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Sample records for guiyang polysource silicon

  1. Guiyang Polysource Silicon Co Ltd Formerly Jiayuan Sunshine Guiyang...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guiyang Polysource Silicon Co Ltd Formerly Jiayuan Sunshine Guiyang Hi New Sunshine Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: Guiyang Polysource Silicon Co Ltd (Formerly Jiayuan...

  2. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  3. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  4. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  5. Guizhou New Material Dev Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guizhou New Material Dev Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Guizhou New Material Dev. Co Ltd Place: Guiyang, China Zip: 550018 Sector: Solar Product: Chinese silicon carbide...

  6. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  7. Purified silicon production system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2004-03-30

    Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

  8. Solar Silicon Wafers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This photograph features Hao-Chih Yuan, a scientist at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). He is reflected in a highly reflective untreated silicone wafer (left) compared to a silicone...

  9. Silicon solar cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burgess, Edward L.; Nasby, Robert D.; Schueler, Donald G.

    1979-01-01

    A silicon solar cell assembly comprising a large, thin silicon solar cell bonded to a metal mount for use when there exists a mismatch in the thermal expansivities of the device and the mount.

  10. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Carleton, Karen L. (Boulder, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  11. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

    1982-06-10

    A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  12. Electrodeposition of molten silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Mattei, Robert C.; Elwell, Dennis; Feigelson, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Silicon dioxide is dissolved in a molten electrolytic bath, preferably comprising barium oxide and barium fluoride. A direct current is passed between an anode and a cathode in the bath to reduce the dissolved silicon dioxide to non-alloyed silicon in molten form, which is removed from the bath.

  13. Glass-silicon column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  14. Silicon micro-mold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2006-10-24

    The present invention describes a method for rapidly fabricating a robust 3-dimensional silicon-mold for use in preparing complex metal micro-components. The process begins by depositing a conductive metal layer onto one surface of a silicon wafer. A thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask are then used to transfer a trace image pattern onto the opposite surface of the wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is anisotropically etched through the wafer thickness down to conductive metal layer to provide an etched pattern consisting of a series of rectilinear channels and recesses in the silicon which serve as the silicon micro-mold. Microcomponents are prepared with this mold by first filling the mold channels and recesses with a metal deposit, typically by electroplating, and then removing the silicon micro-mold by chemical etching.

  15. Thermally Oxidized Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Illustration of the silicon positions near the Si-SiO2 interface for a 4° miscut projected onto the ( ) plane. The silicon atoms in the substrate are blue and those in the oxide are red. The small black spots represent the translated silicon positions in the absence of static disorder. The silicon atoms in the oxide have been randomly assigned a magnitude and direction based on the static disorder value at that position in the

  16. Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.A.; Seager, C.H.

    1996-12-10

    An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate, created by micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate. Direct electrical contact between the chuck face (patterned silicon plate`s surface) and the silicon wafer it is intended to hold is prevented by a pattern of flat-topped silicon dioxide islands that protrude less than 5 micrometers from the otherwise flat surface of the chuck face. The islands may be formed in any shape. Islands may be about 10 micrometers in diameter or width and spaced about 100 micrometers apart. One or more concentric rings formed around the periphery of the area between the chuck face and wafer contain a low-pressure helium thermal-contact gas used to assist heat removal during plasma etching of a silicon wafer held by the chuck. The islands are tall enough and close enough together to prevent silicon-to-silicon electrical contact in the space between the islands, and the islands occupy only a small fraction of the total area of the chuck face, typically 0.5 to 5 percent. The pattern of the islands, together with at least one hole bored through the silicon veneer into the base plate, will provide sufficient gas-flow space to allow the distribution of the helium thermal-contact gas. 6 figs.

  17. Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert A.; Seager, Carleton H.

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate 11, created y micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate 13. Direct electrical contact between the chuck face 15 (patterned silicon plate's surface) and the silicon wafer 17 it is intended to hold is prevented by a pattern of flat-topped silicon dioxide islands 19 that protrude less than 5 micrometers from the otherwise flat surface of the chuck face 15. The islands 19 may be formed in any shape. Islands may be about 10 micrometers in diameter or width and spaced about 100 micrometers apart. One or more concentric rings formed around the periphery of the area between the chuck face 15 and wafer 17 contain a low-pressure helium thermal-contact gas used to assist heat removal during plasma etching of a silicon wafer held by the chuck. The islands 19 are tall enough and close enough together to prevent silicon-to-silicon electrical contact in the space between the islands, and the islands occupy only a small fraction of the total area of the chuck face 15, typically 0.5 to 5 percent. The pattern of the islands 19, together with at least one hole 12 bored through the silicon veneer into the base plate, will provide sufficient gas-flow space to allow the distribution of the helium thermal-contact gas.

  18. Silicone-containing composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Mustafa

    2012-01-24

    A silicone-containing composition comprises the reaction product of a first component and an excess of an isocyanate component relative to the first component to form an isocyanated intermediary. The first component is selected from one of a polysiloxane and a silicone resin. The first component includes a carbon-bonded functional group selected from one of a hydroxyl group and an amine group. The isocyanate component is reactive with the carbon-bonded functional group of the first component. The isocyanated intermediary includes a plurality of isocyanate functional groups. The silicone-containing composition comprises the further reaction product of a second component, which is selected from the other of the polysiloxane and the silicone resin. The second component includes a plurality of carbon-bonded functional groups reactive with the isocyanate functional groups of the isocyanated intermediary for preparing the silicone-containing composition.

  19. Structure, defects, and strain in silicon-silicon oxide interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kova?evi?, Goran Pivac, Branko

    2014-01-28

    The structure of the interfaces between silicon and silicon-oxide is responsible for proper functioning of MOSFET devices while defects in the interface can deteriorate this function and lead to their failure. In this paper we modeled this interface and characterized its defects and strain. MD simulations were used for reconstructing interfaces into a thermodynamically stable configuration. In all modeled interfaces, defects were found in the form of three-coordinated silicon atom, five coordinated silicon atom, threefold-coordinated oxygen atom, or displaced oxygen atom. Three-coordinated oxygen atom can be created if dangling bonds on silicon are close enough. The structure and stability of three-coordinated silicon atoms (P{sub b} defect) depend on the charge as well as on the electric field across the interface. The negatively charged P{sub b} defect is the most stable one, but the electric field resulting from the interface reduces that stability. Interfaces with large differences in periodic constants of silicon and silicon oxide can be stabilized by buckling of silicon layer. The mechanical stress resulted from the interface between silicon and silicon oxide is greater in the silicon oxide layer. Ab initio modeling of clusters representing silicon and silicon oxide shows about three time larger susceptibility to strain in silicon oxide than in silicon if exposed to the same deformation.

  20. Method for producing silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-07-23

    Silicon carbide/silicon nitride composites are prepared by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and optionally crsytalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen.

  1. Porous silicon gettering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Pitts, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The authors have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that uses the large surface areas produced by a porous-silicon etch as gettering sites. The annealing step of the gettering used a high-flux solar furnace. They found that a high density of photons during annealing enhanced the impurity diffusion to the gettering sites. The authors used metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si) prepared by directional solidification casing as the starting material. They propose to use porous-silicon-gettered MG-Si as a low-cost epitaxial substrate for polycrystalline silicon thin-film growth.

  2. Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    efficiency silicon solar cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Authors: ...

  3. Longi Silicon Materials Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Longi Silicon Materials Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Longi Silicon Materials Corp Place: Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China Zip: 710065 Product: A monocrystalline silicon...

  4. Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:00pm Addthis To separate electrical charges, crystalline silicon cells must have a ...

  5. Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:49 Generic silicon solar cells showing +45, -45, and ...

  6. Tangshan Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Tangshan Silicon Co Ltd Place: Tangshan, Hebei Province, China Product: Chinese silicon producer developing a 1000t silicon plant in Tangshan, Hebei Province. It has...

  7. Monolithic Composite Electrodes Comprising Silicon Nanoparticles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monolithic Composite Electrodes Comprising Silicon Nanoparticles Embedded in ... Title: Monolithic Composite Electrodes Comprising Silicon Nanoparticles Embedded in ...

  8. Silicon Cells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a low cost method of processing silicon to produce a new generation of high energy density batteries. References: Silicon Cells1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  9. Floating Silicon Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  10. Atomic Sandblasters Could Replace Silicon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scientists at the National Labs may have found a cheaper, lighter more efficient replacement for silicon in computer chips.

  11. Electrochemical thinning of silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medernach, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR).

  12. Electrochemical thinning of silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medernach, J.W.

    1994-01-11

    Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). 14 figures.

  13. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  14. Use of silicon in liquid sintered silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raj, R.; Baik, S.

    1984-12-11

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic. 4 figs.

  15. Use of silicon in liquid sintered silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raj, Rishi; Baik, Sunggi

    1984-12-11

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic.

  16. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  17. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  18. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  19. Making silicon stronger.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, Brad Lee

    2010-11-01

    Silicon microfabrication has seen many decades of development, yet the structural reliability of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is far from optimized. The fracture strength of Si MEMS is limited by a combination of poor toughness and nanoscale etch-induced defects. A MEMS-based microtensile technique has been used to characterize the fracture strength distributions of both standard and custom microfabrication processes. Recent improvements permit 1000's of test replicates, revealing subtle but important deviations from the commonly assumed 2-parameter Weibull statistical model. Subsequent failure analysis through a combination of microscopy and numerical simulation reveals salient aspects of nanoscale flaw control. Grain boundaries, for example, suffer from preferential attack during etch-release thereby forming failure-critical grain-boundary grooves. We will discuss ongoing efforts to quantify the various factors that affect the strength of polycrystalline silicon, and how weakest-link theory can be used to make worst-case estimates for design.

  20. Modified silicon carbide whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Lindemer, Terrence B.

    1991-01-01

    Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparaging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

  1. Modified silicon carbide whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.; Lindemer, T.B.

    1991-05-21

    Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

  2. Diamond-silicon carbide composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2006-06-13

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5–8 GPa, T=1400K–2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.dot.m1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  3. Diamond-silicon carbide composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2006-06-13

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=58 GPa, T=1400K2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.dot.m1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  4. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochbaum, Allon; Dargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-18

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. The photoluminescence of these nanowires suggest they are composed of crystalline silicon with small enough dimensions such that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices. A better understanding of this electroless route to mesoporous silicon could lead to facile and general syntheses of different narrow bandgap semiconductor nanostructures for various applications.

  5. Silicon Crystals Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 95742 Product: Supplier of semi-conductor grade silicon for applications that demand unusual shapes and sizes. References: Silicon Crystals Inc1 This article is a stub....

  6. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  7. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  8. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  9. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  10. Silicon Chemical Corp SCC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corp SCC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Chemical Corp (SCC) Place: Vancouver, Washington State Zip: 98687 Product: US manufacturer of polysilicon and silicon chemical...

  11. Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon Simulations at NERSC Help Illuminate Attosecond Laser Experiment ...

  12. Silicon Border Development LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicon Border Development LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Border Development LLC Place: Poway, California Zip: 92064 Sector: Solar Product: US-based developer of...

  13. Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics ... This lattice comprises the solid material that forms the photovoltaic (PV) cell's ...

  14. Longwei Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicon Co Ltd Place: Liancheng, Fujian Province, China Sector: Solar Product: A Chinese sillicon metal producer who also produce 4N-6N silicon for solar use. Coordinates:...

  15. Silicon Carbide JFET Switch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5kV Enhancement-Model Silicon Carbide JFET Switch The novel 6.5kV SiC device and power module represent the world's highest-voltage module based on reliable, normally-off SiC JFETs. It reduces switching losses over that of Si-IGBTs by a factor of 20 and exhibits the fastest turn- on and turn-off of any 6.5kV-rated power module. Another major aspect of what makes this product unique is USCi's development and manufacturing approach. JFETs are simple transistor switches, yet for SiC materials, a

  16. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1988-11-15

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

  17. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  18. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporates a region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon fabricated by a glow discharge wherein said intrinsic region is compensated by P-type dopants in an amount sufficient to reduce the space charge density of said region under illumination to about zero.

  19. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaud, Genevieve

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon over said substrate and having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the electrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF.sub.3 doped intrinsic layer.

  20. Cordierite silicon nitride filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. ); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. ); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. )

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

  1. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Luthra, Krishan Lal

    2002-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon-silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon-silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  2. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Luthra, Krishan Lal

    1999-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon--silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon--silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  3. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite densified materials prepared using composite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, S.D.; Weimer, A.W.; Carroll, D.F.; Eisman, G.A.; Cochran, G.A.; Susnitzky, D.W.; Beaman, D.R.; Nilsen, K.J.

    1997-07-01

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  4. Silicon nitride ceramic comprising samaria and ytterbia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeckley, Russell L.

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates to a sintered silicon nitride ceramic comprising samaria and ytterbia for enhanced toughness.

  5. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  6. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  7. Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, K.H.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1996-10-15

    A process is disclosed for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

  8. Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, Kurt H.; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    A process for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary from 1-1e4 are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

  9. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  10. Huachang Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Huachang Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Huachang Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Jinzhou, Liaoning Province, China Product: A monocrystalline silicon...

  11. Jinzhou Huari Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Huari Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jinzhou Huari Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: China Product: Chinese manufacturer of mono-crystalline silicon ingot....

  12. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

    2001-09-30

    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  13. Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/.mu.c-Si) solar cells which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell.

  14. Final Report- 1366 Project Silicon: Reclaiming US Silicon PV Leadership

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    1366 Technologies’ Project Silicon addresses two of the major goals of the DOE’s PV Manufacturing Initiative Part 2 program: 1) How to reclaim a strong silicon PV manufacturing presence and; 2) How to lower the levelized cost of electricity (“LCOE”) for solar to $0.05-$0.07/kWh, enabling wide-scale U.S. market adoption. To achieve these two goals, US companies must commercialize disruptive, high-value technologies that are capable of rapid scaling, defensible from foreign competition, and suited for US manufacturing. These are the aims of 1366 Technologies Direct Wafer ™ process.

  15. Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1996-07-23

    Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/{micro}c-Si) solar cells are disclosed which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell. 4 figs.

  16. ThinSilicon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ThinSilicon Place: California Product: US-based developer of thin-film PV module manufacturing technology. References: ThinSilicon1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  17. Jiangshan Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Zip: 134700 Product: Chinese metal silicon producer who is doing R&D to purify its silicon to 6N by UMG method Coordinates: 42.088902, 127.218193 Show Map Loading...

  18. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Silicon Materials and Devices...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Top light blue layer has the text epi c-Si absorber. Schematic diagram of the film crystal silicon solar cell. A high-quality crystal silicon absorber is grown epitaxially on a ...

  19. Becancour Silicon Inc BSI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Becancour Silicon Inc (BSI) Place: St. Laurent, Quebec, Canada Zip: H4M2M4 Sector: Solar Product: Canadian supplier of silicon metal for the...

  20. Cermet layer for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    A transparent high work function metal cermet forms a Schottky barrier in a Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell and adheres well to the P+ layer in a PIN amorphous silicon solar cell.

  1. Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:49 Generic silicon solar cells showing +45°, -45°, and dendritic crack patterns. The effort to shift U.S. energy reliance from fossil fuels to renewable sources has spurred companies to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of their solar photovoltaics (SPVs). The use of thinner silicon in SPV technologies is being widely adopted because it significantly reduces costs;

  2. Black Silicon Etching - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Black Silicon Etching Award-winning, efficient, and inexpensive photovoltaic technology National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Three silicon wafers, showing absorbed light: (left) micron-scale texture, (center) NREL’s Black Silicon Etch, and (right) micron-scale texture with an antireflective coating. Three silicon wafers, showing absorbed light: (left) micron-scale texture,

  3. Copper doped polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space; Koliwad, Krishna M.; Daud, Taher

    1981-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells having improved performance are fabricated from polycrystalline silicon containing copper segregated at the grain boundaries.

  4. Silicon nanocrystal inks, films, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Lance Michael; Kortshagen, Uwe Richard

    2015-09-01

    Silicon nanocrystal inks and films, and methods of making and using silicon nanocrystal inks and films, are disclosed herein. In certain embodiments the nanocrystal inks and films include halide-terminated (e.g., chloride-terminated) and/or halide and hydrogen-terminated nanocrystals of silicon or alloys thereof. Silicon nanocrystal inks and films can be used, for example, to prepare semiconductor devices.

  5. Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research DOE supports crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) research and development efforts that lead to market-ready technologies. Below are a list of the projects, summary of the benefits, and discussion on the production and manufacturing of this solar technology. Background Crystalline silicon PV cells are the most common solar cells used in commercially available solar panels, representing 87% of world PV cell

  6. Silicon crystal growing by oscillating crucible technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Smetana, P.

    1983-08-03

    A process for growing silicon crystals from a molten melt comprising oscillating the container during crystal growth is disclosed.

  7. System and method for liquid silicon containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

    2013-05-28

    This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding member adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

  8. System and method for liquid silicon containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

    2014-06-03

    This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding ember adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

  9. Laser wafering for silicon solar.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sweatt, William C.; Jared, Bradley Howell

    2011-03-01

    Current technology cuts solar Si wafers by a wire saw process, resulting in 50% 'kerf' loss when machining silicon from a boule or brick into a wafer. We want to develop a kerf-free laser wafering technology that promises to eliminate such wasteful wire saw processes and achieve up to a ten-fold decrease in the g/W{sub p} (grams/peak watt) polysilicon usage from the starting polysilicon material. Compared to today's technology, this will also reduce costs ({approx}20%), embodied energy, and green-house gas GHG emissions ({approx}50%). We will use short pulse laser illumination sharply focused by a solid immersion lens to produce subsurface damage in silicon such that wafers can be mechanically cleaved from a boule or brick. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses < 50 {micro}m with high throughput (< 10 sec./wafer). Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program. The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.

  10. Process of preparing tritiated porous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, Shiu-Wing

    1997-01-01

    A process of preparing tritiated porous silicon in which porous silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T.sub.2 gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the porous silicon.

  11. Process of preparing tritiated porous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, S.W.

    1997-02-18

    A process of preparing tritiated porous silicon is described in which porous silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T{sub 2} gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the porous silicon. 1 fig.

  12. Prealloyed catalyst for growing silicon carbide whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shalek, Peter D. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Niagara Falls, NY); Hurley, George F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A prealloyed metal catalyst is used to grow silicon carbide whiskers, especially in the .beta. form. Pretreating the metal particles to increase the weight percentages of carbon or silicon or both carbon and silicon allows whisker growth to begin immediately upon reaching growth temperature.

  13. Tandem junction amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1981-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell has an active body with two or a series of layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in a tandem stacked configuration with one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in tandem configuration can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps.

  14. Silicon carbide fibers and articles including same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garnier, John E; Griffith, George W

    2015-01-27

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  15. Methods for producing silicon carbide fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  16. Silicon on insulator self-aligned transistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2003-11-18

    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) self-aligned transistors. Standard processing of silicon substrates is used to fabricate the transistors. Physical spaces, between the source and gate, and the drain and gate, introduced by etching the polysilicon gate material, are used to provide connecting implants (bridges) which allow the transistor to perform normally. After completion of the silicon substrate processing, the silicon wafer is bonded to an insulator (glass) substrate, and the silicon substrate is removed leaving the transistors on the insulator (glass) substrate. Transistors fabricated by this method may be utilized, for example, in flat panel displays, etc.

  17. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon; Landry, Marc D.; Pitts, John R.

    1997-01-01

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

  18. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

    1997-05-06

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

  19. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Marcie

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  20. Dispersion toughened silicon carbon ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Fracture resistant silicon carbide ceramics are provided by incorporating therein a particulate dispersoid selected from the group consisting of (a) a mixture of boron, carbon and tungsten, (b) a mixture of boron, carbon and molybdenum, (c) a mixture of boron, carbon and titanium carbide, (d) a mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and (e) boron nitride. 4 figures.

  1. Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lantz, Jeffrey W.; Stalford, Harold L.

    2011-07-19

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.

  2. Method for fabricating silicon cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruby, Douglas S.; Basore, Paul A.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1998-08-11

    A process for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon.

  3. Method for fabricating silicon cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruby, D.S.; Basore, P.A.; Schubert, W.K.

    1998-08-11

    A process is described for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon. 9 figs.

  4. Narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madan, A.; Mahan, A.H.

    1985-01-10

    Disclosed is a narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprising an alloy of amorphous silicon and a band gap narrowing element selected from the group consisting of Sn, Ge, and Pb, with an electron donor dopant selected from the group consisting of P, As, Sb, Bi and N. The process for producing the narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprises the steps of forming an alloy comprising amorphous silicon and at least one of the aforesaid band gap narrowing elements in amount sufficient to narrow the band gap of the silicon semiconductor alloy below that of amorphous silicon, and also utilizing sufficient amounts of the aforesaid electron donor dopant to maintain the amorphous silicon alloy as an n-type semiconductor.

  5. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  6. National solar technology roadmap: Film-silicon PV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyes, Brian

    2007-06-01

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) technologies are addressed in two different technology roadmaps: Film-Silicon PV and Wafer-Silicon PV. This Film-Silicon PV roadmap applies to all silicon-film technologies that rely on a supporting substrate such as glass, polymer, aluminum, stainless steel, or metallurgical-grade silicon. Such devices typically use amorphous, nanocrystalline, fine-grained polycrystalline, or epitaxial silicon layers that are 1–20 μm thick.

  7. D0 Silicon Upgrad: D0 Silicon Cooling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Squires, B.; /Fermilab

    1998-07-14

    The cooling system design is not complete. This paper lays out the general design and some of the design calculations that have been performed up to this date. Further refinement will be performed. This is especially true in the piping layout, piping insulation and detector manifold areas. The silicon detector is cooled by means of a coolant in the beryllium channels that also act as the primary supporting device for the silicon ladders and wedges. The coolant is water with ethylene glycol added as a freezing point depressant. The glycol concentration in the coolant is 30% by weight resulting in a freezing point of approximately -15 C. If the water/glycol is not sufficient for maintaining the desired detector temperature the concentration of the water/glycol may be changed or an alternative coolant may be used.

