a safer form for combustion. The costs associated with briquetting and carbonizing coal indicate that ''smokeless'' coal briquettes can be produced at costs competitive with fuelwood and charcoal. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is working on implementing this energy option in Haiti and Pakistan by (1) evaluating resources, (2) assessing markets, (3) analyzing technologies, (4) studying government policy and planning, and (5) packaging the idea for the private sector to implement. 26 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Intervention in Countries with Unsustainable Energy Policies: Is it Ever Justifiable?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2010-08-01

    This paper explores whether it is ever justifiable for the international community to forcibly intervene in countries that have unsustainable energy policies. The literature on obligations to future generations suggests, philosophically, that intervention might be justified under certain circumstances. Additionally, the world community has intervened in the affairs of other countries for humanitarian reasons, such as in Kosovo, Somalia, and Haiti. However, intervention to deal with serious energy problems is a qualitatively different and more difficult problem. A simple risk analysis framework is used to organize the discussion about possible conditions for justifiable intervention. If the probability of deaths resulting from unsustainable energy policies is very large, if the energy problem can be attributed to a relatively small number of countries, and if the risk of intervention is acceptable (i.e., the number of deaths due to intervention is relatively small), then intervention may be justifiable. Without further analysis and successful solution of several vexing theoretical questions, it cannot be stated whether unsustainable energy policies being pursued by countries at the beginning of the 21st century meet the criteria for forcible intervention by the international community.

  9. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  10. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanolmore » (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.« less

  11. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  12. Effect of molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronan on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Ningbo Wang, Xin Qin, Lei Guo, Zhengze Li, Dehua

    2015-09-25

    Hyaluronan (HA), the simplest glycosaminoglycan and a major component of the extracellular matrix, exists in various tissues. It is involved in some critical biological procedures, including cellular signaling, cell adhesion and proliferation, and cell differentiation. The effect of molecular weight (MW) and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation was controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of MW and concentration of HA on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived stem cells in vitro. Results showed that high MW HA decreased the cell adhesion rate in a concentration-dependant manner. The cell adhesion rate was decreased by increasing MW of HA. Cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by low MW HA (P < 0.05). The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on the cell adhesion rate and cell proliferation (P < 0.05). High MW HA increased the mRNA expressions of ALP, RUNX-2 and OCN. The higher the MW was, the higher the mRNA expressions were. The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on ALP mRNA expression (P < 0.05). HA of higher MW and higher concentration promoted bone formation. These findings provide some useful information in understanding the mechanism underlying the effect of MW and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • Effect of hyaluronan on cell proliferation and differentiation is evaluated in vitro. • Hyaluronan of low molecular weight increases cell proliferation. • Hyaluronan of high molecular weight promotes cell osteogenic differentiation. • Molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronan show interactive effect.

  13. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Song, Jie; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  14. Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawano, Michinao; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Iwanaga, Kenjiro; Okinaga, Toshinori; Habu, Manabu; Yoshioka, Izumi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. {yields} MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. {yields} Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. {yields} HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and

  15. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João; Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario

    2015-05-22

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth.

  16. High Availability Electronics Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  17. Sandia Energy - Elucidating the Role of Twin Boundaries in Deformation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metals Authors J.G. Brons, J.A. Hardwick, H.A. Padilla II, K. Hattar, G.B. Thompson, B.L. Boyce Scientific Achievement Simulation results suggest that twins don't just...

  18. Office of Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... In addition, the HAT developed the event descriptions and content in a systematic, ... for the RLD system HA in Reference 6. EA review of the HLW HCPHFPGFR and RLD hazard ...

  19. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste (LAW) Facility Melter and Off-gas systems; observed a portion of the HA activities; and met with Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI) personnel to discuss HE table comments. ...

  20. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the HA for the LAW Secondary Off-gas System, and met with Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI) responsible individuals to discuss both previous and more recent HSS observations. ...

  1. si

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... per minute per 100 square centimeters EML EPA ESSAP ft3 FUSRAP GM ha kg km MeV ZI NBL NIST ORISE PMC ZnS Environmental Measurement Laboratories Environmental Protection ...

  2. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    seal-out of waste material from upper section of GB HA-9A. * Small package of filter media waste (1lb), removed from Glove Box via 11" transfer sleeve. * During umbilical...

  3. Microsoft Word - PB-II.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.S. Magyar & H.A. Godwin, Northwestern University Lead poisoning can damage the brain and nervous system and is particularly dangerous for young children who are still developing. ...

  4. SREL Reprint #3008

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    many species, sometimes for years at a time. We studied the movement patterns and demography of seven species of semi-aquatic snakes at Ellenton Bay, an isolated 10-ha...

  5. EA-1042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application Program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennesee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to raise the sludge land application loading limits from the current, self-imposed conservative 48 metric tons/ha lifetime loading to the...

  6. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (BES). Operation of the ALS is supported by DOE BES. Publication about this research: E. Gross, X.-Z. Shu, S. Alayoglu, H.A. Bechtel, M.C. Martin, F.D. Toste, and G.A. Somorjai,...

  7. A=16N (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1986NO04, 1990HA35, 1992WA1L). See also the measurement reported in (1990BL1H) and the calculation of (1990CH13). 19. 16O(, +)16N Qm -149.986 Pion spectra have been...

  8. License Iso. CM35

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Reither this license nor my right under this licewe shall be uslgned or otherwise traneferred in violation of the pmvislont of the Atalc Finer&y Act oi 19%. ' Ibis licenae haJ..l ...

  9. A=17F (1977AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    32 states are in good agreement with shell model 2p - 1h calculations using realistic Kuo-Brown interaction matrix elements (1975HA06). The (0 + 1) yield at 90 has been...

  10. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GPS Slant Wet Delays and Its Impact on the Short-Range Weather Prediction Ha, S.-Y. and Kuo, Y.-H., National Center for Atmospheric Research Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation...

  11. A=17F (1982AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T 32 states are in good agreement with shell model 2p-1h calculations using realistic Kuo-Brown interaction matrix elements (1975HA06). The (0 + 1) yield at 90 has been...

  12. Clean soil at Eniwetok and Johnston Atolls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bramlitt, E.T.

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency has managed two large-scale soil cleanups (landmass decontaminations) of plutonium contamination. Both are at Pacific Ocean atolls formerly used for nuclear weapons tests. The Eniwetok Atoll (EA) cleanup between 1977 and 1980 evaluated 390 ha of contaminated land and cleaned 50 ha by removing 80,000 m[sup 3] of contaminated soil. The Johnston Atoll (JA) cleanup is in process. It has checked 270 ha, will clean 15 ha, and plans for removal of 80,000 m[sup 3] of soil. The cleanups are similar in other respects including carbonate-based soil, in situ radiation surveys, contamination characteristics, soil excavation methods, safety, and weather. The two cleanups are in contrast relative to planning time, agencies involved, funding, documentation, environmental considerations, cleanup workforce, site beneficiaries, waste characterization, regulatory permits, management, and project duration. The most noteworthy differences are the rationale for cleanup, the cleanup process, the definition of clean, and the cost.

  13. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and optimization of the catalytic reaction. Research conducted by: E. Gross, X.-Z. Shu, S. Alayoglu, F.D. Toste, and G.A. Somorjai (Univ. of California, Berkeley), and H.A....

  14. ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne,...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). ... of about 400 ha (1,000 acres) and is a residential community of more than 45,000 people; ...

  15. ACTION DESCRIPTION MEMORANDUM PROPOSED DECONTAMINATION OF THREE...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... of about 400 ha (1000 acres) and is a residential community of more than 45,000 people, ... As part of FUSRAP, the U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations, is proposing to ...

  16. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Steel Creek Bay The Steel Creek Bay Set-Aside is a 81.6-acre (33 ha) Area comprised of a semi-permanent, open-waterherbaceous pond surrounded by a partial buffer area of various ...

  17. Contrasting Eruption Styles Of The 147 Kimberlite, Fort A La...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that period. The 147 Kimberlite is located in the SE section of the field's main cluster and is part of the large ( 377.5 ha) Orion North volcanic complex. Based on logging...

  18. Structural Basis of Pre-existing Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    virus. The Sa site is located on the top of the HA trimer and colored in magenta. (B) Residual differences between CA04 and selected human H1 HAs in the Sa antigenic site ...

  19. Me. John Ki

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Me. John Ki eling , Acting Chief Ha zardous Waste Bureau Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office P. O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 JAN 131m New Mexico Environment...

  20. AmeriFlux US-ARb ARM Southern Great Plains burn site- Lamont...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Site Description - The ARM SGP Burn site is located in the native tallgrass prairies of the USDA Grazinglands Research Laboratory near El Reno, OK. One of two adjacent 35 ha plots, ...

  1. SREL Reprint #3021

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forests. In second-growth forests of the Savannah River system, data from five 1-ha plots established in 1979 and monitored for 22 years indicate a steady increase in liana...

  2. BPA-2015-00987-FOIA Correspondence

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Administration (BPA) . Your request was received on March 11 , 2015, and ha been assigned control number BPA-201 5-00987-F. Please use this number in any...

  3. Catalyst Cartography: 3D Super-Resolution Mapping of Catalytic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Single-Molecule Catalysis on Modular Multilayer Nanocatalysts Author(s): R. Han, J-W. Ha, C. Xiao, Y. Pei, Z. Qi, B. Dong, N. L. Bormann, W. Huang, and N. Fang Article Link:...

  4. Microsoft Word - WIPP9000.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    88221 Fo WIPP r October 7 (WIPP) rec arking an cold war. nt mileston RU waste PP team ha ctive of the pment, wh PP at abou aste Treatm half of the IPP has re RU waste s Environm...

  5. Pythagoras Solar Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pythagoras Solar Ltd Place: Ramat HaSharon, Israel Zip: 47800 Product: Early-stage company developing a stationary low-concentration PV system. References: Pythagoras Solar Ltd1...

  6. A=20F (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20F) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 20.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations:(1978WI1B, 1982HA43, 1983BR29, 1984FO16, 1984RA13, 1986CA27, 1986COZZ, 1986VO05, 1986WA1R, 1987HA08, 1987IA1B). Complex reactions involving 20F:(1983BE02, 1983DE26, 1983WI1A, 1984GR08, 1984HO23, 1984KO25, 1985BE40, 1985HA1N, 1985PO11, 1986GA1I, 1986HA1B, 1986ME06, 1986PO06, 1987RI03, 1987RO10). Hypernuclei:(1984AS1D). Other topics:(1978WI1B, 1983AR1J,

  7. A=20O (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    87AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20O) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 20.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations:(1978WI1B, 1982SH30, 1984CH1V, 1984HA14, 1984RA13, 1984SA37, 1985HA15, 1985HU08, 1985LE1L, 1986COZZ, 1986HE13, 1986HU1G, 1986VO07, 1986WA1R, 1987IA1B). Complex reactions involving 20O:(1983FR1A, 1983WI1A, 1984HI1A, 1985HA1N, 1985PO11, 1986HA1B, 1986IR01, 1986PO06, 1986PO15, 1987RI03). Other topics:(1978WI1B, 1983SH32, 1984PO11, 1984SA37, 1985AN28,

  8. A=7Be (1984AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 7Be) GENERAL: See also (1979AJ01) and Table 7.7 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Nuclear models: (1978RE1A, 1979WI1B, 1980HA1M, 1981KU13, 1982FI13, 1983WA1M). Astrophysical questions: (1978BU1B, 1979MO04, 1979RA20, 1979RA1C, 1980CA1C, 1980LA1G, 1980WI1M, 1983LI01). Applied work: (1979LA1E, 1982HA1D, 1983HA1W). Complex reactions involving 7Be: (1978DI1A, 1978DU1B, 1978HA40, 1978HE1C, 1979BO22, 1979KA07, 1979LO11, 1979PO10, 1979RA20, 1979SC1D,

  9. A=7Li (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 7Li) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 7.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1961KO1A, 1965CO25, 1965KU09, 1965VO1A, 1966BA26, 1966HA18, 1966WI1E, 1967BO1C, 1967BO22, 1967CO32, 1967FA1A, 1969GU03, 1969TA1H, 1969VA1C, 1970ZO1A, 1971CO28, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49, 1973KU03). Cluster model: (1965NE1B, 1968HA1G, 1968KU1B, 1969ME1C, 1969SM1A, 1969VE1B, 1969WI21, 1970BA1Q, 1972HA06, 1972HI16, 1972JA23, 1972KU12, 1972LE1L, 1973KU03, 1973KU12).

  10. A=12N (1975AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for 12N) GENERAL: See also (1968AJ02) and Table 12.25 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1973HA49, 1973KU1L, 1973SA30). Muon and neutrino interactions:...

  11. A=16N (1982AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    82AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 16N) GENERAL: See also (1977AJ02) and Table 16.4 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1979RO1J, 1980HA35). Reactions...

  12. THE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET 'CONTINUUM' IN PROTOPLANETARY DISK SYSTEMS. II. CARBON MONOXIDE FOURTH POSITIVE EMISSION AND ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    France, Kevin; Schindhelm, Eric; Burgh, Eric B.; Brown, Alexander; Green, James C.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Brown, Joanna M.; Harper, Graham M.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Yang Hao; Abgrall, Herve; Ardila, David R.; Bergin, Edwin; Bethell, Thomas; Calvet, Nuria; Ingleby, Laura; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Hussain, Gaitee

    2011-06-10

    We exploit the high sensitivity and moderate spectral resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to detect far-ultraviolet (UV) spectral features of carbon monoxide (CO) present in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks for the first time. We present spectra of the classical T Tauri stars HN Tau, RECX-11, and V4046 Sgr, representative of a range of CO radiative processes. HN Tau shows CO bands in absorption against the accretion continuum. The CO absorption most likely arises in warm inner disk gas. We measure a CO column density and rotational excitation temperature of N(CO) = (2 {+-} 1) x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} and T{sub rot}(CO) 500 {+-} 200 K for the absorbing gas. We also detect CO A-X band emission in RECX-11 and V4046 Sgr, excited by UV line photons, predominantly H I Ly{alpha}. All three objects show emission from CO bands at {lambda} > 1560 A, which may be excited by a combination of UV photons and collisions with non-thermal electrons. In previous observations these emission processes were not accounted for due to blending with emission from the accretion shock, collisionally excited H{sub 2}, and photo-excited H{sub 2}, all of which appeared as a 'continuum' whose components could not be separated. The CO emission spectrum is strongly dependent upon the shape of the incident stellar Ly{alpha} emission profile. We find CO parameters in the range: N(CO) {approx} 10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}, T{sub rot}(CO) {approx}> 300 K for the Ly{alpha}-pumped emission. We combine these results with recent work on photo-excited and collisionally excited H{sub 2} emission, concluding that the observations of UV-emitting CO and H{sub 2} are consistent with a common spatial origin. We suggest that the CO/H{sub 2} ratio ({identical_to} N(CO)/N(H{sub 2})) in the inner disk is {approx}1, a transition between the much lower interstellar value and the higher value observed in solar system comets today, a result that will require future

  13. COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS OF WARM INTERVENING GAS AT z {approx} 0.325 TOWARD 3C 263

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayanan, Anand [Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); Savage, Blair D.; Wakker, Bart P., E-mail: anand@iist.ac.in, E-mail: savage@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: wakker@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5534 Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    We present HST/COS high-S/N observations of the z = 0.32566 multiphase absorber toward 3C 263. The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) data show absorption from H I (Ly{alpha} to Ly{theta}), O VI, C III, N III, Si III, and C II. The Ne VIII in this absorber is detected in the FUSE spectrum along with O III, O IV, and N IV. The low and intermediate ions are kinematically aligned with each other and H I and display narrow line widths of b {approx} 6-8 km s{sup -1}. The O VI {lambda}{lambda}1031, 1037 lines are kinematically offset by {Delta}v {approx} 12 km s{sup -1} from the low ions and are a factor of {approx}4 broader. All metal ions except O VI and Ne VIII are consistent with an origin in gas photoionized by the extragalactic background radiation. The bulk of the observed H I is also traced by this photoionized medium. The metallicity in this gas phase is Z {approx}> 0.15 Z{sub Sun} with carbon having near-solar abundances. The O VI and Ne VIII favor an origin in collisionally ionized gas at T = 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K. The H I absorption associated with this warm absorber is a broad-Ly{alpha} absorber (BLA) marginally detected in the COS spectrum. This warm gas phase has a metallicity of [X/H] {approx}-0.12 dex, and a total hydrogen column density of N( H) {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}, which is {approx}2 dex higher than what is traced by the photoionized gas. Simultaneous detection of O VI, Ne VIII, and BLAs in an absorber can be a strong diagnostic of gas with T {approx} 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} K corresponding to the warm phase of the warm-hot intergalactic medium or shock-heated gas in the extended halos of galaxies.

  14. CRITICAL STAR FORMATION RATES FOR REIONIZATION: FULL REIONIZATION OCCURS AT REDSHIFT z Almost-Equal-To 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Shull, J.; Harness, Anthony; Trenti, Michele; Smith, Britton D. E-mail: trenti@colorado.edu E-mail: smit1685@msu.edu

    2012-03-10

    We assess the probable redshift (z{sub rei} Almost-Equal-To 7) for full reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) using a prescription for the comoving star formation rate (SFR) density ({rho}-dot{sub SFR}) required to maintain photoionization against recombination. Our newly developed online reionization simulator allows users to assess the required SFR and ionization histories, using a variety of assumptions for galactic and stellar populations, IGM clumping factor and temperature, and Lyman continuum (LyC) escape fraction. The decline in high-redshift galaxy candidates and Ly{alpha} emitters at z = 6-8 suggests a rising neutral fraction, with reionization at z {approx}> 7 increasingly difficult owing to increased recombination rates and constraints from the ionizing background and LyC mean free path. The required rate is {rho}-dot{sub SFR}{approx}(.018 M{sub sun}yr{sup -1}Mpc{sup -3})[(1+z)/8]{sup 3}(C{sub H}/3)(0.2/f{sub esc})T{sub 4}{sup -0.845} scaled to fiducial values of clumping factor C{sub H} = 3, escape fraction f{sub esc} = 0.2, electron temperature T{sub e} = 10{sup 4} K, and low-metallicity initial mass functions (IMFs) and stellar atmospheres. Our hydrodynamical + N-body simulations find a mean clumping factor C{sub H} Almost-Equal-To (2.9)[(1 + z)/6]{sup -1.1} in the photoionized, photoheated filaments at z = 5-9. The critical SFR could be reduced by increasing the minimum stellar mass, invoking a top-heavy IMF, or systematically increasing f{sub esc} at high z. The cosmic microwave background optical depth, {tau}{sub e} = 0.088 {+-} 0.015, could be explained by full reionization, producing {tau}{sub e} = 0.050 back to z{sub rei} Almost-Equal-To 7, augmented by {Delta}{tau}{sub e} Almost-Equal-To 0.01-0.04 in a partially ionized IGM at z > 7. In this scenario, the strongest 21 cm signal should occur at redshifted frequencies 124-167 MHz owing to IGM heating over an interval {Delta}z Almost-Equal-To 3 in the range z Almost-Equal-To 7.5-10.5.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on hyaluronic acid and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Ainee Fatimah; Mohd, Hur Munawar Kabir; Taqiyuddin Mawardi bin Ayob, Muhammad; Rosli, Nur Ratasha Alia Md; Mohamed, Faizal; Radiman, Shahidan; Rahman, Irman Abdul

    2014-09-03

    DPPC lipids are the major component constituting the biological membrane, and their importances in various physiological functions are well documented. Hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial joint fluid functions as a lubricant, shock absorber and a nutrient carrier. Gamma irradiation has also been found to be effective in depolymerizing and cleaving molecular chains related to free radicals, thus extends with changes in chemical composition as well as its physiological functions. This research are conducted to investigate the hyaluronic acid (HA) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) interaction in form of vesicles and its effect to gamma radiation. The size of DPPC vesicles formed via gentle hydration method is between 100 to 200 nm in diameter. HA (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) was added into the vesicles and characterized by using TEM to determine vesicle size distributions, fusion and rupture of DPPC structure. The results demonstrated that the size of the vesicles approximately between 200 to 300 nm which caused by vesicles fusion with HA and formed even larger vesicles. After being irradiated by 0 to 200 Gy, the size of vesicles decreased as HA was degraded. To elucidate the mechanism of these effects, FTIR spectra were carried out and have shown that at absorption bands at 17001750 cm{sup ?1} due to formation of carboxylic acid and leads to alteration of HA structure.

  16. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal sits, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)) to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal sits would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  17. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  18. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-silica-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandfield, K.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2008-01-15

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of nanocomposite silica-chitosan coatings. Cathodic deposits were obtained on various conductive substrates using suspensions of silica nanoparticles in a mixed ethanol-water solvent, containing dissolved chitosan. Co-deposition of silica and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles resulted in the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings. The deposition yield has been studied at a constant voltage mode at various deposition durations. The method enabled the formation of coatings of different thickness in the range of up to 100 {mu}m. Deposit composition, microstructure and porosity can be varied by variation of HA and silica concentration in the suspensions. It was demonstrated that EPD can be used for the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings of graded composition and laminates. The method enabled the deposition of coatings containing layers of silica-chitosan and HA-chitosan nanocomposites using suspensions with different HA and silica content. Obtained coatings were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of deposition is discussed.

  19. Research News July 2015, Issue 10

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alloy Raises the Bar for High-Temperature Performance page 3 the ENERGY lab NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY From NETL's Office of Research & Development Researchnews July 2015, Issue 10 FE AT U RE ST O RY : A ll o y R a is e s th e B a r fo r H ig h -T e m p e ra F ro m N E T L' s O ff ic e o f R e s e a rc h & D e v e lo p m e n t R e s e a r c h n e w s Ju ly 20 15 , Is su e 10 Contents July 2015, Issue 10 2 Editorial: NETL's Educational Programs 3 Feature Story: Alloy Raises the

  20. Inelastic X-ray Scattering from Shocked Liquid Deuterium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Regan, S. P.; Falk, K.; Gregori, G.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Boehly, T. R.; Crowley, B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O.; Gericke, D. O.; et al

    2012-12-28

    The Fermi-degenerate plasma conditions created in liquid deuterium by a laser-ablation—driven shock wave were probed with noncollective, spectrally resolved, inelastic x-ray Thomson scattering employing Cl Lyα line emission at 2.96 keV. Thus, these first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of the microscopic properties of shocked deuterium show an inferred spatially averaged electron temperature of 8±5 eV, an electron density of 2.2(±0.5)×1023 cm-3, and an ionization of 0.8 (-0.25, +0.15). Our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using equation-of-state models suited for the extreme parameters occurring in inertial confinement fusion research and planetary interiors are consistent with the experimental results.

  1. 08Li

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Neutron Capture Evaluated Data Measurements 1967RA24: 7Li(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ; deduced Q. 1973JUZT, 1973JUZU: 7Li(n, γ), E = thermal; measured σ(Eγ). 7Li deduced γ-branching. 1991LY01: 7Li(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ, Iγ, capture σ. 1996BL10: 7Li(n, γ), E = 1.5-1340 eV; measured Eγ, Iγ, γ yield, absolute σ(E). 1997HEZW, 1998HE35: 7Li(n, γ), E ≈ 5 meV, 54 keV; measured σ. 1999ZHZM, 2000ZHZP: 7Li(n, γ), E = thermal; compiled, evaluated prompt γ-ray

  2. EVIDENCE FOR A WEAK WIND FROM THE YOUNG SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Brian E.; Mller, Hans-Reinhard; Redfield, Seth; Edelman, Eric

    2014-02-01

    The early history of the solar wind has remained largely a mystery due to the difficulty of detecting winds around young stars that can serve as analogs for the young Sun. Here we report on the detection of a wind from the 500Myr old solar analog ?{sup 1} UMa (G1.5V), using spectroscopic observations from the Hubble Space Telescope. We detect H I Ly? absorption from the interaction region between the stellar wind and interstellar medium, i.e., the stellar astrosphere. With the assistance of hydrodynamic models of the ?{sup 1} UMa astrosphere, we infer a wind only half as strong as the solar wind for this star. This suggests that the Sun and solar-like stars do not have particularly strong coronal winds in their youth.

  3. A=11C (1985AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 11C) GENERAL: See also (1980AJ01) and Table 11.17 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations:(1981RA06, 1983SH38). Special states:(1981RA06). Complex reactions involving 11C:(1979BO22, 1980GR10, 1980WI1K, 1980WI1L, 1981MO20, 1982GE05, 1982LY1A, 1982RA31, 1983FR1A, 1983OL1A, 1983WI1A, 1984GR08, 1984HI1A). Electromagnetic transitions:(1978KR19). Applied work:(1979DE1H, 1982BO1N, 1982HI1H, 1982KA1R, 1982ME1C, 1982NE1D, 1982PI1H, 1982YA1C,

  4. Laser heating of solid matter by light pressure-driven shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akli, K; Hansen, S B; Kemp, A J; Freeman, R R; Beg, F N; Clark, D; Chen, S; Hey, D; Highbarger, K; Giraldez, E; Green, J; Gregori, G; Lancaster, K; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A J; Norreys, P A; Patel, N; Patel, P; Shearer, C; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Storm, M; Theobald, W; Van Woerkom, L; Weber, R; Key, M H

    2007-05-04

    Heating by irradiation of a solid surface in vacuum with 5 x 10{sup 20} W cm{sup -2}, 0.8 ps, 1.05 {micro}m wavelength laser light is studied by x-ray spectroscopy of the K-shell emission from thin layers of Ni, Mo and V. A surface layer is heated to {approx} 5 keV with an axial temperature gradient of 0.6 {micro}m scale length. Images of Ni Ly{sub {alpha}} show the hot region has a {approx} 25 {micro}m diameter, much smaller than {approx} 70 {micro}m region of K{sub {alpha}} emission. 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations suggest that the surface heating is due to a light pressure driven shock.

  5. THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 3: A TEST FOR STELLAR FEEDBACK, GALACTIC OUTFLOWS, AND COLD STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Sijing; Madau, Piero; Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Guedes, Javiera [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Mayer, Lucio [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-9057 Zurich (Switzerland); Wadsley, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2013-03-10

    We present new results on the kinematics, thermal and ionization state, and spatial distribution of metal-enriched gas in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of massive galaxies at redshift {approx}3, using the Eris suite of cosmological hydrodynamic ''zoom-in'' simulations. The reference run adopts a blastwave scheme for supernova feedback that produces large-scale galactic outflows, a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold, metal-dependent radiative cooling, and a model for the diffusion of metals and thermal energy. The effect of the local UV radiation field is added in post-processing. The CGM (defined as all gas at R > 0.2 R{sub vir} = 10 kpc, where R{sub vir} is the virial radius) contains multiple phases having a wide range of physical conditions, with more than half of its heavy elements locked in a warm-hot component at T > 10{sup 5} K. Synthetic spectra, generated by drawing sightlines through the CGM, produce interstellar absorption-line strengths of Ly{alpha}, C II, C IV, Si II, and Si IV as a function of the galactocentric impact parameter (scaled to the virial radius) that are in broad agreement with those observed at high redshift by Steidel et al. The covering factor of absorbing material declines less rapidly with impact parameter for Ly{alpha} and C IV compared to C II, Si IV, and Si II, with Ly{alpha} remaining strong (W{sub Ly{alpha}} > 300 mA) to {approx}> 5 R{sub vir} = 250 kpc. Only about one third of all the gas within R{sub vir} is outflowing. The fraction of sightlines within one virial radius that intercept optically thick, N{sub H{sub I}}>10{sup 17.2} cm{sup -2} material is 27%, in agreement with recent observations by Rudie et al. Such optically thick absorption is shown to trace inflowing ''cold'' streams that penetrate deep inside the virial radius. The streams, enriched to metallicities above 0.01 solar by previous episodes of star formation in the main host and in nearby dwarfs, are the origin of strong (N{sub C

  6. 1663_Issue19indd.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J U LY 2 0 1 3 Early Warning for Biothreats Clean Fuel from Wind and Solar Modeling the Living Ocean Infrastructure Self-Check 1 663 LO S A L A M O S S C I E N C E A N D T E C H N O LO G Y M AG A Z I N E Los Alamos Firsts About Our Name: During World War II, all that the outside world knew of Los Alamos and its top-secret laboratory was the mailing address-P . O. Box 1663, Santa Fe, New Mexico. That box number, still part of our address, symbolizes our historic role in the nation's service.

  7. untitled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    petrol Witnessing a birth WINTER 2008 S A N D I A T E C H N O L O G Y A Q UA RT E R LY R E S E A R C H & D E V E LO P M E N T MAG A Z I N E - VO LUM E 9 , N O. 4 Sunshine to petrol Beauty, molecules deep A l l i a n c e s > Sandia Technology (ISSN: 1547-5190) is a quarterly maga- zine published by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy. With main

  8. Genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic halophile Flexistipes sinusarabici strain (MAS10T)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapidus, Alla L.; Chertkov, Olga; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Huntemann, Marcel; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Abt, Birte; Spring, Stefan; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Flexistipes sinusarabici Fiala et al. 2000 is the type species of the genus Flexistipes in the fami- ly Deferribacteraceae. The species is of interest because of its isolated phylogenetic location in a genomically under-characterized region of the tree of life, and because of its origin from a multiply extreme environment; the Atlantis Deep brines of the Red Sea, where it had to struggle with high temperatures, high salinity, and a high concentrations of heavy metals. This is the fourth completed genome sequence to be published of a type strain of the family Deferribacteraceae. The 2,526,590 bp long genome with its 2,346 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  9. Neutral particle beam sensing and steering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maier, II, William B. (Los Alamos, NM); Cobb, Donald D. (Los Alamos, NM); Robiscoe, Richard T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    The direction of a neutral particle beam (NPB) is determined by detecting Ly.alpha. radiation emitted during motional quenching of excited H(2S) atoms in the beam during movement of the atoms through a magnetic field. At least one detector is placed adjacent the beam exit to define an optical axis that intercepts the beam at a viewing angle to include a volume generating a selected number of photons for detection. The detection system includes a lens having an area that is small relative to the NPB area and a pixel array located in the focal plane of the lens. The lens viewing angle and area pixel array are selected to optimize the beam tilt sensitivity. In one embodiment, two detectors are placed coplanar with the beam axis to generate a difference signal that is insensitive to beam variations other than beam tilt.

  10. Inelastic X-ray Scattering from Shocked Liquid Deuterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regan, S. P.; Falk, K.; Gregori, G.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Boehly, T. R.; Crowley, B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O.; Gericke, D. O.; Doeppner, T.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Murphy, C. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Vorberger, J.

    2012-12-28

    The Fermi-degenerate plasma conditions created in liquid deuterium by a laser-ablation—driven shock wave were probed with noncollective, spectrally resolved, inelastic x-ray Thomson scattering employing Cl Lyα line emission at 2.96 keV. Thus, these first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of the microscopic properties of shocked deuterium show an inferred spatially averaged electron temperature of 8±5 eV, an electron density of 2.2(±0.5)×1023 cm-3, and an ionization of 0.8 (-0.25, +0.15). Our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using equation-of-state models suited for the extreme parameters occurring in inertial confinement fusion research and planetary interiors are consistent with the experimental results.

