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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

FGD gypsum issues  

SciTech Connect

The article first explains how gypsum by-product is produced in flue gas desulfurization systems in coal-fired power plants. It goes on to talk about the main markets for gypsum - wallboard manufacture (Plaster of Paris), cement production and soil stabilization. In the USA in 2006 41.6 million tons of gypsum was used by manufacturers of wallboard and plaster products, 3.0 mt for cement production and 1.1 mt for agricultural purposes. A method of determining the by-product gypsum content by thermogravimetric analysis is outlined. 4 refs., 1 fig.

Buecker, B.

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Ultraslow growth rates of giant gypsum crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gypsum crystals of Naica ore mines in Chihuahua, Mexico, a challenging subject in mineral...gypsum crystals of Naica ore mines in Chihuahua, Mexico, a challenging subject...gypsum crystals of Naica ore mines in Chihuahua, Mexico, a challenging subject...

A. E. S. Van Driessche; J. M. García-Ruíz; K. Tsukamoto; L. D. Patiño-Lopez; H. Satoh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

DEFORMATIONAL KINKS IN BRUCITE AND GYPSUM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

DEFORMATIONAL KINKS IN BRUCITE AND GYPSUM Francis J. Turner Lionel...CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY DEFORMATIONAL KINKS IN BRUCITE AND GYPSUM. | DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY...cgi/georef/georef;1966012724 brucite Brucite and gypsum crystal structure...

Francis J. Turner; Lionel E. Weiss

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Ultraslow growth rates of giant gypsum crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gypsum crystals of Naica ore mines in Chihuahua, Mexico, a challenging subject in mineral...gypsum crystals of Naica ore mines in Chihuahua, Mexico, a challenging subject in...geological timescale. age anhydrite Chihuahua Mexico cooling crystal growth crystallization...

A. E. S. Van Driessche; J. M. García-Ruíz; K. Tsukamoto; L. D. Patiño-Lopez; H. Satoh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Glass Fibre Reinforced Cement and Gypsum Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

6 October 1970 research-article Glass Fibre Reinforced Cement and Gypsum Products A. J. Majumdar Glass fibre reinforced cements and gypsum plaster...discontinuous and irregular. The dispersion of glass fibre in the matrix is not easy. When chopped...

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: SIP Scheming  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SIP Scheming SIP Scheming Energy analysis and cost estimating software specifically designed for stressed skin insulating core (SSIC) panel producers; calculates results within a matter of minutes. SIP (Structural Insulated Panel) Scheming also analyzes conventional framing and frame panels, and can be used for residential or commercial building types. Keywords stressed skin insulating core panels Validation/Testing N/A Expertise Required Relatively little technical knowledge required; knowledge of ArchiCad, Excel and DOE-2 necessary to use export features. Users Beta test version available. Audience Manufacturers of stressed skin insulating core panels. Input Drawings input either by scanning or imported from a CAD program, or drawn directly using a basic set of drawing tools; construction of elements such

7

SIPS: Solar Irradiance Prediction System Stefan Achleitner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-scaling capacities of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. However, variability and uncertainty in powerSIPS: Solar Irradiance Prediction System Stefan Achleitner Computer Science and Engineering Liu and Alberto E. Cerpa Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of California, Merced

Cerpa, Alberto E.

8

Pitch based foam with particulate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

High Temperature Structural Foam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Aerospace Industry is experiencing growing demand for high performance polymer foam. The X-33 program needs structural foam insulation capable of retaining its strength over a wide range of environmental conditions. The High Speed Research Program ...

Weiser Erik S.; Baillif Faye F.; Grimsley Brian W.; Marchello Joseph M.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Gypsum, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gypsum, Colorado: Energy Resources Gypsum, Colorado: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.6469295°, -106.9517109° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.6469295,"lon":-106.9517109,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

11

Foam Processing of Textiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

limits line speed of finishing ranges, the use of foam has led to doubling of line speeds. Foam finishing has also led to reduction in the consumption of chemical agents per unit of fabric because foam finishing provides for more uniform distribution...

Bafford, R. A.; Namboodri, C. G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Structural graphitic carbon foams  

SciTech Connect

Graphitic carbon foams are a unique material form with very high structural and thermal properties at a light weight. A process has been developed to produce microcellular, open-celled graphitic foams. The process includes heating a mesophase pitch preform above the pitch melting temperature in a pressurized reactor. At the appropriate time, the pressure is released, the gas nucleates bubbles, and these bubbles grow forming the pitch into the foam structure. The resultant foamed pitch is then stabilized in an oxygen environment. At this point a rigid structure exists with some mechanical integrity. The foam is then carbonized to 800 C followed by a graphitization to 2700 C. The shear action from the growing bubbles aligns the graphitic planes along the foam struts to provide the ideal structure for good mechanical properties. Some of these properties have been characterized for some of the foam materials. It is known that variations of the blowing temperature, blowing pressure and saturation time result in foams of variously sized with mostly open pores; however, the mechanism of bubble nucleation is not known. Therefore foams were blown with various gases to begin to determine the nucleation method. These gases are comprised of a variety of molecular weights as well as a range of various solubility levels. By examining the resultant structures of the foam, differences were noted to develop an explanation of the foaming mechanism.

Kearns, K.M.; Anderson, H.J. [Air Force Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Materials and Mfg. Directorate

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

nanoFOAM  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nanoFOAM nanoFOAM nanoFOAM Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) nanoFOAM technique produces self-supporting, nanoporous metal foams. July 30, 2013 nanoFOAM In the upper left frame, the slanted U-shape with the bright spot is a resistively heated wire igniting a pellet pressed from one of our high-nitrogen transition-metal complexes. (The spot is a reflection from the window of the experimental chamber.) As the pellet rapidly burns, its volume dramatically increases as nitrogen gas released by the combustion creates nanoscopic pores in coalescing metal particles that are also released. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email nanoFOAM Applications: Nanofoams can improve the efficiencies of: Catalytic production of ammonia, sulfuric acid, fuels, plastics,

14

Use of waste gypsum to replace natural gypsum as set retarders in portland cement  

SciTech Connect

The present study is focused on clarifying the influence of waste gypsum (WG) in replacing natural gypsum (NG) in the production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). WG taken from slip casting moulds in a ceramic factory was formed from the hydration of plaster of paris. Clinker and 3-5 wt% of WG was ground in a laboratory ball mill to produce cement waste gypsum (CMWG). The same procedure was repeated with NG to substitute WG to prepare cement natural gypsum (CMNG). The properties of NG and WG were investigated via X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)/thermogravimetric (TG) to evaluate the properties of CMNG and CMWG. The mechanical properties of cement were tested in terms of setting time, flexural and compressive strength. The XRD result of NG revealed the presence of dihydrate while WG contained dihydrate and hemihydrate. The content of dihydrate and hemihydrates were obtained via DSC/TG, and the results showed that WG and NG contained 12.45% and 1.61% of hemihydrate, respectively. Furthermore, CMWG was found to set faster than CMNG, an average of 15.29% and 13.67% faster for the initial and final setting times, respectively. This was due to the presence of hemihydrate in WG. However, the values obtained for flexural and compressive strength were relatively the same for CMNG and CMWG. Therefore, this result provides evidence that WG can be used as an alternative material to NG in the production of OPC.

Chandara, Chea; Azizli, Khairun Azizi Mohd [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Ahmad, Zainal Arifin [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)], E-mail: zainal@eng.usm.my; Sakai, Etsuo [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, 2-12-1 Meguro-ku, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Development of microwave foaming method for phenolic insulation foams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many types of foams are used for thermal insulation in building, frozen food industries and LNG containment systems. Low thermal conductivity, low density and low flammability are required for thermal insulation. Among many foams, phenolic foams are preferred for thermal insulation due to its lower flammability and lower gas generation than any other polymer insulation foams. However, it takes long time to manufacture large size phenolic foams and the environmental regulation limits the use of blowing agents. Urethane foams and polystyrene foams are widely used in spite of their high flammability and toxic gas generation because conventional phenolic foams usually have higher thermal conductivity than expected. In this work, a foaming method for the resole-type phenolic foams was developed using microwave and air instead of blowing agents, and its thermal and mechanical properties were measured. From the measured results, it was found that the phenolic foams developed had low thermal conductivity and low density suitable for insulation foams.

Bu Gi Kim; Dai Gil Lee

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

WhanauSIP : a secure peer-to-peer communications platform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a novel mechanism for achieving secure and reliable peer-to-peer communications on the Internet. WhanauSIP merges a Sybil-proof distributed hash table with the session initiation protocol (SIP) to ...

Cheng, Raymond (Raymond Y.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

E-Print Network 3.0 - actively forming gypsum Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for formation of gypsum) for the reference solution... by ICP-mass spectroscopy analysis for calcium. 4. Results and discussion Gypsum scale can form due... of...

18

Properties study of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite  

SciTech Connect

This manuscript addresses treating cotton stalk fiber surface with styrene acrylic emulsion, which improves the interfacial combined state of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite effectively and improves its mechanical properties notably. Mixes less slag, ordinary Portland cement, etc., to modify gypsum base. The electron microscope was utilized to analyze and research on the effect on composite properties of the abovementioned mixtures.

Li Guozhong; Yu Yanzhen; Zhao Zhongjian; Li Jianquan; Li Changchun

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Occurrence of gypsum in Gulf coast salt domes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Occurrence of gypsum in Gulf coast salt domes Barton Donald Clinton...OF GYPSUM IN THE GULF COAST SALT DOMES. Sir: On accountof thepaucityof...concerningtheoccurrenceof gypsumandanhydriteon the salt domes. The followingremarksmay...5o-footsill of saltat 3,350feetat Palangana,possiblyalsoStrattonRidge...

Donald Clinton Barton

20

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash  

SciTech Connect

The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

Not Available

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of biodegraded oil in porous media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......investigating the SIP response of biodegraded oil...asphaltenes on the SIP response of biodegraded and...biodegraded oil to the SIP response of hydrocarbon contaminated...current in a broad frequency range typically...conduction currents (energy loss) that contain...polarization (energy storage) term which at......

Gamal Z. Abdel Aal; Estella A. Atekwana

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Nanoclay Syntactic Foam Composites.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Syntactic foams are composite materials in which the matrix phase is reinforced with hollow particles called microballoons. They possess low moisture absorption, low thermal conductivity… (more)

Peter, Sameer Leo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

SIP APIs for voice and video communications on the web  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Existing standard protocols for the web and Internet telephony fail to deliver real-time interactive communication from within a web browser. In particular, the client-server web protocol over reliable TCP is not always suitable for end-to-end low latency ... Keywords: SIP API for web communications, browser API, real-time web communication, voice and video

Carol Davids; Alan Johnston; Kundan Singh; Henry Sinnreich; Wilhelm Wimmreuter

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

A SIP-based Home Automation Platform: an Experimental Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A SIP-based Home Automation Platform: an Experimental Study Benjamin Bertran, Charles Consel INRIA the requirements of home automation; we present the resulting architecture of a home automation system; and, we to tackle the challenges of the home automation domain. In this paper we present an approach and a platform

Boyer, Edmond

25

Recycling Foam Countercurrent Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new sample injection method for foam countercurrent chromatography (CCC), named the “recycle injection system”, has been developed. ... In this recycling foam CCC system, the effluent from the liquid outlet is directly returned into the column through the sample feed line so that the sample solution is continuously recycled. ...

Hisao Oka; Masato Iwaya; Ken-ichi Harada; Makoto Suzuki; Yoichiro Ito

2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

26

Foam encapsulated targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Foam encapsulated laser-fusion targets wherein a quantity of thermonuclear fuel is embedded in low density, microcellular foam which serves as an electron conduction channel for symmetrical implosion of the fuel by illumination of the target by one or more laser beams. The fuel, such as DT, is contained within a hollow shell constructed of glass, for example, with the foam having a cell size of preferably no greater than 2 .mu.m, a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3, and external diameter of less than 200 .mu.m.

Nuckolls, John H. (Livermore, CA); Thiessen, Albert R. (Livermore, CA); Dahlbacka, Glen H. (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Foam drilling simulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although the use of compressible drilling fluids is experiencing growth, the flow behavior and stability properties of drilling foams are more complicated than those of conventional fluids. In contrast with conventional mud, the physical properties...

Paknejad, Amir Saman

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

28

U-231: Cisco ASA SIP and WebVPN Bugs Let Remote Users Deny Service |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31: Cisco ASA SIP and WebVPN Bugs Let Remote Users Deny Service 31: Cisco ASA SIP and WebVPN Bugs Let Remote Users Deny Service U-231: Cisco ASA SIP and WebVPN Bugs Let Remote Users Deny Service August 9, 2012 - 7:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Cisco ASA SIP and WebVPN Bugs Let Remote Users Deny Service PLATFORM: Version(s): ASA 5500 Series; 8.2 - 8.4 ABSTRACT: Two vulnerabilities were reported in Cisco ASA. A remote or remote authenticated user can cause denial of service conditions. reference LINKS: Release Notes for the Cisco ASA 5500 Series, 8.4(x) SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1027355 CVE-2012-2472 CVE-2012-2474 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium Discussion: Two vulnerabilities were reported in Cisco ASA. 1. On systems with SIP inspection enabled, a remote user can send specially crafted SIP traffic to cause the target device to create many identical

29

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and discusses results from Task 5 of the study ''Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,'' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. The FGD process is used to control the sulfur dioxide emissions which would result in acid rain if not controlled. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies developed for power plants involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope includes five discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The five tasks were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to evaluate gypsum produced from an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to a previous task, Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. The stack locations sampled for each task include a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. The stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested as part of this task, and was tested as part of Tasks 1 and 4. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 5 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, but the SCR was bypassed during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower, limestone reagent FGD system, with forced oxidation conducted in a reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. Gypsum fines blow down is believed to be an important variable that impacts the amount of mercury in the gypsum byproduct and possibly its stability during the wallboard process. The results of the Task 5 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 51% of the incoming mercury in the FGD gypsum was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as 2% or less each across the wet gypsum dryer and product wallboard dryer, and about 50% across the gypsum calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 3 results showed, on both a percentage and a mass basis, for gypsum produced by a power plant firing bituminous coal and also having gypsum fines blow down as part of the FGD dewatering scheme. As was seen in the Task 1 through 4 results, most of the mercury detected in the stack testing on the wet gypsum dryer and kettle calciner was in the form of elemental mercury. In the wallboard dryer kiln, a more signific

Jessica Marshall Sanderson

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Surfactant monitoring by foam generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for monitoring the presence or absence of active surfactant or other surface active agents in a solution or flowing stream based on the formation of foam or bubbles is presented. The device detects the formation of foam with a light beam or conductivity measurement. The height or density of the foam can be correlated to the concentration of the active surfactant present.

Mullen, Ken I. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Foams in porous media  

SciTech Connect

In 1978 a literature search on selective blocking of fluid flow in porous media was done by Professor S.S. Marsden and two of his graduate students, Tom Elson and Kern Huppy. This was presented as SUPRI Report No. TR-3 entitled ''Literature Preview of the Selected Blockage of Fluids in Thermal Recovery Projects.'' Since then a lot of research on foam in porous media has been done on the SUPRI project and a great deal of new information has appeared in the literature. Therefore we believed that a new, up-to-date search should be done on foam alone, one which would be helpful to our students and perhaps of interest to others. This is a chronological survey showing the development of foam flow, blockage and use in porous media, starting with laboratory studies and eventually getting into field tests and demonstrations. It is arbitrarily divided into five-year time periods. 81 refs.

Marsden, S.S.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and discusses results from the project 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production', performed at five different full-scale commercial wallboard plants. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study has been to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere at wallboard manufacturing plants when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project has been co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope included seven discrete tasks, each including a test conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different wet FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a base-case test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5,could not be conducted as planned and instead was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3. Subsequently an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced from the Task 5 FGD system, but with an additive expected to impact the stability of mercury, so Task 6 was added to the project. Finally, Task 7 was added to evaluate synthetic gypsum produced at a power plant from an additional coal type. In the project, process stacks in the wallboard plant were sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. In every task, the stack locations sampled included a gypsum dryer and a gypsum calciner. In Tasks 1 and 4 through 7, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. These results and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. The results from the project showed a wide range of percentage mercury losses from the synthetic gypsum feedstocks as measured by the Ontario Hydro method at the process stacks, ranging from 2% to 55% of the mercury in the gypsum feedstock. For the tasks exceeding 10% mercury loss across the wallboard plant, most of the loss occurred across the gypsum calciner. When total wallboard emissions remained below 10%, the primary emission location varied with a much less pronounced difference in emission between the gypsum dryer, calciner and board dryer. For all seven tasks, the majority of the mercury emissions were measured to be in the elemental form (Hg{sup 0}). Overall, the measured mercury loss mass rates ranged from 0.01 to 0.17 grams of mercury per dry ton of synthetic gypsum processed, or 0.01 to 0.4 pounds of mercury released per million square feet of wallboard produced from synthetic gypsum. The Coal Combustion Product Production and Use Survey from the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) indicate that 7,579,187 short tons of synthetic gypsum were used for wallboard production in 2006. Extrapolating the results of this study to the ACAA industry usage rate, we estimate that mercury releases from wallboard production plants in 2006 ranged between 150 to 3000 pounds for the entire U.S. wallboard industry. With only seven sets of wallboard plant measurements, it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about what variables impact the mercury loss percentages across the wallboard plants. One significant o

Jessica Sanderson

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

Structural insulated panels produced from recycled Expanded-Polystrene (EPS) foam scrap. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a research project undertaken to assess the feasibility of using scrap reground expanded polystyrene (EPS) in the manufacture of structural insulated panels (SIPs) in order to save material costs and reduce the amount of EPS waste products to be disposed. The project team, managed by Steven Winter Associates, Inc., a Norwalk, Connecticut-based building systems research and consulting firm included: Thermal Foams, Inc., a Buffalo-based manufacturer of EPS products; BASF Corp., the world`s largest producer of EPS beads; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which performed thermal tests (ASTM C-518); RADCO, Inc. which performed material properties tests: density (ASTM C-303), flexural strength (ASTM C-203), tensile strength (ASTM D-1623), and transverse load test of SIPs panels (ASTM E-72). The report documents the manufacturing and testing process and concludes that there was relatively little difference in the thermal and structural characteristics under normal loading conditions of the panels tested with varying amount of regrind (from 10% - 25%) and those made with 100% virgin beads. The report recommends that additional tests be undertaken, but suggests that, based on the test results, reground EPS can be successfully used in the cores of SIPs in amounts up to 25%.

Grinnell, A.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and discusses results from Task 6 of the study 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope now includes six discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to include testing with an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. Subsequent to conducting Task 5 under these revised conditions, an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced at the same FGD system, but with an additive (Degussa Corporation's TMT-15) being used in the FGD system. TMT-15 was expected to impact the stability of mercury in synthetic gypsum used to produce wallboard, so Task 6 was added to the project to test this theory. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. For every task, the stack locations sampled have included a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. For Tasks 1, 4, 5 and 6, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 6 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower limestone forced oxidation FGD system, with the forced oxidation conducted in the reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, and the SCR was in service during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. Also, as mentioned above, Degussa additive TMT-15 was being added to the FGD system when this gypsum was produced. The results of the Task 6 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 55% of the incoming mercury was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as about 4% across the dryer mill, 6% across the board dryer kiln, and 45% across the kettle calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 5 results showed on a percentage basis, but about 30% lower on a mass basis. The same power plant FGD system produced the synthetic gypsum used in Task 5 (with no use of TMT-15) and in Task 6 (with TMT-15 added to the FGD system). The lower emissions on a mass basis appeared

Jessica Sanderson; Gary M. Blythe; Mandi Richardson

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Radioactivity in Products Derived from Gypsum in Tanzania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Dosimetry Article Radioactivity in Products Derived from Gypsum in Tanzania P. Msaki F.P. Banzi Scientific investigations have long...products suspected to have natural radioactivity radiation risk in Tanzania. In response to the concern expressed by the users of chalk......

P. Msaki; F.P. Banzi

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Experimental evidence of foam homogenization  

SciTech Connect

The propagation of an ionization wave through a subcritical foam is studied under inertial confinement fusion conditions. Independent measurements of the ionization wave velocity are compared with hydrodynamic simulations and analytical models. It is shown that simulations of a homogeneous material at equivalent density strongly overestimate the front velocity. The internal foam structure can be accounted for with a simple model of foam homogenization that allows improving agreement between experiment and calculations.

Nicolaie, Ph.; Olazabal-Loume, M.; Tikhonchuk, V. [Univ. Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA F-33405 Talence cedex (France); Fujioka, S.; Sunahara, A. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Borisenko, N.; Gus'kov, S.; Orekov, A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Grech, M. [Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Riazuelo, G. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Labaune, C. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Velechowski, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Univ. Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA F-33405 Talence cedex (France)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy without sacrificing safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ford delays plans to boost fuel economy of its SUVs. WallImproving safety without impacting fuel economy. Honda MotorCompany, October 4. SIPPING FUEL AND SAVING LIVES / 24

Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Gamma doses from phospho-gypsum plaster-board  

SciTech Connect

The use of phospho-gypsum plaster-board and plaster cement in buildings as a substitute for natural gypsum may constitute an additional source of radiation exposure to both workers and members of the public, both from inhalation of radon progeny produced from radon which is exhaled from the plaster-board and from beta and gamma radiation produced by radioactive decay in the plaster-board. The calculations presented in this paper indicate that if phospho-gypsum sheets 1 cm thick containing a {sup 226}Ra concentration of 400 Bq kg{sup -1} are used to line the walls and ceiling of a room of dimensions up to 5 m {times} 5 m {times} 3 m, the annual effective dose from gamma radiation for a person continually occupying the room should not exceed approximately 0.13 mSv. This compares with a measured annual average effective dose from gamma radiation in Australian homes of 0.9 mSv. The annual effective dose from such thin sheets is directly proportional to the {sup 226}Ra concentration in the plaster-board. 13 refs., 6 figs.

O`Brien, R.S. [Australian Radiation Lab., Victoria (Australia)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Polypropylene Foam Gains in Appeal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wire and cable manufacturers show interest in this product as an insulator for coaxial cable ... The initial market growth for polypropylene foam is as insulation for coaxial cable. ... Boston Insulated Wire & Cable Co. is presently the only commercial producer of foamed polypropylene coaxial cable. ...

1964-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

High temperature lightweight foamed cements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sugama, Toshifumi.

1989-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Aluminium foams for lighter vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metallic foams have become an attractive research field both from the scientific viewpoint and the prospect of industrial applications. Various methods for making such foams are available. Some techniques start from specially prepared molten metals with adjusted viscosities. Such melts can be foamed by injecting gases or by adding gas-releasing blowing agents which decompose in-situ, causing the formation of bubbles. A further way is to start from solid precursors containing a blowing agent. These can be prepared by mixing metal powders with a blowing agent, compacting the mix and then foaming the compact by melting. Alternatively, casting routes can be used to make such precursors. The unique properties of foams promise a variety of applications in vehicle design ranging from light-weight construction, impact energy absorption to various types of acoustic damping and thermal insulation. Four applications are discussed, including a lifting arm on a lorry, an automobile and a train crash box, and a motor bracket.

John Banhart

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams.  

SciTech Connect

Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

Lu, Wei-Yang

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Method of casting pitch based foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing molded pitch based foam is disclosed which minimizes cracking. The process includes forming a viscous pitch foam in a container, and then transferring the viscous pitch foam from the container into a mold. The viscous pitch foam in the mold is hardened to provide a carbon foam having a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts.

Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Microcellular foams via phase separation  

SciTech Connect

A study of wide variety of processes for making plastic foams shows that phase separation processes for polymers from solutions offers the most viable methods for obtaining rigid plastic foams which met the physical requirements for fusion target designs. Four general phase separation methods have been shown to give polymer foams with densities less than 0.1 g/cm/sup 3/ and cell sizes of 30..mu..m or less. These methods involve the utilization of non-solvent, chemical or thermal cooling processes to achieve a controlled phase separation wherein either two distinct phases are obtained where the polymer phase is a continuous phase or two bicontinuous phases are obtained where both the polymer and solvent are interpenetrating, continuous, labyrinthine phases. Subsequent removal of the solvent gives the final foam structure.

Young, A.T.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Process for making carbon foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The process obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Foam shell project: Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 {mu}m thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D{sub 2} or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE.

Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schroen-Carey, D. [WJSA (United States)

1994-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

47

Metal-doped organic foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Organic foams having a low density and very small cell size and method for producing same in either a metal-loaded or unloaded (nonmetal loaded) form are described. Metal-doped foams are produced by soaking a polymer gel in an aqueous solution of desired metal salt, soaking the gel successively in a solvent series of decreasing polarity to remove water from the gel and replace it with a solvent of lower polarity with each successive solvent in the series being miscible with the solvents on each side and being saturated with the desired metal salt, and removing the last of the solvents from the gel to produce the desired metal-doped foam having desired density cell size, and metal loading. The unloaded or metal-doped foams can be utilized in a variety of applications requiring low density, small cell size foam. For example, rubidium-doped foam made in accordance with the invention has utility in special applications, such as in x-ray lasers.

Rinde, James A. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Mechanism of high energy absorption by foamed materials-foamed rigid polyurethane and foamed glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy absorbability of foamed rigid materials, polyurethane and glass, was studied under a compressive load. The brittle materials were proved to absorb much energy in a manner similar to ductile materials. A me...

Toshio Kurauchi; Norio Sato; Osami Kamigaito…

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

10 - Polymeric foam materials for insulation in buildings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: This chapter discusses polymeric foams used mainly for building insulation with a view to saving energy. It deals first with a brief foam history, the necessary materials for foam production, the polymers and the foaming (blowing) agents, and the foaming mechanism. It continues with the type of processing polymers for foam production and underlines the thermoplastic and thermosetting foams manufactured for the construction industry. It ends with foam main properties and future trends in the field of polymeric insulation materials.

D. Feldman

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Epoxy Foam Encapsulants: Processing and Dielectric Characterization  

SciTech Connect

The dielectric performance of epoxy foams was investigated to determine if such materials might provide advantages over more standard polyurethane foams in the encapsulation of electronic assemblies. Comparisons of the dielectric characteristics of epoxy and urethane encapsulant foams found no significant differences between the two resin types and no significant difference between as-molded and machined foams. This study specifically evaluated the formulation and processing of epoxy foams using simple methylhydrosiloxanes as the flowing agent and compared the dielectric performance of those to urethane foams of similar density.

Linda Domeier; Marion Hunter

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Thermonuclear rates of the 28Si(p, y) reaction M. Kicinska-Habior and T. Matulewicz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1881 Thermonuclear rates of the 28Si(p, y) reaction M. Kicinska-Habior and T. Matulewicz Institute Thermonuclear reaction rates NA av > are the quan- tities of essential importance for models of stellar in a much more extended energy range. The thermonuclear rates of the 28Si(p, y) reaction, although it does

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams  

SciTech Connect

Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO{sub 2} balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

Rapp, F., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de; Schneider, A., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT (Germany); Elsner, P., E-mail: peter.elsner@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT, Germany and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Engineering the Quantum Foam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1990 Alcubierre, within the General Relativity model for space-time, proposed a scenario for `warp drive' faster than light travel, in which objects would achieve such speeds by actually being stationary within a bubble of space which itself was moving through space, the idea being that the speed of the bubble was not itself limited by the speed of light. However that scenario required exotic matter to stabilise the boundary of the bubble. Here that proposal is re-examined within the context of the new modelling of space in which space is a quantum system, viz a quantum foam, with on-going classicalisation. This model has lead to the resolution of a number of longstanding problems, including a dynamical explanation for the so-called `dark matter' effect. It has also given the first evidence of quantum gravity effects, as experimental data has shown that a new dimensionless constant characterising the self-interaction of space is the fine structure constant. The studies here begin the task of examining to what extent the new spatial self-interaction dynamics can play a role in stabilising the boundary without exotic matter, and whether the boundary stabilisation dynamics can be engineered; this would amount to quantum gravity engineering.

Reginald T. Cahill

2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

54

Assessment of Oxidation in Carbon Foam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon foams exhibit numerous unique properties which are attractive for light weight applications such as aircraft and spacecraft as a tailorable material. Carbon foams, when exposed to air, oxidize at temperatures as low as 500-600 degrees Celsius...

Lee, Seung Min

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

55

Aging Characteristics of Polyurethane Foam Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Closed-cell polyurethane foam insulation displays a time-dependent thermal conductivity characteristic commonly known as aging. Freshly made foam has a relatively low thermal conductivity, which ... in order to e...

J. Navickas; R. A. Madsen

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Panelized wall system with foam core insulation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wall system includes a plurality of wall members, the wall members having a first metal panel, a second metal panel, and an insulating core between the first panel and the second panel. At least one of the first panel and the second panel include ridge portions. The insulating core can be a foam, such as a polyurethane foam. The foam can include at least one opacifier to improve the k-factor of the foam.

Kosny, Jan (Oak Ridge, TN); Gaskin, Sally (Houston, TX)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

57

Carbon foam characterization tensile evaluation of carbon foam ligaments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Gibson and Ashby [5], [6]. The materials they studied were a high purity alumina with relative densities ranging from 0.09 to 0.25, an alumina-mullite (0.08-0.23) and an alumina-10% zirconia (0.08-0.19). They used scanning electron micrographs... of foam microstructure have been developed to model the foam mechanical behavior where the deformation of the bulk sample is predicted by the deformation of the unit cell. The model most widely used is that of Gibson and Ashby which is represented as a...

Verdugo Rodriguez, Rogelio Alberto

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

58

Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

Spear, Jonathan D (San Francisco, CA)

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

59

Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gao, Huizhen (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

60

The properties of foams and lattices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...management, for thermal insulation, filtration and...material with a foam-like structure...becomes important in foams of low density intended for thermal insulation, which have a conductivity...management, for thermal insulation, filtration and...material with a foam-like structure...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Process for epoxy foam production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An epoxy resin mixture with at least one epoxy resin of between approximately 60 wt % and 90 wt %, a maleic anhydride of between approximately 1 wt % and approximately 30 wt %, and an imidazole catalyst of less than approximately 2 wt % where the resin mixture is formed from at least one epoxy resin with a 1-30 wt % maleic anhydride compound and an imidazole catalyst at a temperature sufficient to keep the maleic anhydride compound molten, the resin mixture reacting to form a foaming resin which can then be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form an epoxy foam.

Celina, Mathias C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

62

Method of making a cyanate ester foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than 400.degree. C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

63

Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microcellular low-density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 ..mu..m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given. The yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

Young, A.T.

1982-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

64

Analysis of cubic and orthorhombic C3A hydration in presence of gypsum and lime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

14 days (b). Key: E = ettringite; G = gypsum; C c = cubic CA Fig. 3 SEM pictures of ettringite formation from a cubic Ccubic phase, forming longer ettringite needles; however, the

Kirchheim, A. P.; Fernàndez-Altable, V.; Monteiro, P. J.; Dal Molin, D. C.; Casanova, I.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.4 High Performance Buildings  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

4 4 Case Study, The Philip Merrill Environmental Center, Annapolis, Maryland (Office) Building Design Floor Area: 31,000 SF Floors: 2 Footprint: 220 ft. x (1) 2 Floors of open office space Attached pavilion containing: Meeting space Kitchen Staff dining Conference room Shell Windows U-Factor SHGC (2) Type: Double Pane, Low-e, Argon Filled Insulating Glass 0.244 0.41 Wall/Roof Material Effective R-Value Interior Wall plywood, gypsum, SIP foam, and sheathing 28.0 Exterior Wall gypsum and insulated metal framing 9.3 Roof plywood, gypsum, SIP foam, and sheathing 38.0 HVAC 18 ground source heat pumps fin and tube radiators connected to a propane boiler 1 air condtioning unit Lighting Power Densities (W/SF) First Floor: 1.2 Second Floor: 1.6 Conference Room: 1.4 Energy/Power PV System: 4.2 kW thin-film system

66

Blast mitigation capabilities of aqueous foam.  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests involving detonation of high explosive blanketed by aqueous foam (conducted from 1982 to 1984) are described in primarily terms of recorded peak pressure, positive phase specific impulse, and time of arrival. The investigation showed that optimal blast mitigation occurs for foams with an expansion ratio of about 60:1. Simple analyses representing the foam as a shocked single phase mixture are presented and shown inadequate. The experimental data demonstrate that foam slows down and broadens the propagated pressure disturbance relative to a shock in air. Shaped charges and flyer plates were evaluated for operation in foam and appreciable degradation was observed for the flyer plates due to drag created by the foam.

Hartman, William Franklin; Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Boughton, Bruce A.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSING OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR THERMAL INSULATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSING OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR THERMAL INSULATION CHANJOONG KIM was proposed and evaluated for the application of thermal insulation. For the production of polyurethane foam correspondence should be sent. #12;Key Words: Foam; Polyurethane; Thermal insulation; Nucleation; Growth

Kim, Chanjoong

68

Pitch-based carbon foam and composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing carbon foam or a composite is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Pitch-based carbon foam and composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing carbon foam or a composite is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Process for preparing silicon carbide foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing near net shape, monolithic, porous SiC foams is disclosed. Organosilicon precursors are used to produce polymeric gels by thermally induced phase separation, wherein, a sufficiently concentrated solution of an organosilicon polymer is cooled below its solidification temperature to form a gel. Following solvent removal from the gel, the polymer foam is pretreated in an oxygen plasma in order to raise its glass transition temperature. The pretreated foam is then pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form a SiC foam. 9 figs.

Whinnery, L.L.; Nichols, M.C.; Wheeler, D.R.; Loy, D.A.

1997-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

71

Process for preparing silicon carbide foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing near net shape, monolithic, porous SiC foams is disclosed. Organosilicon precursors are used to produce polymeric gels by thermally induced phase separation, wherein, a sufficiently concentrated solution of an organosilicon polymer is cooled below its solidification temperature to form a gel. Following solvent removal from the gel, the polymer foam is pretreated in an oxygen plasma in order to raise its glass transition temperature. The pretreated foam is then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere to form a SiC foam.

Whinnery, LeRoy Louis (Livermore, CA); Nichols, Monte Carl (Livermore, CA); Wheeler, David Roger (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas Anson (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Foam insulation for a liquid oxygen densifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analyses indicated that it would not be cost effective to vacuum insulate a 7 foot diameter by 30 foot long liquid nitrogen vessel for a launch facility liquid oxygen densifier. Foam insulation appeared to be the logical choice for this infrequently used ground support equipment but the history of foam problems due to cracking, adhesive failure and internal shearing weighed against the use of commercial spray-on material. These problems were solved with a system consisting of alternate sealing and flexible foam layers: (1) an inner membrane sealed to itself but not attached to the cold shell or pipe; (2) a flexible foam insulation layer; (3) a vapor-tight sealing membrane; (4) a second flexible foam insulation layer and (5) an outer aluminized sealing membrane. The second and subsequent layers are sealed to each underlying layer by flexible foam contact adhesive. The inner sealing membrane is particularly vital in that it allows the first foam layer to expand and contract as the tank temperature changes and it also protects the tank from chloride corrosion from the foam. This paper describes preliminary testing to prove out the system and the steps taken to install flexible foam insulation on the oxygen densifier vessel.