  8. Amorphous silicon passivated contacts for diffused junction silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, J. Yan, D.; Wan, Y.; Cuevas, A.; Demaurex, B.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; De Wolf, S.

    2014-04-28

    Carrier recombination at the metal contacts is a major obstacle in the development of high-performance crystalline silicon homojunction solar cells. To address this issue, we insert thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon [a-Si:H(i)] passivating films between the dopant-diffused silicon surface and aluminum contacts. We find that with increasing a-Si:H(i) interlayer thickness (from 0 to 16?nm) the recombination loss at metal-contacted phosphorus (n{sup +}) and boron (p{sup +}) diffused surfaces decreases by factors of ?25 and ?10, respectively. Conversely, the contact resistivity increases in both cases before saturating to still acceptable values of ? 50 m? cm{sup 2} for n{sup +} and ?100 m? cm{sup 2} for p{sup +} surfaces. Carrier transport towards the contacts likely occurs by a combination of carrier tunneling and aluminum spiking through the a-Si:H(i) layer, as supported by scanning transmission electron microscopyenergy dispersive x-ray maps. We explain the superior contact selectivity obtained on n{sup +} surfaces by more favorable band offsets and capture cross section ratios of recombination centers at the c-Si/a-Si:H(i) interface.

  9. Supersonic Dislocation Bursts in Silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hahn, E. N.; Zhao, S.; Bringa, E. M.; Meyers, M. A.

    2016-06-06

    Dislocations are the primary agents of permanent deformation in crystalline solids. Since the theoretical prediction of supersonic dislocations over half a century ago, there is a dearth of experimental evidence supporting their existence. Here we use non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of shocked silicon to reveal transient supersonic partial dislocation motion at approximately 15 km/s, faster than any previous in-silico observation. Homogeneous dislocation nucleation occurs near the shock front and supersonic dislocation motion lasts just fractions of picoseconds before the dislocations catch the shock front and decelerate back to the elastic wave speed. Applying a modified analytical equation for dislocation evolutionmore » we successfully predict a dislocation density of 1.5 x 10(12) cm(-2) within the shocked volume, in agreement with the present simulations and realistic in regards to prior and on-going recovery experiments in silicon.« less

  10. Formation of multiple levels of porous silicon for buried insulators and conductors in silicon device technologies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blewer, Robert S.; Gullinger, Terry R.; Kelly, Michael J.; Tsao, Sylvia S.

    1991-01-01

    A method of forming a multiple level porous silicon substrate for semiconductor integrated circuits including anodizing non-porous silicon layers of a multi-layer silicon substrate to form multiple levels of porous silicon. At least one porous silicon layer is then oxidized to form an insulating layer and at least one other layer of porous silicon beneath the insulating layer is metallized to form a buried conductive layer. Preferably the insulating layer and conductive layer are separated by an anodization barrier formed of non-porous silicon. By etching through the anodization barrier and subsequently forming a metallized conductive layer, a fully or partially insulated buried conductor may be fabricated under single crystal silicon.

  11. Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of Joining Silicon Carbide to Silicon Carbide and Silicon Nitride to Silicon Nitride for Advanced Heat Engine Applications Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundberg, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Techniques were developed to produce reliable silicon nitride to silicon nitride (NCX-5101) curved joins which were used to manufacture spin test specimens as a proof of concept to simulate parts such as a simple rotor. Specimens were machined from the curved joins to measure the following properties of the join interlayer: tensile strength, shear strength, 22 C flexure strength and 1370 C flexure strength. In parallel, extensive silicon nitride tensile creep evaluation of planar butt joins provided a sufficient data base to develop models with accurate predictive capability for different geometries. Analytical models applied satisfactorily to the silicon nitride joins were Norton's Law for creep strain, a modified Norton's Law internal variable model and the Monkman-Grant relationship for failure modeling. The Theta Projection method was less successful. Attempts were also made to develop planar butt joins of siliconized silicon carbide (NT230).

  12. Method for fabricating pixelated silicon device cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nelson, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Benjamin John

    2015-08-18

    A method, apparatus and system for flexible, ultra-thin, and high efficiency pixelated silicon or other semiconductor photovoltaic solar cell array fabrication is disclosed. A structure and method of creation for a pixelated silicon or other semiconductor photovoltaic solar cell array with interconnects is described using a manufacturing method that is simplified compared to previous versions of pixelated silicon photovoltaic cells that require more microfabrication steps.

  13. Process for strengthening silicon based ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Moorhead, A. J.

    1993-04-06

    A process for strengthening silicon based ceramic monolithic materials and omposite materials that contain silicon based ceramic reinforcing phases that requires that the ceramic be exposed to a wet hydrogen atmosphere at about 1400.degree. C. The process results in a dense, tightly adherent silicon containing oxide layer that heals, blunts , or otherwise negates the detrimental effect of strength limiting flaws on the surface of the ceramic body.

  14. Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon Simulations at NERSC Help Illuminate Attosecond Laser Experiment Findings December 19, 2014 Contact: Robert Sanders, rlsanders@berkeley.edu, (510) 643-6998 speedyelectrons In silicon, electrons attached to atoms in the crystal lattice can be mobilized into the conduction band by light or voltage. Berkeley scientists have taken snapshots of this very brief band-gap jump and timed it

  15. Amorphous silicon solar cell allowing infrared transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell with a layer of high index of refraction material or a series of layers having high and low indices of refraction material deposited upon a transparent substrate to reflect light of energies greater than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon back into the solar cell and transmit solar radiation having an energy less than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon.

  16. Process for strengthening silicon based ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Moorhead, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    A process for strengthening silicon based ceramic monolithic materials and omposite materials that contain silicon based ceramic reinforcing phases that requires that the ceramic be exposed to a wet hydrogen atmosphere at about 1400.degree. C. The process results in a dense, tightly adherent silicon containing oxide layer that heals, blunts , or otherwise negates the detrimental effect of strength limiting flaws on the surface of the ceramic body.

  17. Diamond-silicon carbide composite and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yusheng

    2011-06-14

    Uniformly dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites having high hardness, high fracture toughness, and high thermal stability are prepared by consolidating a powder mixture of diamond and amorphous silicon. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPam.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness.

  18. Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an iron-based alloy containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100{degrees}C.

  19. Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.

    1994-12-27

    An iron-based alloy is described containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100 C. 8 figures.

  20. Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, Ken

    1994-01-01

    An iron-based alloy containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100.degree. C.

  1. Silicon Materials and Devices (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its silicon materials and devices research. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  2. Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogenation of Dislocation- Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells Preprint Michael L. Bolen, Sachit Grover, Charles W. Teplin, Howard M. Branz, and Paul Stradins National...

  3. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Tracey, Dennis M.; Foley, Michael R.; Paille, Norman I.; Pelletier, Paul J.; Sales, Lenny C.; Willkens, Craig A.; Yeckley, Russell L.

    1998-01-01

    A ceramic body comprising at least about 80 w/o silicon nitride and having a mean tensile strength of at least about 800 MPa.

  4. Silicon Valley Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Valley Biodiesel Inc. Place: Sunnyvale, California Zip: CA 94086 Product: Manufactures biodiesel for the local diesel fuel...

  5. Norwegian Silicon Refining AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    214 Product: Oslo-based company with an upgraded metallurgical silicon (UMG) production process called the Stubergh method. Coordinates: 59.91228, 10.74998 Show Map Loading...

  6. Silicon Materials and Devices (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Silicon Materials and Devices that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  7. Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint Bolen, M. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C. W.; Bobela, D.; Branz, H. M.; Stradins, P. 08 HYDROGEN; 14...

  8. Apparatus for obtaining silicon from fluosilicic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanjurjo, Angel

    1986-05-20

    Apparatus for producing low cost, high purity solar grade silicon ingots in single crystal or quasi single crystal ingot form in a substantially continuous operation in a two stage reactor starting with sodium fluosilicate and a metal more electropositive than silicon (preferably sodium) in separate compartments having easy vapor transport therebetween and thermally decomposing the sodium fluosilicate to cause formation of substantially pure silicon and a metal fluoride which may be continuously separated in the melt and silicon may be directly and continuously cast from the melt.

  9. RSI Silicon Products LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    startup which is developing a process for solar-grade silicon manufacture at low energy intensity, spinoff from MIT. Coordinates: 47.237806, -121.179542 Show Map...

  10. Solar cell with silicon oxynitride dielectric layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, Michael; Smith, David D

    2015-04-28

    Solar cells with silicon oxynitride dielectric layers and methods of forming silicon oxynitride dielectric layers for solar cell fabrication are described. For example, an emitter region of a solar cell includes a portion of a substrate having a back surface opposite a light receiving surface. A silicon oxynitride (SiO.sub.xN.sub.y, 0silicon oxynitride dielectric layer.

  11. Process for Polycrystalline film silicon growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu (Littleton, CO); Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A process for depositing polycrystalline silicon on substrates, including foreign substrates, occurs in a chamber at about atmospheric pressure, wherein a temperature gradient is formed, and both the atmospheric pressure and the temperature gradient are maintained throughout the process. Formation of a vapor barrier within the chamber that precludes exit of the constituent chemicals, which include silicon, iodine, silicon diiodide, and silicon tetraiodide. The deposition occurs beneath the vapor barrier. One embodiment of the process also includes the use of a blanketing gas that precludes the entrance of oxygen or other impurities. The process is capable of repetition without the need to reset the deposition zone conditions.

  12. Purified silicon production system - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell ... Return to Search Purified silicon production system United States Patent Patent ...

  13. Method of producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiesmann, Harold J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by thermally decomposing silane (SiH.sub.4) or other gases comprising H and Si, from a tungsten or carbon foil heated to a temperature of about 1400.degree.-1600.degree. C., in a vacuum of about 10.sup.-6 to 19.sup.-4 torr, to form a gaseous mixture of atomic hydrogen and atomic silicon, and depositing said gaseos mixture onto a substrate independent of and outside said source of thermal decomposition, to form hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The presence of an ammonia atmosphere in the vacuum chamber enhances the photoconductivity of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon film.

  14. Fuyuan Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuyuan Silicon Co Ltd Place: Baishan, Jilin Province, China Sector: Solar Product: A Chinese solar-grade polysilicon producer using metallurgical method. Coordinates:...

  15. Sunsing Silicon Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sunsing Silicon Inc Place: Liancheng, Fujian Province, China Zip: 366200 Product: A Chinese polysilicon manufacturer applying self-developed metallurgical method References:...

  16. Nano tech Silicon India Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tech Silicon India Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nano-tech Silicon India Ltd Place: Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Product: Nano-tech Silicon is a manufacturer of PV...

  17. The origin of white luminescence from silicon oxycarbide thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    origin of white luminescence from silicon oxycarbide thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The origin of white luminescence from silicon oxycarbide thin films ...

  18. The Silicon Vertex Tracker for the Heavy Photon Search Experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Silicon Vertex Tracker for the Heavy Photon Search Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Silicon Vertex Tracker for the Heavy Photon Search Experiment Authors: ...

  19. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films:...

  20. Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2012: Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Silicon ...

  1. Owens Corning and Silicon Valley Power Partner to Make Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE energy assessments and Silicon Valley Power utility incentives to save 252,000 annually through plant-wide improvements. Owens Corning and Silicon Valley Power Partner to ...

  2. Design and Implementation of Silicon Nitride Valves for Heavy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Design and Implementation of Silicon Nitride Valves for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Design and Implementation of Silicon Nitride Valves for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Poster ...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2012: Silicon Nanostructure...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2: Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2012: Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next ...

  4. GCL Solar Energy Technology Holdings formerly GCL Silicon aka...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GCL Silicon aka Jiangsu Zhongneng Polysilicon Jump to: navigation, search Name: GCL Solar Energy Technology Holdings (formerly GCL Silicon, aka Jiangsu Zhongneng Polysilicon)...

  5. Tensile Testing of Aged TR-55 Silicone Rubber (Gamma Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tensile Testing of Aged TR-55 Silicone Rubber (Gamma Radiation Under Tensile Strain): ... Title: Tensile Testing of Aged TR-55 Silicone Rubber (Gamma Radiation Under Tensile ...

  6. Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind Awards Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind ...

  7. Silicon Detectors at the ILC (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Silicon Detectors at the ILC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Silicon Detectors at the ILC Authors: Brau, James E. ; Oregon U. ; Breidenbach, Martin ; SLAC ...

  8. Comparison of Thin Epitaxial Film Silicon Photovoltaics Fabricated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Silicon Photovoltaics Fabricated on Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline Seed Layers on Glass Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison of Thin Epitaxial Film Silicon ...

  9. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon ...

  10. Raman and FTIR Studies on Nanostructure Formation on Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Raman and FTIR Studies on Nanostructure Formation on Silicon Carbide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Raman and FTIR Studies on Nanostructure Formation on Silicon Carbide ...

  11. Silicon Detectors at the ILC (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Silicon Detectors at the ILC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Silicon Detectors at the ILC You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's ...

  12. Recent Progress in Silicon-based Spintronic Materials (Book)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Recent Progress in Silicon-based Spintronic Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recent Progress in Silicon-based Spintronic Materials You are accessing a ...

  13. Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. No abstract ...

  14. Schmid Silicon Technology GmbH SST | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Schmid Silicon Technology GmbH SST Jump to: navigation, search Name: Schmid Silicon Technology GmbH (SST) Place: Freudenstadt, Germany Zip: D-72250 Sector: Solar Product:...

  15. Inner Mongolia Shenzhou Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shenzhou Silicon Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Shenzhou Silicon Co Ltd Place: Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: Huhhot-based...

  16. Inner Mongolia Jinyu Silicon Industry Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jinyu Silicon Industry Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Jinyu Silicon Industry Co Ltd Place: Wuhai City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Zip: 16030...

  17. Zhenjiang Huantai Silicon Science Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Huantai Silicon Science Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zhenjiang Huantai Silicon Science & Technology Co Ltd Place: Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, China Zip:...

  18. Leshan Ledian Tianwei Silicon Science and Technology Co Ltd ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ledian Tianwei Silicon Science and Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Leshan Ledian Tianwei Silicon Science and Technology Co Ltd Place: Leshan, Sichuan Province,...

  19. Sichuan Xinguang Silicon Business Science Technology Co Ltd ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Xinguang Silicon Business Science Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sichuan Xinguang Silicon Business Science & Technology Co Ltd Place: Leshan, Sichuan Province,...

  20. Ningxia Sunshine Silicon Business Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicon Business Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ningxia Sunshine Silicon Business Co Ltd Place: Shizuishan, Ningxia Autonomous Region, China Product: A JV project company...

  1. Sino American Silicon Products Inc SAS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sino American Silicon Products Inc SAS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sino-American Silicon Products Inc (SAS) Place: Hsinchu, Taiwan, Taiwan Product: Taiwan-based manufacturer...

  2. GSMSolar formerly Shanghai General Silicon Material Co Ltd |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GSMSolar formerly Shanghai General Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: GSMSolar (formerly Shanghai General Silicon Material Co Ltd) Place: Kunshan, Jiangsu...

  3. Jiangxi Jiahua Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jiahua Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jiangxi Jiahua Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Shangrao, Jiangxi Province, China Product: A PV ingots and wafer...

  4. Jinzhou Rixin Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jinzhou Rixin Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Liaoning Province, China Product: A monosilicon manufacturer in China....

  5. Zhongsheng Semiconductor Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zhongsheng Semiconductor Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zhongsheng Semiconductor Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Linzhou, Henan Province, China Product:...

  6. Shaanxi Tianhong Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianhong Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shaanxi Tianhong Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Shaanxi Province, China Sector: Solar Product: A Chinese...

  7. Anhui Tiansheng Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tiansheng Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Anhui Tiansheng Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Chaohu, Anhui Province, China Zip: 214192 Product: Polysilicon...

  8. Dongqi Leshan Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dongqi Leshan Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dongqi Leshan Silicon Material Co Ltd Place: Leshan, Sichuan Province, China Product: A Chinese polysilicon...

  9. Quasi-Direct Optical Transitions in Silicon Nanocrystals with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quasi-Direct Optical Transitions in Silicon ... Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE silicon nanocrystals; ...

  10. Carbon p electron ferromagnetism in silicon carbide (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon p electron ferromagnetism in silicon carbide Prev Next Title: Carbon p electron ferromagnetism in silicon carbide You are accessing a document from the Department ...

  11. Graphene-silicon layered structures on single-crystalline Ir...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Graphene-silicon layered structures on single-crystalline Ir(111) thin films Prev Next Title: Graphene-silicon layered structures on single-crystalline...

  12. Tianwei Sichuan Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Tianwei Sichuan Silicon Co Ltd Place: Sichuan Province, China Product: A Chinese polysilicon manufacturer developing a 3000t silicon plant in Xinjin of Sichuan...

  13. Chengdu Jiayang Silicon Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jiayang Silicon Technology Co Ltd Place: Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China Product: Chinese monocrystalline silicon ingots and wafers manufacturer Coordinates: 30.67,...

  14. Glory Silicon Energy Zhenjiang Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicon Energy (Zhenjiang) Co Ltd Place: Yangzhong, Jiangsu Province, China Product: Chinese manufacturer of silicon ingots and PV wafers; ingots are only for in-house use....

  15. Liquid-Phase Deposition of Silicon Nanocrystal Films - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid-Phase Deposition of Silicon Nanocrystal Films University of Minnesota DOE Grant Recipients Contact GRANT About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Silicon ...

  16. Dawu Silicon Park Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dawu Silicon Park Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dawu Silicon Park Co Ltd Place: Dawu County, Hubei Province, China Zip: 432800 Sector: Solar Product: Chinese polysilicon...

  17. ShaanXi Tianhong Silicon Industrial | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ShaanXi Tianhong Silicon Industrial Jump to: navigation, search Name: ShaanXi Tianhong Silicon Industrial Place: Shaanxi Province, China Product: Shaaxi-based polysilicon maker...

  18. Amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers for crystalline-silicon-based heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary C.

    2015-08-14

    With this study, amorphous silicon enables the fabrication of very high-efficiency crystalline-silicon-based solar cells due to its combination of excellent passivation of the crystalline silicon surface and permeability to electrical charges. Yet, amongst other limitations, the passivation it provides degrades upon high-temperature processes, limiting possible post-deposition fabrication possibilities (e.g., forcing the use of low-temperature silver pastes). We investigate the potential use of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers to sidestep this issue. The passivation obtained using device-relevant stacks of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide with various carbon contents and doped amorphous silicon are evaluated, and their stability upon annealing assessed, amorphous silicon carbide being shown to surpass amorphous silicon for temperatures above 300C. We demonstrate open-circuit voltage values over 700 mV for complete cells, and an improved temperature stability for the open-circuit voltage. Transport of electrons and holes across the hetero-interface is studied with complete cells having amorphous silicon carbide either on the hole-extracting side or on the electron-extracting side, and a better transport of holes than of electrons is shown. Also, due to slightly improved transparency, complete solar cells using an amorphous silicon carbide passivation layer on the hole-collecting side are demonstrated to show slightly better performances even prior to annealing than obtained with a standard amorphous silicon layer.

  19. Amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers for crystalline-silicon-based heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary C.

    2015-08-14

    With this study, amorphous silicon enables the fabrication of very high-efficiency crystalline-silicon-based solar cells due to its combination of excellent passivation of the crystalline silicon surface and permeability to electrical charges. Yet, amongst other limitations, the passivation it provides degrades upon high-temperature processes, limiting possible post-deposition fabrication possibilities (e.g., forcing the use of low-temperature silver pastes). We investigate the potential use of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers to sidestep this issue. The passivation obtained using device-relevant stacks of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide with various carbon contents and doped amorphous silicon are evaluated, and their stability upon annealing assessed, amorphous silicon carbide being shown to surpass amorphous silicon for temperatures above 300°C. We demonstrate open-circuit voltage values over 700 mV for complete cells, and an improved temperature stability for the open-circuit voltage. Transport of electrons and holes across the hetero-interface is studied with complete cells having amorphous silicon carbide either on the hole-extracting side or on the electron-extracting side, and a better transport of holes than of electrons is shown. Also, due to slightly improved transparency, complete solar cells using an amorphous silicon carbide passivation layer on the hole-collecting side are demonstrated to show slightly better performances even prior to annealing than obtained with a standard amorphous silicon layer.

  20. Amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers for crystalline-silicon-based heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary C.

    2015-08-14

    With this study, amorphous silicon enables the fabrication of very high-efficiency crystalline-silicon-based solar cells due to its combination of excellent passivation of the crystalline silicon surface and permeability to electrical charges. Yet, amongst other limitations, the passivation it provides degrades upon high-temperature processes, limiting possible post-deposition fabrication possibilities (e.g., forcing the use of low-temperature silver pastes). We investigate the potential use of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers to sidestep this issue. The passivation obtained using device-relevant stacks of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide with various carbon contents and doped amorphous silicon are evaluated, and their stability upon annealing assessed, amorphousmore » silicon carbide being shown to surpass amorphous silicon for temperatures above 300°C. We demonstrate open-circuit voltage values over 700 mV for complete cells, and an improved temperature stability for the open-circuit voltage. Transport of electrons and holes across the hetero-interface is studied with complete cells having amorphous silicon carbide either on the hole-extracting side or on the electron-extracting side, and a better transport of holes than of electrons is shown. Also, due to slightly improved transparency, complete solar cells using an amorphous silicon carbide passivation layer on the hole-collecting side are demonstrated to show slightly better performances even prior to annealing than obtained with a standard amorphous silicon layer.« less

  1. Preparation of silicon carbide fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    1983-10-12

    Silicon carbide fibers suitable for use in the fabrication of dense, high-strength, high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments are fabricated by a new, simplified method wherein a mixture of short-length rayon fibers and colloidal silica is homogenized in a water slurry. Water is removed from the mixture by drying in air at 120/sup 0/C and the fibers are carbonized by (pyrolysis) heating the mixture to 800 to 1000/sup 0/C in argon. The mixture is subsequently reacted at 1550 to 1900/sup 0/C in argon to yield pure ..beta..-SiC fibers.