  11. A=18F (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18F) GENERAL: See also (1959AJ76) and Table 18.10 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1957WI1E, 1959BR1E, 1960TA1C, 1961TR1B, 1962TA1D, 1964FE02, 1964IN03, 1964PA1D, 1964YO1B, 1965BA1J, 1965DE1H, 1965GI1B, 1966BA2E, 1966BA2C, 1966HU09, 1966IN01, 1966KU05, 1966RI1F, 1967EN01, 1967EV1C, 1967FE01, 1967FL01, 1967HO11, 1967IN03, 1967KU09, 1967KU13, 1967LY02, 1967MO1J, 1967PA1K, 1967PI1B, 1967VI1B, 1967WO1C, 1968AR02, 1968BE1T, 1968BH1B,

  12. A=6Li (59AJ76)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    59AJ76) (See the Energy Level Diagram for 6Li) GENERAL: See also Table 6.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Theory: See (MO54F, AD55, AU55, BA55S, IR55, LA55, OT55, FE56, ME56, NE56D, FR57, LE57F, LY57, SO57, TA57, PI58, SK58). 1. (a) 3H(3He, d)4He Qm = 14.319 Eb = 15.790 (b) 3H(3He, p)5He Qm = 11.136 (c) 3H(3He, p)4He + n Qm = 12.093 The relative intensities (43 ± 2, 6 ± 2, 51 ± 2) of reactions (a), (b) and (c), do not vary for E(3He) = 225 to 600 keV. The deuterons are isotropic

  13. Flim3.l Elaenbud

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Fe 66 i.. y, N&i) -, mc . _ Flim3.l Elaenbud w. B. Ra* ' PBBDBm $ToIB SlllJBoLI 3!3HtwR3thaah ,- ". i ti?-,J~ -; Awvt 3% 1951 on hg?mt mlh, a visit Ma zsRcb to t&m ?!bylmd cha cQulpa?zy T&en3 Mnotfte r;au%s am proce88ed for the 8xtrac?tion of ru% sa2ar and lnuttle-gracie timrim ni*tratea. ?kywuod Chsrdcal Co. has been process- ~tharsmrtrrlalsforrpp~~ly50pacln~dbu&rcarjr~ 8t8xtiAl backgroMd in tlha haa.ing of tlLuhmbe8ring naataia&. mr this rn8oxl# it unb thopght aM8abls

  14. I

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    --&) /+' ) 3 -i/ ii!' M/k "3 . . * . ~T~&,TTSTT:~ .: -~53~~i!&i-:r~ 1: c r I * .I " / : , ; . . . 3. .i - w ~trial IIyi-;iene Orand Re&lh and safety Laboratmy Im,mdc Octokr 21, u% 2' ' - ' 1' !!T?H _ - .a r. ,...~.b,)i~XTia~ !I4%L, XYm 2. ..T* 2zdJ-- l ,,C 1 .rJh, !' 11., ;dv 2: ;" 11 I:r,t, :433kr 3- :r. L. r> .-. ? Ly-m-i, ! pm* j!., >- I I;- ,:r* : "y l hl~wt, li:.!l, iah pm ~iL.A.4 ;'A0 U.S. .' .LJf& Er++r;;;- LI3zL?.i !!w ' Lsriz Qcr&N.~~3

  15. Cyber Wars Have SQUIDs, Will Travel A Trip to Nuclear North Korea

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lo s a l a m o s s c i e n c e a n d t e c h n o lo g y m ag a z i n e JUly 20 09 Wired for the Future Cyber Wars Have SQUIDs, Will Travel A Trip to Nuclear North Korea 1 663 lo s a l a m o s s c i e n c e a n d t e c h n o lo g y m ag a z i n e J U ly 2 0 0 9 During the Manhattan Project, Enrico Fermi, Nobel Laureate and leader of F-Division, meets with San Ildefonso Pueblo's Maria Martinez, famous worldwide for her extraordinary black pottery. features from terry wallace PrINcIPaL aSSocIatE

  16. Reconstitution of the cellular response to DNA damage in vitro using damage-activated extracts from mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roper, Katherine; Coverley, Dawn

    2012-03-10

    In proliferating mammalian cells, DNA damage is detected by sensors that elicit a cellular response which arrests the cell cycle and repairs the damage. As part of the DNA damage response, DNA replication is inhibited and, within seconds, histone H2AX is phosphorylated. Here we describe a cell-free system that reconstitutes the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks using damage-activated cell extracts and naieve nuclei. Using this system the effect of damage signalling on nuclei that do not contain DNA lesions can be studied, thereby uncoupling signalling and repair. Soluble extracts from G1/S phase cells that were treated with etoposide before isolation, or pre-incubated with nuclei from etoposide-treated cells during an in vitro activation reaction, restrain both initiation and elongation of DNA replication in naieve nuclei. At the same time, H2AX is phosphorylated in naieve nuclei in a manner that is dependent upon the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinases. Notably, phosphorylated H2AX is not focal in naieve nuclei, but is evident throughout the nucleus suggesting that in the absence of DNA lesions the signal is not amplified such that discrete foci can be detected. This system offers a novel screening approach for inhibitors of DNA damage response kinases, which we demonstrate using the inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cell free system that reconstitutes the response to DNA damage in the absence of DNA lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damage-activated extracts impose the cellular response to DNA damage on naieve nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIKK-dependent response impacts positively and negatively on two separate fluorescent outputs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Can be used to screen for inhibitors that impact on the response to damage but not on DNA repair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LY294002 and wortmannin demonstrate the system's potential as a pathway focused screening

  17. HST/COS SPECTRA OF THREE QSOs THAT PROBE THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF A SINGLE SPIRAL GALAXY: EVIDENCE FOR GAS RECYCLING AND OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeney, Brian A.; Stocke, John T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Shull, J. Michael; Green, James C. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)] [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosenberg, Jessica L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ryan-Weber, Emma V. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Mail H30, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, 3122 VIC (Australia)] [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Mail H30, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, 3122 VIC (Australia); Savage, Blair D., E-mail: brian.keeney@colorado.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5534 Sterling Hall, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We have used the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) to obtain far-UV spectra of three closely spaced QSO sight lines that probe the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of an edge-on spiral galaxy, ESO 157-49, at impact parameters of 74 and 93 h {sup -1} {sub 70} kpc near its major axis and 172 h {sup -1} {sub 70} kpc along its minor axis. H I Ly{alpha} absorption is detected at the galaxy redshift in the spectra of all three QSOs, and metal lines of Si III, Si IV, and C IV are detected along the two major-axis sight lines. Photoionization models of these clouds suggest metallicities close to the galaxy metallicity, cloud sizes of {approx}1 kpc, and gas masses of {approx}10{sup 4} M {sub Sun }. Given the high covering factor of these clouds, ESO 157-49 could harbor {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M {sub Sun} of warm CGM gas. We detect no metals in the sight line that probes the galaxy along its minor axis, but gas at the galaxy metallicity would not have detectable metal absorption with ionization conditions similar to the major-axis clouds. The kinematics of the major-axis clouds favor these being portions of a 'galactic fountain' of recycled gas, while two of the three minor-axis clouds are constrained geometrically to be outflowing gas. In addition, one of our QSO sight lines probes a second more distant spiral, ESO 157-50, along its major axis at an impact parameter of 88 h {sup -1} {sub 70} kpc. Strong H I Ly{alpha} and C IV absorption only are detected in the QSO spectrum at the redshift of ESO 157-50.

  18. THE He II POST-REIONIZATION EPOCH: HST/COS OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUASAR HS1700+6416

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syphers, David; Shull, J. Michael, E-mail: david.syphers@colorado.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    The reionization epoch of singly ionized helium (He II) is believed to start at redshifts z {approx} 3.5-4 and be nearly complete by z {approx_equal} 2.7. We explore the post-reionization epoch with far-ultraviolet spectra of the bright, high-redshift quasar HS1700+6416 taken by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, which show strong He II ({lambda}303.78) absorption shortward of the QSO redshift, z{sub QSO} = 2.75. We discuss these data as they probe the post-reionization history of He II and the local ionization environment around the quasar and transverse to the line of sight, finding that quasars are likely responsible for much of the ionization. We compare previous spectra taken by the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer to the current COS data, which have a substantially higher signal-to-noise ratio. The Gunn-Peterson trough recovers at lower redshifts, with the effective optical depth falling from {tau}{sub eff} {approx_equal} 1.8 at z {approx} 2.7 to {tau}{sub eff} {approx_equal} 0.7 at z {approx} 2.3, higher than has been reported in earlier work. We see an interesting excess of flux near the He II Ly{alpha} break, which could be quasar line emission, although likely not He II Ly{alpha}. We present spectra of four possible transverse-proximity quasars, although the UV hardness data are not of sufficient quality to say if their effects are seen along the HS1700 sightline.

  19. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyα photons, since the Lyα line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ∼300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  20. The radiated energy budget of chromospheric plasma in a major solar flare deduced from multi-wavelength observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.; Kerr, Graham S.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Dennis, Brian R.; Allred, Joel C.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Ireland, Jack

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents measurements of the energy radiated by the lower solar atmosphere, at optical, UV, and EUV wavelengths, during an X-class solar flare (SOL2011-02-15T01:56) in response to an injection of energy assumed to be in the form of nonthermal electrons. Hard X-ray observations from RHESSI were used to track the evolution of the parameters of the nonthermal electron distribution to reveal the total power contained in flare accelerated electrons. By integrating over the duration of the impulsive phase, the total energy contained in the nonthermal electrons was found to be >2 × 10{sup 31} erg. The response of the lower solar atmosphere was measured in the free-bound EUV continua of H I (Lyman), He I, and He II, plus the emission lines of He II at 304 Å and H I (Lyα) at 1216 Å by SDO/EVE, the UV continua at 1600 Å and 1700 Å by SDO/AIA, and the white light continuum at 4504 Å, 5550 Å, and 6684 Å, along with the Ca II H line at 3968 Å using Hinode/SOT. The summed energy detected by these instruments amounted to ∼3 × 10{sup 30} erg; about 15% of the total nonthermal energy. The Lyα line was found to dominate the measured radiative losses. Parameters of both the driving electron distribution and the resulting chromospheric response are presented in detail to encourage the numerical modeling of flare heating for this event, to determine the depth of the solar atmosphere at which these line and continuum processes originate, and the mechanism(s) responsible for their generation.

  1. Scanning the landscape of genome architecture of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae by whole genome mapping reveals extensive population genetic diversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Carol; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Awosika, Joy; Briska, Adam; Ptashkin, Ryan N.; Wagner, Trevor; Rajanna, Chythanya; Tsang, Hsinyi; Johnson, Shannon L.; et al

    2015-03-20

    Historically, cholera outbreaks have been linked to V. cholerae O1 serogroup strains or its derivatives of the O37 and O139 serogroups. A genomic study on the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak strains highlighted the putative role of non O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in causing cholera and the lack of genomic sequences of such strains from around the world. Here we address these gaps by scanning a global collection of V. cholerae strains as a first step towards understanding the population genetic diversity and epidemic potential of non O1/non-O139 strains. Whole Genome Mapping (Optical Mapping) based bar coding produces a high resolution, orderedmore » restriction map, depicting a complete view of the unique chromosomal architecture of an organism. To assess the genomic diversity of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, we applied a Whole Genome Mapping strategy on a well-defined and geographically and temporally diverse strain collection, the Sakazaki serogroup type strains. Whole Genome Map data on 91 of the 206 serogroup type strains support the hypothesis that V. cholerae has an unprecedented genetic and genomic structural diversity. Interestingly, we discovered chromosomal fusions in two unusual strains that possess a single chromosome instead of the two chromosomes usually found in V. cholerae. We also found pervasive chromosomal rearrangements such as duplications and indels in many strains. The majority of Vibrio genome sequences currently in public databases are unfinished draft sequences. The Whole Genome Mapping approach presented here enables rapid screening of large strain collections to capture genomic complexities that would not have been otherwise revealed by unfinished draft genome sequencing and thus aids in assembling and finishing draft sequences of complex genomes. Furthermore, Whole Genome Mapping allows for prediction of novel V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains that may have the potential to cause future cholera outbreaks.« less

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite by pulsed direct current method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nur, Adrian; Rahmawati, Alifah; Ilmi, Noor Izzati; Affandi, Samsudin; Widjaja, Arief

    2014-02-24

    Synthesis of nanosized of hydroxyapatite (HA) by electrochemical pulsed direct current (PDC) method has been studied. The aim of this work is to study the influence of various PDC parameters (pH initial, electrode distance, duty cycle, frequency, and amplitude) on particle surface area of HA powders. The electrochemical synthesis was prepared in solution Ca{sup 2+}/EDTA{sup 4?}/PO{sub 4}{sup 3+} at concentration 0.25/0.25/0.15 M for 24 h. The electrochemical cell was consisted of two carbon rectangular electrodes connected to a function generator to produce PDC. There were two treatments for particles after electrosynthesized, namely without aging and aged for 2 days at 40 C. For both cases, the particles were filtered and washed by demineralized water to eliminate the impurities and unreacted reactants. Then, the particles were dried at 100 C for 2 days. The dried particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface area analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. HA particles can be produced when the initial pH > 6. The aging process has significant effect on the produced HA particles. SEM images of HA particles showed that the powders consisted of agglomerates composed of fine crystallites and have morphology plate-like and sphere. The surface area of HA particles is in the range of 25 91 m{sup 2}/g. The largest particle surface area of HA was produced at 4 cm electrode distance, 80% cycle duty, frequency 0.1 Hz, amplitude 9 V and with aging process.

  3. To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E.

    2008-01-30

    Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

  4. A Signal-Inducing Bone Cement for Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Spinal Surgery Based on Hydroxyapatite and Polymethylmethacrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichlas, Florian, E-mail: florian.wichlas@charite.de; Seebauer, Christian J.; Schilling, Rene [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany); Rump, Jens [University Charite, Department of Radiology (Germany); Chopra, Sascha S. [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany); Walter, Thula; Teichgraeber, Ulf K. M. [University Charite, Department of Radiology (Germany); Bail, Hermann J. [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a signal-inducing bone cement for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided cementoplasty of the spine. This MRI cement would allow precise and controlled injection of cement into pathologic lesions of the bone. We mixed conventional polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (PMMA; 5 ml methylmethacrylate and 12 g polymethylmethacrylate) with hydroxyapatite (HA) bone substitute (2-4 ml) and a gadolinium-based contrast agent (CA; 0-60 {mu}l). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of different CA doses was measured in an open 1.0-Tesla scanner for fast T1W Turbo-Spin-Echo (TSE) and T1W TSE pulse sequences to determine the highest signal. We simulated MRI-guided cementoplasty in cadaveric spines. Compressive strength of the cements was tested. The highest CNR was (1) 87.3 (SD 2.9) in fast T1W TSE for cements with 4 {mu}l CA/ml HA (4 ml) and (2) 60.8 (SD 2.4) in T1W TSE for cements with 1 {mu}l CA/ml HA (4 ml). MRI-guided cementoplasty in cadaveric spine was feasible. Compressive strength decreased with increasing amounts of HA from 46.7 MPa (2 ml HA) to 28.0 MPa (4 ml HA). An MRI-compatible cement based on PMMA, HA, and CA is feasible and clearly visible on MRI images. MRI-guided spinal cementoplasty using this cement would permit direct visualization of the cement, the pathologic process, and the anatomical surroundings.

  5. A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T.K.

    2011-02-01

    Acidic uranium (U) contaminated plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in-situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in-situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/y) show that desorption of U and HA were non-detectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH < 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results demonstrated that HA-treatment is a promising in-situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface.

  6. The cowpox virus fusion regulator proteins SPI-3 and hemagglutinin interact in infected and uninfected cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Peter C. . E-mail: rmoyer@ufl.edu

    2006-03-30

    The serpin SPI-3 and the hemagglutinin (HA) encoded by cowpox virus (CPV) block cell-cell fusion, and colocalize at the cell surface. wtCPV does not fuse cells, but inactivation of either gene leads to fusion. SPI-3 mAb added to wtCPV-infected cells caused fusion, confirming that SPI-3 protein at the cell surface prevents fusion. The SPI-3 mAb epitope mapped to an 85-amino acid region at the C-terminus. Removal of either 44 residues from the SPI-3 C-terminus or 48 residues following the N-terminal signal sequence resulted in fusion. Interaction between SPI-3 and HA proteins in infected cells was shown by coimmunoprecipitation. SPI-3/HA was not associated with the A27L 'fusion' protein. SPI-3 and HA were able to associate in uninfected cells in the absence of other viral proteins. The HA-binding domain in SPI-3 resided in the C-terminal 229 residues, and did not include helix D, which mediates cofactor interaction in many other serpins.

  7. Switchgrass Cultivar/Ecotype Selection and Management for Biofuels in the Upper Southeast USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lemus, Rocky; Parrish, David J.; Wolf, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass indigenous to the eastern USA, has potential as a biofuels feedstock. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars under different environments and management treatments. Four cultivars of switchgrass were evaluated from 2000 to 2001 under two management regimes in plots established in 1992 at eight locations in the upper southeastern USA. Two management treatments included 1) a single annual harvest (in late October to early November) and a single application of 50 kg N/ha/yr and 2) two annual harvests (in midsummer andmore » November) and a split application of 100 kg N/ha/yr. Biomass yields averaged 15 Mg/ha/yr and ranged from 10 to 22 Mg/ha/yr across cultivars, managements, locations, and years. There was no yield advantage in taking two harvests of the lowland cultivars (Alamo and Kanlow). When harvested twice, upland cultivars (Cave-in-Rock and Shelter) provided yields equivalent to the lowland ecotypes. Tiller density was 36% lower in stands cutting only once per year, but the stands appeared vigorous after nine years of such management. Lowland cultivars and a one-cutting management (after the tops have senesced) using low rates of applied N (50 kg/ha) are recommended.« less

  8. COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS TO PROJECT FUTURE BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS IN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST, CURINANCO, CHILE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor

    2005-07-14

    Deforestation of temperate rainforests in Chile has decreased the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation can restore those ecosystem services. Greenhouse gas policies that offer financing for the carbon emissions avoided by preventing deforestation require a projection of future baseline carbon emissions for an area if no forest conservation occurs. For a proposed 570 km{sup 2} conservation area in temperate rainforest around the rural community of Curinanco, Chile, we compared three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions: extrapolation from Landsat observations, Geomod, and Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis (FRCA). Analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data show 1986-1999 net deforestation of 1900 ha in the analysis area, proceeding at a rate of 0.0003 y{sup -1}. The gross rate of loss of closed natural forest was 0.042 y{sup -1}. In the period 1986-1999, closed natural forest decreased from 20,000 ha to 11,000 ha, with timber companies clearing natural forest to establish plantations of non-native species. Analyses of previous field measurements of species-specific forest biomass, tree allometry, and the carbon content of vegetation show that the dominant native forest type, broadleaf evergreen (bosque siempreverde), contains 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon, compared to the carbon density of non-native Pinus radiata plantations of 240 {+-} 60 t ha{sup -1}. The 1986-1999 conversion of closed broadleaf evergreen forest to open broadleaf evergreen forest, Pinus radiata plantations, shrublands, grasslands, urban areas, and bare ground decreased the carbon density from 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon to an average of 100 t ha{sup -1} (maximum 160 t ha{sup -1}, minimum 50 t ha{sup -1}). Consequently, the conversion released 1.1 million t carbon. These analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data provided the data to

  9. Three-Stage Production Cost Modeling Approach for Evaluating the Benefits of Intra-Hour Scheduling between Balancing Authorities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Hunsaker, Matthew; Guo, Tao

    2015-07-30

    This paper introduces a Production Cost Modeling (PCM) approach to evaluate the benefits of intra-hour scheduling between Balancing Authorities (BAs). The system operation is modeled in a three-stage sequential manner: day ahead (DA)-hour ahead (HA)-real time (RT). In addition to contingency reserve, each BA will need to carry out “up” and “down” load following and regulation reserve capacity requirements in the DA and HA time frames. In the real-time simulation, only contingency and regulation reserves are carried out as load following is deployed. To model current real-time operation with hourly schedules, a new constraint was introduced to force each BA net exchange schedule deviation from HA schedules to be within NERC ACE limits. Case studies that investigate the benefits of moving from hourly exchange schedules between WECC BAs into 10-min exchange schedules under two different levels of wind and solar penetration (11% and 33%) are presented.

  10. A=13N (1976AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6AJ04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 13N) GENERAL: See also (1970AJ04) and Table 13.23 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1971AR1R, 1972DE1H, 1972EL1C, 1972LE1L, 1973DE13, 1973HA49, 1973SA30, 1974PH1D, 1975ME24). Speacial levels: (1970PE18, 1971AR03, 1971AR1R, 1971JA13, 1971SE1C, 1972BE1E, 1972DE1H, 1973JO1G, 1973SA30, 1974HA1G, 1974PH1D, 1974VA24, 1975KU21, 1975ME24). Electromagnetic transitions: (1971JA13, 1972NA05, 1973HA1Q, 1973LE06, 1973MA1K, 1973SA25, 1973SA30,

  11. A=15N (70AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    70AJ04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 15N) GENERAL: See Table 15.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations:(HA57B, BR59M, FE59E, TA60L, BA61N, BU63D, KU63I, MA64HH, CO65I, FA65A, GR65E, GU65A, ZA65B, EL66B, SO66A, CO67M, EL67C, PA67K, EL68E, HO68, MA68DD, SH68D, WA68E, ZH68A, CH69, EL69B). General calculations and reviews:(EV64, BE65G, OL66B, WI66E, FA67A, LO67E, BI68C, ZH68, HA69M, IW69A). Electromagnetic transitions:(RO65O, HA66O, PO66F, RO66C, RO66M, WA66D, KU67J,

  12. Prioritization methodology using hazard analysis results at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasser, M.K.; Hall, M.; Stack, D.; Brooks, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    Risk management activities, such as prioritizing risk-reducing projects, often are commissioned for facilities as special tasks supported by special task forces and conducted independently of other on-going risk assessment and risk management activities. Many DOE facilities have completed hazard analyses (HAs) as part of their efforts to upgrade their SARs to meet the new DOE standard that was issued in 1994. Although a complete SAR would contain more resource allocation information than the HA, the HA usually is completed before the SAR. This paper describes how SAR results, and particularly HA results, can be used directly to support managers` risk-based prioritization of project funding. This can reduce the time to conduct prioritization modeling, increase the quality of the results, and, perhaps most importantly, integrate the results into the on-going risk management activities of the site.

  13. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  14. A=9B (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9B) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 9.9 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1966BA26, 1966EL08, 1967ST1C, 1971CO28, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49). Special levels: (1966BA26, 1966EL08, 1967BA59, 1967ST1C, 1969HA1G, 1970TO1E, 1971CO28, 1971LI30, 1972BE1E). Astrophysical questions: (1970BA1M). Other topics: (1967CA17, 1967CH1H, 1970SA05, 1972AN05, 1972HA57, 1972CA37, 1972LE1L, 1972PN1A, 1973JU2A). Ground state properties: (1966BA26,

  15. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  16. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: Final Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, Robin E.; Becker, James M.

    2013-09-26

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor), now Mission Support Alliance (MSA), Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades (2007). Three plantings have been installed on a 4.5-hectare mitigation area to date. This review provides a description and chronology of events, monitoring results, and mitigative actions through fiscal year (FY) 2012. Also provided is a review of the monitoring methods, transect layout, and FY 2012 monitoring activities and results for all planting years. Planting densities and performance criteria stipulated in the MAP were aimed at a desired future condition (DFC) of 10 percent mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis) cover. Current recommendations for yielding this DFC are based upon a conceptual model planting of 1000 plants/ha (400/ac) exhibiting a 60-percent survival rate after 5 monitoring years (DOE 2003). Accordingly, a DFC after 5 monitoring years would not be less than 600 plants/ha (240/ac). To date, about 8700 sagebrush plants have been grown and transplanted onto the mitigation site. Harsh site conditions and low seedling survival have resulted in an estimated 489 transplants/ha on the mitigation site, which is 111 plants/ha short of the target DFC. Despite this apparent shortcoming, 71, 91, and 24 percent of the surviving seedlings planted in FY 2007 and FY 2008 and FY 2010, respectively, showed signs of blooming in FY 2012. Blooming status may be a positive indication of future sagebrush recruitment, and is therefore a potential source for reaching the target DFC of 600 plants/ha on this mitigation site over time. Because of the difficulty establishing small transplants on this site, we propose that no additional plantings be considered for this mitigation area and to rely upon the potential recruitment by established seedlings to achieve the mitigation commitment set forth in the MAP of 600 plants/ha.

  17. Chitosan-shelled oxygen-loaded nanodroplets abrogate hypoxia dysregulation of human keratinocyte gelatinases and inhibitors: New insights for chronic wound healing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khadjavi, Amina; Magnetto, Chiara; Panariti, Alice; Argenziano, Monica; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; Rivolta, Ilaria; Cavalli, Roberta; Giribaldi, Giuliana; Guiot, Caterina; Prato, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    Background: : In chronic wounds, efficient epithelial tissue repair is hampered by hypoxia, and balances between the molecules involved in matrix turn-over such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are seriously impaired. Intriguingly, new oxygenating nanocarriers such as 2H,3H-decafluoropentane-based oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs) might effectively target chronic wounds. Objective: : To investigate hypoxia and chitosan-shelled OLN effects on MMP/TIMP production by human keratinocytes. Methods: : HaCaT cells were treated for 24 h with 10% v/v OLNs both in normoxia or hypoxia. Cytotoxicity and cell viability were measured through biochemical assays; cellular uptake by confocal microscopy; and MMP and TIMP production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or gelatin zymography. Results: : Normoxic HaCaT cells constitutively released MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Hypoxia strongly impaired MMP/TIMP balances by reducing MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-2, without affecting TIMP-1 release. After cellular uptake by keratinocytes, nontoxic OLNs abrogated all hypoxia effects on MMP/TIMP secretion, restoring physiological balances. OLN abilities were specifically dependent on time-sustained oxygen diffusion from OLN core. Conclusion: : Chitosan-shelled OLNs effectively counteract hypoxia-dependent dysregulation of MMP/TIMP balances in human keratinocytes. Therefore, topical administration of exogenous oxygen, properly encapsulated in nanodroplet formulations, might be a promising adjuvant approach to promote healing processes in hypoxic wounds. - Highlights: • Hypoxia impairs MMP9/TIMP1 and MMP2/TIMP2 balances in HaCaT human keratinocytes. • Chitosan-shelled oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs) are internalised by HaCaT cells. • OLNs are not toxic to HaCaT cells. • OLNs effectively counteract hypoxia effects on MMP/TIMP balances in HaCaT cells. • OLNs appear as promising and cost-effective therapeutic tools for hypoxic

  18. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 This 460-acre (186.2 ha) Set-Aside Area is a long narrow stretch of land located along the eastern floodplain and bluffs of Upper Three Runs Creek. This Set-Aside supplements the original SREL Reserve Area--Oak-Hickory Forest 1 Set-Aside (Area #5), which is only 84.5 acres (34.2 ha). Area #12 represents hardwood forest types that are transitional between bottomland forests and drier upland pine or sandhills communities. Oak-hickory forests once were a dominant community type characteristic of

  19. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rainbow Bay Amphibian Reserve This 87.5-acre (35.4 ha) Set-Aside Area is comprised of Rainbow Bay, a 200-m forested buffer area that encircles the entire bay, and a wedge-shaped corridor extending to a tributary of Fourmile Creek. This corridor was established to maintain a forested connection between Rainbow Bay, Bullfrog and Pickerel Ponds, and the Fourmile Creek drainage. Rainbow Bay is a 2.4-acre (1 ha) relatively undisturbed, isolated, wetland depression similar to a true Carolina bay,

  20. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ginger's Bay This relatively small 38.5-acre (15.6 ha) Set-Aside is comprised of the temporary pond Ginger’s Bay and a partial 200-m buffer area of planted pines, mixed pine/hardwood, and upland-to-mesic hardwood communities. The bay has virtually no buffer on the northwest side that borders Road A. Ginger’s Bay is 3.7 acres (1.5 ha) and is a relatively intact bay-like wetland depression which lacks the morphology and orientation of a true Carolina bay. Like Rainbow Bay (Area #16), this

  1. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Little Cypress Bay This 68.4-acre (27.7 ha) Set-Aside is comprised of Little Cypress Bay and a relatively undisturbed 200-m buffer zone of maturing pine and upland hardwood communities. Little Cypress Bay is a 9.9-acre (4.0 ha) herbaceous bay with a partial forest of pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens). There is no evidence of historical ditching associated with this bay. Little Cypress Bay is a relatively undisturbed Carolina bay which represents a wetland habitat whose interior basin is

  2. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bay The 66-acre (26.7 ha) Cypress Bay Set-Aside includes Cypress Bay (also called Bay #92); a 200-meter buffer of maturing loblolly pines (Pinus taeda); and portions of Bay #91 and Bay #93. The basins of these forested bays are ringed with older bottomland hardwoods and pine. All have evidence of historical disturbance from ditching or SRS rail line construction. The focal bay of this Area is Cypress Bay, which is a relatively small (3.1 acres, 1.3 ha), relatively undisturbed bay. It is unique

  3. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mona Bay and Woodward Bay Woodward (on left) and Mona The 156.7-acre (63.4 ha) Mona Bay/Woodward Bay Set-Aside is an isolated assemblage of three Carolina bays (temporary ponds), surrounded primarily by a buffer area of recently established and maturing pine plantations. The paired Mona and Woodward Bays are relatively intact bays with shallow water depths, dominated by open herbaceous vegetation. Mona Bay is 27.9 acres (11.3 ha) in size and rivals Ellenton Bay (Area #1) as the second largest

  4. A=8B (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8B) GENERAL: See also (1984AJ01) and Table 8.9 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations: (1983SH38). Special states: (1982PO12, 1988KH03). Complex reactions involving 8B: (1982AL08, 1983OL1A, 1984GR08, 1986HA1B, 1987TAZU, 1988AR05, 1988KI05). Astrophysical questions: (1984HA1B, 1985BO1E, 1985GI1C, 1985KL1A, 1985LA1C, 1988BA86). Reactions involving pions: (1983SP06). Hypernuclei: (1983SH38). Other topics: (1985AN28). Ground state of

  5. Cleaning Up the Hanford River Corridor and Improving Site Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doug Shoop, Deputy Manager April 13, 2016 2 3 Continue Cleanup of the Central Plateau * Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) - Completed last glove box (HA-9A) - Re-sequenced high-hazard work at PFP to focus on one project at a time using "Level B" suits - Grouted Plutonium Reclamation Facility canyon floor, began decontaminating walls Glove box HA-9A before (left) and after (right) Vacuuming "strongbacks" (left) and painting canyon floor (right) 4 K Basin Sludge Transfer * All

  6. Improved DC Gun Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sah, R.; Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Surles-Law, K. E.L.

    2010-05-23

    Many user fa­cil­i­ties such as syn­chrotron ra­di­a­tion light sources and free elec­tron lasers re­quire ac­cel­er­at­ing struc­tures that sup­port elec­tric fields of 10-100 MV/m, es­pe­cial­ly at the start of the ac­cel­er­a­tor chain where ce­ram­ic in­su­la­tors are used for very high gra­di­ent DC guns. These in­su­la­tors are dif­fi­cult to man­u­fac­ture, re­quire long com­mis­sion­ing times, and often ex­hib­it poor re­li­a­bil­i­ty. Two tech­ni­cal ap­proach­es to solv­ing this prob­lem will be in­ves­ti­gat­ed. First­ly, in­vert­ed ce­ram­ics offer so­lu­tions for re­duced gra­di­ents be­tween the elec­trodes and ground. An in­vert­ed de­sign will be pre­sent­ed for 350 kV, with max­i­mum gra­di­ents in the range of 5-10 MV/m. Sec­ond­ly, novel ce­ram­ic man­u­fac­tur­ing pro­cess­es will be stud­ied, in order to pro­tect triple junc­tion lo­ca­tions from emis­sion, by ap­ply­ing a coat­ing with a bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty. The pro­cess­es for cre­at­ing this coat­ing will be op­ti­mized to pro­vide pro­tec­tion as well as be used to coat a ce­ram­ic with an ap­pro­pri­ate gra­di­ent in bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty from the vac­u­um side to the air side of an HV stand­off ce­ram­ic cylin­der. Ex­am­ple in­su­la­tor de­signs are being com­put­er mod­elled, and in­su­la­tor sam­ples are being man­u­fac­tured and test­ed

  7. High Power Coax Window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, M. L.; Dudas, A.; Sah, R.; Elliott, T. S.; Rimmer, R. A.; Stirbet, M. S.