G.E. McIntosh; R. Stuckenschmidt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Development and Optimization of Polyurea Foam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This foam block could be sliced into panels, which presented attractive properties as an insulation material. Especially their flexibility, which is...

Dr H. S. Creyf

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Alloy Foam Diesel Emissions Control School Bus Implementation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Alloy Foam Diesel Emissions Control School Bus Implementation Alloy Foam Diesel Emissions Control School Bus Implementation Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel...

75

NETL: Environmental Research - Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production This project will provide information about the fate of mercury in synthetic gypsum produced by wet FGD systems on coal-fired power plants, when used as feedstock for wallboard production. Wet FGD systems play a key role in current and future efforts to limit the air emissions of mercury control from coal-fired plants. Potential emissions of mercury from FGD byproduct gypsum during wallboard production could limit overall mercury control levels achieved by the coal power industry. Furthermore, any adverse effects of elevated mercury levels in wallboard products could undermine the use of FGD gypsum as a feedstock for wallboard plants. Under a Cooperative Agreement with DOE-NETL, USG Corp., a major producer of wallboard, will provide high-quality data on the extent and location of mercury release during the wallboard production process, and provide additional information on the potential for mercury leaching at the end of the wallboard life cycle, when it is disposed in municipal landfills.

76

Investigation for the selection of foaming agents to produce steel foams  

SciTech Connect

During earlier investigators conducted at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Materials Research (IFAM), concentrating on the metal foaming technology using the powder metallurgy process, it was shown that some steel alloys are foamable with Fraunhofer`s patented powder technology approach. To further investigate the foamability of steel alloys, suitable foaming agents need to be identified and characterized. This article reports the finding of two metallic compounds used for steel foaming. The foaming behaviors of the selected foaming agents in the steel powder compacts are also evaluated in terms of different alloying elements.

Yu, C.J.; Eifert, H.H. [Fraunhofer Resource Center Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Knuewer, M.; Weber, M.; Baumeister, J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Applied Materials Research, Bremen (Germany)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

77

Method for extruding pitch based foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for extruding pitch based foam is disclosed. The method includes the steps of: forming a viscous pitch foam; passing the precursor through an extrusion tube; and subjecting the precursor in said extrusion tube to a temperature gradient which varies along the length of the extrusion tube to form an extruded carbon foam. The apparatus includes an extrusion tube having a passageway communicatively connected to a chamber in which a viscous pitch foam formed in the chamber paring through the extrusion tube, and a heating mechanism in thermal communication with the tube for heating the viscous pitch foam along the length of the tube in accordance with a predetermined temperature gradient.

Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Vacuum insulation properties of phenolic foam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Characteristic properties of phenolic foam as the interstitial material of a vacuum insulation panel are investigated experimentally. For the measurement of effective thermal conductivity, a vacuum guarded hot plate (VGHP) apparatus is used and the conductivity is measured at various vacuum levels. Radiative properties are found using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) device. Solid conductivity is estimated using the porosity of the foam. Effective thermal conductivity at high level of vacuum is measured to be 5 mW/m K which is sum of solid conductivity (2.56 mW/m K) and radiative conductivity (2.44 mW/m K) with 5% of measurement uncertainty. The pore size of the foam is estimated to be 260 ?m using rarefied gas conduction theory. This ensures insulation performance of phenolic foam up to about 10?3 atm. Other practical characteristics of phenolic foam as the VIP core material are also discussed.

Jongmin Kim; Jae-Hyug Lee; Tae-Ho Song

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Estimates of inhalation doses resulting from the possible use of phospho-gypsum plaster-board in Australian homes  

SciTech Connect

Current materials used as internal lining in Australian buildings ade based on natural gypsum of low radium content. A study was carried out to estimate the contribution to the annual effective dose due to airborne contamination from chemical by-product gypsum plaster board of higher radium content if it were used as an internal lining.

O`Brien, R.S.; Peggie, J.R.; Leith, I.S. [Australian Radiation Laboratory, Victoria (Australia)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

J Sci Food Agric 1991, 57, 527-541 Dissolution of Various Sources of Gypsum in Aqueous  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of flue gas using limestone in coal-fired power stations (Byme 1983). It is anticipated that large amounts of the century, unless there is a major change in power generation policy. Use on agricultural land as a soil grade (AR), three sources of Jlue-gas desulphurisation (FGD) gypsum, phosphogypsum (PG),and mined gypsum

Ahmad, Sajjad

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Augmented Foam Sculpting for Capturing 3D Models Michael R. Marner Bruce H. Thomas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Augmented Foam Sculpting for Capturing 3D Models Michael R. Marner Bruce H. Thomas University. A designer physically sculpts a 3D model from foam using a hand-held hot wire foam cut- ter. Both the foamD model from foam using a hand-held hot wire foam cutter. Both the foam and cutting tool are tracked

Thomas, Bruce

82

NanoSIP: Developing Community Imaging for Phylogenetic and Functional Characterization Using Cyanobacterial Mats  

SciTech Connect

This project was to develop and optimize the following technologies: stable isotope probing + NanoSIMS analysis (nanoSIP), FISH, functional gene analysis, H2 production measurements, culturing, and metatranscriptomics for specific use in microbial mat systems. The larger goal was to further develop these methodologies in a way that facilitates their linkage, high fidelity 3-D correlation to location specific environmental change integrating geochemical characterization, such that ability to see and characterize microbial community responses to normal daily fluctuations and further ecological manipulations, in different locations of the mat communities is optimized.

Woebken, D., L.C. Burow, L. Prufert-Bebout, B.M. Bebout, T. M. Hoehler, J. Pett-Ridge, A.M. Spormann; Singer, S W; McMurdie, P J; Weber, P K

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Building a home from foam—túngara frog foam nest architecture and three-phase construction process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2010 research-article Animal behaviour 1001 23 14 Building a home from foam-tungara frog foam nest architecture and three-phase...Data Supplement: Supplementary figures 1, 2 and 3 Building a home from foam--tungara frog foam nest architecture and three-phase...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Rheology of nearly ideal 3d foams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We probe the complex rheology of nearly ideal 3d foam by flowing through a narrow column. The foams we investigate have large bubble size, to minimize the effects of coarsening, and are very dry. Foams of this type cannot be studied via conventional rheometry. The foam flows upward through a vertical rectangular column with a 4:1 cross-sectional aspect ratio, by bubbling gas through a soapy solution at the base of our apparatus. At the column's narrow surfaces are sticky boundaries, which create shear due to the zero velocity boundary condition. As expected, the flow profile between the adjacent slippery broad faces is flat, however the profile between the narrow, sticky faces exhibits a curved velocity profile that is dependent on gas flow rate. We are able to analyze a 2d velocity profile from a 3d bulk system. We employ particle image velocimetry to measure the strain rate, and compute the stress from the pressure drop along the channel, to investigate the local stress-strain relationships in a flowing foam. We find these dry foams to have a Hershel-Bulkley exponent of 0.21, which is significantly lower (more shear thinning) than other results shown in the literature for much wetter foams.

C. D. Jones; K. N. Nordstrom; D. J. Durian

2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

85

Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD-gypsum. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Goal is to assess technical and economic feasibility for producing fertilizer-grade ammonium sulfate from gypsum produced in limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This is the 1st year of a 2-year program among Illinois State Geological Survey, University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), Allied-Signal, Marketing Chem. Process Inc., Henry Fertilizer, Illinois Power Co., and Central Illinois Public Services. In previous quarter, chemistry and process conditions were reviewed and a reactor system set up and used to conduct laboratory tests. FGD-gypsum from Abbott power plant was used. The scrubber, a Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 FGD, produced a filter cake (98.36% gypsum and < 0.01% CaSO{sub 3}). Conversion of FGD- gypsum to ammonium sulfate was tested at 60-70{degree}C for 5-6 hr. Yield up to 82% and purity up to 95% were achieved for the ammonium sulfate production. During this quarter, more bench-scale experiments including a mass balance analysis were conducted; a yield up to 83% and up to 99% purity were achieved. A literature survey was completed and a preliminary process flow sheet was developed. Economics of the process is being estimated.

Chou, M.I.M.; Rostam-Abadi, Ml; Lytle, J.M.; Bruinius, J.A.; Li, Y.C. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States); Hoeft, R. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Dewey, S. [AlliedSignal-Chemicals (United States); Achorn, F. [Southeast Marketing Chem. Process INc. (SE-ME) (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

Strength scaling of brittle graphitic foam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...many different type of open- and closed-cell solids such as aerogels (Pekala et al. 1991), graphitic foams (Brezny & Green...mechanical properties and scaling law relationships for silica aerogels and their organic counterparts. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Fire spread in concealed foamed plastic insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A test program, jointly sponsored by the Society of the Plastics Industry of Canada and the National Research Council, examined the contribution of plastic foams to fire spread in buildings. The conditions und...

Dr. W. Taylor

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Reinforced Phenolic Foams for Thermal Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reported research is related to phenolic resins panels for thermal insulation. This research started from previous results on the fabrication of foams from powdered Novolaque phenolic resins without acid...

P. Dubois; C. Reinaudo; E. Morel; C. Chauvelier

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Coated foams, preparation, uses and articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tension of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

1982-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

90

Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in which liquids mix or in the formation of solid foams such as those used to cushion bicycle helmets. Applying these equations, they used supercomputers at DOE's National Energy...

91

Generalized correlation for foam flow in tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GENERALIZED CORRELATION FOR FOAM FLOW IN TUBES A Thesis by CAROL LYNNETTE COTTER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December.... (December 1996) Carol Lynnette Cotter, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Raymond W. Flumerfelt A novel experimental procedure to determine the behavior of foam flow in tubes is established. Using an approach developed...

Cotter, Carol Lynnette

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

92

INTEGRATED MOBILE IP AND SIP APPROACH FOR ADVANCED LOCATION MANAGEMENT Q Wang and M A Abu-Rgheff  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTEGRATED MOBILE IP AND SIP APPROACH FOR ADVANCED LOCATION MANAGEMENT Q Wang and M A Abu-Rgheff University of Plymouth, UK ABSTRACT The vision of ubiquitous and continuous communications for a mobile user entails several emerging mobility types, which pose new requirements for location management

Abu-Rgheff, Mosa Ali

93

A.C.C. Sips, Advanced scenarios for ITER operation ICPP 2004 Advanced scenarios for ITER operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of fusion energy. ITER is to produce and study plasmas dominated by self heating. This would give unique@ipp.mpg.de Abstract In thermonuclear fusion research using magnetic confinement, the tokamak is the leading candidate to provide a #12;A.C.C. Sips, Advanced scenarios for ITER operation ICPP 2004 2 better understanding, control

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

Application of Genetic Algorithms and Thermogravimetry to Determine the Kinetics of Polyurethane Foam in Smoldering Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for modeling urethane foam insulation performance, Journalinsulation, upholstery, as well as sound and shock dampening materials. PU foam

Rein, Guillermo; Lautenberger, Chris; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Torero, Jose; Urban, David

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Micropore Characterization of Mesocellular Foam and Hybrid Organic Functional Mesocellular Foam Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Micropore Characterization of Mesocellular Foam and Hybrid Organic Functional Mesocellular Foam Materials ... The authors acknowledge the Australian Research Council (ARC) for the support of ARC Discovery Grant DP0451387 and access to infrastructure from the Particulate Fluids Processing Centre, a Special Research Centre of the ARC. ...

Sasha Boskovic; Anita J. Hill; Terry W. Turney; Geoffrey W. Stevens; Michelle L. Gee; Andrea J. O’Connor

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Direct formation of the ?-CaSO4 phase in dehydration process of gypsum: In situ FTIR study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...occurrence of bassanite in nature is very rare (Yamamoto and Kennedy 1969). Tiemann...into anhydrite at depth. However, the rare occurrence of bassanite in such cases...Dehydration behaviour of natural gypsum and a phosphogypsum during milling. Thermochimica Acta...

P.S.R. Prasad; V. Krishna Chaitanya; K. Shiva Prasad; D. Narayana Rao

97

FOAM: Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FOAM: Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model FOAM: Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model FOAM: Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model FOAM is a fully coupled, mixed-resolution, general circulation model designed for high-throughput (simulated years per day) while still providing a good simulated mean climate and simulated variability. FOAM uses the combination of a low resolution (R15) atmosphere model, a highly efficient medium-resolution ocean model, and distributed memory parallel processing to achieve high throughput on relatively modest numbers of processors (16-64). The quality of the simulated climate compares well with higher resolution models. No flux corrections are used. FOAM's intended purpose is to study long-term natural variability in the climate system. FOAM is also well suited for paleoclimate applications. FOAM is highly

98

Bioresistance of Foam-Glass Crystal Materials to Filamentous Fungi  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Foam-glass crystal (FGC) materials used for heat insulation obtained by the technology described in [7...] were chosen for the present study. It is known that foam glass is environmentally harmless and safe for ....

O. V. Kaz’mina; M. A. Dushkina; M. V. Chubik

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Effects of foamed plastic insulation on severity of room fires  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of a series of full scale room burn experiments with foamed plastic insulation in two walls indicate that the severity ... appear to be increased by the addition of foamed plastic insulation.

K. K. Choi

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

LCA Case Studies of Starch-Based Foam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The LDPE block/WBF was delivered to the company specialising in foam conversion (Foam Engineers Ltd., UK). Here the ... cut and converted to the shaped pieces of insulation for the final manufacture of the coolbo...

Miao Guo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Foam target experiments with the PF-1000 plasma focus facility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes experiments on foam liners performed with the PF-1000 plasma focus facility. A streak camera has been used ... foam liner can be uniformly imploded by a plasma focus current sheath.

L. Karpinski; M. Scholz; J.G. Linhart…

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Foam-buffered laser-matter interactions  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments indicate that low-density foam buffer layers can significantly mitigate the perturbing effects of beam non-uniformities in direct drive laser-matter interactions. Results of a computational study with a 2D ALE code are reported here. Typical targets consisted of 50 {mu}m of 50mg/cm{sup 3} C{sub 10}H{sub 8}O{sub 4} foam attached to a 10 {mu}m foil and covered with 250 {Angstrom} of gold. These targets were exposed to {approximately}1.2ns, flat topped, green light pulses at {approximately}1.4{times}10{sup 14}W/cm{sup 2} intensity, bearing 30 {mu}m lateral perturbations. Without the buffer layers the foils were severely disrupted after 1 ns of laser illumination. Buffering could provide stability for more than 2 ns of full shell acceleration. Our study shows that the high thermal conductivity of the foam results in flattened shocks in the foam plasma, communicating a smoothed laser drive to the accelerated shells. Preheat from the gold hastens conversion of solid foam to a heated plasma. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Mason, R.J.; Kopp, R.A.; Vu, H.X.; Wilson, D.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Watt, R.G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico87545 (United States)] Willi, O. [The Blacket Laboratory, Imperial College of Science and Technology London, SW72Bz (United Kingdom)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Foam-buffered laser-matter interactions  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments indicate that low-density foam buffer layers can significantly mitigate the perturbing effects of beam non-uniformities in direct drive laser-matter interactions. Results of a computational study with a 2D ALE code are reported here. Typical targets consisted of 50 {mu}m of 50 mg/cm{sup 3} C{sub 10}H{sub 8}O{sub 4} foam attached to a 10 {mu}m foil and covered with 250 A of gold. These targets were exposed to {approx}1.2 ns, flat topped, green light pulses at {approx}1.4x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} intensity, bearing 30 {mu}m lateral perturbations. Without the buffer layers the foils were severely disrupted after 1 ns of laser illumination. Buffering could provide stability for more than 2 ns of full shell acceleration. Our study shows that the high thermal conductivity of the foam results in flattened shocks in the foam plasma, communicating a smoothed laser drive to the accelerated shells. Preheat from the gold hastens conversion of solid foam to a heated plasma.

Mason, R. J.; Kopp, R. A.; Vu, H. X.; Wilson, D. C.; Goldman, S. R.; Watt, R. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Willi, O. [Blacket Laboratory, Imperial College of Science and Technology London, SW72Bz (United Kingdom)

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Foam-buffered laser-matter interactions  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments indicate that low-density foam buffer layers can significantly mitigate the perturbing effects of beam non-uniformities in direct drive laser-matter interactions. Results of a computational study with a 2D ALE code are reported here. Typical targets consisted of 50 {micro}m of 50 mg/cm{sup 3} C{sub 10}H{sub 8}O{sub 4} foam attached to a 10 {micro}m foil and covered with 250 {angstrom} of gold. These targets were exposed to {approximately} 1.2 ns, flat topped, green light pulses at {approximately} 1.4 {times} 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} intensity, bearing 30 {micro}m lateral perturbations. Without the buffer layers the foils were severely disrupted after 1 ns of laser illumination. Buffering could provide stability for more than 2 ns of full shell acceleration. This study shows that the high thermal conductivity of the foam results in flattened shocks in the foam plasma, communicating a smoothed laser drive to the accelerated shells. Preheat from the gold hastens conversion of solid foam to the smoothing heated plasma.

Mason, R.J.; Kopp, R.A.; Vu, H.X.; Wilson, D.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Watt, R.G.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Fire-Induced Response in Foam Encapsulants  

SciTech Connect

The paper provides a concise overview of a coordinated experimental/theoretical/numerical program at Sandia National Laboratories to develop an experimentally validated model of fire-induced response of foam-filled engineered systems for nuclear and transportation safety applications. Integral experiments are performed to investigate the thermal response of polyurethane foam-filled systems exposed to fire-like heat fluxes. A suite of laboratory experiments is performed to characterize the decomposition chemistry of polyurethane. Mass loss and energy associated with foam decomposition and chemical structures of the virgin and decomposed foam are determined. Decomposition chemistry is modeled as the degradation of macromolecular structures by bond breaking followed by vaporization of small fragments of the macromolecule with high vapor pressures. The chemical decomposition model is validated against the laboratory data. Data from integral experiments is used to assess and validate a FEM foam thermal response model with the chemistry model developed from the decomposition experiments. Good agreement was achieved both in the progression of the decomposition front and the in-depth thermal response.

Borek, T.T.; Chu, T.Y.; Erickson, K.L.; Gill, W.; Hobbs, M.L.; Humphries, L.L.; Renlund, A.M.; Ulibarri, T.A.

1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

106

Dissipative flows of 2D foams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the flow of a liquid foam between two plates separated by a gap of the order of the bubble size (2D foam). We concentrate on the salient features of the flow that are induced by the presence, in an otherwise monodisperse foam, of a single large bubble whose size is one order of magnitude larger than the average size. We describe a model suited for numerical simulations of flows of 2D foams made up of a large number of bubbles. The numerical results are successfully compared to analytical predictions based on scaling arguments and on continuum medium approximations. When the foam is pushed inside the cell at a controlled rate, two basically different regimes occur: a plug flow is observed at low flux whereas, above a threshold, the large bubble migrates faster than the mean flow. The detailed characterization of the relative velocity of the large bubble is the essential aim of the present paper. The relative velocity values, predicted both from numerical and from analytical calculations that are discussed here in great detail, are found to be in fair agreement with experimental results.

Isabelle Cantat; Renaud Delannay

2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

107

Thermal Transport in High-Strength Polymethacrylimide (PMI) Foam Insulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal transport in high-strength polymethacrylimide (PMI) foam insulations is described, with special emphasis on the... $$3\\omega $$ ...

L. Qiu; X. H. Zheng; J. Zhu; D. W. Tang…

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

109

Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams.  

SciTech Connect

We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150 o C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

Rao, Rekha R.; Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Russick, Edward M.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Math of Popping Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam Berkeley Lab researchers mathematically describe the complex evolution and disappearance of foamy bubbles May 9, 2013 | Tags: Hopper, Math & Computer Science Media Contacts: UC Berkeley: Robert Sanders, rsanders@berkeley.edu, (510) 643-6998 Berkeley Lab: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, (510) 495-2404 Written By Robert Sanders Bubble baths and soapy dishwater, the refreshing head on a beer and the luscious froth on a cappuccino. All are foams, beautiful yet ephemeral as the bubbles pop one by one. Now, two researchers from the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the University of California, Berkeley have described mathematically the successive stages in the complex evolution and disappearance of foamy

111

Eddy current characterization of metal foams  

SciTech Connect

Cellular materials are characterized by their relative density, pore shape and orientation, the average cell size, and the degree of pore interconnectivity which all depend upon the method and conditions used for processing. This has created an interest in non-invasive sensor techniques to characterize the foam structure. Multifrequency electrical impedance measurements were performed using an eddy current technique on open cell aluminum foam with systematically varied relative densities and pore sizes. The impedance was dominated at all frequencies by the amount of metal contained within a probed volume of foam and the tortuosity of the current path. At low frequency, the impedance data were found to be relatively insensitive to pore size variations enabling an independent measure of the relative density. At higher frequency, the data indicated a strong dependence on the cell size.

Dharmasena, K.P.; Wadley, H.N.G. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Intelligent Processing of Materials Lab.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

CFC alternatives for thermal insulation foams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low density polymeric foam material expanded with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) blowing agents have found widespread use as highly efficient thermal insulation materials in the construction, refrigeration appliance and transportation industries. The advent of regulations which are reducing the production and consumption of the fully halogenated \\{CFCs\\} for environmental reasons has prompted the development of environmentally acceptable substitutes for the CFC blowing agents. This paper summarizes the physical properties and performance of the leading alternatives for CFC-11, which is used to expand rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams, and the leading alternatives for CFC-12 which is used to expand extruded polystyrene board foam. Although the alternatives, HCFC-123 and HCFC-141b for CFC-11 and HCFC-142b and HCFC-124 for CFC-12, are not perfect matches from the performance viewpoint, they represent the optimum choice given the constraints on environmental acceptability, toxicity, flammability and performance.

Ian R Shankland

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Thermal radiative properties of phenolic foam insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal insulation has long been an important subject in engineering. Foam insulations have become the most widely used insulations due to their low cost and ease of procesing. In recent years, phenolic foams find increasing applications because of their fire retardation. This paper presents experimental results of thermal radiative properties of phenolic foams, with or without activated carbon. Transmittance spectra were first taken using FTIR for samples of various densities. Extinction coefficient spectra were then obtained by applying Beer's law. Finally, by using the diffusion approximation, the Rosseland mean extinction coefficients and radiative thermal conductivities were obtained for various temperatures. Results show that the extinction coefficient increases with sample density. The addition of activated carbon increases the extinction coefficient slightly.

Chung-jen Tseng; Kuang-te Kuo

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

A Comparative Heat Transfer Examination of Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) With and Without Phase Change Materials (PCMs) Using a Dynamic Wall Simulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main focus of this paper was to present data to advance the design of a previously developed thermally-enhanced structural insulated panel (SIP) that had been outfitted with phase change materials (PCMs) (Medina et al., 2008). To advance...

Medina, M.; Zhu, D.

115

Experiments for foam model development and validation.  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments has been performed to allow observation of the foaming process and the collection of temperature, rise rate, and microstructural data. Microfocus video is used in conjunction with particle image velocimetry (PIV) to elucidate the boundary condition at the wall. Rheology, reaction kinetics and density measurements complement the flow visualization. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used to examine the cured foams to determine density gradients. These data provide input to a continuum level finite element model of the blowing process.

Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Mahoney, James F. (Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Russick, Edward Mark; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Kraynik, Andrew Michael; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Gorby, Allen D.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

George Sips, O-1.3A 30th EPS, St Petersburg, Russia, 7-11 July 2003 1 Improved H-mode Identity Experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

George Sips, O-1.3A 30th EPS, St Petersburg, Russia, 7-11 July 2003 1 Improved H-mode Identity, Russia, 7-11 July 2003 2 Motivation 10 (400 s.) 0.851.0/1.83 Q/nGWH98(y,2)/Nq95 Requirements for ITER,edge for divertor lifetime. #12;George Sips, O-1.3A 30th EPS, St Petersburg, Russia, 7-11 July 2003 3 Motivation

117

Model State Implementation Plan (SIP) Documentation for Wind Energy Purchase in State with Renewable Energy Set-Aside  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Subcontract Report Subcontract Report NREL/SR-500-38075 May 2005 Model State Implementation Plan (SIP) Documentation for Wind Energy Purchase in State with Renewable Energy Set-Aside Execution through November 30, 2004 A. Hathaway Environmental Resources Trust, Inc. Washington, DC D. Jacobson DJ Consulting LLC McLean, Virginia C. High Resource Systems Group White River Junction, Vermont National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Subcontract Report NREL/SR-500-38075 May 2005 Model State Implementation Plan (SIP) Documentation for Wind

118

Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Aubert, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Rand, Peter B. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Bending properties of foamed aluminum panels and sandwiches  

SciTech Connect

The foamed panels and sandwiches were prepared by powder metallurgical route using various matrix alloys. The effect of the apparent density, geometry and structure of the foam on its bending stiffness was studied with respect to the results of the four-point-bending. It has been shown that the modulus of elasticity of the foam cannot be related only to its apparent density, because the distribution of the cell-wall material along the thickness of the foamed panel is not uniform. Therefore the real moment of inertia of the foam`s cross-section should be used for the calculation of bending stiffness. This moment can be determined from the square weight of the foamed sample.

Simancik, F.; Kovacik, J.; Minarikova, N. [Inst. of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Bratislava (Slovakia)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

Experimental characterization of foam drainage and stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generated from AOS, CD 1045, and SDS. These foams are stable under our experimental conditions (applied pressure difference = 3-7 psi). The critical concentrations for these surfactants are found to be 0.014, 0.04, and 0.06 wt % respectively. A theoretical...

Sheth, Vikas Rameshchandra

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Modeling of Sandwich Sheets with Metallic Foam  

SciTech Connect

World-wide vehicles safety experts agree that significant further reductions in fatalities and injuries can be achieved as a result of the use of new lightweight and energy absorbing materials. On this work, the authors present the development and evaluation of an innovative system able to perform reliable panels of sandwich sheets with metallic foam cores for industrial applications. The mathematical model used to describe the behavior of sandwich shells with metal cores foam is presented and some numerical examples are presented. In order to validate those results mechanical experiments are carried out. Using the crushable foam constitutive model, available on ABAQUS, a set of different mechanical tests were simulated. There are two variants of this model available on ABAQUS: the volumetric hardening model and the isotropic hardening model. As a first approximation we chose the isotropic hardening variant. The isotropic hardening model available uses a yield surface that is an ellipse centered at the origin in the p-q stress plane. Based on this constitutive model for the foam, numerical simulations of the tensile and bulge test will be conducted. The numerical results will be validated using the data obtained from the experimental results.

Mata, H.; Jorge, R. Natal; Fernandes, A. A.; Parente, M. P. L. [IDMEC-FEUP, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Santos, A. [INEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Valente, R. A. F. [Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

122

Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Process Research Project |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Emerging Technologies » Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Process Research Project Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Process Research Project The Department of Energy is currently researching the development of building superinsulation through a carbon dioxide (CO2) foaming process. Project Description This project seeks to develop building super insulation through a carbon dioxide foaming process that does not use hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and which produces insulation with a high R-value. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between the Department of Energy and The Industrial Science & Technology Network. Project Goals The goal of this project is to develop advanced insulation without HFC, and to achieve a competitive processing cost for CO2 foaming technology.

124

Capillary Flow of Oil in a Single Foam Microchannel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When using appropriate surfactants, oil and aqueous foam can be intimately mixed without the foam being destroyed. In this Letter, we show that a foam, initially free of oil, can draw an oil drop under the action of capillary forces and stretch it through the aqueous network. We focus on the suction of oil by a single horizontal foam channel, known as a Plateau border. In such confined channels, imbibition dynamics are governed by a balance between capillarity and viscosity. Yet, the scaling law for our system differs from that of classical imbibition in porous media such as aqueous foam. This is due to the particular geometry of the liquid channels: Plateau borders filled with foaming solution are always concave whereas they can be convex or flat when filled with oil. Finally, the oil slug, confined in the Plateau border, fragments into droplets following a film breakup.

Keyvan Piroird and Élise Lorenceau

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

125

Thermal conductivity of rigid foam insulations for aerospace vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present work describes measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of NCFI 24-124 foam, a spray-on foam insulation used formerly on the Space Shuttle external fuel tank. A novel apparatus to measure the effective thermal conductivity of rigid foam at temperatures ranging from 20 K to 300 K was developed and used to study three samples of NCFI 24-124 foam insulation. In preparation for measurement, the foam samples were either treated with a uniquely designed moisture absorption apparatus or different residual gases to study their impact on the effective thermal conductivity of the foam. The resulting data are compared to other measurements and mathematical models reported in the literature.

M. Barrios; S.W. Van Sciver

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Enhancement of Energy Absorption in Syntactic Foams by Nanoclay Incorporation for Sandwich Core Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Syntactic foams are closed pore foams fabricated by the mechanical mixing of hollow glass particles in a matrix resin. The present study deals with change in compressive properties of syntactic foams due to th...

Nikhil Gupta; Rahul Maharsia

127

Joining of aluminium structures with aluminium foams  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work is the evaluation of new construction elements for applications in transportation industry which are based on new designs incorporating commonly applied aluminium structures and aluminium foams. The work includes the characterization of the joining process, the joining mechanism and the mechanical properties of the joining zone. A testing method for the joints is developed which is based on a common tensile test in order to evaluate the influence of the main laser welding parameters on the toughness of the joints and to afford a comparison between laser beam welding and gluing process. The analysis of the joining mechanism is investigated with the help of metallographic studies. In addition, the energy absorption properties of aluminium hollows filled and joined with foam structures are characterized.

Burzer, J.; Bernard, T.; Bergmann, H.W. [Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany). Inst. for Materials Research

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

Military housing foam application and analysis  

SciTech Connect

Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in sustainable communities. This project consists of two activities conducted in Hawaii that focus on performance, integration and application of energy saving technologies. Hawaii has many energy challenges, making this location an excellent testbed for these activities. Under this project, spray foam technology was applied at military housing on Oahu and the consumption data collected. A cost benefit and operational analysis of the foam was completed. The second phase of this project included design, integration, and analysis of photovoltaic systems at a military community on Oahu. This phase of the project was conducted as part of Forest City's second Solar America Showcase Award.

Torres, J. J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Design of composite plastic foams for improved cushioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. As shown in Appendix A, the three test foams for 28 this research are all nonlinear. Expanded polystyrene is a tangent-type material; polyurethane and polyethylene are anomalous-type materials. Tangent Type Anomalous Type U) (D U) Linear Type... group resins (polyester or polyether) . Poly- urethane foams are used frequently as cushioning materials because of their extremely resilient properties. For flexible foams, the polyols are primarily long- chain polyoxypropylene diols, with a small...

Eskew, James Oliver

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

ENHANCEMENT OF STRUCTURAL FOAM MATERIALS BY INCORPORATION OF GASIFIER SLAG  

SciTech Connect

As advanced gasification technology is increasingly adopted as an energy source, disposal of the resulting slag will become a problem. We have shown that gasifier slag can be incorporated into foamed glass, which is currently being manufactured as an abrasive and as an insulating material. The slag we add to foamed glass does not simply act as filler, but improves the mechanical properties of the product. Incorporation of gasifier slag can make foamed glass stronger and more abrasion resistant.

Olin Perry Norton; Ronald A. Palmer; W. Gene Ramsey

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications.

Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Derzon, Dora K. (Albuquerque, NM); Nelson, Jill S. (Albuquerque, NM); Rand, Peter B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Fabrication and properties of syntactic magnesium foams  

SciTech Connect

Syntactic magnesium foams which consist of thin-walled hollow alumina spheres embedded in a magnesium matrix were fabricated by infiltrating a three-dimensional array of hollow spheres with a magnesium melt by using a gas pressure-assisted casting technique. The resulting composite contains closed cells of homogeneous and isotropic morphology. The densities of the syntactic magnesium foams were between 1.0 and 1.4 g/cm{sup 3}. The densities were controlled by variations in the bulk density of the hollow spheres with the volume fraction of spheres kept constant at approximately 63%. Compressive deformation characteristics of the composites were evaluated with respect to the influence of matrix strength and sphere wall thickness on characteristic variables such as compressive strength, plateau stress and energy absorption efficiency. Differences in the strength of the magnesium-based matrix materials investigated (cp-Mg, AM20, AM50, AZ91) had little influence on the compressive strength of the syntactic foam. However, an increasing relative wall thickness of the hollow ceramic spheres led to a significant strength enhancement. In all cases the ratio between compressive and plateau strength rose with increasing composite strength resulting in decreasing energy absorption efficiency.

Hartmann, M.; Reindel, K.; Singer, R.F. [Univ. of Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Material Science

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

Geometry and foams: 2D dynamics and 3D statics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the implications of the classical Gauss-Bonnet formula to foam in two and three dimensions. For a two-dimensional foam it gives a generalization of the von Neumann law for the coarsening of foams to curved surfaces. As a consequence of this we find that the stability properties of stationary bubbles of such a froth depend on the Gaussian curvature of the surface. For three-dimensional foam we find a relation between the average Gaussian curvature of a soap film and the average number of vertices for each face.

Joseph E. Avron and Dov Levine

1992-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

134

Sticky foam as a less-than-lethal technology  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Labs (SNL) in 1994 completed a project funded by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to determine the applicability of sticky foam for correctional applications. Sticky foam is an extremely tacky, tenacious material used to block, entangle, and impair individuals. The NIJ project developed a gun capable of firing multiple shots of sticky foam, tested the gun and sticky foam effectiveness on SNL volunteers acting out prison and law enforcement scenarios, and had the gun and sticky foam evaluated by correctional representatives. Based on the NIJ project work, SNL supported the Marine Corps Mission, Operation United Shield, with sticky foam guns and supporting equipment to assist in the withdrawal of UN Peacekeepers from Somalia. Prior to the loan of the equipment, the Marines were given training in sticky foam characterization, toxicology, safety issues, cleanup and waste disposal, use limitations, use protocol and precautions, emergency facial clean-up, skin cleanup, gun filling, targeting and firing, and gun cleaning. The Marine Corps successfully used the sticky foam guns as part of that operation. This paper describes these recent developments of sticky foam for non-lethal uses and some of the lessons learned from scenario and application testing.

Scott, S.H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

Polyurethane rigid foam from soybean oil-based polyol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Polyurethane rigid foams are widely used as thermal insulation materials. The general route to make polyurethane is through the reaction between polyol and isocyanate. Blowing… (more)

Tan, Suqin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Material Characterization Of Rigid Foam Insulation For Aerospace Vehicles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? There is a continuing need for improved rigid foam insulation, particularly for cryogenic storage aboard aerospace vehicles. The present work is a material characterization… (more)

Barrios, Matt

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Evaluation of the Transient Thermal Performance of a Graphite Foam/Phase Change Material Composite.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The thermal transient response of graphite foam infiltrated with paraffin wax as a thermal protection composite was investigated. Graphite foam is a rigid open-celled… (more)

Trammell, Michael Paul

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Improving the Performance of Heat Insulation Polyurethane Foams by Silica Nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat insulation polyurethane foam materials were doped by silica nano particles, ... , thermal and mechanical properties of polyurethane rigid foam were investigated. Thermal and mechanical properties were...

M. M. Alavi Nikje; A. Bagheri Garmarudi; M. Haghshenas…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium foam fitted Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

aluminium foam under either... -cell 6101 aluminium foam in relation to its fracture ... Source: Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit - Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary...