  2. Silicon Timing Response to Particles and Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronzhin, Anatoly; Spiropulu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    It is observed growing interest to fast timing detectors in high energy physics, related, for example, with collider luminosity increase (LHC) [1]. The options of CMS [2] calorimeter upgrade based on silicon detectors renewed interest to the timing study of this type of detectors. The article is devoted to study of silicon timing response to particles and light.

  3. Compensated amorphous-silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaud, G.

    1982-06-21

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the elecrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF/sub 3/ doped intrinsic layer.

  4. Multicolor generation using silicon nanodisk absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Sheng-Chieh Richter, Karola; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim

    2015-02-23

    A multicolored matrix that spans the visible range was demonstrated by using silicon nanodisk arrays. A nanostructured silicon substrate, which featured periodic silicon nanodisk arrays of various diameters, inter-nanodisk distances, and heights, was fabricated using electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. These silicon nanodisks were able to support HE{sub 1m} leaky modes, which depended on the diameter of the nanodisks, resulting in wavelength-dependent reflection spectra. The resonant wavelength redshifted linearly with the increasing nanodisk diameter. The output color lay in the visible range and was observed to be tunable when varying the diameter, interdistance, and height. The results of finite-difference time-domain simulations exhibited close agreement with the observed optical properties of the periodic silicon nanodisk arrays.

  5. Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

    2014-09-02

    A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

  6. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  7. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  8. Process for forming silicon carbide films and microcomponents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamza, A.V.; Balooch, M.; Moalem, M.

    1999-01-19

    Silicon carbide films and microcomponents are grown on silicon substrates at surface temperatures between 900 K and 1700 K via C{sub 60} precursors in a hydrogen-free environment. Selective crystalline silicon carbide growth can be achieved on patterned silicon-silicon oxide samples. Patterned SiC films are produced by making use of the high reaction probability of C{sub 60} with silicon at surface temperatures greater than 900 K and the negligible reaction probability for C{sub 60} on silicon dioxide at surface temperatures less than 1250 K. 5 figs.

  9. Process for forming silicon carbide films and microcomponents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamza, Alex V.; Balooch, Mehdi; Moalem, Mehran

    1999-01-01

    Silicon carbide films and microcomponents are grown on silicon substrates at surface temperatures between 900 K and 1700 K via C.sub.60 precursors in a hydrogen-free environment. Selective crystalline silicon carbide growth can be achieved on patterned silicon-silicon oxide samples. Patterned SiC films are produced by making use of the high reaction probability of C.sub.60 with silicon at surface temperatures greater than 900 K and the negligible reaction probability for C.sub.60 on silicon dioxide at surface temperatures less than 1250 K.

  10. Process for producing amorphous and crystalline silicon nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, P.E.D.; Pugar, E.A.

    1985-11-12

    A process for producing amorphous or crystalline silicon nitride is disclosed which comprises reacting silicon disulfide ammonia gas at elevated temperature. In a preferred embodiment silicon disulfide in the form of whiskers'' or needles is heated at temperature ranging from about 900 C to about 1,200 C to produce silicon nitride which retains the whisker or needle morphological characteristics of the silicon disulfide. Silicon carbide, e.g. in the form of whiskers, also can be prepared by reacting substituted ammonia, e.g. methylamine, or a hydrocarbon containing active hydrogen-containing groups, such as ethylene, with silicon disulfide, at elevated temperature, e.g. 900 C. 6 figs.

  11. Process for producing amorphous and crystalline silicon nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Peter E. D.; Pugar, Eloise A.

    1985-01-01

    A process for producing amorphous or crystalline silicon nitride is disclosed which comprises reacting silicon disulfide ammonia gas at elevated temperature. In a preferred embodiment silicon disulfide in the form of "whiskers" or needles is heated at temperature ranging from about 900.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to produce silicon nitride which retains the whisker or needle morphological characteristics of the silicon disulfide. Silicon carbide, e.g. in the form of whiskers, also can be prepared by reacting substituted ammonia, e.g. methylamine, or a hydrocarbon containing active hydrogen-containing groups, such as ethylene, with silicon disulfide, at elevated temperature, e.g. 900.degree. C.

  12. Manufacture of silicon carbide using solar energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatzmaier, Gregory C. (Boulder, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using solar energy. The method is efficient and avoids the need for use of electrical energy to heat the reactants. Finely divided silica and carbon are admixed and placed in a solar-heated reaction chamber for a time sufficient to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

  13. Transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed.

  14. Holey Silicon as an Efficient Thermoelectric Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Jinyao; Wang, Hung-Ta; Hyun Lee, Dong; Fardy, Melissa; Huo, Ziyang; Russell, Thomas P.; Yang, Peidong

    2010-09-30

    This work investigated the thermoelectric properties of thin silicon membranes that have been decorated with high density of nanoscopic holes. These ?holey silicon? (HS) structures were fabricated by either nanosphere or block-copolymer lithography, both of which are scalable for practical device application. By reducing the pitch of the hexagonal holey pattern down to 55 nm with 35percent porosity, the thermal conductivity of HS is consistently reduced by 2 orders of magnitude and approaches the amorphous limit. With a ZT value of 0.4 at room temperature, the thermoelectric performance of HS is comparable with the best value recorded in silicon nanowire system.

  15. Use of free silicon in liquid phase sintering of silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raj, Rishi; Baik, Sunggi

    1985-11-12

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic.

  16. Use of free silicon in liquid phase sintering of silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raj, R.; Baik, S.

    1985-11-12

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic. 4 figs.

  17. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  18. Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silicon solar cells (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Authors: Nemeth, Bill ; Young, David L. ; Page, Matthew R. ; LaSalvia, Vincenzo ; Johnston, Steve ; Reedy, Robert ; Stradins, Paul Publication Date: 2016-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1247961 Report

  19. Synthesis and characterization of silicon phthalocyanines bearing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Authors: Bergkamp, J. J., Sherman, B. D., Mario-Ochoa, E., Palacios, R. E., Cosa, G., Moore, T. A., Gust, D., and Moore, A. L. Title: Synthesis and characterization of silicon...

  20. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Willkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L.

    1998-06-02

    A ceramic body is disclosed comprising at least about 80 w/o silicon nitride and having a mean tensile strength of at least about 800 MPa. 4 figs.

  1. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  2. Researchers Growing Silicon Films for Solar Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features Chaz Teplin, left, and Howard Branz, right, scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. They use a hot-wire chemical vapor deposition system to grow silicon...

  3. 6N Silicon Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: 6N Silicon Inc Place: Mississauga, Ontario, Canada Zip: L5T 1E6 Sector: Solar Product: Canadian manufactuer of upgraded metallurgical...

  4. The Silicon Mine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    produce solar grade polysilicon suitable for the production of wafers or as the base material for the manufacture of solar cells. References: The Silicon Mine1 This article is a...

  5. Silicon nitride reinforced with molybdenum disilicide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Compositions of matter comprised of silicon nitride and molybdenum disilicide and methods of making the compositions, where the molybdenum disilicide is present in amounts ranging from about 5 to about 50 vol. %.

  6. Apparatus for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crosbie, Gary M.; Predmesky, Ronald L.; Nicholson, John M.

    1995-04-04

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  7. Method for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crosbie, Gary M.; Predmesky, Ronald L.; Nicholson, John M.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  8. Selective etching of silicon carbide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Di; Howe, Roger T.; Maboudian, Roya

    2006-12-19

    A method of etching silicon carbide using a nonmetallic mask layer. The method includes providing a silicon carbide substrate; forming a non-metallic mask layer by applying a layer of material on the substrate; patterning the mask layer to expose underlying areas of the substrate; and etching the underlying areas of the substrate with a plasma at a first rate, while etching the mask layer at a rate lower than the first rate.

  9. University Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajeet Rohatgi; Vijay Yelundur; Abasifreke Ebong; Dong Seop Kim

    2008-08-18

    The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology to make photovoltaics more competitive with conventional energy sources. This program emphasizes fundamental and applied research that results in low-cost, high-efficiency cells on commercial silicon substrates with strong involvement of the PV industry, and support a very strong photovoltaics education program in the US based on classroom education and hands-on training in the laboratory.

  10. Phonon coherence in isotopic silicon superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frieling, R.; Radek, M.; Eon, S.; Bracht, H.; Wolf, D. E.

    2014-09-29

    Recent experimental and theoretical investigations have confirmed that a reduction in thermal conductivity of silicon is achieved by isotopic silicon superlattices. In the present study, non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are performed to identify the isotope doping and isotope layer ordering with minimum thermal conductivity. Furthermore, the impact of isotopic intermixing at the superlattice interfaces on phonon transport is investigated. Our results reveal that the coherence of phonons in isotopic Si superlattices is prevented if interfacial mixing of isotopes is considered.

  11. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.

  12. Semipermeable Membranes for Micromachined Silicon Surfaces - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Semipermeable Membranes for Micromachined Silicon Surfaces Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (701 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia National Laboratories has developed semipermeable silicon nitride membranes using an etch process to be co-manufactured on a

  13. Silicon purification melting for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN DEN AVYLE,JAMES A.; HO,PAULINE; GEE,JAMES M.

    2000-04-01

    The availability of polysilicon feedstock has become a major issue for the photovoltaic (PV) industry in recent years. Most of the current polysilicon feedstock is derived from rejected material from the semiconductor industry. However, the reject material can become scarce and more expensive during periods of expansion in the integrated-circuit industry. Continued rapid expansion of the PV crystalline-silicon industry will eventually require a dedicated supply of polysilicon feedstock to produce solar cells at lower costs. The photovoltaic industry can accept a lower purity polysilicon feedstock (solar-grade) compared to the semiconductor industry. The purity requirements and potential production techniques for solar-grade polysilicon have been reviewed. One interesting process from previous research involves reactive gas blowing of the molten silicon charge. As an example, Dosaj et all reported a reduction of metal and boron impurities from silicon melts using reactive gas blowing with 0{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2}. The same authors later reassessed their data and the literature, and concluded that Cl{sub 2}and 0{sub 2}/Cl{sub 2} gas blowing are only effective for removing Al, Ca, and Mg from the silicon melt. Researchers from Kawasaki Steel Corp. reported removal of B and C from silicon melts using reactive gas blowing with an 0{sub 2}/Ar plasma torch. Processes that purify the silicon melt are believed to be potentially much lower cost compared to present production methods that purify gas species.

  14. Silica substrate or portion formed from oxidation of monocrystalline silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matzke, Carolyn M.; Rieger, Dennis J.; Ellis, Robert V.

    2003-07-15

    A method is disclosed for forming an inclusion-free silica substrate using a monocrystalline silicon substrate as the starting material and oxidizing the silicon substrate to convert it entirely to silica. The oxidation process is performed from both major surfaces of the silicon substrate using a conventional high-pressure oxidation system. The resulting product is an amorphous silica substrate which is expected to have superior etching characteristics for microfabrication than conventional fused silica substrates. The present invention can also be used to convert only a portion of a monocrystalline silicon substrate to silica by masking the silicon substrate and locally thinning a portion the silicon substrate prior to converting the silicon portion entirely to silica. In this case, the silica formed by oxidizing the thinned portion of the silicon substrate can be used, for example, as a window to provide optical access through the silicon substrate.

  15. Purification and deposition of silicon by an iodide disproportionation reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

  16. Methods and apparatus for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2014-01-14

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

  17. Methods and apparatuses for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Nathan G.

    2011-11-01

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

  18. Silicon-based nanoenergetic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asay, Blaine; Son, Steven; Mason, Aaron; Yarrington, Cole; Cho, K Y; Gesner, J; Yetter, R A

    2009-01-01

    Fundamental combustion properties of silicon-based nano-energetic composites was studied by performing equilibrium calculations, 'flame tests', and instrumented burn-tube tests. That the nominal maximum flame temperature and for many Si-oxidizer systems is about 3000 K, with exceptions. Some of these exceptions are Si-metal oxides with temperatures ranging from 2282 to 2978 K. Theoretical maximum gas production of the Si composites ranged from 350-6500 cm{sup 3}/g of reactant with NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} - Si producing the most gas at 6500 cm{sup 3}/g and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} producing the least. Of the composites tested NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} - Si showed the fastest burning rates with the fastest at 2.1 km/s. The Si metal oxide burning rates where on the order of 0.03-75 mls the slowest of which was nFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} - Si.

  19. Metallic coatings on silicon substrates, and methods of forming metallic coatings on silicon substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.; Fincke, James R.

    2008-03-11

    The invention includes methods of forming a metallic coating on a substrate which contains silicon. A metallic glass layer is formed over a silicon surface of the substrate. The invention includes methods of protecting a silicon substrate. The substrate is provided within a deposition chamber along with a deposition target. Material from the deposition target is deposited over at least a portion of the silicon substrate to form a protective layer or structure which contains metallic glass. The metallic glass comprises iron and one or more of B, Si, P and C. The invention includes structures which have a substrate containing silicon and a metallic layer over the substrate. The metallic layer contains less than or equal to about 2 weight % carbon and has a hardness of at least 9.2 GPa. The metallic layer can have an amorphous microstructure or can be devitrified to have a nanocrystalline microstructure.

  20. High damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xueju; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Wang, Haoran; Tao, Siyu; Yang, Avery; Liu, Yang; Beng Chew, Huck; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-24

    Mechanical degradation and resultant capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance rechargeable batteries. Despite tremendous efforts devoted to the study of the electro–chemo–mechanical behaviours of high-capacity electrode materials, their fracture properties and mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this paper, we report a nanomechanical study on the damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon. Our in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments reveal a striking contrast of brittle fracture in pristine silicon versus ductile tensile deformation in fully lithiated silicon. Quantitative fracture toughness measurements by nanoindentation show a rapid brittle-to-ductile transition of fracture as the lithium-to-silicon molar ratio is increased to above 1.5. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings of the brittle-to-ductile transition governed by atomic bonding and lithiation-induced toughening. Finally, our results reveal the high damage tolerance in amorphous lithium-rich silicon alloys and have important implications for the development of durable rechargeable batteries.

  1. High damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Xueju; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Wang, Haoran; Tao, Siyu; Yang, Avery; Liu, Yang; Beng Chew, Huck; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; et al

    2015-09-24

    Mechanical degradation and resultant capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance rechargeable batteries. Despite tremendous efforts devoted to the study of the electro–chemo–mechanical behaviours of high-capacity electrode materials, their fracture properties and mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this paper, we report a nanomechanical study on the damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon. Our in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments reveal a striking contrast of brittle fracture in pristine silicon versus ductile tensile deformation in fully lithiated silicon. Quantitative fracture toughness measurements by nanoindentation show a rapid brittle-to-ductile transition of fracture as the lithium-to-silicon molar ratiomore » is increased to above 1.5. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings of the brittle-to-ductile transition governed by atomic bonding and lithiation-induced toughening. Finally, our results reveal the high damage tolerance in amorphous lithium-rich silicon alloys and have important implications for the development of durable rechargeable batteries.« less

  2. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  3. Overview of Silicon Detectors in STAR: Present and Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabana, Sonia; Collaboration: The SVT, SSD and HFT detector groups of the STAR experiment at RHIC

    2011-12-13

    The STAR experiment at RHIC aims to study the QCD phase transition and the origin of the spin of the proton. Its main detector for charged particle track reconstruction is a Time Projection Chamber, which has been supplemented with a silicon detector involving two different technologies, in particular double-sided silicon strip and silicon drift technology. STAR is preparing now for a new Silicon Vertex Detector, using double-sided silicon strip, single-sided silicon strip-pads, and CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors technology, planned to take data in 2014. We give an overview of the design, calibration and performances of the silicon detectors used by the STAR experiment in the past and the expected performances of the future silicon detector upgrade.

  4. Japan Solar Silicon Co Ltd JSS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Silicon Co Ltd JSS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Japan Solar Silicon Co Ltd (JSS) Place: Tokyo, Japan Sector: Solar Product: A JV company between Chisso, Nippon Mining...

  5. Harmful Shunting Mechanisms Found in Silicon Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    Scientists developed near-field optical microscopy for imaging electrical breakdown in solar cells and identified critical electrical breakdown mechanisms operating in industrial silicon and epitaxial silicon solar cells.

  6. An amorphous phase formation at palladium / silicon oxide (Pd...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An amorphous phase formation at palladium silicon oxide (PdSiOsub x) interface ... Title: An amorphous phase formation at palladium silicon oxide (PdSiOsub x) interface ...

  7. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electron microscopes at ALS Beamlines 7.3.1 and 11.0.1. From Sand to Processor Modern electronic integrated circuits are made of silicon. Silicon is the most abundant element...

  8. Polycrystalline silicon semiconducting material by nuclear transmutation doping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleland, John W.; Westbrook, Russell D.; Wood, Richard F.; Young, Rosa T.

    1978-01-01

    A NTD semiconductor material comprising polycrystalline silicon having a mean grain size less than 1000 microns and containing phosphorus dispersed uniformly throughout the silicon rather than at the grain boundaries.

  9. Method to fabricate silicon chromatographic column comprising fluid ports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Adkins, Douglas R.

    2004-03-02

    A new method for fabricating a silicon chromatographic column comprising through-substrate fluid ports has been developed. This new method enables the fabrication of multi-layer interconnected stacks of silicon chromatographic columns.

  10. Method of enhanced lithiation of doped silicon carbide via high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A method for enhancing the lithium-ion capacity of a doped silicon carbide is disclosed. The method utilizes heat treating the silicon carbide in an inert atmosphere. Also ...

  11. System and method for liquid silicon containment (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The ...

  12. Inverted amorphous silicon solar cell utilizing cermet layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a transparent high work function metal cermet incident to solar radiation and a thick film cermet contacting the amorphous silicon opposite to said incident surface.

  13. D0 layer 0 innermost layer of silicon microstrip tracker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A new inner layer silicon strip detector has been built and will be installed in the existing silicon microstrip tracker in D0. They report on the motivation, design, and performance of this new detector.

  14. Huiwan Silicon Park Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Huiwan Silicon Park Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Huiwan Silicon Park Co Ltd Place: Baishan, Jilin Province, China Product: A foreign-invested Chinese company plans to...

  15. Process for manufacture of semipermeable silicon nitride membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galambos, Paul Charles; Shul, Randy J.; Willison, Christi Gober

    2003-12-09

    A new class of semipermeable membranes, and techniques for their fabrication, have been developed. These membranes, formed by appropriate etching of a deposited silicon nitride layer, are robust, easily manufacturable, and compatible with a wide range of silicon micromachining techniques.

  16. Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing chromium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frosch, Robert A. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space; Salama, Amal M.

    1982-01-01

    Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing about 10.sup.15 atoms/cm.sup.3 of chromium is improved about 26% by thermal annealing of the silicon wafer at a temperature of 200.degree. C. to form chromium precipitates having a diameter of less than 1 Angstrom. Further improvement in efficiency is achieved by scribing laser lines onto the back surface of the wafer at a spacing of at least 0.5 mm and at a depth of less than 13 micrometers to preferentially precipitate chromium near the back surface and away from the junction region of the device. This provides an economical way to improve the deleterious effects of chromium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon material.

  17. Transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-05-09

    A method is disclosed for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed. 13 figs.

  18. Electrically tunable hot-silicon terahertz attenuator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Minjie; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Kono, Junichiro

    2014-10-06

    We have developed a continuously tunable, broadband terahertz attenuator with a transmission tuning range greater than 10{sup 3}. Attenuation tuning is achieved electrically, by simply changing the DC voltage applied to a heating wire attached to a bulk silicon wafer, which controls its temperature between room temperature and ?550?K, with the corresponding free-carrier density adjusted between ?10{sup 11?}cm{sup ?3} and ?10{sup 17?}cm{sup ?3}. This hot-silicon-based terahertz attenuator works most effectively at 450550?K (corresponding to a DC voltage variation of only ?7?V) and completely shields terahertz radiation above 550?K in a frequency range of 0.12.5 THz. Both intrinsic and doped silicon wafers were tested and demonstrated to work well as a continuously tunable attenuator. All behaviors can be understood quantitatively via the free-carrier Drude model taking into account thermally activated intrinsic carriers.

  19. Joining of porous silicon carbide bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, Carl H.; Couhig, John T.; Pelletier, Paul J.

    1990-05-01

    A method of joining two porous bodies of silicon carbide is disclosed. It entails utilizing an aqueous slip of a similar silicon carbide as was used to form the porous bodies, including the sintering aids, and a binder to initially join the porous bodies together. Then the composite structure is subjected to cold isostatic pressing to form a joint having good handling strength. Then the composite structure is subjected to pressureless sintering to form the final strong bond. Optionally, after the sintering the structure is subjected to hot isostatic pressing to further improve the joint and densify the structure. The result is a composite structure in which the joint is almost indistinguishable from the silicon carbide pieces which it joins.

  20. Silicon Valley Power- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Silicon Valley Power offers rebates to residential customers for the purchase of a variety of energy efficient products including:

  1. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, George C.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1987-01-01

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  2. Internal Friction of Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Silicon Containing Hydrogen: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merithew, R. D.; Liu, X.; Wang, Q.; Crandall, R. S.; Pohl, R. O.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Using methods of elastic properties to study disorder of thin silicon films.

  3. Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Preprint (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint Post-deposition hydrogenation by remote plasma significantly improves performance of heteroepitaxial silicon solar cells. Heteroepitaxial deposition of thin crystal silicon on sapphire for photovoltaics (PV) is an excellent model

  4. Making Silicon Carbide Devices | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Making Silicon Carbide Devices in the Cleanroom Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Making Silicon Carbide Devices in the Cleanroom Ron Olson 2012.08.23 As the Wide Bandgap Process and Fab manager for the GE Global Research cleanroom, I wanted to take some time to give you the dirt on our clean room over the

  5. Ultralow-Power Silicon Microphotonic Communications Platform

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultralow-Power Silicon Microphotonic Communications Platform 1 R&D 100 Entry Ultralow-Power Silicon Microphotonic Communications Platform 2 R&D 100 Entry Submitting Organization Sandia National Laboratories P. O. Box 5800 Albuquerque New Mexico 87185-1082 USA Michael R. Watts Phone: (505) 284-9616 Fax: (505) 284-7690 mwatts@sandia.gov AFFIRMATION: I affirm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is a fair and accurate representation of this product.