    2010-05-23

    A su­per­con­duct­ing RF (SRF) power cou­pler ca­pa­ble of han­dling 500 kW CW RF power is re­quired for pre­sent and fu­ture stor­age rings and linacs. There are over 35 cou­pler de­signs for SRF cav­i­ties rang­ing in fre­quen­cy from 325 to 1500 MHz. Cou­pler win­dows vary from cylin­ders to cones to disks, and RF power cou­plers are lim­it­ed by the abil­i­ty of ce­ram­ic win­dows to with­stand the stress­es due to heat­ing and me­chan­i­cal flex­ure. We pro­pose a novel ro­bust co-ax­i­al SRF cou­pler de­sign which uses com­pressed win­dow tech­nol­o­gy. This tech­nol­o­gy will allow the use of high­ly ther­mal­ly con­duc­tive ma­te­ri­als for cryo­genic win­dows. Using com­pressed win­dow tech­niques on disk co-ax­i­al win­dows will make sig­nif­i­cant im­prove­ments in the power han­dling of SRF cou­plers. We pre­sent the bench test re­sults of two win­dow as­sem­blies back to back, as well as in­di­vid­u­al win­dow VSWR in EIA3.125 coax. A vac­u­um test as­sem­bly was made and the win­dows baked out at 155C. The pro­cess­es used to build win­dows is scal­able to larg­er di­am­e­ter coax and to high­er power lev­els.

  8. The BigBoss Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.; Cahn, R.; Carton, P.-H.; Cervanted-Cota, J.L.; Chu, Y.; Cortes, M.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna / /IAC, Mexico / / /Madrid, IFT /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. / / /New York U. /Valencia U.

    2012-06-07

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (k{sub max} = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (k{sub max} = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  9. THE COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION AND CONTINUUM OPACITY OF THE INTERGALACTIC AND CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM AT REDSHIFT (z) = 2.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudie, Gwen C.; Steidel, Charles C. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shapley, Alice E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States); Pettini, Max, E-mail: gwen@astro.caltech.edu [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-01

    We present new high-precision measurements of the opacity of the intergalactic and circumgalactic medium (IGM; CGM) at (z) = 2.4. Using Voigt profile fits to the full Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} forests in 15 high-resolution high-S/N spectra of hyperluminous QSOs, we make the first statistically robust measurement of the frequency of absorbers with H I column densities 14{approx}< log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2}){approx}<17.2. We also present the first measurements of the frequency distribution of H I absorbers in the volume surrounding high-z galaxies (the CGM, 300 pkpc), finding that the incidence of absorbers in the CGM is much higher than in the IGM. In agreement with Rudie et al., we find that there are fractionally more high-N{sub H{sub I}} absorbers than low-N{sub H{sub I}} absorbers in the CGM compared to the IGM, leading to a shallower power law fit to the CGM frequency distribution. We use these new measurements to calculate the total opacity of the IGM and CGM to hydrogen-ionizing photons, finding significantly higher opacity than most previous studies, especially from absorbers with log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2}) < 17.2. Reproducing the opacity measured in our data as well as the incidence of absorbers with log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2})>17.2 requires a broken power law parameterization of the frequency distribution with a break near N{sub H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. We compute new estimates of the mean free path ({lambda}{sub mfp}) to hydrogen-ionizing photons at z{sub em} = 2.4, finding {lambda}{sub mfp} = 147 {+-} 15 Mpc when considering only IGM opacity. If instead, we consider photons emanating from a high-z star-forming galaxy and account for the local excess opacity due to the surrounding CGM of the galaxy itself, the mean free path is reduced to {lambda}{sub mfp} = 121 {+-} 15 Mpc. These {lambda}{sub mfp} measurements are smaller than recent estimates and should inform future studies of the metagalactic UV background and of

  10. A HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH SEARCH FOR WARM-HOT BARYONS IN THE Mrk 421 SIGHT LINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danforth, Charles W.; Stocke, John T.; Keeney, Brian A.; Penton, Steven V.; Shull, J. Michael; Yao Yangsen; Green, James C., E-mail: danforth@colorado.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    Thermally broadened Ly{alpha} absorbers (BLAs) offer an alternate method to using highly ionized metal absorbers (O VI, O VII, etc.) to probe the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM, T = 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K). Until now, WHIM surveys via BLAs have been no less ambiguous than those via far-UV and X-ray metal-ion probes. Detecting these weak, broad features requires background sources with a well-characterized far-UV continuum and data of very high quality. However, a recent Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) observation of the z = 0.03 blazar Mrk 421 allows us to perform a metal-independent search for WHIM gas with unprecedented precision. The data have high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N Almost-Equal-To 50 per {approx}20 km s{sup -1} resolution element) and the smooth, power-law blazar spectrum allows a fully parametric continuum model. We analyze the Mrk 421 sight line for BLA absorbers, particularly for counterparts to the proposed O VII WHIM systems reported by Nicastro et al. based on Chandra/Low Energy Transmission Grating observations. We derive the Ly{alpha} profiles predicted by the X-ray observations. The S/N of the COS data is high (S/N Almost-Equal-To 25 pixel{sup -1}), but much higher S/N can be obtained by binning the data to widths characteristic of the expected BLA profiles. With this technique, we are sensitive to WHIM gas over a large (N{sub H}, T) parameter range in the Mrk 421 sight line. We rule out the claimed Nicastro et al. O VII detections at their nominal temperatures (T {approx} 1-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K) and metallicities (Z = 0.1 Z{sub Sun }) at {approx}> 2{sigma} level. However, WHIM gas at higher temperatures and/or higher metallicities is consistent with our COS non-detections.

  11. An HST COS 'SNAPSHOT' spectrum of the K supergiant ? Vel (K4Ib-II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G. [NASA/GSFC Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ayres, Thomas R. [University of Colorado, CASA, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Harper, Graham M. [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kober, Gladys; Nielsen, Krister E.; Wahlgren, Glenn M., E-mail: Kenneth.G.Carpenter@nasa.gov [Deptartment of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    We present a far-ultraviolet spectrum of the K4 Ib-II supergiant ? Vel obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) as a part of the SNAPshot program 'SNAPing coronal iron' (GO 11687). The observation covers a wavelength region (1326-1467 ) not previously recorded for ? Vel at a spectral resolving power of R ? 20,000 and displays strong emission and absorption features, superposed on a bright chromospheric continuum. Fluorescent excitation is responsible for much of the observed emission, mainly powered by strong H I Ly? and the O I (UV 2) triplet emission near ?1304. The molecular CO and H{sub 2} fluorescences are weaker than in the early-K giant ? Boo while the Fe II and Cr II lines, also pumped by H I Ly?, are stronger in ? Vel. This pattern of relative line strengths between the two stars is explained by the lower iron-group element abundance in ? Boo, which weakens that star's Fe II and Cr II emission without reducing the molecular fluorescences. The ? Vel spectrum shows fluorescent Fe II, Cr II, and H{sub 2} emission similar to that observed in the M supergiant ? Ori, but more numerous well-defined narrow emissions from CO. The additional CO emissions are visible in the spectrum of ? Vel since that star does not have the cool, opaque circumstellar shells that surround ? Ori and produce broad circumstellar CO (A-X) band absorptions that hide those emissions in the cooler star. The presence of Si IV emission in ? Vel indicates a ?8 10{sup 4} K plasma that is mixed into the cooler chromosphere. Evidence of the stellar wind is seen in the C II ??1334,1335 lines and in the blueshifted Fe II and Ni II wind absorption lines. Line modeling using Sobolev with Exact Integration for the C II lines indicates a larger terminal velocity (?45 versus ?30 km s{sup 1}) and turbulence (?27 versus <21 km s{sup 1}) with a more quickly accelerating wind (? = 0.35 versus 0.7) at the time of this COS observation in 2010 than derived from Goddard

  12. Halo mass dependence of H I and O VI absorption: evidence for differential kinematics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathes, Nigel L.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Charlton, Jane; Muzahid, Sowgat

    2014-09-10

    We studied a sample of 14 galaxies (0.1 < z < 0.7) using HST/WFPC2 imaging and high-resolution HST/COS or HST/STIS quasar spectroscopy of Lyα, Lyβ, and O VI λλ1031, 1037 absorption. The galaxies, having 10.8 ≤ log (M {sub h}/M {sub ☉}) ≤ 12.2, lie within D = 300 kpc of quasar sightlines, probing out to D/R {sub vir} = 3. When the full range of M {sub h} and D/R {sub vir} of the sample are examined, ∼40% of the H I absorbing clouds can be inferred to be escaping their host halo. The fraction of bound clouds decreases as D/R {sub vir} increases such that the escaping fraction is ∼15% for D/R {sub vir} < 1, ∼45% for 1 ≤ D/R {sub vir} < 2, and ∼90% for 2 ≤ D/R {sub vir} < 3. Adopting the median mass log M {sub h}/M {sub ☉} = 11.5 to divide the sample into 'higher' and 'lower' mass galaxies, we find a mass dependency for the hot circumgalactic medium kinematics. To our survey limits, O VI absorption is found in only ∼40% of the H I clouds in and around lower mass halos as compared to ∼85% around higher mass halos. For D/R {sub vir} < 1, lower mass halos have an escape fraction of ∼65%, whereas higher mass halos have an escape fraction of ∼5%. For 1 ≤ D/R {sub vir} < 2, the escape fractions are ∼55% and ∼35% for lower mass and higher mass halos, respectively. For 2 ≤ D/R {sub vir} < 3, the escape fraction for lower mass halos is ∼90%. We show that it is highly likely that the absorbing clouds reside within 4R {sub vir} of their host galaxies and that the kinematics are dominated by outflows. Our finding of 'differential kinematics' is consistent with the scenario of 'differential wind recycling' proposed by Oppenheimer et al. We discuss the implications for galaxy evolution, the stellar to halo mass function, and the mass-metallicity relationship of galaxies.

  13. THE GREAT OBSERVATORIES ORIGINS DEEP SURVEY: CONSTRAINTS ON THE LYMAN CONTINUUM ESCAPE FRACTION DISTRIBUTION OF LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AT 3.4 < z < 4.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanzella, E.; Nonino, M.; Fontanot, F.; Cristiani, S.; Tozzi, P.; Giavalisco, M.; Inoue, A. K.; Grazian, A.; Giallongo, E.; Boutsia, K.; Fontana, A.; Pentericci, L.; Dickinson, M.; Stern, D.; Ferguson, H.; Spinrad, H.; Rosati, P.

    2010-12-10

    We use ultra-deep ultraviolet VLT/VIMOS intermediate-band and VLT/FORS1 narrowband imaging in the GOODS Southern field to derive limits on the distribution of the escape fraction (f{sub esc}) of ionizing radiation for L {>=} L*{sub z=3} Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at redshift 3.4-4.5. Only one LBG, at redshift z = 3.795, is detected in its Lyman continuum (LyC; S/N {approx_equal} 5.5), the highest redshift galaxy currently known with a direct detection. Its ultraviolet morphology is quite compact (R{sub eff} = 0.8 kpc physical). Three out of seven active galactic nuclei are also detected in their LyC, including one at redshift z = 3.951 and z{sub 850} = 26.1. From stacked data (LBGs), we set an upper limit to the average f{sub esc} in the range 5%-20%, depending on how the data are selected (e.g., by magnitude and/or redshift). We undertake extensive Monte Carlo simulations that take into account intergalactic attenuation, stellar population synthesis models, dust extinction, and photometric noise in order to explore the moments of the distribution of the escaping radiation. Various distributions (exponential, log-normal, and Gaussian) are explored. We find that the median f{sub esc} is lower than {approx_equal}6% with an 84% percentile limit not larger than 20%. If this result remains valid for fainter LBGs down to current observational limits, then the LBG population might be not sufficient to account for the entire photoionization budget at the redshifts considered here, with the exact details dependent upon the assumed ionizing background and QSO contribution thereto. It is possible that f{sub esc} depends on the UV luminosity of the galaxies, with fainter galaxies having higher f{sub esc}, and estimates of f{sub esc} from a sample of faint LBGs from HUDF (i{sub 775} {<=}28.5) are in broad quantitative agreement with such a scenario.

  14. Study of Organosilicon Plasma Polymer Used in Composite Layers with Biomedical Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radeva, E.; Pramatarova, L.; Pecheva, E.; Hikov, T.; Fingarova, D.; Iacob, E.; Vanzetti, L.; Dimitrova, R.; Krasteva, N.; Spassov, T.

    2010-01-21

    In this work we study the ability of plasma polymer (PP) films obtained from hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) on silica glass (SG) to induce hydroxyapatite (HA)-based composite layers from a mixture of simulated body fluid (SBF) and clear solution of detonation nanodiamond (DND) by a biomimetic process. The grown composites (PPHMDS/HADND) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) techniques. FTIR spectra of the PPHMDS indicated diminishing of the polymer characteristic bands when the polymer is immersed in DND clear solution. Furthermore, after sample immersion in the SBF-DND mixture, the FTIR spectra showed the presence of carbonate-containing HA through the characteristic vibration modes of P-O in the phosphate group and C-O in the carbonate group. The formation of HA layers, rich in silica and/or carbon was confirmed by RBS and SEM. The cell viability measured after 7 days on the polymer surface is more then 95% for all samples. The results show that the PPHMDS is promising as a substrate for growing HA/DND layers and that the materials obtained are biocompatible. The variations of plasma polymerization conditions and modification of the composite layers will aid in using such materials for biomedical applications.

  15. A=17O (71AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NO69B, NO69G, PA69D, PI69, SA69, SC69F, SC69O, BA70A, HA70L, MC70Q, SU70A). Ground state: -1.89371 0.00009 nm (SH67N); Q 26.5 3.0 mb (LI64H). See also (FA59E,...

  16. Submitting Organization Sandia National ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...PS-PVP). 2-(4'-Hydroxybenzeneazo)benzoic acid (HBBA) was used as the HA. For a typical synthesis, we added a 2 wt % solution of HBBA in dioxane to a 2-4 wt % solution of PS-PVP in ...

  17. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  18. Structural Basis for a Switch in Receptor Binding Specificity of Two H5N1 Hemagglutinin Mutants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Xueyong; Viswanathan, Karthik; Raman, Rahul; Yu, Wenli; Sasisekharan, Ram; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-11-01

    Avian H5N1 influenza viruses continue to spread in wild birds and domestic poultry with sporadic infection in humans. Receptor binding specificity changes are a prerequisite for H5N1 viruses and other zoonotic viruses to be transmitted among humans. Previous reported hemagglutinin (HA) mutants from ferret-transmissible H5N1 viruses of A/Viet Nam/1203/04 and A/Indonesia/5/05 showed slightly increased, but still very weak, binding to human receptors. From mutagenesis and glycan array studies, we previously identified two H5N1 HA mutants that could more effectively switch receptor specificity to human-like α2-6 linked sialosides with avidity comparable to wild-type H5 HA binding to avian-like α2-3 linked sialosides.more »Here, crystal structures of these two H5 HA mutants free and in complex with human and avian glycan receptor analogues reveal the structural basis for their preferential binding to human receptors. These findings suggest continuous surveillance should be maintained to monitor and assess human-to-human transmission potential of H5N1 viruses.« less

  19. A=5He (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1970IR01, 1970RA1D, 1970ZO1A, 1971RA15, 1971WA08, 1972KA38, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49). Cluster calculations: (1965NE1B, 1966HO06, 1967BE1G, 1969ME1C, 1969WI1C, 1971LE1N, 1972DE30)....

  20. A=11B (1975AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1970CO1H, 1971BA2Y, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49, 1973KU03, 1973SA30, 1974ME19). Cluster and collective models: (1969BA1J, 1970BA1Q, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973KU03). Special...

  1. A=17O (1982AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1977HA1Z, 1977PO16, 1978CH26, 1978KR02, 1979KA06, 1980BR13, 1980VA05). Collective and cluster models: (1978CH26, 1978TA1A, 1978TH1A, 1980FU1G). Special states: (1977HE18,...

  2. A=10Li (74AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10B: see (HA68V), the mass excess of 10Li, (M - A) 33.10 0.06 MeV (AB73D). The breakup energy into 9Li + n is then -0.06 0.06 MeV. Using the calculated values suggested...

  3. Evaluation of sweet sorghum as a potential ethanol crop in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, David Scott

    2011-08-01

    Petroleum prices have made alternative fuel crops a viable option for ethanol production. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] is a non-food crop that may produce large quantities of ethanol with minimal inputs. Eleven cultivars were planted in 2008 and 2009 as a half-season crop. Four-row plots 6.9 m by 0.5 m, were monitored bimonthly for °Brix, height, and sugar accumulation. Yield and extractable sap were taken at the end of season. Stalk yield was greatest for the cultivar Sugar Top (4945 kg ha-1) and lowest for Simon (1054 kg ha-1). Dale ranked highest ethanol output (807 L ha-1) while Simon (123 L ha-1) is the lowest. All cultivars peak Brix accumulation occurs in early October. Individual sugar concentrations indicated sucrose is the predominant sugar with glucose and fructose levels dependent on cultivar. Supplemental ethanol in fermented wort was the best preservative tested to halt degradation of sorghum wort.

  4. A=17N (1977AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    See also (1971AJ02) and Table 17.1 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Theory and reviews: (1973PA1F, 1973RE17, 1973TO16, 1973WI15, 1974HA61, 1975BE31). Experimental...

  5. Revised Manuscript

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    62 1957GR1D Groshev and Demidov, Sov. J. At. Energy 3 (1957) 853 1957HA1K S.S. Hanna and L. Meyer-Schutzmeister, Phys. Rev. 108 (1957) 1644 1957HE1C Hebbard, Ph.D.Thesis, Univ. of...

  6. Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis of Baseline Carbon Emissions and Removal in Tropical Rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Benjamin Kroll; Carlos R. Vargas

    2006-01-10

    Conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land and pasture has reduced forest extent and the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation and reforestation can restore those ecosystem services. We have assessed forest species patterns, quantified deforestation and reforestation rates, and projected future baseline carbon emissions and removal in Amazon tropical rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru. The research area is a 4800 km{sup 2} buffer zone around the Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillen, Bosque de Proteccion San Matias-San Carlos, and the Reserva Comunal Yanesha. A planned project for the period 2006-2035 would conserve 4000 ha of forest in a proposed 7000 ha Area de Conservacion Municipale de Chontabamba and establish 5600 ha of natural regeneration and 1400 ha of native species plantations, laid out in fajas de enriquecimiento (contour plantings), to reforest 7000 ha of agricultural land. Forest inventories of seven sites covering 22.6 ha in primary forest and 17 sites covering 16.5 ha in secondary forest measured 17,073 trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm. The 24 sites host trees of 512 species, 267 genera, and 69 families. We could not identify the family of 7% of the trees or the scientific species of 21% of the trees. Species richness is 346 in primary forest and 257 in the secondary forest. In primary forest, 90% of aboveground biomass resides in old-growth species. Conversely, in secondary forest, 66% of aboveground biomass rests in successional species. The density of trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm is 366 trees ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 533 trees ha{sup -1} in secondary forest, although the average diameter is 24 {+-} 15 cm in primary forest and 17 {+-} 8 cm in secondary forest. Using Amazon forest biomass equations and wood densities for 117 species, aboveground biomass is 240 {+-} 30 t ha{sup -1} in the primary sites and 90 {+-} 10 t ha{sup -1} in the

  7. Structure of a highly acidic β-lactamase from the moderate halophile Chromohalobacter sp. 560 and the discovery of a Cs{sup +}-selective binding site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi; Okazaki, Nobuo; Matsumoto, Fumiko; Shibazaki, Chie; Shimizu, Rumi; Yamada, Mitsugu; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro; Kawamoto, Masahide; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Blaber, Michael; Tokunaga, Masao; Kuroki, Ryota

    2015-03-01

    The tertiary structure of a β-lactamase derived from the halobacterium Chromohalobacter sp. 560 (HaBLA) was determined by X-ray crystallography. Three unique Sr{sup 2+}-binding sites and one Cs{sup +}-binding site were discovered in the HaBLA molecule. Environmentally friendly absorbents are needed for Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +}, as the removal of the radioactive Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} that has leaked from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant is one of the most important problems in Japan. Halophilic proteins are known to have many acidic residues on their surface that can provide specific binding sites for metal ions such as Cs{sup +} or Sr{sup 2+}. The crystal structure of a halophilic β-lactamase from Chromohalobacter sp. 560 (HaBLA) was determined to resolutions of between 1.8 and 2.9 Å in space group P3{sub 1} using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, the locations of bound Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} ions were identified by anomalous X-ray diffraction. The location of one Cs{sup +}-specific binding site was identified in HaBLA even in the presence of a ninefold molar excess of Na{sup +} (90 mM Na{sup +}/10 mM Cs{sup +}). From an activity assay using isothermal titration calorimetry, the bound Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} ions do not significantly affect the enzymatic function of HaBLA. The observation of a selective and high-affinity Cs{sup +}-binding site provides important information that is useful for the design of artificial Cs{sup +}-binding sites that may be useful in the bioremediation of radioactive isotopes.

  8. Impacts of alternative residential energy standards - Rural Housing Amendments Study, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balistocky, S.; Bohn, A.A.; Heidell, J.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lee, A.D.; Pratt, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1985-11-01

    This report has examined the role of manufactured housing in the housing market, the energy impacts of three manufactured housing standards and three site-built standards in 13 cities, and the economic impacts of those standards in 6 cities. The three standards applied to manufactured housing are the HUD Title VI standard (Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards, or MHCSS), the Hud Title II-E standard, and the existing FmHA Title V standard. Those applied to site-built homes are the HUD Minimum Property Standards (MPS), the ASHRAE 90A-80 standard, and the FmHA Title V standard. Based on energy consumption alone, these analyses show that the FmHA Title V standard is the most stringent standard for both housing types (a single-section menufactured home and a single-story detached ''ranch house''). The HUD Title VI standard is the least stringent for manufactured homes, while the HUD Minimum Property Standards are the least stringent for site-built homes. Cost-effectiveness comparisons required by the Act were made for the two prototypical homes. Results of this preliminary economic analysis indicate that none of the site-built standards reflect minimum life-cycle cost as a basic criterion of their development. For manufactured homes, both the FmHA standard and the HUD Title II-E standard reduce life-cycle cost and effect positive first-year cash flows in all cities analyzed when electric resistance heating is assumed. When natural gas heating is used, both standards pass the life-cycle cost test in all cities, but the FmHA standard fails the cash flow test in all but one city. However, in the worst case, net monthly expenditures in the first year are increased by less than $9.

  9. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R.; Cunilio, T.V.

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  10. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ``may affect`` the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA).

  11. Growth and elemental accumulation by canola on soil amended with coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Murray, B.R.; Nissanka, S.P.

    2008-05-15

    To explore the agronomic potential of an Australian coal fly ash, we conducted two glasshouse experiments in which we measured chlorophyll fluorescence, CO{sub 2} assimilation (A), transpiration, stomatal conductance, biomass accumulation, seed yield, and elemental uptake for canola (Brassica napus) grown on soil amended with an alkaline fly ash. In Experiment 1, application of up to 25 Mg/ha of fly ash increased A and plant weight early in the season before flowering and seed yield by up to 21%. However, at larger rates of ash application A, plant growth, chlorophyll concentration, and yield were all reduced. Increases in early vigor and seed yield were associated with enhanced uptake of phosphorus (P) by the plants treated with fly ash. Fly ash application did not influence accumulation of B, Cu, Mo, or Zn in the stems at any stage of plant growth or in the seed at harvest, except Mo concentration, which was elevated in the seed. Accumulation of these elements was mostly in the leaves, where concentrations of Cu and Mo increased with any amount of ash applied while that of B occurred only with ash applied at 625 Mg/ha. In Experiment 2, fly ash applied at 500 Mg/ha and mixed into the whole 30 cm soil core was detrimental to growth and yield of canola, compared with restricting mixing to 5 or 15 cm depth. In contrast, application of ash at 250 Mg/ha with increasing depth of mixing increased A and seed yield. We concluded that fly ash applied at not more than 25 Mg/ha and mixed into the top 10 to 15 cm of soil is sufficient to obtain yield benefits.

  12. Inhibition of influenza virus infection and hemagglutinin cleavage by the protease inhibitor HAI-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Chung, Changik; Cyphers, Soreen Y.; Rinaldi, Vera D.; Marcano, Valerie C.; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza HA cleavage activation. • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza virus infection. • Comparative analysis of HAI-2 for vesicular stomatitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type-1. • Analysis of the activity of HAI-2 in a mouse model of influenza. - Abstract: Influenza virus remains a significant concern to public health, with the continued potential for a high fatality pandemic. Vaccination and antiviral therapeutics are effective measures to circumvent influenza virus infection, however, multiple strains have emerged that are resistant to the antiviral therapeutics currently on the market. With this considered, investigation of alternative antiviral therapeutics is being conducted. One such approach is to inhibit cleavage activation of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), which is an essential step in the viral replication cycle that permits viral-endosome fusion. Therefore, targeting trypsin-like, host proteases responsible for HA cleavage in vivo may prove to be an effective therapeutic. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 2 (HAI-2) is naturally expressed in the respiratory tract and is a potent inhibitor of trypsin-like serine proteases, some of which have been determined to cleave HA. In this study, we demonstrate that HAI-2 is an effective inhibitor of cleavage of HA from the human-adapted H1 and H3 subtypes. HAI-2 inhibited influenza virus H1N1 infection in cell culture, and HAI-2 administration showed protection in a mouse model of influenza. HAI-2 has the potential to be an effective, alternative antiviral therapeutic for influenza.

  13. The Eighth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Data from SDSS-III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihara, Hiroaki; Prieto, Carlos Allende; An, Deokkeun; Anderson, Scott F.; Aubourg, Eric; Balbinot, Eduardo; Beers, Timothy C.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bickerton, Steven J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael R.; /New York U., CCPP /Penn State U.

    2011-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) started a new phase in August 2008, with new instrumentation and new surveys focused on Galactic structure and chemical evolution, measurements of the baryon oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies and the quasar Ly{alpha} forest, and a radial velocity search for planets around {approx}8000 stars. This paper describes the first data release of SDSS-III (and the eighth counting from the beginning of the SDSS). The release includes 5-band imaging of roughly 5200 deg{sup 2} in the Southern Galactic Cap, bringing the total footprint of the SDSS imaging to 14,555 deg{sup 2}, or over a third of the Celestial Sphere. All the imaging data have been reprocessed with an improved sky-subtraction algorithm and a final, self-consistent recalibration and flat-field determination. This release also includes all data from the second phase of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Evolution (SEGUE-2), consisting of spectroscopy of approximately 118,000 stars at both high and low Galactic latitudes. All the more than half a million stellar spectra obtained with the SDSS spectrograph have been reprocessed through an improved stellar parameters pipeline, which has better determination of metallicity for high metallicity stars.

  14. PULSE AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION RECORDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowper, G.

    1958-08-12

    A device is described for automatica1ly recording pulse annplitude distribution received from a counter. The novelty of the device consists of the over-all arrangement of conventional circuit elements to provide an easy to read permanent record of the pulse amplitude distribution during a certain time period. In the device a pulse analyzer separates the pulses according to annplitude into several channels. A scaler in each channel counts the pulses and operates a pen marker positioned over a drivable recorder sheet. Since the scalers in each channel have the sanne capacity, the control circuitry permits counting of the incoming pulses until one scaler reaches capacity, whereupon the input is removed and an internal oscillator supplies the necessary pulses to fill up the other scalers. Movement of the chart sheet is initiated wben the first scaler reaches capacity to thereby give a series of marks at spacings proportional to the time required to fill the remaining scalers, and accessory equipment marks calibration points on the recorder sheet to facilitate direct reading of the number of external pulses supplied to each scaler.

  15. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THE DETECTION OF LEAKS IN PIPE LINES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jefferson, S.; Cameron, J.F.

    1961-11-28

    A method is described for detecting leaks in pipe lines carrying fluid. The steps include the following: injecting a radioactive solution into a fluid flowing in the line; flushing the line clear of the radioactive solution; introducing a detector-recorder unit, comprising a radioactivity radiation detector and a recorder which records the detector signal over a time period at a substantially constant speed, into the line in association with a go-devil capable of propelling the detector-recorder unit through the line in the direction of the fluid flow at a substantia1ly constant velocity; placing a series of sources of radioactivity at predetermined distances along the downstream part of the line to make a characteristic signal on the recorder record at intervals corresponding to the location of said sources; recovering the detector-recorder unit at a downstream point along the line; transcribing the recorder record of any radioactivity detected during the travel of the detector- recorder unit in terms of distance along the line. (AEC)

  16. A star-forming shock front in radio galaxy 4C+41.17 resolved with laser-assisted adaptive optics spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinbring, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Near-infrared integral-field spectroscopy of redshifted [O III], Hβ, and optical continuum emission from the z = 3.8 radio galaxy 4C+41.17 is presented, obtained with the laser-guide-star adaptive optics facility on the Gemini North telescope. Employing a specialized dithering technique, a spatial resolution of 0.''10, or 0.7 kpc, is achieved in each spectral element, with a velocity resolution of ∼70 km s{sup –1}. Spectra similar to local starbursts are found for bright knots coincident in archival Hubble Space Telescope ( HST) rest-frame ultraviolet images, which also allows a key line diagnostic to be mapped together with new kinematic information. There emerges a clearer picture of the nebular emission associated with the jet in 8.3 GHz and 15 GHz Very Large Array maps, closely tied to a Lyα-bright shell-shaped structure seen with HST. This supports a previous interpretation of that arc tracing a bow shock, inducing ∼10{sup 10–11} M {sub ☉} star formation regions that comprise the clumpy broadband optical/ultraviolet morphology near the core.

  17. THE GEOMETRY EFFECTS OF AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE ON THE DETECTION OF COOL NEUTRAL GAS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, S. J.

    2012-03-20

    Recent high-redshift surveys for 21 cm absorption in damped Ly{alpha} absorption systems (DLAs) take the number of published searches at z{sub abs} > 2 to 25, the same number as at z{sub abs} < 2, although the detection rate at high redshift remains significantly lower (20% compared to 60%). Using the known properties of the DLAs to estimate the unknown profile widths of the 21 cm non-detections and including the limits via a survival analysis, we show that the mean spin temperature/covering factor degeneracy at high redshift is, on average, double that of the low-redshift sample. This value is significantly lower than the previous factor of eight for the spin temperatures and is about the same factor as in the angular diameter distance ratios between the low- and high-redshift samples. That is, without the need for the several pivotal assumptions, which lead to an evolution in the spin temperature, we show that the observed distribution of 21 cm detections in DLAs can be accounted for by the geometry effects of an expanding universe. That is, as yet there is no evidence of the spin temperature of gas-rich galaxies evolving with redshift.

  18. A FOURTH H I 21 cm ABSORPTION SYSTEM IN THE SIGHT LINE OF MG J0414+0534: A RECORD FOR INTERVENING ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanna, A.; Webb, J. K.; Curran, S. J.; Whiting, M. T.; Bignell, C.