140

An Investigation and Characterization of Metal Foam Filled Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effect of using metal foams in double-pipe heat exchangers is investigated in this work. The advantages and drawbacks of using metal foams in these… (more)

Chen, Xi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Endolithic cyanobacteria in soil gypsum: Occurrences in Atacama (Chile), Mojave (United States), and Al-Jafr Basin (Jordan) Deserts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), and Al-Jafr Basin (Jordan) Deserts Hailiang Dong,1 Jason A. Rech,1 Hongchen Jiang,1 Henry Sun,2, United States, and Al-Jafr Basin, Jordan, revealed endolithic cyanobacteria communities just below the Atacama and Mojave Desert, but insignificant in the fibrous gypsum from the Jordan Desert. Endolithic life

Ahmad, Sajjad

142

Foams As Viewed by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Foams As Viewed by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering ... For wet foams, we met other difficulties, common to any strongly scattering system:? a part of the scattered beam is collected in the central cells along with the transmitted beam; this can spoil the transmission measurements. ...

Monique A. V. Axelos; François Boué

2003-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

143

Potpourri of Los Alamos National Laboratory foam efforts  

SciTech Connect

This presentation provides an update on microcellular foam research efforts at Los Alamos. Topics include the influence of pressure on the phase separation of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) from organic solution, a new concept of phase diagrams, physical testing of foams, and recent emulsion polymerization results.

Williams, J.M.; Wilkerson, M.H.; Wrobleski, D.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Periodic explosions by positive feedback in a rising foam column  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for a small outward heat flow from the foam to the containing wall. We also predict...explosions would be prevented by sufficient insulation between the foam and the surrounding wall. Such insulation could be provided by a thin film of high...

Clarence Zener; Jaime Noriega

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Mechanical Properties of a Metal Powder-Loaded Polyurethane Foam  

SciTech Connect

Quasi-static compression tests have been performed on polyurethane foam specimens. The modulus of the foam exhibited a power-law dependence with respect to density of the form: E* {proportional_to} {rho}*{sup n}, where n = 1.7. The modulus data is well described by a simple geometric model (attributed to the work of Gibson and Ashby) for closed-cell foam in which the stiffness of the foam is governed by the flexure of the cell struts and cell walls. The compressive strength of the foam is also found to follow a power-law behavior with respect to foam density. In this instance, Euler buckling is used to rationalize the density dependence. The modulus of the polyurethane foam was modified by addition of a gas atomized, spherical aluminum powder. Additions of 30 and 50 weight percent of the powder significantly increased the foam modulus. However, there were only slight increases in modulus with 5 and 10 weight percent additions of the metal powder. Strength was also slightly increased at high loading fractions of powder. This increase in modulus and strength could be predicted by combining the above geometric model with a well-known model describing the effect on modulus of a rigid dispersoid in a compliant matrix.

C. L. Neuschwanger; L. L. Whinnery; S. H. Goods

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Recovery of flexible polyurethane foam from shredder residue.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has developed a patented, continuous process for the recovery of flexible polyurethane foam (PUF) from auto shredder residue (ASR). To test the process, Argonne researchers conceived of, designed, and built a continuous foam washing and drying system that was pilot-tested at a shredder facility for six months. Economic analysis of the process, using manufacturers' quotes and operating data from Argonne's pilot plant, indicates a payback of less than two years for a plant producing about 1,000 ton/yr of foam. Samples of clean foam were shipped to three major foam reprocessors; all three indicated that the quality of the PUF recovered by the Argonne process met their requirements. Tests of the recovered foam by an independent testing laboratory showed that the recycled foam met the specifications for several automotive applications, including carpet padding, headliner, and sound-suppression support materials. Recovery of foam reduces the mass and the volume of material going to the landfill by about 5% and 30%, respectively. Annually, recovery will save about 1.2 x 10{sup 12} Btu of energy, cut the amount of solid waste being landfilled by about 150,000 tons, and eliminate the emission of about 250 tons of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the air.

Daniels, E. J.; Jody, b. J.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

147

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control Eunsung Kan, Marc A. Deshusses used bioreactors for air pollution control. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 84: 240­244, 2003. Keywords: VOC control; biofilter; air pollution control; toluene; biologically activated foam

148

Parameters of construction for applications of metal foams  

SciTech Connect

Foamed parts must be bonded to other components in order to be able to use them. In practice, it is not possible to limit applications to merely foaming out parts, whereby the framework construction can receive the connection elements (links). Therefore, the assembly of foamed parts requires to search for suitable detachable joint connections and to quantify the durability of them. To reach this goal, the connection pull-out strength is to be determined for the widest variety of links. Because of the required higher processing accuracies, the thermal behavior of components is becoming more and more important for practical applications. This also applies to sandwich composite materials with metal foam. Of particular interest is the interrelationship between thermal deformations and the structure of the sandwich plate. Factors such as cover sheet material and thickness, plate thickness and foam density play an important roll in this relationship.

Neugebauer, R.; Hipke, T. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Machine Tools and Forming Technologies, Chemnitz (Germany)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

Complex foamed aluminum parts as permanent cores in aluminum castings  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of complex shaped aluminum foam parts as permanent cores in aluminum castings has been investigated. The foamed samples were prepared by injection of the foam into sand molds. It turned out that sound castings can be produced if the foam core is properly preheated and/or surface treated before casting. The effect of the foam core on the performance of the casting was evaluated by in compression testing and by measuring structural damping. The gain in the related properties turned out to be much higher than the weight increase of the casting due to the presence of the core. The weight increase may be partially offset through a reduction of the wall-thickness of the shell.

Simancik, F. [Inst. of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Schoerghuber, F. [Illichmann GmbH, Altmuenster (Austria)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

Pyrophoric metal-carbon foam composites and methods of making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for creating a pyrophoric material according to one embodiment includes thermally activating a carbon foam for creating micropores therein; contacting the activated carbon foam with a liquid solution comprising a metal salt for depositing metal ions in the carbon foam; and reducing the metal ions in the foam to metal particles. A pyrophoric material in yet another embodiment includes a pyrophoric metal-carbon foam composite comprising a carbon foam having micropores and mesopores and a surface area of greater than or equal to about 2000 m.sup.2/g, and metal particles in the pores of the carbon foam. Additional methods and materials are also disclosed.

Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Baumann, Theodore F. (Discovery Bay, CA); Worsley, Marcus A. (Belmont, CA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

151

Experimental Investigation of the Effective Foam Viscosity in Unsaturated Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

Foam has the potential to effectively carry and distribute either aqueous or gaseous amendments to the deep vadose zone for contaminant remediation. However, the transport of foam in porous media is complicated because flow characteristics such as the effective viscosity are affected not only by foam properties but also by the sediment properties and flow conditions. We determined the average effective foam viscosity via a series of laboratory experiments and found that the effective foam viscosity increased with the liquid fraction in foam, the injection rate, and sediment permeability. These impacts are quantified with an empirical expression, which is further demonstrated with data from literature. The results show that the liquid fraction in foam and sediment permeability are two primary factors affecting effective foam viscosity. These results suggest that, when foam is used in deep vadose zone remediation, foam flow will not suffer from gravitational drainage and can distribute amendments uniformly in heterogeneous sediments.

Zhang, Z. F.; Zhong, Lirong; White, Mark D.; Szecsody, James E.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

FOAM DENSITY SENSITIVITY STUDY FOR THE 9977 PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

Two layers of insulation fill the volume of the 9977 package between the drum liner and the shell. One of these layers is composed of General Plastics FR-3716 polyurethane foam (also known as Last-A-Foam{reg_sign}), poured through fill holes in the drum bottom and foamed in place. There was concern that the density of the foam insulating layer may vary due to the manufacturing process and that variations in foam density would compromise the safety basis of the package. Thus, a structural finite element analysis was performed to investigate this concern. The investigation examined the effect of replacing the material properties for the FR-3716 polyurethane foam, which has a density equal to 16 lb{sub m}/ft{sup 3}, with material properties of similar foam with varying densities through finite element analysis of hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) pertaining to impact conditions. The results showed that the functional performance of the containment vessel (CV) was not compromised under the conditions investigated.

Gorczyca, J; Tsu-Te Wu, T

2008-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

153

Video-based e-learning in groups: combining SIP and multicast in a mobile learning internet infrastructure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rich multimedia communication in groups is the instrument of choice in various e-learning situations and is best achieved by videoconferencing, supplemented by collaborative tools. In this paper, we report on various distributed synchronous and asynchronous video-based teaching and learning scenarios using stationary and mobile technologies over IP. They are realised by a multimedia communication system including a VideoConferencing over IP (VCoIP) software with hybrid architecture derived from a SIP-initiated P2P model. The system is based on a fast, highly efficient H.264/AVC video codec implementation. We investigate new concepts for nomadic IPv6 user and session mobility, focussing on real-time group communication.

Hans L. Cycon; Henrik Regensburg; Thomas C. Schmidt; Matthias Wahlisch; Mark Palkow

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Surface effects on the radiation response of nanoporous Au foams  

SciTech Connect

We report on an experimental and simulation campaign aimed at exploring the radiation response of nanoporous Au (np-Au) foams. We find different defect accumulation behavior by varying radiation dose-rate in ion-irradiated np-Au foams. Stacking fault tetrahedra are formed when np-Au foams are irradiated at high dose-rate, but they do not seem to be formed in np-Au at low dose-rate irradiation. A model is proposed to explain the dose-rate dependent defect accumulation based on these results.

Fu, E. G.; Caro, M.; Wang, Y. Q.; Baldwin, K.; Caro, A. [Materials Science in Radiation and Dynamics Extremes, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Zepeda-Ruiz, L. A. [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bringa, E. [CONICET and Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza 5500 (Argentina); Nastasi, M. [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 (United States)

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

155

Compressive tensile and shear testing of melt-foamed aluminium  

SciTech Connect

For construction purposes it is utterly important to get detailed information on the possible influence of the foam thickness on the mechanical properties and on the deformation behavior of metallic foams. The effect of compressive, tensile and shear loads on aluminium foam samples has been examined with the testing methods for sandwich material as described in German and ASTM-standards. The aim is to provide more data on these mechanical properties varying the sample density and thickness. Regarding the results the most reliable material parameters as well as steps towards a relationship between the different strength parameters can be obtained.

Von Hagen, H.; Bleck, W. [Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. of Ferrous Metallurgy

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

156

Aluminum foam, ALPORAS: The production process, properties and applications  

SciTech Connect

The production of foamed aluminum has long been considered difficult to realize because of such problems as the low foamability of molten metal, the varying size of cellular structures, solidification shrinkage and so on. Recently these problems have been solved by a number of researchers and some manufacturers produce foamed aluminum by their own methods. The authors have been employing a batch casting process and manufacturing foamed aluminum under the tradename ALPORAS{reg_sign} since 1986. This paper presents the manufacturing process, physical properties and some typical applications of ALPORAS.

Miyoshi, T.; Itoh, M. [Shinko Wire Co., Ltd., Amagasaki (Japan); Akiyama, S.; Kitahara, A. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Inst., Tosu (Japan). Material Engineering Dept.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

Rheologica Acta manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.g., in plasterboard production, in which a foamed plaster slurry is prepared by mixing an aqueous foam with a gypsum plaster slurry, in foam con- crete production by pre-foaming methods, where aqueous foam is mixed

Boyer, Edmond

158

Recovery and utilization of gypsum and limestone from scrubber sludge. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Wet flue-gas desulfurization units in coal-fired power plants produce a large amount of sludge which must be disposed of, and which is currently landfilled in most cases. Increasing landfill costs are gradually forcing utilities to find other alternatives. In principle, this sludge can be used to make gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}-2H{sub 2}O) for products such as plaster-of-Paris and wallboard, but only if impurities such as unreacted limestone and soluble salts are removed, and the calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}) is oxidized to calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). This project is investigating methods for removing the impurities from the sludge so that high-quality, salable gypsum products can be made. Work done in the previous quarter concentrated on developing a low-cost froth flotation process that could remove limestone, unburned carbon, and related contaminants from the sludge while recovering the bulk of the calcium sulfite and gypsum. In the current quarter, experiments to remove impurities from the sludge using a water-only cyclone were conducted. The cyclone has been found to be effective for removing the coarser limestone impurities, as well as removing contaminants such as fine gravel and grinding-ball chips. These results show that the cyclone will be very complementary with froth flotation, which mainly removes the very fine impurities.

Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Recovery and utilization of gypsum and limestone from scrubber sludge. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Wet flue-gas desulfurization units in coal-fired power plants produce a large amount of sludge which must be disposed of, and which is currently landfilled in most cases. Increasing landfill costs are gradually forcing utilities to find other alternatives. In principle, this sludge can be used to make gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}-2H{sub 2}O) for products such as plaster-of-Paris and wallboard, but only if impurities such as unreacted limestone and soluble salts are removed, and the calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}) is oxidized to calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). This project is investigating methods for removing the impurities from the sludge so that high-quality, salable gypsum products can be made. Work done in the previous quarter concentrated on developing a dependable technique for analysis of scrubber sludge, so that it would be possible to determine exactly how well a particular purification process was working. This technique was then used to characterize the sludge from a particular Illinois power station. In the current quarter, studies were carried out using froth flotation to produce a product that could be oxidized to high-purity gypsum. These experiments have been quite successful, due to certain properties of the limestone impurity that makes it easier to remove by this method than was expected.

Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Banerjee, D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

High cycle fatigue properties of aluminium foams  

SciTech Connect

Fatigue lifetime measurements have been performed on foamed Al-Mg-Si wrought alloys and Al-Si cast alloys in the high cycle range using an ultrasonic resonance testing method. The porous structure of the material is described by quantitative image analysis of optical micrographs and non destructively by X-ray computer tomography. The static mechanical properties as determined by tensile, compression and bending tests in earlier studies are used for material characterization in this paper. The evaluation of the stress main curves is specified for porous structures to obtain the stiffness and the plateau strength. The influence of the surface skin on the mechanical properties as well as an oscillation behavior during lifetime measurements was studied.

Zettl, B.E.; Stanzl-Tschegg, S.E. [Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics; Gradinger, R. [LKR-Centre of Competence on Light Metals, Ranshofen (Austria); Degischer, H.P. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Material Science

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Manufacturers Saving with Lost Foam Metal Casting | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Manufacturers Saving with Lost Foam Metal Casting Manufacturers Saving with Lost Foam Metal Casting Manufacturers Saving with Lost Foam Metal Casting December 18, 2009 - 2:43pm Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy What are the key facts? Metal casting was identified as one of the top 10 energy users in manufacturing. The technology represents a 20- to 25-percent reduction in production costs and uses 7 percent fewer materials than traditional processes. One example of this technology is being used by General Motors to make lightweight engine blocks for the fuel-efficient vehicles they manufacture. A government-funded effort to support development of foam metal casting helped reduce an estimated 9.4 million tons of solid waste between 1994 and 2005, which saved industry an estimated 3 trillion Btu.

162

Gasification of waste rigid polyurethane foam: optimizing operational conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of temperature and catalyst type on production of combustible gas during the air gasification of waste rigid polyurethane foam has been...16 (43...) of three parameters was employed to optimize the...

Xiaoya Guo; Lixin Wang; Shouguang Li…

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Capillary flow of oil in a single foam microchannel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under specific physico-chemical conditions, oil droplets are able to invade the liquid network of a foam without damaging it. We study experimentally the capillary suction of oil in a single foam channel, a Plateau border. Oil flows as an unbroken stream with a dynamics that differs from classical wicking in a capillary tube due to the deformability of the foam channel. The oil forms a long and stable liquid slug inside the Plateau border, which does not break into droplets as long as the oil is confined within the Plateau Border. Yet, destabilization occurs when oil is transferred from the Plateau border to a soap film, after the break-up of a soap film as may happen in real foams.

Piroird, Keyvan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Heat transfer in open cell polyurethane foam insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper study systematic investigates the combined conductive and non-gray radiative heat transfer of open cell polyurethane (PU) foam in the pressure range between 760 and 0.02?Torr. Direct transmission m...

J.-W. Wu; H.-S. Chu

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

A Structural Plastic Foam Thermal Insulation for Cryogenic Service  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Today, with the impending energy crisis and the rush to construct LNG facilities as one method to alleviate the energy shortage, it is not surprising that we find plastic foams and other thermal insulating materi...

R. B. Bennett

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Fungi associated with urea-formaldehyde foam insulation in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sixty-eight fungal taxa were identified from samples of urea-formaldehyde foam insulation taken from Canadian residences. Mesophilic taxa were...Penicillium spp., Trichoderma harzianum and Paecilomyces variotii o...

John Bissett

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Polyurethane and Polyisocyanurate Foams in External Tank Cryogenic Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

External tanks of the spacecrafts need not only efficient, but also safe cryogenic insulation materials and the issues of their development ... , polyurethane (PUR) or polyisocyanurate (PIR) foams’ cryogenic insulation

U. Stirna; I. Beverte; V. Yakushin; U. Cabulis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Spectroscopic diagnosis of foam z-pinch plasmas on SATURN  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solid and annular silicon aerogel and agar foams were imploded on the SATURN accelerator to study plasma initiation acceleration and stagnation. SATURN delivers 7 MA with a 50 ns rise time to these foam loads. We fielded several spectroscopic diagnostics to measureplasma parameters throughout the z-pinch discharge. A spatially resolved single frame time-gated extreme ultravioletspectrometermeasured the extent of plasma ablation off the surface of the foam. A time integrated crystal spectrometer showed that characteristicK shell radiation of silicon in the aerogel and of sulfur and sodium impurities in the agar were attenuated when the foam loads were coated with a conductive layer of gold. A time-resolved pinhole camera showed that in general the quality of the pinch implosions was poor but improved with increasing efforts to improve current continuity such as prepulse and conductive coatings.

T. J. Nash; M. S. Derzon; G. Allshouse; D. Jobe; J. Seaman; T. Gilliland; J. McGurn; J. J. MacFarlane; P. Wang

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Observation of ionization fronts in low density foam targets  

SciTech Connect

Ionization fronts have been observed in low density chlorinated foam targets and low density foams confined in gold tubes using time resolved {ital K}-shell absorption spectroscopy. The front was driven by an intense pulse of soft x-rays produced by high power laser irradiation. The density and temperature profiles inferred from the radiographs provided detailed measurement of the conditions. The experimental data were compared to radiation hydrodynamics simulations and reasonable agreement was obtained. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Hoarty, D. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)] [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); [Radiation Physics Department, AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Willi, O.; Barringer, L.; Vickers, C. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)] [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Watt, R. [P24, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [P24, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Nazarov, W. [Chemistry Department, University of Dundee (United Kingdom)] [Chemistry Department, University of Dundee (United Kingdom)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Method of making metal-doped organic foam products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Organic foams having a low density and very small cell size and method for roducing same in either a metal-loaded or unloaded (nonmetal loaded) form are described. Metal-doped foams are produced by soaking a polymer gel in an aqueous solution of desired metal salt, soaking the gel successively in a solvent series of decreasing polarity to remove water from the gel and replace it with a solvent of lower polarity with each successive solvent in the series being miscible with the solvents on each side and being saturated with the desired metal salt, and removing the last of the solvents from the gel to produce the desired metal-doped foam having desired density cell size, and metal loading. The unloaded or metal-doped foams can be utilized in a variety of applications requiring low density, small cell size foam. For example, rubidium-doped foam made in accordance with the invention has utility in special applications, such as in x-ray lasers.

Rinde, James A. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Disilane-based cyclic deposition/etch of Si, Si:P and Si1?yCy:P layers: II. The CDE features  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed innovative cyclic deposition/etch (CDE) processes in order to grow Si, Si:P and Si1–yCy:P raised sources and drains (RSDs) on patterned wafers. A Si2H6 + PH3 + SiCH6 chemistry was used for the 550 °C growth steps. Meanwhile, the selective etch of poly-crystalline layers on dielectrics was conducted at 600 °C with HCl + GeH4. We have first studied the specifics of those isobaric (P = 20 Torr) CDE processes on bulk, blanket Si(0 0 1) substrates. CDE-grown Si, Si:P and Si1?yCy(:P) layers were high crystalline quality and smooth, although these also contained 2–3% of Ge. Due to the preferential incorporation of P atoms in the lattice, the 'apparent' substitutional C content was higher for intrinsic than for in situ phosphorous-doped layers (1.29% versus 1.17% and 1.59% versus 1.47% for the two SiCH6 mass-flows probed). The atomic P concentration in our Si1?yCy:P layers was close to 2.6 ? 1020 cm?3, versus 2.1 ? 1020 cm?3 in the Si:P layers. The Si, Si:P and Si1?yCy(:P) thickness deposited in each CDE cycle decreased linearly as the HCl+GeH4 etch time increased, with the 'equivalent' etch rate (i.e. the slope of this linear decrease) being lower in intrinsic than in in situ doped layers. Higher C contents resulted in lower 'equivalent' etch rates. A CDE strategy suppressed the surface roughening occurring for high C content, several tens of nm thick Si1?yCy:P layers grown in one step only. We have then calibrated, for 19–23 nm thick CDE-grown Si, Si:P and Si1?yCy:P RSDs, the HCl + GeH4 etch time per step necessary to achieve full selectivity on patterned silicon-on-insulator substrates. Selectivity was obtained for intrinsic Si once 180 s etch steps were used. Longer etch times were needed for Si:P and especially Si1?yCy:P (270 and 315 s/CDE cycle, respectively). The resulting S/D areas were rather smooth and slightly facetted, but the un-protected poly-Si layers sitting on top of the gate stacks were completely removed with these etch times.

J M Hartmann; V Benevent; J P Barnes; M Veillerot; B Prévitali; P Batude

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Experimental Study of a New PVC Foam Insulation System for Liquid-Hydrogen-Liquid-Oxygen Space Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses the development of a rigid external foam insulation for liquid-hydrogen-liquid-oxygen space vehicles...1...], dealing with the use of Klegecell G 300,* a PVC closed-cell foam. This foam does ...

F. J. Muller

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Effects of organically modified nanoclay on cellular morphology, tensile properties, and dimensional stability of flexible polyurethane foams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flexible polyurethane/organically modified nanoclay (organoclay) nanocomposite foams were synthesized by ... polyurethane foam sample containing 2 wt.% of nanoclay revealed clay intercalation. Furthermore, SEM im...

Reza Jahanmardi; Behrad Kangarlou…

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

The Effect of Moisture Absorption on the Physical Properties of Polyurethane Shape Memory Polymer Foams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 6 2. EXPERIMENTAL 2.1 Polyurethane foam synthesis and sample preparation Polyurethane SMP foams were prepared based on a technique developed by Dr. Thomas S. Wilson at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Prepolymers were made from...

Yu, Ya-Jen

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

175

Characterization of New Glass Coated Foam Glass Insulating Tiles by Standard Tests  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A good thermal insulation of buildings is today more and more...1). Among insulating materials, foam glasses are increasing their importance because of...2). Foam glasses are fiber-free inorganic insulation mater...

Andrea Ventrella; Federico Smeacetto…

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Computational and Experimental Evaluation of Actuating Shape Memory Polymer Foams in the Context of Aneurysm Treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

foam actuation necessitates an evaluation of potential thermal damage to nearby tissue. In the present investigation, the foam is idealized as a heat-dissipating, volumetrically static object centered in a straight tube of flowing water. Velocity...

Hahn, Edward

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

177

Strain localization and cyclic damage of polyurethane foam cylinders: experimental tests and theoretical model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strain localization and cyclic damage of polyurethane foam cylinders: experimental tests subject to progressive damage. The chain of springs models the strain localization, and the second series qualitative agreement with the experiments. Keywords: polyurethane foams; strain localization; cyclic damage

Boyer, Edmond

178

Superplastic foaming of titanium and Ti-6Al-4V  

SciTech Connect

Solid-state foaming of metals can be achieved by hot-isostatic pressing of powders in presence of argon followed by expansion of the resulting high-pressure argon bubbles at ambient pressure and elevated temperature. This foaming technique was first demonstrated by Kearns et al. for Ti-6Al-4V, but is limited by its low creep rate and ductility, which lead to early cell wall fracture. The authors address these issues by performing the foaming step under superplastic conditions. Rather than using microstructural superplasticity (requiring fine grains which are difficult to achieve in porous powder-metallurgy materials), they used transformation superplasticity, which occurs at all grain sizes by biasing with a deviatoric stress (from the pore pressure) of internal stresses (from the allotropic mismatch during thermal cycling about the allotropic temperature range). As compared to control experiments performed under isothermal creep conditions, superplastic foaming under temperature cycling of unalloyed titanium and alloyed Ti-6Al-4V led to a significantly higher pore volume fraction and higher foaming rate.

Dunand, D.C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Teisen, J. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Materials

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

179

OPTIMISATION OF EXTRUDED POLYMER FOAM BY THE RESIDENT TIME DISTRIBUTION APPROACH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to simulate the twin-screw extruder[1] to [11] . In this paper, we have studied the processing of polystyrene foam by extrusion in a single screw extruder coupled with a gear pump. The basic principle of foamingOPTIMISATION OF EXTRUDED POLYMER FOAM BY THE RESIDENT TIME DISTRIBUTION APPROACH Frédéric Leonardi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

180

Void Detection in Foam with Knit Lines Using THz Pulse Interrogation H. T. Banks 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Columbia. The detection of voids inside the Sprayed on Foam Insulation (SOFI) belonging to the ThermalVoid Detection in Foam with Knit Lines Using THz Pulse Interrogation H. T. Banks 1 and N. L. Gibson­8205 February 4, 2006 Abstract We model electromagnetic interrogation of a polyurethane foam using the TE mode

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Method for epoxy foam production using a liquid anhydride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An epoxy resin mixture with at least one epoxy resin of between approximately 50 wt % and 100 wt %, an anhydride cure agent of between approximately 0 wt % and approximately 50 wt %, a tert-butoxycarbonyl anhydride foaming agent of between proximately 0.1-20 wt %, a surfactant and an imidazole or similar catalyst of less than approximately 2 wt %, where the resin mixture is formed from at least one epoxy resin with a 1-10 wt % tert-butoxycarbonyl anhydride compound and an imidazole catalyst at a temperature sufficient to keep the resin in a suitable viscosity range, the resin mixture reacting to form a foaming resin which in the presence of an epoxy curative can then be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form an epoxy foam.

Celina, Mathias (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

182

Foam-buffered spherical implosions at 527 nm  

SciTech Connect

Creation of a low density, high temperature plasma buffer between the absorption and ablation layers of a directly driven inertial confinement fusion implosion capsule has been proposed as a means to reduce {open_quotes}early time{close_quotes} imprint from laser nonuniformities. This thermal smoothing blanket might be created from a low density foam layer wrapped around the deuterium{endash}tritium filled microballoon. Preliminary spherical implosion tests of this concept using a polystyrene foam layer surrounding a glass microballoon were performed at the Nova laser [Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 57}, 2101 (1986)], using a 527 nm drive wavelength. Comparison of capsule yield and imploded core symmetry showed promising improvements in overall target performance, relative to one-dimensional undegraded hydrodynamic simulations, when the foam-buffer layer was present. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Watt, R.G.; Wilson, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Hollis, R.V.; Gobby, P.L.; Mason, R.J.; Kopp, R.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lerche, R.A.; Kalantar, D.H.; MacGowan, B.; Nelson, M.B.; Phillips, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); McKenty, P.W. [University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)] [University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Willi, O. [Imperial College of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom)] [Imperial College of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Nanoclay syntactic foam composites—High strain rate properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of nanoclay on the high strain rate mechanical properties of syntactic foam composites is studied. Nanoclay syntactic foam composites are fabricated with 10, 30 and 60% microballoon volume fractions, each having 0, 1, 2 and 5% volume fraction of nanoclay. High strain rate tests using split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus are performed on all types of composites. Quasi-static tests are also carried out on MTS-810 machine to compare the results with the dynamic SHPB results. It is found that inclusion of 1% nanoclay volume fraction gives the optimum enhancement in peak stress and modulus of nanoclay syntactic foam composites. In addition, specimens tested at high strain rate are shown to exhibit higher stress and modulus compared to those tested at low strain rate. Scanning electron microscopy is performed to study the fracture behavior under different loading rates.

Sameer Peter; Eyassu Woldesenbet

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Parabolic-Dish Solar Concentrators of Film on Foam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parabolic and spherical mirrors are constructed of aluminized PET polyester film on urethane foam. During construction, the chosen shape of the mirror is created by manipulating the elastic/plastic behavior of the film with air pressure. Foam is then applied to the film and, once hardened, air pressure is removed. At an f-number of 0.68, preliminary models have an optical angular spread of less than 0.25 degrees, a factor of 3.3 smaller than that for a perfectly spherical mirror. The possibility exists for creating large-lightweight mirrors with excellent shape and stiffness. These "film-on-foam" construction techniques may also be applicable to parabolic-trough solar concentrators but do not appear to be suitable for optical imaging applications because of irregularities in the film.

Barton, Sean A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Lightweight products with metal foam -- Properties and methods of processing  

SciTech Connect

The aim of future production technology is the economic application of lightweight components with improved property profiles. Demands for weight reduction made by both the automotive industry and the machine-building industry can be met through selective utilization of metal foam composite--structures. To that end, basic investigations into material behavior and the machineability of metal foam composites are necessary. The presentation will submit an overview of the properties and processing parameters of selected composites based on an analysis of industrial requirements. The development of analytical models of the process mechanics will contribute to the creation of preconditions for a numerical simulation of selected processes. Innovative applications and the potential for future use of metal foam composites in lightweight construction will be shown as well. Finally, results from projects of the Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Umformtechnik together with industrial companies in Saxony will be presented.

Neugebauer, R. [Institutsleiter FhG IWU, Chemnitz (Germany); Braeunlich, H.; Wagner, U. [Abteilung Umformtechnologien FhG IWU, Chemnitz (Germany)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

186

Structural effects in ICF foam-buffered targets  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have indicated that low-density foam buffer layers can significantly mitigate the perturbing effects of beam non-uniformities in direct drive laser-matter interactions. A smooth drive is essential to obtaining ignition in the Direct Drive approach to ICF ignition. Consequently, the authors have conducted a detailed study of the mitigating capabilities of foam-buffers, and how to optimize then. Smoothly driven implosions may prove crucial to obtaining the high energy and neutron yields needed for Science Based Stockpile Steward ship applications.

Mason, R.J.; Kopp, R.A.; Goldman, S.R.; Wilson, D.C.; Watt, R.G.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Corrosion testing of urea-formaldehyde foam insulating material  

SciTech Connect

Two tests of the corrosiveness of urea-formaldehyde (UF) foam insulating materials were compared. One test, the Timm test, had test coupons foamed in place. In the second, the Canadian test, blocks of foam already set were placed in contact with test coupons. The Timm test uses 10 gage thick coupons, while the Canadian test specifies 3 mil thick ones. Two samples of UF foam were tested by the Timm and the Canadian tests. The electrical-resistance probes showed that the corrosion rate against steel was initially quite high, of the order of 12 to 20 mpy (mils per year). After about 20 days, the rate was almost zero. In the Timm test, the corrosion rates of steel coupons were of the order to 0.5 to 2 mpy when averaged over the 28 or 56 day test period. The greater corrosion rate of the thick coupons in the Canadian test as well as poor reproducibility of the corrosion rates was attributed primarily to variations in the contact areas between the sample and the UF foam. The corrosion rates of galvanized steel coupons in the Canadian test in several cases exceeded the failure value. In the Timm test, the corrosion rates averaged over the whole test period were quite low. The corrosion rates of copper and aluminum in both tests were quite low. On the basis of the results of this study the following recommendations for a corrosion-test procedure for UF foam were made: two corrosion tests should be conducted, one for foam while curing and one after it has stabilized; the Timm test for corrosiveness while curing should be used, but for only 1 to 2 days; the test for corrosiveness after stabilizing should be of the accelerated type such as the Canadian one. To insure a constant-contact area, thicker coupons should be used; and the coupons for both tests should have a controlled part of the area not in contact with the foam to simulate field conditions.

Weil, R.; Graviano, A.; Sheppard, K.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Electrical conductivity of dispersions: from dry foams to dilute suspensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present new data for the electrical conductivity of foams in which the liquid fraction ranges from two to eighty percent. We compare with a comprehensive collection of prior data, and we model all results with simple empirical formul\\ae. We achieve a unified description that applies equally to dry foams and emulsions, where the droplets are highly compressed, as well as to dilute suspensions of spherical particles, where the particle separation is large. In the former limit, Lemlich's result is recovered; in the latter limit, Maxwell's result is recovered.

K. Feitosa; S. Marze; A. Saint-Jalmes; D. J. Durian

2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

189

Preliminary Investigation of the Thermal Decomposition of Ablefoam and EF-AR20 Foam (Ablefoam Replacement)  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary thermal decomposition experiments with Ablefoam and EF-AR20 foam (Ablefoam replacement) were done to determine the important chemical and associated physical phenomena that should be investigated to develop the foam decomposition chemistry sub-models that are required in numerical simulations of the fire-induced response of foam-filled engineered systems for nuclear safety applications. Although the two epoxy foams are physically and chemically similar, the thermal decomposition of each foam involves different chemical mechanisms, and the associated physical behavior of the foams, particularly ''foaming'' and ''liquefaction,'' have significant implications for modeling. A simplified decomposition chemistry sub-model is suggested that, subject to certain caveats, may be appropriate for ''scoping-type'' calculations.

ULIBARRI, TAMARA A.; DERZON, DORA K.; ERICKSON, KENNETH L.; CASTANEDA, JAIME N.; BOREK III, THEODORE T.; RENLUND, ANITA M.; MILLER, JILL C.; CLAYTON, DANIEL; FLETCHER, THOMAS H.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Quasistatic rheology of foams II. Continuous shear flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and numerically. We extract, from the images of the sheared foam, the plastic flow profiles and the modifications AND GEORGES DEBREGEAS2 1 Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Pierce Hall, 29 in the temporal and spatial correlations of the plastic events. The spa- tial fluctuations of the static stress

191

FOAM: Expanding the Horizons of Climate Michael Tobis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on a project that expands the applicability of dynamic climate modeling to very long time scales. The FastFOAM: Expanding the Horizons of Climate Modeling Michael Tobis Mathematics and Computer Science passing, scientific supercomputing, climate, meteorology, oceanography, hydrology #12;Introduction Climate

192

Holographic study of conventional and negative Poisson's ratio metallic foams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Inhomogeneous, non-affine deformation was observed holographically in both foam materials. Introduction in this series were determined from displacement measurements of high magnification video tapes of the tensile a very useful and reliable tool to determine the Poisson's ratio of orthotropic FRP (Fiber Reinforced

Lakes, Roderic

193

Isotope (?13C and ?18O) compositions of dolomites from the Permian evaporitic sequences of the Eastern Russian Plate: Evidence from the Syukeevo gypsum deposit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions has been studied in dolomites of the Syukeevo gypsum deposit located in the Eastern Russian Plate. Values of ?13C in the dolomites vary from 0.3 to 6.6 ‰; ?18O, from 28.0 to...