  6. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J.; Myers, David R.; Sharma, Ashwani K.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  7. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J.; Myers, David R.; Sharma, Ashwani K.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  8. Silicon fiber with p-n junction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homa, D.; Cito, A.; Pickrell, G.; Hill, C.; Scott, B.

    2014-09-22

    In this study, we fabricated a p-n junction in a fiber with a phosphorous doped silicon core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a hybrid process of the core-suction and melt-draw techniques and maintained overall diameters ranging from 200 to 900??m and core diameters of 20800??m. The p-n junction was formed by doping the fiber with boron and confirmed via the current-voltage characteristic. The demonstration of a p-n junction in a melt-drawn silicon core fiber paves the way for the seamless integration of optical and electronic devices in fibers.

  9. Silicon Carbide Semiconductors | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silicon Carbide Power Semiconductor Devices in the Cleanroom Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Silicon Carbide Power Semiconductor Devices in the Cleanroom Ron Olson 2012.10.04 I would like to introduce Zach Stum, the Wide Band Gap device engineer who is leading the "Next Generation SiC MOSFET"

  10. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutler, R.A.; Virkar, A.V.; Hurford, A.C.

    1989-05-09

    Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1,600 C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase. 4 figs.

  11. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutler, Raymond A.; Virkar, Anil V.; Hurford, Andrew C.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1600.degree. C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase.

  12. Silicon-nitride and metal composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.; Huffsmith, S.A.

    A composite and a method for bonding the composite are described. The composite includes a ceramic portion of silicon nitride, a refractory metal portion and a layer of MoSi/sub 2/ indirectly bonding the composite together. The method includes contacting the layer of MoSi/sub 2/ with a surface of the silicon nitride and with a surface of the metal; heating the layer to a temperature below 1400/sup 0/C; and, simultaneously, compressing the layer such that the contacting is with a pressure of at least 30 MPa. This composite overcomes useful life problems in the fabrication of parts for a helical expander for use in power generation.

  13. Silicon-nitride and metal composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L.; Huffsmith, Sarah A.

    1981-01-01

    A composite and a method for bonding the composite. The composite includes a ceramic portion of silicon nitride, a refractory metal portion and a layer of MoSi.sub.2 indirectly bonding the composite together. The method includes contacting the layer of MoSi.sub.2 with a surface of the silicon nitride and with a surface of the metal; heating the layer to a temperature below 1400.degree. C.; and, simultaneously with the heating, compressing the layer such that the contacting is with a pressure of at least 30 MPa. This composite overcomes useful life problems in the fabrication of parts for a helical expander for use in power generation.

  14. Silicon nitride ceramic having high fatigue life and high toughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeckley, Russell L.

    1996-01-01

    A sintered silicon nitride ceramic comprising between about 0.6 mol % and about 3.2 mol % rare earth as rare earth oxide, and between about 85 w/o and about 95 w/o beta silicon nitride grains, wherein at least about 20% of the beta silicon nitride grains have a thickness of greater than about 1 micron.

  15. Method For Passivating Crystal Silicon Surfaces - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Method For Passivating Crystal Silicon Surfaces National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Silicon Surface and Heterojunction Interface Passivation Studies by Lifetime Measurements (395 KB) PDF Document Publication High-Throughput Approaches to Optimization of Crystal Silicon Surface Passivation and Heterojunction Solar Cells (837 KB) Technology Marketing

  16. Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide.

  17. Fabricating amorphous silicon solar cells by varying the temperature _of the substrate during deposition of the amorphous silicon layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for fabricating amorphous silicon solar cells in which the temperature of the substrate is varied during the deposition of the amorphous silicon layer is described. Solar cells manufactured in accordance with this process are shown to have increased efficiencies and fill factors when compared to solar cells manufactured with a constant substrate temperature during deposition of the amorphous silicon layer.

  18. Process for forming a porous silicon member in a crystalline silicon member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen; Yu, Conrad M.; Raley, Norman F.

    1999-01-01

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  19. A 2-terminal perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell enabled by a silicon tunnel junction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mailoa, Jonathan P.; Bailie, Colin D.; Johlin, Eric C.; Hoke, Eric T.; Akey, Austin J.; Nguyen, William H.; McGehee, Michael D.; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-03-24

    With the advent of efficient high-bandgap metal-halide perovskite photovoltaics, an opportunity exists to make perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. We fabricate a monolithic tandem by developing a silicon-based interband tunnel junction that facilitates majority-carrier charge recombination between the perovskite and silicon sub-cells. We demonstrate a 1 cm2 2-terminal monolithic perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell with a VOC as high as 1.65 V. As a result, we achieve a stable 13.7% power conversion efficiency with the perovskite as the current-limiting sub-cell, and identify key challenges for this device architecture to reach efficiencies over 25%.

  20. A 2-terminal perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell enabled by a silicon tunnel junction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mailoa, Jonathan P.; Bailie, Colin D.; Johlin, Eric C.; Hoke, Eric T.; Akey, Austin J.; Nguyen, William H.; McGehee, Michael D.; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-03-24

    With the advent of efficient high-bandgap metal-halide perovskite photovoltaics, an opportunity exists to make perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. We fabricate a monolithic tandem by developing a silicon-based interband tunnel junction that facilitates majority-carrier charge recombination between the perovskite and silicon sub-cells. We demonstrate a 1 cm2 2-terminal monolithic perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell with a VOC as high as 1.65 V. As a result, we achieve a stable 13.7% power conversion efficiency with the perovskite as the current-limiting sub-cell, and identify key challenges for this device architecture to reach efficiencies over 25%.

  1. Effect of hydrogen passivation on charge storage in silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Chang-Hee; Kim, Baek-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Seong-Ju; Park, Nae-Man; Sung, Gun-Yong

    2005-04-04

    The effect of hydrogen passivation on the charge storage characteristics of two types of silicon nitride films containing silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) grown by SiH{sub 4}+N{sub 2} and SiH{sub 4}+NH{sub 3} plasma was investigated. The transmission electron microscope analysis and the capacitance-voltage measurement showed that the silicon nitride film grown by SiH{sub 4}+NH{sub 3} plasma has a lower interface trap density and a higher density of Si QDs compared to that grown by SiH{sub 4}+N{sub 2} plasma. It was also found that the charge retention characteristics in the Si QDs were greatly enhanced in the samples grown by means of SiH{sub 4}+NH{sub 3} plasma, due to the hydrogen passivation of the defects in the silicon nitride films by NH{sub 3} during the growth of the Si QDs.

  2. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  3. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Tracey, Dennis M.; Foley, Michael R.; Paille, Norman I.; Pelletier, Paul J.; Sales, Lenny C.; Willkens, Craig A.; Yeckley, Russell L.

    1996-01-01

    A silicon nitride ceramic comprising: a) inclusions no greater than 25 microns in length, b) agglomerates no greater than 20 microns in diameter, and c) a surface finish of less than about 8 microinches, said ceramic having a four-point flexural strength of at least about 900 MPa.

  4. Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1997-10-07

    Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50 C or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense. 57 figs.

  5. Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1997-01-01

    Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50.degree. C. or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense.

  6. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Willkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L.

    1996-11-05

    A silicon nitride ceramic is disclosed comprising: (a) inclusions no greater than 25 microns in length, (b) agglomerates no greater than 20 microns in diameter, and (c) a surface finish of less than about 8 microinches, said ceramic having a four-point flexural strength of at least about 900 MPa. 4 figs.

  7. Nanoparticle-based etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, Howard; Duda, Anna; Ginley, David S.; Yost, Vernon; Meier, Daniel; Ward, James S.

    2011-12-13

    A method (300) of texturing silicon surfaces (116) such to reduce reflectivity of a silicon wafer (110) for use in solar cells. The method (300) includes filling (330, 340) a vessel (122) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface 116) of a wafer or substrate (112). The etching solution (124) is made up of a catalytic nanomaterial (140) and an oxidant-etchant solution (146). The catalytic nanomaterial (140) may include gold or silver nanoparticles or noble metal nanoparticles, each of which may be a colloidal solution. The oxidant-etchant solution (146) includes an etching agent (142), such as hydrofluoric acid, and an oxidizing agent (144), such as hydrogen peroxide. Etching (350) is performed for a period of time including agitating or stirring the etching solution (124). The etch time may be selected such that the etched silicon surface (116) has a reflectivity of less than about 15 percent such as 1 to 10 percent in a 350 to 1000 nanometer wavelength range.

  8. Nickel-chromium-silicon brazing filler metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martini, Angelo J.; Gourley, Bruce R.

    1976-01-01

    A brazing filler metal containing, by weight percent, 23-35% chromium, 9-12% silicon, a maximum of 0.15% carbon, and the remainder nickel. The maximum amount of elements other than those noted above is 1.00%.

  9. Silicon Photonics for Low- Energy Optical Communications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photonics for Low- Energy Optical Communications To support the needs of next generation of optical communications, researchers have developed a Sandia Silicon Photonics platform that leverages the semiconductor and nanotechnology capabilities of Sandia's Microsystems and Engineering Sciences Applications (MESA) complex to reduce the power dissipation of interconnects within digital systems. Improving Interconnection Performance As integrated circuit chips now incorporate over a billion

  10. High Q silicon carbide microdisk resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiyuan; Lee, Jonathan Y.; Feng, Philip X.-L.; Lin, Qiang

    2014-05-05

    We demonstrate a silicon carbide (SiC) microdisk resonator with optical Q up to 5.12??10{sup 4}. The high optical quality, together with the diversity of whispering-gallery modes and the tunability of external coupling, renders SiC microdisk a promising platform for integrated quantum photonics applications.

  11. Metal electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell having an N-type region wherein the contact to the N-type region is composed of a material having a work function of about 3.7 electron volts or less. Suitable materials include strontium, barium and magnesium and rare earth metals such as gadolinium and yttrium.

  12. Silicon-Graphene Anodes | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silicon-Graphene Anodes Technology available for licensing: Provides low-cost production process. Advanced gas phase deposition process yields anodes with five times the specific energy of carbon-made anodes, a longer cycle life and improved capacity PDF icon slicon-graphene_electrodes

  13. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-21

    A method is disclosed for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics. 7 figures.

  14. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics.

  15. Application Of Optical Processing For Growth Of Silicon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1997-06-17

    A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm.sup.2 to about 6 watts/cm.sup.2 for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm.sup.2 for growth of a 100.ANG.-300.ANG. film at a resultant temperature of about 400.degree. C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO.sub.2 /Si interface to be very low.

  16. Application of optical processing for growth of silicon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1997-06-17

    A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate is disclosed. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm{sup 2} to about 6 watts/cm{sup 2} for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm{sup 2} for growth of a 100{angstrom}-300{angstrom} film at a resultant temperature of about 400 C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface to be very low. 1 fig.

  17. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, R.; Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A.; Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I.; Poortmans, J.

    2014-10-27

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  18. An ultrafast silicon nanoplasmonic ballistic triode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greig, S. R. Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2014-12-15

    A nanoscale three terminal silicon based nanoplasmonic triode is proposed as a nanometer transistor. The device is suitable for monolithic integration with complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. Due to the highly spatially inhomogeneous, highly confined nanoplasmonic mode, electrons generated through two-photon absorption in the silicon are ponderomotively accelerated towards the copper anode producing an output current. Application of a negative grid voltage allows for control of the output current. The nanoplasmonic triode is able to achieve output current as high as 628?mA/?m on an ultrafast timescale of 150 fs in a compact footprint of 0.07??m{sup 2}. Reduction of the plasmonic field strength allows for a CMOS compatible current of 11.7?mA/?m. The results demonstrate the potential for the compact optical control of current useful for applications in high-speed, high current switching, and amplification.

  19. Superconductive silicon nanowires using gallium beam lithography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Robert Leo,

    2014-01-01

    This work was an early career LDRD investigating the idea of using a focused ion beam (FIB) to implant Ga into silicon to create embedded nanowires and/or fully suspended nanowires. The embedded Ga nanowires demonstrated electrical resistivity of 5 m-cm, conductivity down to 4 K, and acts as an Ohmic silicon contact. The suspended nanowires achieved dimensions down to 20 nm x 30 nm x 10 m with large sensitivity to pressure. These structures then performed well as Pirani gauges. Sputtered niobium was also developed in this research for use as a superconductive coating on the nanowire. Oxidation characteristics of Nb were detailed and a technique to place the Nb under tensile stress resulted in the Nb resisting bulk atmospheric oxidation for up to years.

  20. Synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, Teresa J.; Hsu, Julia W. P.

    2007-11-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid growth process for synthesis of group-IV semiconducting nanowires using silane, germane, disilane and digermane precursor gases has been investigated. The nanowire growth process combines in situ gold seed formation by vapor deposition on atomically clean silicon (111) surfaces, in situ growth from the gaseous precursor(s), and real-time monitoring of nanowire growth as a function of temperature and pressure by a novel optical reflectometry technique. A significant dependence on precursor pressure and growth temperature for the synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires is observed, depending on the stability of the specific precursor used. Also, the presence of a nucleation time for the onset of nanowire growth has been found using our new in situ optical reflectometry technique.

  1. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  2. Advances in amorphous silicon photovoltaic technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, D.E.; Rajan, K.; Arya, R.R.; Willing, F.; Yang, L.

    1998-10-01

    With the advent of new multijunction thin film solar cells, amorphous silicon photovoltaic technology is undergoing a commercial revival with about 30 megawatts of annual capacity coming on-line in the next year. These new {ital a}{endash}Si multijunction modules should exhibit stabilized conversion efficiencies on the order of 8{percent}, and efficiencies over 10{percent} may be obtained in the next several years. The improved performance results from the development of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon alloy films with improved optoelectronic properties and from the development of more efficient device structures. Moreover, the manufacturing costs for these multijunction modules using the new large-scale plants should be on the order of {dollar_sign}1 per peak watt. These new modules may find widespread use in solar farms, photovoltaic roofing, as well as in traditional remote applications. {copyright} {ital 1998 Materials Research Society.}

  3. Inelastic response of silicon to shock compression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Stubley, P. G.; Comley, A. J.; Eggert, J. H.; Foster, J. M.; Kalantar, D. H.; McGonegle, D.; Patel, S.; Peacock, L. J.; Rothman, S. D.; et al

    2016-04-13

    The elastic and inelastic response of [001] oriented silicon to laser compression has been a topic of considerable discussion for well over a decade, yet there has been little progress in understanding the basic behaviour of this apparently simple material. We present experimental x-ray diffraction data showing complex elastic strain profiles in laser compressed samples on nanosecond timescales. We also present molecular dynamics and elasticity code modelling which suggests that a pressure induced phase transition is the cause of the previously reported ‘anomalous’ elastic waves. Moreover, this interpretation allows for measurement of the kinetic timescales for transition. Lastly, this modelmore » is also discussed in the wider context of reported deformation of silicon to rapid compression in the literature.« less

  4. Status of the CDF silicon detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grinstein, Sebastian; /Harvard U.

    2006-05-01

    The CDF Run II silicon micro-strip detector is an essential part of the heavy flavor tagging and forward tracking capabilities of the experiment. Since the commissioning period ended in 2002, about 85% of the 730 k readout channels have been consistently provided good data. A summary of the recent improvements in the DAQ system as well as experience of maintaining and operating such a large, complex detector are presented.

  5. The Silicon Pixel Detector for ALICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabris, D.; Bombonati, C.; Dima, R.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pepato, A.; Bohus, L. Sajo; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.; Shen, D.; Turrisi, R.; Viesti, G.; Anelli, G.; Boccardi, A.; Burns, M.; Campbell, M.; Ceresa, S.; Conrad, J.; Kluge, A.; Kral, M.

    2007-10-26

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment is made of position sensitive detectors which have to operate in a region where the track density may be as high as 50 tracks/cm{sup 2}. To handle such densities detectors with high precision and granularity are mandatory. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD), the innermost part of the ITS, has been designed to provide tracking information close to primary interaction point. The assembly of the entire SPD has been completed.

  6. Method of preparing silicon from sodium fluosilicate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Rehbein, David; Chiotti, Premo

    1984-01-01

    A process for preparing high purity silicon metal from Na.sub.2 SiF.sub.6 (sodium fluosilicate). The sodium fluosilicate is heated to decomposition temperature to form NaF, which retains most of the impurities, and gaseous SiF.sub.4. The SiF.sub.4 is then reduced by the bomb reduction method using a reductant having a low packing density.

  7. Substrate for thin silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A photovoltaic device for converting solar energy into electrical signals comprises a substrate, a layer of photoconductive semiconductor material grown on said substrate, wherein the substrate comprises an alloy of boron and silicon, the boron being present in a range of from 0.1 to 1.3 atomic percent, the alloy having a lattice constant substantially matched to that of the photoconductive semiconductor material and a resistivity of less than 1.times.10.sup.-3 ohm-cm.

  8. Purified silicon production system - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    020022088 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Return to Search Purified silicon production system United States Patent

  9. Purified silicon production system - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19429 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Return to Search Purified silicon production system United States Patent

  10. Substrate for thin silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1995-03-28

    A photovoltaic device for converting solar energy into electrical signals comprises a substrate, a layer of photoconductive semiconductor material grown on said substrate, wherein the substrate comprises an alloy of boron and silicon, the boron being present in a range of from 0.1 to 1.3 atomic percent, the alloy having a lattice constant substantially matched to that of the photoconductive semiconductor material and a resistivity of less than 1{times}10{sup {minus}3} ohm-cm. 4 figures.

  11. Radiation damage studies for the D0 silicon detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehner, F.; /Zurich U.

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies performed on spare production silicon detector modules for the current D0 silicon detector. The lifetime expectations due to radiation damage effects of the existing silicon detector are reviewed. A new upgrade project was started with the goal of a complete replacement of the existing silicon detector. In that context, several investigations on the radiation hardness of new prototype silicon microstrip detectors were carried out. The irradiation on different detector types was performed with 10 MeV protons up to fluences of 10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2} at the J.R. Mcdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different normalization techniques. As a result, we observe roughly 40-50% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV p exposure than it is expected by the predicted NIEL scaling.

  12. Silicon micro-mold and method for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2005-01-11

    The present invention describes a method for rapidly fabricating a robust 3-dimensional silicon micro-mold for use in preparing complex metal micro-components. The process begins by depositing a conductive metal layer onto one surface of a silicon wafer. A thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask are then used to transfer a trace image pattern onto the opposite surface of the wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is anisotropically etched through the wafer thickness down to conductive metal layer to provide an etched pattern consisting of a series of rectilinear channels and recesses in the silicon which serve as the silicon micro-mold. Microcomponents are prepared with this mold by first filling the mold channels and recesses with a metal deposit, typically by electroplating, and then removing the silicon micro-mold by chemical etching.

  13. Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1995-01-01

    A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics.

  14. Porous siliconformation and etching process for use in silicon micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guilinger, Terry R.; Kelly, Michael J.; Martin, Jr., Samuel B.; Stevenson, Joel O.; Tsao, Sylvia S.

    1991-01-01

    A reproducible process for uniformly etching silicon from a series of micromechanical structures used in electrical devices and the like includes providing a micromechanical structure having a silicon layer with defined areas for removal thereon and an electrochemical cell containing an aqueous hydrofluoric acid electrolyte. The micromechanical structure is submerged in the electrochemical cell and the defined areas of the silicon layer thereon are anodically biased by passing a current through the electrochemical cell for a time period sufficient to cause the defined areas of the silicon layer to become porous. The formation of the depth of the porous silicon is regulated by controlling the amount of current passing through the electrochemical cell. The micromechanical structure is then removed from the electrochemical cell and submerged in a hydroxide solution to remove the porous silicon. The process is subsequently repeated for each of the series of micromechanical structures to achieve a reproducibility better than 0.3%.

  15. Diamond-Silicon Carbide Composite And Method For Preparation Thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2005-09-06

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5-8 GPa, T=1400K-2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.multidot.m.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  16. Metallurgical Route to Produce Upgraded Silicon and Monosilane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukashev, B. N.; Abdullin, Kh A.; Tamendarov, M. F.; Turmagambetov, T. S.; Beketov, B. A.; Page, M. R.; Kline, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    We studied alumothermic reduction of silica from silicate slag to obtain silicon-containing Alloy-I and Alloy-II. Phosphorous industry waste and synthetic slag are used as a silicate slag that consists of more than 90% silicon and calcium oxides and less than l0% other elemental oxides. Silicon-containing Alloy-I was upgraded by acid leaching to silicon of a fine powder structure. Using this powder, we grew poly- and mono-crystalline p-type silicon, with resistivity of 0.24 {Omega} cm, by the Czochralski method. Silicon-containing Alloy-II was used for obtaining monosilane by aqueous treatment with hydrochloric acid under atmospheric conditions and without any catalyst. There was no trace of diborane, which is a common source for boron contamination in crude silane.