    2013-08-01

    We report the detection of a strong H I 21 cm absorption system at z = 0.5344, as well as a candidate system at z = 0.3389, in the sight line toward the z = 2.64 quasar MG J0414+0534. This, in addition to the absorption at the host redshift and the other two intervening absorbers, takes the total to four (possibly five). The previous maximum number of 21 cm absorbers detected along a single sight line is two and so we suspect that this number of gas-rich absorbers is in some way related to the very red color of the background source. Despite this, no molecular gas (through OH absorption) has yet been detected at any of the 21 cm redshifts, although, from the population of 21 cm absorbers as a whole, there is evidence for a weak correlation between the atomic line strength and the optical-near-infrared color. In either case, the fact that so many gas-rich galaxies (likely to be damped Ly{alpha} absorption systems) have been found along a single sight line toward a highly obscured source may have far-reaching implications for the population of faint galaxies not detected in optical surveys, a possibility which could be addressed through future wide-field absorption line surveys with the Square Kilometer Array.

  19. Measurements of Martin-Puplett Interferometer Limitations using Blackbody Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evtushenko, Pavel E.; Klopf, John M.

    2013-06-01

    Frequency domain measurements with Martin-Puplett interferometer is one of a few techniques capable of bunch length measurements at the level of ~ 100 fs. As the bunch length becomes shorter, it is important to know and be able to measure the limitations of the instrument in terms of shortest measurable bunch length. In this paper we describe an experiment using a blackbody source with the modified Martin-Puplett interferometer that is routine- ly used for bunch length measurements at the JLab FEL, as a way to estimate the shortest, measurable bunch length. The limitation comes from high frequency cut-off of the wire-grid polarizer currently used and is estimated to be 50 fs RMS. The measurements are made with the same Golay cell detector that is used for beam measure- ments. We demonstrate that, even though the blackbody source is many orders of magnitude less bright than the coherent transition or synchrotron radiation, it can be used for the measurements and gives a very good signal to noise ratio in combination with lock-in detection. We also compare the measurements made in air and in vacuum to characterize the very strong effect of the atmospheric absorption.

  20. PIK3CA is implicated as an oncogene in ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shayesteh, Laleh; Lu, Yiling; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Baldocchi, Russell; Godfrey, Tony; Collins, Colin; Pinkel, Daniel; Powell, Bethan; Mills,Gordon B.; Gray, Joe W.

    1998-03-25

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer death among American women, yet little is known about its molecular aetiology. Studies using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) have revealed several regions of recurrent, abnormal, DNA sequence copy number that may encode genes involved in the genesis or progression of the disease. One region at 3q26 found to be increased in copy number in approximately 40 percent of ovarian and other cancers contains PIK3CA, which encodes the p110 a catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3-kinase). The association between PIK3CA copy number and PI3-kinase activity makes PIK3CA a candidate oncogene because a broad range of cancer-related functions have been associated with PI3-kinase mediated signaling. These include proliferation, glucose transport and catabolism, cell adhesion, apoptosis, RAS signaling and oncogenic transformation. In addition, downstream effectors of PI3-kinase,AKT1 and AKT2, have been found to be amplified or activated in human tumors, including ovarian cancer. We show here that PIK3CA is frequently increased in copy number in ovarian cancers, that the increased copy number is associated with increased PIK3CA transcription, p110 a protein expression and PI3-kinase activity and that treatment with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 decreases proliferation and increases apoptosis. Our observations suggest PIK3CA is an oncogene that has an important role in ovarian cancer.

  1. THE EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM THE MEASUREMENTS OF THE ATTENUATION OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong Yan; Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    The attenuation of high-energy gamma-ray spectrum due to the electron-positron pair production against the extragalactic background light (EBL) provides an indirect method to measure the EBL of the universe. We use the measurements of the absorption features of the gamma-rays from blazars as seen by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to explore the EBL flux density and constrain the EBL spectrum, star formation rate density (SFRD), and photon escape fraction from galaxies out to z = 6. Our results are basically consistent with the existing determinations of the quantities. We find a larger photon escape fraction at high redshifts, especially at z = 3, compared to the result from recent Ly{alpha} measurements. Our SFRD result is consistent with the data from both gamma-ray burst and ultraviolet (UV) observations in the 1{sigma} level. However, the average SFRD we obtain at z {approx}> 3 matches the gamma-ray data better than the UV data. Thus our SFRD result at z {approx}> 6 favors the fact that star formation alone is sufficiently high enough to reionize the universe.

  2. Interlaced crystals having a perfect Bravais lattice and complex chemical order revealed by real-space crystallography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shen, Xiao; Hernandez-Pagan, Emil; Zhou, Wu; Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Macdonald, Janet; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2014-11-14

    The search for optimal thermoelectric materials aims for structures in which the crystalline order is disrupted to lower the thermal conductivity without degradation of the electron conductivity. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of ternary nanoparticles (two cations and one anion) that exhibit a new form of crystal-line order: an uninterrupted, perfect, global Bravais lattice, in which the two cations exhibit a wide array of distinct ordering patterns within the cation sublattice, form-ing interlaced domains and phases. Partitioning into domains and phases is not unique; the corresponding boundaries have no structural defects or strain and entail no energy cost.more » We call this form of crystalline order “interlaced crystals” and present the example of hexagonal-CuInS2. Interlacing is possible in multi-cation tetrahedral-ly-bonded compound with an average of two electrons per bond. Interlacing has min-imal effect on electronic properties, but should strongly reduce phonon transport, making interlaced crystals attractive for thermoelectric applications.« less

  3. Interlaced crystals having a perfect Bravais lattice and complex chemical order revealed by real-space crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Xiao; Hernandez-Pagan, Emil; Zhou, Wu; Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Macdonald, Janet; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2014-11-14

    The search for optimal thermoelectric materials aims for structures in which the crystalline order is disrupted to lower the thermal conductivity without degradation of the electron conductivity. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of ternary nanoparticles (two cations and one anion) that exhibit a new form of crystal-line order: an uninterrupted, perfect, global Bravais lattice, in which the two cations exhibit a wide array of distinct ordering patterns within the cation sublattice, form-ing interlaced domains and phases. Partitioning into domains and phases is not unique; the corresponding boundaries have no structural defects or strain and entail no energy cost. We call this form of crystalline order “interlaced crystals” and present the example of hexagonal-CuInS2. Interlacing is possible in multi-cation tetrahedral-ly-bonded compound with an average of two electrons per bond. Interlacing has min-imal effect on electronic properties, but should strongly reduce phonon transport, making interlaced crystals attractive for thermoelectric applications.

  4. THE LOW-REDSHIFT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM AS SEEN IN ARCHIVAL LEGACY HST/STIS AND FUSE DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilton, Evan M.; Danforth, Charles W.; Michael Shull, J. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ross, Teresa L., E-mail: evan.tilton@colorado.edu, E-mail: charles.danforth@colorado.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu, E-mail: rosst@nmsu.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We present a comprehensive catalog of ultraviolet (HST/STIS and FUSE) absorbers in the low-redshift intergalactic medium (IGM) at z < 0.4. The catalog draws from much of the extensive literature on IGM absorption and reconciles discrepancies among several previous catalogs through a critical evaluation of all reported absorption features in light of new HST/COS data. We report on 746 H I absorbers down to a rest-frame equivalent width of 12 mA over a maximum redshift path length {Delta}z = 5.38. We also confirm 111 O VI absorbers, 29 C IV absorbers, and numerous absorption lines due to other metal ions. We characterize the bivariate distribution of absorbers in redshift and column density as a power law, {partial_derivative}{sup 2}N/{partial_derivative}z{partial_derivative}N) {proportional_to} N{sup -{beta}}, where {beta} = 2.08 {+-} 0.12 for O VI and {beta} = 1.68 {+-} 0.03 for H I. Utilizing a more sophisticated accounting technique than past work, our catalog accounts for {approx}43% of the baryons: 24% {+-} 2% in the photoionized Ly{alpha} forest and 19% {+-} 2% in the warm-hot IGM as traced by O VI. We discuss the large systematic effects of various assumed metallicities and ionization states on these calculations, and we implement recent simulation results in our estimates.

  5. HST/COS OBSERVATIONS OF THIRTEEN NEW He II QUASARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syphers, David; Anderson, Scott F.; Zheng Wei; Meiksin, Avery; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.

    2012-04-15

    The full reionization of intergalactic helium was a major event in the history of the intergalactic medium (IGM), and UV observations of the He II Gunn-Peterson trough allow us to characterize the end of this process at z {approx} 3. Due to intervening hydrogen absorption, quasars allowing such study are rare, with only 33 known in the literature, and most of those are very recent discoveries. We expand on our previous discovery work, and present 13 new He II quasars with redshifts 2.82 < z < 3.77, here selected with {approx}80% efficiency, and including several that are much brighter than the vast majority of those previously known. This is the largest sample of uniformly observed He II quasars covering such a broad redshift range, and they show evidence of IGM opacity increasing with redshift, as expected for the helium reionization epoch. No evidence of He II Ly{alpha} quasar emission is seen in individual or averaged spectra, posing a problem for standard models of the broad-line region. The current rapid advance in the study of He II quasars has been greatly facilitated by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, and we discuss the instrumental and other subtleties that must be taken into account in IGM He II observations.

  6. Evolution of Elastic X-ray Scattering in Laser-Shocked Warm Dense Li

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugland, N L; Gregori, G; Bandyopadhyay, S; Brenner, C; Brown, C; Constantin, C; Glenzer, S H; Khattak, F; Kritcher, A L; Niemann, C; Otten, A; Pasley, J; Pelka, A; Roth, M; Spindloe, C; Riley, D

    2009-06-02

    We have studied the dynamics of warm dense Li with near-elastic x-ray scattering. Li foils were heated and compressed using shock waves driven by 4 ns long laser pulses. Separate 1 ns long laser pulses were used to generate a bright source of 2.96 keV Cl Ly-{alpha} photons for x-ray scattering, and the spectrum of scattered photons was recorded at a scattering angle of 120{sup o} using a HOPG crystal operated in the von Hamos geometry. A variable delay between the heater and backlighter laser beams measured the scattering time evolution. Comparison with radiation hydrodynamics simulations shows that the plasma is highly coupled during the first several nanoseconds, then relaxes to a moderate coupling state at later times. Near-elastic scattering amplitudes have been successfully simulated using the screened one-component plasma model. Our main finding is that the near-elastic scattering amplitudes are quite sensitive to the mean ionization state {bar Z}, and by extension to the choice of ionization model in the radiation-hydrodynamics simulations used to predict plasma properties within the shocked Li.

  7. A dual-channel, curved-crystal spectrograph for petawatt laser, x-ray backlighter source studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theobald, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Jaanimagi, P. A.; Nilson, P. M.; Storm, M.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Hey, D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Shepherd, R.; Snavely, R. A.; Key, M. H.; King, J. A.; Zhang, B.; Stephens, R. B.; Akli, K. U.; Highbarger, K.; Daskalova, R. L.; and others

    2009-08-15

    A dual-channel, curved-crystal spectrograph was designed to measure time-integrated x-ray spectra in the {approx}1.5 to 2 keV range (6.2-8.2 A wavelength) from small-mass, thin-foil targets irradiated by the VULCAN petawatt laser focused up to 4x10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. The spectrograph consists of two cylindrically curved potassium-acid-phthalate crystals bent in the meridional plane to increase the spectral range by a factor of {approx}10 compared to a flat crystal. The device acquires single-shot x-ray spectra with good signal-to-background ratios in the hard x-ray background environment of petawatt laser-plasma interactions. The peak spectral energies of the aluminum He{sub {alpha}} and Ly{sub {alpha}} resonance lines were {approx}1.8 and {approx}1.0 mJ/eV sr ({approx}0.4 and 0.25 J/A sr), respectively, for 220 J, 10 ps laser irradiation.

  8. Quasar-Lyman ? forest cross-correlation from BOSS DR11: Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; Kirkby, David; Blomqvist, Michael; Busca, Nicolas; Aubourg, ric; Bautista, Julian; Ross, Nicholas P.; Bailey, Stephen; Beutler, Florian; Carithers, Bill; Slosar, Ane; Rich, James; Delubac, Timothe; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, Jon; Brownstein, Joel R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; and others

    2014-05-01

    We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Ly? forest absorption, using over 164,000 quasars from Data Release 11 of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We extend the previous study of roughly 60,000 quasars from Data Release 9 to larger separations, allowing a measurement of the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale along the line of sight c/(H(z = 2.36)r{sub s}) = 9.00.3 and across the line of sight D{sub A}(z = 2.36)/r{sub s} = 10.80.4, consistent with CMB and other BAO data. Using the best fit value of the sound horizon from Planck data (r{sub s} = 147.49Mpc), we can translate these results to a measurement of the Hubble parameter of H(z = 2.36) = 2268kms{sup ?1}Mpc{sup ?1} and of the angular diameter distance of D{sub A}(z = 2.36) = 159060Mpc. The measured cross-correlation function and an update of the code to fit the BAO scale (baofit) are made publicly available.

  9. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Matt McCormick DOE-RL Manager September 5, 2013 2 Hanford Advisory Board DOE/RL Update Cleanup Strategies/Vision/Agreements www.em.doe.gov S a f e a n d E f f e c t iv e C le a n u p t h a t P r o t e c t s t h e C o lu m b ia R iv e r  R ed uc es th e A ct iv e Si te Fo ot pr in t of C le an up to 75 Sq ua re M ile s (5 86 to 75 )  Si gn ifi ca nt ly R ed uc es Lo ng -T er m M or tg ag e C os ts  A t C om pl et io n, Sh ift s Em ph as is an d R es ou rc es to Fu ll Sc al e C le an up

  10. Elastic Neutron Scattering at 96 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrand, A.; Blomgren, J.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Mermod, P.; Nilsson, L.; Pomp, S.; Esterlund, M.; Dangtip, S.; Tippawan, U.; Phansuke, P.; Jonsson, O.; Renberg, P.-U.; Prokofiev, A.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N.; Blideanu, V.

    2005-05-24

    A facility for detection of scattered neutrons in the energy interval 50-130 MeV, SCANDAL (SCAttered Nucleon Detection AssembLy), has recently been installed at the 20 - 180-MeV neutron beam line of The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala. Elastic neutron scattering from 12C, 16O, 56Fe, 89Y, and 208Pb has been studied at 96 MeV in the 10-70 deg. interval. The results from 12C and 208Pb have recently been published,6 while the data from 16O, 56Fe, and 89Y are under analysis. The achieved energy resolution, 3.7 MeV, is about an order of magnitude better than for any previous experiment above 65 MeV incident energy. The present experiment represents the highest neutron energy where the ground state has been resolved from the first excited state in neutron scattering. A novel method for normalization of the absolute scale of the cross section has been used. The estimated normalization uncertainty, 3%, is unprecedented for a neutron-induced differential cross section measurement on a nuclear target. The results are compared with modern optical model predictions, based on phenomenology or microscopic theory. Applications for these measurements are nuclear-waste incineration, single-event upsets in electronics, and fast-neutron therapy.

  11. Magnetic properties of CeFe11-xCoxTi with ThMn12 structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, C; Pinkerton, FE; Herbst, JF

    2014-05-07

    A series of novel alloys CeFe11-xCoxTi (0 <= x <= 11) with ThMn12 structure has been successfully prepared by melt-spinning. The Curie temperature T-c increases with Co content x, reaching a maximum of 689 degrees C at x = 9 and declining to 664 degrees C at complete Co filling (x = 11). The room temperature saturation magnetization 4 pi M-s and magnetocrystalline anisotropy H-a have been estimated by fitting the first quadrant demagnetization curve with the Stoner-Wohlfarth model. 4 pi M-s first increases with increasing Co up to x = 3, then decrease. H-a has a complex dependence on Co content, which is indicative of a change in the easy magnetization direction from axis to plane and back as the Co content increases. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  12. A=10B (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10B) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 10.5 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1961KO1A, 1965CO25, 1966HA18, 1966MA1P, 1966WI1E, 1967CO32, 1967EV1C, 1967HS1A, 1967PI1B, 1968GO01, 1969VA1C, 1970CO1H, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49, 1973JO1K, 1973KU03, 1973SA30). Cluster and α-particle model: (1965NE1B, 1967TA1C, 1969BA1J, 1969HU1F, 1969NA1M, 1970NA06, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973KU03). Special levels: (1967CO32, 1967HS1A, 1968GO01,

  13. A=10B (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10B) GENERAL: See also (1984AJ01) and Table 10.5 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell and deformed models: (1983VA31, 1984VA06, 1984ZW1A, 1987KI1C, 1988OR1C, 1988WO04). Cluster and α-particle models: (1983SH38, 1984NI12, 1985KW02). Special states: (1983BI1C, 1983FE07, 1983VA31, 1984NI12, 1984VA06, 1984ZW1A, 1985GO1A, 1985HA18, 1985HA1J, 1986BA1X, 1986XU02, 1987AB1H, 1987BA2J, 1987KI1C, 1988KW02). Electromagnetic transitions and giant resonances:

  14. A=12C (1985AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 12C) GENERAL: See also (1980AJ01) and Table 12.6 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1977ME05, 1978RA1B, 1979HA59, 1979IN05, 1980CA12, 1980GI05, 1980HA35, 1980OH07, 1981AM08, 1981BO1Y, 1981DE2G, 1981LU1B, 1981RA06, 1982AR03, 1982BA52, 1982BR08, 1983VA31, 1984DE04, 1984VA06). Deformed models: (1979UE03, 1980BA1T, 1980BA44, 1980CA12, 1980FU1H, 1981DE2G, 1981RA06, 1981SE03, 1982AS03, 1982BR08, 1982KU1K, 1982SA1U, 1983LO04, 1983SA12,

  15. A=13N (1986AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 13N) GENERAL: See also (1981AJ01) and Table 13.14 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Nuclear models: (1983SH38). Special states: (1981KO1Q, 1983AU1B, 1983WI15, 1984RO05). Electromagnetic transitions:(1980BA54, 1980RI06, 1981KO1Q, 1983AD1B, 1984MA2J). Astrophysical questions: (1980BA1P, 1983LI01, 1985GI1C). Applied work: (1982BO1N, 1982HA1V, 1982HI1H, 1982MA1T, 1982PI1H, 1982YA1C, 1983HA1W, 1983KO1Q, 1984HI1D, 1984MO1Q, 1984MO1R, 1984NI1C). Complex

  16. A=13O (1976AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    76AJ04) (See the Isobar Diagram for 13O) GENERAL: See also (1970AJ04) and Table 13.29 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Theoretical papers: (1973HA49, 1973RO1R, 1973SP1A, 1975GR03, 1975BE31, 1975HU14). Review papers: (1972CE1A, 1972WA07, 1973HA77). Mass of 13O: From the Q-value of the 16O(3He, 6He)13O reaction [Q0 = -30.508 ± 0.010 MeV] the atomic mass excess of 13O is determined to be 23.105 ± 0.010 MeV (1971TR03). 13O is then bound with respect to 12N + p and 11C + 2p by 1.528 and

  17. A=15C (1991AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    91AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 15C) GENERAL: See also (1986AJ01) and Table Prev. Table 15.1 preview 15.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations:(1988MI1J, 1989PO1K, 1989WO1E). Electromagnetic transitions:(1984VA06). Astrophysical questions:(1989KA1K). Complex reactions involving 15C:(1985PO11, 1986AV1B, 1986BI1A, 1986DU11, 1986HA1P, 1986HA1B, 1986PO06, 1987RI03, 1987SA25, 1987SN01, 1987VI02, 1988CA06, 1988JO1B, 1988MI28, 1988RU01, 1988SA19, 1989AS1B, 1989OG1B,

  18. A=17Ne (1977AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See the Isobar Diagram for 17Ne) GENERAL: See also (1971AJ02) and Table 17.20 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Theory and reviews: (1971HA1Y, 1973HA77, 1973RE17, 1975BE31). Mass of 17Ne: The mass excess of 17Ne, determined from a measurement of the Q-value of 20Ne(3He, 6He)17Ne is 16.48 ± 0.05 MeV (1970ME11, 1972CE1A). Then 17Ne - 17F = 14.53 MeV and Eb for p, 3He and α are, respectively, 1.50, 6.46 and 9.05 MeV. See also (1971AJ02). 1. (a) 17Ne(β+)17F* → 16O + p Qm = 13.93

  19. 17Ne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ne β+-Decay Evaluated Data Measurements 1964MC16: 17Ne; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1966HA22: 17Ne; deduced log ft. 1967ES02: 17Ne; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1967FI10: 17Ne. 1971ESZR, 1971HA05: 17Ne; measured β-delayed proton spectra, Eγ, Iγ, T1/2, pγ-coin; deduced log ft. 17F deduced levels, antianalog state, isospin mixing. 1988BO39: 17Ne(β+p), (β+α); measured T1/2, β-delayed E(p), E(α), I(p), I(α), β(particle)-coin. 17Ne deduced

  20. Herbaceous crops for energy in Italy: Present status of the research program promoted by ENEL (Italian Electric Company)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenone, G.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a synthesis of the main results of the research program promoted by ENEL (Italian Electric Company) on herbaceous energy crops. The objective of the program is to evaluate the potentials of different species and cultivars for biomass fuel production in Italy. For the most promising species, all the links of the chain from cultivation to delivery at the plant gate at the lowest possible cost have to be organized. So far the following species gave annual productivities above 20 dry tons/ha: fiber sorghum (Sorghum sp.); miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis); and giant reed (Arundo donax). The highest biomass yields, well above 40 dry tons/ha in several trials, were given by giant reed.

  1. A=18F (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18F) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 18.13 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1978WI1B, 1982ZH01, 1983BR29, 1983KI13, 1984MI1H, 1984MI17, 1985LE1K, 1986YU1B). Cluster, collective and deformed models: (1983ME12, 1984QU1A, 1985BA1A, 1987ER05). Special states: (1978WI1B, 1982ZH01, 1983BI1C, 1983BR29, 1983ME12, 1983KI13, 1984AD1E, 1984HA14, 1984HO1H, 1984MI1H, 1984MI17, 1985AD1A, 1985HA18, 1985LE1K, 1985MI10, 1985SO12, 1985YU1B, 1986AN07,

  2. A=18Ne (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18Ne) GENERAL: See Table 18.23 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell and cluster model calculations: (1957WI1E, 1969BE1T, 1970BA2E, 1970EL08, 1970HA49, 1972KA01). Electromagnetic transitions: (1970EL08, 1970HA49). Special levels: (1966MI1G, 1969KA29, 1972KA01). Pion reactions: (1965PA1F). Other theoretical calculations: (1965GO1F, 1966KE16, 1968BA2H, 1968BE1V, 1968MU1B, 1968NE1C, 1968VA1J, 1968VA24, 1969BA1Z, 1969GA1G, 1969KA29, 1969MU09, 1969RA28,

  3. A=20F (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20F) GENERAL: See Table 20.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1959BR1E, 1963KU19, 1964MO1E, 1965DE1H, 1965DE1M, 1966CH1G, 1966PI1B, 1967BO09, 1967GU05, 1967GU1D, 1968AR02, 1968CO11, 1968GU1E, 1968HA17, 1968HA1P, 1969HO32, 1970AN27, 1970BA66, 1971AR25, 1971JO01, 1971WI01). Other theoretical calculations: (1967ST1N, 1968CE1A, 1968DW1A, 1969SC14, 1971LE1H, 1971TE06). General experimental work: (1970FA01, 1971AR02). Ground state: μ

  4. A=20Na (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See also (1972AJ02) and Table 20.39 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). (1973HA77, 1973SU1B, 1974HA17, 1976CH1T, 1977SH13). J = 2 (1975SC20); μ = 0.3694 ± 0.0002 nm (1975SC20). 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.887 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of other excited states of 20Ne: see Table 20.37 (in PDF or PS). The half-life of 20Na is 442 ± 5 msec (1971GO18, 1971WI07), 446 ± 8 msec (1972MO08), 448 ± 4 msec

  5. A=20O (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    72AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20O) GENERAL: See Table 20.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calulations: (1959BR1E, 1960TA1C, 1962TA1B, 1963PA03, 1964CO24, 1964MO1E, 1964PA1D, 1964TR1A, 1965DE1H, 1965FE02, 1966AR10, 1966BR04, 1966TR02, 1967FE01, 1967FL13, 1967LA1H, 1967PI1B, 1968AR02, 1968BE1U, 1968CO1N, 1968FL1C, 1968GU1E, 1968HA17, 1968HA1P, 1968MO1G, 1968PA1Q, 1969FE1A, 1969KU1G, 1969SO08, 1971AR25). Other theoretical calculations: (1961JA1E, 1966KE16, 1967ST1N,

  6. A=5Li (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 5Li) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 5.5 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Shell model calculations: (1966FR1B, 1968GO01, 1969GO1G, 1970RA1D, 1971RA15, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49). Cluster calculations: (1965NE1B, 1971HE05). Special levels: (1970HE1D, 1971HE05, 1971RA15, 1973JO1J). Electromagnetic transitions:(1973HA49). General reviews: (1966DE1E). Special reactions: (1971CH31). Other topics: (1968GO01, 1970RA1J, 1971CH50, 1971ZA1D, 1972CA37,

  7. A=6Li (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 6Li) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 6.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1961KO1A, 1965CO25, 1966BA26, 1966GA1E, 1966HA18, 1966WI1E, 1967BO1C, 1967CO32, 1967PI1B, 1967WO1B, 1968BO1N, 1968CO13, 1968GO01, 1968LO1C, 1968VA1H, 1969GU10, 1969RA1C, 1969SA1C, 1969VA1C, 1970LA1D, 1970SU13, 1970ZO1A, 1971CO28, 1971JA06, 1971LO03, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1972LO1M, 1972VE07, 1973HA49, 1973JO1K, 1973KU03). Cluster and α-particle model:

  8. A=8B (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8B) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 8.11 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1966BA26, 1973HA49). Special levels: (1966BA26). Electromagnetic transitions: (1966BA26, 1973HA49). Special reactions: (1968BA1M, 1968BH1A, 1969BA1L, 1970BA44, 1972AG01). Astrophysical questions: (1967BA1J, 1967SH1F, 1968BA2E, 1968BA2F, 1969FO1D, 1970BA1M, 1972PA1C). Other topics: (1966KE16, 1966TO04, 1967DI1B, 1969GA1G, 1972AN05, 1973RO1R). Ground-state

  9. A=8Be (1984AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8Be) GENERAL: See also (1979AJ01) and Table 8.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1978RA1B, 1979EL04, 1981BO1Y, 1981RA06, 1981ST22, 1982FI13). Collective, rotational and deformed models: (1978CA1D, 1979EL04, 1979MA1J, 1980FI09, 1981RA06, 1981ST22, 1982FI13). Cluster and α-particle models: (1977WU1A, 1979GO24, 1979GR1F, 1979PA22, 1979ZH1C, 1980FU1G, 1980HA1M, 1980IK1B, 1981GA1J, 1981KA1P, 1981KN12, 1981KR1J, 1981ST22, 1982HA1M, 1982TS1A,

  10. A=8Li (1984AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8Li) GENERAL: See also (1979AJ01) and Table 8.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Special states: (1980OK01). Complex reactions involving 8Li: (1978BO1B, 1978DU1B, 1979BO22, 1979IV1A, 1980AN1T, 1980BO31, 1980GR10, 1980WI1L, 1981BO1X, 1981MO20, 1982BO35, 1982BO1Y, 1982GO1E, 1982GU1H, 1982MO1N). Muon and neutrino interactions: (1978BA1G). Reactions involving pions and other mesons: (1977VE1C, 1979BA16, 1980HA29, 1981JU1A, 1981NI03, 1982HA57).

  11. A=9Be (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9Be) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 9.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1961KO1A, 1965CO25, 1965GR18, 1965VO1A, 1966AD06, 1966BA26, 1966HA18, 1966MA1P, 1966WI1E, 1967CO32, 1967ST1C, 1968GO01, 1969BO1V, 1969BO19, 1969BO33, 1969GU03, 1969VA1C, 1970CO1H, 1971CO28, 1971GR02, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49, 1973KU03). Aplha and cluster models: (1965NE1B, 1966HI1A, 1967TA1C, 1968KU1B, 1969BA1J, 1969NE1C, 1970BA1Q, 1971LE1N, 1971NO02,

  12. A=9Be (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1988AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9Be) GENERAL: See also (1984AJ01) and Table 9.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1983VA31, 1984VA06, 1984ZW1A, 1985AN16, 1987KI1C, 1988OR1C, 1988WO04). Cluster and α-particle models: (1981PL1A, 1982DZ1A, 1983JA09, 1983MI1E, 1983SH38, 1985HA1P, 1985KW02, 1986CR1B, 1987VOZU). Special states: (1981PL1A, 1983AU1B, 1983GO28, 1983MI08, 1983VA31, 1984BA49, 1984KO40, 1984VA06, 1984WO09, 1984ZW1A, 1985GO1A, 1985HA1J, 1985PO19, 1985SH24,

  13. Risk of Hippocampal Metastases in Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Presentation and After Cranial Irradiation: A Safety Profile Study for Hippocampal Sparing During Prophylactic or Therapeutic Cranial Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundapur, Vijayananda; Ellchuk, Tasha; Ahmed, Shahid; Gondi, Vinai

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Neurocognitive impairment (NI) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) after whole brain radiation treatment (WBRT) is a significant cause of morbidity. Hippocampal avoidance (HA) during WBRT may mitigate or prevent NI in such patients. However, this has not been tested in SCLC patients. The estimated risk of metastases in the HA region (HM) in patients with SCLC at diagnosis or after WBRT is unknown. Our study aimed to determine the risk of HM in patients with SCLC and to assess correlated clinical factors. Methods and Materials: Patients with SCLC who experienced brain metastases (BM) at presentation (de novo) or after WBRT treated at the Saskatoon Cancer Centre between 2005 and 2012 were studied. Relevant neuroimaging was independently reviewed by a neuroradiologist. HM was defined as metastases within 5 mm of the hippocampus. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess correlation between various clinical variables and HM. Results: Seventy eligible patients were identified. Of 59 patients presenting with de novo BM, 3 patients (5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-10.7%) had HM. Collectively there were 359 (range, 1-33) de novo BM with 3 (0.8%, 95% CI: 0%-1.7%) HM deposits. Twenty patients experienced progression of metastatic disease in the brain after WBRT. Of the 20 patients, only 1 patient (5%, 95% CI: 0%-14.5%) experienced HM. On logistic regression, no factors significantly correlated with HM. Conclusion: The overall incidence of HM before or after WBRT in SCLC patients is low, providing preliminary support for the safety of HA during planned clinical trials of HA-WBRT for SCLC.

  14. Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

    2013-09-03

    Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

  15. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combination of the Separation of Variable and the T-matrix Method for Computing Optical Properties of Spheroidal Particles Schulz, F.M., Eide, H.A., and Stamnes, K., University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Stamnes, J.J., University of Bergen, Norway Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The growing interest in nonspherical particles in recent years has led to significant improvements of various light scattering models for different kinds of nonspherical particles. One

  16. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Transfer in a Medium Containing Non-spherical Particles: Applications to the Atmosphere Eide, H.A. and Stamnes, K., Stevens Institute of Technology Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting We present results obtained for problems involving energy transmission in a medium containing non-spherical particles, specifically for the case of light propagating in the atmosphere-ocean system. We have developed new algorithms that enables us to solve rigorously the

  17. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Representing a Spheroidal Particle by a Collection of Equal Volume to Surface Area Spheres: A Comprehensive Study of the Applicability to Radiative Transfer Eide, H.A. and Stamnes, K.H., Stevens Institute of Technology Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting For the purpose of modeling energy transport in a medium containing non-spherical particles, some results indicate that a representation of a non-spherical particle by a collection of spheres with the same

  18. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Approach for Obtaining Advection Profiles: Application to the SHEBA Column Morrison, H.(a) and Pinto, J.O.(b), University of Colorado (a), NCAR/University of Colorado (b) Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Time-averaged vertically-integrated 3-D advections are inferred from heat and moisture budgets obtained from observations at SHEBA for April, May, June and July. Advection was a source of heat and moisture in the column budgets during the time period,

  19. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G.