R. Kh. Sungatullin; V. N. Kuleshov; R. I. Kadyrov

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Steam-foam mechanistic field trial in the Midway-Sunset field  

SciTech Connect

A one-pattern, steam-foam mechanistic field trial was conducted in Section 26C of the Midway-Sunset field (upper Monarch sand). The test objectives were (1) to understand the mechanisms of steam diversion caused by foam under reservoir conditions, (2) to establish whether foam can exist in-depth away from the injection well, and (3) to measure incremental oil that can be attributed to foam. Surfactant was injected with steam and nitrogen continuously, and bottom-hole injection pressure (BIHP) increased from 100 to 300 psig, indicating good foam generation. Better steam distribution across the injector's perforations occurred when foam was generated. Improvements in both vertical and areal sweep efficiency of steam were observed. Substantial temperature and gas saturation increases coincided with surfactant breakthrough and local reservoir pressure increases at observation wells. Complementary laboratory core-floods showed that foam generation could occur at low-pressure gradients, which are typical of in-depth conditions. Both laboratory and field data were interpreted as evidence that the in-depth presence of foam was the result of local generation wherever surfactant, steam, and nitrogen were present, rather than propagation of a foam bank generated near the injector. Some oil-production increase was also observed during the test; however, an accurate quantitative estimate of incremental oil owing to foam was difficult to establish.

Friedmann, F.; Smith, M.E.; Guice, W.R. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)); Gump, J. (Chevron USA Production Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States)); Nelson, D.G. (Chevron USA Production Co., Coalinga, CA (United States))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS.  

SciTech Connect

Polyurethane foam has been widely used as an impact absorbing and thermal insulating material for large radioactive materials packages, since the 1980's. With the adoption of the regulatory crush test requirement, for smaller packages, polyurethane foam has been adopted as a replacement for cane fiberboard, because of its ability to withstand the crush test. Polyurethane foam is an engineered material whose composition is much more closely controlled than that of cane fiberboard. In addition, the properties of the foam can be controlled by controlling the density of the foam. The conditions under which the foam is formed, whether confined or unconfined have an affect on foam properties. The study reported here reviewed the application of polyurethane foam in RAM packagings and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

FOAM: NOVEL DELIVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REMEDIATION OF VADOSE ZONE ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Deep vadose zone environments can be a primary source and pathway for contaminant migration to groundwater. These environments present unique characterization and remediation challenges that necessitate scrutiny and research. The thickness, depth, and intricacies of the deep vadose zone, combined with a lack of understanding of the key subsurface processes (e.g., biogeochemical and hydrologic) affecting contaminant migration, make it difficult to create validated conceptual and predictive models of subsurface flow dynamics and contaminant behavior across multiple scales. These factors also make it difficult to design and deploy sustainable remedial approaches and monitor long-term contaminant behavior after remedial actions. Functionally, the methods for addressing contamination must remove and/or reduce transport of contaminants. This problem is particularly challenging in the arid western United States where the vadose zone is hundreds of feet thick, rendering transitional excavation methods exceedingly costly and ineffective. Delivery of remedial amendments is one of the most challenging and critical aspects for all remedy-based approaches. The conventional approach for delivery is through injection of aqueous remedial solutions. However, heterogeneous deep vadose zone environments present hydrologic and geochemical challenges which limit the effectiveness. Because the flow of solution infiltration is dominantly controlled by gravity and suction, injected liquid preferentially percolates through highly permeable pathways, by-passing low-permeability zones which frequently contain the majority of contamination. Moreover, the wetting front can readily mobilize and enhance contaminant transport to the underlying aquifer prior to stabilization. Development of innovative, in-situ technologies may be the only way to meet remedial action objectives and long-term stewardship goals. Surfactants can be used to lower the liquid surface tension and create stabile foams, which readily penetrate low permeability zones. Although surfactant foams have been utilized for subsurface mobilization efforts in the oil and gas industry, so far, the concept of using foams as a delivery mechanism for transporting remedial amendments into deep vadose zone environments to stabilize metal and long-lived radionuclide contaminants has not been explored. Foam flow can be directed by pressure gradients, rather than being dominated by gravity; and, foam delivery mechanisms limit the volume of water (< 5% vol.) required for remedy delivery and emplacement, thus mitigating contaminant mobilization. We will present the results of a numerical modeling and integrated laboratory- / intermediate-scale investigation to simulate, develop, demonstrate, and monitor (i.e. advanced geophysical techniques and advanced predictive biomarkers) foam-based delivery of remedial amendments to remediate metals and radionuclides in vadose zone environments.

Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Zhong, Lirong; Wu, Yuxin; Foote, Martin; Zhang, Z. F.; Hubbard, Susan

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

197

Foam for improving sweep efficiency in subterranean oil-bearing formations  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a conformance improvement treatment process for a subterranean oil-bearing formation having a region of higher permeability and a region of lower permeability. It comprises injecting a foam into the region of higher permeability to reduce the permeability therein, the foam comprising a crosslinkable carboxylate-containing polymer, a crosslinking agent capable of crosslinking the polymer, a surfactant, a liquid solvent, and a foaming gas. A process for recovering oil from a subterranean oil-bearing formation by improving the mobility of a displacement fluid, the process. It comprises preparing a flowing mobility control foam comprising a crosslinkable polymer, a crosslinking agent capable of crosslinking the polymer, a surfactant, a liquid solvent, and a foaming gas; and displacing the foam through the formation by the displacement fluid to control the mobility of the displacement fluid in the formation.

Sydansk, R.D.

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

198

Rigid foam polyurethane (PU) derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) for thermal insulation in roof systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses the response of the thermal insulation lining of rigid foam polyurethane (PU) derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) in heat conditions, based on dynamic climate approach. Liners have been widely used, because the coverage of buildings is responsible for the greatest absorption of heat by radiation, but the use of PU foam derived from this vegetal oil is unprecedented and has the advantage of being biodegradable and renewable. The hot wire parallel method provided the thermal conductivity value of the foam. The thermogravimetric analysis enabled the study of the foam decomposition and its lifetime by kinetic evaluation that involves the decomposition process. The PU foam thermal behavior analysis was performed by collecting experimental data of internal surface temperature measured by thermocouples and assessed by representative episode of the climatic fact. The results lead to the conclusion that the PU foam derived from castor oil can be applied to thermal insulation of roof systems and is an environmentally friendly material.

Grace Tibério Cardoso; Salvador Claro Neto; Francisco Vecchia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Development and Characterization of a New Epoxy Foam Encapsulant as an Ablefoam Replacement  

SciTech Connect

A new epoxy foam encapsulant, EF-ARIO/20, has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a replacement for Ablefoam", an epoxy foam encapsulant used in the W76 Arming, Fusing, and Firing (Al%@) system. Since it contained toxic ingredients including a known carcinogen, Ablefoarn" is no longer commercially available. It has been demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that the microstructure of the new epoxy foam is similar to that of Ablefoam@. Mechanical properties of tensile and compressive strength, and tensile and compressive modulus, and thermal properties of glass transition temperature (.TJ, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) have been measured for the new foam. Electrical properties of dielectric constant, dissipation factors, volume resistivity, and dielectric strength were also measured. These property measurements are comparable to those of Ablefoam@. Development and characterization of the new foam will be discusse~ and a comparison of mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties for the new epoxy foam and Ablefoam@ will be reported.

Rand, P.B.; Russick, E.M.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments  

SciTech Connect

Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

McNamara, W.F. [Orion International Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aubert, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Honeywell's Solstice liquid blowing agent approved by EPA for foam insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Honeywell has announced that its new low global-warming-potential (LGWP) blowing agent for foam insulation has received final approval from the US Environmental Protection Agency under the latter's Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) programme. The approval allows the company's Solstice™ Liquid Blowing Agent (LBA) to be used in foam insulation in refrigerators, spray foam insulation for residential and commercial buildings, insulated metal panels and other applications in the USA.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Low-density hydrocarbon foams for laser fusion targets: Progress report, 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress made in the development of direct-drive hydrocarbon foam targets for laser inertial confinement fusion during 1987. The foam materials are polystyrene, resorcinol-formaldehyde, carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde, and cellulose acetate. The processes for making the foams, their properties, characterization techniques, and the relationship of their properties to target specifications are presented. Progress in the creation and testing of prototype targets is also described.

Haendler, B.L.; Buckley, S.R.; Chen, C.; Cook, A.R.; Cook, R.C.; Hair, L.M.; Kong, F.M.; Kramer, H.D.; Letts, S.A.; Overturf, G.E. III

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Spray-on foam insulations for launch vehicle cryogenic tanks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) has been developed for use on the cryogenic tanks of space launch vehicles beginning in the 1960s with the Apollo program. The use of SOFI was further developed for the Space Shuttle program. The External Tank (ET) of the Space Shuttle, consisting of a forward liquid oxygen tank in line with an aft liquid hydrogen tank, requires thermal insulation over its outer surface to prevent ice formation and avoid in-flight damage to the ceramic tile thermal protection system on the adjacent Orbiter. The insulation also provides system control and stability throughout the lengthy process of cooldown, loading, and replenishing the tank. There are two main types of SOFI used on the ET: acreage (with the rind) and closeout (machined surface). The thermal performance of the seemingly simple SOFI system is a complex array of many variables starting with the large temperature difference of 200–260 K through the typical 25-mm thickness. Environmental factors include air temperature and humidity, wind speed, solar exposure, and aging or weathering history. Additional factors include manufacturing details, launch processing operations, and number of cryogenic thermal cycles. The study of the cryogenic thermal performance of SOFI under large temperature differentials is the subject of this article. The amount of moisture taken into the foam during the cold soak phase, termed Cryogenic Moisture Uptake, must also be considered. The heat leakage rates through these foams were measured under representative conditions using laboratory standard liquid nitrogen boiloff apparatus. Test articles included baseline, aged, and weathered specimens. Testing was performed over the entire pressure range from high vacuum to ambient pressure. Values for apparent thermal conductivity and heat flux were calculated and compared with prior data. As the prior data of record was obtained for small temperature differentials on non-weathered foams, analysis of the different methods is provided. Recent advancements and applications of SOFI systems on future launch vehicles and spacecraft are also addressed.

J.E. Fesmire; B.E. Coffman; B.J. Meneghelli; K.W. Heckle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Carbon foam characterization: sandwich flexure, tensile and shear response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pitches. More recently, new manufacturing developments have been made at Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) [4,5]. Changes in the manufacturing process have led to enhancement of certain thermal properties, and are leading the way to use of carbon foam.... As the material becomes more available to industry, the list of potential applications will continue to grow; however, there are some promising potential applications currently under development. ORNL is currently investigating and applying the unique thermal...

Sarzynski, Melanie Diane

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

205

Comments on Cahill's Quantum Foam Inflow Theory of Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We reveal an underlying flaw in Reginald T. Cahill's recently promoted quantum foam inflow theory of gravity. It appears to arise from a confusion of the idea of the Galilean invariance of the acceleration of an individual flow with what is obtained as an acceleration when a homogeneous flow is superposed with an inhomogeneous flow. We also point out that the General Relativistic covering theory he creates by substituting a generalized Painleve-Gullstrand metric into Einstein's field equations leads to absurd results.

T. D. Martin

2004-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

206

Explosively driven low-density foams and powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hollow RX-08HD cylindrical charges were loaded with boron and PTFE, in the form of low-bulk density powders or powders dispersed in a rigid foam matrix. Each charge was initiated by a Comp B booster at one end, producing a detonation wave propagating down the length of the cylinder, crushing the foam or bulk powder and collapsing the void spaces. The PdV work done in crushing the material heated it to high temperatures, expelling it in a high velocity fluid jet. In the case of boron particles supported in foam, framing camera photos, temperature measurements, and aluminum witness plates suggest that the boron was completely vaporized by the crush wave and that the boron vapor turbulently mixed with and burned in the surrounding air. In the case of PTFE powder, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of residues recovered from fragments of a granite target slab suggest that heating was sufficient to dissociate the PTFE to carbon vapor and molecular fluorine which reacted with the quartz and aluminum silicates in the granite to form aluminum oxide and mineral fluoride compounds.

Viecelli, James A. (Orinda, CA); Wood, Lowell L. (Simi Valley, CA); Ishikawa, Muriel Y. (Livermore, CA); Nuckolls, John H. (Danville, CA); Pagoria, Phillip F. (Livermore, CA)

2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

207

Thermal Characterization of Graphitic Carbon Foams for Use in Thermal Storage Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Highly conductive graphitic foams are currently being studied for use as thermal conductivity enhancers (TCEs) in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. TES systems store… (more)

Drummond, Kevin P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

The use of coated micropowders to reduce radiation heat transfer in foam insulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polyurethane foam is the most effective insulation currently available for buildings. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) blowing agents, which have low thermal conductivities, contribute highly to the effectiveness of this insulation. ...

Marge, Arlene Lanciani

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced lost foam Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Fusion Energy, Madison WI, Sept. 14-16, 2004. Summary: ratios. Based on these recent innovations and advances, we suggest the development of ceramic foams... ., Pacoima...

210

Development of High Performance Hybrid Syntactic Foams: Structure and Material Property Characterization.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Syntactic foams are light weight particulate composites that use hollow particles (microballoons) as reinforcement in a polymer resin matrix. High strength microballoons provide closed cell… (more)

Maharsia, Rahul R

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Physical simulation and fine digital study of thermal foam compound flooding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

According to the similarity criterion of 3D physical simulation of thermal recovery, experimental parameters of 3D physical simulation of steam flooding and thermal foam compound flooding in extra-heavy oil reservoirs of the Gudao Oilfield were calculated, and relevant experiments were carried out. Based on the experimental results, 3D fine numerical simulation was carried out to analyze the steam flooding and thermal foam compound flooding in heavy oil reservoirs. The results show that thermal foam compound flooding could effectively inhibit steam channeling and improve sweep efficiency, and thus enhance the oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs after steam flooding. Technological parameters of thermal foam compound flooding were optimized according to the results of fine numerical simulation. The optimum injection method is foam-slug injection, the optimal steam injection rate is 25 mL/min, nitrogen injection rate is 1 000 mL/min (standard conditions), the time of foam-slug injection is 1.0 min and the interval between foam-slugs is about 10-20 min during thermal foam-slug injection. At last, the similarity criterion was employed for inversion calculation of the optimization results. Based on the results, optimal field injection and production parameters can be confirmed. The ultimate recovery ratio of thermal foam compound flooding in super-heavy oil reservoirs could reach 42.15%, which is 12.50% higher than steam flooding.

Zhanxi PANG; Huiqing LIU; Pingyuan GE; Li HAN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Pitch-based carbon foam heat sink with phase change material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a carbon foam heat sink is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications. The foam is encased and filled with a phase change material to provide a very efficient heat sink device.

Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Pitch-based carbon foam heat sink with phase change material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a carbon foam heat sink is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications. The foam is encased and filled with a phase change material to provide a very efficient heat sink device.

Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Numerical Analysis and Design of Carbon-Foam-based Garment and Helmet for Firefighters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon foam is known for its excellent insulation properties and is also regarded as an effective shock absorbing material. In the present work, a numerical… (more)

Mishra, Sarthak

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Analysis of Fire Performance, Smoke Development and Combustion Gases from Flame Retarded Rigid Polyurethane Foams.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Rigid polyurethane foam is a polymeric material which is widely used for thermal insulation in building construction and other applications. Given recent emphasis on energy… (more)

Adeosun, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

SPUF - a simple polyurethane foam mass loss and response model.  

SciTech Connect

A Simple PolyUrethane Foam (SPUF) mass loss and response model has been developed to predict the behavior of unconfined, rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam-filled systems exposed to fire-like heat fluxes. The model, developed for the B61 and W80-0/1 fireset foam, is based on a simple two-step mass loss mechanism using distributed reaction rates. The initial reaction step assumes that the foam degrades into a primary gas and a reactive solid. The reactive solid subsequently degrades into a secondary gas. The SPUF decomposition model was implemented into the finite element (FE) heat conduction codes COYOTE [1] and CALORE [2], which support chemical kinetics and dynamic enclosure radiation using 'element death.' A discretization bias correction model was parameterized using elements with characteristic lengths ranging from 1-mm to 1-cm. Bias corrected solutions using the SPUF response model with large elements gave essentially the same results as grid independent solutions using 100-{micro}m elements. The SPUF discretization bias correction model can be used with 2D regular quadrilateral elements, 2D paved quadrilateral elements, 2D triangular elements, 3D regular hexahedral elements, 3D paved hexahedral elements, and 3D tetrahedron elements. Various effects to efficiently recalculate view factors were studied -- the element aspect ratio, the element death criterion, and a 'zombie' criterion. Most of the solutions using irregular, large elements were in agreement with the 100-{micro}m grid-independent solutions. The discretization bias correction model did not perform as well when the element aspect ratio exceeded 5:1 and the heated surface was on the shorter side of the element. For validation, SPUF predictions using various sizes and types of elements were compared to component-scale experiments of foam cylinders that were heated with lamps. The SPUF predictions of the decomposition front locations were compared to the front locations determined from real-time X-rays. SPUF predictions of the 19 radiant heat experiments were also compared to a more complex chemistry model (CPUF) predictions made with 1-mm elements. The SPUF predictions of the front locations were closer to the measured front locations than the CPUF predictions, reflecting the more accurate SPUF prediction of mass loss. Furthermore, the computational time for the SPUF predictions was an order of magnitude less than for the CPUF predictions.

Hobbs, Michael L.; Lemmon, Gordon H.

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Disilane-based cyclic deposition/etch of Si, Si:P and Si1?yCy:P layers: I. The elementary process steps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have benchmarked the 550 °C, 20 Torr growth of Si:P and Si1?yCy:P using SiH4 and Si2H6. P segregation has prevented us from reaching P+ ion concentrations in Si higher than a few 1019 cm?3 using SiH4; the resulting surface 'poisoning' led to a severe growth rate reduction. Meanwhile, [P+] increased linearly with the phosphine flow when using Si2H6 as the Si precursor; values as high as 1.7 ? 1020 cm?3 were obtained. The Si:P growth rate using Si2H6 was initially stable then increased as the PH3 flow increased. Mono-methylsilane flows 6.5–10 times higher were needed with Si2H6 than with SiH4 to reach the same substitutional C concentrations in intrinsic Si1?yCy layers ([C]subst. up to 1.9%). Growth rates were approximately six times higher with Si2H6 than with SiH4, however. 30 nm thick Si1?yCy layers became rough as [C]subst. exceeded 1.6% (formation of increasing numbers of islands). We have also studied the structural and electrical properties of 'low' and 'high' C content Si1?yCy:P layers (~ 1.5 and 1.8%, respectively) grown with Si2H6. Adding significant amounts of PH3 led to a reduction of the tensile strain in the films. This was due to the incorporation of P atoms (at the expense of C atoms) in the substitutional sites of the Si matrix. Si1?yCy:P layers otherwise became rough as the PH3 flow increased. Resistivities lower than 1 m? cm were nevertheless associated with those Si1?yCy:P layers, with P atomic concentrations at most 3.9 ? 1020 cm?3. Finally, we have quantified the beneficial impact of adding GeH4 to HCl for the low-temperature etching of Si. Etch rates 12–36 times higher with HCl + GeH4 than with pure HCl were achieved at 20 Torr. Workable etch rates close to 1 nm min?1 were obtained at 600 °C (versus 750 °C for pure HCl), enabling low-temperature cyclic deposition/etch strategies for the selective epitaxial growth of Si, Si:P and Si1?yCy:P layers on patterned wafers.

J M Hartmann; V Benevent; J P Barnes; M Veillerot; C Deguet

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Final Report: Use of Graphite Foam as a Thermal Performance Enhancement of Heavy Hybrid Propulsion Systems  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory's graphite foam has the potential to be used as a heat exchanger for the Army's Future Combat System Manned Ground Vehicle and thus has the potential to improve its thermal performance. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program FLOW3D was used to develop a new CFD model for the graphite foam to be used in the development of a proper heat exchanger. The program was calibrated by first measuring the properties of the solid foams and determining the parameters to be used in the CFD model. Then the model was used to predict within 5% error the performance of finned foam heat sinks. In addition, the f factors and j factors commonly used to predict pressure drop and heat transfer were calculated for both the solid and finned structures. There was some evidence that corrugating the foams would yield higher j/f ratios than state of the art heat exchangers, confirming previously measured data. Because the results show that the CFD model was validated, it is recommended that the funding for Phases 2 through 5 be approved for the design of both the finned heat exchanger using tubes and round fin structures and the solid foam design using corrugated foams. It was found that the new CFD model using FLOW3D can predict both solid foam heat transfer and finned foam heat transfer with the validated model parameters. In addition, it was found that the finned foam structures exhibited j/f ratios that indicate that significant heat transfer is occurring within the fin structures due to aerodynamically induced flow, which is not present in solid aluminum fin structures. It is possible that the foam surfaces can act as turbulators that increase heat transfer without affecting pressure drop, like the vortex generators seen in state of the art heat exchangers. These numbers indicate that the foam can be engineered into an excellent heat exchanger. It was also found that corrugating the solid foams would increase the j/f ratio dramatically, allowing the solid foams to compete directly with standard heat exchangers. Although corrugated L1 foam samples have not been produced (attempts are under way), it is possible that their j/f ratio can be even higher than those of the finned structures.

Klett, James William [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Rigid polyurethane foams in refrigeration. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of rigid polyurethane as thermal insulation in refrigerators. Production machinery, foam systems such as one-shot prepolymer systems, and properties of rigid polyurethane foams used in refrigerators are among the topics discussed. Curing methods, in-place foaming, and bun foaming are also included. (Contains a minimum of 70 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Polyurethane/polyisocyanurate foam thermal insulation. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of polyisocyanurate/polyurethane foam for thermal insulation building materials. The topics discussed include flammability and smoke generation characteristics, building frame sheathing materials, fiber reinforcement, laminated insulation foam boards, substitution for controversial formaldehyde foams and aging characteristics. Performance evaluations of existing buildings with installed foam insulation are included. (Contains a minimum of 187 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Thermal degradation of new and aged urethane foam and epon 826 epoxy.  

SciTech Connect

Thermal desorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the decomposition as a function of temperature for the foam and epoxy as a function of temperature in the range of 60C to 170C. Samples were studied with one day holds at each of the studied temperatures. Both new (FoamN and EpoxyN) and aged (FoamP and EpoxyP) samples were studied. During these ~10 day experiments, the foam samples lost 11 to 13% of their weight and the EpoxyN lost 10% of its weight. The amount of weight lost was difficult to quantify for EpoxyP because of its inert filler. The onset of the appearance of organic degradation products from FoamP began at 110C. Similar products did not appear until 120C for FoamN, suggesting some effect of the previous decades of storage for FoamP. In the case of the epoxies, the corresponding temperatures were 120C for EpoxyP and 110C for EpoxyN. Suggestions for why the aged epoxy seems more stable than newer sample include the possibility of incomplete curing or differences in composition. Recommendation to limit use temperature to 90-100C for both epoxy and foam.

Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Mills, Bernice E.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Honeywell developing low-GWP liquid blowing agent for foam insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Honeywell reports that it is developing a new blowing agent with low global warming potential (GWP) for energy-efficient polyurethane foam insulation. The non-flammable liquid blowing agent will provide customers with an alternative to hydrocarbons and traditional hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and assist customers in reducing the overall environmental impact of foam, the company says.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Short- and Long-Term Releases of Fluorocarbons from Disposal of Polyurethane Foam Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Short- and Long-Term Releases of Fluorocarbons from Disposal of Polyurethane Foam Waste ... In another study by Bomberg and Brandreth12 foam samples showed that around 30% of the CFC-11 was present in the PUR phase after 11 years of laboratory storage. ... and diffusivity for these blowing agents in polyurethane are explained in terms of the soly. ...

Peter Kjeldsen; Charlotte Scheutz

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Liquid Foams D. Weaire, S.J. Cox and K. Brakke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is clumsy in English and it is elusive in French. The book is mainly based upon a series of papers of Foams (Weaire and Hutzler 1999) is a broad introduction, mostly con- centrating on liquid foams, close to the optimum for electrical or thermal conductivity (Durand et al. 2004). For other properties

Cox, Simon

225

Effect of Gas Diffusion on Mobility of Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery Lars E. Nonnekes1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Gas Diffusion on Mobility of Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery Lars E. Nonnekes1 Foam can improve the sweep efficiency of gas injected into oil reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery University William Richard Rossen Email: W.R.Rossen@tudelft.nl Abstract Transport of gas across

Cox, Simon

226

Radiation Resistant Foams | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Radiation Resistant Foams Radiation Resistant Foams Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights Highlight Archives News & Events Publications Contact BES Home 04.27.12 Radiation Resistant Foams Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Scientific Achievement Experiments and computer simulations demonstrate that nanoscale gold foams can be designed for radiation resistanceSignificance and Impact May lead to the design of new radiation resistant materials that extend the lifetime and increase the safety of nuclear reactors.Research Details The optimal nanostructural design appears to be the consequence of the combined effect of two length scales dependent on the irradiation conditions: (i) foams with ligament diameters below a minimum value melt

227

Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth on low-density foam targets  

SciTech Connect

In recent laser fusion programs, foam cryogenic targets have been developed as promising targets which have a great potential to realize efficient nuclear fusion. The foam is porous plastic material having a microstructure inside. We observed the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability on the foam target with initial surface perturbation for the first time. The measured RT growth rate on the foam target was clearly suppressed in comparison to that of normal-density polystyrene (CH) targets. The values of the RT growth rate for the low-density foam target and the normal-density CH target were 0.84{+-}0.15 (1/ns) and 1.33{+-}0.1 (1/ns), respectively.

Watari, T.; Nakai, M.; Azechi, H.; Sakaiya, T.; Shiraga, H.; Shigemori, K.; Fujioka, S.; Otani, K.; Nagai, K.; Sunahara, A.; Nagatomo, H.; Mima, K. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-Oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange: foam impact in hurricane conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A physical model is proposed for the estimation of the foam impact on the variation of the effective drag coefficient, C_d, with reference to the wind speed U10 in stormy and hurricane conditions. In the present model C_d is approximated by partitioning the sea surface into foam-covered and foam-free areas. Based on the available optical and radiometric measurements of the fractional foam coverage and the characteristic roughness of the sea-surface in the saturation limit of the foam coverage, the model yields the resulting dependence of C_d vs U10. This dependence is in fair agreement with that evaluated from field measurements of the vertical variation of the mean wind speed.

Golbraikh, Ephim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring  

SciTech Connect

IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Effect of different secondary quinoline insoluble content on the cellular structure of carbon foam derived from coal tar pitch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Carbon foam was produced using mesophase pitches obtained under different temperatures as precursors, via foaming and carbonization process. The physicochemical properties of mesophase pitch, as well as the microstructure and physical properties of carbon foam were investigated by optical microscope, infrared spectrometer, thermograviment analyzer (TGA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and universal testing machine, respectively. The results show that the amount of secondary quinoline insoluble in mesophase pitches increase with heat-treatment temperature increase, meanwhile, the cell size of carbon foams increased firstly and then reduced. Moreover, the compressive strength of carbon foams also exhibited the same variation trend. The cellular structure of carbon foam can be severely affected by the secondary quinoline insoluble content of mesophase pitch; thus it is critical to tailor the secondary quinoline insoluble content of mesophase pitch for obtaining carbon foam with high performance.

Heguang Liu; Tiehu Li; Yachun Shi; Xilin Wang; Jing Lv; Wenjuan Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Computational study of laser imprint mitigation in foam-buffered inertial confinement fusion targets  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments have shown that low density foam layers can significantly mitigate the perturbing effects of beam nonuniformities affecting the acceleration of thin shells. This problem is studied parametrically with two-dimensional LASNEX [G. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion {bold 2}, 51 (1975)]. Foam-buffered targets are employed, consisting typically of 250 {Angstrom} of gold, and 50 {mu}m of 50mg/cm{sup 3} C{sub 10}H{sub 8}O{sub 4} foam attached to a 10 {mu}m foil. In simulation these were characteristically exposed to 1.2 ns, flat-topped green light pulses at 1.4{times}10{sup 14}W/cm{sup 2} intensity, bearing 30 {mu}m lateral perturbations of up to 60{percent} variation in intensity. Without the buffer layers the foils were severely disrupted by 1 ns. With buffering only minimal distortion was manifest at 3 ns. The smoothing is shown to derive principally from the high thermal conductivity of the heated foam. The simulation results imply that (1) the foam thickness should exceed the disturbance wavelength; (2) intensities exceeding 5{times}10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2} are needed for assured stability beyond 2 ns; (3) longer foams at lower densities are needed for effective mitigation with shorter wavelength light; (4) the gold layer hastens conversion of the structured foam to a uniform plasma. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Mason, R.J.; Kopp, R.A.; Vu, H.X.; Wilson, D.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Watt, R.G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dunne, M. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)] [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Willi, O. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London SW72BZ (United Kingdom)] [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London SW72BZ (United Kingdom)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high concentration of Ti  

SciTech Connect

Low-density foams irradiated by a 20 kJ laser at the Omega laser facility (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY, USA) are shown to convert more than 5% of the laser energy into 4.6 to 6.0?keV x rays. This record efficiency with foam targets is due to novel fabrication techniques based on atomic-layer-deposition of Ti atoms on an aerogel scaffold. A Ti concentration of 33 at.?% was obtained in a foam with a total density of 5?mg/cm{sup 3}. The dynamics of the ionization front through these foams were investigated at the 1 kJ laser of the Gekko XII facility (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan). Hydrodynamic simulations can reproduce the average electron temperature but fail to predict accurately the heat front velocity in the foam. This discrepancy is shown to be unrelated to the possible water adsorbed in the foam but could be attributed to effects of the foam micro-structure.

Pérez, F., E-mail: perez75@llnl.gov; Patterson, J. R.; May, M.; Colvin, J. D.; Biener, M. M.; Wittstock, A.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Charnvanichborikarn, S.; Satcher, J. H.; Gammon, S. A.; Poco, J. F.; Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fujioka, S.; Zhang, Z.; Ishihara, K.; Tanaka, N.; Ikenouchi, T.; Nishimura, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

Orientation of tectonic stresses in central Kentucky during U. Devonian/L. Mississippian times: Evidence from quartz veins (after gypsum) in NE-trending, systematic joints in shales  

SciTech Connect

Quartz replacing fibrous gypsum and anhydrite pseudomorphically (QAS; quartz after sulfate''), and preserving characteristic crack-seal'' and chickenwire'' textures, occurs in extensional veins at four locations in central KY. The veins occupy a systematic set of NE-SW-trending, vertical joints within the essentially flat-lying shales of the Renfro Member of the Mississippian Borden Formation and the Late Devonian New Albany Shale. The four QAS occurrences discovered to date are located northeast of the Borden Front. At one site in the New Albany Shale, QAS veins show clear evidence of penecontemporaneous deformation. It is proposed that at all QAS locations, gypsum precipitated in incipient joints before complete lithification of the sediment, and grew perpendicular to the fractures to form extensional veins in the soft but firm muds. The orientations of the joints now marked by QAS veins are broadly consistent with regional patterns of NE-SW-trending systematic joints and lineaments in southern IN and in central and eastern KY. These systematic fracture patterns do not correspond directly to known basement faults or rift systems, although they are consistent with modern stress directions in eastern and western KY, measured in situ in wells and by earthquake fault-plane solutions. It is proposed that this systematic trend marks the regional tectonic stress pattern characteristic of southern IN and central and eastern KY at, and since the Late Devonian. The evidence of penecontemporaneous sedimentary deformation in joints of U. Devonian age, marked and preserved by quartz replacement of early gypsum, is sufficient to show that while the systematic NE-trending joint set in KY may also be modern it is not uniquely so.

Grover, J.; Dupuis-Nouille, E.M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Structure of Liquid Films of an Ordered Foam Confined in a Narrow Channel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray experiments highlighted the equality of the equilibrium thickness for each film within a foam. ... 14 Recent experiments performed by A. Le Goff and D. Quéré revealed that this type of foam can stop solid particles without making burst films, which constitutes a useful tool to study the kinetic energy absorption properties in aqueous foams. ... The other part was filtered through a green optical filter (546 nm, bandpass 10 nm) and was collected in a Gamma scientific ocular equipped with a 450 ?m optic fiber probe. ...

Emmanuel Terriac; Franck Artzner; Alain Moréac; Cristelle Meriadec; Patrick Chasle; Jean-Claude Ameline; Jérémy Ohana; Janine Emile

2007-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

235

Steam-foam pilot project in Dome-Tumbador, Midway-Sunset field  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a steam-foam pilot project in the Potter sand, Midway-Sunset field. The pilot consists of four inverted five-spot patterns with a confined producer covering 5.2 acres (2.1 ha). Steam foam was generated by continuous injection of steam with NaCl, alpha olefin sodium sulfonate, and nitrogen. Production and subsurface data, obtained from two observation wells, were used as monitoring tools in the pilot. Overall, during the first 2 years of foam injection, 207,000 bbl (32 900 m/sup 3/) of incremental oil was produced.

Not Available

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

DOE Zero Energy Ready Home: Montlake Modern - Seattle, Washington...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

ft2 custom home has 6-inch SIP walls, a 12-inch SIP roof, an R-28 ICF-insulated foundation slab edge with R-20 rigid foam under the slab; an air-to-water heat pump plus...

237

DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: TC Legend Homes, Bellingham...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1,055-ft2 two-story production home has 6-in. SIP walls, a 10-in. SIP roof, and ICF foundation walls with R-20 high-density rigid EPS foam under the slab. A single ductless heat...

238

Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys  

SciTech Connect

With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (? 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS] [CanmetMATERIALS; Griffin, John A. [University of Alabama - Birmingham] [University of Alabama - Birmingham

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

Polyol-Based Rigid Urethane Foam Systems Kansas City Division  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

A Study of Polyether-Polyol- and Polyester- A Study of Polyether-Polyol- and Polyester- Polyol-Based Rigid Urethane Foam Systems Kansas City Division J. P. Madden, G. K. Baker, and 6. H. Smith BDX-613-531 Published September 1971 Replacement Copy Delivered December 1994 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Prepared Under Contract Number DE-AC04-76-DP00613 for the United States Department of Energy tlHSTRI8UVON OF THlS DOCUMENT I S UNUMED f- DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus,

240

Plastic flow of foams and emulsions in a channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to understand the flow profiles of complex fluids, a crucial issue concerns the emergence of spatial correlations among plastic rearrangements exhibiting cooperativity flow behaviour at the macroscopic level. In this paper, the rate of plastic events in a Poiseuille flow is experimentally measured on a confined foam in a Hele-Shaw geometry. The correlation with independently measured velocity profiles is quantified. To go beyond a limitation of the experiments, namely the presence of wall friction which complicates the relation between shear stress and shear rate, we compare the experiments with simulations of emulsion droplets based on the lattice-Boltzmann method, which are performed both with, and without, wall friction. Our results indicate a correlation between the localisation length of the velocity profiles and the localisation length of the number of plastic events. Finally, unprecedented results on the distribution of the orientation of plastic events show that there is a non-trivial correla...

Dollet, B; Sbragaglia, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Bubble Production Mechanism in a Microfluidic Foam Generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the design and characterization of a microfluidic bubble generator that has the potential of producing monodisperse bubbles in 256 production channels that can operate in parallel. For a single production channel we demonstrate a production rate of up to 4 kHz with a coefficient of variation of less than 1%. We observe a two-stage bubble production mechanism: initially the gas spreads onto a shallow terrace, and then overflows into a larger foam collection channel; pinning of the liquid-gas meniscus is observed at the terrace edge, the result being an asymmetric pinch-off. A semiempirical physical model predicts the scaling of bubble size with fluid viscosity and gas pressure from measurements of the pinned meniscus width.