  17. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Silicon Nanowire Anodes for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Energy Storage | Department of Energy Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Next Generation Energy Storage Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Next Generation Energy Storage Presentation given by Amprius, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about silicon nanowire anodes for next generation energy storage. es126_stefan_2014_p.pdf (1.09 MB) More Documents

  19. Sandia starts silicon wafer production for three nuclear weapon programs |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) starts silicon wafer production for three nuclear weapon programs Wednesday, March 25, 2015 - 3:24pm Sandia National Laboratories has begun making silicon wafers for three nuclear weapon modernization programs, the largest production series in the history of its Microsystems and Engineering Sciences Applications (MESA) complex. MESA's silicon fab in October began producing base wafers for Application-Specific Integrated Circuits for the

  20. Harsh Environment Silicon Carbide Sensor Technology for Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Instrumentation | Department of Energy Harsh Environment Silicon Carbide Sensor Technology for Geothermal Instrumentation Harsh Environment Silicon Carbide Sensor Technology for Geothermal Instrumentation Project objectives: Develop advanced sensor technology for the direct monitoring of geothermal reservoirs. Engineer sensors to survive and operate in H2O pressures up to 220 bar and temperatures as high as 374o C. high_pisano_silicon_carbide_sensor.pdf (841.42 KB) More Documents &

  1. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 29 June 2011 00:00 Nanostructured materials (nanowires, nanotubes, nanoclusters, graphene) are attractive possible alternatives to traditionally microfabricated silicon in continuing the miniaturization trend in the electronics industry. To go from nanomaterials to electronics, however, the precise one-by-one assembly of billions of nanoelements into a functioning circuit is

  2. NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Silicon Cluster Tool

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities Silicon Cluster Tool Capabilities Photo of a cylindrical metal chamber surrounded by numerous other smaller cylindrical or rectangular chambers. Each tool has several flanges and is typically held within a metal frame or rack. A computer is on a table in front of a cabinet of electronic equipment. Silicon cluster tool in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory. The Silicon cluster tool within the Process Development and Integration Laboratory is a 10-port cluster tool

  3. NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Silicon Wafer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Replacement Cluster Tool Capabilities Silicon Wafer Replacement Cluster Tool Capabilities The silicon wafer replacement (SWR) tool can handle sample sizes up to 157 mm square in the standard 7"x7" platen for the Process Development and Integration Laboratory (PDIL). Silicon deposition can generally be done on any sample smaller than this. Automated hydrofluoric (HF) oxide etching requires either using one of our standard sample sizes or fabrication of custom holders. The SWRT

  4. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    structures. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Designing reliable MEMS structures presents numerous challenges. Polycrystalline silicon fractures in a brittle manner with considerable variability in measured strength. Furthermore, it is not clear how to use a measured tensile

  5. Rapid Formation of Soft Hydrophilic Silicone Elastomer Surfaces (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Rapid Formation of Soft Hydrophilic Silicone Elastomer Surfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid Formation of Soft Hydrophilic Silicone Elastomer Surfaces We report on the rapid formation of hydrophilic silicone elastomer surfaces by ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) irradiation of poly(vinylmethylsiloxane) (PVMS) network films. Our results reveal that the PVMS network surfaces render hydrophilic upon only a short UVO exposure time (seconds to a few minutes).

  6. Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, R.A.

    1994-04-05

    A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride is described which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide. 5 figures.

  7. Thinner Film Silicon Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thin film silicon solar cells with a potential increase in photon energy conversion of up to 20%, a significant improvement over conventional thin film photovoltaic technologies. ...

  8. Solar Fabrik Silicon Services Ltd formerly OJAS Energy | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar-Fabrik Silicon Services Ltd (formerly OJAS Energy) Place: Chennai, India Product: PV wafer manufacturer, legally based in the British...

  9. Low Cost, High Efficiency Tandem Silicon Solar Cells and LEDs...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy ... Return to Search Low Cost, High Efficiency Tandem Silicon Solar Cells and LEDs ... gaps will lead to efficient power conversion. ...

  10. NMR Studies of Molecular Hydrogen in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, T.; Chen, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Crandall, R. S.; Mahan, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    Using NMR, the concentrations of molecular hydrogen have been measured directly in hydrogenated amorphous silicon made by the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique.

  11. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of removing-silicon (and germanium) nanostructures at precise wafer locations. This strategy holds the potential for fabricating transistors in fewer steps with less material...

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Clathrates for Anode...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Clathrates for Anode Applications in Lithium-Ion Batteries Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of ...

  13. Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Amorphous Silicon...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Silicon Anodes Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode ...

  14. Spontaneous emission spectrum of a diabatically pulsed silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spontaneous emission spectrum of a diabatically pulsed silicon charge qubit. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spontaneous emission spectrum of a diabatically pulsed ...

  15. Silicon CPV Plc formerly Akhter Renewables | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicon CPV Plc (formerly Akhter Renewables) Place: Harlow, United Kingdom Zip: CM18 7PN Product: Developing CPV, using its own Fresnel lens design and tracking systems....

  16. Sumitomo Mitsubishi Silicon Corp SUMCO | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Sumitomo Mitsubishi Silicon Corp (SUMCO) Place: Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Zip: 105 8634 Product: Holding company; Japanese manufacturer of monocrystalline...

  17. Soitec SA Silicon on Insulator Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Soitec SA (Silicon on Insulator Technologies) Place: Bernin, France Zip: 38190 Product: Has an 'atomic scalpel' technology which allows extremely thin...

  18. Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silie alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

  19. Carbon p electron ferromagnetism in silicon carbide (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon p electron ferromagnetism in silicon carbide Citation Details ... GrantContract Number: AC02-05CH11231 Type: Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Scientific Reports ...

  20. California: TetraCell Silicon Solar Cell Improves Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TetraSun, in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, developed a novel crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell architecture and manufacturing process that ...

  1. Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1983-05-27

    A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silicide alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Silicon Nanowire...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Next Generation Energy Storage Presentation given by Amprius, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  3. Silicon Valley Clean Tech Alliance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Valley Clean Tech Alliance Address: Box 1855 Place: Cupertino, California Zip: 95015 Region: Bay Area Website:...

  4. Buckeye Silicon BeSi | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Buckeye Silicon (BeSi) Place: Toledo, Ohio Product: Ohio-based polysilicon startup focusing on modular production. Coordinates: 46.440613, -122.847838 Show Map...

  5. Lobbyist Disclosure Form - Silicon Valley | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jonathan Silver, Energy Department executive director loans program, gave Colleen Quinn, Silicon Valley Leadership Group vice president of government relations and public policy, a ...

  6. Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wiring Up Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Vehicle ...

  7. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor Kotovksy, J; Tooker,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A; Horsley, D 42 ENGINEERING; 42 ENGINEERING; ACCURACY; ACTUATORS; SILICON This thin, MEMS contact-stress sensor continuously and accurately measures time-varying, solid...

  8. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor Kotovsky, J; Tooker,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ACCURACY; ACTUATORS; CALIBRATION; DIAPHRAGM; SILICON; STABILITY; THICKNESS This thin, MEMS contact-stress (CS) sensor continuously and accurately measures time-varying, solid...

  9. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor Kotovsky, J; Tooker,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LIFETIME; PACKAGING; PERFORMANCE; SILICON; THICKNESS This work offers the first, thin, MEMS contact-stress (CS) sensor capable of accurate in situ measruement of time-varying,...

  10. Silicon Recycling Services Inc SRS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Camarillo, California Zip: 93011 Product: Takes 'waste' silicon, containing contamination and impurities and processes it into PV feedstock. Coordinates: 34.222895,...

  11. Silicon-film{trademark} on ceramic solar cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, R.B.; Bacon, C.; DiReda, V.; Ford, D.H.; Ingram, A.E.; Lampo, S.M.; Rand, J.A.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Silicon-Film{trademark} design achieves high performance through the use of a thin silicon layer. Optimally designed thin crystalline solar cells (<50 microns thick) have performance advantages over conventional thick devices. The enhancement in performance requires the incorporation of back-surface passivation and light trapping. The high-performance Silicon-Film{trademark} design employs a metallurgical barrier between the low-cost substrate and the thin silicon layer. The properties of the metallurgical barrier must be engineered to implement specific device requirements, such as high back-surface reflectivity. Recent advances in process development are described here.

  12. Process and apparatus for obtaining silicon from fluosilicic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanjurjo, Angel

    1988-06-28

    Process and apparatus for producing low cost, high purity solar grade silicon ingots in single crystal or quasi single crystal ingot form in a substantially continuous operation in a two stage reactor starting with sodium fluosilicate and a metal more electropositive than silicon (preferably sodium) in separate compartments having easy vapor transport therebetween and thermally decomposing the sodium fluosilicate to cause formation of substantially pure silicon and a metal fluoride which may be continuously separated in the melt and silicon may be directly and continuously cast from the melt.

  13. Longer Life Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Anodes - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Longer Life Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Anodes Lawrence Berkeley National ... Researchers have developed a new technology to advance the life of lithium-ion batteries. ...

  14. Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of silicon mesoscale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of silicon mesoscale pillars: roles of ultrathin ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of ...

  15. Crystallization Behavior of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Measured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Crystallization Behavior of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Measured Using ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystallization Behavior of Virgin TR-55 ...

  16. Silicon Valley Technology Centre SVTC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Valley Technology Centre (SVTC) Place: San Jose, California Zip: 915134 Product: Development foundry which offers start-up and...

  17. Triangulating the Position of Antimony Donors Implanted in Silicon

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silicon device with donors * What is an offset? * Using experimental data to estimate ... through dot H| observed Transport through dot is blockaded LAG (V) What is an offset? ...

  18. Dominant factors of the laser gettering of silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bokhan, Yu. I. E-mail: yuibokhan@gmail.com; Kamenkov, V. S.; Tolochko, N. K.

    2015-02-15

    The laser gettering of silicon wafers is experimentally investigated. The typical gettering parameters are considered. The surfaces of laser-treated silicon wafers are investigated by microscopy. When studying the effect of laser radiation on silicon wafers during gettering, a group of factors determining the conditions of interaction between the laser beam and silicon-wafer surface and affecting the final result of treatment are selected. The main factors determining the gettering efficiency are revealed. Limitations on the desired value of the getter-layer capacity on surfaces with insufficiently high cleanness (for example, ground or matte) are established.

  19. TBEA Xinjiang Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China Product: A JV formed to develop a 1500t polysilicon manufacturing plant. References: TBEA Xinjiang Silicon Material Co Ltd1 This article is...

  20. Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Next Generation Energy Storage

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Next Generation Energy Storage Ionel C. Stefan, Principal ... Cell Manufacturing Optimize system Scale up anode manufacturing Balance of cell ...

  1. Wanxiang Silicon Peak Electronics Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    silicon ingots and wafers and subsidiary of the Wanxiang Group which includes solar cell and module maker Wanxiang Solar. Coordinates: 29.140209, 118.405113 Show...

  2. Study of the crystal structure of silicon nanoislands on sapphire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krivulin, N. O. Pirogov, A. V.; Pavlov, D. A.; Bobrov, A. I.

    2015-02-15

    The results of studies of the crystal structure of silicon nanoislands on sapphire are reported. It is shown that the principal defects in silicon nanoislands on sapphire are twinning defects. As a result of the formation of such defects, different crystallographic orientations are formed in silicon nanoislands on sapphire. In the initial stages of the molecular-beam epitaxy of silicon on sapphire, there are two basic orientations: the (001) orientation parallel to the surface and the (001) orientation at an angle of 70° to the surface.

  3. Techniques of Nanoscale Silicon Texturing of Solar Cells - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Marketing SummarySandia National Laboratories has created a technology that produces an antireflective (matte) surface on a silicon photovoltaic solar cell. The process ...

  4. Dongfang Chengda Silicon Technology Development Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Development Co Ltd Place: Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China Product: A Chinese company mainly engaged in the R&D of silicon production technology. References:...

  5. Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, amorphous silicon films by hot filament technique using "safe" silicon source gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, Archie Harvin; Molenbroek, Edith C.; Nelson, Brent P.

    1998-01-01

    A method of producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate by flowing a stream of safe (diluted to less than 1%) silane gas past a heated filament.

  6. Jefferson Lab Signs Contract Wth SensL For Silicon Photomultiplier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    articlesjefferson-lab-signs-contract-wth-sensl-silicon-photomultiplier-technology-photonics-o... Jefferson Lab Signs Contract Wth SensL For Silicon Photomultiplier Technology...

  7. Asia Silicon Qinghai Co Ltd aka Asia Si Material | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicon Qinghai Co Ltd aka Asia Si Material Jump to: navigation, search Name: Asia Silicon (Qinghai) Co Ltd (aka Asia Si Material) Place: Xining, Qinghai Province, China Zip:...

  8. NREL Develops ZnSiP2 for Silicon-Based Tandem Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    Combining an Earth-abundant chalcopyrite with a silicon layer could significantly boost conversion efficiency above that of single-junction silicon solar cells.

  9. Josephson tunnel junction with polycrystalline silicon, germanium or silicon-germanium alloy tunneling barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroger, H.

    1980-09-02

    A Josephson tunnel junction device having niobium nitride superconductive electrodes includes a polycrystalline semiconductor tunnelling barrier therebetween comprised of silicon, germanium or an alloy thereof preferably deposited on the lower superconductive electrodes by chemical vapor deposition. The barrier height of the junction is precisely controlled by precision doping of the semiconductor material.

  10. Arrays of ultrathin silicon solar microcells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, John A.; Rockett, Angus A.; Nuzzo, Ralph; Yoon, Jongseung; Baca, Alfred

    2015-08-11

    Provided are solar cells, photovoltaics and related methods for making solar cells, wherein the solar cell is made of ultrathin solar grade or low quality silicon. In an aspect, the invention is a method of making a solar cell by providing a solar cell substrate having a receiving surface and assembling a printable semiconductor element on the receiving surface of the substrate via contact printing. The semiconductor element has a thickness that is less than or equal to 100 .mu.m and, for example, is made from low grade Si.

  11. Silicon concentrator cell-assembly development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop an improved cell assembly design for photovoltaic concentrator receivers. Efforts were concentrated on a study of adhesive/separator systems that might be applied between cell and substrate, because this area holds the key to improved heat transfer, electrical isolation and adhesion. It is also the area in which simpler construction methods offer the greatest benefits for economy and reliability in the manufacturing process. Of the ten most promising designs subjected to rigorous environmental testing, eight designs featuring acrylic and silicon adhesives and fiberglass and polyester separators performed very well.

  12. Subtleties of capacitance transients in amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, R.S.; Lips, K.

    1996-12-31

    Using junction capacitance methods, the authors describe the effect of contacts on charge emission transients in n-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The results demonstrate some of the difficulties encountered in observing and interpreting anomalous temperature independent emission transients (slow relaxation). In this paper, the authors present additional data and reconcile the absence of anomalous emission transients in some cases with a discussion of the dynamics of depletion width filling. The authors show that the transient capacitance response of Schottky structure is not only related to the contact configuration but is connected to the rate of charge injection into the depletion region.

  13. Hybrid stretchable circuits on silicone substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, A., E-mail: adam.1.robinson@nokia.com; Aziz, A., E-mail: a.aziz1@lancaster.ac.uk [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB01FF (United Kingdom); Liu, Q.; Suo, Z. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Lacour, S. P., E-mail: stephanie.lacour@epfl.ch [Centre for Neuroprosthetics and Laboratory for Soft Bioelectronics Interfaces, School of Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)

    2014-04-14

    When rigid and stretchable components are integrated onto a single elastic carrier substrate, large strain heterogeneities appear in the vicinity of the deformable-non-deformable interfaces. In this paper, we report on a generic approach to manufacture hybrid stretchable circuits where commercial electronic components can be mounted on a stretchable circuit board. Similar to printed circuit board development, the components are electrically bonded on the elastic substrate and interconnected with stretchable electrical traces. The substratea silicone matrix carrying concentric rigid disksensures both the circuit elasticity and the mechanical integrity of the most fragile materials.

  14. Epitaxial silicon devices for dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Casati, M.; Menichelli, D.; Talamonti, C.; Piemonte, C.; Svensson, B. G.

    2007-04-23

    A straightforward improvement of the efficiency and long term stability of silicon dosimeters has been obtained with a n{sup +}-p junction surrounded by a guard-ring structure implanted on an epitaxial p-type Si layer grown on a Czochralski substrate. The sensitivity of devices made on 50-{mu}m-thick epitaxial Si degrades by only 7% after an irradiation with 6 MeV electrons up to 1.5 kGy, and shows no significant further decay up to 10 kGy. These results prove the enhanced radiation tolerance and stability of epitaxial diodes as compared to present state-of-the-art Si devices.

  15. Arrays of ultrathin silicon solar microcells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Rockett, Angus A; Nuzzo, Ralph; Yoon, Jongseung; Baca, Alfred

    2014-03-25

    Provided are solar cells, photovoltaics and related methods for making solar cells, wherein the solar cell is made of ultrathin solar grade or low quality silicon. In an aspect, the invention is a method of making a solar cell by providing a solar cell substrate having a receiving surface and assembling a printable semiconductor element on the receiving surface of the substrate via contact printing. The semiconductor element has a thickness that is less than or equal to 100 .mu.m and, for example, is made from low grade Si.

  16. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  17. (Preoxidation cleaning optimization for crystalline silicon)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments has been performed in Sandia's Photovoltaic Device Fabrication Laboratory to evaluate the effect of various chemical surface treatments on the recombination lifetime of crystalline silicon wafers subjected to a high-temperature dry oxidation. From this series of experiments we have deduced a relatively simple yet effective cleaning sequence. We have also evaluated the effect of different chemical damage-removal etches for improving the recombination lifetime and surface smoothness of mechanically lapped wafers. This paper presents the methodology used, the experimental results obtained, and our experience with using this process on a continuing basis over a period of many months. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Low cost routes to high purity silicon and derivatives thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, Richard M; Krug, David James; Marchal, Julien Claudius; Mccolm, Andrew Stewart

    2013-07-02

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing an agricultural waste product having amorphous silica, carbon, and impurities; extracting from the agricultural waste product an amount of the impurities; changing the ratio of carbon to silica; and reducing the silica to a high purity silicon (e.g., to photovoltaic silicon).

  19. Project Summary of the NREL Amorphous Silicon Team

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, B. P.; Branz, H. M.; Crandall, R. S.; Iwaniczko, E.; Mahan, A. H.; Stradins, P.; Wang, Q.; Xu, Y.

    2003-05-01

    The Amorphous Silicon Team at NREL has improved the properties of many materials, increased solar cell device performance, and improved the fundamental understanding of thin-film silicon based materials and devices since the last NCPV Program Review Meeting. In this paper we present a summary of the work of the team since that last meeting.

  20. Method for improving the stability of amorphous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, Howard M.

    2004-03-30

    A method of producing a metastable degradation resistant amorphous hydrogenated silicon film is provided, which comprises the steps of growing a hydrogenated amorphous silicon film, the film having an exposed surface, illuminating the surface using an essentially blue or ultraviolet light to form high densities of a light induced defect near the surface, and etching the surface to remove the defect.

  1. Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arya, Rajeewa R.

    1988-01-12

    Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells comprise a plurality of first and second lattices of amorphous silicon alternatingly formed on one another. Each of the first lattices has a first optical bandgap and each of the second lattices has a second optical bandgap different from the first optical bandgap. A method of fabricating the superlattice doped layers also is disclosed.

  2. Molybdenum disilicide composites reinforced with zirconia and silicon carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1995-01-17

    Compositions are disclosed consisting essentially of molybdenum disilicide, silicon carbide, and a zirconium oxide component. The silicon carbide used in the compositions is in whisker or powder form. The zirconium oxide component is pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia.

  3. Molybdenum disilicide composites reinforced with zirconia and silicon carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrovic, John J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Compositions consisting essentially of molybdenum disilicide, silicon carbide, and a zirconium oxide component. The silicon carbide used in the compositions is in whisker or powder form. The zirconium oxide component is pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia.

  4. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen

    2011-08-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  5. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen

    2003-09-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  6. RF Sputtering for preparing substantially pure amorphous silicon monohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Shanks, Howard R.

    1982-10-12

    A process for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous silicon hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  7. Back contact to film silicon on metal for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, Howard M.; Teplin, Charles; Stradins, Pauls

    2013-06-18

    A crystal oriented metal back contact for solar cells is disclosed herein. In one embodiment, a photovoltaic device and methods for making the photovoltaic device are disclosed. The photovoltaic device includes a metal substrate with a crystalline orientation and a heteroepitaxial crystal silicon layer having the same crystal orientation of the metal substrate. A heteroepitaxial buffer layer having the crystal orientation of the metal substrate is positioned between the substrate and the crystal silicon layer to reduce diffusion of metal from the metal foil into the crystal silicon layer and provide chemical compatibility with the heteroepitaxial crystal silicon layer. Additionally, the buffer layer includes one or more electrically conductive pathways to electrically couple the crystal silicon layer and the metal substrate.

  8. Methods and apparatuses for manufacturing geometric multicrystalline cast silicon and geometric multicrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2015-02-10

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of geometrically ordered multi-crystalline silicon may be formed that is free or substantially free of radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 10 cm is provided.

  9. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A.; Kaplan, Selig N.; Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1992-01-01

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

  10. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-05-26

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

  11. Shock compression of [001] single crystal silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, S.; Remington, B.; Hahn, E. N.; Kad, B.; Bringa, E. M.; Meyers, M. A.

    2016-03-14

    Silicon is ubiquitous in our advanced technological society, yet our current understanding of change to its mechanical response at extreme pressures and strain-rates is far from complete. This is due to its brittleness, making recovery experiments difficult. High-power, short-duration, laser-driven, shock compression and recovery experiments on [001] silicon (using impedance-matched momentum traps) unveiled remarkable structural changes observed by transmission electron microscopy. As laser energy increases, corresponding to an increase in peak shock pressure, the following plastic responses are are observed: surface cleavage along {111} planes, dislocations and stacking faults; bands of amorphized material initially forming on crystallographic orientations consistent withmore » dislocation slip; and coarse regions of amorphized material. Molecular dynamics simulations approach equivalent length and time scales to laser experiments and reveal the evolution of shock-induced partial dislocations and their crucial role in the preliminary stages of amorphization. Furthermore, application of coupled hydrostatic and shear stresses produce amorphization below the hydrostatically determined critical melting pressure under dynamic shock compression.« less

  12. Thermo-mechanical characterization of silicone foams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rangaswamy, Partha; Smith, Nickolaus A.; Cady, Carl M.; Lewis, Matthew W.