    2009-07-15

    There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

  20. ETATP12rev0.PDF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... si io on n b ba at tt te er ry y p pa ac ck k a an nd d m mo od du ul le e v vo ol lt ta ... F Fu ur rt th he er r, , t th he e B BM MS S s sh ha al ll l a au ut to om ma at ti ic ca ...

  1. Reclamation of acidic, denuded copper basin land: Revegetation performance of phosphate rock vs other nutrient sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soileau, J.M.; Sikora, F.J.; Maddox, J.J.; Kelsoe, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Open pit smelting of Copper ore about 100 years ago resulted in approximately 9,300 ha of severely eroded, very acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0) soils at Copper Basin, Tennessee. Along with other essential nutrients, phosphorus (P) amendments are critical for long-term productivity and sustainability of vegetation on this depleted soil. A field study was conducted (1992-1995) to compare revegetation from surface-applied North Carolina phosphate rock (PR) and triple superphosphate (TSP) at 20, 59, and 295 kg P ha{sup -1}, and to determine benefits of starter NPK tree tablets. The experimental design consisted of 7.3 x 9.1 m replicated plots, each planted to 20 loblolly pine seedlings and aerially seeded with a mixture of grasses and legumes. Tree survivability was high from all treatments. Through the third year, tree height and diameter increased with increasing P to 59 kg P ha without fertilizer tablets. There were no pine growth differences between PR and TSP. Weeping lovegrass has been the dominant cover crop through 1995, with increased stimulation to tree tablets and surface P. Tall fescue (KY 31), sericea lespedeza, and black locust responded more to PR than to TSP. Surface soil pH increased, and 0.01 M SrCl{sub 2} extractable Al decreased, with increasing rate of PR. For future loblolly pine plantings in the Copper Basin, this study suggests there is no benefit to applying both tree tablets and surface P at rates above 59 kg P ha{sup -1}. For reclaiming land with high acidity and low P fertility, PR has significant benefits. In reclaiming steep, gullied land, there is great potential for aerial application of PR and/or pelletized liming agents.

  2. Example process hazard analysis of a Department of Energy water chlorination process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    On February 24, 1992, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) released a revised version of Section 29 Code of Federal Regulations CFR Part 1910 that added Section 1910.119, entitled ``Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (the PSM Rule). Because US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5480.4 and 5483.1A prescribe OSHA 29 CFR 1910 as a standard in DOE, the PSM Rule is mandatory in the DOE complex. A major element in the PSM Rule is the process hazard analysis (PrHA), which is required for all chemical processes covered by the PSM Rule. The PrHA element of the PSM Rule requires the selection and application of appropriate hazard analysis methods to systematically identify hazards and potential accident scenarios associated with processes involving highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs). The analysis in this report is an example PrHA performed to meet the requirements of the PSM Rule. The PrHA method used in this example is the hazard and operability (HAZOP) study, and the process studied is the new Hanford 300-Area Water Treatment Facility chlorination process, which is currently in the design stage. The HAZOP study was conducted on May 18--21, 1993, by a team from the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Battelle-Columbus, the DOE, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The chlorination process was chosen as the example process because it is common to many DOE sites, and because quantities of chlorine at those sites generally exceed the OSHA threshold quantities (TQs).

  3. 1918 Influenza Pandemic Strain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    James Stevens1 and Ian A. Wilson1,2 1Department of Molecular Biology and 2Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 Figure 1. Ribbon representation of the hemagglutinin HA0 trimer from the 1918 influenza virus. Each monomer possesses two important sites: 1) the 'Receptor binding site' (blue shade) for virus attachment to the host lung epithelial cells via sialic acid containing host cell receptors. 2) the 'Cleavage

  4. Microsoft Word - 2013 IWD #3155 Trident Target Area Operations.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2100 (4/12) Form 2100 Integrated Work Document (IWD) Part 1, Activity Specific Information IWD #: 3155 Activity/Task Title Trident Target Area Operations Work Document # Planner/Preparer (Name/Z #/Date) Sha-Marie Reid TA 35 Building 189 Room 108, 120 Other Location(s)(TA) as required Activity Description/Overview: This IWD covers operation of both Trident target areas including normal maintenance, setting up beam lines, firing laser shots, and other misc activities. Hazard Analysis (HA) Method

  5. HP XC System Cast Briefing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Linux in High Performance Computing vendor perspective Scott McClellan CTO/HPTCD Salishan Conference - April '03 page 2 HP Confidential Perspective * My Role/Background - CTO of the HPTCD division in the new HP - Background: * pm-HP (1984); commercial computing; OS development (lead architect MPE); telecom(carrier-grade severs & HA architect); joined HPTCD in June/'02 * This presentation represents my personal opinion, not the official position of HP. * HP is - HW vendor (servers - Total

  6. Hans Joachim Lewerenz - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HaNS JOACHIM LEWERENZ Principal Investigator Email: lewerenz@caltech.edu Dr. Lewerenz's research interests involve: advancing photoelectrochemical solar cells that operate in the photovoltaic or photoelectrocatalytic mode; semiconductor materials science and directed development and optimization of light absorbers; surface analyses related to wet processing and in situ operation of semiconductors and metals including synchrotron radiation methods; and model experiments for analysis of surface

  7. A=19F (72AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RI67J, SH67K, ZA67C, EI68A, HA68M, RI68N, UN68, BE69G, BH69, CU69B, KR69A, WA70B, LE72). Cluster model: (WI59D, SH60C, MA63Q, MA64HH, ME68H, BA69E, HI69, ME69K, TA69G, BA70F)....

  8. Antibody Recognition of the Influenza Hemagglutinin by Receptor Mimicry |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Antibody Recognition of the Influenza Hemagglutinin by Receptor Mimicry Sunday, November 30, 2014 There has been a long-standing interest in blocking agents against influenza entry, such as inhibitors that can target the receptor binding site on the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein (HA) to prevent viral attachment to host cells. Molecules have been designed based on the sialic acid receptor, although with very little success since sialic acid only

  9. Available for Checkout Equipment Inventory | Sample Preparation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratories Available for Checkout Equipment Inventory « Equipment Resources Title Description Agate Mortar & Pestle Sets Agate mortar & pestle sets (100mm, 65 mm, & 50mm sizes). Buchi V-700 Vacuum Pump & condenser Chemically resistant vacuum pump, flow rate 1.8m^3/h, ultimate vacuum less than 10mbar. The secondary condenser (Buchi 047180) is a complete module with insulation and 500mL receiving flask. Campden Instruments Vibrating Manual Tissue Cutter HA 752 Campden

  10. AmeriFlux US-FR2 Freeman Ranch- Mesquite Juniper

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-FR2 Freeman Ranch- Mesquite Juniper. Site Description - Freeman Ranch is a 4200 ha research area owned by Texas State University. It is located on the easter Edwards Plateau in central Texas and overlies and recharges the Edwards Aquifer. Most of the ranch is occupied by upland habitats.

  11. Cleaning Up the Hanford River Corridor and Improving Site Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 3, 2016 2 3 Continue Cleanup of the Central Plateau * Plutonium Finishing Plant - Grouted Plutonium Reclamation Facility canyon floor - Working on last glove box (HA-9A) - Respiratory equipment Removal of high-hazard glove box in progress Grouting canyon floor in Plutonium Reclamation Facility 4 K Basin Sludge Transfer * External, independent review of cost and schedule completed * Plan for 2016 - Continue installing equipment in K West Reactor basin and annex - Continue procurements

  12. Conference Abstracts & Book Chapters | Photosynthetic Antenna Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Conference Abstracts & Book Chapters Conference Abstracts & Book Chapters Collins AM, Wen J and Blankenship RE (2011) Photosynthetic Light Harvesting Complexes. In Molecular Solar Fuels, T. Wydrzynski and W. Hillier, Eds., Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. Frank HA, Magdaong N, Niedzwiedzki DM, LaFountain AM, Gardiner AT, Carey A-M, Gibson GN, and Cogdell RJ (2014) Investigation of the excited state spectra and dynamics of rhodopinal glucoside from Rhodoblastus

  13. Solvent Extraction of Sodium Hydroxide Using Alkylphenols and Fluorinated Alcohols: Understanding the Extraction Mechanism by Equilibrium Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyun-Ah; Engle, Nancy L.; Bonnesen Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In the present work, it has been the aim to examine extraction efficiencies of nine proton-ionizable alcohols (HAs) in 1-octanol and to identify both the controlling equilibria and predominant species involved in the extraction process within a thermochemical model. Distribution ratios for sodium (DNa) extraction were measured as a function of organic-phase HA and aqueous-phase NaOH molarity at 25 C. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the HAs, 4-(tert-octyl) phenol (HA 1a) and 4-noctyl- a,a-bis-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol (HA 2a) being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. By use of the equilibrium-modeling program SXLSQI, a model for the extraction of NaOH has been advanced based on an ion-pair extraction by the diluent to give organic-phase Na+OH- and corresponding free ions and cation exchange by the weak acids to form monomeric organic-phase Na+A- and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  14. Method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Yufei; Campbell, Allison A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound using plasma enhanced MOCVD. The substrate is a solid material that may be porous or non-porous, including but not limited to metal, ceramic, glass and combinations thereof. The coated substrate is preferably used as an implant, including but not limited to orthopaedic, dental and combinations thereof. Calcium phosphate compound includes but is not limited to tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and combinations thereof. TCP is preferred on a titanium implant when implant resorbability is desired. HA is preferred when the bone bonding of new bone tissue into the structure of the implant is desired. Either or both of TCP and/or HA coated implants may be placed into a solution with an agent selected from the group of protein, antibiotic, antimicrobial, growth factor and combinations thereof that can be adsorbed into the coating before implantation. Once implanted, the release of TCP will also release the agent to improve growth of new bone tissues and/or to prevent infection.

  15. Potential producers and their attitudes toward adoption of biomass crops in central Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W.; Stricker, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    A recent study by the University of Florida, Center for Biomass Programs (1996) showed that biomass crops have potential as a new agricultural commodity in central Florida. Both herbaceous and woody biomass crops have high yields, and weather and soil conditions are favorable. In the Polk County area over 40,371 ha (100,000 A) of phosphate-mined land and about 161,486 ha (400,000 A) of pastureland may be available for biomass production at low opportunity cost. Phosphate land is owned by a few mining companies while pastureland is owned by or rented to cattlemen. Infrastructure for large-scale crop production, such as in the Midwest United States, does not presently exist in central Florida. Personal interviews were conducted with phosphate company managers and a mail survey was conducted with 940 landowners, with at least 16 ha (40 A) of agricultural land. Data were gathered related to decision making factors in growing biomass and other new crops. Results suggested that economic factors, particularly availability of an established market and an assured high return per acre were considered the most important factors. Lack of familiarity with new crops was an important barrier to their adoption. Potential net returns and production costs were considered the most important information needed to make decisions about growing biomass crops.

  16. Mitigation options for fish and wildlife resources affected by port and other water-dependent developments in Tampa Bay, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dial, R.S.; Deis, D.R.

    1986-06-01

    Ten past restoration projects in Tampa Bay were evaluated. Habitats included Spartina marsh, mangrove forests, Juncus marsh, and subtidal habitat. Success was difficult to determine because goals for each project had not been defined. In-kind losses of habitat occurred in all but one project. Permanent losses occurred in at least three projects. Restoration of Spartina and Juncus marshes was recommended. Mangroves will recruit into Spartina marshes, provided a seed source is available; planting of mangroves alone is not recommended. Seagrass restoration is not recommended at this time. Twelve sites, most less than 50 ha, were identified as potential restoration sites to give 344 ha of subtidal habitat to be made shallower and 176 ha of uplands to be scraped down. The current management program's legal and policy needs for improving environmental management, the role of mitigation, and the information needed to develop mitigation plans are discussed. This report will be useful to decisionmakers concerned with wetland habitat loss and restoration in Tampa Bay, Florida, and other areas with similar habitats.

  17. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-02-05

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO{sub 2} 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  18. Potential land competition between open-pond microalgae production and terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems in the U.S.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; Brandt, Craig C.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Eaton, Laurence M.

    2016-03-03

    To date, feedstock resource assessments have evaluated cellulosic and algal feedstocks independently, without consideration of demands for, and resource allocation to, each other. We assess potential land competition between algal and terrestrial feedstocks in the United States, and evaluate a scenario in which 41.5 × 109 L yr–1 of second-generation biofuels are produced on pastureland, the most likely land base where both feedstock types may be deployed. Under this scenario, open-pond microalgae production is projected to use 1.2 × 106 ha of private pastureland, while terrestrial biomass feedstocks would use 14.0 × 106 ha of private pastureland. A spatial meta-analysismore » indicates that potential competition for land under this scenario would be concentrated in 110 counties, containing 1.0 and 1.7 × 106 ha of algal and terrestrial dedicated feedstock production, respectively. Furthermore, a land competition index applied to these 110 counties suggests that 38 to 59 counties could experience competition for upwards of 40% of a county's pastureland, representing 2%–5% of total pastureland in the U.S.; therefore suggesting little overall competition between algae production, terrestrial energy feedstocks and alternative uses for existing agricultural production such as livestock grazing.« less

  19. Bioactive glass coatings with hydroxyapatite and Bioglass (registered) particles on Ti-based implants. 1. Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Vega, J.M.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A.P.; Marshall, G.W.; Marshall, S.J.

    1999-06-01

    Silicate-based glasses with thermal expansion coefficients that match those of Ti6Al4V were prepared and used to coat Ti6Al4V by a simple enameling technique. Bioglass (BG) (registered) or hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were embedded on the coatings in order to enhance their bioactivity. HA particles were partially embedded during heating and remained firmly embedded on the coating after cooling. There was no apparent reaction at the glass/HA interface at the temperatures used in this work (800-840 degrees C). In contrast, BG particles softened and some infiltration into the glass coating took place during heat treatment. In this case, particles with sizes over 45 (mu)m were required, otherwise the particles became hollow due to the infiltration and crystallization of the glass surface. The concentration of the particles on the coating was limited to 20% of surface coverage. Concentrations above this value resulted in cracked coatings due to excessive induced stress. Cracks did not prop agate along the interfaces when coatings were subjected to Vickers indentation tests, indicating that the particle/glass and glass/metal interfaces exhibited strong bonds. Enameling, producing excellent glass/metal adhesion with well-attached bioactive particles on the surface, is a promising method of forming reliable and lasting implants which can endure substantial chemical and mechanical stresses.

  20. Engineering study on conveyor system for HC-21C project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1995-02-02

    The sludge stabilization process thermally stabilizes reactive plutonium bearing materials in a muffle furnace. This process is used to prepare the material for long term storage in the vaults. The process is conducted in Room 230A and 230B. The furnaces are located in glovebox HC-21C. Glovebox HC-21A is used for preparation of the charge and packaging of the high fired oxide. The feed for the process is located throughout the PRF and RMC-line gloveboxes, with over half of the feedstock currently being located in HA-23S. For readiness assessment, the sludge stabilization process at PFP was reviewed by the ALARA team to see how the process could be improved. One suggestion was made that the conveyor system be used to transfer items from HA-23S to the process glovebox (HA-21A) instead of sealing items in and out of the gloveboxes. The following discussion describes and compares past and current methods. In addition, actions are addressed that would need to be completed before the conveyor method could be used. The transportation of the feedstock to the process and all the different influencing factors will be examined to determine the best method. This assessment is being performed considering only the current campaign for HC-21C. However, there is a possibility that in the future, additional furnaces will be installed and further campaigns done.

  1. Fabrication of nano structural biphasic materials from phosphogypsum waste and their in vitro applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Khaled R.; Mousa, Sahar M.; El Bassyouni, Gehan T.

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schema of the process, (b) TEM of nano particles of biphasic materials and (c) SEM of post-immersion. - Highlights: Ratio of HA and ?-TCP phases were controlled by thermal treatment. HA partially decomposed into ?-TCP with other bioactive phases. Calcined HA at 900 C is the best for the bioactivity behavior. - Abstract: In this study, a novel process of preparing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) is proposed. Also its bioactivity for the utilization of the prepared BCP as a biomaterial is studied. A mixture of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) could be obtained by thermal treatment of HAP which was previously prepared from phosphogypsum (PG) waste. The chemical and phase composition, morphology and particle size of prepared samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bioactivity was investigated by soaking of the calcined samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results confirmed that the calcination temperatures played an important role in the formation of calcium phosphate (CP) materials. XRD results indicated that HAP was partially decomposed into ?-TCP. The in vitro data confirmed that the calcined HAP forming BCP besides other phases such as pyrophosphate and silica are bioactive materials. Therefore, BCP will be used as good biomaterials for medical applications.

  2. LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OPTICAL AFTERGLOWS: BIASES IN THE SWIFT SAMPLE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fynbo, J. P. U.; Malesani, D.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Hjorth, J.; Sollerman, J.; Thoene, C. C.; Jakobsson, P.; Bjoernsson, G.; De Cia, A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Nardini, M.; Chen, H.-W.; Bloom, J. S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Christensen, L.; Fruchter, A. S.

    2009-12-01

    We present a sample of 77 optical afterglows (OAs) of Swift detected gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) for which spectroscopic follow-up observations have been secured. Our first objective is to measure the redshifts of the bursts. For the majority (90%) of the afterglows, the redshifts have been determined from the spectra. We provide line lists and equivalent widths (EWs) for all detected lines redward of Ly{alpha} covered by the spectra. In addition to the GRB absorption systems, these lists include line strengths for a total of 33 intervening absorption systems. We discuss to what extent the current sample of Swift bursts with OA spectroscopy is a biased subsample of all Swift detected GRBs. For that purpose we define an X-ray-selected statistical sample of Swift bursts with optimal conditions for ground-based follow-up from the period 2005 March to 2008 September; 146 bursts fulfill our sample criteria. We derive the redshift distribution for the statistical (X-ray selected) sample and conclude that less than 18% of Swift bursts can be at z > 7. We compare the high-energy properties (e.g., {gamma}-ray (15-350 keV) fluence and duration, X-ray flux, and excess absorption) for three subsamples of bursts in the statistical sample: (1) bursts with redshifts measured from OA spectroscopy; (2) bursts with detected optical and/or near-IR afterglow, but no afterglow-based redshift; and (3) bursts with no detection of the OA. The bursts in group (1) have slightly higher {gamma}-ray fluences and higher X-ray fluxes and significantly less excess X-ray absorption than bursts in the other two groups. In addition, the fractions of dark bursts, defined as bursts with an optical to X-ray slope {beta}{sub OX} < 0.5, is 14% in group (1), 38% in group (2), and >39% in group (3). For the full sample, the dark burst fraction is constrained to be in the range 25%-42%. From this we conclude that the sample of GRBs with OA spectroscopy is not representative for all Swift bursts, most likely due

  3. Soil microbial responses to nitrogen addition in arid ecosystems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Belnap, Jayne; Rudgers, Jennifer; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Martinez, Noelle; Sandquist, Darren

    2015-08-14

    The N cycle of arid ecosystems is influenced by low soil organic matter, high soil pH, and extremes in water potential and temperature that lead to open canopies and development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). We investigated the effects of N amendment on soil microbial dynamics in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa shrubland site in southern Nevada USA. Sites were fertilized with a NO3-NH4 mix at 0, 7, and 15 kg N ha-1 y-1 from March 2012 to March 2013. In March 2013, biocrust (0–0.5 cm) and bulk soils (0–10 cm) were collected beneath Ambrosia canopies and in the interspaces betweenmore » plants. Biomass responses were assessed as bacterial and fungal SSU rRNA gene copy number and chlorophyll a concentration. Metabolic responses were measured by five ecoenzyme activities and rates of N transformation. With most measures, nutrient availability, microbial biomass, and process rates were greater in soils beneath the shrub canopy compared to the interspace between plants, and greater in the surface biocrust horizon compared to the deeper 10 cm soil profile. Most measures responded positively to experimental N addition. Effect sizes were generally greater for bulk soil than biocrust. Results were incorporated into a meta-analysis of arid ecosystem responses to N amendment that included data from 14 other studies. Effect sizes were calculated for biomass and metabolic responses. Regressions of effect sizes, calculated for biomass, and metabolic responses, showed similar trends in relation to N application rate and N load (rate × duration). The critical points separating positive from negative treatment effects were 88 kg ha-1 y-1 and 159 kg ha-1, respectively, for biomass, and 70 kg ha-1 y-1 and 114 kg ha-1, respectively, for metabolism. These critical values are comparable to those for microbial biomass, decomposition rates and respiration reported in broader meta-analyses of N amendment effects in mesic ecosystems. The large effect sizes at low N

  4. Soil microbial responses to nitrogen addition in arid ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Belnap, Jayne; Rudgers, Jennifer; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Martinez, Noelle; Sandquist, Darren

    2015-08-14

    The N cycle of arid ecosystems is influenced by low soil organic matter, high soil pH, and extremes in water potential and temperature that lead to open canopies and development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). We investigated the effects of N amendment on soil microbial dynamics in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa shrubland site in southern Nevada USA. Sites were fertilized with a NO3-NH4 mix at 0, 7, and 15 kg N ha-1 y-1 from March 2012 to March 2013. In March 2013, biocrust (0–0.5 cm) and bulk soils (0–10 cm) were collected beneath Ambrosia canopies and in the interspaces between plants. Biomass responses were assessed as bacterial and fungal SSU rRNA gene copy number and chlorophyll a concentration. Metabolic responses were measured by five ecoenzyme activities and rates of N transformation. With most measures, nutrient availability, microbial biomass, and process rates were greater in soils beneath the shrub canopy compared to the interspace between plants, and greater in the surface biocrust horizon compared to the deeper 10 cm soil profile. Most measures responded positively to experimental N addition. Effect sizes were generally greater for bulk soil than biocrust. Results were incorporated into a meta-analysis of arid ecosystem responses to N amendment that included data from 14 other studies. Effect sizes were calculated for biomass and metabolic responses. Regressions of effect sizes, calculated for biomass, and metabolic responses, showed similar trends in relation to N application rate and N load (rate × duration). The critical points separating positive from negative treatment effects were 88 kg ha-1 y-1 and 159 kg ha-1, respectively, for biomass, and 70 kg ha-1 y-1 and 114 kg ha-1, respectively, for metabolism. These critical values are comparable to those for microbial biomass, decomposition rates and respiration

  5. Pregnane and Xenobiotic Receptor gene expression in liver cells is modulated by Ets-1 in synchrony with transcription factors Pax5, LEF-1 and c-jun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumari, Sangeeta; Saradhi, Mallampati; Rana, Manjul; Chatterjee, Swagata; Aumercier, Marc; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga; Tyagi, Rakesh K.

    2015-01-15

    Nuclear receptor PXR is predominantly expressed in liver and intestine. Expression of PXR is observed to be dysregulated in various metabolic disorders indicating its involvement in disease development. However, information available on mechanisms of PXR self-regulation is fragmentary. The present investigation identifies some of the regulatory elements responsible for its tight regulation and low cellular expression. Here, we report that the PXR-promoter is a target for some key transcription factors like PU.1/Ets-1, Pax5, LEF-1 and c-Jun. Interestingly, we observed that PXR-promoter responsiveness to Pax5, LEF-1 and c-Jun, is considerably enhanced by Ets transcription factors (PU.1 and Ets-1). Co-transfection of cells with Ets-1, LEF-1 and c-Jun increased PXR-promoter activity by 5-fold and also induced expression of endogenous human PXR. Site-directed mutagenesis and transfection studies revealed that two Ets binding sites and two of the three LEF binding sites in the PXR-promoter are functional and have a positive effect on PXR transcription. Results suggest that expression of Ets family members, in conjunction with Pax5, LEF-1 and c-Jun, lead to coordinated up-regulation of PXR gene transcription. Insights obtained on the regulation of PXR gene have relevance in offering important cues towards normal functioning as well as development of several metabolic disorders via PXR signaling. - Highlights: • The study identified cis-regulatory elements in the nuclear receptor PXR promoter. • Several trans-acting factors modulating the PXR-promoter have been identified. • PU.1/Ets-1, Pax5, LEF-1, c-Jun, LyF-VI and NF-1 act as modulators of the PXR-promoter. • Ets-1 in conjunction with LEF-1 and c-Jun exhibit 5-fold activation of the PXR-promoter. • Insights into PXR-regulation have relevance in normal and pathological conditions.

  6. DES J0454–4448: Discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, S. L.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = –26.5) quasar DES J0454–4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H i near zone size of 4.1+1.1–1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i–z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightest of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i–z and z–Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.

  7. DES J0454–4448: Discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reed, S. L.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = –26.5) quasar DES J0454–4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H i near zone size of 4.1+1.1–1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i–z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightestmore » of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i–z and z–Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.« less

  8. The existence and nature of the interstellar bow shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi; Strumik, M.; Ratkiewicz, R.; Grygorczuk, J.

    2013-12-20

    We report a new diagnosis of two different states of the local interstellar medium (LISM) near our solar system by using a sensitivity study constrained by several distinct and complementary observations of the LISM, solar wind, and inner heliosphere. Assuming the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) He flow parameters for the LISM, we obtain a strength of ?2.7 0.2 ?G and a direction pointing away from galactic coordinates (28, 52) 3 for the interstellar magnetic field as a result of fitting Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 in situ plasma measurements and IBEX energetic neutral atoms ribbon. When using Ulysses parameters for the LISM He flow, we recently reported the same direction but with a strength of 2.2 0.1 ?G. First, we notice that with Ulysses He flow, our solution is in the expected hydrogen deflection plane (HDP). In contrast, for the IBEX He flow, the solution is ?20 away from the corresponding HDP plane. Second, the long-term monitoring of the interplanetary H I flow speed shows a value of ?26 km s{sup 1} measured upwind from the Doppler shift in the strong Ly? sky background emission line. All elements of the diagnosis seem therefore to support Ulysses He flow parameters for the interstellar state. In that frame, we argue that reliable discrimination between superfast, subfast, or superslow states of the interstellar flow should be based on most existing in situ and remote observations used together with global modeling of the heliosphere. For commonly accepted LISM ionization rates, we show that a fast interstellar bow shock should be standing off upstream of the heliopause.

  9. Metastatic function of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells: The role of PI3K/AKT, MAPK, the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and MMP-9 expression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Myoung Hee; Oh, Sang Cheul; Kang, Han Na; Kim, Jung Lim; Kim, Jun Suk

    2011-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastatic progression in various types of cancer cells, but the role and cellular mechanism in the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells is not known. Herein, we determined the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in BMP-2-mediated metastatic function in gastric cancer. We found that stimulation of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. Accompanying activation of AKT and ERK kinase, BMP-2 also enhanced phosphorylation/degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and the nuclear translocation/activation of NF-{kappa}B. Interestingly, blockade of PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling using LY294002 and PD98059, respectively, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced motility and invasiveness in association with the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Furthermore, BMP-2-induced MMP-9 expression and enzymatic activity was also significantly blocked by treatment with PI3K/AKT, ERK, or NF-{kappa}B inhibitors. Immunohistochemistry staining of 178 gastric tumor biopsies indicated that expression of BMP-2 and MMP-9 had a significant positive correlation with lymph node metastasis and a poor prognosis. These results indicate that the BMP-2 signaling pathway enhances tumor metastasis in gastric cancer by sequential activation of the PI3K/AKT or MAPK pathway followed by the induction of NF-{kappa}B and MMP-9 activity, indicating that BMP-2 has the potential to be a therapeutic molecular target to decrease metastasis.

  10. Protective effects of anisodamine on cigarette smoke extract-induced airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and tracheal contractility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Guang-Ni; Yang, Kai; Xu, Zu-Peng; Zhu, Liang; Hou, Li-Na; Qi, Hong; Chen, Hong-Zhuan Cui, Yong-Yao

    2012-07-01

    Anisodamine, an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), has been used therapeutically to improve smooth muscle function, including microvascular, intestinal and airway spasms. Our previous studies have revealed that airway hyper-reactivity could be prevented by anisodamine. However, whether anisodamine prevents smoking-induced airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation remained unclear. In this study, a primary culture of rat ASM cells was used to evaluate an ASM phenotype through the ability of the cells to proliferate and express contractile proteins in response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and intervention of anisodamine. Our results showed that CSE resulted in an increase in cyclin D1 expression concomitant with the G0/G1-to-S phase transition, and high expression of M2 and M3. Functional studies showed that tracheal hyper-contractility accompanied contractile marker α-SMA high-expression. These changes, which occur only after CSE stimulation, were prevented and reversed by anisodamine, and CSE-induced cyclin D1 expression was significantly inhibited by anisodamine and the specific inhibitor U0126, BAY11-7082 and LY294002. Thus, we concluded that the protective and reversal effects and mechanism of anisodamine on CSE-induced events might involve, at least partially, the ERK, Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways associated with cyclin D1 via mAChRs. Our study validated that anisodamine intervention on ASM cells may contribute to anti-remodeling properties other than bronchodilation. -- Highlights: ► CSE induces tracheal cell proliferation, hyper-contractility and α-SMA expression. ► Anisodamine reverses CSE-induced tracheal hyper-contractility and cell proliferation. ► ERK, PI3K, and NF-κB pathways and cyclin D1 contribute to the reversal effect.

  11. Spectral modeling of the charge-exchange X-ray emission from M82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuinai; Ji, Li; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Q. Daniel; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam R.

    2014-10-10

    It has been proposed that the charge-exchange (CX) process at the interface between hot and cool interstellar gases could contribute significantly to the observed soft X-ray emission in star-forming galaxies. We analyze the XMM-Newton/reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) spectrum of M82 using a newly developed CX model combined with a single-temperature thermal plasma to characterize the volume-filling hot gas. The CX process is largely responsible for not only the strongly enhanced forbidden lines of the Kα triplets of various He-like ions but also good fractions of the Lyα transitions of C VI (∼87%), O VIII, and N VII (≳50%) as well. In total about a quarter of the X-ray flux in the RGS 6-30 Å band originates in the CX. We infer an ion incident rate of 3 × 10{sup 51} s{sup –1} undergoing CX at the hot and cool gas interface and an effective area of the interface of ∼2 × 10{sup 45} cm{sup 2} that is one order of magnitude larger than the cross section of the global biconic outflow. With the CX contribution accounted for, the best-fit temperature of the hot gas is 0.6 keV, and the metal abundances are approximately solar. We further show that the same CX/thermal plasma model also gives an excellent description of the EPIC-pn spectrum of the outflow Cap, projected at 11.6 kpc away from the galactic disk of M82. This analysis demonstrates that the CX is potentially an important contributor to the X-ray emission from starburst galaxies and also an invaluable tool to probe the interface astrophysics.

  12. Bringing simulation and observation together to better understand the intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egan, Hilary; Smith, Britton D.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Shull, J. Michael

    2014-08-10

    The methods by which one characterizes the distribution of matter in cosmological simulations is intrinsically different from how one performs the same task observationally. In this paper, we make substantial steps toward comparing simulations and observations of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in a more sensible way. We present a pipeline that generates and fits synthetic QSO absorption spectra using sight lines cast through a cosmological simulation, and simultaneously identifies structure by directly analyzing the variations in H I and O VI number density. We compare synthetic absorption spectra with a less observationally motivated, but more straightforward density threshold-based method for finding absorbers. Our efforts focus on H I and O VI to better characterize the warm/hot IGM, a subset of the IGM that is challenging to conclusively identify observationally. We find that the two methods trace roughly the same quantities of H I and O VI above observable column density limits, but the synthetic spectra typically identify more substructure in absorbers. We use both methods to characterize H I and O VI absorber properties. We find that both integrated and differential column density distributions from both methods generally agree with observations. The distribution of Doppler parameters between the two methods are similar for Ly? and compare reasonably with observational results, but while the two methods agree with each other with O VI systems, they both are systematically different from observations. We find a strong correlation between O VI baryon fraction and O VI column density. We also discuss a possible bimodality in the temperature distribution of the gas traced by O VI.