M. Stoffel; S. Wahl; E. Lorenceau; R. Höhler; B. Mercier; D. E. Angelescu

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

242

Activated carbon system cuts foaming and amine losses  

SciTech Connect

Alkanolamines have been successfully used to treat sour gas for removal of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ for over 30 years. More recently, alkanolamines have also been used to purify flue gas, liquid hydrocarbon streams and process gas streams. Acid gas must be scrubbed because of the lack of heating value of CO/sub 2/, the toxicity of H/sub 2/S and the corrosiveness of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S in wet gas. During the scrubbing process, other compounds which form degradation products are absorbed by the amine; these degradation products cause fouling of the amine, corrosion and foaming. Southwestern Refining Co., Inc., in Corpus Christi, Texas, installed a diethanolamine (DEA) treatment system to purify sour gas and liquid hydrocarbon streams in 1975. The amine unit was not used until May, 1982, however, because the sulfur content of the gas stream was low until then.

Keaton, M.M.; Bourke, M.J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Self-Similar Collapse of Stationary Bulk Foams Tad W. Patzek  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), oil well drilling and workovers (Hutchinson and Anderson, 1972; Rand and Kraynik, 1983), and froth again. Preformed drilling foams are used to lift crushed rock, sand or mud, and their lifetimes

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

244

Low gas-liquid ratio foam flooding for conventional heavy oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The recovery of heavy oil by water flooding is 10% lower than that of conventional crude oil, so enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is of great significance for heavy oil. In this paper, foam flooding with a gas-liqu...

Jing Wang; Jijiang Ge; Guicai Zhang; Baodong Ding; Li Zhang…

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR GENERAL PURPOSE RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS  

SciTech Connect

Polyurethane foam has been employed in impact limiters for large radioactive materials packagings since the early 1980's. Its consistent crush response, controllable structural properties and excellent thermal insulating characteristics have made it attractive as replacement for the widely used cane fiberboard for smaller, drum size packagings. Accordingly, polyurethane foam was chosen for the overpack material for the 9977 and 9978 packagings. The study reported here was undertaken to provide data to support the analyses performed as part of the development of the 9977 and 9978, and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

2009-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

246

Time domain terahertz detection of flaws within space shuttle sprayed on foam insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate the detection of voids and disbonds intentionally incorporated within the sprayed on foam insulation of a space shuttle external tank mock-up segment using time domain...

Zimdars, David A; Valdmanis, Janis A; White, Jeffrey S; Winfree, William P; Madaras, Eric I; Stuk, G

247

Developing & tailoring multi-functional carbon foams for multi-field response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As technological advances occur, many conventional materials are incapable of providing the unique multi-functional characteristics demanded thus driving an accelerated focus to create new material systems such as carbon and graphite foams...

Sarzynski, Melanie Diane

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Mechanisms of nanoclay-enhanced plastic foaming processes: effects of nanoclay intercalation and exfoliation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The foaming behaviors of high-density polypropylene–nanoclay composites with intercalated and exfoliated nanoclay particles blown with carbon dioxide were examined ... -temperature/high-pressure view-cell. The in...

Anson Wong; Stephan F. L. Wijnands; Takashi Kuboki…

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Composites: Part B 44 (2013) 584591 584 Tensile Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Multiscale Syntactic Foams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

packing limit. The use of nanoclay and carbon nanofibers for matrix modification in syntactic foams that may be attributed to the large surface area of nanoclay platelets available to bonds with the resin

Gupta, Nikhil

250

A study on rigid foam/evacuated powder composite panels for thermal insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study investigates the feasibility of a composite panel: a series of individually evacuated panels incapsulated in a rigid closed cell foam matrix. The panels were encapsulated in a thin glass shee...

L. R. Glicksman; N. Solomou; J. K. Hong

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

An experimental study of the heat transfer in PS foam insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat transfer mechanisms in 14 samples of vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) are examined to reveal the influence of porous foam structure on VIP performance. The samples were ... house equipment that was able to va...

Pen-Chang Tseng; Hsin-Sen Chu

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

An Analytical Model for Determining the Thermal Conductivity of Closed-Cell Foam Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to present analytical methods and some preliminary test results for determining the thermal conductivity and net heat flow in closed-cell foam materials used as cryogenic insulation. ...

M. B. Hammond Jr.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Foamed epoxy resin composite waterproofing and heat insulation in hydraulic construction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory and field tests and work on an experimental-industrial scale confimed the feasibility of using foamed epoxy resin heat insulation and waterproofing for protecting hydraulic engineering structures...

V. I. Sakharov

1969-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Optimization of functionally graded metallic foam insulation under transient heat transfer conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The problem of minimizing the maximum temperature of a structure insulated by a functionally graded metal foam insulation under transient heat conduction is studied. First, the performance of insulation designed ...

H. Zhu; B.V. Sankar; R.T. Haftka…

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

E-Print Network 3.0 - abrogating foam cell Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mathematics 2 List of Publications 1. E. Amsterdam, P.R. Onck, J.Th.M. De Hosson. Fracture and microstructure of Summary: of open-cell aluminium foam. Journal of Materials...

256

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium foam core Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mathematics 5 List of Publications 1. E. Amsterdam, P.R. Onck, J.Th.M. De Hosson. Fracture and microstructure of Summary: of open-cell aluminium foam. Journal of Materials...

257

Sound insulation property of Al–Si closed-cell aluminum foam sandwich panels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Al–Si closed-cell aluminum foam sandwich panels (1240 mm × 1100 mm) of different thicknesses and different densities were prepared by molten body transitional foaming process in Northeastern University. The experiments were carried out to investigate the sound insulation property of Al–Si closed-cell aluminum foam sandwich panels of different thicknesses and different densities under different frequencies (100–4000 Hz). Results show that sound reduction index (R) is small under low frequencies, large under high frequencies; thickness affects the sound insulation property of material obviously: when the thicknesses of Al–Si closed-cell aluminum foam sandwich panels are 12, 22, and 32 mm, the corresponding weighted sound reduction indices (RW) are 26.3, 32.2, and 34.6 dB, respectively, the rising trend tempered; the increase of density of Al–Si closed-cell aluminum foam can also increase the sound insulation property: when the densities of aluminum foam are 0.31, 0.51, and 0.67 g/cm3, the corresponding weighted sound reduction indices (RW) are 28.9, 34.3, and 34.6 dB, the increasing value mitigating.

Haijun Yu; Guangchun Yao; Xiaolin Wang; Yihan Liu; Hongbin Li

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

'Dark Matter' as a Quantum Foam In-Flow Effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The galactic `dark matter' effect is regarded as one of the major problems in fundamental physics. Here it is explained as a self-interaction dynamical effect of space itself, and so is not caused by an unknown form of matter. Because it was based on Kepler's Laws for the motion of the planets in the solar system the Newtonian theory of gravity was too restricted. A reformulation and generalisation of the Newtonian theory of gravity in terms of a velocity in-flow field, representing at a classical level the relative motion of a quantum-foam substructure to space, reveals a key dynamical feature of the phenomenon of gravity, namely the so called `dark matter' effect, which manifests not only in spiral galaxy rotation curves, but also in the borehole g anomaly, globular and galactic black holes, and in ongoing problems in improving the accuracy with which Newton's gravitational constant G is measured. The new theory of gravity involves an additional new dimensionless gravitational constant, and experimental data reveals this to be the fine structure constant. The new theory correctly predicts the globular cluster black hole masses, and that the `frame-dragging' effect is caused by vorticity in the in-flow. The relationship of the new theory of gravity to General Relativity which, like Newtonian gravity, does not have the `dark matter' dynamics, is explained.

Reginald T. Cahill

2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

259

Influence of pH of the BSA solutions on velocity of the rising bubbles and stability of the thin liquid films and foams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Influence of pH of the BSA solutions on velocity of the rising bubbles, stability of foams, and properties of single foam...IEP...=4.8) the BSA showed the highest surface activity. The equilibrium microscopic foa...

J. Zawala; R. Todorov; A. Olszewska; D. Exerowa; K. Malysa

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Characterization of corrosive agents in polyurethane foams for thermal insulation of pipelines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal insulated pipelines consists of a pipe, an optional anticorrosive coating, covered by rigid polyurethane (PU) foam and an outer casing made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). In this paper, a methodology to investigate corrosion under thermal insulation and the compatibility between the polyurethane foams and anticorrosive coatings was developed. It consists of chemical, electrochemical and mass loss tests in aqueous extracts of the foams. The aqueous extracts were prepared according to an adaptation of ASTM C871 standard, taking into account the temperature range commonly employed in pipes operations of heavy petroleum derivatives. The chemical analysis of the extracts included pH, conductivity, phosphate, chloride and fluoride contents. Mass loss, electrochemical impedance and linear polarization were accomplished in autoclave. The influence of temperature, flame retardant and blowing agent was considered on the generation of corrosive agents. It was verified that the content of chloride in the foams is a very important parameter that must be controlled. Still in this paper, the compatibility of polyurethane foams with anticorrosive coatings is preliminary evaluated. The results show that investments on a proper coating selection are essential to guarantee good performance.

F.V.V. de Sousa; R.O. da Mota; J.P. Quintela; M.M. Vieira; I.C.P. Margarit; O.R. Mattos

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Experimental study on cryogenic moisture uptake in polyurethane foam insulation material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rigid foam is widely used to insulate cryogenic tanks, in particular for space launch vehicles due to its lightweight, mechanical strength and thermal-insulating performance. Up to now, little information is available on the intrusion of moisture into the material under cryogenic conditions, which will bring substantial additional weight for the space vehicles at lift-off. A cryogenic moisture uptake apparatus has been designed and fabricated to measure the amount of water uptake into the polyurethane foam. One side of the specimen is exposed to an environment with high humidity and ambient temperature, while the other with cryogenic temperature at approximately 78 K. A total of 16 specimens were tested for up to 24 h to explore the effects of the surface thermal protection layer, the foam thickness, exposed time, the butt joints, and the material density on water uptake of the foam. The results are constructive for the applications of the foam to the cryogenic insulation system in space launch vehicles.

X.B. Zhang; L. Yao; L.M. Qiu; Z.H. Gan; R.P. Yang; X.J. Ma; Z.H. Liu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

DESIGN OF FOAM COVERING FOR ROBOTIC ARMS TO ENSURE HUMAN SAFETY Lingqi Zeng and Gary M. Bone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DESIGN OF FOAM COVERING FOR ROBOTIC ARMS TO ENSURE HUMAN SAFETY Lingqi Zeng and Gary M. Bone neglected coupling of the human head to the torso and the coupling of the robot arm to its base. The impact and maintain, which limits their applicability. Using foam to cover the robot arm surface is a simple

Bone, Gary

263

Materials Science and Engineering A, 2006. 417(1-2): p. 249-258 249 Investigation of Flexural Strength Properties of Rubber and Nanoclay Reinforced Hybrid Syntactic Foams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strength Properties of Rubber and Nanoclay Reinforced Hybrid Syntactic Foams Rahul Maharsia* , Nikhil Gupta are developed by using rubber and nanoclay particles to modify the matrix microstructure in syntactic foams% by volume quantity. In nanoclay hybrid foams, volume of nanoclay particles is maintained at 2 and 5

Gupta, Nikhil

264

Validation of Heat Transfer Thermal Decomposition and Container Pressurization of Polyurethane Foam.  

SciTech Connect

Polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of polymers can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of PMDI-based polyurethane foam is presented to assess the validity of the computational model. Both experimental measurement uncertainty and model prediction uncertainty are examined and compared. Both the mean value method and Latin hypercube sampling approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. In addition to comparing computational and experimental results, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation result is also investigated. These results show that further development in the physics model of the foam and appropriate associated material testing are necessary to improve model accuracy.

Scott, Sarah Nicole; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Suo-Anttila, Jill M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Erickson, Kenneth L

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Shear properties on aluminum metal foams prepared by the melt route  

SciTech Connect

The shear modulus and shear strength of AlSi7Mg Aluminum foam with 15% (vol) of 13 {micro}m SiC particles were determined through shear testing. A foam slab with a density of 0.31 g/cm3 was supplied by Hydro Aluminium. Four samples were tested according to ASTM C 273-61. The specimens were bonded to steel load plates. The relative displacement of the plates was measured using two extensometers. In order to evaluate the effect of the cell size distribution on shear properties, cell size and material distribution analyses were carried out for the metal foam slab in areas close to those from which the shear specimens were extracted. A fast failure was observed after the maximum shear load. The failure in the samples were located in the central section of the slab mainly because the lower density was located there.

Saenz, E. [UTRC GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Technologiezentrum; Baranda, P.S. [UTRC, S.L., Minano (Spain); Bonhomme, J. [ITMA, Coruno-Llanera (Spain). Parque Tecnologico de Asturias

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Low density microcellular carbon or catalytically impregnated carbon foams and process for their preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Machinable and structurally stable, low density microcellular carbon, and catalytically impregnated carbon, foams, and process for their preparation, are provided. Pulverized sodium chloride is classified to improve particle size uniformity, and the classified particles may be further mixed with a catalyst material. The particles are cold pressed into a compact having internal pores, and then sintered. The sintered compact is immersed and then submerged in a phenolic polymer solution to uniformly fill the pores of the compact with phenolic polymer. The compact is then heated to pyrolyze the phenolic polymer into carbon in the form of a foam. Then the sodium chloride of the compact is leached away with water, and the remaining product is freeze dried to provide the carbon, or catalytically impregnated carbon, foam.

Hooper, R.W.; Pekala, R.W.

1987-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

8 - Bioactive glass and glass–ceramic foam scaffolds for bone tissue restoration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: One of the major goals of bone tissue engineering is the development of appropriate porous biomaterials (scaffolds) that can stimulate the body’s own regenerative mechanism, to induce tissue healing and self-repair. Bioactive glasses are excellent candidates for producing 3-D scaffolds, as their properties can be finely tailored depending on the glass composition, and they can bond to bone, inducing osteogenesis at the defect site. This chapter is focused on glass/glass–ceramic scaffolds characterized by foam-like architecture closely mimicking that of natural cancellous bone. After giving an overview of the features and limitations of the biomedical glass foams investigated in the literature, future directions of research will be described, emphasizing the challenge to develop multifunctional foams able to combine bone regeneration with special therapeutic functionalities.

F. Baino; C. Vitale-Brovarone

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Aging of polyurethane foam insulation in simulated refrigerator panels -- Initial results with third-generation blowing agents  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements -- HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and {minus}10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for about 250 days of aging for the core-foam specimens and for the first six months of aging for the full-thickness panels.

Wilkes, K.E.; Gabbard, W.A.; Weaver, F.J.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--One-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and {minus}10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first year of a multi-year study for the full-thickness panels and for about 1-1/2 years of aging for the core-foam specimens.

Gabbard, W.A.; Weaver, F.J.; Wilkes, K.E.

1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

270

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing  

SciTech Connect

Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. The incidents related to rainwater leakage and condensation concerns. Condensation concerns have been extensively studied by others and are not further discussed in this report. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Key Findings of Liquefied Natural Gas Pool Fire Outdoor Tests with Expansion Foam Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(12, 13) These tests identified that a foam application rate of 10 L/min·m2 is effective for LNG pool fire control on concrete containment pits. ... (17) As seen in Figure 5, the flame height increased steadily up to 13.13 m during free burn (36 s period); subsequently, foam was applied at 37 s. ... Subsequently, the level changes were converted into the mass-burning rate using the LNG density (450 kg/m3?(18, 19)) and the dimensions of the pit. ...

Geunwoong Yun; Dedy Ng; M. Sam Mannan

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

272

Rigid Polyurethane Foam (RPF) Technology for Countermines (Sea) Program Phase II  

SciTech Connect

This Phase II report documents the results of one subtask initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of Rigid Polyurethane Foams for neutralization of mines and barriers in amphibious assault was the objective of the tasking. This phase of the program concentrated on formation of RPF in water, explosive mine simulations, and development of foam and fabric pontoons. Field experimentation was done primarily at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM between February 1996 and September 1998.

WOODFIN,RONALD L.; FAUCETT,DAVID L.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.; LATHAM,AMY E.; SCHMIDT,C.O.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control  

SciTech Connect

Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A mixture of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. The mixture is single phase for higher salinity or calcium concentrations than that for either surfactant used alone. This makes it possible to inject the surfactant slug with polymer close to optimal conditions and yet be single phase. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. It uses partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for mobility control. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of naphthenic soap and significant reduction of synthetic surfactant adsorption. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT takes advantage of the observation that the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Even for a fixed ratio of soap to surfactant, the range of salinity for low IFT was wider than that reported for surfactant systems in the literature. Low temperature, forced displacement experiments in dolomite and silica sandpacks demonstrate that greater than 95% recovery of the waterflood remaining oil is possible with 0.2% surfactant concentration, 0.5 PV surfactant slug, with no alcohol. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the role of soap/surfactant ratio on passage of the profile through the ultralow IFT region, the importance of a wide salinity range of low IFT, and the importance of the viscosity of the surfactant slug. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs as well as a drive fluid for ASP flooding. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability produced by surfactant injection.

George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller

2006-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

274

Design and development of a multi-shot foam projectile toy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this research was to design and develop a working prototype of a new toy for Hasbro®'s Nerfe line of foam projectile toys. Several years ago, Hasbro approached the MIT CADlab about developing a new method for ...

Skaggs, Alan M. (Alan Michael)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Society of Petroleum Engineers Simulation of Foam Transport in Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Society of Petroleum Engineers SPE 26402 Simulation of Foam Transport in Porous Media A.R. Kovscek, T.W. Patzek, and C.J. Radke, U. of California SPE Members Copyright 1993, Society of Petroleum and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers held in Houston, Texas, 3-6 October 1993. This paper

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

276

High-expansion foam for LNG vapor mitigation. Topical report, September 1987-December 1989  

SciTech Connect

One of the purposes of these high expansion foam systems is to reduce the extent of the hazardous vapor cloud generated during an accidental LNG release. Should the LNG ignite, these systems serve the additional function of controlling the LNG fire and minimizing its radiation to the surroundings. Foam generators have been installed along the tops of dike walls surrounding some LNG storage tanks, and around other fenced containment areas where LNG may be accidentally released, such as LNG pump pits and pipe rack trenches. To date there are no technically justifiable guidelines for the design and installation of these systems. Furthermore, there are no models that may be used describe the vapor source so as to be able to predict the reduction in the hazardous vapor cloud zone when high expansion foam is applied to an LNG spill. Information is essential not only for the optimal design of high expansion foam systems, but also for comparing the cost effectiveness of alternative LNG vapor mitigation measures.

Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.; Peterlinz, M.E.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 455460 Breeder foam: an innovative low porosity solid breeder material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 455­460 Breeder foam: an innovative low porosity solid@ucla.edu (S. Sharafat). breeder pebble beds remains a field of intense R&D for fusion power reactor B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2005.06.374 #12;456 S. Sharafat et al. / Fusion

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

278

Removal of oil from water using polyurethane foam modified with nanoclay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To enhance the removal of oil contaminants from water, polyurethane foam structure was modified by integrating cloisite 20A nanoclay into it. Pure and modified polyurethane foams (nanocomposite adsorbents) were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests. Optimum weight fraction of the added cloisite 20A to the foam structure was 3 wt%, improving the sorption capacity up to 16% and oil removal efficiency up to 56% in water–oil system. The reusability feature of blank polyurethane and nanocomposites with 3 wt% and 4 wt% of cloisite 20A nanoclay was studied through chemical regeneration by toluene and petroleum ether. In the case of structurally modified polyurethane foams with nanoclay (nanocomposites), chemical regeneration reduced the oil removal efficiency, but improved the adsorption capacity in the range of low to medium oil initial concentration and reduced it in high oil initial concentrations. A comparison between the obtained adsorption data and adsorption isotherm models, including Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson, showed a good agreement with Langmuir and Redlich–Peterson models.

Amir Ahmad Nikkhah; Hamid Zilouei; Ahmad Asadinezhad; Alireza Keshavarz

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Two-dimensional flows of foam: drag exerted on circular obstacles and dissipation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Stokes experiment for foams is proposed. It consists in a two-dimensional flow of a foam, confined between a water subphase and a top plate, around a fixed circular obstacle. We present systematic measurements of the drag exerted by the flowing foam on the obstacle, \\emph{versus} various separately controlled parameters: flow rate, bubble volume, solution viscosity, obstacle size and boundary conditions. We separate the drag into two contributions, an elastic one (yield drag) at vanishing flow rate, and a fluid one (viscous coefficient) increasing with flow rate. We quantify the influence of each control parameter on the drag. The results exhibit in particular a power-law dependence of the drag as a function of the solution viscosity and the flow rate with two different exponents. Moreover, we show that the drag decreases with bubble size, increases with obstacle size, and that the effect of boundary conditions is small. Measurements of the streamwise pressure gradient, associated to the dissipation along the flow of foam, are also presented: they show no dependence on the presence of an obstacle, and pressure gradient depends on flow rate, bubble volume and solution viscosity with three independent power laws.

Benjamin Dollet; Florence Elias; Catherine Quilliet; Arnaud Huillier; Miguel Aubouy; Francois Graner

2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

280

Effect of Anisotropic Volume Change in Tin Phosphate Nanoparticle Anode Material with Mesocellular Foam Structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, PO = propylene oxide . This material has a mesocelluar foam structure. Experimental Pluronic P123 10 g, BASF were dissolved in 40 mL of distilled water into which 8.8 g of H3PO4 had been previously

Cho, Jaephil

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Synthesis and characterization of melamine–formaldehyde rigid foams for vacuum thermal insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel core material for vacuum thermal insulation, the melamine–formaldehyde (MF) rigid foam was processed from an emulsion of the melamine–formaldehyde resin at temperatures between 130 °C and 150 °C, using pentane as the blowing agent. The achieved porosity was between 92% and 98%. Open pore structure with desired mechanical properties was achieved by variations of the initial chemical composition of liquid reactants and controlled foaming and hardening, employing classical heating. The average pore size was determined directly by SEM and indirectly by measuring the thermal conductivity in a wide pressure range from 10?3 mbar to the atmosphere. Optimization of the synthesis resulted in the base thermal conductivity equal to only 0.006 W m?1 K?1 and an extremely low outgassing rate. The long-term pressure-rise measurements indicate that these MF rigid foams could be the first organic candidates applied as the core material in Vacuum Insulating Panels (VIPs) whose performance may be comparable to selected inorganic core materials. Their further advantages compared to conventional organic foams are their stability, as they can withstand a temperature in excess of 200 °C, and good fire resistance.

V. Nemani?; B. Zajec; M. Žumer; N. Figar; M. Kavšek; I. Miheli?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Elaboration And Characterization Of Foam Glass Based On Cullet With Addition Of Soluble Silicates  

SciTech Connect

The politics of the energy saving and of the acoustic comfort buildings is at the heart of the research of new compounds permitting to improve the materials performance actually commercialised. With this aim in view, we'll purpose to elaborate a porous material (foam glass) with addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) of which the principal material is the waste glass in order to recycle it and improving the present laws about the waste products in closed circuit: (Finished products (leftarrow) waste products (leftarrow) finished products). The investigations have shown that grinding waste glass to particle size less than 0.1 mm and adding 1% of Ca CO{sub 3} content provide production of material with the following properties: particle density 0,5 g/cm{sup 3}, strength 17,50 MPa and water adsorption 95%, the temperature for foaming ranges were determined at 850 deg. C. The microstructures are homogenous, with pore sizes up to 2 mm. The addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) has resulted in the foam glass of very high porosity. The foam glass is counted among the new glass products meeting certain requirements sought comfort in the building industry in particular (thermal and acoustic insulation). The product obtained present of excellent properties thermal ({lambda} = 0,031 W/m deg. C) and acoustic (R = 15 dB).

Ayadi, A.; Stiti, N.; Benhaoua, F.; Boumchedda, K.; Lerari, Y. [Laboratory of mineral materials and composite, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, University of Boumerdes (Algeria)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

283

Geophysical Monitoring of Foam used to Deliver Remediation1 Treatments within the Vadose Zone2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for transport of pollutants from the ground surface37 to ground water. Contaminants in the vadose zone1 Geophysical Monitoring of Foam used to Deliver Remediation1 Treatments within the Vadose Zone2 3 amendments into the vadose zone for in situ11 remediation; it is an approach being considered for in situ

Hubbard, Susan

284

Aging of polyurethane insulation foamed with second- and third-generation blowing agents  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented on two studies of the effect of aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators. Both studies are cooperative projects between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Appliance Research Consortium. The first study has been ongoing for four years and involves evaluation of second generation blowing agents: HCFC-141b and HCFC-142/22 blend with CFC-11 for comparison. The second study has recently started and involves third generation blowing agents: HFC-134a, HFC-245fa. and cyclopentane with HCFC-141b for comparison. Both studies consist of periodic thermal measurements on panels made with solid steel and/or plastic skins and a core of foam to simulate refrigerator walls, and measurements on thin slices with cut faces to characterize the core foam. Laboratory data are presented on four years of aging of panels containing second generation blowing agents. Preliminary data are presented for the third generation blowing agents. The data on panels are compared with predictions of computer models of foam aging.

Wilkes, K.E.; Gabbard, W.A.; Weaver, F.J.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Liquid meniscus friction on a wet plate: Bubbles, lamellae and foams Isabelle Cantat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. For enhanced oil recovery [1­3], or soil remediation [4], liquid foams are pushed into porous media to displace]; innovative set-ups are developed to control bubbles motion in micro-channels for lab-on-a-chip applications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

A free boundary problem modeling a foam drainage Thierry Colin and Pierre Fabrie,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1) where is given by = C 2g Ai . Here is the coefficient of surface tension, C = 3 - /2 is a complex porous medium which consists in a set of gaz bubbles which faces are liquid films that contain in order to understand the stability properties of the foam, which has many industrial applications (see [6

Colin, Thierry

287

Foam drainage control using thermocapillary stress in a two-dimensional microchamber. V. Miralles1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an interface between two fluids due to a temperature-induced surface tension gradient. We demonstrate in manufacturing such discrete materials is to con- trol the foam stabilization [10�12], or destabilization [13, 14 the liquid films, and iii) coalescence of neighboring bubbles [15]. Although microflu- idics has proven

Boyer, Edmond

288

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect

Uses for structured catalytic supports, such as ceramic straight-channel monoliths and ceramic foams, have been established for a long time. One of the most prominent examples is the washcoated ceramic monolith as a three-way catalytic converter for gasoline-powered automobiles. A distinct alternative to the ceramic monolith is the metal foam, with potential use in fuel cell-powered automobiles. The metal foams are characterized by their pores per inch (ppi) and density ({rho}). In previous research, using 5 wt% platinum (Pt) and 0.5 wt% iron (Fe) catalysts, washcoated metal foams, 5.08 cm in length and 2.54 cm in diameter, of both varying and similar ppi and {rho} were tested for their activity (X{sub CO}) and selectivity (S{sub CO}) on a CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reaction in the presence of a H{sub 2}-rich gas stream. The variances in these metal foams' activity and selectivity were much larger than expected. Other structured supports with 5 wt% Pt, 0-1 wt% Fe weight loading were also examined. A theory for this phenomenon states that even though these structured supports have a similar nominal catalyst weight loading, only a certain percentage of the Pt/Fe catalyst is exposed on the surface as an active site for CO adsorption. We will use two techniques, pulse chemisorption and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), to characterize our structured supports. Active metal count, metal dispersion, and other calculations will help clarify the causes for the activity and selectivity variations between the supports. Results on ceramic monoliths show that a higher Fe loading yields a lower dispersion, potentially because of Fe inhibition of the Pt surface for CO adsorption. This theory is used to explain the reason for activity and selectivity differences for varying ppi and {rho} metal foams; less active and selective metal foams have a lower Fe loading, which justifies their higher metal dispersion. Data on the CO desorption temperature and average metal crystallite size for TPD are also collected.

Paul Chin; George W. Roberts; James J. Spivey

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and laminar flow conditions at an average detention time of six hours. Both the polyurethane foams and the foam regenerate solution are re-used. The treatment is a cost-effective process for waste-waters which are not treatable, or are not cost-effectively treatable, by conventional process series.

Tiernan, Joan E. (Novato, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Accumulated CFC-11 in polyurethane foam insulation: an estimate of the total amount in district heating installations in Sweden  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In rigid polyurethane foam used for thermal insulation, CFC-11 has been the main blowing agent for many years, but is now subject to phase-out regulations. During ageing of this foam, air diffuses into it and blowing agents leak into the atmosphere, resulting in a decreased insulating capacity. Determinations of the cell gas composition and the total content of CFC-11 in foam from district heating installations of different ages are reported in this paper. The total amount of CFC-11 in old district heating schemes in Sweden is estimated at 2000 tonnes. The amount in refrigeration equipment in Sweden is about twice as large.

M. Svanstrom

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--Three-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and -10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first three years of a multi-year aging study. Preliminary comparisons of measured data with predictions of a mathematical aging model are presented.

Wilkes, K.E.

2001-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

292

Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--Two-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and {minus}10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first two years of a multi-year aging study. Preliminary comparisons of measured data with predictions of a mathematical aging model are presented.

Wilkes, K.E.

2001-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

293

Experience gained from the use of polyurethane foam-insulated pipelines at OAO Moscow Heating-Network Company  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results from 10 years of experience using polyurethane foam-insulated pipelines at OAO Moscow Heating-Network Co. are presented. It is shown that the failure rate of such pipelines is considerably lower than t...

V. I. Kashinskii; V. M. Lipovskikh; Ya. G. Rotmistrov

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Hydrolytic ageing of syntactic foams for thermal insulation in deep water: degradation mechanisms and water uptake model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper focuses on a novel syntactic foam formulation based on a model diepoxy-diamine matrix with a controlled architecture, discusses the factors governing the long-term performance of these materials and...

V. Sauvant-Moynot; N. Gimenez; H. Sautereau

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Detection of space shuttle insulation foam defects by using a 0.2 THz Gunn diode oscillator and pyroelectric detector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report detection of space shuttle insulation foam defects by using a 0.2 THz Gunn diode oscillator as the light source, and a pyroelectric camera as the detector. The size and...

Zhong, Hua; Karpowicz, Nick; Xu, Jingzhou; Deng, Yanqing; Ussery, Warren; Shur, Michael; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

296

Elasticity of a cryo-insulation polymer foam coating in the temperature range 8–293 K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An apparatus is developed for investigating the dynamic deformation properties of cryoinsulation coatings in the temperature range 8–293 K. One type of cryo-insulation material — polyurethane foam — is chosen as ...

L. A. Bulavin; Yu. F. Zabashta; A. Ya. Fridman; A. I. Kostyuk

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Metal foam-supported Pd–Rh catalyst for steam methane reforming and its application to SOFC fuel processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Pd–Rh/metal foam catalyst was studied for steam methane reforming and application to SOFC fuel processing. Performance of 0.068 wt% Pd–Rh/metal foam catalyst was compared with 13 wt% Ni/Al2O3 and 8 wt% Ru/Al2O3 catalysts in a tubular reactor. At 1023 K with GHSV 2000 h?1 and S/C ratio 2.5, CH4 conversion and H2 yield were 96.7% and 3.16 mol per mole of CH4 input for Pd–Rh/metal foam, better than the alumina-supported catalysts. In 200 h stability test, Pd–Rh/metal foam catalyst exhibited steady activity. Pd–Rh/metal foam catalyst performed efficiently in a heat exchanger platform reactor to be used as prototype SOFC fuel processor: at 983 K with GHSV 1200 h?1 and S/C ratio 2.5, CH4 conversion was nearly the same as that in the tubular reactor, except for more H2 and CO2 yields. Used Pd–Rh/metal foam catalyst was characterized by SEM, TEM, BET and CO chemisorption measurements, which provided evidence for thermal stability of the catalyst.

Partho Sarothi Roy; No-Kuk Park; Kiseok Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Reduction in Young`s modulus of aluminum foams due to cell wall curvature and corrugation  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the Young`s modulus and compressive strength of several closed-cell aluminum foams indicate that they are lower than expected from models for foam behavior. Microstructural characterization has revealed that there are a number of defects in the cell structure which may contribute to the reduction in mechanical properties. These include: cell wall curvature, cell wall corrugations, density variations and non-equiaxed cell shape. Finite element analysis of a closed-cell tetrakaidecahedral unit cell with idealized curved or corrugated cell walls indicates that these two types of defects can reduce the Young`s modulus and compressive strength by up to 70%. In this paper the authors report the results of measurements of the curvature of the cell walls and of the amplitude and frequency of corrugations in the cell walls and use simple bounds to estimate the reduction in modulus that they are responsible for.

Sanders, W.; Gibson, L.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

299

A continuum plasticity model for the constitutive behavior of foamed metals  

SciTech Connect

A yield surface is proposed that can be fit to the plastic flow properties of a broad class of solids which exhibit plastic compressibility and different yield points in tension and compression. The yield surface is proposed to describe cellular solids, including foamed metals, and designed to be fit to three simple experimental results: (1) the compressive stress-strain response (including densification), (2) the difference between the tensile and compressive yield points and (3) the degree of compressibility of the foam, as measured by the lateral expansion during a uniaxial compression test. The model is implemented using finite elements and used to study the effects of plastic compressibility on two problems: the compression of a doubly notched specimen and indentation by a spherical indenter.

Miller, R.E.; Hutchinson, J.W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Div. of Applied Science

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Tailoring properties of carbon-nanotube-based foams by ion bombardment  

SciTech Connect

Particle irradiation is an effective method for manipulating properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This potential, however, remains unexplored for macroscopic assemblies of cross-linked CNTs. Here, we study structural and electrical properties of ultralow-density cross-linked CNT-based nanofoams exposed to ion irradiation at room temperature over a wide range of ion masses and fluences. For all irradiation conditions studied, the electrical resistance of nanofoams initially increases with a rate that scales with the number of ballistically generated displacements. This process is attributed to the buildup of defects in graphitic nanoligaments. Irradiation with Ne and heavier ions leads to a decrease in the electrical resistance at large fluences, which is attributed to radiation-induced foam densification. In addition, heavy-ion bombardment causes amorphization of CNTs and smoothing of ligament surfaces. These results demonstrate that ion bombardment can be used for tailoring density, ligament morphology, and electrical properties of CNT-based foams.

Charnvanichborikarn, S.; Shin, S. J.; Worsley, M. A.; Kucheyev, S. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2012-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Analysis of Sandwich Shells with Metallic Foam Cores based on the Uniaxial Tensile Test  

SciTech Connect

On this work, the authors present the development and evaluation of an innovative system able to perform reliable panels of sandwich sheets with metallic foam cores for industrial applications, especially in automotive and aeronautical industries. This work is divided into two parts; in the first part the mathematical model used to describe the behavior of sandwich shells with metal cores form is presented and some numerical examples are presented. In the second part of this work, the numerical results are validated using the experimental results obtained from the mechanical experiments. Using the isotropic hardening crushable foam constitutive model, available on ABAQUS, a set of different mechanical tests were simulated. The isotropic hardening model available uses a yield surface that is an ellipse centered at the origin in the p-q stress plane. Using this constitutive model, the uniaxial tensile test for this material was simulated, and a comparison with the experimental results was made.