    2015-10-01

    Cellular solids such as elastomeric foams are used in many structural applications to absorb and dissipate energy, due to their light weight (low density) and high energy absorption capability. In this paper we will discuss foams derived from S5370, a silicone foam formulation developed by Dow Corning. In the application presented, the foam is consolidated into a cushion component of constant thickness but variable density. A mechanical material model developed by Lewis (2013), predicts material response, in part, as a function of relative density. To determine the required parameters for this model we have obtained the mechanical response in compressionmorefor ambient, cold and hot temperatures. The variable density cushion provided samples sufficient samples so that the effect of sample initial density on the mechanical response could be studied. The mechanical response data showed extreme sensitivity to relative density. We also observed at strains corresponding to 1 MPa a linear relationship between strain and initial density for all temperatures. Samples taken from parts with a history of thermal cycling demonstrated a stiffening response that was a function of temperature, with the trend of more stiffness as temperature increased above ambient. This observation is in agreement with the entropic effects on the thermo-mechanical behavior of silicone polymers. In this study, we present the experimental methods necessary for the development of a material model, the testing protocol, analysis of test data, and a discussion of load (stress) and gap (strain) as a function of sample initial densities and temperaturesless

  13. The future of amorphous silicon photovoltaic technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, R; Luft, W

    1995-06-01

    Amorphous silicon modules are commercially available. They are the first truly commercial thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices. Well-defined production processes over very large areas (>1 m{sup 2}) have been implemented. There are few environmental issues during manufacturing, deployment in the field, or with the eventual disposal of the modules. Manufacturing safety issues are well characterized and controllable. The highest measured initial efficiency to date is 13.7% for a small triple-stacked cell and the highest stabilized module efficiency is 10%. There is a consensus among researchers, that in order to achieve a 15% stabilized efficiency, a triple-junction amorphous silicon structure is required. Fundamental improvements in alloys are needed for higher efficiencies. This is being pursued through the DOE/NREL Thin-Film Partnership Program. Cost reductions through improved manufacturing processes are being pursued under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory/US Department of Energy (NREL/DOE)-sponsored research in manufacturing technology (PVMaT). Much of the work in designing a-Si devices is a result of trying to compensate for the Staebler-Wronski effect. Some new deposition techniques hold promise because they have produced materials with lower stabilized defect densities. However, none has yet produced a high efficiency device and shown it to be more stable than those from standard glow discharge deposited material.

  14. Cordierite silicon nitride filters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B.; Duiven, R.; Berger, M.; Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

  15. Silicone injection restores failing submarine cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilstra, M.

    1995-12-01

    Faced with the prospect of replacing nearly 10 miles of aging undersea cables, Orcas Power & Light Co (Opalco) elected instead to inject silicone into as many of the cables as possible. Silicone injection has been used extensively on underground residential distribution (URD) and feeder cables, but only two underwater cables had previously been injected: a feeder cable for Florida Power Corp under an intercoastal waterway and a cable for Washington Water Power Co under a lake in western Idaho. The compound restores power cables damaged by water treeing and prevents further water damage. Selection criteria included age, type, and whether the cables had ever been spliced. Older, soldered, hand-wrapped splices were avoided as they block the CableCure fluid from flowing through. This makes the cable uninjectable unless the splices are replaced with the molded type. The first cables chosen for injection were between 15 and 30 years old and clear of soldered splices. They also were free from faults. 4 figs.

  16. Thermo-mechanical characterization of silicone foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangaswamy, Partha; Smith, Nickolaus A.; Cady, Carl M.; Lewis, Matthew W.

    2015-10-01

    Cellular solids such as elastomeric foams are used in many structural applications to absorb and dissipate energy, due to their light weight (low density) and high energy absorption capability. In this paper we will discuss foams derived from S5370, a silicone foam formulation developed by Dow Corning. In the application presented, the foam is consolidated into a cushion component of constant thickness but variable density. A mechanical material model developed by Lewis (2013), predicts material response, in part, as a function of relative density. To determine the required parameters for this model we have obtained the mechanical response in compression for ambient, cold and hot temperatures. The variable density cushion provided samples sufficient samples so that the effect of sample initial density on the mechanical response could be studied. The mechanical response data showed extreme sensitivity to relative density. We also observed at strains corresponding to 1 MPa a linear relationship between strain and initial density for all temperatures. Samples taken from parts with a history of thermal cycling demonstrated a stiffening response that was a function of temperature, with the trend of more stiffness as temperature increased above ambient. This observation is in agreement with the entropic effects on the thermo-mechanical behavior of silicone polymers. In this study, we present the experimental methods necessary for the development of a material model, the testing protocol, analysis of test data, and a discussion of load (stress) and gap (strain) as a function of sample initial densities and temperatures

  17. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yunker, Wayne H.; Christiansen, David W.

    1987-01-01

    A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  18. Role of point defects/defect complexes in silicon device processing. Book of abstracts, fourth workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The 41 abstracts are arranged into 6 sessions: impurities and defects in commercial substrates: their sources, effects on material yield, and material quality; impurity gettering in silicon: limits and manufacturability of impurity gettering and in silicon solar cells; impurity/defect passivation; new concepts in silicon growth: improved initial quality and thin films; and silicon solar cell design opportunities.

  19. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yunker, Wayne H.; Christiansen, David W.

    1987-05-05

    A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  20. Method for enhancing the solubility of dopants in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadigh, Babak; Lenosky, Thomas J.; De La Rubia, Tomas Diaz

    2003-09-30

    A method for enhancing the equilibrium solid solubility of dopants in silicon, germanium and silicon-germanium alloys. The method involves subjecting silicon-based substrate to biaxial or compression strain. It has been determined that boron solubility was largely enhanced (more than 100%) by a compressive bi-axial strain, based on a size-mismatch theory since the boron atoms are smaller than the silicon atoms. It has been found that the large enhancement or mixing properties of dopants in silicon and germanium substrates is primarily governed by their, and to second order by their size-mismatch with the substrate. Further, it has been determined that the dopant solubility enhancement with strain is most effective when the charge and the size-mismatch of the impurity favor the same type of strain. Thus, the solid solubility of small p-type (e.g., boron) as well as large n-type (e.g., arsenic) dopants can be raised most dramatically by appropriate bi-axial (compressive) strain, and that solubility of a large p-type dopant (e.g, indium) in silicon will be raised due to size-mismatch with silicon, which favors tensile strain, while its negative charge prefers compressive strain, and thus the two effects counteract each other.

  1. Method for making circular tubular channels with two silicon wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, C.M.; Hui, W.C.

    1996-11-19

    A two-wafer microcapillary structure is fabricated by depositing boron nitride (BN) or silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) on two separate silicon wafers (e.g., crystal-plane silicon with [100] or [110] crystal orientation). Photolithography is used with a photoresist to create exposed areas in the deposition for plasma etching. A slit entry through to the silicon is created along the path desired for the ultimate microcapillary. Acetone is used to remove the photoresist. An isotropic etch, e.g., such as HF/HNO{sub 3}/CH{sub 3}COOH, then erodes away the silicon through the trench opening in the deposition layer. A channel with a half-circular cross section is then formed in the silicon along the line of the trench in the deposition layer. Wet etching is then used to remove the deposition layer. The two silicon wafers are aligned and then bonded together face-to-face to complete the microcapillary. 11 figs.

  2. Method for making circular tubular channels with two silicon wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.; Hui, Wing C.

    1996-01-01

    A two-wafer microcapillary structure is fabricated by depositing boron nitride (BN) or silicon nitride (Si.sub.3 N.sub.4) on two separate silicon wafers (e.g., crystal-plane silicon with [100] or [110] crystal orientation). Photolithography is used with a photoresist to create exposed areas in the deposition for plasma etching. A slit entry through to the silicon is created along the path desired for the ultimate microcapillary. Acetone is used to remove the photoresist. An isotropic etch, e.g., such as HF/HNO.sub.3 /CH.sub.3 COOH, then erodes away the silicon through the trench opening in the deposition layer. A channel with a half-circular cross section is then formed in the silicon along the line of the trench in the deposition layer. Wet etching is then used to remove the deposition layer. The two silicon wafers are aligned and then bonded together face-to-face to complete the microcapillary.

  3. Performance Testing using Silicon Devices - Analysis of Accuracy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-06-01

    Accurately determining PV module performance in the field requires accurate measurements of solar irradiance reaching the PV panel (i.e., Plane-of-Array - POA Irradiance) with known measurement uncertainty. Pyranometers are commonly based on thermopile or silicon photodiode detectors. Silicon detectors, including PV reference cells, are an attractive choice for reasons that include faster time response (10 us) than thermopile detectors (1 s to 5 s), lower cost and maintenance. The main drawback of silicon detectors is their limited spectral response. Therefore, to determine broadband POA solar irradiance, a pyranometer calibration factor that converts the narrowband response to broadband is required. Normally this calibration factor is a single number determined under clear-sky conditions with respect to a broadband reference radiometer. The pyranometer is then used for various scenarios including varying airmass, panel orientation and atmospheric conditions. This would not be an issue if all irradiance wavelengths that form the broadband spectrum responded uniformly to atmospheric constituents. Unfortunately, the scattering and absorption signature varies widely with wavelength and the calibration factor for the silicon photodiode pyranometer is not appropriate for other conditions. This paper reviews the issues that will arise from the use of silicon detectors for PV performance measurement in the field based on measurements from a group of pyranometers mounted on a 1-axis solar tracker. Also we will present a comparison of simultaneous spectral and broadband measurements from silicon and thermopile detectors and estimated measurement errors when using silicon devices for both array performance and resource assessment.

  4. SILICON CARBIDE JOINING. FINAL TOPICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    Future energy systems will be required to fire lower-grade fuels and meet higher energy conversion efficiencies than today's systems. The steam cycle used at present is limited to a maximum temperature of 550 C because above that, the stainless steel tubes deform and corrode excessively. To boost efficiency significantly, much higher working fluid temperatures are required. Although high-temperature alloys will suffice for the construction of these components in the near term, the greatest efficiency increases can be reached only with the use of advanced structural ceramics such as silicon carbide (SiC). However, SiC does not melt, but instead sublimes at temperatures over 2000 C. Therefore, it is not possible to join pieces of it through welding, and most brazing compounds have much lower melting points, so the joints lose strength at temperatures much lower than the maximum use temperature of the SiC. Since larger objects such as heat exchangers cannot be easily created from smaller ceramic pieces, the size of the SiC structures that can presently be manufactured are limited by the size of the sintering furnaces (approximately 10 feet for sintered alpha SiC). In addition, repair of the objects will require the use of field-joining techniques. Some success has been had by causing silicon and carbon to react at 1400--1500 C to form SiC in a joint (Rabin, 1995), but these joints contain continuous channels of unreacted silicon, which cause the joints to corrode and creep excessively at temperatures below 1260 C (Breder and Parten, 1996). The objective of this work conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is to develop a patentable technique for joining large SiC structures in the field. The key to developing a successful technique will be the use of reactive joining compounds to lower the joining temperature without leaving continuous channels of unreacted compounds that can weaken the joint at temperatures below 1260 C or serve as conduits for

  5. Passivation of c-Si surfaces by sub-nm amorphous silicon capped with silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Yimao Yan, Di; Bullock, James; Zhang, Xinyu; Cuevas, Andres

    2015-12-07

    A sub-nm hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film capped with silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) is shown to provide a high level passivation to crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces. When passivated by a 0.8 nm a-Si:H/75 nm SiN{sub x} stack, recombination current density J{sub 0} values of 9, 11, 47, and 87 fA/cm{sup 2} are obtained on 10 Ω·cm n-type, 0.8 Ω·cm p-type, 160 Ω/sq phosphorus-diffused, and 120 Ω/sq boron-diffused silicon surfaces, respectively. The J{sub 0} on n-type 10 Ω·cm wafers is further reduced to 2.5 ± 0.5 fA/cm{sup 2} when the a-Si:H film thickness exceeds 2.5 nm. The passivation by the sub-nm a-Si:H/SiN{sub x} stack is thermally stable at 400 °C in N{sub 2} for 60 min on all four c-Si surfaces. Capacitance–voltage measurements reveal a reduction in interface defect density and film charge density with an increase in a-Si:H thickness. The nearly transparent sub-nm a-Si:H/SiN{sub x} stack is thus demonstrated to be a promising surface passivation and antireflection coating suitable for all types of surfaces encountered in high efficiency c-Si solar cells.

  6. Antifuse with a single silicon-rich silicon nitride insulating layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Habermehl, Scott D.; Apodaca, Roger T.

    2013-01-22

    An antifuse is disclosed which has an electrically-insulating region sandwiched between two electrodes. The electrically-insulating region has a single layer of a non-hydrogenated silicon-rich (i.e. non-stoichiometric) silicon nitride SiN.sub.X with a nitrogen content X which is generally in the range of 0silicon. Arrays of antifuses can also be formed.

  7. Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Burchell, T.D.

    1994-07-26

    The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1,600 C which transforms the coating to silicon carbide. 3 figs.

  8. Method for fabricating transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed.

  9. Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    1983-10-12

    A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

  10. Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, George C.

    1984-01-01

    A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

  11. Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

  12. Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varacalle, Jr., Dominic J.; Herman, Herbert; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1994-01-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1600.degree.C. which transforms the coating to silicon carbide.

  13. Silicon Carbide in the Cleanroom | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inside the GE Global Research Clean Room: Silicon Carbide Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Inside the GE Global Research Clean Room: Silicon Carbide GE Global Research is working on nanoscale silicon carbide devices. Find out what we're doing. You Might Also Like 2-1-10-v-working-at-ge-research The Dirt

  14. Metal-assisted chemical etch porous silicon formation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiuling; Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2004-09-14

    A thin discontinuous layer of metal such as Au, Pt, or Au/Pd is deposited on a silicon surface. The surface is then etched in a solution including HF and an oxidant for a brief period, as little as a couple seconds to one hour. A preferred oxidant is H.sub.2 O.sub.2. Morphology and light emitting properties of porous silicon can be selectively controlled as a function of the type of metal deposited, Si doping type, silicon doping level, and/or etch time. Electrical assistance is unnecessary during the chemical etching of the invention, which may be conducted in the presence or absence of illumination.

  15. Silicon nitride protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

    1984-07-20

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate prior to metal deposition thereon to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors.

  16. Silicon nitride protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.

    1988-01-01

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate before metal deposition to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors.

  17. Junction-side illuminated silicon detector arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn

    2004-03-30

    A junction-side illuminated detector array of pixelated detectors is constructed on a silicon wafer. A junction contact on the front-side may cover the whole detector array, and may be used as an entrance window for light, x-ray, gamma ray and/or other particles. The back-side has an array of individual ohmic contact pixels. Each of the ohmic contact pixels on the back-side may be surrounded by a grid or a ring of junction separation implants. Effective pixel size may be changed by separately biasing different sections of the grid. A scintillator may be coupled directly to the entrance window while readout electronics may be coupled directly to the ohmic contact pixels. The detector array may be used as a radiation hardened detector for high-energy physics research or as avalanche imaging arrays.

  18. Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snead, L.L.; Hay, J.C.

    1998-09-01

    This paper provides the first known observation of silicon carbide fully amorphized under neutron irradiation. Both high purity single crystal hcp and high purity, highly faulted (cubic) chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were irradiated at approximately 60 C to a total fast neutron fluence of 2.6 {times} 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}. Amorphization was seen in both materials, as evidenced by TEM, electron diffraction, and x-ray diffraction techniques. Physical properties for the amorphized single crystal material are reported including large changes in density ({minus}10.8%), elastic modulus as measured using a nanoindentation technique ({minus}45%), hardness as measured by nanoindentation ({minus}45%), and standard Vickers hardness ({minus}24%). Similar property changes are observed for the critical temperature for amorphization at this neutron dose and flux, above which amorphization is not possible, is estimated to be greater than 130 C.

  19. Diamond coated silicon field emitter array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Albin; W. Fu; A. Varghese; A. C. Lavarias; G. R. Myneni

    1999-07-01

    Diamond coated silicon tip arrays, with and without a self-aligned gate, were fabricated, and current-voltage characteristics of 400 tips were measured. Diamond films were grown uniformly on Si tips using microwave plasma after nucleation with 10 nm diamond suspension and substrate bias. An emission current of 57 ?A was obtained at 5 V from the ungated array tips separated from an anode at 2 ?m. In the case of the gated arrays with 1.5 ?m aperture, an emission current of 3.4 ?A was measured at a gate voltage of 80 V for an anode separation of 200 ?m. The turn-on voltages for these two types of devices were 0.2 and 40 V, respectively. Diamond coated Si tip arrays have potential applications in field emission based low voltage vacuum electronic devices and microsensors.

  20. Method of casting silicon into thin sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanjurjo, Angel; Rowcliffe, David J.; Bartlett, Robert W.

    1982-10-26

    Silicon (Si) is cast into thin shapes within a flat-bottomed graphite crucible by providing a melt of molten Si along with a relatively small amount of a molten salt, preferably NaF. The Si in the resulting melt forms a spherical pool which sinks into and is wetted by the molten salt. Under these conditions the Si will not react with any graphite to form SiC. The melt in the crucible is pressed to the desired thinness with a graphite tool at which point the tool is held until the mass in the crucible has been cooled to temperatures below the Si melting point, at which point the Si shape can be removed.

  1. Bipolar monolithic preamplifiers for SSC silicon calorimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Todd, R.A.; Bauer, M.L. ); Kennedy, E.J. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Bugg, W.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes preamplifiers designed specifically to address the requirements of silicon calorimetry for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). Eight different preamplifiers designed for detector capacitances ranging from 20 pF to 500 pF and operating temperatures from 25{degree}C to {minus}20{degree}C are discussed. The preamplifiers were fabricated with two different high-frequency processes (one with the VTC, Inc. VJ900 process, seven with the Harris Semiconductor VHF Process). The different topologies and their features are discussed in addition to the design methodologies employed. The results for noise, power consumption, speed, and radiation damage effects as well as data for post-damage annealing are presented for the VTC process preamplifier. Simulations for the VHF Process circuits are presented. This work was funded through SSC Generic Detector funding, SSC Detector Subsystem funding, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Detector Center.

  2. Amorphous silicon materials and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, B.L. )

    1991-01-01

    An International Meeting on Stability of Amorphous Silicon Materials and Solar Cells was held in Denver, CO on February 20--22, 1991. The main objectives of the meeting were to bring to light-and stimulate discussion on-recent advances in (1) understanding the underlying mechanisms of light-induced instability and (2) engineering approaches to stable solar cells. Several of the experimental and theoretical papers presented here, particularly those regarding low-hydrogen-content materials, give cause for optimism that the performance may finally be yielding to worldwide concerted efforts to understand and mitigate it. The four main topics discussed are modeling metastability, experimental data and model verification, materials studies, and solar cell studies.

  3. Characterization of Silicon Detector Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, M.

    2015-07-22

    Configuration and calibration of the front-end electronics typical of many silicon detector configurations were investigated in a lab activity based on a pair of strip sensors interfaced with FSSR2 read-out chips and an FPGA. This simple hardware configuration, originally developed for a telescope at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, was used to measure thresholds and noise on individual readout channels and to study the influence that different configurations of the front-end electronics had on the observed levels of noise in the system. An understanding of the calibration and operation of this small detector system provided an opportunity to explore the architecture of larger systems such as those currently in use at LHC experiments.

  4. Theory Of Alkyl Terminated Silicon Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboredo, F; Galli, G

    2004-08-19

    We have carried out a series of ab-initio calculations to investigate changes in the optical properties of Si quantum dots as a function of surface passivation. In particular, we have compared hydrogen passivated dots with those having alkyl groups at the surface. We find that, while on clusters with reconstructed surfaces a complete alkyl passivation is possible, steric repulsion prevents full passivation of Si dots with unreconstructed surfaces. In addition, our calculations show that steric repulsion may have a dominant effect in determining the surface structure, and eventually the stability of alkyl passivated clusters, with results dependent on the length of the carbon chain. Alkyl passivation weakly affects optical gaps of silicon quantum dots, while it substantially decreases ionization potentials and electron affinities and affect their excited state properties. On the basis of our results we propose that alkyl terminated quantum dots may be size selected taking advantage of the change in ionization potential as a function of the cluster size.

  5. Method of producing silicon carbide articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milewski, John V.

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing articles comprising reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite (and/or carbon) is given. The process converts the graphite (and/or carbon) in situ to SiC, thus providing the capability of economically obtaining articles made up wholly or partially of SiC having any size and shape in which graphite (and/or carbon) can be found or made. When the produced articles are made of an inner graphite (and/or carbon) substrate to which SiC is reaction bonded, these articles distinguish SiC-coated graphite articles found in the prior art by the feature of a strong bond having a gradual (as opposed to a sharply defined) interface which extends over a distance of mils. A method for forming SiC whisker-reinforced ceramic matrices is also given. The whisker-reinforced articles comprise SiC whiskers which substantially retain their structural integrity.

  6. Silicon Carbide Emitter Turn-Off Thyristor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Gangyao; Li, Jun; Huang, Alex Q.; Melcher, Jerry; Atcitty, Stan

    2008-01-01

    A novel MOS-conmore » trolled SiC thyristor device, the SiC emitter turn-off thyristor (ETO) is a promising technology for future high-voltage switching applications because it integrates the excellent current conduction capability of a SiC thyristor with a simple MOS-control interface. Through unity-gain turn-off, the SiC ETO also achieves excellent Safe Operation Area (SOA) and faster switching speeds than silicon ETOs. The world's first 4.5-kV SiC ETO prototype shows a forward voltage drop of 4.26 V at 26.5  A / cm 2 current density at room and elevated temperatures. Tested in an inductive circuit with a 2.5 kV DC link voltage and a 9.56-A load current, the SiC ETO shows a fast turn-off time of 1.63 microseconds and a low 9.88 mJ turn-off energy. The low switching loss indicates that the SiC ETO could operate at about 4 kHz if 100  W / cm 2 conduction and the 100  W / cm 2 turn-off losses can be removed by the thermal management system. This frequency capability is about 4 times higher than 4.5-kV-class silicon power devices. The preliminary demonstration shows that the SiC ETO is a promising candidate for high-frequency, high-voltage power conversion applications, and additional developments to optimize the device for higher voltage (>5 kV) and higher frequency (10 kHz) are needed.« less

  7. Method of preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Yu-Min; Wang, Jih-Wen; Liue, Chun-Ying; Yeh, Shinn-Horng

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals includes the steps of washing the silicon carbide particles with an organic solvent; washing the silicon carbide particles with an inorganic acid; grinding the silicon carbide particles; and heating the silicon carbide particles in a nickel-containing solution at a boiling temperature for a predetermined period of time.