  13. The O VII X-Ray Forest Toward Markarian 421: Consistency between XMM-Newton and Chandra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaastra, J.S.; Werner, N.; Herder, J.W.A.den; Paerels, F.B.S.; de Plaa, J.; Rasmussen, A.P.; de Vries, C.P.; /SRON, Utrecht

    2006-04-28

    Recently the first detections of highly ionized gas associated with two Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) filaments have been reported. The evidence is based on X-ray absorption lines due to O VII and other ions observed by Chandra towards the bright blazar Mrk 421. We investigate the robustness of this detection by a re-analysis of the original Chandra LETGS spectra, the analysis of a large set of XMM-Newton RGS spectra of Mrk 421, and additional Chandra observations. We address the reliability of individual spectral features belonging to the absorption components, and assess the significance of the detection of these components. We also use Monte Carlo simulations of spectra. We confirm the apparent strength of several features in the Chandra spectra, but demonstrate that they are statistically not significant. This decreased significance is due to the number of redshift trials that are made and that are not taken into account in the original discovery paper. Therefore these features must be attributed to statistical fluctuations. This is confirmed by the RGS spectra, which have a higher signal to noise ratio than the Chandra spectra, but do not show features at the same wavelengths. Finally, we show that the possible association with a Ly{alpha} absorption system also lacks sufficient statistical evidence. We conclude that there is insufficient observational proof for the existence of the two proposed WHIM filaments towards Mrk 421, the brightest X-ray blazar on the sky. Therefore, the highly ionized component of the WHIM still remains to be discovered.

  14. NIR SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATION OF MASSIVE GALAXIES IN THE PROTOCLUSTER AT z = 3.09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo, Mariko; Yamada, Toru; Ichikawa, Takashi; Kajisawa, Masaru; Matsuda, Yuichi; Tanaka, Ichi

    2015-01-20

    We present the results of near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the K-band-selected candidate galaxies in the protocluster at z = 3.09 in the SSA22 field. We observed 67 candidates with K {sub AB} < 24 and confirmed redshifts of the 39 galaxies at 2.0 < z {sub spec} < 3.4. Of the 67 candidates, 24 are certainly protocluster members with 3.04 ≤ z {sub spec} ≤ 3.12, which are massive red galaxies that have been unidentified in previous optical observations of the SSA22 protocluster. Many distant red galaxies (J – K {sub AB} > 1.4), hyper extremely red objects (J – K {sub AB} > 2.1), Spitzer MIPS 24 μm sources, active galactic nuclei (AGNs) as well as the counterparts of Lyα blobs and the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm sources in the SSA22 field are also found to be protocluster members. The mass of the SSA22 protocluster is estimated to be ∼2-5 × 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}, and this system is plausibly a progenitor of the most massive clusters of galaxies in the current universe. The reddest (J – K {sub AB} ≥ 2.4) protocluster galaxies are massive galaxies with M {sub star} ∼ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} showing quiescent star formation activities and plausibly dominated by old stellar populations. Most of these massive quiescent galaxies host moderately luminous AGNs detected by X-ray. There are no significant differences in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ emission line ratios and [O III] λ5007 line widths and spatial extents of the protocluster galaxies from those of massive galaxies at z ∼ 2-3 in the general field.

  15. Overexpression of SnoN/SkiL, amplified at the 3q26.2 locus, in ovarian cancers: A role in ovarian pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanjundan, Meera; Cheng, Kwai Wa; Zhang, Fan; Lahad, John; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Smith-McCune, Karen; Fishman, David; Gray, Joe W.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2008-07-18

    High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization of 235 serous epithelial ovarian cancers demonstrated a regional increase at 3q26.2 encompassing SnoN/SkiL, a coregulator of SMAD/TGF{beta} signaling. SnoN RNA transcripts were elevated in {approx}80% of advanced stage serous epithelial ovarian cancers. In both immortalized normal (TIOSE) and ovarian carcinoma cell lines (OVCA), SnoN RNA levels were increased by TGF{beta} stimulation and altered by LY294002 and JNK II inhibitor treatment suggesting that the PI3K and JNK signaling pathways may regulate TGF{beta}-induced increases in SnoN RNA. In TIOSE, SnoN protein levels were reduced 15min post TGF{beta}-stimulation, likely by proteosome-mediated degradation. In contrast, in OVCA, SnoN levels were elevated 3h post-stimulation potentially as a result of inhibition of the proteosome. To elucidate the role of SnoN in ovarian tumorigenesis, we explored the effects of both increasing and decreasing SnoN levels. In both TIOSE and OVCA, SnoN siRNA decreased cell growth between 20 and 50% concurrent with increased p21 levels. In TIOSE, transient expression of SnoN repressed TGF{beta} induction of PAI-1 promoters with little effect on the p21 promoter or resultant cell growth. In contrast to the effects of transient expression, stable expression of SnoN in TIOSE led to growth arrest through induction of senescence. Collectively, these results implicate SnoN levels in multiple roles during ovarian carcinogenesis: promoting cellular proliferation in ovarian cancer cells and as a positive mediator of cell cycle arrest and senescence in non-transformed ovarian epithelial cells.

  16. The mass spectrum of the first stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susa, Hajime; Tominaga, Nozomu; Hasegawa, Kenji

    2014-09-01

    We perform cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with non-equilibrium primordial chemistry to obtain 59 minihalos that host first stars. The obtained minihalos are used as the initial conditions of local three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations to investigate the formation of the first stars. We find that two-thirds of the minihalos host multiple stars, while the other third has single stars. The mass of the stars found in our simulations are in the range of 1 M {sub ☉} ≲ M ≲ 300 M {sub ☉}, peaking at several× 10 M {sub ☉}. Most of the very massive stars of ≳ 140 M {sub ☉} are born as single stars, although not all of the single stars are very massive. We also find a few stars of ≲ 1 M {sub ☉} that are kicked by the gravitational three body interactions to the position distant from the center of mass. The frequency that a star forming minihalo contains a binary system is ∼50%. We also investigate the abundance pattern of the stellar remnants by summing up the contributions from the first stars in the simulations. Consequently, the pattern is compatible with that of the low metallicity damped Lyα systems or the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, if the mass spectrum obtained in our experiment is shifted to the low mass side by 0.2 dex. If we consider the case that an EMP star is born in the remnant of the individual minihalo without mixing with others, the chemical signature of the pair instability supernova is more prominent, because most of them are born as single stars.

  17. THE FIRST HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR FROM Pan-STARRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morganson, Eric; De Rosa, Gisella; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Rix, Hans-Walter; Chambers, Ken; Burgett, William; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Sweeney, Bill; Waters, Christopher; McGreer, Ian; Fan, Xiaohui; Greiner, Jochen; Price, Paul

    2012-06-15

    We present the discovery of the first high-redshift (z > 5.7) quasar from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1). This quasar was initially detected as an i{sub P1} dropout in PS1, confirmed photometrically with the SAO Wide-field InfraRed Camera at Arizona's Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector at the MPG 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. The quasar was verified spectroscopically with the MMT Spectrograph, Red Channel and the Cassegrain Twin Spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Its near-infrared spectrum was taken at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBT) with the LBT Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research. It has a redshift of 5.73, an AB z{sub P1} magnitude of 19.4, a luminosity of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, and a black hole mass of 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. It is a broad absorption line quasar with a prominent Ly{beta} peak and a very blue continuum spectrum. This quasar is the first result from the PS1 high-redshift quasar search that is projected to discover more than 100 i{sub P1} dropout quasars and could potentially find more than 10 z{sub P1} dropout (z > 6.8) quasars.

  18. The OH rotational population and photodissociation of H{sub 2}O in DG Tauri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, John S.; Najita, Joan R.

    2014-06-10

    We analyze the OH rotational emission in the Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared spectrum of the T Tauri star DG Tau. OH is observed in emission from upper level energies of 1900 K to 28,000 K. The rotational diagram cannot be fit with any single combination of temperature and column density and has slopes that correspond to excitation temperatures ranging from 200 K to 6000 K. The relative ?-doublet population within each rotational level is not equal, showing that the OH population is not in thermal equilibrium. The symmetric ?-doublet state is preferred in all rotational states, with an average of 0.5 for the population ratio of the anti-symmetric to symmetric state. We show that the population distribution of the high rotational lines and the ?-doublet ratio are consistent with the formation of OH following the photo-dissociation of H{sub 2}O by FUV photons in the second absorption band of water (?1150-1400 ), which includes Ly?. Other processes, OH formation from either photo-dissociation of water in the first absorption band (1450-1900 ) or the reaction O({sup 1} D) + H{sub 2}, or collisional excitation, cannot explain the observed emission in the high rotational states but could potentially contribute to the population of lower rotational levels. These results demonstrate that the photodissociation of water is active in DG Tau and support the idea that the hot rotational OH emission commonly observed in Classical T Tauri stars is due to the dissociation of H{sub 2}O by FUV radiation.

  19. Hubble space telescope/cosmic origins spectrograph observations of the quasar Q0302–003: Probing the He II reionization epoch and QSO proximity effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syphers, David; Shull, J. Michael

    2014-03-20

    Q0302–003 (z = 3.2860 ± 0.0005) was the first quasar discovered that showed a He II Gunn-Peterson trough, a sign of incomplete helium reionization at z ≳ 2.9. We present its Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-UV medium-resolution spectrum, which resolves many spectral features for the first time, allowing study of the quasar itself, the intergalactic medium, and quasar proximity effects. Q0302–003 has a harder intrinsic extreme-UV spectral index than previously claimed, as determined from both a direct fit to the spectrum (yielding α{sub ν} ≈ –0.8) and the helium-to-hydrogen ion ratio in the quasar's line-of-sight proximity zone. Intergalactic absorption along this sightline shows that the helium Gunn-Peterson trough is largely black in the range 2.87 < z < 3.20, apart from ionization due to local sources, indicating that helium reionization has not completed at these redshifts. However, we tentatively report a detection of nonzero flux in the high-redshift trough when looking at low-density regions, but zero flux in higher-density regions. This constrains the He II fraction to be about 1% in the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) and possibly a factor of a few higher in the IGM as a whole, suggesting helium reionization has progressed substantially by z ∼ 3.1. The Gunn-Peterson trough recovers to a He II Lyα forest at z < 2.87. We confirm a transmission feature due to the ionization zone around a z = 3.05 quasar just off the sightline, and resolve the feature for the first time. We discover a similar such feature possibly caused by a luminous z = 3.23 quasar further from the sightline, which suggests that this quasar has been luminous for >34 Myr.

  20. THE SUBARU HIGH-z QUASAR SURVEY: DISCOVERY OF FAINT z ? 6 QUASARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashikawa, Nobunari; Furusawa, Hisanori; Niino, Yuu [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ishizaki, Yoshifumi; Onoue, Masafusa; Toshikawa, Jun; Ishikawa, Shogo [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Willott, Chris J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Im, Myungshin [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-rho, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hibon, Pascale, E-mail: n.kashikawa@nao.ac.jp [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of one or two extremely faint z ? 6 quasars in 6.5 deg{sup 2} utilizing a unique capability of the wide-field imaging of the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The quasar selection was made in (i'-z{sub B} ) and (z{sub B} -z{sub R} ) colors, where z{sub B} and z{sub R} are bandpasses with central wavelengths of 8842 and 9841 , respectively. The color selection can effectively isolate quasars at z ? 6 from M/L/T dwarfs without the J-band photometry down to z{sub R} < 24.0, which is 3.5 mag deeper than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We have selected 17 promising quasar candidates. The follow-up spectroscopy for seven targets identified one apparent quasar at z = 6.156 with M {sub 1450} = 23.10. We also identified one possible quasar at z = 6.041 with a faint continuum of M {sub 1450} = 22.58 and a narrow Ly? emission with HWHM =427 km s{sup 1}, which cannot be distinguished from Lyman ? emitters. We derive the quasar luminosity function at z ? 6 by combining our faint quasar sample with the bright quasar samples by SDSS and CFHQS. Including our data points invokes a higher number density in the faintest bin of the quasar luminosity function than the previous estimate employed. This suggests a steeper faint-end slope than lower z, though it is yet uncertain based on a small number of spectroscopically identified faint quasars, and several quasar candidates still remain to be diagnosed. The steepening of the quasar luminosity function at the faint end does increase the expected emission rate of the ionizing photon; however, it only changes by a factor of approximately two to six. This was found to still be insufficient for the required photon budget of reionization at z ? 6.

  1. Chemical constraints on the contribution of population III stars to cosmic reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rollinde, Emmanuel; Vangioni, Elisabeth, E-mail: girish@mpia-hd.mpg.de [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, UPMC, Paris VI, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-05-20

    Recent studies have highlighted that galaxies at z = 6-8 fall short of producing enough ionizing photons to reionize the intergalactic medium, and suggest that Population III stars could resolve this tension, because their harder spectra can produce ?10 more ionizing photons than Population II. We use a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, which tracks galactic chemical evolution, to gauge the impact of Population III stars on reionization. Population III supernovae produce distinct metal abundances, and we argue that the duration of the Population III era can be constrained by precise relative abundance measurements in high-z damped Ly? absorbers (DLAs), which provide a chemical record of past star formation. We find that a single generation of Population III stars can self-enrich galaxies above the critical metallicity Z {sub crit} = 10{sup 4} Z {sub ?} for the Population III-to-II transition, on a very short timescale t {sub self-enrich} ? 10{sup 6} yr, owing to the large metal yields and short lifetimes of Population III stars. This subsequently terminates the Population III era, so they contribute ? 50% of the ionizing photons only for z ? 30, and at z = 10 contribute <1%. The Population III contribution can be increased by delaying metal mixing into the interstellar medium. However, comparing the resulting metal abundance pattern to existing measurements in z ? 6 DLAs, we show that the observed [O/Si] ratios of absorbers rule out Population III stars being a major contributor to reionization. Future abundance measurements of z ? 7-8 QSOs and gamma-ray bursts should probe the era when the chemical vestiges of Population III star formation become detectable.

  2. COS OBSERVATIONS OF METAL LINE AND BROAD LYMAN-{alpha} ABSORPTION IN THE MULTI-PHASE O VI AND Ne VIII SYSTEM AT z = 0.20701 TOWARD HE 0226-4110

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, B. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lehner, N. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Narayanan, A. [Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India)

    2011-12-20

    Observations of the QSO HE 0226-4110 (z{sub em} = 0.495) with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) from 1134 to 1796 A with a resolution of {approx}17 km s{sup -1} and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) per resolution element of 20-40 are used to study the multi-phase absorption system at z = 0.20701 containing O VI and Ne VIII. The system was previously studied with lower S/N observations with Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The COS observations provide more reliable measures of the H I and metal lines present in the system and reveal the clear presence of broad Ly{alpha} (BLA) absorption with b = 72(+13, -6) km s{sup -1} and log N(H I) = 13.87 {+-} 0.08. Detecting BLAs associated with warm gas absorbers is crucial for determining the temperature, metallicity, and total baryonic content of the absorbers. The BLA is probably recording the trace amount of thermally broadened H I in the collisionally ionized plasma with log T {approx} 5.7 that also produces the O VI and Ne VIII absorption. The total hydrogen column in the collisionally ionized gas, log N(H) {approx} 20.1, exceeds that in the cooler photoionized gas in the system by a factor of {approx}22. The oxygen abundance in the collisionally ionized gas is [O/H] = -0.89 {+-} 0.08 {+-} 0.07. The absorber probably occurs in the circumgalactic environment (halo) of a foreground L = 0.25L{sub *} disk galaxy with an impact parameter of 109 h{sub 70}{sup -1} kpc identified by Mulchaey and Chen.

  3. THE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, James C.; Michael Shull, J.; Snow, Theodore P.; Stocke, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 391-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Froning, Cynthia S.; Osterman, Steve; Beland, Stephane; Burgh, Eric B.; Danforth, Charles; France, Kevin [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ebbets, Dennis [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Heap, Sara H. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 681, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Leitherer, Claus; Sembach, Kenneth [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Savage, Blair D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Siegmund, Oswald H. W. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Spencer, John; Alan Stern, S. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Welsh, Barry [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a moderate-resolution spectrograph with unprecedented sensitivity that was installed into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2009 May, during HST Servicing Mission 4 (STS-125). We present the design philosophy and summarize the key characteristics of the instrument that will be of interest to potential observers. For faint targets, with flux F{sub {lambda}} Almost-Equal-To 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} A{sup -1}, COS can achieve comparable signal to noise (when compared to Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph echelle modes) in 1%-2% of the observing time. This has led to a significant increase in the total data volume and data quality available to the community. For example, in the first 20 months of science operation (2009 September-2011 June) the cumulative redshift pathlength of extragalactic sight lines sampled by COS is nine times than sampled at moderate resolution in 19 previous years of Hubble observations. COS programs have observed 214 distinct lines of sight suitable for study of the intergalactic medium as of 2011 June. COS has measured, for the first time with high reliability, broad Ly{alpha} absorbers and Ne VIII in the intergalactic medium, and observed the He II reionization epoch along multiple sightlines. COS has detected the first CO emission and absorption in the UV spectra of low-mass circumstellar disks at the epoch of giant planet formation, and detected multiple ionization states of metals in extra-solar planetary atmospheres. In the coming years, COS will continue its census of intergalactic gas, probe galactic and cosmic structure, and explore physics in our solar system and Galaxy.

  4. CHARACTERIZING THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF NEARBY GALAXIES WITH HST/COS AND HST/STIS ABSORPTION-LINE SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stocke, John T.; Keeney, Brian A.; Danforth, Charles W.; Shull, J. Michael; Froning, Cynthia S.; Green, James C.; Penton, Steven V. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)] [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Savage, Blair D., E-mail: john.stocke@colorado.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The circumgalactic medium (CGM) of late-type galaxies is characterized using UV spectroscopy of 11 targeted QSO/galaxy pairs at z {<=} 0.02 with the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and {approx}60 serendipitous absorber/galaxy pairs at z {<=} 0.2 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. CGM warm cloud properties are derived, including volume filling factors of 3%-5%, cloud sizes of 0.1-30 kpc, masses of 10-10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }, and metallicities of {approx}0.1-1 Z {sub Sun }. Almost all warm CGM clouds within 0.5 R {sub vir} are metal-bearing and many have velocities consistent with being bound, 'galactic fountain' clouds. For galaxies with L {approx}> 0.1 L*, the total mass in these warm CGM clouds approaches 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }, {approx}10%-15% of the total baryons in massive spirals and comparable to the baryons in their parent galaxy disks. This leaves {approx}> 50% of massive spiral-galaxy baryons 'missing'. Dwarfs (<0.1 L*) have smaller area covering factors and warm CGM masses ({<=}5% baryon fraction), suggesting that many of their warm clouds escape. Constant warm cloud internal pressures as a function of impact parameter (P/k {approx} 10 cm{sup -3} K) support the inference that previous COS detections of broad, shallow O VI and Ly{alpha} absorptions are of an extensive ({approx}400-600 kpc), hot (T Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 6} K), intra-cloud gas which is very massive ({>=}10{sup 11} M {sub Sun }). While the warm CGM clouds cannot account for all the 'missing baryons' in spirals, the hot intra-group gas can, and could account for {approx}20% of the cosmic baryon census at z {approx} 0 if this hot gas is ubiquitous among spiral groups.

  5. THE IMPACT OF STARBURSTS ON THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Heckman, Timothy; Strickland, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wild, Vivienne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 95S (United Kingdom); Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA) (United Kingdom); Schiminovich, David, E-mail: sanch@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We present a study exploring the impact of a starburst on the properties of the surrounding circumgalactic medium (CGM): gas located beyond the galaxy's stellar body and extending out to the virial radius ({approx}200 kpc). We obtained ultraviolet spectroscopic data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) probing the CGM of 20 low-redshift foreground galaxies using background QSOs. Our sample consists of starburst and control galaxies. The latter comprises normal star-forming and passive galaxies with similar stellar masses and impact parameters as the starbursts. We used optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to estimate the properties of the starbursts, inferring average ages of {approx}200 Myr and burst fractions involving {approx}10% of their stellar mass. The COS data reveal highly ionized gas traced by C IV in 80%(4/5) of the starburst and in 17%(2/12) of the control sample. The two control galaxies with C IV absorbers differed from the four starbursts in showing multiple low-ionization transitions and strong saturated Ly{alpha} lines. They therefore appear to be physically different systems. We show that the C IV absorbers in the starburst CGM represent a significant baryon repository. The high detection rate of this highly ionized material in the starbursts suggests that starburst-driven winds can affect the CGM out to radii as large as 200 kpc. This is plausible given the inferred properties of the starbursts and the known properties of starburst-driven winds. This would represent the first direct observational evidence of local starbursts impacting the bulk of their gaseous halos, and as such provides new evidence of the importance of this kind of feedback in the evolution of galaxies.

  6. THE COS-HALOS SURVEY: RATIONALE, DESIGN, AND A CENSUS OF CIRCUMGALACTIC NEUTRAL HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumlinson, Jason; Thom, Christopher; Sembach, Kenneth R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Werk, Jessica K.; Prochaska, J. Xavier [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal; Meiring, Joseph D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Dav, Romeel [University of the Western Cape, South African Astronomical Observatories, and African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Oppenheimer, Benjamin D. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ford, Amanda Brady [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); O'Meara, John M. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, VT (United States); Peeples, Molly S. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present the design and methods of the COS-Halos survey, a systematic investigation of the gaseous halos of 44 z = 0.15-0.35 galaxies using background QSOs observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. This survey has yielded 39 spectra of z{sub em} ? 0.5 QSOs with S/N ?10-15 per resolution element. The QSO sightlines pass within 150 physical kpc of the galaxies, which span early and late types over stellar mass log M{sub *}/M{sub ?} = 9.5-11.5. We find that the circumgalactic medium exhibits strong H I, averaging ? 1 in Ly? equivalent width out to 150 kpc, with 100% covering fraction for star-forming galaxies and 75% covering for passive galaxies. We find good agreement in column densities between this survey and previous studies over similar range of impact parameter. There is weak evidence for a difference between early- and late-type galaxies in the strength and distribution of H I. Kinematics indicate that the detected material is bound to the host galaxy, such that ?> 90% of the detected column density is confined within 200 km s{sup 1} of the galaxies. This material generally exists well below the halo virial temperatures at T ?< 10{sup 5} K. We evaluate a number of possible origin scenarios for the detected material, and in the end favor a simple model in which the bulk of the detected H I arises in a bound, cool, low-density photoionized diffuse medium that is generic to all L* galaxies and may harbor a total gaseous mass comparable to galactic stellar masses.

  7. HST-COS OBSERVATIONS OF AGNs. I. ULTRAVIOLET COMPOSITE SPECTRA OF THE IONIZING CONTINUUM AND EMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shull, J. Michael; Stevans, Matthew; Danforth, Charles W., E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu, E-mail: matthew.stevans@colorado.edu, E-mail: charles.danforth@colorado.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    The ionizing fluxes from quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are critical for interpreting the emission-line spectra of AGNs and for photoionization and heating of the intergalactic medium. Using ultraviolet spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have directly measured the rest-frame ionizing continua and emission lines for 22 AGNs. Over the redshift range 0.026 < z < 1.44, COS samples the Lyman continuum and many far-UV emission lines (Ly{alpha} {lambda}1216, C IV {lambda}1549, Si IV/O IV] {lambda}1400, N V {lambda}1240, O VI {lambda}1035). Strong EUV emission lines with 14-22 eV excitation energies (Ne VIII {lambda}{lambda}770, 780, Ne V {lambda}569, O II {lambda}834, O III {lambda}833, {lambda}702, O IV {lambda}788, 608, 554, O V {lambda}630, N III {lambda}685) suggest the presence of hot gas in the broad emission-line region. The rest-frame continuum, F{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}{sub {nu}}}, shows a break at wavelengths {lambda} < 1000 A, with spectral index {alpha}{sub {nu}} = -0.68 {+-} 0.14 in the FUV (1200-2000 A) steepening to {alpha}{sub {nu}} = -1.41 {+-} 0.21 in the EUV (500-1000 A). The COS EUV index is similar to that of radio-quiet AGNs in the 2002 HST/FOS survey ({alpha}{sub {nu}} = -1.57 {+-} 0.17). We see no Lyman edge ({tau}{sub HI} < 0.03) or He I {lambda}584 emission in the AGN composite. Our 22 AGNs exhibit a substantial range of FUV/EUV spectral indices and a correlation with AGN luminosity and redshift, likely due to observing below the 1000 A spectral break.

  8. Absorption-line detections of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} K gas in spiral-rich groups of galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stocke, John T.; Keeney, Brian A.; Danforth, Charles W.; Syphers, David; Yamamoto, H.; Shull, J. Michael; Green, James C.; Froning, Cynthia [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Savage, Blair D.; Wakker, Bart; Kim, Tae-Sun [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ryan-Weber, Emma V.; Kacprzak, Glenn G., E-mail: john.stocke@colorado.edu [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2014-08-20

    Using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, the COS Science Team has conducted a high signal-to-noise survey of 14 bright QSOs. In a previous paper, these far-UV spectra were used to discover 14 'warm' (T ? 10{sup 5} K) absorbers using a combination of broad Ly? and broad O VI absorptions. A reanalysis of a few of this new class of absorbers using slightly relaxed fitting criteria finds as many as 20 warm absorbers could be present in this sample. A shallow, wide spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey has been conducted around these sight lines to investigate the warm absorber environment, which is found to be spiral-rich groups or cluster outskirts with radial velocity dispersions ? = 250-750 km s{sup 1}. While 2? evidence is presented favoring the hypothesis that these absorptions are associated with the galaxy groups and not with the individual, nearest galaxies, this evidence has considerable systematic uncertainties and is based on a small sample size so it is not entirely conclusive. If the associations are with galaxy groups, the observed frequency of warm absorbers (dN/dz = 3.5-5 per unit redshift) requires them to be very extended as an ensemble on the sky (?1 Mpc in radius at high covering factor). Most likely these warm absorbers are interface gas clouds whose presence implies the existence of a hotter (T ? 10{sup 6.5} K), diffuse, and probably very massive (>10{sup 11} M {sub ?}) intra-group medium which has yet to be detected directly.

  9. NGC 1365: A low column density state unveiling a low ionization disk wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braito, V.; Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.; Nardini, E.; Porquet, D.; Risaliti, G.

    2014-11-01

    We present the time-resolved spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data of NGC 1365 collected during one XMM-Newton observation, which caught this 'changing-look' active galactic nucleus in a high flux state characterized also by a low column density (N {sub H} ? 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2}) of the X-ray absorber. During this observation, the low-energy photoelectric cut-off is at about ?1 keV and the primary continuum can be investigated with the XMM-Newton-RGS data, which show strong spectral variability that can be explained as a variable low N {sub H} that decreased from N {sub H} ? 10{sup 23} cm{sup 2} to 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2} in a 100 ks timescale. The spectral analysis of the last segment of the observation revealed the presence of several absorption features that can be associated with an ionized (log ? ? 2 erg cm s{sup 1}) outflowing wind (v {sub out} ? 2000 km s{sup 1}). We detected for the first time a possible P-Cygni profile of the Mg XII Ly? line associated with this mildly ionized absorber indicative of a wide angle outflowing wind. We suggest that this wind is a low ionization zone of the highly ionized wind present in NGC 1365, which is responsible for the iron K absorption lines and is located within the variable X-ray absorber. At the end of the observation, we detected a strong absorption line at E ? 0.76 keV most likely associated with a lower ionization zone of the absorber (log ? ? 0.2 erg cm s{sup 1}, N {sub H} ? 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2}), which suggests that the variable absorber in NGC 1365 could be a low ionization zone of the disk wind.

  10. Individualized Positron Emission Tomography–Based Isotoxic Accelerated Radiation Therapy Is Cost-Effective Compared With Conventional Radiation Therapy: A Model-Based Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bongers, Mathilda L.; Coupé, Veerle M.H.; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Oberije, Cary; Lambin, Philippe; Uyl-de Groot, Cornelia A.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term health effects, costs, and cost-effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET)-based isotoxic accelerated radiation therapy treatment (PET-ART) compared with conventional fixed-dose CT-based radiation therapy treatment (CRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Our analysis uses a validated decision model, based on data of 200 NSCLC patients with inoperable stage I-IIIB. Clinical outcomes, resource use, costs, and utilities were obtained from the Maastro Clinic and the literature. Primary model outcomes were the difference in life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost/utility ratio (ICER and ICUR) of PET-ART versus CRT. Model outcomes were obtained from averaging the predictions for 50,000 simulated patients. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis and scenario analyses were carried out. Results: The average incremental costs per patient of PET-ART were €569 (95% confidence interval [CI] €−5327-€6936) for 0.42 incremental LYs (95% CI 0.19-0.61) and 0.33 QALYs gained (95% CI 0.13-0.49). The base-case scenario resulted in an ICER of €1360 per LY gained and an ICUR of €1744 per QALY gained. The probabilistic analysis gave a 36% probability that PET-ART improves health outcomes at reduced costs and a 64% probability that PET-ART is more effective at slightly higher costs. Conclusion: On the basis of the available data, individualized PET-ART for NSCLC seems to be cost-effective compared with CRT.

  11. Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells via Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Jintao; Zhu, Dexiao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guibao; Liu, Zengxun; Sun, Jinhao

    2015-09-25

    Methamphetamine (MA) is neurotoxic, especially in dopaminergic neurons. Long-lasting exposure to MA causes psychosis and increases the risk of Parkinson's disease. Lithium (Li) is a known mood stabilizer and has neuroprotective effects. Previous studies suggest that MA exposure decreases the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway in vivo, whereas Li facilitates the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway. Moreover, GSK3β and mTOR are implicated in the locomotor sensitization induced by psychostimulants and mTOR plays a critical role in MA induced toxicity. However, the effect of MA on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway has not been fully investigated in vitro. Here, we found that MA exposure significantly dephosphorylated Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in PC12 cells. In addition, Li remarkably attenuated the dephosphorylation effect of MA exposure on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, Li showed obvious protective effects against MA toxicity and LY294002 (Akt inhibitor) suppressed the protective effects of Li. Together, MA exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in vitro, while lithium protects against MA-induced neurotoxicity via phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. - Highlights: • Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. • Methamphetamine exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. • Lithium attenuates methamphetamine-induced toxicity via phosphorylating Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway.

  12. WATER PRODUCTION IN COMETS 2001 Q4 (NEAT) AND 2002 T7 (LINEAR) DETERMINED FROM SOHO/SWAN OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combi, M. R.; Lee, Y.; Maekinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.