Mata, H.; Fernandes, A. A.; Parente, M. P. L.; Jorge, R. Natal [IDMEC-FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto (Portugal); Santos, A. [INEGI, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto (Portugal); Valente, R. A. F. [Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193, Aveiro (Portugal)

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

302

Study of the Electronic and Optical Properties of Hybrid Triangular (BN)xCy Foams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Study of the Electronic and Optical Properties of Hybrid Triangular (BN)xCy Foams ... Recently, several novel three-dimensional (3D) network models constituted by all sp2-hybridized bonds(1-3) or sp2–sp3 hybridized bonds(3-7) are explored by first-principles calculations. ... We thank the computational resources and assistance provided by the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC) and the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces (Xiamen University). ...

Xinrui Cao; Yi Luo

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

303

Development of a Foam OTEC System. Final technical report for Fiscal Year 1979  

SciTech Connect

Research on Development of a Foam OTEC System, as carried out at Carnegie-Mellon University from October 1, 1978 through September 30, 1979, is described. To a brief section summarizing highlights of research results are appended 12 technical reports which detail specific sections of the program. The work described is continuing and a proposal is currently being submitted to provide support in fiscal 1980.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Fabrication of thin-wall hollow nickel spheres and low density syntactic foams  

SciTech Connect

A process has been developed to fabricate thin-wall hollow spheres from conventional oxide powders at room temperature. The polymer- bonded powder shells are fired in air to sinter the walls, leaving the shells either impervious or porous. Alternatively, the oxide shells can be preferentially reduced to produce thin-wall hollow metal spheres which can be bonded together to produce an ultra light weight closed-cell foam. Processing and properties of this class of low density structures will be discussed.

Clancy, R.B.; Sanders, T.H. Jr.; Cochran, J.K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

Bin Zhang; Yi Liu; Tomasz Olewski; Luc Vechot; M. Sam Mannan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Two-dimensional flow of foam around an obstacle: force measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Stokes experiment for foams is proposed. It consists in a two-dimensional flow of a foam, confined between a water subphase and a top plate, around a fixed circular obstacle. We present systematic measurements of the drag exerted by the flowing foam on the obstacle, \\emph{versus} various separately controlled parameters: flow rate, bubble volume, bulk viscosity, obstacle size, shape and boundary conditions. We separate the drag into two contributions, an elastic one (yield drag) at vanishing flow rate, and a fluid one (viscous coefficient) increasing with flow rate. We quantify the influence of each control parameter on the drag. The results exhibit in particular a power-law dependence of the drag as a function of the bulk viscosity and the flow rate with two different exponents. Moreover, we show that the drag decreases with bubble size, and increases proportionally to the obstacle size. We quantify the effect of shape through a dimensioned drag coefficient, and we show that the effect of boundary conditions is small.

Benjamin Dollet; Florence Elias; Catherine Quilliet; Christophe Raufaste; Miguel Aubouy; Francois Graner

2004-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

307

Development of high void fraction polylactide composite foams using injection molding: Mechanical and thermal insulation properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Polylactide (PLA) and PLA composites with void fractions as high as 65% were fabricated using low-pressure foam injection molding (FIM) and high-pressure FIM (HPFIM) equipped with mold opening and gas counter pressure. The cellular morphology and crystallinity were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The mechanical (flexural and impact resistance) and thermal insulation properties were also measured. Unlike, talc, the addition of nanoclay markedly enhanced the ductility of solid PLA samples as well as significantly improved the cell morphology of foamed samples, which resulted in the increased specific modulus, strength and impact resistance. In all the PLA samples made using HPFIM, with an increased void fraction up to 55%, the flexural rigidity increased up to four times, the specific impact resistance increased up to 15%, and the thermal insulation increased up to three times. The results of this investigation revealed that low-density PLA composite foams with improved rigidity, impact strength, and thermal insulation can be developed using HPFIM for various applications such as transportation and construction industries.

A. Ameli; D. Jahani; M. Nofar; P.U. Jung; C.B. Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Sound insulation property of Al-Si closed-cell aluminum foam bare board material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A1-Si closed-cell aluminum foam bare boards of 1?240 mm×1?100 mm with different densities and thicknesses were prepared by molten body transitional foaming process. The sound reduction index(R) of AI-Si closed-cell aluminum foam bare boards was investigated experimentally under different frequencies (100-4?000 Hz). It is found that sound reduction index(R) is small under low frequencies, large under high frequencies and is controlled by different mechanisms. The sound insulation property basically conforms with the monolayer board sound insulation theory. The sound reduction index(R) increases with the even growth of thickness and density, but its rising trend is tempered. The single number sound reduction indexes(Rw) of specimen with thickness of 20 cm and density of 0.51 g/cm3 are 30.8 dB and 33 dB respectively, which demonstrates good sound insulation property for lightmass materials.

Hai-jun YU; Guang-chun YAO; Xiao-lin WANG; Bing LI; Yao YIN; Ke LIU

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Experimental investigation of battery thermal management system for electric vehicle based on paraffin/copper foam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To enhance the heat transfer of phase change material in battery thermal management system for electric vehicle, a battery thermal management system by using paraffin/copper foam was designed and experimentally investigated in this paper. The thermal performances of the system such as temperature reduction and distribution are discussed in detail. The results showed that the local temperature difference in both a single cell and battery module were increased with the increase of discharge current, and obvious fluctuations of local temperature difference can be observed when the electric vehicle is in road operating state. When the battery is discharging at constant current, the maximum temperature and local temperature difference of the battery module with paraffin/copper foam was lower than 45 °C and 5 °C, respectively. After the battery thermal management system was assembled in electric vehicle, the maximum temperature and local temperature difference in road operating state was lower than 40 °C and 3 °C, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that paraffin/copper foam coupled battery thermal management presented an excellent cooling performance.

Zhonghao Rao; Yutao Huo; Xinjian Liu; Guoqing Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Evaluating the bonding condition of NASA spray on foam insulation (SOFI) using audio frequency sound absorption measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The bonding condition of the spray on foam insulation (SOFI) used to insulate the external tank of the NASA space shuttle can be found by using the audio frequency sound absorption coefficient. The ASTM E1050 standard method for sound absorptionmeasurements was used with an open?ended 1?in?diam cast acrylic impedance tube sealed to the SOFI with closed cell PVC foam. Two artificially disbonded locations measuring 1.0 in. by 5.5 in. by 0.0625 in. and 2.0 in. by 8.0 in. by 0.0625 in. were detected by peaks in the sound absorption coefficient spectrum. The peaks in the sound absorptionspectrum between 1000 and 4000 Hz were 25% to 50% higher over disbonded areas when compared to bonded locations. The maximum and minimum sound absorption levels for the foam ranged between approximately 0.1 and 0.3. The entire sample was scanned using the sound absorption peaks as indicators. Samples of 2?in.?thick polystyrene foam were used with different sized defects at different locations in the foam to relate defect size and location to peaks in absorption coeffi?cient spectrum. [Work supported by NASA under Award No. NAG102098.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Applied Composite Materials, 2005. 12(3-4): p. 247-261 247 Enhancement of Energy Absorption in Syntactic Foams by Nanoclay Incorporation for Sandwich  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Syntactic Foams by Nanoclay Incorporation for Sandwich Core Applications Nikhil Gupta1 and Rahul Maharsia2 foams due to the incorporation of nano-sized clay (nanoclay) particles. A surface modified clay, Nanomer.02 and 0.05 volume fraction of nanoclay, respectively. The combined volume fraction of microballoons

Gupta, Nikhil

312

Wind Pressure Resistance of Walls with Exterior Rigid Foam: Structural Performance Testing and Development of Design Specifications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wind Pressure Resistance of Wind Pressure Resistance of Walls with Exterior Rigid Foam: Structural Performance Testing and Development of Design Specifications Building America Stakeholder Meeting February 2012 2 Gaps and Barriers  Wind pressure resistance of multi- layered walls with exterior rigid foam * Performance characteristics * Capacity * Limitations * Design method * Design specification 3 Market Implications  Walls with exterior rigid foam  2012 IECC - Climate Zones 3 and higher  Wall systems:  Claddings and their attachments  Interior finishes  Air sealing, air barriers  Cavity insulation 4 Research Tasks  Laboratory Testing of Wall Assemblies under dynamic wind pressures at the NAHB Research Center  NAHB/DOE/ACC  Laboratory Testing of a One-story House in IBHS Wind Tunnel Facility

313

Final Technical Report Quantification and Standardization of Pattern Properties for the Control of the Lost Foam Casting Process  

SciTech Connect

This project takes a fresh look at the ''white side'' of the lost foam casting process. We have developed the gel front hypothesis for foam pyrolysis behavior and the magnetic metal pump method for controlling lost foam casting metal fill event. The subject of this report is work done in the improvement of the Lost Foam Casting Process. The original objective of this project was to improve the control of metal fill by understanding the influence of foam pattern and coating properties on the metal fill event. Relevant pattern properties could then be controlled, providing control of the metal fill event. One of the original premises of this project was that the process of metal fill was relatively well understood. Considerable previous work had been done to develop fluid mechanical and heat transfer models of the process. If we could just incorporate measured pattern properties into these models we would be able predict accurately the metal fill event. As we began to study the pyrolysis behavior of EPS during the metal fill event, we discovered that the chemical nature of this event had been completely overlooked in previous research. Styrene is the most prevalent breakdown product of EPS pyrolysis and it is a solvent for polystyrene. Much of the styrene generated by foam pyrolysis diffuses into intact foam, producing a molten gel of mechanically entangled polystyrene molecules. Much of the work of our project has centered on validation of this concept and producing a qualitative model of the behavior of EPS foam undergoing pyrolysis in a confined environment. A conclusion of this report is that styrene dissolution in EPS is a key phenomenon in the pyrolysis process and deserves considerable further study. While it is possible to continue to model the metal fill event parametrically using empirical data, we recommend that work be undertaken by qualified researchers to directly characterize and quantify this phenomenon for the benefit of modelers, researchers, and workers in the field. Another original premise of this project was that foam pattern and coating properties could be used to efficiently control metal fill. After studying the structure of EPS foam in detail for the period of this contract, we have come to the conclusion that EPS foam has an inherent variability at a scale that influences metal fill behavior. This does not allow for the detailed fine control of the process that we originally envisioned. We therefore have sought other methods for the control of the metal fill event. Of those, we now believe that the magnetic metal pump shows the most promise. We have conducted two casting trials using this method and preliminary results are very encouraging. A conclusion of our report is that, while every effort should continue to be made to produce uniform foam and coatings, the use of the magnetic metal pump should be encouraged and closed loop control mechanisms should be developed for this pouring method.

Ronald Michaels

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

314

Thermographic analysis of polyurethane foams integrated with phase change materials designed for dynamic thermal insulation in refrigerated transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The dispersion process of a micro-encapsulated phase change material (n-tetradecane) into a polyurethane foam was studied in order to develop a micro-composite insulating material with both low thermal conductivity and latent heat storage properties. The maximum weight content of micro-capsules added to the cellular matrix was 13.5%. Dynamic thermal properties of hybrid foams were investigated by means of a thermographic analysis. This was found to be a very effective diagnostic technique in detecting the change in heat transfer rate across the micro-composite foam in an indirect way, i.e. by measuring how the surface temperature changes over time under heat irradiation. Such a material would be of interest in the field of transport of perishable goods, particularly those requiring a controlled regime of carriage/storage temperatures.

Andrea Tinti; Antonella Tarzia; Alessandra Passaro; Riccardo Angiuli

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Failure analysis of reinforced polyurethane foam-based LNG insulation structure using damage-coupled finite element analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The primary aim of this study was to develop a unified anisotropic elasto-viscoplastic-damage model that describes the material nonlinear behavior and damage/crack growth of a reinforced polyurethane foam-based liquefied natural gas carrier insulation system. A Bodner–Partom unified elasto-viscoplastic model independent of the yield surface and loading history was expanded to an anisotropic unified model. To predict the damage growth and the crack initiation/growth of reinforced polyurethane foam, a Bodner–Chan damage model was applied to the proposed unified elasto-viscoplastic-damage model. The developed mechanical model was implicitly formulated and implemented into an ABAQUS user-defined material subroutine. To validate the proposed numerical method, the simulation results were compared with the results of a series of static uniaxial tests and dynamic cyclic tests conducted on the reinforced polyurethane foam and the liquefied natural gas carrier insulation system, respectively.

Chi-Seung Lee; Jae-Myung Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

SPRAY FOAM IN ACCESSIBLE SPACES:BEST PRACTICES AND CASE STUDIES FOR RETROFIT IN MIXED-HUMID CLIMATE  

SciTech Connect

Heating and cooling the house is one of the homeowners major expenses. Reducing these costs, saving energy, and creating a healthier, more comfortable indoor environment are good reasons to consider improving the building thermal envelope. Improvements usually consider increasing the amount of insulation, reducing the infiltration of outside air, and controlling moisture in existing buildings. This report describes the use of spray foam materials to insulate, seal, and control moisture. This discussion is limited to treating areas that are accessible. What is accessible, however, can vary depending on the type of renovation. If the building has been gutted or exterior surfaces removed, there are more options. This report will look at areas to consider for spray foam application and discuss the types of spray foams available and their uses. A number of case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of this retrofit in existing houses based on performance data.

Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL] [ORNL; Gant, Kathy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Net climatic impact of solid foam insulation produced with halocarbon and non-halocarbon blowing agents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The net climatic effect of increasing the amount of insulation in buildings through the use of halocarbon-blown foam insulation involves three factors: the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy used to make the insulation; the climatic impact of leakage of the halocarbon blowing agent from the insulation during its manufacture, use, and at the time of disposal; and the reduction in heating and/or cooling energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Recent studies and assessments leave the impression that the use of halocarbon-blown foam insulation has a strong net positive impact on climate, with the reduction in heating-related emissions being 20–100 times greater than the CO2-equivalent halocarbon emissions. This result applies only to the overall impact of rather modest levels of insulation applied to a pre-existing roof or wall with negligible thermal resistance. It is appropriate to consider the time required for heating-related emission savings to offset halocarbon and manufacturing emissions for the addition of successive increments of insulation—the marginal payback time. For typical blowing agent leakage rates and for insulation levels found in high-performance houses, marginal payback times can be in excess of 100 years using halocarbon blowing agents, but are only 10–50 years using non-halocarbon blowing agents. With a fixed thickness of insulation, the difference in heating energy savings using insulation with different blowing agents is generally only a few per cent, in spite of differences in thermal conductivity of up to 66%. The net savings in CO2-equivalent emissions is larger using non-halocarbon blowing agents, with the relative benefit of using non-halocarbon blowing agents greater the greater the thermal resistance of the envelope element prior to adding foam insulation.

L.D. Danny Harvey

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Production of High Quality Dust Control Foam to Minimize Moisture Addition to Coal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of their suitability. Seven foam generators were evaluated: two were packed columns of honeycomb, two were static mixers with different mixing media, one was a tube containing a concentric fritted air pipe, and two were low- and high-pressure venturi mi xers.... The air and solution have a common inlet to the packed column and static mixer type foamers. The air for the venturi foamers is added to the turbulent solution after the venturi throat. The mixing in the tube foamer is achieved by blowing air through...

Termine, F.; Jordan, S. T.

319

Controlling the morphology of carbon nanotube arrays: from spinnable forests to undulating foams  

SciTech Connect

By controlling catalyst pretreatment conditions, we demonstrate that the degree of spinnability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is closely related to the morphology of CNT arrays. Shortest catalyst pretreatment time led to CNT arrays with the best spinnability, while prolonged pretreatment resulted in coarsening of catalyst particles and non-spinnable CNTs. We further demonstrate the growth of undulating CNT arrays with uniform and tunable waviness by controlling the coalescence of catalyst particles. The CNT arrays can be tuned from well-aligned, spinnable forests to uniformly wavy, foam-like films by controlling catalyst pretreatment conditions.

Zhang, Yingying [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zou, Guifu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hawley, Marilyn E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheehan, Chris J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhu, Yuntain [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doorn, Stephen K [NCSU; Htoon, Han [NCSU

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

High-Energy Redox-Flow Batteries with Hybrid Metal Foam Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A nonaqueous redox-flow battery employing [Co(bpy)3]+/2+ and [Fe(bpy)3]2+/3+ redox couples is proposed for use in large-scale energy-storage applications. ... We successfully demonstrate a redox-flow battery with a practical operating voltage of over 2.1 V and an energy efficiency of 85% through a rational cell design. ... By utilizing carbon-coated Ni-FeCrAl and Cu metal foam electrodes, the electrochemical reactivity and stability of the nonaqueous redox-flow battery can be considerably enhanced. ...

Min-Sik Park; Nam-Jin Lee; Seung-Wook Lee; Ki Jae Kim; Duk-Jin Oh; Young-Jun Kim

2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Application of foams to the processing of fabrics. Final report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project was to reduce the energy consumed in the wet processing of fabrics where wet processing encompasses those processes used to convert loomstate (greige) goods to finished textile products. This includes desizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing, printing, and finishing of fabrics. The energy intensive step in most of these processes is drying the fabric. By having less water on the fabric as it enters a drying oven, proportionately less energy is consumed in drying the fabric. The specific route used in this project to accomplish this objective has been to use air to distribute the finish, dye or printing ink onto the fabric. Rather than saturating the fabric with a dilute finish formulation, a concentrated formulation is mechanically foamed, air serving as the diluting medium and the foam applied to the fabric. In this manner, the water content of the fabric as it enters the drying oven is reduced by as much as 80% thereby leading to a corresponding reduction in the energy required to dry the fabric. Details on the procedure are presented and experimental results are discussed. (MCW)

Namboodri, C.G.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

The effect of oxide layers on gas-generating hydride particles during production of aluminium foams  

SciTech Connect

Melt routes to metallic foam production offer attractions of low cost and the potential for good microstructural control. In situ gas generation may be preferable to external gas injection in terms of the important objective of generating a fine and uniform cell structure. The main difficulty with this approach has been that of ensuring that the gas-generating powder is suitably dispersed throughout the melt before the gas is released and the cells are formed. In the present paper, procedures are outlined for preparation of powders for use in aluminium melts, where gas will be released only after a suitable delay, allowing the powders to first become well-dispersed in the melt and solidification to start. Pre-treatment of the foaming agent also facilitates a flexible production of castings with various porosity at the same processing conditions simply by varying the thickness of a diffusion barrier layer on the gas-releasing agent. The role of the melt viscosity history, as a function of a heat extraction rate from the solidifying melt and an alloy composition, on the final porosity of the castings is also briefly discussed.

Gergely, V.; Clyne, T.W. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

Cryogenic sandwich-type insulation board composed of E-glass/epoxy composite and polymeric foams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a clean energy source whose consumption has recently increased greatly due to the failure of a nuclear power plant. LNG is transported with LNG carriers that store LNG at the cryogenic temperature of ?163 °C. Because the cargo containment system (CCS) of LNG carriers should be operated for more than 40 years at the cryogenic temperature, its reliability against thermal and mechanical loads should be guaranteed without compromising its thermal insulation performance. For reasons of both mechanical and thermal performance, the faces and cores of conventional insulation boards are made of plywood and high-density (110 kg/m3) polymeric. In this study, an advanced sandwich-type insulation board composed of E-glass/epoxy composite faces and a low-density polymeric foam core with a composite box configuration was developed to seal a foam blowing gas of low thermal conductivity. The mechanical performance of the advanced sandwich-type insulation board was simulated using the finite element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS (SIMULIA, USA). The sealing performance of the composite box was also investigated experimentally. Finally, the thermal performance of the advanced sandwich-type insulation board was numerically investigated using thermal conductivity equations.

Ilbeom Choi; Young Ho Yu; Dai Gil Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

EVALUATION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INSTALLED-IN-PLACE POLYURETHANE FOAM INSULATION BY EXPERIMENT AND ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

In the thermal analysis of the 9977 package, it was found that calculated temperatures, determined using a typical thermal analysis code, did not match those measured in the experimental apparatus. The analysis indicated that the thermal resistance of the overpack in the experimental apparatus was less than that expected, based on manufacturer's reported value of thermal conductivity. To resolve this question, the thermal conductivity of the installed foam was evaluated from the experimental results, using a simplified analysis. This study confirmed that the thermal resistance of the experimental apparatus was lower than that which would result from the manufacturer's published values for thermal conductivity of the foam insulation. The test package was sectioned to obtain samples for measurement of material properties. In the course of the destructive examination a large uninsulated region was found at the bottom of the package, which accounted for the anomalous results. Subsequent measurement of thermal conductivity confirmed the manufacturer's published values. The study provides useful insight into the use of simplified, scoping calculations for evaluation of thermal performance of packages.

Smith, A; Bruce Hardy, B; Kurt Eberl, K; Nick Gupta, N

2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

326

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. This project directly investigated rain and indirectly investigated built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

2004-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

328

OmniBrace: A Fast Acting Expanding Foam Splint for Orthopedic Injuries Anisha Bapna, Margaret Lees, William Littlefield, Harrison Rose  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

utilizes expanding polyurethane foam technology to provide immediate temporary immobilization to orthopedic professionals · Emergency responders · Sports medics · Military field medics There are 225,000 registered EMS personnel in the US alone, as well as nearly 20,000 sports medics, all requiring immobilization equipment

McGaughey, Alan

329

Numerical study of heavy-ion stopping in foam targets with one-dimensional subcell-scale hydrodynamic motions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Heavy-ion stopping in foam targets with subcell-scale hydro motions was numerically investigated in relation to ion-driven warm dense matter experiments. To simulate porous foam targets, we employed a simple 1D periodic multilayer model consisting of thin solid slabs and gaps between them. The averaged pore diameter and cell-wall thickness of the foam were represented by the gap width between the slabs and the slab thickness, respectively. The density- and temperature-dependent projectile stopping cross-sections were evaluated using a binary encounter model taking into account the electronic state of target atoms during heating and expansion. We employed a combination of 11Na projectiles and subrange 13Al foam targets with ?=0.05?solid. The hydrodynamic motion of the target was calculated with a 1D code. During homogenization, hot dense spots appeared at the original gap positions, owing to stagnation of the jets. As a result, even after the pores were filled with blow-off materials, the initial inhomogeneity was not completely smeared out, and the total energy loss was still not equal to that in the homogeneous equivalent, especially for large pore sizes.

Y. Oguri; K. Kondo; J. Hasegawa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Influence of Nanoclay Concentration on the CO2 Diffusion and Physical Properties of PMMA Montmorillonite Microcellular Foams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Influence of Nanoclay Concentration on the CO2 Diffusion and Physical Properties of PMMA Montmorillonite Microcellular Foams ... (3, 4) Particularly, the dispersion of high aspect ratio nanoclays in polymers has been used as a possible strategy to improve some properties of the base material at relatively low filler amounts (<10 wt %). ...

Vera Realinho; Marcelo Antunes; Antonio B. Martínez; José I. Velasco

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

331

Expancel Foams: Fabrication and Characterization of a New Reduced Density Cellular Material for Structural Applications  

SciTech Connect

This study was initiated to produce a low-density centering medium for use in experiments investigating the response of materials to shock-loading. While the main drivers for material selection were homogeneity, dimensional stability, performance and cost, other secondary requirements included fine cell size, the ability to manufacture 5--10 cm-sized parts and an extremely compressed development time. The authors chose a non-traditional methodology using a hollow, expandable, polymeric microballoon material system called Expancel{reg_sign}. These microballoons are made from a copolymer of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polymethacrylonitrile (PMAN) and use iso-pentane as the blowing agent. The average diameter (by volume) of the unexpanded powder is approximately 13 {micro}m, while the average of the expanded powder is 35--55 {micro}m, with a few large microballoons approaching 150--200 p.m. A processing method was developed that established a pre-mixed combination of unexpanded and expanded Expancel at a ratio such that the tap (or vibration) density of the mixed powders was the same as that desired of the final part. Upon heating above the tack temperature of the polymer, this zero-rise approach allowed only expansion of the unexpanded powder to fill the interstices between the pre-expanded balloons. The mechanical action of the expanding powder combined with the elevated processing temperature yielded flee-standing and mechanically robust parts. Although mechanical properties of these foams were not a key performance requirement, the data allowed for the determination of the best temperature to heat the samples. Processing the foam at higher temperatures enhanced both modulus and strength. The maximum allowable temperature was limited by dimensional stability and shrinkback considerations. Tomographic analysis of foam billets revealed very flat density profiles. Parts of any density between the low density expanded powder (approximately 0.013 g/cm{sup 3}) and the higher density unexpanded powder (approximately 0.5 g/cm{sup 3}) can be produced using this technique. The extremely wide range of accessible densities, ease of processing, relatively inexpensive materials, uniformity of the density, scaleable nature of the process should make this technology highly competitive for a variety of Defense Programs and commercial applications.

L. Whinnery; S. Goods; B. Even

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

An elastic, plastic, viscous model for slow shear of a liquid foam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We suggest a scalar model for deformation and flow of an amorphous material such as a foam or an emulsion. To describe elastic, plastic and viscous behaviours, we use three scalar variables: elastic deformation, plastic deformation rate and total deformation rate; and three material specific parameters: shear modulus, yield deformation and viscosity. We obtain equations valid for different types of deformations and flows slower than the relaxation rate towards mechanical equilibrium. In particular, they are valid both in transient or steady flow regimes, even at large elastic deformation. We discuss why viscosity can be relevant even in this slow shear (often called "quasi-static") limit. Predictions of the storage and loss moduli agree with the experimental literature, and explain with simple arguments the non-linear large amplitude trends.

Philippe Marmottant; François Graner

2007-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

333

Developing an Abaqus *HYPERFOAM Model for M9747 (4003047) Cellular Silicone Foam  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work done to develop an Abaqus *HYPERFOAM hyperelastic model for M9747 (4003047) cellular silicone foam for use in quasi-static analyses at ambient temperature. Experimental data, from acceptance tests for 'Pad A' conducted at the Kansas City Plant (KCP), was used to calibrate the model. The data includes gap (relative displacement) and load measurements from three locations on the pad. Thirteen sets of data, from pads with different serial numbers, were provided. The thirty-nine gap-load curves were extracted from the thirteen supplied Excel spreadsheets and analyzed, and from those thirty-nine one set of data, representing a qualitative mean, was chosen to calibrate the model. The data was converted from gap and load to nominal (engineering) strain and nominal stress in order to implement it in Abaqus. Strain computations required initial pad thickness estimates. An Abaqus model of a right-circular cylinder was used to evaluate and calibrate the *HYPERFOAM model.

Siranosian, Antranik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, R. Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

334

Failure of a gas well to respond to a foam hydraulic fracturing treatment  

SciTech Connect

Well No. 1 (not the real name of the well) is not producing gas at maximum capacity following a foam hydraulic fracturing treatment performed upon completion of the well in 1987. The failure of the stimulation treatment, which has affected other wells throughout the field, was due to a combination of three factors: (1) downward fracture growth and proppant settling during injection (2) embedment due to a high pressure drawdown in the wellbore during flowback procedures, and (3) poor cleanup of the fracture fluid due to high capillary pressures. The following are recommendations to help improve future fracturing treatments throughout the field: (1) Fracture at lower treating pressures; (2) Improve perforating techniques; (3) Change flowback procedures; and (4) Evaluate using N{sub 2} as a fracture fluid.

Rauscher, B.D.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Current initiation in low-density foam z-pinch plasmas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low density agar and aerogel foams were tested as z-pinch loads on the Saturn accelerator to study current flow initiation. In these first experiments we studied the initial plasma conditions by measuring the visible emission at early times with a framing camera and a streaked one-dimensional imaging system. Later near the stagnation when the plasma is hotter x-ray imaging and spectraldiagnostics were used to characterize the plasma.Filamentation and arcing at the current contacts were observed. Bright implosion features were also observed. Increasing the early time conductivity by coating the target with a high-z layer and by providing a low-current prepulse is the most important factor in obtaining good coupling to the machine. None of the pinches were uniform along the z axis. The prime causes of these problems are believed to be the electrode contacts and the current return configuration. Solutions are discussed.

M. S. Derzon; T. J. Nash; G. O. Allshouse; A. J. Antolak; M. Hurst; J. S. McGurn; D. J. Muron; J. F. Seaman; J. MacFarlane; T. Demiris; L. Hrubesh; H. Lewis; D. Ryutov; T. Barber; T. Gilliland; D. Jobe; S. Lazier

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams  

SciTech Connect

Sodium ion (Na+) batteries have attracted increased attention for energy storage due to the natural abundance of sodium, but their development is hindered by the poor intercalation property of Na+ in electrodes. This paper reports a detailed study of high capacity, high rate sodium ion energy storage in high-surface-area nanocellular carbon foams (NCCF). The energy storage mechanism is surface-driven reactions between Na+ and oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of NCCF. The surface reaction, rather than a Na+ bulk intercalation reaction, leads to high rate performance and cycling stability due to the enhanced reaction kinetics and the absence of electrode structure change. The NCCF makes more surface area and surface functional groups available for the Na+ reaction. It delivers 152 mAh/g capacity at the rate of 0.1 A/g and a capacity retention of 90% for over 1600 cycles.

Shao, Yuyan; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Chen, Xilin; Nie, Zimin; Gu, Meng; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

337

International Journal of Crashworthiness, 2012, 17(3): p. 327-336 Mechanical Properties and Failure Mechanisms of Closed-Cell PVC Foams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

guidelines. Keywords: Foam; cellular polymer; mechanical properties; impact; automotive material. 1 into increased fuel economy and reduced pollution in transportation applications. In addition, high compressive with uniform cell structure and improved mechanical properties can be chemically synthesized through

Gupta, Nikhil

338

Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Exterior Rigid Foam Insulation at the Edge of a Slab Foundation, Fresno, California  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Exterior rigid foam insulation at the edge of the slab foundation was a unique feature for this low-load, unoccupied test house in a hot-dry climate and maybe more appropriate for climates with higher heating loads.

339

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This case study describes Building Science Corporation’s research into spray polyurethane foams in residential roofs, performing hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs.

340

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Application of Spray Foam Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing PROJECT aPPliCaTiON Construction: Existing homes with unvented cathedralized roofs. Type: Residential Climate Zones: All TEam mEmbERs Building Science Corporation www.buildingscience.com BASF www.basf.com Dow Chemical Company www.dow.com Honeywell http://honeywell.com Icynene www.icynene.com COdE COmPliaNCE 2012 International Code Council, International Residential Code Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and

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341

Investigation of Kelvin-like solid foams for potential engineering applications: An attractive set of geometrical and thermo-hydraulic properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Open cell foams have diverse industrial applications e.g. heat exchangers, structured reactors, filtration due to their unique properties such as high porosity and high specific surface area. In order to theoretically determine the geometric specific surface area and relationships between geometrical parameters of isotropic open cell foams, a generalized mathematical correlation was developed. For this purpose the tetrakaidecahedron geometry was used and different shapes of strut cross-sections of foam structures were taken explicitly into account. The derived correlation to predict geometrical properties can be easily extended to different strut shapes. 3-D numerical simulations at pore scale were performed to study the pressure drop characteristics and effective thermal conductivity. Fluid flow through open cell foam was performed in three different regimes: Darcy regime, transition regime and inertia regime. Importance of geometrical properties on fluid flow characteristics and their inclusion in the proposed correlations for predicting pressure drop is discussed. Can Ergun parameters have constant numerical values or not is also extensively discussed. Three different correlations were derived to predict the effective thermal conductivity for both, isotropic and anisotropic open cell foams. Geometrical parameters of foam matrix were introduced in the correlations to predict effective thermal conductivity.

Prashant Kumar

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

342

Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and l BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of California.

Tiernan, Joan E. (38 Clay Ct., Novato, CA 94947)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

In situ performance evaluation of spray polyurethane foam in the exterior insulation basement system (EIBS)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 1995, a joint research project11The consortium included Canadian Plastics Industry Association, Expanded Polystyrene Association of Canada, Canadian Urethane Foam Contractors Association, Owens Corning Inc. and Roxul Inc. with the Institute for Research in Construction was initiated to assess the in situ thermal performance of a number of insulation products used as exterior basement insulation in contact with the ground. Sixteen insulation specimens measuring 610 mm and 1220 mm wide were installed on the exterior basement walls of an experimental building, test hut no. 1, located on NRC campus in Ottawa. These specimens were instrumented prior to backfilling and their thermal performance was monitored over two full years. Soil temperatures and moisture content were monitored concurrently. Weather events were recorded daily. This paper focuses on the performance of the two spray polyurethane foam (SPF) specimens assessed in this experiment. Through analysis of the surface temperatures of the specimens, water movement was detected at the insulation/soil interface through various periods of heavy rain and major thaws throughout the two-year period. Over the same period, the surface of the concrete on the inside of the insulation showed no evidence of water penetration through the SPF layer. The insulation specimens were retrieved after 31 months of exposure in the soil. Good and continuous surface adhesion was also noted on removal. Samples were taken from these exposed specimens. When tested in the lab, after recovery and drying of the specimens, the compressive strengths of the SPF samples were slightly higher than those tested at the beginning of the experiment. For the conditions recorded over two years of monitoring, the thermal performance of each insulation specimen was found to be stable through the heating season. The thermal performance appeared not to be significantly affected by water movement at the exterior face of the insulation. One SPF specimen showed steady thermal performance through two heating seasons while the other actually improved in the second year. It was concluded that the key performance factors of the 76 mm thick SPF specimens sprayed on the exterior surfaces of the concrete basement wall all remained at a very good level, i.e., the in situ thermal resistance, the compressive strength, and the moisture contents of the specimens.

M.C. Swinton; W. Maref; M.T. Bomberg; M.K. Kumaran; N. Normandin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Steady-State Thermal Performance Evaluation of Steel-Framed Wall Assembly with Local Foam Insulation  

SciTech Connect

During January and May, 2009, two configurations of steel-framed walls constructed with conventional 2 4 steel studs insulated with R-19 ~14cm. (5.5-in. thick) and R-13 ~9cm. (3.5-in. thick) fiberglass insulation batts were tested in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) guarded hot-box using ASTM C1363 test procedure. The first test wall used conventional 2 4 steel studs insulated with 2.5-cm. (1-in.) thick foam profiles, called stud snugglers. These stud snugglers converted the 2 4 wall assembly into a 2 6 assembly allowing application of R-19 fiberglass insulation. The second wall tested for comparison was a conventional 2 4 steel stud wall using R-13 insulation batts. Further, numerical simulations were performed in order to evaluate the steady-state thermal performance of various wood- and steel-framed wall assemblies. The effects of adding the stud-snugglers to the wood and steel studs were also investigated numerically. Different combinations of insulation and framing factor were used in the simulations.

Kosny, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL] [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Design considerations for a steam-injection pilot with in-situ foaming  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the necessary aspects of the planning, operation, evaluation, environmental impact and cost to implement a field pilot of steam injection with in-situ foaming. The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI) is planning to implement such a pilot in Kern County, California. The cost of the pilot will be shared by the US Department of Energy and an oil company. Some important aspects of drilling and completion programs and their specifications, permits from regulatory bodies, and downhole tools to improve steam stimulation are discussed. The essential surface facilities which include water treatment plant, steam generator, demulsifier and dehydrator are considered. The necessary laboratory research in support of the pilot has been recommended. The formation evaluation and reservoir engineering effort for the pilot has been divided into three phases: reservoir definition, reservoir monitoring and post-pilot study. Appropriate techniques applicable to each phase of the test have been discussed. The environmental impact regulations as related to the steam injection process have been considered. In particular, the environmental problems associated with the burning of crude oil and desulfurization of flue gas have been discussed. Other environmental considerations such as solid and liquid waste disposal, health and safety are also discussed. An estimate of the cost of this field test is presented. Three scenarii (for pilots with high, medium, and low investment potentials, respectively) are presented. Since this report was prepared, a specific site for the supri pilot has been chosen. Appendices G and H present the details on this site.