  8. SunShot Initiative Workshop on Silicon Photovoltaics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initiative Workshop on Silicon Photovoltaics SunShot Initiative Workshop on Silicon Photovoltaics On July 29, 2015, the SunShot Initiative held a workshop on silicon photovoltaics research directions beyond 2020 in conjunction with the NREL workshop on crystalline silicon solar cells and modules. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss and survey the impactful research directions for silicon based photovoltiacs beyond the 2020 goal. Participants separated into breakout groups by the

  9. Synthesis and study of novel silicon-based unsaturated polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, J.

    1995-06-19

    Novel unsaturated polymers have been synthesized and studied as precursors to silicon carbide and third order nonlinear optical materials. X ray structures were obtained. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of the unique thermal isomerization of dimethylenedisilacyclobutane to a carbene were conducted.

  10. Evaluation of strained silicon on insulator for SET based single...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    insulator for SET based single donor spin read-out. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of strained silicon on insulator for SET based single donor spin read-out. ...

  11. Investigation of the texture surface silicon solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rongqiang, C.; Huilan, Q.

    1983-10-01

    The optical and electrical properties of the texture surface silicon solar cell are analyzed and discussed. A new method of etching a texture surface by LiOH is presented and the mechanism of etching a texture surface is investigated.

  12. Anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun; Branz, Howard M

    2014-05-20

    Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H.sub.2 production from water splitting half-reaction.

  13. Protective shells may boost silicon lithium-ion batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protective shells may boost silicon lithium-ion batteries By Sarah Schlieder * August 5, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Imagine a cell a phone that charges in less than an hour and lasts...

  14. Direct-patterned optical waveguides on amorphous silicon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, Steve; Bond, Tiziana C.; Bond, Steven W.; Pocha, Michael D.; Hau-Riege, Stefan

    2005-08-02

    An optical waveguide structure is formed by embedding a core material within a medium of lower refractive index, i.e. the cladding. The optical index of refraction of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polycrystalline silicon (p-Si), in the wavelength range between about 1.2 and about 1.6 micrometers, differ by up to about 20%, with the amorphous phase having the larger index. Spatially selective laser crystallization of amorphous silicon provides a mechanism for controlling the spatial variation of the refractive index and for surrounding the amorphous regions with crystalline material. In cases where an amorphous silicon film is interposed between layers of low refractive index, for example, a structure comprised of a SiO.sub.2 substrate, a Si film and an SiO.sub.2 film, the formation of guided wave structures is particularly simple.

  15. Silicon carbidonitride based phosphors and lighting devices using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Yuanqiang; Romanelli, Michael Dennis; Tian, Yongchi

    2013-09-17

    Disclosed herein are novel families of silicon carbidonitride phosphor compositions. In certain embodiments, optimal ranges of carbon content have been identified which provide excellent luminescence and thermal stability characteristics.

  16. Process and apparatus for casting multiple silicon wafer articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nanis, Leonard

    1992-05-05

    Method and apparatus of casting silicon produced by the reaction between SiF.sub.4 and an alkaline earth metal into thin wafer-shaped articles suitable for solar cell fabrication.

  17. Uncertainty of silicon 1-MeV damage function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danjaji, M.B.; Griffin, P.J.

    1997-02-01

    The electronics radiation hardness-testing community uses the ASTM E722-93 Standard Practice to define the energy dependence of the nonionizing neutron damage to silicon semiconductors. This neutron displacement damage response function is defined to be equal to the silicon displacement kerma as calculated from the ORNL Si cross-section evaluation. Experimental work has shown that observed damage ratios at various test facilities agree with the defined response function to within 5%. Here, a covariance matrix for the silicon 1-MeV neutron displacement damage function is developed. This uncertainty data will support the electronic radiation hardness-testing community and will permit silicon displacement damage sensors to be used in least squares spectrum adjustment codes.

  18. Silicon Valley Solar Inc SV Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Inc SV Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Valley Solar Inc (SV Solar) Place: Santa Clara, California Zip: 95051 Sector: Solar Product: A US-based manufacturer of...

  19. Photoluminescent 1-2 nm sized silicon nanoparticles: A surface...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photoluminescent 1-2 nm sized silicon nanoparticles: A surface-dependent system Authors: Romero, J.J., Llansola-Portols, M.J., Dell'Arciprete, M.L., Rodrguez, H.B., Moore,...

  20. Silicon Valley Power- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Silicon Valley Power (SVP) offers a variety rebates to its business customers, capped at a maximum total incentive of $500,000 per customer per year. In addition, Customer Directed Rebates are...

  1. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin-film silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Modine, F.A.; Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A.

    1997-05-01

    We have measured and analyzed the optical characteristics of a series of silicon nitride thin films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates for photovoltaic applications. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were made by using a two-channel spectroscopic polarization modulator ellipsometer that measures N, S, and C data simultaneously. The data were fit to a model consisting of air / roughness / SiN / crystalline silicon. The roughness was modeled using the Bruggeman effective medium approximation, assuming 50% SiN, 50% voids. The optical functions of the SiN film were parameterized using a model by Jellison and Modine. All the {Chi}{sup 2} are near 1, demonstrating that this model works extremely well for all SiN films. The measured dielectric functions were used to make optimized SiN antireflection coatings for crystalline silicon solar cells.

  2. Mobility of charge carriers in porous silicon layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsh, P. A. Martyshov, M. N.; Latysheva, A. P.; Vorontsov, A. S.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2008-12-15

    The (conduction) mobility of majority charge carriers in porous silicon layers of the n and p types is estimated by joint measurements of electrical conductivity and free charge carrier concentration, which is determined from IR absorption spectra. Adsorption of donor and acceptor molecules leading to a change in local electric fields in the structure is used to identify the processes controlling the mobility in porous silicon. It is found that adsorption of acceptor and donor molecules at porous silicon of the p and n types, respectively, leads to a strong increase in electrical conductivity, which is associated with an increase in the concentration of free carrier as well as in their mobility. The increase in the mobility of charge carriers as a result of adsorption indicates the key role of potential barriers at the boundaries of silicon nanocrystals and may be due to a decrease in the barrier height as a result of adsorption.

  3. Unique Quantum Effect Found in Silicon Nanocrystals - News Releases...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MEG provides a way to convert some of this energy lost as heat into additional electricity. The silicon nanocrystals produced by Innovalight, Inc., a thin-film solar cell developer ...

  4. Process for preparing fine grain silicon carbide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    Method of producing fine-grain silicon carbide powder comprises combining methyltrimethoxysilane with a solution of phenolic resin, acetone and water or sugar and water, gelling the resulting mixture, and then drying and heating the obtained gel.

  5. Silicon Genesis Corp SiGen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corp SiGen Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Genesis Corp (SiGen) Place: San Jose, California Zip: 95134 Product: US-based manufacturer of proton-shooting wafer slicing...

  6. Pulsed energy synthesis and doping of silicon carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Truher, Joel B.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing beta silicon carbide thin films by co-depositing thin films of amorphous silicon and carbon onto a substrate, whereafter the films are irradiated by exposure to a pulsed energy source (e.g. excimer laser) to cause formation of the beta-SiC compound. Doped beta-SiC may be produced by introducing dopant gases during irradiation. Single layers up to a thickness of 0.5-1 micron have been produced, with thicker layers being produced by multiple processing steps. Since the electron transport properties of beta silicon carbide over a wide temperature range of 27.degree.-730.degree. C. is better than these properties of alpha silicon carbide, they have wide application, such as in high temperature semiconductors, including hetero-junction bipolar transistors and power devices, as well as in high bandgap solar arrays, ultra-hard coatings, light emitting diodes, sensors, etc.

  7. Pulsed energy synthesis and doping of silicon carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Truher, J.B.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Thompson, J.B.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1995-06-20

    A method for producing beta silicon carbide thin films by co-depositing thin films of amorphous silicon and carbon onto a substrate is disclosed, whereafter the films are irradiated by exposure to a pulsed energy source (e.g. excimer laser) to cause formation of the beta-SiC compound. Doped beta-SiC may be produced by introducing dopant gases during irradiation. Single layers up to a thickness of 0.5-1 micron have been produced, with thicker layers being produced by multiple processing steps. Since the electron transport properties of beta silicon carbide over a wide temperature range of 27--730 C is better than these properties of alpha silicon carbide, they have wide application, such as in high temperature semiconductors, including HETEROJUNCTION-junction bipolar transistors and power devices, as well as in high bandgap solar arrays, ultra-hard coatings, light emitting diodes, sensors, etc.

  8. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  9. Silicon-based sleeve devices for chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M.A.; Mariella, R.P. Jr.; Carrano, A.V.; Balch, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    A silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber is described that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The reaction chamber combines a critical ratio of silicon and silicon nitride to the volume of material to be heated (e.g., a liquid) in order to provide uniform heating, yet low power requirements. The reaction chamber will also allow the introduction of a secondary tube (e.g., plastic) into the reaction sleeve that contains the reaction mixture thereby alleviating any potential materials incompatibility issues. The reaction chamber may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The reaction chamber may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis. 32 figs.

  10. Silicon-based sleeve devices for chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Carrano, Anthony V.; Balch, Joseph W.

    1996-01-01

    A silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The reaction chamber combines a critical ratio of silicon and silicon nitride to the volume of material to be heated (e.g., a liquid) in order to provide uniform heating, yet low power requirements. The reaction chamber will also allow the introduction of a secondary tube (e.g., plastic) into the reaction sleeve that contains the reaction mixture thereby alleviating any potential materials incompatibility issues. The reaction chamber may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The reaction chamber may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

  11. Seeking an Understanding with Silicones (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Seeking an Understanding with Silicones Citation Details ... 1169826 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-658176 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  12. Solution-processed amorphous silicon surface passivation layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mews, Mathias Sontheimer, Tobias; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd; Mader, Christoph; Traut, Stephan; Wunnicke, Odo

    2014-09-22

    Amorphous silicon thin films, fabricated by thermal conversion of neopentasilane, were used to passivate crystalline silicon surfaces. The conversion is investigated using X-ray and constant-final-state-yield photoelectron spectroscopy, and minority charge carrier lifetime spectroscopy. Liquid processed amorphous silicon exhibits high Urbach energies from 90 to 120?meV and 200?meV lower optical band gaps than material prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Applying a hydrogen plasma treatment, a minority charge carrier lifetime of 1.37?ms at an injection level of 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3} enabling an implied open circuit voltage of 724?mV was achieved, demonstrating excellent silicon surface passivation.

  13. Silicon Valley Power- Solar Electric Buy Down Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Silicon Valley Power (SVP) offers incentives for the installation of new grid-connected solar electric (photovoltaic, or PV) systems. Incentive levels will step down over the life of the program...

  14. Bagdad Plant Raymond J. Polinski 585 Silicon Drive General Manager

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bagdad Plant Raymond J. Polinski 585 Silicon Drive General Manager Leechburg, PA 15656 Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel e-mail: Raymond.Polinski@ATImetals.com E. Below are Allegheny ...

  15. Longitudinal Resistive Charge Division in Multi-Channel Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Silicon Strip Sensors Citation Details In-Document Search ... Publication Date: 2012-05-03 OSTI Identifier: 1039534 Report Number(s): SLAC-REPRINT-2012-075 Journal ID: ISSN ...

  16. Rapid Formation of Soft Hydrophilic Silicone Elastomer Surfaces...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid Formation of Soft Hydrophilic Silicone Elastomer Surfaces We report ... Report Number(s): BNL--78236-2007-JA Journal ID: ISSN ...

  17. Synthesis of silicon nanotubes by DC arc plasma method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tank, C. M.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.

    2012-06-05

    Plasma synthesis is a novel technique of synthesis of nanomaterials as they provide high rate of production and promote metastable reactions. Very thin walled silicon nanotubes were synthesized in a DC direct arc thermal plasma reactor. The effect of parameters of synthesis i.e. arc current and presence of hydrogen on the morphology of Si nanoparticles is reported. Silicon nanotubes were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Local Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM).

  18. Casimir Forces On A Silicon Micromechanical Chip (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Journal Article: Casimir Forces On A Silicon Micromechanical Chip Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Casimir Forces On A Silicon Micromechanical Chip Quantum fluctuations give rise to van der Waals and Casimir forces that dominate the interaction between electrically neutral objects at sub-micron separations. Under the trend of miniaturization, such quantum electrodynamical effects are expected to play an important role in micro- and nano-mechanical devices.

  19. Neutron absorbing room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zoch, Harold L.

    1979-11-27

    A neutron absorbing composition comprising a one-component room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber composition or a two-component room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber composition in which the composition contains from 25 to 300 parts by weight based on the base silanol or vinyl containing diorganopolysiloxane polymer of a boron compound or boron powder as the neutron absorbing ingredient. An especially useful boron compound in this application is boron carbide.

  20. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Print Nanostructured materials (nanowires, nanotubes, nanoclusters, graphene) are attractive possible alternatives to traditionally microfabricated silicon in continuing the miniaturization trend in the electronics industry. To go from nanomaterials to electronics, however, the precise one-by-one assembly of billions of nanoelements into a functioning circuit is required-clearly not a simple task. An interdisciplinary team from the University

  1. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Print Nanostructured materials (nanowires, nanotubes, nanoclusters, graphene) are attractive possible alternatives to traditionally microfabricated silicon in continuing the miniaturization trend in the electronics industry. To go from nanomaterials to electronics, however, the precise one-by-one assembly of billions of nanoelements into a functioning circuit is required-clearly not a simple task. An interdisciplinary team from the University

  2. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Print Nanostructured materials (nanowires, nanotubes, nanoclusters, graphene) are attractive possible alternatives to traditionally microfabricated silicon in continuing the miniaturization trend in the electronics industry. To go from nanomaterials to electronics, however, the precise one-by-one assembly of billions of nanoelements into a functioning circuit is required-clearly not a simple task. An interdisciplinary team from the University

  3. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Print Nanostructured materials (nanowires, nanotubes, nanoclusters, graphene) are attractive possible alternatives to traditionally microfabricated silicon in continuing the miniaturization trend in the electronics industry. To go from nanomaterials to electronics, however, the precise one-by-one assembly of billions of nanoelements into a functioning circuit is required-clearly not a simple task. An interdisciplinary team from the University

  4. Status and performance of the CDF Run II silicon detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maki, Tuula; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.

    2006-10-01

    The CDF silicon detector is one of the largest silicon detectors in operation. It has a total of 722,432 electronic channels, and it covers a sensor surface area of 6 m{sup 2}. The detector has been operating reliably for five years, and it has recorded 1.5 fb{sup -1} of data. This article discusses experiences of operating such a large, complex system as well as the longevity of the detector.

  5. Process development for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.; Basore, P.A.; Buck, M.E.; Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.; Silva, B.L.; Tingley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells in an industrial environment requires a different optimization than in a laboratory environment. Strategies are presented for process development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells, with a goal of simplifying technology transfer into an industrial setting. The strategies emphasize the use of statistical experimental design for process optimization, and the use of baseline processes and cells for process monitoring and quality control. 8 refs.

  6. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 26 October 2005 00:00 Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a

  7. Project Profile: Hybrid Organic Silicone HTF Utilizing Endothermic Chemical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reactions for Latent Heat Storage | Department of Energy Hybrid Organic Silicone HTF Utilizing Endothermic Chemical Reactions for Latent Heat Storage Project Profile: Hybrid Organic Silicone HTF Utilizing Endothermic Chemical Reactions for Latent Heat Storage Los Alamos National Lab logo Los Alamos National Laboratory, under an ARRA CSP Award, is developing a thermally stable, working heat transfer fluid (HTF) that is integrated with chemical reactions as a methodology to store large amounts

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2012: Silicon Nanostructure-based

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage | Department of Energy 2: Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2012: Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es126_stefan_2012_p.pdf (1.05 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit

  9. Target molecules detection by waveguiding in a photonic silicon membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Letant, Sonia E.; Van Buuren, Anthony; Terminello, Louis; Hart, Bradley R.

    2006-12-26

    Disclosed herein is a porous silicon filter capable of binding and detecting biological and chemical target molecules in liquid or gas samples. A photonic waveguiding silicon filter with chemical and/or biological anchors covalently attached to the pore walls bind target molecules. The system uses transmission curve engineering principles to allow measurements to be made in situ and in real time to detect the presence of various target molecules and calculate the concentration of bound target.

  10. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Sherwood I.

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  11. Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-07

    A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics. 15 figs.

  12. Laterally inherently thin amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Zahidur R. Kherani, Nazir P.

    2014-12-29

    This article reports on an amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell concept wherein the heterojunction regions are laterally narrow and distributed amidst a backdrop of well-passivated crystalline silicon surface. The localized amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunctions consisting of the laterally thin emitter and back-surface field regions are precisely aligned under the metal grid-lines and bus-bars while the remaining crystalline silicon surface is passivated using the recently proposed facile grown native oxide–plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride passivation scheme. The proposed cell concept mitigates parasitic optical absorption losses by relegating amorphous silicon to beneath the shadowed metallized regions and by using optically transparent passivation layer. A photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.6% is obtained for an untextured proof-of-concept cell illuminated under AM 1.5 global spectrum; the specific cell performance parameters are V{sub OC} of 666 mV, J{sub SC} of 29.5 mA-cm{sup −2}, and fill-factor of 69.3%. Reduced parasitic absorption, predominantly in the shorter wavelength range, is confirmed with external quantum efficiency measurement.

  13. Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, amorphous silicon films by hot filament technique using ``safe`` silicon source gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, A.H.; Molenbroek, E.C.; Nelson, B.P.

    1998-07-07

    A method is described for producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate by flowing a stream of safe (diluted to less than 1%) silane gas past a heated filament. 7 figs.

  14. Method for fabricating an ultra-low expansion mask blank having a crystalline silicon layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2002-01-01

    A method for fabricating masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) using Ultra-Low Expansion (ULE) substrates and crystalline silicon. ULE substrates are required for the necessary thermal management in EUVL mask blanks, and defect detection and classification have been obtained using crystalline silicon substrate materials. Thus, this method provides the advantages for both the ULE substrate and the crystalline silicon in an Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) mask blank. The method is carried out by bonding a crystalline silicon wafer or member to a ULE wafer or substrate and thinning the silicon to produce a 5-10 .mu.m thick crystalline silicon layer on the surface of the ULE substrate. The thinning of the crystalline silicon may be carried out, for example, by chemical mechanical polishing and if necessary or desired, oxidizing the silicon followed by etching to the desired thickness of the silicon.

  15. Titanium dioxide/silicon hole-blocking selective contact to enable double-heterojunction crystalline silicon-based solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagamatsu, Ken A. Man, Gabriel; Jhaveri, Janam; Berg, Alexander H.; Kahn, Antoine; Wagner, Sigurd; Sturm, James C.; Avasthi, Sushobhan; Sahasrabudhe, Girija; Schwartz, Jeffrey

    2015-03-23

    In this work, we use an electron-selective titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) heterojunction contact to silicon to block minority carrier holes in the silicon from recombining at the cathode contact of a silicon-based photovoltaic device. We present four pieces of evidence demonstrating the beneficial effect of adding the TiO{sub 2} hole-blocking layer: reduced dark current, increased open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), increased quantum efficiency at longer wavelengths, and increased stored minority carrier charge under forward bias. The importance of a low rate of recombination of minority carriers at the Si/TiO{sub 2} interface for effective blocking of minority carriers is quantitatively described. The anode is made of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) heterojunction to silicon which forms a hole selective contact, so that the entire device is made at a maximum temperature of 100 °C, with no doping gradients or junctions in the silicon. A low rate of recombination of minority carriers at the Si/TiO{sub 2} interface is crucial for effective blocking of minority carriers. Such a pair of complementary carrier-selective heterojunctions offers a path towards high-efficiency silicon solar cells using relatively simple and near-room temperature fabrication techniques.

  16. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, Eloise A.; Morgan, Peter E. D.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N.sub.n H.sub.(n+m) wherein: n=1-4 and m=2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si-N-H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics.

  17. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1987-09-15

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N/sub n/H/sub (n+m)/ wherein: n = 1--4 and m = 2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200--1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si/endash/N/endash/H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid-state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics

  18. Toward quantitative modeling of silicon phononic thermocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacatena, V.; Haras, M.; Robillard, J.-F. Dubois, E.; Monfray, S.; Skotnicki, T.

    2015-03-16

    The wealth of technological patterning technologies of deca-nanometer resolution brings opportunities to artificially modulate thermal transport properties. A promising example is given by the recent concepts of 'thermocrystals' or 'nanophononic crystals' that introduce regular nano-scale inclusions using a pitch scale in between the thermal phonons mean free path and the electron mean free path. In such structures, the lattice thermal conductivity is reduced down to two orders of magnitude with respect to its bulk value. Beyond the promise held by these materials to overcome the well-known “electron crystal-phonon glass” dilemma faced in thermoelectrics, the quantitative prediction of their thermal conductivity poses a challenge. This work paves the way toward understanding and designing silicon nanophononic membranes by means of molecular dynamics simulation. Several systems are studied in order to distinguish the shape contribution from bulk, ultra-thin membranes (8 to 15 nm), 2D phononic crystals, and finally 2D phononic membranes. After having discussed the equilibrium properties of these structures from 300 K to 400 K, the Green-Kubo methodology is used to quantify the thermal conductivity. The results account for several experimental trends and models. It is confirmed that the thin-film geometry as well as the phononic structure act towards a reduction of the thermal conductivity. The further decrease in the phononic engineered membrane clearly demonstrates that both phenomena are cumulative. Finally, limitations of the model and further perspectives are discussed.

  19. Flexible Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijh, Aarohi; Cao, Simon; Mohring, Brad

    2014-01-11

    High fuel costs, environmental concerns and issues of national energy security have brought increasing attention to a distributed generation program for electricity based on solar technology. Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems provide distributed generation since the power is consumed at the point of production, thus eliminating the need for costly additional transmission lines. However, most current photovoltaic modules are heavy and require a significant amount of labor and accessory hardware such as mounting frames for installation on rooftops. This makes rooftop systems impractical or cost prohibitive in many instances. Under this project, Xunlight has advanced its manufacturing process for the production of lightweight, flexible thin-film silicon based photovoltaic modules, and has enhanced the reliability and performance of Xunlights products. These modules are easily unrolled and adhered directly to standard commercial roofs without mounting structures or integrated directly into roofing membrane materials for the lowest possible installation costs on the market. Importantly, Xunlight has now established strategic alliances with roofing material manufacturers and other OEMs for the development of building integrated photovoltaic roofing and other PV-enabled products, and has deployed its products in a number of commercial installations with these business partners.