    2009-06-15

    The SWAN all-sky camera on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft detected the hydrogen Lyman-alpha (Ly{alpha}) comae of comets 2001 Q4 NEAT and 2002 T7 LINEAR for large portions of their perihelion apparitions in 2003 and 2004. C/2001 Q4 NEAT was observed from 2003 September 14 through 2004 November 2, covering heliocentric distances from 3.23 AU before perihelion to 2.75 AU after, and C/2002 T7 LINEAR was observed from 2003 December 4 through 2004 August 6, covering heliocentric distances from 2.52 AU before perihelion to 2.09 AU after. We combined the full set of comet specific and full-sky observations and used our time-resolved model (TRM), which enables us to extract continuous values of the daily-average value of the water production rate throughout most of this entire period. The average power-law fit to the production rate variation of C/2001 Q4 NEAT with heliocentric distance, r, gives 3.5 x 10{sup 29} r {sup -1.7} and that for C/2002 T7 LINEAR gives 4.6 x 10{sup 29} r {sup -2.0}. Both comets show roughly a factor of 2 asymmetry in activity about perihelion, being more active before perihelion. C/2001 Q4 NEAT showed a production rate outburst about 30 days before perihelion (2004 April 15) and then a large extended increase above the nominal trend from 50 to 70 days after perihelion (2004 July 5-July 25)

  13. THE MULTI-OBJECT, FIBER-FED SPECTROGRAPHS FOR THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY AND THE BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smee, Stephen A.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Gunn, James E.; Carr, Michael A.; Lupton, Robert H.; Loomis, Craig; Uomoto, Alan; Roe, Natalie; Schlegel, David; Rockosi, Constance M.; Leger, French; Owen, Russell; Anderson, Lauren; Dawson, Kyle S.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Brinkmann, Jon; Long, Dan; Honscheid, Klaus; Harding, Paul; Annis, James; and others

    2013-08-01

    We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in Fall 1999 on the 2.5 m aperture Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the spectrographs produced more than 1.5 million spectra for the SDSS and SDSS-II surveys, enabling a wide variety of Galactic and extra-galactic science including the first observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in 2005. The spectrographs were upgraded in 2009 and are currently in use for BOSS, the flagship survey of the third-generation SDSS-III project. BOSS will measure redshifts of 1.35 million massive galaxies to redshift 0.7 and Ly{alpha} absorption of 160,000 high redshift quasars over 10,000 deg{sup 2} of sky, making percent level measurements of the absolute cosmic distance scale of the universe and placing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The twin multi-object fiber spectrographs utilize a simple optical layout with reflective collimators, gratings, all-refractive cameras, and state-of-the-art CCD detectors to produce hundreds of spectra simultaneously in two channels over a bandpass covering the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, with a resolving power R = {lambda}/FWHM {approx} 2000. Building on proven heritage, the spectrographs were upgraded for BOSS with volume-phase holographic gratings and modern CCD detectors, improving the peak throughput by nearly a factor of two, extending the bandpass to cover 360 nm < {lambda} < 1000 nm, and increasing the number of fibers from 640 to 1000 per exposure. In this paper we describe the original SDSS spectrograph design and the upgrades implemented for BOSS, and document the predicted and measured performances.

  14. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J.; Saul, L.; Wurz, P.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Frisch, P.; Gruntman, M.; Mueller, H. R.

    2013-10-01

    Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

  15. Imaging the heliosphere using neutral atoms from solar wind energy down to 15 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Möbius, E.

    2014-11-20

    We study the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliosheath observed with the IBEX-Lo sensor of the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) from solar wind energies down to the lowest available energy (15 eV). All available IBEX-Lo data from 2009 January until 2013 June were included. The sky regions imaged when the spacecraft was outside of Earth's magnetosphere and when the Earth was moving toward the direction of observation offer a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio even at very low energies. We find that the ENA ribbon—a 20° wide region of high ENA intensities—is most prominent at solar wind energies whereas it fades at lower energies. The maximum emission in the ribbon is located near the poles for 2 keV and closer to the ecliptic plane for energies below 1 keV. This shift is an evidence that the ENA ribbon originates from the solar wind. Below 0.1 keV, the ribbon can no longer be identified against the globally distributed ENA signal. The ENA measurements in the downwind direction are affected by magnetospheric contamination below 0.5 keV, but a region of very low ENA intensities can be identified from 0.1 keV to 2 keV. The energy spectra of heliospheric ENAs follow a uniform power law down to 0.1 keV. Below this energy, they seem to become flatter, which is consistent with predictions. Due to the subtraction of local background, the ENA intensities measured with IBEX agree with the upper limit derived from Lyα observations.

  16. ENO1 promotes tumor proliferation and cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xinghua; Miao, Xiaobing; Wu, Yaxun; Li, Chunsun; Guo, Yan; Liu, Yushan; Chen, Yali; Lu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yuchan; He, Song

    2015-07-15

    Enolases are glycolytic enzymes responsible for the ATP-generated conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate. In addition to the glycolytic function, Enolase 1 (ENO1) has been reported up-regulation in several tumor tissues. In this study, we investigated the expression and biologic function of ENO1 in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHLs). Clinically, by western blot analysis we observed that ENO1 expression was apparently higher in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma than in the reactive lymphoid tissues. Subsequently, immunohistochemical staining of 144 NHLs suggested that the expression of ENO1 was significantly lower in the indolent lymphomas compared with the progressive lymphomas. Further, we identified ENO1 as an independent prognostic factor, and it was significantly correlated with overall survival of NHL patients. In addition, we found that ENO1 could promote cell proliferation, regulate cell cycle associated gene and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in NHLs. Finally, we verified that ENO1 participated in the process of lymphoma cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Adhesion to FN or HS5 cells significantly protected OCI-Ly8 and Daudi cells from cytotoxicity compared with those cultured in suspension, and these effects were attenuated when transfected with ENO1-siRNA. Based on the study, we propose that inhibition of ENO1 expression may be a novel strategy for therapy for NHLs patients, and it may be a target for drug resistance. - Highlights: • ENO1 expression is reversely correlated with clinical outcomes of patients with NHLs. • ENO1 promotes the proliferation of NHL cells. • ENO1 regulates cell adhesion mediated drug resistance.

  17. HST-COS observations of AGNs. II. Extended survey of ultraviolet composite spectra from 159 active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevans, Matthew L.; Shull, J. Michael; Danforth, Charles W.; Tilton, Evan M. E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu E-mail: evan.tilton@colorado.edu

    2014-10-10

    The ionizing fluxes from quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are critical for interpreting their emission-line spectra and for photoionizing and heating the intergalactic medium. Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we directly measure the rest-frame ionizing continua and emission lines for 159 AGNs at redshifts 0.001 < z {sub AGN} < 1.476 and construct a composite spectrum from 475 to 1875 Å. We identify the underlying AGN continuum and strong extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission lines from ions of oxygen, neon, and nitrogen after masking out absorption lines from the H I Lyα forest, 7 Lyman-limit systems (N{sub H} {sub I}≥10{sup 17.2} cm{sup –2}) and 214 partial Lyman-limit systems (14.5

  18. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the river’s shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms for Sr with Ca, a plant macronutrient as well as no discrimination between Sr and 90Sr. Willow 90Sr concentration ratios [CR’s; (pCi 90Sr/g dry wt. of new growth tissue)/(pCi 90Sr/g soil porewater)] were consistently greater than 65 with three-quarters of the assimilated label partitioned into the above ground shoot. Insect herbivore experiments also demonstrated no significant potential for bioaccumulation or food chain transfer from their natural activities. The objectives of this field study were three-fold: (1) to demonstrate that a viable, “managed” plot of coyote willows can be established on the shoreline of the Columbia River that would survive the same microenvironment to be encountered at the 100-NR-2 shoreline; (2) to show through engineered barriers that large and small animal herbivores can be prevented from feeding on these plants; and (3) to show that once established, the plants will provide sufficient biomass annually to support the phytoextraction technology. A field treatability demonstration plot was established on the Columbia River shoreline alongside the 100-K West water intake at the end of January 2007. The plot was delimited by a 3.05 m high chain-link fence and was approximately 10 x 25 m in size. A layer of fine mesh metal small animal screening was placed around the plot at the base of the fencing to a depth of 45 cm. A total of sixty plants were placed in six slightly staggered rows with 1-m spacing between plants. The actual plot size was 0.00461 hectare (ha). At the time of planting (March 12, 2007), the plot was located about 10 m from the

  19. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenbies, Mark; Volk, Timothy

    2014-10-03

    Demand for bioenergy sourced from woody biomass is projected to increase; however, the expansion and rapid deployment of short rotation woody crop systems in the United States has been constrained by high production costs and sluggish market acceptance due to problems with quality and consistency from first-generation harvesting systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop conditions on the performance of a single-pass, cut and chip harvester based on a standard New Holland FR-9000 series forage harvester with a dedicated 130FB short rotation coppice header, and the quality of chipped material. A time motion analysis was conducted to track the movement of machine and chipped material through the system for 153 separate loads over 10 days on a 54-ha harvest. Harvester performance was regulated by either ground conditions, or standing biomass on 153 loads. Material capacities increased linearly with standing biomass up to 40 Mgwet ha-1 and plateaued between 70 and 90 Mgwet hr-1. Moisture contents ranged from 39 to 51% with the majority of samples between 43 and 45%. Loads produced in freezing weather (average temperature over 10 hours preceding load production) had 4% more chips greater than 25.4 mm (P < 0.0119). Over 1.5 Mgdry ha-1 of potentially harvested material (6-9% of a load) was left on site, of which half was commercially undesirable meristematic pieces. The New Holland harvesting system is a reliable and predictable platform for harvesting material over a wide range of standing biomass; performance was consistent overall in 14 willow cultivars.

  20. Human monoclonal antibodies derived from a patient infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A virus broadly cross-neutralize group 1 influenza viruses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Yang; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Du, Anariwa; and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: Influenza infection can elicit heterosubtypic antibodies to group 1 influenza virus. Three human monoclonal antibodies were generated from an H1N1-infected patient. The antibodies predominantly recognized ?-helical stem of viral hemagglutinin (HA). The antibodies inhibited HA structural activation during the fusion process. The antibodies are potential candidates for future antibody therapy to influenza. - Abstract: Influenza viruses are a continuous threat to human public health because of their ability to evolve rapidly through genetic drift and reassortment. Three human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) were generated in this study, 1H11, 2H5 and 5G2, and they cross-neutralize a diverse range of group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H5N1 and H9N2. The three HuMAbs were prepared by fusing peripheral blood lymphocytes from an H1N1pdm-infected patient with a newly developed fusion partner cell line, SPYMEG. All the HuMAbs had little hemagglutination inhibition activity but had strong membrane-fusion inhibition activity against influenza viruses. A protease digestion assay showed the HuMAbs targeted commonly a short ?-helix region in the stalk of the hemagglutinin. Furthermore, Ile45Phe and Glu47Gly double substitutions in the ?-helix region made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAbs. These two amino acid residues are highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. The HuMAbs reported here may be potential candidates for the development of therapeutic antibodies against group 1 influenza viruses.

  1. A human monoclonal antibody derived from a vaccinated volunteer recognizes heterosubtypically a novel epitope on the hemagglutinin globular head of H1 and H9 influenza A viruses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Panthong, Sumolrat; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Phuygun, Siripaporn; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Prachasupap, Apichai; Yasugi, Mayo; Ono, Ken-ichiro; and others

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: A human monoclonal antibody against influenza virus was produced from a volunteer. The antibody was generated from the PBMCs of the volunteer using the fusion method. The antibody neutralized heterosubtypically group 1 influenza A viruses (H1 and H9). The antibody targeted a novel epitope in globular head region of the hemagglutinin. Sequences of the identified epitope are highly conserved among H1 and H9 subtypes. - Abstract: Most neutralizing antibodies elicited during influenza virus infection or by vaccination have a narrow spectrum because they usually target variable epitopes in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA). In this study, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), 5D7, that was prepared from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a vaccinated volunteer using the fusion method. The HuMAb heterosubtypically neutralizes group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H9N2, with a strong hemagglutinin inhibition activity. Selection of an escape mutant showed that the HuMAb targets a novel conformational epitope that is located in the HA head region but is distinct from the receptor binding site. Furthermore, Phe114Ile substitution in the epitope made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAb. Amino acid residues in the predicted epitope region are also highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1 and H9N2. The HuMAb reported here may be a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic/prophylactic antibodies against H1 and H9 influenza viruses.

  2. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  3. Coal fly ash and phospho-gypsum mixture as an amendment to improve rice paddy soil fertility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.B.; Ha, H.S.; Lee, C.H.; Kim, P.J.

    2008-04-15

    Rice is a plant that requires high levels of silica (Si). As a silicate NOD source to rice, coal fly ash (hereafter, fly ash), which has an alkaline pH and high available silicate and boron (B) contents, was mixed with phosphor-gypsum (hereafter, gypsum, 50%, wt wt{sup -1}), a by-product from the production of phosphate fertilizer, to improve the fly ash limitation. Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of the mixture on soil properties and rice (Oryza sativa) productivity in silt loam (SiL) and loamy sand (LS) soils to which 0 (FG 0), 20 (FG 20), 40 (FG 40), and 60 (FG 60) Mg ha{sup -1} were added. The mixture increased the amount of available silicate and exchangeable calcium (Ca) contents in the soils and the uptake of silicate by rice plant. The mixture did not result in accumulation of heavy metals in soil and an excessive uptake of heavy metals by the rice grain. The available boron content in soil increased with the mixture application levels up to 1.42 mg kg{sup -1} following the application of 60 Mg ha{sup -1} but did not show toxicity. The mixture increased significantly rice yield and showed the highest yields following the addition of 30-40 Mg ha{sup -1} in two soils. It is concluded that the fly ash and gypsum mixture could be a good source of inorganic soil amendments to restore the soil nutrient balance in rice paddy soil.

  4. Use of hazard assessments to achieve risk reduction in the USDOE Stockpile Stewardship (SS-21) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.R.; Konkel, H.; Bott, T.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; DeYoung, L.; Hockert, J.

    1995-07-01

    This paper summarizes the nuclear explosive hazard assessment activities performed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) Stockpile Stewardship Demonstration Project SS-21, better known as the ``Seamless Safety`` program. Past practice within the DOE Complex has dictated the use of a significant number of post-design/fabrication safety reviews to analyze the safety associated with operations on nuclear explosives and to answer safety questions. These practices have focused on reviewing-in or auditing-in safety vs incorporating safety in the design process. SS-21 was proposed by the DOE as an avenue to develop a program to ``integrate established, recognized, verifiable safety criteria into the process at the design stage rather than continuing the reliance on reviews, evaluations and audits.`` The entire Seamless Safety design and development process is verified by a concurrent hazard assessment (HA). The primary purpose of the SS-21 Demonstration Project HA was to demonstrate the feasibility of performing concurrent HAs as part of an engineering design and development effort and then to evaluate the use of the HA to provide an indication in the risk reduction or gain in safety achieved. To accomplish this objective, HAs were performed on both baseline (i.e., old) and new (i.e. SS-21) B61-0 Center Case Section disassembly processes. These HAs were used to support the identification and documentation of weapon- and process-specific hazards and safety-critical operating steps. Both HAs focused on identifying accidents that had the potential for worker injury, public health effects, facility damage, toxic gas release, and dispersal of radioactive materials. A comparison of the baseline and SS-21 process risks provided a semi-quantitative estimate of the risk reduction gained via the Seamless Safety process.

  5. Mass Spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Analysis of Biological Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    2014-12-01

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55% (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the eight week study, cecal and distal-colon contents samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal-colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

  6. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ruth Patrick - Myers Branch Set-Aside Meyers Branch is a second order stream whose watershed encompasses 12,565 acres (5,085 ha), approximately one half of the Steel Creek drainage. The boundaries of this Set-Aside were delineated and marked to include Meyers Branch and its tributaries, their associated 100-year floodplain and hydric soils, the most erodible adjacent slopes (15% or steeper slopes), and all upland hardwood and mixed species stands that are connected to the drainage. As a

  7. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Whipple/OHER Study Site This Set-Aside Area is 183.6 acres (74.3 ha) and is found within a fourth order reach segment of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC). This Set-Aside represents one of seven long-term vegetation study areas on the SRS. The site was named for its use in the Whipple-Good vegetation studies of the early 1980s, and in SREL's stream ecology studies for the DOE-HQ-Ofiice of Health, Environment, and Research (OHER). This site is representative of black gum-red bay (Nyssa

  8. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Craig's Pond and Sarracenia Bay Sarracenia Bay (upper left) and Craig's Pond The 142.9-acre (57.84 ha) Craig’s Pond and Sarracenia Bay Set-Aside contains the paired Craig’s Pond and Sarracenia Bay which are semi-permanent, open-water, aquatic/herbaceous Carolina bays. A partial 200 m buffer area comprised of natural and recently planted plantation pines, mixed pine/hardwoods, and sandhill scrub oak/pine communities surrounds these bays. Craig’s Pond is one of the largest true bays on the SRS,

  9. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boiling Springs Natural Area The Boiling Springs Natural Area is a small stand (approximately 8.46 acres; 3.42 ha) found within the poorly drained, alluvial floodplain of Lower Three Runs Creek. The Area is comprised of a once disturbed (cut-over), upland forest component and an undisturbed, mixed bottomland component that contains a remnant old-growth element with large, mature loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), some more than 200 years old. This Set-Aside represents a small remnant of climax forest

  10. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Georgia Old Laboratory Site This 113.1-acre (45.8 ha) Set-Aside Area, adjacent to the former location of the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, is one of the original ten SREL habitat reserves and was selected to complement the old-field habitat/plant succession studies at Field 3-412 (Area #1) and Field 3-409 (Area #28). This relatively disturbed Set-Aside provided field study sites where manipulative research could be carried out on old-fields and radioecology experiments could

  11. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thunder Bay This 82.2-acre (33.3 ha) Set-Aside is comprised of the semi-permanent, open-water, herbaceous Carolina bay Thunder Bay and a partial 200-m buffer area containing different species and ages of plantation pines. Within the buffer area are small inclusions of mixed pine/hardwood and bottomland hardwood communities. Thunder Bay is an isolated, intact Carolina bay which supports aquatic and herbaceous vegetation due to its extended hydroperiod. It is more semi-permanent than temporary and

  12. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flamingo Bay The 165.8-acre (67 ha) Flamingo Bay Set-Aside Area is a relatively undisturbed, intact Carolina bay with a buffer area that is forested with different-aged pine plantations. Within the context of the SRS landscape, Flamingo Bay is one of the few true Carolina bays that infrequently experiences a complete draw down. As a Set-Aside, this Area represents an isolated, semi-permanent rather than temporary, wetland pond. It is unique both for its lack of historical ditching and for the

  13. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dry Bay The 91.4-acre (37 ha) Dry Bay Set-Aside is comprised of the largely open-water Dry Bay and a partial 200-m buffer area of both relatively undisturbed and recently reforested pine plantations. Also within the buffer area are small inclusions of upland and bottomland hardwood communities. The Dry Bay Set-Aside represents a semi-permanent, herbaceous bay wetland with an extended hydroperiod. It is recognized by research ecologists at SREL as an important refuge for many aquatic and

  14. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Road 6 Bay This 83.7-acre (33.9 ha) Set-Aside is comprised of the largely forested bay-like depression Road 6 Bay and a partial 200-m buffer of different-aged pine plantations. Road 6 Bay is not a true Carolina bay and therefore is difficult to define in terms of basin size and morphology. Rather than an isolated wetland depression, this possible streamhead depression has been altered with historical ditching but appears to have had a natural connection to Indian Grave Branch, a tributary of Pen

  15. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    09 This small 14.2-acre (5.8 ha) relatively disturbed, rectangularly-shaped Set-Aside is comprised of a section of an abandoned field (agricultural field numbered 3-409 in 1951) and a strip of mixed pines bordering Road 2.The section of Field 3-409 contained within this Set-Aside has undergone plant community succession from an herbaceous old-field in 1951 to a present day pine forest habitat. The Field 3-409 Set-Aside represents an abandoned, old-field community that has undergone natural

  16. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site This relatively undisturbed 66.2 acre (26.8 ha) Set-Aside is one of the original ten SREL habitat reserves which presently is a forest dominated by turkey oak (Quercus laevis) and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris). This mixed species sandhills habitat is situated on infertile, poor-to-marginally productive soils, a habitat type that once was common to the Aiken Plateau as well as the SRS. However, forest type conversion to longleaf pine plantations has reduced this community type to isolated

  17. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Loblolly Pine Stand The 22-acre (8.9 ha) Loblolly Pine Stand Set-Aside is one of the original ten SREL habitat reserve areas which were selected to complement the old-field habitat/plant succession studies at Field 3-412 (Area #1) and Field 3-409 (Area #28). Known to researchers as Field 9-111, this Area is a small, square-shaped Set-Aside which has undergone secondary successsion for the past 46 years. Presently, the Loblolly Pine Stand Set-Aside is an undisturbed pine forest. Unlike Field

  18. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beech-Hardwood Forest As one of the original habitat reserves, this 119-acre (48.2 ha) Set-Aside was selected to represent bottomland floodplain and ravine forest habitats associated with the lower reaches of the relatively nonimpacted Upper Three Runs Creek. This Area is unique because some of the tree species found here are not common in the Coastal Plain and are more likely to be found in the Piedmont or Mountain physiographic provinces. This Area also has a small number of beech trees (Fagus

  19. NREL Engineers Look for a Cool Way to Make AC Units an Affordable Snap -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Feature | NREL Engineers Look for a Cool Way to Make AC Units an Affordable Snap June 21, 2016 Two men shown on opposite sides of a wall installing the EcoSnap-AC Heat Pump System NREL engineers Chuck Booten and Jon Winkler installing the components of the EcoSnap-AC. Photo by Dennis Schroeder Engineers Chuck Booten and Jon Winkler experienced their first "Ah-ha!" moment together about three years ago as they were testing window air conditioners for an Energy Department

  20. DOE-HDBK-1100-2004

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chemical Process Hazards Analysis Superseding DOE-HDBK-1100-96 (February 1996) The purpose of this handbook is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ""Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals"" (DOE-HDBK-1101-2004).

  1. Y NATIOXAL RESFARCH CORPCRATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    P Y NATIOXAL RESFARCH CORPCRATION 70 ?deacrial Drive Cambridge 42, Uassachusetts hA, IO Dr. Chsrles D. f!arringtcn Zallinckrodt Chanicol works Second and Malli.nc:nodt Streets St. Louis 7, Missouri Sear Dr. Harri..gtcnr During your visit to Natlcnal Research Ccrpcrnticn on July 16, 1949,~ yoil requastcdthat we Submit a DrCPCSd for DrB~mh? 12 in~0t.S d x-m&alto be used in the study f cllcwing program: Iib propose the I?lrpcse of 'fiork -- TW3lV3 25-pound ingot! are to be ' f;.. prepnrcd bjr

  2. Summary - SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SRS Co DOE S Proces concen actinid in a se remov adjustm sorben sorben solutio passed separa stream extract sufficie separa (with S vitrifica (DWP Sr/acti federa assure and ha Critica The te (CTE) descrip Readin The Ele Site: S roject: S F Report Date: J ited States Why DOE omposite High Lev Savannah Rive ssing Facility (S ntrate targeted des) from High eries of unit ope ved by contactin ment) with a m nt in a batch m nt (containing S on by cross flow d to a solvent e ated to an aque m. The bulk

  3. Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The ob curren plannin Dispos yield re to mod plannin to imp (4) det actual * Th th Th co no in pl * In fo op sy as di re de co an * Th en m ha ev sc The pu techni projec Site: H roject: H Report Date: S ited States valuation in Su Why DOE bjective of the r nt Process Simu ng basis for OR sition System P easonable esti del facilities cur ng or operation rove the rate o termine if addit execution of in What th he current Syst hat are limited t hese tools curr omposition, res ot meeting was itial

  4. Me. John Ki

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Me. John Ki eling , Acting Chief Ha zardous Waste Bureau Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office P. O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 JAN 131m New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive East, Building 1 Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505-6303 Subject: Notification of Results of Evaluation of Sampling Line Loss, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Revised Dear Mr. Kieling : As required under Permit Part 4, Condition 4.6 .5.5 , the Permittees are hereby notifying the New Mexico Environment

  5. p

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    . ::*.*,p ,._.: .,,, ,, . . *.:..' ..L....,E:; 6IM6OLa PPJJ68r : ' .:. .~".,, Cijitai &&&.";:" r' ;- Traigklt and Peolalmlog 0 CO.Eii/wt ton :8.030,000 Pmwirlng Coatr 0 O67.OO/dry ton @%- o.eeo.c?oo oroor coot ; .6,730,0ccl Plant fZapoltp - 61 dry too8 per day - 6 year llto Use produood 0 676$ roaomy - 180.000 pcauub Dw to the luau mount0 ot uruUwa in tba Dart and Lc)OR rorlduor tb St. laulo AM-7 uterlrl ha8 beomo lnoro8oinglp important in the wart0 rorldw plotwa.

  6. A=10C (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10C) GENERAL: See also (1984AJ01) and Table 10.18 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations: (1984SA37, 1987BL18). Special states: (1986AB10). Astrophysical questions: (1987RA1D). Complex reactions involving 10C: (1983FR1A, 1983OL1A, 1986HA1B, 1987AR19, 1987BEYI, 1987RI03, 1987SN01, 1987TAZU, 1988BEYJ, 1988CA06, 1988KI05, 1988SA19). Reactions involving pions and other mesons (See also reactions 2 and 4.): (1985LI1E, 1987SI18). Other

  7. Economic consequences of land surface subsidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, L.C.

    1981-06-01

    Overdraft in the Santa Clara Valley, Calif., groundwater basin caused land surface subsidence over an area of 63,000 ha with a maximum depression of 3.6 m from 1912-67. Since cessation of overdraft and replenishment of groundwater levels in 1969, there has been no significant land surface subsidence. During the period of active subsidence, water well casings buckled, sewers lost capacity as a result of changes in slope, and roads and railroads had to be raised. These damages are estimated at over $130 million. (1 graph, 1 map, 6 photos, 2 references, 1 table)

  8. Process analysis and economics of biophotolysis of water. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benemann, J.R.

    1998-03-31

    This report is a preliminary cost analysis of the biophotolysis of water and was prepared as part of the work of Annex 10 of the IEA Hydrogen agreement. Biophotolysis is the conversion of water and solar energy to hydrogen and oxygen using microalgae. In laboratory experiments at low light intensities, algal photosynthesis and some biophotolysis reactions exhibit highlight conversion efficiencies that could be extrapolated to about 10% solar efficiencies if photosynthesis were to saturate at full sunlight intensities. The most promising approach to achieving the critical goal of high conversion efficiencies at full sunlight intensities, one that appears within the capabilities of modern biotechnology, is to genetically control the pigment content of algal cells such that the photosynthetic apparatus does not capture more photons than it can utilize. A two-stage indirect biophotolysis system was conceptualized and general design parameters extrapolated. The process comprises open ponds for the CO{sub 2}fixation stage, an algal concentration step, a dark adaptation and fermentation stage, and a closed tubular photobioreactor in which hydrogen production would take place. A preliminary cost analysis for a 200 hectare (ha) system, including 140 ha of open algal ponds and 14 ha of photobioreactors was carried out. The cost analysis was based on prior studies for algal mass cultures for fuels production and a conceptual analysis of a hypothetical photochemical processes, as well as the assumption that the photobioreactors would cost about $100/m(sup 2). Assuming a very favorable location, with 21 megajoules (MJ)/m{sup 2} total insolation, and a solar conversion efficiency of 10% based on CO{sub 2} fixation in the large algal ponds, an overall cost of $10/gigajoule (GJ) is projected. Of this, almost half is due to the photobioreactors, one fourth to the open pond system, and the remainder to the H{sub 2} handling and general support systems. It must be cautioned that

  9. 10C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C β+-Decay Evaluated Data Measurements for Superallowed Beta Decay 1975HA45: 10C; calculated ft for known superallowed β decays. 1988BA55: 10C(β+); measured Eγ, Iγ; deduced Q(β+). Superallowed beta decay. 1989BA28: 10C(β+); measured Eγ; deduced Qβ. 10B superallowed deduced transition Eγ. 1991KR19: 10C(β+); measured Eγ Iγ, β-delayed γ deduced superallowed β-decay branching ratio. 1991NA01: 10C(β+); measured Eγ Iγ; log ft. 1991RA09: 10C; calculated radiative corrections to

  10. 14O

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    O β+-Decay Evaluated Data Measurements for Superallowed Beta Decay 1965KAZX: 14O. 1975HA45: 14O; calculated ft for superallowed β decays. 1978WI04: 14O; measured T1/2; deduced ft values. 1981WH03: 14O(β+); deduced Q. 14O deduced Qβ, radiative corrected ft. 2003TO03: 14N(p, n); deduced threshold energies. 14O deduced Q(EC) for superallowed decay. 2003TO29: 14O(EC); compiled, analyzed superallowed decays Q-values, T1/2, log ft, related data; deduced Vμd matrix element. 2004BA78: 14O(β+);

  11. CSER 00-001 Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for Cementation Operations at the PFP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-04-18

    Glovebox HA-20MB is located in Room 235B of the 234-5Z Building at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. This enclosure contains mixers, mixer bowls, a crusher unit, an isolated inoperable conveyor unit, plutonium residue feed cans, cemented cans, and a feedwater container. Plutonium residue, not conducive to other forms of stabilization, is prepared for storage and ultimate disposal by cementation. The feed residue material cans can have plutonium contents of only a few grams or up to 200 grams. This evaluation accommodates this wide range of container fissile concentrations.

  12. Superconductivity Program Overview High-Temperature Superconductivity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SuperconducTiviTy program haS Three FocuS areaS: SuperconducTiviTy applicaTionS Developing HTS-based electric power equipment such as transmission and distribution cables and fault current limiters Second-generaTion Wire developmenT Developing high-performance, low-cost, second- generation HTS wire at long lengths STraTegic reSearch Supporting fundamental research activities to better understand relationships between the microstructure of HTS materials and their ability to carry large electric

  13. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) species for biofuel production on semi-arid lands. Final report, April 1, 1978-March 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felker, P; Cannell, G H; Clark, P R; Osborn, J F; Nash, P

    1985-01-01

    Arid adapted nitrogen fixing trees and shrubs of the genus Prosopis (mesquite) have been examined for woody biomass production on semi-arid lands of southwestern United States. A germ-plasm collection of 900 accessions from North and South America and Africa was assembled. Field studies screening for biomass production, frost tolerance, response to irrigation, pod production and heat/drought tolerance involved a total of 80 accessions. Selections made from survivors of coal/frost screening trial had more frost tolerance and biomass productivity than prostrate selections from the ranges of Arizona, New Mexico and west Texas. Thirteen Prosopis species were found to nodulate, reduce acetylene to ethylene, and grow on a nitrogen free media in greenhouse experiments. The salinity tolerance of six Prosopis species was examined on a nitrogen free media in greenhouse experiments. No reduction in growth occurred for any species tested at a salinity of 6000 mg NaC1/L which is considered too saline for normal agricultural crops. Individual trees have grown 5 to 7 cm in basal diameter, and 2.0 to 3.7 meters in height per year and have achieved 50 kg oven dry weight per tree in 2 years with 600 mm water application per year. Vegetative propagation techniques have been developed and clones of these highly productive trees have been made. Small pilots on 1.5 x 1.5 m spacing in the California Imperial Valley had a first and second season dry matter production of 11.7 and 16.9 T/ha for P. chilensis (0009), 7.1 and 6.9 T/ha for P. glandulosa var. torreyana (0001), 9.8 and 19.2 T/ha for P. alba (0039) and 7.9 and 14.5 T/ha for progency of a California ornamental (0163). The projected harvested costs of $25.00 per oven dry ton or $1.50 per million Btu's compare favorable with coal and other alternative fuel sources in South Texas.