Siddiqui, M.H.; Sanyal, S.K.; Horn, A.J.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin via inhibiting LDL oxidation and foam cell formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Gossypetin, a flavone originally isolated from Hibiscus species, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay showed that the addition of > 50 ?M of gossypetin could scavenge over 50% of DPPH radicals. The inhibitory effects of gossypetin on the lipid and protein oxidation of LDL were defined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, the relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and fragmentation of apoB in the Cu2 +-induced oxidation of LDL. Gossypetin showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation, and uptake ability of macrophages under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that these influences of gossypetin might be mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?)/liver-X receptor ? (LXR?)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and PPAR?/scavenger receptor CD36 pathways, as demonstrated by the transfection of PPAR? siRNA or PPAR? expression vector. Our data implied that gossypetin regulated the PPAR signals, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that gossypetin potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent.

Jing-Hsien Chen; Chia-Wen Tsai; Chi-Ping Wang; Hui-Hsuan Lin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Polyurethane Foam for Use as Cask Impact Limiter in Accidental Drop Scenarios - 12099  

SciTech Connect

Rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foams are frequently used as cask impact limiters in nuclear materials and hazardous waste transport due to their high energy-absorption potential. When assessing the cask integrity in accidental scenarios based on numerical simulations, a description of the foam damping properties is required for different strain rates and for a wide temperature range with respect to waste heat generation in conjunction with critical operating and environmental conditions. Implementation and adaption of a respective finite element material model strongly relies on an appropriate experimental data base. Even though extensive impact experiments were conducted e.g. in Sandia National Laboratories, Savannah River National Laboratory and by Rolls Royce plc, not all relevant factors were taken into account. Hence, BAM who is in charge of the mechanical evaluation of such packages within the approval procedure in Germany, incorporated systematic test series into a comprehensive research project aimed to develop numerical methods for a couple of damping materials. In a first step, displacement driven compression tests have been performed on confined, cubic specimens at five loading rates ranging from 0.02 mm/s to 3 m/s at temperatures between +90 deg. C and -40 deg. C. Materials include two different polyurethane foam types called FR3718 and FR3730 having densities of 280 kg/m{sup 3} and 488 kg/m{sup 3} from the product line-up of General Plastics Manufacturing Company. Their data was used to adapt an advanced plasticity model allowing for reliably simulating cellular materials under multi-axial compression states. Therefore, an automated parameter identification procedure had been established by combining an artificial neural network with local optimization techniques. Currently, the selected numerical material input values are validated and optimized by means of more complex loading configurations with the prospect of establishing methods applicable to impact limiters under severe accidental conditions. The reference data base is provided by experiments, where weights between 212 kg and 1200 kg have been dropped from heights between 1.25 m and 7 m on confined 10 cm cubic foam specimens. By presenting the deviations between experimental values and the corresponding output of finite element simulations, the potentials and restrictions of the resulting models are highlighted. Systematic compression tests on polyurethane foams had been performed at BAM test site within the framework of a research project on impact limiters for handling casks for radioactive waste. The experimental results had been used to adapt numerical models for simulating the behaviour of different foam types at different temperatures. The loading speed, however, turned out to have a major influence on their flow curves that can not be captured by simple strain-rate dependent multipliers. Especially for guided drop tests that come close to real accidental scenarios there is a significant gap between experimental and numerical results even when applying such advanced material models. Hence, the extensive data base is currently deployed for expanding the standard algorithms to include adequate dynamic hardening factors. (authors)

Kasparek, Eva M.; Voelzke, Holger; Scheidemann, Robert; Zencker, Uwe [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

A graphene foam electrode with high sulfur loading for flexible and high energy Li-S batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted great attention as next-generation high specific energy density storage devices. However, the low sulfur loading in the cathode for Li-S battery greatly offsets its advantage in high energy density and limits the practical applications of such battery concepts. Flexible energy storage devices are also becoming increasingly important for future applications but are limited by the lack of suitable lightweight electrode materials with robust electrochemical performance under cyclic mechanical strain. Here, we proposed an effective strategy to obtain flexible Li-S battery electrodes with high energy density, high power density, and long cyclic life by adopting graphene foam-based electrodes. Graphene foam can provide a highly electrically conductive network, robust mechanical support and sufficient space for a high sulfur loading. The sulfur loading in graphene foam-based electrodes can be tuned from 3.3 to 10.1 mg cm?2. The electrode with 10.1 mg cm?2 sulfur loading could deliver an extremely high areal capacity of 13.4 mAh cm?2, much higher than the commonly reported Li-S electrodes and commercially used lithium cobalt oxide cathode with a value of ~3–4 mAh cm?2. Meanwhile, the high sulfur-loaded electrodes retain a high rate performance with reversible capacities higher than 450 mAh g?1 under a large current density of 6 A g?1 and preserve stable cycling performance with ~0.07% capacity decay per cycle over 1000 cycles. These impressive results indicate that such electrodes could enable high performance, fast-charging, and flexible Li-S batteries that show stable performance over extended charge/discharge cycling.

Guangmin Zhou; Lu Li; Chaoqun Ma; Shaogang Wang; Ying Shi; Nikhil Koratkar; Wencai Ren; Feng Li; Hui-Ming Cheng

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Two-dimensional heterogeneous model for a reticulated-foam photocatalytic reactor  

SciTech Connect

A 2-D heterogeneous convection reaction model for a gas-solid lamp-in-tube annular photocatalytic reactor is presented. The catalyst (TiO{sub 2}) is supported on a reticulated-foam monolithic structure placed in the annular space between the UV lamp and the reactor wall. Mass balances for individual species are coupled through the reaction-rate expression that appears in the boundary condition at the fluid-solid interface in heterogeneous catalytic reactor models. The heterogeneous reaction rate is modeled using semiempirical Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) kinetics with adsorption constants for various species. The local volumetric rate of energy absorption (LVREA) term in the rate expression was computed using a 3-D polychromatic radiation-field model. The overall system of nonlinear partial differential equations was solved using a combination of the Crank-Nicolson method and the globally convergent Newton-Raphson method. The apparent, average quantum yield in the LHHW kinetic rate form is the single adjustable parameter in the model. Isopropanol (IPA) was chosen as the test contaminant to conduct experimental performance measurements for model validation. Model-predicted radial and axial profiles for bulk and surface concentration reveal that the extent to which mass transport influences the operation of a photocatalytic reactor is determined largely by the local magnitude of the LVREA. Similitude in the scale-up of an annular lamp-in-tube heterogeneous photocatalytic reactor is achieved only when the dimensionless radial radiation profile, as well as corresponding magnitudes of a geometric number, the Peclet number, the Stanton number, and the photocatalytic analog of the Damkoehler number, are identical.

Changrani, R.G.; Raupp, G.B.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Manufacturing Advanced Engineered Components Using Lost Foam Casting Technology  

SciTech Connect

This project was a subtask of Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (�¢����Energy SMARRT�¢���) Program. Through this project, technologies, such as computer modeling, pattern quality control, casting quality control and marketing tools, were developed to advance the Lost Foam Casting process application and provide greater energy savings. These technologies have improved (1) production efficiency, (2) mechanical properties, and (3) marketability of lost foam castings. All three reduce energy consumption in the metals casting industry. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of January 1, 2004 through June 30, 2011. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates based on commercial introduction in 2011 and a market penetration of 97% by 2020 is 5.02 trillion BTU�¢����s/year and 6.46 trillion BTU�¢����s/year with 100% market penetration by 2023. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.03 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

Harry Littleton; John Griffin

2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

351

Size-resolved engine exhaust aerosol characteristics in a metal foam particulate filter for GDI light-duty vehicle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The particulate emissions generated from a side-mounted 2.4 L gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine were evaluated using a metal foam-type gasoline particulate filter (GPF), placed on the downstream of a three-way catalyst. An ULEV legislation-compliant light-duty vehicle was tested under the new European driving cycle (NEDC) and at constant-speed driving conditions. Particle number (PN) concentrations, particulate size distribution and the filtration efficiency of the GPF were evaluated with the condensation particle counter (CPC) and the differential mobility spectrometer (DMS). The PN emissions for the entire NEDC were 1.17E+12 N/km for the base GDI vehicle and 4.99E+11 N/km for the GPF-equipped GDI vehicle, and the filtration efficiency of the GPF was 57%. In particular, the number of sub-23 nm particles formed in the GDI vehicle was substantially reduced, with 97% efficiency. The pressure drop in the metal foam-type GPF was constrained to be below 1.0 kPa at a 120 km/h vehicle speed, and as a result, the fuel economy and the CO2 emission for the GPF-applied vehicle were equivalent to those for the base vehicle.

Kwanhee Choi; Juwon Kim; Ahyun Ko; Cha-Lee Myung; Simsoo Park; Jeongmin Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Building America Technlogy Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Interior Foundation Insulation Upgrade- Minneapolis Residence (Fact Sheet)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This interior foundation project employed several techniques to improve performance and mitigate moisture issues: dimple mat; spray polyurethane foam insulation; moisture and thermal management systems for the floor; and paperless gypsum board and steel framing.

353

Indoor Mold, Toxigenic Fungi, and Stachybotrys chartarum: Infectious Disease Perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...other substrates including pipe insulation, gypsum, fiberglass wallpaper...Fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation in the air distribution system...associated with urea-formaldehyde foam insulation in Canada. Mycopathologia 99...

D. M. Kuhn; M. A. Ghannoum

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Destruction behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes during incineration of solid waste containing expanded and extruded polystyrene insulation foams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) have been used for flame retardation mainly in expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation foams. Controlled incineration experiments with solid wastes containing each of EPS and XPS were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator to investigate the destruction behavior of \\{HBCDs\\} and their influence on the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/DFs). EPS and XPS materials were respectively blended with refuse derived fuel (RDF) as input wastes for incineration. Concentrations of \\{HBCDs\\} contained in the EPS- and XPS-added RDFs, were 140 and 1100 mg kg?1, respectively. In which ?-HBCD was dominant (68% of the total HBCD content) in EPS-added RDF and ?-HBCD accounted for 73% of the total \\{HBCDs\\} in XPS-added RDF. During the incineration experiments with EPS and XPS, primary and secondary combustion zones were maintained at temperatures of 840 °C and 900 °C. The residence times of waste in the primary combustion zone and flue gas in the secondary combustion zone was 30 min and three seconds, respectively. \\{HBCDs\\} were steadily degraded in the combustion chambers and ?-, ?-, and ?-HBCD behaved similarly. Concentration levels of the total \\{HBCDs\\} in the bag filter exit gas for the two experiments with EPS and XPS were 0.7 and 0.6 ng  m N - 3 , respectively. \\{HBCDs\\} were also not detected (<0.2 ng g?1) in the bottom and fly ash samples. From the obtained results, it was calculated that \\{HBCDs\\} were sufficiently destroyed in the whole incineration process with destruction efficiencies of more than 99.9999 for both of EPS and XPS cases. For PBDD/DFs, the levels detected in the bottom and fly ash samples were very low (0.028 ng g?1 at maximum). In the case of XPS-added experiment, 2,3,7,8-TeBDD and 2,3,7,8-TeBDF were determined in the flue gas at levels (0.05–0.07 ng  m N - 3 ) slightly over the detection limits in the environmental emission gas samples, suggesting \\{HBCDs\\} in XPS are possibly a precursor of detected PBDD/DFs. Operational care should be taken when the ratio of HBCD-containing polystyrene is increased in the input wastes just to make sure of formation prevention and emission control of PBDD/DFs. The concentrations and congener patterns of PCDD/DFs and dl-PCBs in the samples during the three experiments were not affected by an addition of HBCDs.

Hidetaka Takigami; Mafumi Watanabe; Natsuko Kajiwara

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Dielectric Change of Copper Phthalocyanine and Polyurethane Foam with High Elasticity as a Function of Pressure Discussed in Terms of Conversion from Natural Mechanical Energy to Electric Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A composite with both high permittivity and high elasticity was prepared by using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and polyurethane (PU) foam. The formation and chemical, structural, and electrical characterizations of CuPc and the PU/CuPc composites were ...

Shaoyan Fan; Yuezhen Bin; Rong Zhang; Panpan Zhang; Dan Zhu; Masaru Matsuo

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

356

Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Supported Fe3O4 Lithium Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life and High Rate Capability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Supported Fe3O4 Lithium Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life and High Rate Capability ... Ge Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries ...

Jingshan Luo; Jilei Liu; Zhiyuan Zeng; Chi Fan Ng; Lingjie Ma; Hua Zhang; Jianyi Lin; Zexiang Shen; Hong Jin Fan

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

357

A three-dimensional laboratory steam injection model allowing in situ saturation measurements. [Comparing steam injection and steam foam injection with nitrogen and without nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

The CT imaging technique together with temperature and pressure measurements were used to follow the steam propagation during steam and steam foam injection experiments in a three dimensional laboratory steam injection model. The advantages and disadvantages of different geometries were examined to find out which could best represent radial and gravity override flows and also fit the dimensions of the scanning field of the CT scanner. During experiments, steam was injected continuously at a constant rate into the water saturated model and CT scans were taken at six different cross sections of the model. Pressure and temperature data were collected with time at three different levels in the model. During steam injection experiments, the saturations obtained by CT matched well with the temperature data. That is, the steam override as observed by temperature data was also clearly seen on the CT pictures. During the runs where foam was present, the saturation distributions obtained from CT pictures showed a piston like displacement. However, the temperature distributions were different depending on the type of steam foam process used. The results clearly show that the pressure/temperature data alone are not sufficient to study steam foam in the presence of non-condensible gas.

Demiral, B.M.R.; Pettit, P.A.; Castanier, L.M.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Effect of flask vibration time on casting integrity, Surface Penetration and Coating Inclusion in lost foam casting of Al-Si Alloy  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the result of an experimental investigation conducted on medium aluminum silicon alloy casting- LM6, using no-vacuum assisted lost foam casting process. The study is directed for establishing the relationship between the flask vibrations times developed for molded sample on the casting integrity, surface penetration and coating inclusion defects of the casting. Four different flask vibration times namely 180, 120, 90 and 60 sec. were investigated. The casting integrity was investigated in terms of fulfilling in all portions and edges. The surface penetration was measured using optical microscope whilst image analyzer was used to quantify the percentage of coating inclusion in the casting. The results show that vibration time has significant influence on the fulfilling as well as the internal integrity of the lost foam casting. It was found that the lower vibration time produced comparatively sound casing.

Karimian, Majid [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr branch, Islamic Azad University-(Khomeinishahr- Isfahan) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Idris, M. H. [Dept. of Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Johor Bauru (Malaysia); Ourdjini, A.; Muthu, Kali [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Khomeinishahr branch, Islamic Azad University-(Khomeinishahr- Isfahan) (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

359

Investigation of Biodiesel–Diesel Fuel Blends on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Using OpenFOAM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Biodiesel–Diesel Fuel Blends on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Using OpenFOAM ... (1) In addition, biodiesel can be used in existing compression ignition (CI) or diesel engines with minimal or no modifications because its physicochemical characteristics are very similar to those of fossil diesel. ... However, when CME, PME, and SME are blended with 50 vol % of diesel fuel, the general trend as discussed above is not reproduced. ...

Harun Mohamed Ismail; Hoon Kiat Ng; Suyin Gan; Xinwei Cheng; Tommaso Lucchini

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

360

Solvothermal synthesis of NiAl double hydroxide microspheres on a nickel foam-graphene as an electrode material for pseudo-capacitors  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we demonstrate excellent pseudo-capacitance behavior of nickel-aluminum double hydroxide microspheres (NiAl DHM) synthesized by a facile solvothermal technique using tertbutanol as a structure-directing agent on nickel foam-graphene (NF-G) current collector as compared to use of nickel foam current collector alone. The structure and surface morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopies respectively. NF-G current collector was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition followed by an ex situ coating method of NiAl DHM active material which forms a composite electrode. The pseudocapacitive performance of the composite electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The composite electrode with the NF-G current collector exhibits an enhanced electrochemical performance due to the presence of the conductive graphene layer on the nickel foam and gives a specific capacitance of 1252 F g{sup ?1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup ?1} and a capacitive retention of about 97% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. This shows that these composites are promising electrode materials for energy storage devices.

Momodu, Damilola; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Barzeger, Farshad; Taghizadeh, Fatimeh; Fabiane, Mopeli; Manyala, Ncholu, E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South Africa. (South Africa); Johnson, A. T. Charlie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Constitutive Model for the Time-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of 430 Stainless Steel and FeCrAlY Foams in Sulfur-Bearing Environments  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical behavior of 430 stainless steel and pre-oxidized FeCrAlY open-cell foam materials of various densities was evaluated in compression at temperatures between 450 C and 600 C in an environment containing hydrogen sulfide and water vapor. Both materials showed negligible corrosion due to the gaseous atmosphere for up to 168 hours. The monotonic stress-strain response of these materials was found to be dependent on both the strain rate and their density, and the 430 stainless steel foam materials exhibited less stress relaxation than FeCrAlY for similar experimental conditions. Using the results from multiple hardening-relaxation and monotonic tests, an empirical constitutive equation was derived to predict the stress-strain behavior of FeCrAlY foams as a function of temperature and strain rate. These results are discussed in the context of using these materials in a black liquor gasifier to accommodate the chemical expansion of the refractory liner resulting from its reaction with the soda in the black liquor.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Electrode Plate For An Eletrlchemical Cell And Having A Metal Foam Type Support, And A Method Of Obtaining Such An Electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The electrode plate includes an active portion that is pasted with active material, and a plate head that is made up of three layers of compressed metal foam comprising: a non-pasted portion of height G of the support of the electrode plate; and two strips of non-pasted metal foam of height R on either side of the non-pasted portion of height G of the support and also extending for an overlap height h.sub.2 over the pasted portion of the support. The plate head includes a zone of reduced thickness including a portion that is maximally compressed, and a transitional portion between said maximally compressed portion and the remainder of the electrode which is of thickness e.sub.2. A portion of said plate head forms a connection tab. The method of obtaining the electrode consists in simultaneously rolling all three layers of metal foam in the plate head, and then in cutting matter away from the plates so as to obtain respective connection tabs.

Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Precigout, Claude (Bordeaux, FR); Stewart, Donald (Bordeaux, FR)

1996-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

363

Removal of Cu, Pb and Zn by foam fractionation and a soil washing process from contaminated industrial soils using soapberry-derived saponin: A comparative effectiveness assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The feasibility of using the eco-friendly biodegradable surfactant saponin (a plant-based surfactant) from soapberry and surfactin from Bacillus subtilis (BBK006) for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated industrial soil (6511 mg kg?1 copper, 4955 mg kg?1 lead, and 15 090 mg kg?1 zinc) by foam fractionation and a soil flushing process was evaluated under variation of fundamental factors (surfactant concentration, pH, temperature and time). The results of latter process showed that 1–2% Pb, 16–17% Cu and 21–24% Zn was removed by surfactin after 48 h, whereas the removal of Pb, Cu and Zn was increased from 40% to 47%, 30% to 36% and 16% to 18% in presence of saponin with an increase from 24 to 72 h at room temperature by the soil washing process at pH 4. In the foam fractionation process, the metal removal efficiencies were increased with increases in the saponin concentration (0.075–0.15 g L?1) and time (24–72 h), whereas the efficiency was decreased with increasing pH (4–10) and temperature (>40 °C). The removal efficiencies of Pb, Cu and Zn were increased significantly from 57% to 98%, 85% to 95% and 55% to 56% with an increase in the flow rate from 0.2 to 1.0 L min?1 at 0.15 g L?1 saponin (pH 4 and 30 °C). The present investigation indicated that the foam fractionation process is more efficient for the removal of heavy metal from contaminated industrial soil in comparison to the soil washing process. The plant-based eco-friendly biodegradable biosurfactant saponin can be used for environmental cleanup and pollution management.

Jyoti Prakash Maity; Yuh Ming Huang; Chun-Mei Hsu; Ching-I Wu; Chien-Cheng Chen; Chun-Yi Li; Jiin-Shuh Jean; Young-Fo Chang; Chen-Yen Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

DOE Solar Decathlon: News Blog » Blog Archive » Technology Spotlight:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels Monday, September 19, 2011 Alexis Powers Editor's Note: This post is one of a series of technology spotlights that introduces common technologies used in U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon team houses. Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are prefabricated structural elements used to build walls, ceilings, floors, and roofs. Made of foam insulation sandwiched between two layers of structural board, SIPs provide a more airtight dwelling than a standard stud-frame house. This creates a quieter and more energy-efficient interior space. Various types of insulation can be used in SIPs in homes. The most common insulating material is polystyrene or polyisocyanurate foam. Foam insulation is added between two sheets of oriented strand board (an

365

1.5 V battery driven reduced graphene oxide–silver nanostructure coated carbon foam (rGO–Ag–CF) for the purification of drinking water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A porous carbon foam (CF) electrode modified with a reduced graphene oxide–Ag (rGO–Ag) nanocomposite has been fabricated to purify water. It can perform as an antibacterial device by killing pathogenic microbes with the aid of a 1.5 V battery, with very little power consumption. The device is recycled ten times with good performance for long term usage. It is shown that the device may be implemented as a fast water purifier to deactivate the pathogens in drinking water.

Surender Kumar; Somnath Ghosh; N Munichandraiah; H N Vasan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A Review of Vacuum Degradation Research and the Experimental Outgassing Research of the Core Material- Pu foam on Vacuum Insulation Panels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vacuum Insulation Panels(VIPs) have been regarded as a super thermal insulation material with a thermal resistance of about 5-8 times higher than that of equally thick conventional polyurethane boards. In this paper, the researches on factors influencing interior pressure in VIPs, including gas and water vapor permeation through the barrier and outgassing of the core materials, were reviewed respectively. Following this, aiming at the outgassing from open cell PU foam, the specific outgassing rate of the core material is tested not only at room temperature but also at low and high temperatures by an orifice known-conductance method.

C.G. Yang; Y.J. Li; X. Gao; L. Xu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An  

SciTech Connect

A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

Loustau, Marie-Therese (Bordeaux, FR); Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Precigout, Claude (Lormont, FR)

1996-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

368

Immunologic studies of subjects with asthma exposed to formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) off products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There has been concern in recent years as to the health hazards of exposure to potentially carcinogenic or immunotoxic substances in the environment. This study was done to determine the effects of exposure to urea-formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) off products on various hematologic and immunologic parameters in subjects with asthma: complete blood count and differential, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, lymphocyte subpopulations (E-rosetting, T3, T4, T8. B73.1, and Fc receptor positive lymphocytes and large granular lymphocytes), lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin and formalin-treated red blood cells (Form-RBC), serum antibody against the Thomsen-Friedenreich RBC antigen and against Form-RBC, and natural killer (NK), interferon (IFN)-boosted NK (IFN-NK), and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Four control subjects with asthma from conventionally insulated homes (control group) and 23 subjects with asthma from UFFI-insulated homes (home group) were exposed to placebo, formaldehyde, dust, and UFFI off gas at levels ordinarily found in UFFI-containing homes for four separate periods in an environmental chamber. Immunologic testing was carried out before the exposure series and 1 day after completion 7 days later as part of an investigation of respiratory and possible allergic effects of such exposure. Data from the UFFI-insulated home group were not significantly different from data of the normal conventionally insulated home control group for any of the variables studied, either before or after UFFI exposure. Paired t tests comparing data from each of the two groups before and after UFFI exposure demonstrated minimal, but statistically significant increases in percent eosinophils and T8 positive cells in the UFFI-insulated home group only. Although NK, relative NK, and IFN-NK were normal in all groups, IFN-NK assays by use of a low concentration of ?-interferon demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in NK response to IFN in both the control and UFFI-insulated home groups after UFFI exposure. These differences were not observed at optimum levels of IFN stimulation. These data indicate that long-term exposure to UFFI off products in the home apparently had no effect on the immunologic parameters studied. Short-term exposure resulted in minor immunologic changes in this subject population.

H.F. Pross; J.H. Day; R.H. Clark; R.E.M. Lees

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

SOC/SIP for energy management Bernard COURTOIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be more responsible for these savings. Electric cars will help on oil consumption on the roads, the $ value of batteries is about 30% in an electrical car. Various types of hybrid cars can save oil% of the total home power consumption. Great savings may be achieved. An example of potential savings

Boyer, Edmond

370

Managing feature interactions between distributed SIP call control services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

who subscribes to call waiting (CW) and call forward when busy (CFB) is busy, then what will happen list, and user B subscribes to CFB to user C. If A invites B, and the invitation is forwarded to C

Kolberg, Mario

371

Analysis of SIP's applicability in Smart Grid environment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Smart Grid is the modernization of the existing power grid, which utilizes the digital technology for the two-way exchange of information and electricity between the… (more)

Mukkamala, Rohan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Stent with expandable foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stent for treating a physical anomaly. The stent includes a skeletal support structure for expanding in the physical anomaly and a shape memory material coupled to the skeletal support structure.

Wilson, Thomas S; Maitland, Duncan J; Small, IV, Ward; Buckley, Patrick R; Benett, William J; Hartman, Jonathan; Saloner, David A

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

373

Measuring the Impact of Experimental Parameters upon the Estimated Thermal Conductivity of Closed-Cell Foam Insulation Subjected to an Accelerated Aging Protocol ? Two Year Results  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivity of many closed-cell foam insulation products changes over time as production gases diffuse out of the cell matrix and atmospheric gases diffuse into the cells. Thin slicing has been shown to be an effective means of accelerating this process in such a way as to produce meaningful results. Efforts to produce a more prescriptive version of the ASTM C 1303 standard test method have led to a broad ruggedness test. This test includes the aging of full size insulation specimens for time periods up to five years for later comparison to the predicted results. Experimental parameters under investigation include: slice thickness, slice origin (at the surface or from the core of the slab), thin slice stack composition, product facings, original product thickness, product density, and product type. This paper will compare the results after two years of full-thickness aging.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Measuring the Impact of Experimental Parameters upon the Estimated Thermal Conductivity of Closed-Cell Foam Insulation Subjected to an Accelerated Aging Protocol  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivity of many closed-cell foam insulation products changes over time as production gases diffuse out of the cell matrix and atmospheric gases diffuse into the cells. Thin slicing has been shown to be an effective means of accelerating this process in such a way as to produce meaningful results. Recent efforts to produce a more prescriptive version of the ASTM standard test method have led to the initiation of a broad ruggedness test. This test includes the aging of full size insulation specimens for time periods up to five years for later comparison to the predicted results. Experimental parameters under investigation include: slice thickness, slice origin (at the surface or from the core of the slab), thin slice stack composition, product facings, original product thickness, product density, and product type. This paper will cover the structure of the ruggedness test and provide a glimpse of some early trends

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL] [ORNL; Bogdan, mary [Honeywell, Inc.] [Honeywell, Inc.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Thermal and mechanical properties of polyurethane foams and a survey of insulating concretes at cryogenic temperatures. Final report, January 1979-February 1984  

SciTech Connect

Thermal and mechanical properties of expanded plastics, foams, are reported. The system studied was rigid, closed cell, CCl/sub 3/F blown, polyether based polyurethane. The primary temperature range of study was 100 to 300 K; however, several properties were determined to 4 K. The nominal densities of the foams tested were 32, 64, and 96 kg/cu m. Properties reported are thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, strength and moduli in tension and in compression, proportional limit, yield strength, ultimate strength, and shear strength. Physical properties were determined both parallel and perpendicular to the orthogonal axes of the bulk supplies. The gas content of the specimens was determined using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and with a gas displacement pycnometer. Empirical procedures for estimating the temperature dependent thermophysical properties were developed. These procedures are based on the experimental data and utilize the characterization parameters for molar gas concentration, gas pressure, and cell morphology. Regulations affecting vapor dispersion in the area around liquefied natural gas facilities make it attractive to construct dikes and impounding areas out of materials having low thermal conductivities. Several insulating concretes have the general properties required for such applications. Screening tests were done to determine the thermal conductivity, modulus of rupture, and the compressive strength of several polyester based materials with glass bead or perlite aggregate and of portland cement based materials with vermiculite or polystyrene aggregate. A bibliography resulting from an extensive literature survey of lightweight concretes is presented. Seven of the references which were particularly applicable are presented in annotated form.

Sparks, L.L.; Arvidson, J.M.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Exterior Rigid Foam Insulation at the Edge of a Slab Foundation, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Efficient Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exterior Rigid Foam Insulation at Exterior Rigid Foam Insulation at the Edge of a Slab Foundation Fresno, California PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: New Home Type: Single-family, affordable Builder: Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes, Inc., www.wchomes.com Size: 1,789 ft 2 Price Range: Starting at $205,000 Date completed: 2011 Climate Zone: Hot-dry PERFORMANCE DATA Using BEopt version 1.3 modeling on the house plan and specifications noted for this Fresno, California, unoccupied test house, the research team deter- mined that the house will achieve energy savings of 35.5% with respect to the Building America House Simulation Protocols*. * Hendron, R. and Engebrecht, C. NREL/TP-550-49426. "Building America House Simulation Protocols." Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2010.

377

RELATIVE ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME SHIELDING MATERIALS FOR PuB NEUTRONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1: Polyethylene Water Spodumene-gypsum Gypsum, wet and dryconstituents of the spodumene-gypsum, and gypsum shields.SPODUMENK·,GYPSUM SHIELD 30% Spodumene by weight 40% Gypsum

Bringham, P.S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Attic Air Sealing Guidelines  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Terminology Terminology Air Barrier Material (ABM) --- A does not allow air to pass throu plywood/OSB, foam board, duc lumber. Backing --- Any material that s be sprayed so as to provide an glass batts. Baffle (B) --- Manufactured chu direct ventilation air flow up an foam board or cardboard. Thermal Blocking --- Any rigid heat sources like chimneys or metal and gypsum board. Fasteners --- Staples, screws o

379

Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum  

SciTech Connect

Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

380

Utilization of by-product gypsum in construction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a by-product (called phosphogypsum) during acidulation of phosphate rock in the manufacture phosphoric acid. The sulfate is produced in either a dihydrate or a hemihydrate form depending on the operating conditions. Phosphogypsum produced... by Mobil Chemi- cal Company (Pasadena, Texas) is in the dihydrate form and was previously studied. Phosphogypsum produced by Occidental Chemical Company (White Springs, Florida), on the other hand, is produced in a hemihydrate form and transforms...

Stephenson, Angela Lorraine

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Gypsum and Polyacrylamide Soil Amendments Used With High Sodium Wastewater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using wastewater for irrigation of crops represents an attractive alternative to disposal. Typically, municipal wastewaters are high in sodium, and the resulting high sodium absorption ratio (SAR) alters the soil structure making it more impermeable...

Gardiner, Duane

382

Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine...

Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

383

Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

2000-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

384

Fiber reinforced hybrid phenolic foam.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hybrid composites in recent times have been developed by using more than one type of fiber reinforcement to bestow synergistic properties of chosen filler and… (more)

Desai, Amit

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Solar Decathlon Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Decathlon Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels Decathlon Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels Solar Decathlon Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels September 20, 2011 - 7:13am Addthis These structural insulated panels consist of foam insulation sandwiched between oriented strand boards. (Courtesy of Michael Bacchler) These structural insulated panels consist of foam insulation sandwiched between oriented strand boards. (Courtesy of Michael Bacchler) Alexis Powers EDITOR'S NOTE: Originally posted on the Solar Decathlon News Blog on September 19, 2011. Editor's Note: This post is one of a series of technology spotlights that introduces common technologies used in U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon team houses. Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are prefabricated structural elements

386

DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study, Clifton View Homes, Coupeville, WA, Systems Home  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Case-study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home on Whidbey Island, WA, that scored HERS 45 without PV. This 2,908 ft2 custom/system home has a SIP roof and walls, R-20 rigid foam under slab, triple-pane windows, ground source heat pump for radiant floor heat, and a unique balanced ventilation system using separate exhaust fans to bring air into and out of home.

387

Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of the study. The market potential is enhanced through construction activity levels in target marke

Jane Davidson

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

388

Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy without sacrificing safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Disruption Oil Imports, National Security, and Tradepolicy. Oil Imports, National Security, and Trade Deficitsdependence, oil imports, national security, trade deficits,

Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Pore-scale spectral induced polarization (SIP) signatures associated with FeS biomineral transformations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

relationships observed for unconsolidated sediments, Waterexponent (0.2-0.8 for unconsolidated soils) and m is the

Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Personna, Yves R.; Hubbard, Susan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Application-Directed Voltage Scaling Johan Pouwelse, Koen Langendoen, and Henk Sips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

--Clock (and voltage) scheduling is an important tech- nique to reduce the energy consumption of processors that sup- port voltage scaling. It is difficult, however, to achieve good re- sults using only statistics to the scheduler control- ling the clock speed and processor voltage. This paper describes our Energy Priority

Pouwelse, Johan

391

Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for occluding a physical anomaly. One embodiment comprises a shape memory material body wherein the shape memory material body fits within the physical anomaly occluding the physical anomaly. The shape memory material body has a primary shape for occluding the physical anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly.

Wilson, Thomas S. (Castro Valley, CA); Maitland, Duncan J. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

392

Columbia inquiry homes in on faulty foam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... fuel tank shortly after launch, damaging the shuttle's left wing and causing it to overheat on re-entry. Little research will be done on the station until the shuttle ... for biological specimens. Subsequent flights would have boosted electrical power on the station by adding solar arrays. ...

Tony Reichhardt

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Fire Behaviour of Rigid Foam Insulation Boards  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low density cellular polymers have established a significant share of the market for insulating materials in the building industry due to their unique combination of low density and low thermal conductivity. Manu...

P. J. Briggs

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Cryogenic Foam Insulations: Polyurethane and Polystyrene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Increased use of cryogenic temperatures in the recent past may be credited in large part to military and aerospace endeavors. However, the impending energy shortage, advanced surgical techniques, refrigeration of...

L. L. Sparks

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Remediation of brine-contaminated soil using calcium nitrate, gypsum, and straw.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Salt-affected soils from point source brine contamination are common in the active oil field in SE Saskatchewan. A remediation process that included dewatering by sub-surface… (more)

Nielsen, Jennifer I.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Holographic interferometry study of the dissolution and diffusion of gypsum in Jean Colombani  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Wilde, 1971) with a Nernst-Hartley equation from the tracer diffusivity of the ions (Jeschke et al

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

Lago Verde and Lago Flaco: Gypsum-bound lakes of the Chilean ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oct 16, 1975 ... ceed 20°C. (For 15 December 1972 mini- mum and maximum temperatures were about 5” and 24°C for air, and 11” and. 18°C for the lake. ) ...