  20. Crystalline to amorphous transformation in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheruvu, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt was made to understand the fundamental mechanism of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in arsenic implanted silicon using high resolution electron microscopy. A comparison of the gradual disappearance of simulated lattice fringes with increasing Frenkel pair concentration with the experimental observation of sharp interfaces between crystalline and amorphous regions was carried out leading to the conclusion that when the defect concentration reaches a critical value, the crystal does relax to an amorphous state. Optical diffraction experiments using atomic models also supported this hypothesis. Both crystalline and amorphous zones were found to co-exist with sharp interfaces at the atomic level. Growth of the amorphous fraction depends on the temperature, dose rate and the mass of the implanted ion. Preliminary results of high energy electron irradiation experiments at 1.2 MeV also suggested that clustering of point defects occurs near room temperature. An observation in a high resolution image of a small amorphous zone centered at the core of a dislocation is presented as evidence that the nucleation of an amorphous phase is heterogeneous in nature involving clustering or segregation of point defects near existing defects.

  1. Photoresponsive properties of ultrathin silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Duy P.; Macdonald, Thomas J.; Nann, Thomas; Thierry, Benjamin E-mail: benjamin.thierry@unisa.edu.au; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Stockmann, Regina; Offenhusser, Andreas E-mail: benjamin.thierry@unisa.edu.au

    2014-12-08

    Functional silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are promising building blocks in the design of highly sensitive photodetectors and bio-chemical sensors. We systematically investigate the photoresponse properties of ultrathin SiNWs (20?nm) fabricated using a size-reduction method based on e-beam lithography and tetramethylammonium hydroxide wet-etching. The high-quality SiNWs were able to detect light from the UV to the visible range with excellent sensitivity (?1 pW/array), good time response, and high photoresponsivity (R???2.5??10{sup 4?}A/W). Improvement of the ultrathin SiNWs' photoresponse has been observed in comparison to 40?nm counter-part nanowires. These properties are attributable to the predominance surface-effect due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of ultrathin SiNWs. Long-term measurements at different temperatures in both the forward and reverse bias directions demonstrated the stability and reliability of the fabricated device. By sensitizing the fabricated SiNW arrays with cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDs), hybrid QD SiNW devices displayed an improvement in photocurrent response under UV light, while preserving their performance in the visible light range. The fast, stable, and high photoresponse of these hybrid nanostructures is promising towards the development of optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices.

  2. Etching process for improving the strength of a laser-machined silicon-based ceramic article

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Copley, S.M.; Tao, H.; Todd-Copley, J.A.

    1991-06-11

    A process is disclosed for improving the strength of laser-machined articles formed of a silicon-based ceramic material such as silicon nitride, in which the laser-machined surface is immersed in an etching solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid for a duration sufficient to remove substantially all of a silicon film residue on the surface but insufficient to allow the solution to unduly attack the grain boundaries of the underlying silicon nitride substrate. This effectively removes the silicon film as a source of cracks that otherwise could propagate downwardly into the silicon nitride substrate and significantly reduce its strength. 1 figure.

  3. Etching process for improving the strength of a laser-machined silicon-based ceramic article

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Copley, Stephen M.; Tao, Hongyi; Todd-Copley, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    A process for improving the strength of laser-machined articles formed of a silicon-based ceramic material such as silicon nitride, in which the laser-machined surface is immersed in an etching solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid for a duration sufficient to remove substantially all of a silicon film residue on the surface but insufficient to allow the solution to unduly attack the grain boundaries of the underlying silicon nitride substrate. This effectively removes the silicon film as a source of cracks that otherwise could propagate downwardly into the silicon nitride substrate and significantly reduce its strength.

  4. Dynamics and diffusion mechanism of low-density liquid silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, B.; Wang, Z. Y.; Dong, F.; Guo, Y. R.; Zhang, R. J.; Zheng, Y. X.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Chen, L. Y.

    2015-11-05

    A first-order phase transition from a high-density liquid to a low-density liquid has been proposed to explain the various thermodynamic anomies of water. It also has been proposed that such liquid–liquid phase transition would exist in supercooled silicon. Computer simulation studies show that, across the transition, the diffusivity drops roughly 2 orders of magnitude, and the structures exhibit considerable tetrahedral ordering. The resulting phase is a highly viscous, low-density liquid silicon. Investigations on the atomic diffusion of such a novel form of liquid silicon are of high interest. Here we report such diffusion results from molecular dynamics simulations using the classical Stillinger–Weber (SW) potential of silicon. We show that the atomic diffusion of the low-density liquid is highly correlated with local tetrahedral geometries. We also show that atoms diffuse through hopping processes within short ranges, which gradually accumulate to an overall random motion for long ranges as in normal liquids. There is a close relationship between dynamical heterogeneity and hopping process. We point out that the above diffusion mechanism is closely related to the strong directional bonding nature of the distorted tetrahedral network. Here, our work offers new insights into the complex behavior of the highly viscous low density liquid silicon, suggesting similar diffusion behaviors in other tetrahedral coordinated liquids that exhibit liquid–liquid phase transition such as carbon and germanium.

  5. Dynamics and diffusion mechanism of low-density liquid silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shen, B.; Wang, Z. Y.; Dong, F.; Guo, Y. R.; Zhang, R. J.; Zheng, Y. X.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Chen, L. Y.

    2015-11-05

    A first-order phase transition from a high-density liquid to a low-density liquid has been proposed to explain the various thermodynamic anomies of water. It also has been proposed that such liquid–liquid phase transition would exist in supercooled silicon. Computer simulation studies show that, across the transition, the diffusivity drops roughly 2 orders of magnitude, and the structures exhibit considerable tetrahedral ordering. The resulting phase is a highly viscous, low-density liquid silicon. Investigations on the atomic diffusion of such a novel form of liquid silicon are of high interest. Here we report such diffusion results from molecular dynamics simulations using themore » classical Stillinger–Weber (SW) potential of silicon. We show that the atomic diffusion of the low-density liquid is highly correlated with local tetrahedral geometries. We also show that atoms diffuse through hopping processes within short ranges, which gradually accumulate to an overall random motion for long ranges as in normal liquids. There is a close relationship between dynamical heterogeneity and hopping process. We point out that the above diffusion mechanism is closely related to the strong directional bonding nature of the distorted tetrahedral network. Here, our work offers new insights into the complex behavior of the highly viscous low density liquid silicon, suggesting similar diffusion behaviors in other tetrahedral coordinated liquids that exhibit liquid–liquid phase transition such as carbon and germanium.« less

  6. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  7. Defect behavior of polycrystalline solar cell silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroder, D.K.; Park, S.H.; Hwang, I.G.; Mohr, J.B.; Hanly, M.P.

    1993-05-01

    The major objective of this study, conducted from October 1988 to September 1991, was to gain an understanding of the behavior of impurities in polycrystalline silicon and the influence of these impurities on solar cell efficiency. The authors studied edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) and cast poly-Si materials and solar cells. With EFG Si they concentrated on chromium-doped materials and cells to determine the role of Cr on solar cell performance. Cast poly-Si samples were not deliberately contaminated. Samples were characterized by cell efficiency, current-voltage, deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), surface photovoltage (SPV), open-circuit voltage decay, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. They find that Cr forms Cr-B pairs with boron at room temperature and these pairs dissociate into Cr{sub i}{sup +} and B{sup {minus}} during anneals at 210{degrees}C for 10 min. Following the anneal, Cr-B pairs reform at room temperature with a time constant of 230 h. Chromium forms CrSi{sub 2} precipitates in heavily contaminated regions and they find evidence of CrSi{sub 2} gettering, but a lack of chromium segregation or precipitation to grain boundaries and dislocations. Cr-B pairs have well defined DLTS peaks. However, DLTS spectra of other defects are not well defined, giving broad peaks indicative of defects with a range of energy levels in the band gap. In some high-stress, low-efficiency cast poly-Si they detect SiC precipitates, but not in low-stress, high-efficiency samples. SPV measurements result in nonlinear SPV curves in some materials that are likely due to varying optical absorption coefficients due to locally varying stress in the material.

  8. Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

    2010-03-01

    A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

  9. Cyber Power Group Ltd aka Fine Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cyber Power Group Ltd aka Fine Silicon Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cyber Power Group Ltd (aka Fine Silicon Co Ltd) Place: Baoding, Hebei Province, China Product:...

  10. Geek-Up[09.03.10] -- Innovative Silicon Wafers, Real-Time Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    technique that can put a trillion holes in a silicon wafer the size of a compact disk. These tiny holes make the silver-gray silicon almost pure black and able to absorb nearly ...

  11. Silicon Ink for High-Efficiency Solar Cells Captures a Share of the Market (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    Fact sheet on 2011 R&D 100 Award winner Silicon Ink. Liquid silicon has arrived, and with it comes a power boost for solar cells and dramatic cost savings for cell manufacturers.

  12. PV Crystalox Solar AG formerly PV Silicon AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PV Crystalox Solar AG formerly PV Silicon AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: PV Crystalox Solar AG (formerly PV Silicon AG) Place: Abingdon, England, United Kingdom Zip: OX14 4SE...

  13. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This CS sensor is a silicon-based device with a load sensitive diaphragm. The diaphragm is ... The sensor is similar in performance to established silicon pressure sensors, but it is ...

  14. Solar EnerTech PAIS Jin Yu Silicon Wuhai Municipal Gvrnt JV ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar EnerTech PAIS Jin Yu Silicon Wuhai Municipal Gvrnt JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar EnerTech, PAIS, Jin Yu Silicon, & Wuhai Municipal Gvrnt JV Place: Inner Mongolia...

  15. Indentation Rate Effect on Pop-out in Silicon Studied by Cross...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Indentation Rate Effect on Pop-out in Silicon Studied by Cross-sectional TEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Indentation Rate Effect on Pop-out in Silicon ...

  16. High-performance porous silicon solar cell development. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maruska, P.

    1996-09-01

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate use of porous silicon in new solar cell structures. Porous silicon technology has been developed at Spire for producing visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The major aspects that they have demonstrated are the following: porous silicon active layers have been made to show photovoltaic action; porous silicon surface layers can act as antireflection coatings to improve the performance of single-crystal silicon solar cells; and porous silicon surface layers can act as antireflection coatings on polycrystalline silicon solar cells. One problem with the use of porous silicon is to achieve good lateral conduction of electrons and holes through the material. This shows up in terms of poor blue response and photocurrents which increase with increasing reverse bias applied to the diode.

  17. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO2 Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO2 Capture Project No.: FE0007502 GE Global Research and their project partners are conducting research on the use of a novel silicone...

  18. Joint Solar Silicon GmbH Co KG JSSI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Joint Solar Silicon GmbH & Co KG (JSSI) Place: Germany Sector: Solar Product: Joint venture between Degussa and SolarWorld for the production of solar-grade silicon on...

  19. Method for fabricating transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1997-09-02

    A method for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed. 13 figs.

  20. Enhanced densification under shock compression in porous silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lane, J. Matthew; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Vogler, Tracy

    2014-10-27

    Under shock compression, most porous materials exhibit lower densities for a given pressure than that of a full-dense sample of the same material. However, some porous materials exhibit an anomalous, or enhanced, densification under shock compression. The mechanism driving this behavior was not completely determined. We present evidence from atomistic simulation that pure silicon belongs to this anomalous class of materials and demonstrate the associated mechanisms responsible for the effect in porous silicon. Atomistic response indicates that local shear strain in the neighborhood of collapsing pores catalyzes a local solid-solid phase transformation even when bulk pressures are below the thermodynamicmore » phase transformation pressure. This metastable, local, and partial, solid-solid phase transformation, which accounts for the enhanced densification in silicon, is driven by the local stress state near the void, not equilibrium thermodynamics. This mechanism may also explain the phenomenon in other covalently bonded materials.« less

  1. Protective coating for alumina-silicon carbide whisker composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N.

    1989-01-01

    Ceramic composites formed of an alumina matrix reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers homogenously dispersed therein are provided with a protective coating for preventing fracture strength degradation of the composite by oxidation during exposure to high temperatures in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coating prevents oxidation of the silicon carbide whiskers within the matrix by sealing off the exterior of the matrix so as to prevent oxygen transport into the interior of the matrix. The coating is formed of mullite or mullite plus silicon oxide and alumina and is formed in place by heating the composite in air to a temperature greater than 1200.degree. C. This coating is less than about 100 microns thick and adequately protects the underlying composite from fracture strength degradation due to oxidation.

  2. Enhanced densification under shock compression in porous silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, J. Matthew; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Vogler, Tracy

    2014-10-27

    Under shock compression, most porous materials exhibit lower densities for a given pressure than that of a full-dense sample of the same material. However, some porous materials exhibit an anomalous, or enhanced, densification under shock compression. The mechanism driving this behavior was not completely determined. We present evidence from atomistic simulation that pure silicon belongs to this anomalous class of materials and demonstrate the associated mechanisms responsible for the effect in porous silicon. Atomistic response indicates that local shear strain in the neighborhood of collapsing pores catalyzes a local solid-solid phase transformation even when bulk pressures are below the thermodynamic phase transformation pressure. This metastable, local, and partial, solid-solid phase transformation, which accounts for the enhanced densification in silicon, is driven by the local stress state near the void, not equilibrium thermodynamics. This mechanism may also explain the phenomenon in other covalently bonded materials.

  3. Cooled silicon nitride stationary turbine vane risk reduction. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holowczak, John

    1999-12-31

    The purpose of this program was to reduce the technical risk factors for demonstration of air cooled silicon nitride turbine vanes. The effort involved vane prototype fabrication efforts at two U.S. based gas turbine grade silicon nitride component manufacturers. The efficacy of the cooling system was analyzed via a thermal time/temperature flow test technique previously at UTRC. By having multiple vendors work on parts fabrication, the chance of program success increased for producing these challenging components. The majority of the effort under this contract focused on developing methods for, and producing, the complex thin walled silicon nitride vanes. Components developed under this program will undergo engine environment testing within N00014-96-2-0014.

  4. Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, Archie H.; Carapella, Jeffrey C.; Gallagher, Alan C.

    1995-01-01

    A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH.sub.4) over a high temperature, 2000.degree. C., tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400.degree. C., substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20-30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content.

  5. Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, A.H.; Carapella, J.C.; Gallagher, A.C.

    1995-03-14

    A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH{sub 4}) over a high temperature, 2,000 C, tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400 C, substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20--30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content. 7 figs.

  6. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  7. Modelling and fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Smith, A.W.; Salami, J.

    1991-10-01

    This report covers the research conducted on modelling and development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells during the period May 1989 to August 1990. First, considerable effort was devoted toward developing a ray-tracing program for the photovoltaic community to quantify and optimize surface texturing for solar cells. Second, attempts were made to develop a hydrodynamic model for device simulation. Such a model is somewhat slower than drift-diffusion type models like PC-1D, but it can account for more physical phenomena in the device, such as hot carrier effects, temperature gradients, thermal diffusion, and lattice heat flow. In addition, Fermi-Dirac statistics have been incorporated into the model to deal with heavy doping effects more accurately. Third and final component of the research includes development of silicon cell fabrication capabilities and fabrication of high-efficiency silicon cells. 84 refs., 46 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Electric field geometries dominate quantum transport coupling in silicon nanoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Tsung-Han E-mail: sfhu.hu@gmail.com; Hu, Shu-Fen E-mail: sfhu.hu@gmail.com

    2014-03-28

    Investigations on the relation between the geometries of silicon nanodevices and the quantum phenomenon they exhibit, such as the Aharonov–Bohm (AB) effect and the Coulomb blockade, were conducted. An arsenic doped silicon nanoring coupled with a nanowire by electron beam lithography was fabricated. At 1.47 K, Coulomb blockade oscillations were observed under modulation from the top gate voltage, and a periodic AB oscillation of ΔB = 0.178 T was estimated for a ring radius of 86 nm under a high sweeping magnetic field. Modulating the flat top gate and the pointed side gate was performed to cluster and separate the many electron quantum dots, which demonstrated that quantum confinement and interference effects coexisted in the doped silicon nanoring.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Silicon Valley-based Electric Vehicle Parade

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Breaks Guinness World Record Silicon Valley-based Electric Vehicle Parade Breaks Guinness World Record to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Silicon Valley-based Electric Vehicle Parade Breaks Guinness World Record on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Silicon Valley-based Electric Vehicle Parade Breaks Guinness World Record on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Silicon Valley-based Electric Vehicle Parade Breaks Guinness World Record on

  10. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-11-25

    This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  11. NREL's Black Silicon Increases Solar Cell Efficiency by Reducing Reflected Sunlight (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    A fact sheet detailing the R&D 100 Award-winning Black Silicon Nanocatalytic Wet-Chemical Etch technology.

  12. Owens Corning and Silicon Valley Power Partner to Make Energy Savings a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reality | Department of Energy Owens Corning and Silicon Valley Power Partner to Make Energy Savings a Reality Owens Corning and Silicon Valley Power Partner to Make Energy Savings a Reality This case study describes how the Owens Corning plant in Santa Clara, California, used DOE energy assessments and Silicon Valley Power utility incentives to save $252,000 annually through plant-wide improvements. Owens Corning and Silicon Valley Power Partner to Make Energy Savings a Reality (March 2009)

  13. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Hannah Elise

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  14. A strained silicon cold electron bolometer using Schottky contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brien, T. L. R. Ade, P. A. R.; Barry, P. S.; Dunscombe, C.; Morozov, D. V.; Sudiwala, R. V.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.; Parker, E. H. C.; Prest, M. J.; Whall, T. E.; Prunnila, M.; Mauskopf, P. D.

    2014-07-28

    We describe optical characterisation of a strained silicon cold electron bolometer (CEB), operating on a 350 mK stage, designed for absorption of millimetre-wave radiation. The silicon cold electron bolometer utilises Schottky contacts between a superconductor and an n{sup ++} doped silicon island to detect changes in the temperature of the charge carriers in the silicon, due to variations in absorbed radiation. By using strained silicon as the absorber, we decrease the electron-phonon coupling in the device and increase the responsivity to incoming power. The strained silicon absorber is coupled to a planar aluminium twin-slot antenna designed to couple to 160?GHz and that serves as the superconducting contacts. From the measured optical responsivity and spectral response, we calculate a maximum optical efficiency of 50% for radiation coupled into the device by the planar antenna and an overall noise equivalent power, referred to absorbed optical power, of 1.110{sup ?16}?W?Hz{sup ?1/2} when the detector is observing a 300?K source through a 4?K throughput limiting aperture. Even though this optical system is not optimized, we measure a system noise equivalent temperature difference of 6?mK?Hz{sup ?1/2}. We measure the noise of the device using a cross-correlation of time stream data, measured simultaneously with two junction field-effect transistor amplifiers, with a base correlated noise level of 300?pV?Hz{sup ?1/2} and find that the total noise is consistent with a combination of photon noise, current shot noise, and electron-phonon thermal noise.

  15. Porous silicon ring resonator for compact, high sensitivity biosensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Gilberto A.; Hu, Shuren; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2015-01-01

    A ring resonator is patterned on a porous silicon slab waveguide to produce a compact, high quality factor biosensor with a large internal surface area available for enhanced recognition of biological and chemical molecules. The porous nature of the ring resonator allows molecules to directly interact with the guided mode. Quality factors near 10,000 were measured for porous silicon ring resonators with a radius of 25 ?m. A bulk detection sensitivity of 380 nm/RIU was measured upon exposure to salt water solutions. Specific detection of nucleic acid molecules was demonstrated with a surface detection sensitivity of 4 pm/nM.

  16. Resolution and efficiency of the APEX silicon array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhein, M.D.

    1993-10-01

    In APEX, electrons and positrons emitted at the target are transported to two arrays of silicon detectors by spiraling along the field lines of a solenoidal magnetic field. Each silicon array consists of 216 PIN diodes of 1 mm thickness mounted on a pagoda-like structure. Each detector provides energy and time information. The first fully equipped array went in operation in March 1993. Energy resolution and detection efficiency for single events and electron pairs are determined by the use of radioactive sources. The results as well as the performance of the array during beam measurements will be presented.

  17. Fabrication of the GLAST Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Johnson, R.P.; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen Tanugi, Johann; Young, Charles; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-03-03

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm long silicon strips in a 4 x 4 array of tower modules. An aggressive mechanical design fits the readout electronics in narrow spaces between the tower modules, to minimize dead area. This design and the resulting departures from conventional electronics packaging led to several fabrication challenges and lessons learned. This paper describes the fabrication processes and how the problems peculiar to this design were overcome.

  18. Process for preparing fine grain silicon carbide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    Finely divided silicon carbide powder is obtained by mixing colloidal silica and unreacted phenolic resin in either acetone or methanol, evaporating solvent from the obtained solution to form a gel, drying and calcining the gel to polymerize the phenolic resin therein, pyrolyzing the dried and calcined gel at a temperature in the range of 500 to 1000/sup 0/C, and reacting silicon and carbon in the pyrolyzed gel at a temperature in the range of 1550 to 1700/sup 0/C to form the powder.

  19. Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Building Blocks of Silicon Carbide, a Rising Star Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) The Building Blocks of Silicon Carbide, a Rising Star In today's fast-paced, high-energy, and highly competitive world of technology, it takes a clear vision and steady execution to leave your competitors in the dust.

  20. Carbon--silicon coating alloys for improved irradiation stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bokros, J.C.

    1973-10-01

    For ceramic nuclear fuel particles, a fission product-retaining carbon-- silicon alloy coating is described that exhibits low shrinkage after exposure to fast neutron fluences of 1.4 to 4.8 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E = 0.18 MeV) at irradiation temperatures from 950 to 1250 deg C. Isotropic pyrolytic carbon containing from 18 to 34 wt% silicon is co-deposited from a gaseous mixiure of propane, helium, and silane at a temperature of 1350 to 1450 deg C. (Official Gazette)