  14. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-INL-12-016.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    No.: DOE-ID-INL-12-016 SECTION A. Project Title: Reverse Osmosis System Removal SECTION B. Project Description: The project will remove a reverse osmosis water treatment system (FU-HA-101) from TAN 681 room 182. The system is out-of-service, with no intent of future use. Work will involve removal of the reverse osmosis system, and associated plumbing/piping and electrical lines and conduit. The project will clear the area of obstacles and tripping hazards associated with unused/unnecessary

  15. Reexamination of Lead(II) Coordination Preferences in Sulfur-Rich Sites:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implications for a Critical Mechanism of Lead Poisoning Reexamination of Lead(II) Coordination Preferences in Sulfur-Rich Sites: Implications for a Critical Mechanism of Lead Poisoning T.-C. Weng, & J.E. Penner-Hahn, University of Michigan J.S. Magyar & H.A. Godwin, Northwestern University Lead poisoning can damage the brain and nervous system and is particularly dangerous for young children who are still developing. It is estimated that ~2.2% of all U.S. children aged 1-5 years

  16. So How Do THey DeciDe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Do THey DeciDe wHaT To Do aT THe iNL? nuclear energy Nuclear energy is a clean, safe, vital part of this country's energy mix. S takeholders frequently tell us they're impressed by all the nuclear research we do at the idaho National Laboratory, but they wonder why we don't do more work on renewable energy, like wind, solar and hydro. well, the answer is, we do research in those areas, but our history and our expertise is in nuclear energy research. we don't apologize for that: nuclear

  17. A=18Ne (1983AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    83AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18Ne) GENERAL: See also (1978AJ03) and Table 18.21 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1979DA15, 1979SA31, 1980ZH01). Electromagnetic transitions: (1977HA1Z, 1979SA31, 1982LA26). Special states: (1977HE18, 1978KR1G, 1979DA15, 1979SA31, 1980OK01, 1982ZH1D). Astrophysical questions: (1978WO1E). Complex reactions involving 18Ne: (1979HE1D). Pion-induced capture and reactions (See also reaction 6.): (1977PE12, 1977SP1B, 1978BU09,

  18. A=18Ne (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18Ne) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 18.22 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations:(1982ZH01, 1983BR29, 1984SA37, 1985RO1G). Special states:(1982ZH01, 1983BI1C, 1983BR29, 1984SA37, 1985RO1G, 1986AN10, 1986AN07). Electromagnetic transitions:(1982BR24, 1982RI04, 1983BR29, 1985AL21, 1986AN10). Astrophysical questions:(1982WI1B, 1987WI11). Complex reactions involving 18Ne:(1986HA1B). Pion capture and reactions (See also reaction

  19. A=19Ne (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 19Ne) GENERAL: See (1972AJ02) and Table 19.24 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Nuclear models: (1972EN03, 1972NE1B, 1972WE01, 1973DE13, 1977BU05). Electromagnetic transitions: (1972EN03, 1972LE06, 1973HA53, 1973PE09, 1977BU05). Special states: (1972EN03, 1972GA14, 1972HI17, 1972NE1B, 1972WE01, 1977BU05, 1977SC08). Complex reactions involving 19Ne: (1976HI05, 1977BU05). Astrophsyical questions: (1973CL1E). Muon capture: (1972MI11). Pion capture and

  20. A=20Mg (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (Not illustrated) 20Mg has not been observed [see, however, (1964MA44)]. The mass excess of 20Mg is calculated to be 17.509 ± 0.002 MeV (using the senority scheme) and 17.510 ± 0.002 MeV (using the supermultiplet scheme). 20Mg would then be stable with respect to breakup into 19Na + p by 2.75 MeV (1969HA38). See also (1962GO1B, 1964GA1C, 1964GO1G, 1966GO1B, 1966GO1K, 1966KE16

  1. 20F

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Neutron Capture Evaluated Data Measurements 1967RA24: 19F(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ; deduced Q. 1968SP01: 19F(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ, Iγ; deduced Q. 20F deduced levels, branchings. 1969HA04: 19F(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ, Iγ; deduced Q. 20F deduced levels, γ-branching. 1970SP02: 19F(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ, Iγ; deduced Q. 1972OP01: 19F(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ, Iγ; deduced Q. 1974ISZX: 19F(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ, Iγ. 20F

  2. 0. Y, ooopw

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Y, ooopw $letaIlurgical Haboratorp Irmqueat drosaing nor did It fill up* Althacgh it rpa roawnlmt ocarae, lt somod to give the best rentltr of any w hd trld. It mar l oar- bonmdullwbee1mrmbara6a3. Ontkyl8, aaae rhort plooer ofrod 2 um indhokr wro poundrt~ok prollaimry to oladdlzgdth atao Onyhy 25, ' 01110 S foottubm W I-. l oourotely ground et Olobeto b okd dthelllmimm. For N00.00~1 Ohtdhl& OXpUiWW ha &WI3 tbt tb tuba should not or bo out of round mom than about .002". 6 foot tube

  3. I,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ;. i I, .;-' T, f !tWs doccmct ccnciste of J&--a, ; . No. 18 of y8 copies, Se&a,. , ! :, , ! . : TO I B. L. Kirk, Dlreotor. Production Dioision DATS: Kay Zr) 1953 FROM I F' 1NAL DETERMINATION SUBJECT: SUMiATION OF WASTE FfRSIm, A rampling program for variouo waste reaiduea looated at Mm and Ha1e.t aites (GlS, L-SO, L-50, P-78, R-10 and R-lO(Pe) wan oonduoted " between Deoember 1. 1962 and January 22, 1953. The purpose of the sampling program was to: ,l. Provide the Chemioal

  4. IO6490

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    1 ' f. (5 4 . . i/ IO6490 ~-~~ -Landfill, ' cleanup plan' is. expected by August peruneat OfEnergy tiy they hope mlxa~~amfari~cclcanupplan for four radioactive oitcs m the puwn of Tonawanda by early e- naidE.%rk,DOEsitcman- ~a,saidalltkrexarchandtech- fucd data cdkted at ctkc four 6ilc5 ha3 been forwarded ti his suptx.iors In WashingronJC. ' when it still awaits We' re still wal r .f$, co* liar iEP-+-* 6adMr. Wehmdaiinourd0cum8nu in February .bur unfommuely them' s a group in Wnshington we.

  5. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Chemistry | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Chemistry Vapor-liquid equilibria for nitric acid-water and plutonium nitrate-nitric acid-water solutions Maimoni, A. (1980) 101 A kinetic study of methanol synthesis in a slurry reactor using a CuO/ZnO/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalyst Al-Adwani, H.A. (1992) 97 Aqueous electrolyte modeling in ASPEN PLUS{trademark} Bloomingburg, G.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical

  6. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information 5 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Dr. Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet (2003) 184 A kinetic study of methanol synthesis in a slurry reactor using a CuO/ZnO/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalyst Al-Adwani, H.A. (1992) 97 Practical hot oiling and hot watering for paraffin control Mansure, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]; Barker, K.M.

  7. Most Viewed Documents - Geosciences | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information - Geosciences Temperature Profiles and Hydrologic Implications from the Nevada Test Site David Gillespie (2005) 3-D full waveform inversion of seismic data; Part I. Theory Lee, Ki Ha (2003) Drilling and coring methods that minimize the disturbance of cuttings, core, and rock formation in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; McDaniel, J.C. (1985) CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O mixtures in the geologic sequestration of CO{sub

  8. Reduction of metastasis, cell invasion, and adhesion in mouse osteosarcoma by YM529/ONO-5920-induced blockade of the Ras/MEK/ERK and Ras/PI3K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Satou, Takao; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Ogaki, Mitsuhiko; Yanae, Masashi; Depeartment of Pharmacy, Sakai Hospital, Kinki University School of Medicine, Sakai, Osaka 590-0132 ; Nishida, Shozo

    2012-03-15

    Osteosarcoma is one of the most common primary malignant bone tumors in children and adolescents. Some patients continue to have a poor prognosis, because of the metastatic disease. YM529/ONO-5920 is a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that has been used for the treatment of osteoporosis. YM529/ONO-5920 has recently been reported to induce apoptosis in various tumors including osteosarcoma. However, the mode of metastasis suppression in osteosarcoma by YM529/ONO-5920 is unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether YM529/ONO-5920 inhibited tumor cell migration, invasion, adhesion, or metastasis in the LM8 mouse osteosarcoma cell line. We found that YM529/ONO-5920 significantly inhibited metastasis, cell migration, invasion, and adhesion at concentrations that did not have antiproliferative effects on LM8 cells. YM529/ONO-5920 also inhibited the mRNA expression and protein activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In addition, YM529/ONO-5920 suppressed phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and the serine/threonine protein kinase B (Akt) by the inhibition of Ras prenylation. Moreover, U0126, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, and LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, also inhibited LM8 cell migration, invasion, adhesion, and metastasis, as well as the mRNA expression and protein activities of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP. The results indicated that YM529/ONO-5920 suppressed the Ras/MEK/ERK and Ras/PI3K/Akt pathways, thereby inhibiting LM8 cell migration, invasion, adhesion, and metastasis. These findings suggest that YM529/ONO-5920 has potential clinical applications for the treatment of tumor cell metastasis in osteosarcoma. -- Highlights: ? We investigated whether YM529/ONO-5920 inhibited tumor metastasis in osteosarcoma. ? YM529/ONO-5920 inhibited metastasis, cell migration, invasion, and adhesion. ? YM529/ONO-5920 suppressed Ras signalings. ? YM529/ONO-5920 has

  9. SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky Way Galaxy, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Agol, Eric; Aihara, Hiroaki; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Anderson, Scott F.; Arns, James A.; Aubourg, Eric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barkhouser, Robert; /Johns Hopkins U. /Michigan State U.

    2011-01-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Ly{alpha} forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature of large scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z < 0.7 and at z {approx} 2.5. SEGUE-2, a now-completed continuation of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration, measured medium-resolution (R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} 1800) optical spectra of 118,000 stars in a variety of target categories, probing chemical evolution, stellar kinematics and substructure, and the mass profile of the dark matter halo from the solar neighborhood to distances of 100 kpc. APOGEE, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment, will obtain high-resolution (R {approx} 30,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N {ge} 100 per resolution element), H-band (1.51 {micro}m < {lambda} < 1.70 {micro}m) spectra of 10{sup 5} evolved, late-type stars, measuring separate abundances for {approx} 15 elements per star and creating the first high-precision spectroscopic survey of all Galactic stellar populations (bulge, bar, disks, halo) with a uniform set of stellar tracers and spectral diagnostics. The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor radial velocities of more than 8000 FGK stars with the sensitivity and cadence (10-40 m s{sup -1}, {approx} 24 visits per star) needed to detect giant planets with periods up to two years, providing an unprecedented data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of January 2011, SDSS-III has obtained

  10. Growth and luminescent properties of scintillators based on the single crystalline films of Lu{sub 3−x}Gd{sub x}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce garnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zorenko, Yu; Gorbenko, V.; Vasylkiv, Ja; Zelenyj, A.; Fedorov, A.; Kucerkova, R.; Mares, J.A.; Nikl, M.; Bilski, P.; Twardak, A.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Single crystalline films of Lu{sub 3−x}Gd{sub x}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} garnets at x = 0 ÷ 3.0 were grown by LPE method onto YAG substrates. • Lattice constant of Lu{sub 3−}Gd{sub x}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce film and the misfit m between films and YAG substrate changed linearly with increasing of Gd content. • Effective Gd{sup 3+}–Ce{sup 3+} energy transfer occurs in the Lu{sub 3−x}Gd{sub x}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce films. • Best scintillation light yield is observed in the Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce and Lu{sub 2.4}Gd{sub 0.6}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce films. • Increase of the Gd content in x = 1.5–2.5 range results in decreasing the scintillation LY of Lu{sub 3−x}Gd{sub x}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce films. - Abstract: The work is related to the growth of scintillators based on the single crystalline films (SCF) of Ce{sup 3+} doped Lu{sub 3−}Gd{sub x}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} mixed rare-earth garnets by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) method. We have shown, that full set of Lu{sub 3−}Gd{sub x}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} SCFs with x values ranging from 0 to 3.0 can be successfully crystallized by the LPE method onto Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) substrates from the melt-solutions based on PbO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} flux. The absorption, X-ray excited luminescence, photoluminescence, thermoluminescence and light yield measurements, the latter under excitation by α-particles of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am radioisotopes, were applied for their characterization.

  11. HD/H{sub 2} AS A PROBE OF THE ROLES OF GAS, DUST, LIGHT, METALLICITY, AND COSMIC RAYS IN PROMOTING THE GROWTH OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN THE DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liszt, H. S.

    2015-01-20

    We modeled recent observations of UV absorption of HD and H{sub 2} in the Milky Way and toward damped/subdamped Lyα systems at z = 0.18 and z >1.7. N(HD)/N(H{sub 2}) ratios reflect the separate self-shieldings of HD and H{sub 2} and the coupling introduced by deuteration chemistry. Locally, observations are explained by diffuse molecular gas with 16 cm{sup –3} ≲ n(H) ≲ 128 cm{sup –3} if the cosmic-ray ionization rate per H nucleus ζ {sub H} =2 × 10{sup –16} s{sup –1}, as inferred from H{sub 3} {sup +} and OH{sup +}. The dominant influence on N(HD)/N(H{sub 2}) is the cosmic-ray ionization rate with a much weaker downward dependence on n(H) at solar metallicity, but dust extinction can drive N(HD) higher as with N(H{sub 2}). At z > 1.7, N(HD) is comparable to the Galaxy but with 10 times smaller N(H{sub 2}) and somewhat smaller N(H{sub 2})/N(H I). Comparison of our Galaxy with the Magellanic Clouds shows that smaller H{sub 2}/H is expected at subsolar metallicity, and we show by modeling that HD/H{sub 2} increases with density at low metallicity, opposite to the Milky Way. Observations of HD would be explained with higher n(H) at low metallicity, but high-z systems have high HD/H{sub 2} at metallicity 0.04 ≲ Z ≲ 2 solar. In parallel, we trace dust extinction and self-shielding effects. The abrupt H{sub 2} transition to H{sub 2}/H ≈ 1%-10% occurs mostly from self-shielding, although it is assisted by extinction for n(H) ≲ 16 cm{sup –3}. Interior H{sub 2} fractions are substantially increased by dust extinction below ≲ 32 cm{sup –3}. At smaller n(H), ζ {sub H}, small increases in H{sub 2} triggered by dust extinction can trigger abrupt increases in N(HD)

  12. Strong chromatic microlensing in HE00471756 and SDSS1155+6346

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rojas, K.; Motta, V.; Mediavilla, E.; Jimnez-Vicente, J.; Muoz, J. A. E-mail: veronica.motta@uv.cl E-mail: falco@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jmunoz@uv.es

    2014-12-10

    We use spectra of the double-lensed quasars HE00471756 and SDSS1155+6346 to study their unresolved structure through the impact of microlensing. There is no significant evidence of microlensing in the emission line profiles except for the Ly? line of SDSS1155+6346, which shows strong differences in the shapes for images A and B. However, the continuum of the B image spectrum in SDSS1155+6346 is strongly contaminated by the lens galaxy, and these differences should be considered with caution. Using the flux ratios of the emission lines for image pairs as a baseline to remove macro-magnification and extinction, we have detected strong chromatic microlensing in the continuum measured by CASTLES (www.cfa.harvard.edu/castles/) in both lens systems, with amplitudes 0.09(?16000) ? |?m| ? 0.8(?5439) for HE00471756, and 0.2(?16000) ? |?m| ? 0.8(?5439) for SDSS1155+6346. Using magnification maps to simulate microlensing and modeling the accretion disk as a Gaussian source (I ? exp(R {sup 2}/2r {sub s}{sup 2})) of size r {sub s} ? ? {sup p}, we find r {sub s} = 2.5{sub ?1.4}{sup +3.0} ?(M/0.3M{sub ?}) lt-day and p = 2.3 0.8 at the rest frame for ? = 2045 for HE00471756 (log prior) and r {sub s} = 5.5{sub ?3.3}{sup +8.2} ?(M/0.3M{sub ?}) lt-day and p = 1.5 0.6 at the rest frame of ? = 1398 for SDSS1155+6346 (log prior). Contrary to other studied lens systems, the chromaticity detected in HE00471756 and SDSS1155+6346 is large enough to fulfill the thin disk prediction. The inferred sizes, however, are very large compared to the predictions of this model, especially in the case of SDSS1155+6346.

  13. PHOTOMETRIC CONSTRAINTS ON THE REDSHIFT OF z {approx} 10 CANDIDATE UDFj-39546284 FROM DEEPER WFC3/IR+ACS+IRAC OBSERVATIONS OVER THE HUDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Labbe, I.; Franx, M.; Smit, R.; Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; Gonzalez, V.; Brammer, G.; Spitler, L. R.; Trenti, M.; Carollo, C. M.

    2013-03-01

    Ultra-deep WFC3/IR observations on the HUDF from the HUDF09 program revealed just one plausible z {approx} 10 candidate, UDFj-39546284. UDFj-39546284 had all the properties expected of a galaxy at z {approx} 10 showing (1) no detection in the deep ACS+WFC3 imaging data blueward of the F160W band, exhibiting (2) a blue spectral slope redward of the break, and showing (3) no prominent detection in deep IRAC observations. The new, similarly deep WFC3/IR HUDF12 F160W observations over the HUDF09/XDF allow us to further assess this candidate. These observations show that this candidate, previously only detected at {approx}5.9{sigma} in a single band, clearly corresponds to a real source. It is detected at {approx}5.3{sigma} in the new H{sub 160}-band data and at {approx}7.8{sigma} in the full 85-orbit H{sub 160}-band stack. Interestingly, the non-detection of the source (<1{sigma}) in the new F140W observations suggests a higher redshift. Formally, the best-fit redshift of the source utilizing all the WFC3+ACS (and IRAC+K{sub s} -band) observations is 11.8 {+-} 0.3. However, we consider the z {approx} 12 interpretation somewhat unlikely, since the source would either need to be {approx}20 Multiplication-Sign more luminous than expected or show very high-EW Ly{alpha} emission (which seems improbable given the extensive neutral gas prevalent early in the reionization epoch). Lower-redshift solutions fail if only continuum models are allowed. Plausible lower-redshift solutions require that the H{sub 160}-band flux be dominated by line emission such as H{alpha} or [O III] with extreme EWs. The tentative detection of line emission at 1.6 {mu}m in UDFj-39546284 in a companion paper suggests that such emission may have already been found.

  14. CO AND H{sub 2} ABSORPTION IN THE AA TAURI CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    France, Kevin; Burgh, Eric B.; Schindhelm, Eric; Brown, Alexander; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Yang, Hao; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Abgrall, Herve; Roueff, Evelyne; Brown, Joanna M.

    2012-01-01

    The direct study of molecular gas in inner protoplanetary disks is complicated by uncertainties in the spatial distribution of the gas, the time variability of the source, and the comparison of observations across a wide range of wavelengths. Some of these challenges can be mitigated with far-ultraviolet spectroscopy. Using new observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, we measure column densities and rovibrational temperatures for CO and H{sub 2} observed on the line of sight through the AA Tauri circumstellar disk. CO A - X absorption bands are observed against the far-UV continuum. The CO absorption is characterized by log{sub 10}(N({sup 12}CO)) = 17.5 {+-} 0.5 cm{sup -2} and T{sub rot}(CO) = 500{sup +500}{sub -200} K, although this rotational temperature may underestimate the local kinetic temperature of the CO-bearing gas. We also detect {sup 13}CO in absorption with an isotopic ratio of {approx}20. We do not observe H{sub 2} absorption against the continuum; however, hot H{sub 2} (v > 0) is detected in absorption against the Ly{alpha} emission line. We measure the column densities in eight individual rovibrational states, determining a total log{sub 10}(N(H{sub 2})) = 17.9{sup +0.6}{sub -0.3} cm{sup -2} with a thermal temperature of T(H{sub 2}) = 2500{sup +800}{sub -700} K. The high temperature of the molecules, the relatively small H{sub 2} column density, and the high inclination of the AA Tauri disk suggest that the absorbing gas resides in an inner disk atmosphere. If the H{sub 2} and CO are cospatial within a molecular layer {approx}0.6 AU thick, this region is characterized by {approx} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} with an observed (CO/H{sub 2}) ratio of {approx}0.4. We also find evidence for a departure from a purely thermal H{sub 2} distribution, suggesting that excitation by continuum photons and H{sub 2} formation may be altering the level populations in the molecular gas.

  15. ALMA observation of 158 μm [C II] line and dust continuum of a z = 7 normally star-forming galaxy in the epoch of reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ota, Kazuaki; Walter, Fabian; Da Cunha, Elisabete; González-López, Jorge; Decarli, Roberto; Hodge, Jacqueline A.; Ohta, Kouji; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Nagai, Hiroshi; Iye, Masanori; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Carilli, Chris L.; Egami, Eiichi; Jiang, Linhua; Riechers, Dominik A.; Bertoldi, Frank; Cox, Pierre; Neri, Roberto; Weiss, Axel

    2014-09-01

    We present ALMA observations of the [C II] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum of a normally star-forming galaxy in the reionization epoch, the z = 6.96 Lyα emitter (LAE) IOK-1. Probing to sensitivities of σ{sub line} = 240 μJy beam{sup –1} (40 km s{sup –1} channel) and σ{sub cont} = 21 μJy beam{sup –1}, we found the galaxy undetected in both [C II] and continuum. Comparison of ultraviolet (UV)-FIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of IOK-1, including our ALMA limit, with those of several types of local galaxies (including the effects of the cosmic microwave background, CMB, on the FIR continuum) suggests that IOK-1 is similar to local dwarf/irregular galaxies in SED shape rather than highly dusty/obscured galaxies. Moreover, our 3σ FIR continuum limit, corrected for CMB effects, implies intrinsic dust mass M {sub dust} < 6.4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, FIR luminosity L {sub FIR} < 3.7 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} (42.5-122.5 μm), total IR luminosity L {sub IR} < 5.7 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} (8-1000 μm), and dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) < 10 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, if we assume that IOK-1 has a dust temperature and emissivity index typical of local dwarf galaxies. This SFR is 2.4 times lower than one estimated from the UV continuum, suggesting that <29% of the star formation is obscured by dust. Meanwhile, our 3σ [C II] flux limit translates into [C II] luminosity, L {sub [C} {sub II]} < 3.4 × 10{sup 7} L {sub ☉}. Locations of IOK-1 and previously observed LAEs on the L {sub [C} {sub II]} versus SFR and L {sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub FIR} versus L {sub FIR} diagrams imply that LAEs in the reionization epoch have significantly lower gas and dust enrichment than AGN-powered systems and starbursts at similar/lower redshifts, as well as local star-forming galaxies.

  16. ON THE KENNICUTT-SCHMIDT RELATION OF LOW-METALLICITY HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Kravtsov, Andrey V., E-mail: gnedin@fnal.go, E-mail: andrey@oddjob.uchicago.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    We present results of self-consistent, high-resolution cosmological simulations of galaxy formation at z {approx} 3. The simulations employ a recently developed recipe for star formation based on the local abundance of molecular hydrogen, which is tracked self-consistently during the course of simulation. The phenomenological H{sub 2} formation model accounts for the effects of dissociating UV radiation of stars in each galaxy, as well as self-shielding and shielding of H{sub 2} by dust, and therefore allows us to explore effects of lower metallicities and higher UV fluxes prevalent in high-redshift galaxies on their star formation. We compare stellar masses, metallicities, and star formation rates of the simulated galaxies to available observations of the Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and find a reasonable agreement. We find that the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation exhibited by our simulated galaxies at z {approx} 3 is substantially steeper and has a lower amplitude than the z = 0 relation at {Sigma}{sub H} {approx_lt} 100 M{sub o-dot} pc{sup -2}. The predicted relation, however, is consistent with existing observational constraints for the z {approx} 3 damped Ly{alpha} and LBGs. Our tests show that the main reason for the difference from the local KS relation is lower metallicity of the interstellar medium in high-redshift galaxies. We discuss several implications of the metallicity-dependence of the KS relation for galaxy evolution and interpretation of observations. In particular, we show that the observed size of high-redshift exponential disks depends sensitively on their KS relation. Our results also suggest that significantly reduced star formation efficiency at low gas surface densities can lead to strong suppression of star formation in low-mass high-redshift galaxies and long gas consumption time scales over most of the disks in large galaxies. The longer gas consumption time scales could make disks more resilient to major and minor mergers and could help

  17. UNDERSTANDING PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES THROUGH C I FINE STRUCTURE LINES: DATA AND METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2010-10-10

    We probe the physical conditions in high-redshift galaxies, specifically, the damped Ly{alpha} systems (DLAs) using neutral carbon (C I) fine structure lines and molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}). We report five new detections of C I and analyze the C I in an additional two DLAs with previously published data. We also present one new detection of H{sub 2} in a DLA. We present a new method of analysis that simultaneously constrains both the volume density and the temperature of the gas, as opposed to previous studies that a priori assumed a gas temperature. We use only the column density of C I measured in the fine structure states and the assumption of ionization equilibrium in order to constrain the physical conditions in the gas. We present a sample of 11 C I velocity components in six DLAs and compare their properties to those derived by the global C II* technique. The resulting median values for this sample are (n(H I)) = 69 cm{sup -3}, (T) = 50 K, and (log(P/k)) = 3.86 cm{sup -3} K, with standard deviations, {sigma}{sub n(H{sub i})} = 134 cm{sup -3}, {sigma}{sub T} = 52 K, and {sigma}{sub log(P/k)} = 3.68 cm{sup -3} K. This can be compared with the integrated median values for the same DLAs: (n(H I)) = 2.8 cm{sup -3}, (T) = 139 K, and (log(P/k)) = 2.57 cm{sup -3} K, with standard deviations {sigma}{sub n(H{sub i})} = 3.0 cm{sup -3}, {sigma}{sub T} = 43 K, and {sigma}{sub log(P/k)} = 0.22 cm{sup -3} K. Interestingly, the pressures measured in these high-redshift C I clouds are similar to those found in the Milky Way. We conclude that the C I gas is tracing a higher-density, higher-pressure region, possibly indicative of post-shock gas or a photodissociation region on the edge of a molecular cloud. We speculate that these clouds may be direct probes of the precursor sites of star formation in normal galaxies at high redshift.

  18. DISCOVERY OF A STRONG LENSING GALAXY EMBEDDED IN A CLUSTER AT z = 1.62

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Kenneth C.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Papovich, Casey J.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brodwin, Mark; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Rudnick, Gregory H.; Halkola, Aleksi

    2014-07-10

    We identify a strong lensing galaxy in the cluster IRC 0218 (also known as XMM-LSS J02182–05102) that is spectroscopically confirmed to be at z = 1.62, making it the highest-redshift strong lens galaxy known. The lens is one of the two brightest cluster galaxies and lenses a background source galaxy into an arc and a counterimage. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) grism and Keck/LRIS spectroscopy, we measure the source redshift to be z {sub S} = 2.26. Using HST imaging in ACS/F475W, ACS/F814W, WFC3/F125W, and WFC3/F160W, we model the lens mass distribution with an elliptical power-law profile and account for the effects of the cluster halo and nearby galaxies. The Einstein radius is θ{sub E}=0.38{sub −0.01}{sup +0.02} arcsec (3.2{sub −0.1}{sup +0.2} kpc) and the total enclosed mass is M {sub tot}(<θ{sub E})=1.8{sub −0.1}{sup +0.2}×10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙}. We estimate that the cluster environment contributes ∼10% of this total mass. Assuming a Chabrier initial mass function (IMF), the dark matter fraction within θ{sub E} is f{sub DM}{sup Chab}=0.3{sub −0.3}{sup +0.1}, while a Salpeter IMF is marginally inconsistent with the enclosed mass (f{sub DM}{sup Salp}=−0.3{sub −0.5}{sup +0.2}). The total magnification of the source is μ{sub tot}=2.1{sub −0.3}{sup +0.4}. The source has at least one bright compact region offset from the source center. Emission from Lyα and [O III] are likely to probe different regions in the source.

  19. Specific suppression of the in vitro parent anti-hybrid reaction. II. Parameters influencing suppressor cell induction in the F1 hybrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosmatopoulos, K.; Orbach-Arbouys, S.

    1987-02-01

    In the accompanying paper we have reported that the spleens of B6D2F1 hybrids pretreated with B6 spleen cells 7 days earlier contain a cell which specifically suppresses the in vitro proliferative and cytotoxic B6 anti-B6D2F1 responses. The results we present here concern the in vivo conditions under which this suppressor cell can be induced. Suppressor cell activity appears early after the injection of B6 spleen cells (day +1), increases on Day 7, and disappears by Day 30; it is always detectable after the injection of 5 X 10(7) B6 spleen cells and never after the injection of 1.25 X 10(7) cells, the intermediate dose of 2.5 X 10(7) cells being followed by variable results. This variability is attributable to the age of B6 donor and B6D2F1 recipient mice, and suppression is never observed when 2.5 X 10(7) spleen cells from 6-week-old B6 mice are injected into 6-week-old B6D2F1 hybrids. The suppressor cell is induced by the injection of B6 spleen cells of the Thy-1+ Ly-1-2+ phenotype, even if they are irradiated at 1000 R just before their injection. Lymph node cells from B6 mice induce the suppressor cell, whereas thymocytes do not. Irradiation of B6D2F1 hybrids at 600 or 950 R does not prevent the induction of suppressor cell, nor does thymectomy. Moreover, in the thymectomized or 600 R-irradiated B6D2F1 animals suppression can be induced even by the injection of only 1.25 X 10(7) B6 spleen cells. This phenomenon of specific suppression is not limited to the B6-B6D2F1 genetic combination since it has been observed in all parent-hybrid combinations tested to date.

  20. HST/COS OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUASAR HE 2347-4342: PROBING THE EPOCH OF He II PATCHY REIONIZATION AT REDSHIFTS z = 2.4-2.9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shull, J. Michael; France, Kevin; Danforth, Charles W.; Smith, Britton [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Tumlinson, Jason, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.ed, E-mail: danforth@casa.colorado.ed, E-mail: kevin.france@colorado.ed, E-mail: britton.smith@colorado.ed, E-mail: tumlinson@stsci.ed [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2010-10-20

    We report ultraviolet spectra of the high-redshift (z{sub em} {approx} 2.9) quasar, HE 2347 - 4342, taken by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Spectra in the G130M (medium resolution, 1135-1440 A) and G140L (low resolution, 1030-2000 A) gratings exhibit patchy Gunn-Peterson absorption in the 303.78 A Ly{alpha} line of He II between z = 2.39-2.87 (G140L) and z = 2.74-2.90 (G130M). With COS, we obtain better spectral resolution, higher signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), and better determined backgrounds than previous studies, with sensitivity to abundance fractions x{sub He{sub II}} {approx} 0.01 in filaments of the cosmic web. The He II optical depths from COS are higher than those with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and range from {tau}{sub He{sub II}} {<=} 0.02 to {tau}{sub He{sub II}} {>=} 5, with a slow recovery in mean optical depth to ({tau}{sub He{sub II}}) {<=} 2 at z < 2.7. The He II/H I optical-depth ratio varies ({eta}{approx} 10-100 for 2.4 < z < 2.73 and {eta} = 5-500 for 2.75 < z < 2.89) on scales {Delta}z {approx}< 0.01 (10.8 Mpc in comoving radial distance at z = 2.8), with numerous flux-transmission windows between 1135 and 1186 A. The He II absorption extends to 1186.26 A (z = 2.905), including associated absorbers with z{sub abs} {approx} z{sub QSO} and minimal 'proximity effect' of flux transmission at the He II edge. We propose a QSO systemic redshift z{sub QSO} = 2.904 {+-} 0.002, some {Delta}z = 0.019 higher than that derived from O I {lambda}1302 emission. Three long troughs (4-10 A or 25-60 Mpc comoving distance) of strong He II absorption between z = 2.75and2.90 are uncharacteristic of the intergalactic medium if He II reionized at z{sub r} {approx} 3. Contrary to recent indirect estimates (z{sub r} = 3.2 {+-} 0.2) from H I optical depths, the epoch of He II reionization may extend to z {approx}< 2.7.