2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

398

The detrimental effects of salinity on rooting of coleus cuttings and their alleviation with gypsum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The effect of NaC1 on root number and color intensity of the foliage were not altered by the addition of CaSO . The beneficial effects of CaS04 cou1d not be demonstrated in a peat-styrafoam medium. Acknowledgements I would like to express my sincere... Ca/Na ratios for the NaC1:Ca504 solutions 5 Electrical conductivities (E. C. ) of 2 KNO solutions with i ncreasing CaS04 concent/ations 6 The effects of pH and peat extract on rooting of 'Big Red' cuttings . Page 13 15 44 45 56 LIST...

Janssen, Antonius Hendrick

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

399

SiP Wireless Micro-Power Sensors Justin P. Vogt and Gabriel A. Rincn-Mora  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is an integrated storage device such as a battery, fuel cell, or ultra-capacitor. These devices can be evaluated in the field. However, activity can damage or misalign the shielding, causing performance degradation. By studying this degradation in situ, more rigorous designs can be created. This study can be accomplished

Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

400

Field Testing of Nano-PCM-Enhanced Building Envelope Components in a Warm-Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program s goal of developing high-performance, energy-efficient buildings will require more cost-effective, durable, energy-efficient building envelopes. Forty-eight percent of the residential enduse energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase-change material (PCM) enhanced envelope components can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Field testing of prototype envelope components is an important step in estimating their energy benefits. An innovative PCM (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conducive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. During 2012, two test walls with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards were installed in a natural exposure test (NET) facility in Charleston, SC. The first test wall was divided into four sections separated by wood studs and thin layers of foam insulation. Two sections contained nano-PCMenhanced wallboards: one was a three-layer structure in which nano-PCM was sandwiched between two gypsum boards, and the other one had PCM dispersed homogeneously throughout graphite nanosheet-enhanced gypsum board. The second test wall also contained two sections with interior PCM wallboards; one contained nano-PCM dispersed homogeneously in gypsum and the other was gypsum board containing a commercial microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM) for comparison. Each test wall contained a section covered with gypsum board on the interior side that served as control or a baseline for evaluation of the PCM wallboards. The walls were instrumented with arrays of thermocouples and heat flux transducers. This paper presents the measured performance and analysis to evaluate the energy-saving potential of the nano-PCM-enhanced building components.

Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; LuPh.D., Jue [Technova Corporation; Soroushian, Parviz [Technova Corporation

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Building Stones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

known as “burnt gypsum” or “plaster of Paris. ” When mixedsolid material. Such “gypsum plaster” was produced from lateand painted. Gypsum plaster was also sometimes employed as a

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Soil Formation and Transport Processes on Hillslopes along a Precipitation Gradient in the Atacama Desert, Chile  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2006). Gypsum, anhydrite, halite, carbonate, iodate andbedrock contain gypsum and halite, but show little evidence2006). Gypsum, anhydrite, halite, carbonate, iodate and

Owen, Justine J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Modeling of coupled heat transfer and reactive transport processes in porous media: Application to seepage studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevad a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of gypsum (or anhydrite), halite, fluorite and other salts.such as anhydrite, gypsum, or halite) also precipitate as a

Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Spycher, Nicolas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

On nonlinear inverse problems of heat transfer with radiation boundary conditions. Application to dehydratation of gypsum plasterboards exposed to fire  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resistance. Such materials must provide a sufficient mechanical resistance to avoid the prema- ture collapse the fire resistance of materials are given by several norms which define the minimum fire exposure duration that must support the building structure. One of the building materials presenting the best fire resistance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

Gypsum scale formation on a heated copper plate under natural convection conditions and produced water remediation technologies review .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Scaling or crystallization fouling of unwanted salts is one of the most challenging and expensive problems encountered in different applications such as heat exchangers and… (more)

Mirhi, Mohamad H. (Mohamad Hussein)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

3D geological modelling at urban scale and mapping of ground movement susceptibility from gypsum dissolution: the Paris example (France)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the Inspection Générale des Carrières (IGC; General Inspectorate of Quarries) has the task of managing the risks

Boyer, Edmond

407

Carbon Foam Infused with Pentaglycerine for Thermal Energy Storage Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A thermal energy storage device that uses pentaglycerine as a phase change material was developed. This solid-state phase change material was embedded in a carbon… (more)

Johnson, Douglas James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Thermal Energy Storage in Metal Foams filled with Paraffin Wax.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Phase change materials (PCM) such as paraffin wax are known to exhibit slow thermal response due to their relatively low thermal conductivity. In this study,… (more)

Vadwala, Pathik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Combustion Synthesis Of Ultralow-density Nanoporous Gold Foams  

SciTech Connect

A new synthetic pathway for producing nanoporous gold monoliths through combustion synthesis from Au bistetrazoJeamine complexes has been demonstrated. Applications of interest for Au nanofoams include new substrates for nanoparticle-mediated catalysis, embedded antennas, and spectroscopy. Integrated support-and-catalystin-one nanocomposites prepared through combustion synthesis of mixed AuBTA/metal oxide pellets would also be an interesting technology approach for low-cost in-line catalytic conversion media. Furthermore, we envision preparation of ultrahigh surface area gold electrodes for application in electrochemical devices through this method.

Tappan, Bruce C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, Alex H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steiner, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luther, Erik P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

SMOLDER IGNITION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM: EFFECT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

zone, and smolder heat of combustion (energy released perinto the smolder heat of combustion. As it can be seen from

Walther, David C; Anthenien, Ralph A; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Mechanistic Foam Flow Simulation in Heterogeneous and Multidimensional Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that is analogous to energy and species mass balances7, 8. Accordingly, a separate conservation equation is written flow is multidimensional and the porous medium is heterogeneous. We have incorporated a conservation are predicted, regardless of whether the layers are communicating or isolated. Introduction Field application

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

412

Carbon Foam Thermal Management Materials for Electronic Packaging...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008 Propulsion Materials R&D Annual Progress Report Environmental Effects on Power Electronic Devices Low Cost Carbon Fiber from Renewable Resources...

413

Investigating primary breakup with OpenFoam: Performance and Validation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Laskowski, A. Gupta Comp. HT, Aero and Acoustics Lab GE Global Research Energy and Propulsion Technologies of the Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 #12;2 / GE ORNL visit / 10/29/2010 Outline �Massively solver � Presentation � Performance �Solving design challenges with high fidelity simulations

414

Carbon Foam Thermal Management Materials for Electronic Packaging  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

415

A New Glass to Join Foam Glass Components  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The European market of insulation materials is dominated by two groups of ... inorganic or organic foamy materials; typically, the insulation materials for applications above 60 °C ( ... several process plants) a...

Andrea Ventrella; Federico Smeacetto…

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Laser Shearographic Testing of Foam Insulation on Cryogenic Fuel Tanks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Centaur is a high-energy rocket used as a second stage to the Atlas launch vehicle. The Centaur is cryogenically fueled, using liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and requires insulation to prevent fuel boi...

Douglas D. Burleigh; James E. Engel…

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Validation of Laser Shearography Testing for Fixed Foam Insulation Bonds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electronic Laser Shearography is a relatively new Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technique that is used with excitation methods to measure differential displacements and subsequent strains at the surface of a ma...

J. E. Engel; D. D. Burleigh

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Elastic effects in the foaming of thermoplastics Celeste Sagui,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. At later times, their activity is confined to the surface of the bubbles. These effects cause a significant slow-down in radial growth. In the presence of steady shear, elasticity tends to stabilize bubble, the surface tension. The polymer and BA velocities, vP and vBA , are related by the incompressibility

Grant, Martin

419

Anomalous zeta potential in foam films Laurent Joly,1,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in micro and nanofluidic systems. While a rather clear picture of these phenomena exists now for the liquid gained in the last decade major technological importance. Electric driving of liquids in micro and hydro- dynamics, EK effects, which are quantified by the zeta potential [5], depend not only

Boyer, Edmond

420

Foams out of stable equilibrium : cell elongation and side swapping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measured total wall length, i.e. surface energy. * Author for correspondence : graner ultimately reach the lowest energy level, for fixed cell number and volumes, i.e. the global energy minimum is the difference betwen the energy of a selected pattern and the true global energy minimum? The present study uses

Kurien, Susan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Attenuation of Fluorocarbons Released from Foam Insulation in Landfills  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lyngby, Denmark, and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Miyazaki University, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan ... The investigation was performed using organic household waste or refuse excavated from a landfill. ... A:? Organic waste collected from Danish households. ...

Charlotte Scheutz; Yutaka Dote; Anders M. Fredenslund; Hans Mosbæk; Peter Kjeldsen

2007-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

422

Continuous Operation of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactors Treating Toluene Vapors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/bit.20619 Abstract: Continuous operation of a new bioreactor for air pollution control Periodicals, Inc. Keywords: VOC control; biofilter; air pollution control; toluene; biologically activated biofilters and biotrickling filters for the treatment of air pollutants such as toluene. Ã? 2005 Wiley

423

E-Print Network 3.0 - arteria cerebelar anterior Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of SIP SIP PSV. Fig. 6 presents, from four different Source: Hong, Lichan - Palo Alto Research Center (PARC); Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), User Interface Research; SUNY...

424

E-Print Network 3.0 - arteria comunicante anterior Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of SIP SIP PSV. Fig. 6 presents, from four different Source: Hong, Lichan - Palo Alto Research Center (PARC); Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), User Interface Research; SUNY...

425

THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLAR WIND MODELING FROM THE SUN TO EARTH BY A SIP-CESE MHD MODEL WITH A SIX-COMPONENT GRID  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to explore the application of a six-component overset grid to solar wind simulation with a three-dimensional (3D) Solar-InterPlanetary Conservation Element/Solution Element MHD model. The essential focus of our numerical model is devoted to dealing with: (1) the singularity and mesh convergence near the poles via the use of the six-component grid system, (2) the {nabla} {center_dot} B constraint error via an easy-to-use cleaning procedure by a fast multigrid Poisson solver, (3) the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy number disparity via the Courant-number insensitive method, (4) the time integration by multiple time stepping, and (5) the time-dependent boundary condition at the subsonic region by limiting the mass flux escaping through the solar surface. In order to produce fast and slow plasma streams of the solar wind, we include the volumetric heating source terms and momentum addition by involving the topological effect of the magnetic field expansion factor f{sub S} and the minimum angular distance {theta}{sub b} (at the photosphere) between an open field foot point and its nearest coronal hole boundary. These considerations can help us easily code the existing program, conveniently carry out the parallel implementation, efficiently shorten the computation time, greatly enhance the accuracy of the numerical solution, and reasonably produce the structured solar wind. The numerical study for the 3D steady-state background solar wind during Carrington rotation 1911 from the Sun to Earth is chosen to show the above-mentioned merits. Our numerical results have demonstrated overall good agreements in the solar corona with the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite and at 1 AU with WIND observations.

Feng Xueshang; Yang Liping; Xiang Changqing; Zhou Yufen; Zhong Dingkun [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, S. T., E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.c [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS – FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation (UFFI), Consumer Productdiisobutyrate Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation orexpandable foam insulation Volatile Organic Chemical TMPD-

Maddalena, Randy L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Simplified Numerical Description of Latent Storage Characteristics for Phase Change Wallboard  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

implemented in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-coveringimplemented in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-coveringbillion square meters of plaster board produced annually in

Fuestel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

New insights into single-particle mixing state using aircraft aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with playas, including halite (NaCl), gypsum (CaSO 4. 2H 2playa evaporite minerals include halite, gypsum, mirabilite,

Pratt, Kerri Anne

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Computational Model of Forward and Opposed Smoldering Combustion with Improved Chemical Kinetics (PhD. Thesis)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for modeling urethane foam insulation performance, Journalinsulation, upholstery, shock absorbing, and soundproofing. PU foam

Rein, Guillermo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation (UFFI), Consumer Product1972 urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) caused health

Parthasarathy, Srinandini

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Sedimentology 001 What is sedimentology?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical rocks : produced from evaporation of water from a solution. Evaporites: halite, gypsum How do

Frank, Tracy D.

432

GEOL 103 Writing Assignment 3. Sedimentary Rocks Name _______________________  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.g., kaolinite), halite (rock salt), gypsum, occasionally micas (muscovite, biotite). Sed rocks can also contain

Kirby, Carl S.

433

Chemie der Erde 65 (2005) 203270 INVITED REVIEW  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In the mesostasis are rare patches of a salt alteration assemblage: halite, siderite, and anhydrite/ gypsum

Treiman, Allan H.

434

Geography 5: People and Earth's Ecosystems Lecture Outline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), evaporites (halite, gypsum), marine organisms or chemical precipitates (e.g. limestone) 12 Metamorphic Rocks

435

AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L. L. Sparks, I'Cryogenic Foam Insulations, Polyurethane and21) "Low Temperature Insulations - Foams and Composites ",Control Techniques, Insulation Materials, Foams, Fibres,

Viswanathan, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, plywood, and particleand urea- formaldehyde foam insulation. It is apparent thatand urea-formaldehyde insulation foam; also generated by

Sonderegger, R. C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

IMPACT OF REDUCED INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and radon from variousand urea-formaldehyde foam insulation have recently otherformaldehyde (UF) based foam insulation materials because of

Hollowell, Craig D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Health and Safety Guide for Home Performance Contractors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

parts A and B on-site, foam insulation installers follow thenon-conductive. Spray foam insulation should never be usedsealants, thermal insulation (wool felt, foam rubber, and

Stratton, Chris

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Deep Energy Retrofits - Eleven California Case Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

includes 4” of exterior foam insulation on walls and roof,connections with spray foam insulation, which also acts asand placement of exterior foam insulation. This strategy

Less, Brennan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, plywood, and particleand urea- formaldehyde foam insulation. It is apparent thatand urea-formaldehyde insulation foam; also generated by

Cairns, Elton J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, plywood, and particleand urea- formaldehyde foam insulation. It is apparent thatand urea-formaldehyde insulation foam; also generated by

Cairns, E.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of spray polyurethane foam insulation. Some of the risks ofin spray polyurethane foam insulation. Acute effects of MDIpolyurethane foam insulation. Toluene 2,4 diisocyanate (

Willem, Henry

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

DeJong, J. T. et al. (2013). Geotechnique 63, No. 4, 287301 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/geot.SIP13.P.017] Biogeochemical processes and geotechnical applications: progress,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the potential for innovative and sustainable solutions to geotechnical problems. This is a new paradigm for many flow control, and remediation of soil and groundwater impacted by metals and radio- nuclides engineering; ground improvement; remediation; soil stabilisation Manuscript received 2 March 2012; revised

Aydilek, Ahmet

444

CO[sub 2] foam with surfactants used below their critical micelle concentrations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on using surfactants below their critical micelle concentrations, D[sub CMC], to reduce gas mobility throughout a reservoir. When used in reservoir brines below their C[sub CMC] inexpensive anionic surfactants propagate through rock with little delay owing to adsorption. Yet gas mobility is reduced below that of a waterflood in either surfactant-water-alternating-gas (SWAG) or coinjection experiments. Moreover, oil recovery is higher than in processes without surfactant. In contrast, at concentrations above the C[sub CMC], surfactant adsorption is much higher and the injected surfactant concentration can be greatly delayed. In addition, CO[sub 2] mobility can be reduced so far below that of a waterflood that injectivity suffers. Moreover, oil recovery can be reduced because oil is emulsified and is lowered.

Kuhlman, M. (Research Dept., Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Falls, A.H.; Hara, S.K. (Shell Western E and P Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States)); Monger-McClure, T.G. (Marathon Oil Co., Petroleum Technology Center, Littleton, CO (United States)); Borchardt, J. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Geophysical monitoring of foam used to deliver remediation treatments within the vadose zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transport in the hanford sediments under hyperalkalinethe Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site, WA. A centralThe Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site and elsewhere (

Wu, Y.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Thermal Transport in Porous Media with Application to Fuel Cell Diffusion Media and Metal Foams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria) Dr. David Sinton, Departmental Member (Dept. of Mechanical, University of Victoria) Dr. David Sinton, Departmental Member (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University

Victoria, University of

447

LOW FLAMMABILITY FOAM-LIKE MATERIALS BASED ON EPOXY, TANNIC ACID, SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE CLAY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Aerogels based on sodium montmorillonite clay, epoxy polymer, and tannic acid as a flame retardant additive were fabricated through a simple environmentally-friendly freeze drying process… (more)

Lang, Xiaolong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Inorganic-Organic Shape Memory Polymers and Foams for Bone Defect Repairs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

revised solvent casting particulate leaching (SCPL) method. By tailoring scaffold parameters including salt fusion, macromer concentration and salt size, scaffold properties (e.g. pore features, compressive modulus and shape memory behavior) were tuned...

Zhang, Dawei

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

449

Mechanical behavior of closed-cell and hollow-sphere metallic foams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) The elastic anisotropy and yield surfaces are fully characterized, and numerical equations are developed to allow the simple evaluation of the effect of geometric and material properties on the mechanical behavior ...

Sanders, Wynn Steven, 1974-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Foam Separation of Oil from Enzymatically Treated Wet-Milled Corn Germ Dispersions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

More than 9 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in 2008, mostly from dry grind corn fermentation plants. These plants are a potential source of substantial amounts of corn oil, if an economical method of sep...

Leland C. Dickey; Michael J. Kurantz…

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

CELLULAR FOAMS: A POTENTIAL INNOVATIVE SOLID BREEDER MATERIAL FOR FUSION APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, N. Ghoniem, B. Williams, and J. Babcock University of California Los Angeles, CA 90095 permeability, high porosity, low thermal conductivity, and low heat capacity. These properties have lead, and solar radiation collectors.1-10 Recently, the bio-technology and biomedical industries are employing

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

452

Effects of thermomechanical processing on the resulting mechanical properties of 6101 aluminum foam  

SciTech Connect

Porous materials represent a tremendous weight savings for light-weight structural applications. The fabrication path can play a critical role in the resulting properties. High porosity aluminum was fabricated in a number of ways. The starting material was a cast 6101 aluminum that had a relative density of 9.8%. The cast aluminum block was compressed by uniaxial, biaxial, and triaxial densification. Uniaxial compression was done at room temperature and 200 C. Biaxial compression was achieved by unidirectional rolling at room temperature and 200 C. Triaxial compression was done by cold isostatic pressing at 3.4, 6.7, and 34 MPa (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 ksi). Metallography and mechanical test specimens were machines from the processed bars. The mechanical properties showed that the relative yield strength depended both on relative density and processing temperature.

Margevicius, R.W.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Nanofibers (PU and PAN) and nanoparticles (Nanoclay and MWNTs) simultaneous effects on polyurethane foam sound absorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this research, simultaneous effects of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polyurethane (PU) nanofibers, multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and nanoclay incorporation on sound absorption behavior of polyurethane ... ...

Hossein Bahrambeygi; Niloufar Sabetzadeh; Amir Rabbi…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous foam stabilized Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Angeles Collection: Engineering ; Materials Science ; Renewable Energy 44 SUPRI HEAVY OIL RESEARCH PROGRAM TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT Summary: .2.5 Conclusions 48 3.2.6 References...

455

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium foam produced Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, Department of Marine Benthic Ecology and Evolution, Collection: Biology and Medicine ; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 2 FATIGUE...

456

Effect of Synthetic Marrow on Synthetic Open-Cell Foam Vertebrae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Figure 12: Material “B” average modulus (star indicates significance in p-value of t-test). ... 30 Figure 13: Material "B" average ultimate stress. .................................................................................... 31 Figure 14...: Material “B” average ultimate strain (stars indicate significant p-values from t- test). .................................................................................................................................................. 33 Figure 15...

Good, Brian Victor

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

457

Electrocatalytic Hydrodechlorination of 2,4,5-Trichlorobiphenyl on a Palladium-Modified Nickel Foam Cathode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In addition, nonionic surfactants, anionic surfactants, and hydroxy-?-cyclodextrin (HPCD) are often used to dissolve hydrophobic organic pollutants in industrial applications such as soil washing due to their low toxicity and/or reagent residuals in situ (14, 15). ... For GC/MS analysis of PCBs in aqueous solution containing a surfactant (e.g., Brij 30), the sample was diluted into a solution containing 95 vol % methanol to ensure a sufficient increase in the cmc of the surfactants as a result of which any micelles present in the sample disintegrated due to the dilution (16); then, 2 mL of isooctane was used to extract the intermediate products from the solution. ...

Bo Yang; Gang Yu; Jun Huang

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

458

Measure Guideline: Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls  

SciTech Connect

This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders, remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

Natarajan, H.; Klocke, S.; Puttagunta, S.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Recycling Polyurethane Foam and its Use as Filler in Renovation Mortar with Thermal Insulating Effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Once the building have dried, it is necessary to assess the state of the renovation mortar with thermal insulating effect as well as the backing wall. If the building is not affected by the degrading effects, it ...

V. Václavík; T. Dvorský; V. Dirner…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Measuring the Thermal Conductivity of Irradiated Foam-Type Insulation Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of a flight-qualified nuclear-rocket propulsion system has progressed rapidly during the past three years. Space missions requiring this propulsion system are being evaluated and planned. The r...

E. T. Smith; R. E. Miller

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Durability of Foam Insulation for LH2 Fuel Tanks of Future Subsonic Transports  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The potential short-supply of petroleum-based fuels has led to activities by NASA to establish technical characteristics of air transportation systems that would use hydrogen-fueled aircraft. These activities ...

E. L. Sharpe; R. G. Helenbrook

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Evaluation of kinetic parameters appropriate for modeling urethane foam insulation performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Computer codes which model the pyrolysis of thermal insulators for in-depth temperature response are particularly sensitive to the kinetic parameters used in the code. The parameter values, which are evaluated...

I. Auerbach

463

Weatherability studies on external insulation thermal system of expanded polystyrene board, polystyrene granule and polyurethane foam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric exposure tests including two experimental stages of high temperature-spraying water cycle and heating-refrigeration cycle were carried out on three currently used ETIS of expanded polystyrene (EPS) bo...

Xiuqin Yin ???; Huiqiang Li; Haitao Bo…

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Potassium geopolymer foams made with silica fume pore forming agent for thermal insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Porous potassium based geopolymers with a mutli-scale porosity were synthesized. Silica fume is introduced as an additive to the geopolymer formulation. The free silicon contained inside this silica fume is ox...

Joseph Henon; Arnaud Alzina; Joseph Absi…

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Effect of Convection in Helium-Charged, Partial-Foam Insulations for Liquid Hydrogen Propellant Tanks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid hydrogen, because of its low density and extremely low boiling point, requires very effective insulation during its storage and use as a fuel for space booster applications. For space booster. insulatio...

B. N. Taylor; F. E. Mack

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

High-Performance Spray-Foam Insulation for Application on Saturn S-II Stage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Space boosters using liquid hydrogen as a propellant require insulation to minimize the heat leak into the liquid for ground and boost operations. Thus, during the early design phase of the Saturn S-II program...

F. E. Mack; M. E. Smith

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Foaming Theory and Mitigation Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to enhance the basic understanding of the role of glass chemistry, including the chemical kinetics of pre-melting, solid state reactions, batch melting, and the reaction pathways in glass and/or acid addition strategy changes on the overall melting process for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Macrobatch 3 (MB3).

Peeler, D.K.

2001-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

468

Numerical Investigation of Flow Induced Noise in a Simplified HVAC Duct with OpenFOAM.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Due to the growing demand for comfort, the noise generated by HVAC components should be considered by the designers. Flow induced noise is one… (more)

Wang, Cong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

X-ray tomography and three-dimensional image analysis of epoxy-glass syntactic foams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...voxels). The standard deviation of...the three-dimensional images at the interface between the...phase in three-dimensional was quite straightforward...value of the standard deviation...optical device measuring the diffraction...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Comparison of different contrast agents when imaging shape memory polymer foams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shape Memory Polymer 3D Three Dimensional CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics ?-CT Micro-Computed Tomography viii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...40 IEEE REVIEWS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 2, 2009 The VPH-Physiome Project: Standards and Tools for Multiscale Modeling in Clinical Applications Peter J. Hunter and Marco Viceconti Methodological Review Abstract?The revolution...

Eagleston, Scott 1990-

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

471

Control of Vapor Dispersion and Pool Fire of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) with Expansion Foam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is flammable when it forms a 5 – 15 percent volumetric concentration mixture with air at atmospheric conditions. When the LNG vapor comes in contact with an ignition source, it may result in fire and/or explosion. Because...

Yun, Geun Woong

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

472

Geophysical monitoring of foam used to deliver remediation treatments within the vadose zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

relationships observed for unconsolidated sediments. Wateron unsaturated, unconsolidated sands. Geophysics 69:762-771.saturated and unsaturated unconsolidated samples (Vanhala

Wu, Y.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

GPU IMPLEMENTATION OF A 3D BAYESIAN CT ALGORITHM AND ITS APPLICATION ON REAL FOAM RECONSTRUCTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tomography (CT) [1, 3]. The limits of these meth- ods appear when the number of projections is small, and as well as any iterative algebraic meth- ods is the computation time and especially for projection solve is to reconstruct the object f from the projection data g collected by a cone beam 3D CT. The link

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

474

Fractography of the "face" FE analysis of the foam yielding domain Ebrahim Farmand ashtiani  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

calibration method. The subcritical delamination propagation (crack growth before crack jump) can) versus crack growth (R curve) indicates a high initial value of G that decreases after several: Before Crack Jump: Load displacement curve: stick-slip crack growth R-Curve: High initial value of energy

Dalang, Robert C.

475

Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Anchored Nanocarbon Hybrid Foam for High Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In real life applications, supercapacitors (SCs) often can only be used as part of a hybrid system together with other high energy storage devices due… (more)

Wang, Wei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Mobility control of chemical EOR fluids using foam in highly fractured reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Highly fractured and vuggy oil reservoirs represent a challenge for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. The fractured networks provide flow paths several orders of magnitude… (more)

Gonzale?z Llama, Oscar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SAFETY INVESTMENT PROGRAM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SAFETY INVESTMENT PROGRAM (SIP) POLICIES FOR OREGON Final Report SPR 651 #12;#12;EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SAFETY INVESTMENT PROGRAM (SIP) POLICIES the Effectiveness of the Safety Investment Program (SIP) Policies for Oregon 5. Report Date October 2009 6

Bertini, Robert L.

478

ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT FY 1980  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

partioleboard and foam insulation. Work in this area hasThe design options are (1) foam insulation substitution; (2)

Authors, Various

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

between the urethane foam insulation surrounding the tankbe provided when urethane foam insulation is used for tank

Authors, Various

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Thermal Integrity Assessment of Building Envelopes of Experimental Houses Using Infrared Thermography  

SciTech Connect

Zero Energy Building Research Alliance, or ZEBRAlliance, is a joint DOE-ORNL-construction industry initiative to develop and demonstrate new energy efficiency technologies for residential buildings, as well as fine-tune and integrate existing technologies, to lower energy costs. Construction of residential envelopes, the diaphragms that separate the inside from outdoors, can have enormous impact on whole-building energy usage. Consequently, post-construction thermal integrity assessment of the building envelopes in the experimental ZEBRAlliance homes is an integral part of the research and development cycle. Nondestructive infrared (IR) thermography provides a relatively easy and quick means of inspecting the experimental homes for thermal bridging, insulation imperfections, moisture penetration, air leakage, etc. Two experimental homes located in Oak Ridge, TN were inspected using IR thermography. The homes are designed with two different envelope systems: (i) Structural Insulated Panels (SIP home) consisting of an insulating foam core sandwiched between oriented strand boards, and (ii) Optimal Value Framing (OVF home) using innovatively spaced wood studs, which are designed to minimize the amount of wood framing, reduce thermal bridging, and lower material costs. IR thermal imaging was performed from both outside and inside of the homes. In this paper, IR images of roof and wall sections of the homes are presented and discussed with respect to identification of areas of thermal bridging and any insulation deficiencies.

Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gypsum sip foam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Structures and Properties of Newton Black Films Characterized Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of foam in our daily life (i.e., fire-fighting foam, polymeric foam insulation, foam rubbers, and personal perturbation. 1. Introduction Foam is a colloidal system consisting of a dispersed gas phase and a continuous liquid phase, which tends to spontaneously separate into two distinct bulk phases. Foams are not thermo

Goddard III, William A.

482

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

implemented in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-coveringimbedded in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-covering7 billion square meters of plaster board are being produced

Feustel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Reactive Geochemical Transport Modeling of Concentrated Aqueous Solutions: Supplement to TOUGHREACT User's Guide for the Pitzer Ion-Interaction Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gypsum, niter, soda niter, halite, sylvite, epsomite, Mg(NO7 1.0E-8 1.0E-9 Gypsum Halite CaCl2:2H2O Sylvite Calcite Na+

Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Effect of polysaccharides on the hydration of cement paste at early A. Peschard, A. Govin*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. [9,10] found that addition of glucose, gluconate or lignosulfonate stabilizes ettringite in the C3A-gypsum system. It was also noted that glucose retards gypsum consumption and ettringite formation. Many studies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

485

Accumulation and replacement of exchangeable sodium in soils of Southeast Texas under turfgrass and its effect on soil infiltration rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in soils of this area. This study assessed the degree of Na accumulation on cation exchange sites as affected by gypsum treatments in soils that support turfgrass (bermudagrass) and the response of soil infiltration rate to different rates of gypsum...

Aydemir, Salih

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

486

DECOVALEX-THMC Task D: Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic and Crystaline-Bentonite Systems, Status Report October 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

calcite (primary and secondary), halite (secondary) Mineralr02 cristoba-a fluorite gypsum halite hematite heuland/10

Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.; Barr, D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

MAPPING MINERALS AT A POTENTIAL MARS ANALOG SITE ON THE TIBETAN PLATEAU, David. P. Mayer1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

library [6]. Certain minerals, such as halite and large (up to 15 cm long) crystals of gypsum, were easily

488

Lifecycle Assessment of Beijing-Area Building Energy Use and Emissions: Summary Findings and Policy Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Production Intensity Material kg/m Section Steel Steel Bar Aluminum Cement Glass Gypsum board* Acrylic Rubber -

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Steady-state and transient results on insulation materials  

SciTech Connect

The Unguarded Thin-Heater Apparatus (UTHA, ASTM C 1114) was used to determine the thermal conductivity (k), specific heat (C), and thermal diffusivity ({alpha}) of selected building materials from 24 to 50{degree}C. Steady-state and transient measurements yielded data on four types of material: gypsum wall board containing 0, 15, and 30 wt % wax; calcium silicate insulations with densities ({rho}) of 307, 444, and 605 kg/m{sup 3}; three wood products: southern yellow pine flooring (575 kg/m{sup 3}), Douglas fir plywood (501 kg/m{sup 3}), and white spruce flooring (452 kg/m{sup 3}); and two cellular plastic foams: extruded polystyrene (30 kg/m{sup 3}) blown with HCFC-142b and polyisocyanurate rigid board (30.2 kg/m{sup 3}) blown with CFC-11. The extruded polystyrene was measured several times after production (25 days, 45 days, 74 days, 131 days, and 227 days). The UTHA is an absolute technique that yields k with an uncertainty of less than {plus minus}2% as determined by modeling, by determinate error analyses, and by use of Standard Reference Materials SRM-1450b and SRM-1451. 37 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.; McElroy, D.L.; Fine, H.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

The application of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) to suppress LNG vapor and LNG pool fire thermal radiation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) hazards include LNG flammable vapor dispersion and LNG pool fire thermal radiation. A large LNG pool fire emits high thermal radiation… (more)

Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Investigation of a HA/PDLGA/Carbon Foam Material System for Orthopedic Fixation Plates Based on Time-Dependent Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

throughout healing while maintaining fracture stability. The primary aim of this study is to quantify the degradation rate of a bioresorbable material system, then use this degradation rate to determine the material response of an orthopedic device made...

Rodriguez, Douglas E.

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

492

A procedure for analyzing energy and global warming impacts of foam insulation in U.S. commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to develop a procedure for evaluating the energy and global warming impacts of alternative insulation technologies for US commercial building applications. The analysis is focused on the sum of the direct contribution of greenhouse gas emissions from a system and the indirect contribution of the carbon dioxide emission resulting from the energy required to operate the system over its expected lifetime. In this paper, parametric analysis was used to calculate building related CO{sub 2} emission in two US locations. A retail mail building has been used as a model building for this analysis. For the analyzed building, minimal R-values of insulation are estimated using ASHRAE 90.1 requirements.

Kosny, J.; Yarbrough, D.W.; Desjarlais, A.O.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Full-Depth Pavement Reclamation with Foamed Asphalt: First-Level Analysis Report on HVS Testing on State Route 89  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

deformation resistance Strongly cemented material Brittledeformation resistance of these materials increases with andeformation resistance of the treated material should be

Theyse, Hecter; Long, Fenella; Jones, David; Harvey, John T

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering studies of platinum-loaded carbon foams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The morphology of carbon nanofoam samples comprising platinum nanoparticles dispersed in the matrix was characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. R...

P. U. Sastry; V. K. Aswal; A. G. Wagh

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Synthesis and thermal studies of flexible polyurethane nanocomposite foams obtained using nanoclay modified with flame retardant compound  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work presents thermal studies of nanocomposites based on the flexible polyurethane (PU) matrix and filled using montmorillonite organically modified with organophosphorus flame retardant compound. Flexibl...

?ukasz Piszczyk; Magdalena Danowska…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Quantification of Gordona amarae Strains in Foaming Activated Sludge and Anaerobic Digester Systems with Oligonucleotide Hybridization Probes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hierarchic classification system, Actinobacteria...hybridization probes for studies of ruminal microbial...pseudomonads. A taxonomic study. . Stratton H...ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. . Wheeler D. Rule A. . Zheng...microbial ecology studies. . Quantification...anaerobic digester systems with oligonucleotide...

M. Fiorella de los Reyes; Francis L. de los Reyes III; Mark Hernandez; Lutgarde Raskin

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Catalytically Activated Metal Foam Absorber for Light-to-Chemical Energy Conversion via Solar Reforming of Methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From this point of view of the chemical pathway for this process, solar reforming of natural gas has been investigated as the most promising “solar thermochemical process”. ... The product of syngas can be stored and transported to be combusted in a conventional gas turbine (GT) or a combined cycle (CC), to generate electricity at high conversion efficiency (up to 55% in a modern, large CC). ... The dry effluent gases were analyzed by gas chromatography equipment (Simadzu, GC-4C) with a TCD detector to determine the gas composition. ...

T. Kodama; A. Kiyama; K.-I. Shimizu

2002-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

498

High-temperature formation of concentric fullerene-like structures within foam-like carbon: Experiment and molecular dynamics simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

car- bon ion implantation,4 and arc discharge from a carbon target in water.5 Onionlike structures of concentric fullerene-like structures, car- bon onions can be formed in a variety of harsh environments laser operating at 532 nm, generating 12 ps pulses at a rep- etition rate of 1.5 MHz, with average power

Powles, Rebecca

499

Controlling coal fires using the three-phase foam and water mist techniques in the Anjialing Open Pit Mine, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal fires are a serious environment, health, and safety hazard throughout the world. They damage the environment, threaten the health of people living nearby, burn away non-renewable coal, and result in ... to c...

Zhenlu Shao; Deming Wang; Yanming Wang; Xiaoxing Zhong; Xiaofei Tang…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

On the Potential Use of Small Scale Fire Tests for Screening Steiner Tunnel Results for Spray Foam Insulation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The goal of this study is to assess the potential of using bench-scale fire testing to screen materials for the Steiner tunnel fire test. It… (more)

Didomizio, Matthew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z